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Sample records for egfr polymorphism rs884419

  1. EGFR CA repeat polymorphism predict clinical outcome in EGFR mutation positive NSCLC patients treated with erlotinib

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther Larsen, Anne; Nissen, Peter Henrik; Meldgaard, Peter

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Somatic mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are predictors of efficacy for treatment with the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor erlotinib in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A CA repeat polymorphism in intron 1 of the EGFR gene influences the transcription...

  2. Gender-related survival differences associated with EGFR polymorphisms in metastatic colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Press, Oliver A; Zhang, Wu; Gordon, Michael A; Yang, Dongyun; Lurje, Georg; Iqbal, Syma; El-Khoueiry, Anthony; Lenz, Heinz-Josef

    2008-04-15

    Evidence is accumulating supporting gender-related differences in the development of colonic carcinomas. Sex steroid hormone receptors are expressed in the colon and interact with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a gene widely expressed in colonic tissue. Increased EGFR expression is linked with poor prognosis in colon cancer. Within the EGFR gene there are two functional polymorphisms of interest: a polymorphism located at codon 497 (HER-1 R497K) and a dinucleotide (CA)(n) repeat polymorphism located within intron 1. These germ-line polymorphisms of EGFR were analyzed in genomic DNA from 318 metastatic colon cancer patients, 177 males and 141 females, collected from 1992 to 2003. Gender-related survival differences were associated with the HER-1 R497K polymorphism (P(interaction) = 0.003). Females with the HER-1 497 Arg/Arg variant had better overall survival (OS) when compared with the Lys/Lys and/or Lys/Arg variants. In males the opposite was true. The EGFR dinucleotide (CA)(n) repeat also trended with a gender-related OS difference (P(interaction) = 0.11). Females with both short or=20 (CA)(n) repeats. In males the opposite was true. Combination analysis of the two polymorphisms taken together also revealed the same gender-related survival difference (P(interaction) = 0.002). These associations were observed using multivariable analysis. The two polymorphisms were not in linkage disequilibrium and are independent of one another. This study supports the role of functional EGFR polymorphisms as independent prognostic markers in metastatic colon cancer. As a prognostic factor, these variants had opposite prognostic implications based on gender.

  3. Relationship between EGF, TGFA, and EGFR Gene Polymorphisms and Traditional Chinese Medicine ZHENG in Gastric Cancer

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    Junfeng Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM, correct syndrome differentiation is the most important principle guiding the prescription of Chinese herbal formulae for the treatment of gastric cancer (GC. We aimed to reveal the genetic mechanisms underlying GC syndrome differentiation (ZHENG in a population of 387 GC patients. Twenty-nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in EGF, TGFA, and EGFR were investigated. Two SNPs, rs11466285 in TGFA and rs884225 in EGFR, were significantly associated with the distribution of ZHENG (P<0.05. The rs11466285 TT genotype increased the risk of damp heat with toxin (DHT and deficiency of both Qi and yin (DQY compared with obstruction of blood stasis (OBS. The rs884225 AA genotype could increase the risk of DQY and deficiency of both Qi and blood (DQB compared with yin deficiency due to stomach heat (YDSH. Parallel comparison among the SNPs and syndrome types revealed that DQB was distinct from YDSH, disharmony between the liver and stomach, stagnation of phlegm muddiness (SPM, OBS, and other syndromes at several SNP loci (P<0.05. The rs11466285 TT and rs884225 AA genotypes exhibit increased risk of DQB compared with OBS and SPM (P<0.05, respectively. In conclusion, the formation of GC ZHENG was related to EGF, TGFA, and EGFR gene polymorphisms.

  4. Association analysis of polymorphisms in EGFR, HER2, ESR1 and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maha RebaÑ—

    2016-08-31

    CAD) has identified some genes and pathways associated with diseases that would not be considered to under- lie conventional risk factors. Among these genes there are the EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) receptor ...

  5. Genetic Polymorphisms in the EGFR (R521K and Estrogen Receptor (T594T Genes, EGFR and ErbB-2 Protein Expression, and Breast Cancer Risk in Tunisia

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    Imen Kallel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the association of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR 142285G>A (R521K and estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1 2014G>A (T594T single nucleotide polymorphisms with breast cancer risk and prognosis in Tunisian patients. EGFR 142285G>A and ESR1 2014G>A were genotyped in a sample of 148 Tunisian breast cancer patients and 303 controls using PCR-RFLP method. Immunohistochemitsry was used to evaluate the expression levels of EGFR, HER2, ESR1, progesterone receptor and BCL2 in tumors. We found no evidence for an association between EGFR R521K polymorphism and breast cancer risk. However, we found that the homozygous GG (Arg genotype was more prevalent in patients with lymph node metastasis (=.03 and high grade tumors (=.011. The ESR1 2014G allele showed significant association with breast cancer risk (=.025. The GG genotype was associated with HER2 overexpression and this association withstood univariate and multivariate analyses (=.009; =.021, resp.. These data suggest that the R521K might be a prognostic factor, because it correlates with both tumor grade and nodule status. The higher expression of HER2 in ESR1 T594T GG patients suggests the possibility that ESR1 gene polymorphisms accompanied by HER2 expression might influence the pathogenesis of breast cancers.

  6. Comprehensive analysis of the association of EGFR, CALM3 and SMARCD1 gene polymorphisms with BMD in Caucasian women.

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    Qiu-Hong Zhou

    Full Text Available Three genes, including EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor, CALM3 (calmodulin 3, calcium-modulated protein 3 and SMARCD1 (SWI/SNF-related matrix-associated actin-dependent regulator of chromatin subfamily d member 1, play different roles in bone and/or fat metabolism in Caucasian women. In this population-based investigation of 870 unrelated postmenopausal Caucasian women, CALM3 polymorphisms were significantly associated with femoral neck bone mineral density (FNK BMD, hip BMD and spine BMD. Age and tobacco status also affected BMD levels and were therefore corrected for in our statistical analysis.EGFR, CALM3 and SMARCD1 play roles in bone and/or fat metabolism. However, the correlations between the polymorphisms of these three genes and body composition levels, including BMD, remain to be determined.A population-based investigation of 870 white women was conducted. Forty-four SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms in EGFR, CALM3 and SMARCD1 were chosen by the software, including those of potential functional importance. The candidate SNPs were genotyped by the KASPar assay for an association analysis with body composition levels. The correlation analysis was assessed by the Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficient and Spearman rank-order correlation tests, and the family-wise error was corrected using the Wald test implemented in PLINK.The SNP rs12461917 in the 3'-flanking region of the CALM3 gene was significantly associated with FNK BMD (P = 0.001, hip BMD (P<0.001 and spine BMD (P = 0.001; rs11083838 in the 5'-flanking region of CALM3 gene was associated with spine BMD (P = 0.009. After adjusting for multiple comparisons, rs12461917 remained significant (P-adjusted = 0.033 for FNK BMD, P-adjusted = 0.006 for hip BMD and P-adjusted = 0.018 for spine BMD.Our data show that polymorphisms of the CALM3 gene in Caucasian women may contribute to variations in the BMD of the hip, spine and femoral neck.

  7. Association analysis of polymorphisms in EGFR, HER2, ESR1 and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Research in the genetic basis of coronary artery diseases (CAD) has identified some genes and pathways associated with diseases that would not be considered to underlie conventional risk factors. Among these genes there are the EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) receptor family genes and the ...

  8. EGFR exon 19 in-frame deletion and polymorphisms of DNA repair genes in never-smoking female lung adenocarcinoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shi-Yi; Yang, Tsung-Ying; Li, Yao-Jen; Chen, Kun-Chieh; Liao, Kuo-Meng; Hsu, Kuo-Hsuan; Tsai, Chi-Ren; Chen, Chih-Yi; Hsu, Chung-Ping; Hsia, Jiun-Yi; Chuang, Cheng-Yen; Tsai, Ying-Huang; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Huang, Ming-Shyan; Su, Wu-Chou; Chen, Yuh-Min; Hsiung, Chao A; Shen, Chen-Yang; Chang, Gee-Chen; Yang, Pan-Chyr; Chen, Chien-Jen

    2013-01-15

    We explored potential associations between genetic polymorphisms in genes related to DNA repair and detoxification metabolism and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations in a cohort of 410 never-smoking patients with lung adenocarcinoma. Multivariate-adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) of EGFR mutation status in association with the genotypes of DNA repair and detoxification metabolism genes were evaluated using logistic regression analysis. We found an association between in-frame deletion in EGFR exon 19 and a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1800566C/T located in NQO1 (aOR, 2.2 with 95% CI, 1.0-4.8) in female never-smokers. The SNP rs744154C/G in ERCC4 was also associated with the EGFR exon 19 in-frame deletion both in never-smokers (aOR, 1.7 with 95% CI, 1.0-3.0) and female never-smokers (aOR, 1.9 with 95% CI, 1.0-3.6). Although the association was marginally significant in multivariate logistic regression analysis, the A/A genotype of rs1047840 in EXO1 was associated with a 7.6-fold increase in the occurrence of the EGFR exon 19 in-frame deletion in female never-smokers. Moreover, risk alleles in NQO1, ERCC4 and EXO1 were associated with an increasing aOR of the EGFR exon 19 in-frame deletion both in never-smokers (p = 0.007 for trend) and female never-smokers (p = 0.002 for trend). Our findings suggest that the in-frame deletion in EGFR exon 19 is associated with polymorphisms in DNA repair and detoxification metabolism genes in never-smoking lung adenocarcinoma patients, especially in females. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  9. Association analysis of polymorphisms in EGFR, HER2, ESR1 and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maha RebaÑ—

    2016-08-31

    Aug 31, 2016 ... polymorphisms (SNP) in the ESR1 gene have been associated with an increased risk of vascular diseases, such as arterial hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, alterations in serum lipid levels, and cerebrovascular disease [22–24]. More recently, it has been shown that genetic and epigenetic changes.

  10. EGFR intragenic loss and gene amplification in astrocytic gliomas.

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    Arjona, Dolores; Bello, M Josefa; Rey, Juan A

    2006-01-01

    We have studied EGFR gene amplification and allelic status of chromosome 7 in 68 tumors consisting of 34 WHO grade IV glioblastomas (26 primary and 8 secondary), 14 WHO grade III anaplastic astrocytomas, and 20 WHO grade II astrocytomas, by polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP), quantitative PCR, and microsatellite analysis. EGFR gene amplification was present in 27 of these tumors (40%), and we identified allelic losses at 7p11 approximately p14 in 38 of the 68 cases (56%), including 17 tumors displaying loss for EGFR intragenic markers. The positive correlation (P < 0.05, chi(2)) between tumors with EGFR intragenic loss and EGFR gene amplification, frequently displaying the EGFR vIII form, suggests that EGFR gene rearrangement leading to intragenic loss is a molecular event that participates in the amplification process of this gene.

  11. eGFR

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pregnancy hCG Tumor Marker HDL Cholesterol Heavy Metals Helicobacter pylori Testing Hematocrit Hemoglobin Hemoglobin A1c Hemoglobinopathy Evaluation ... Foundation for calculating eGFR in adults Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study (MDRD) equation—some laboratories ...

  12. Esophageal Cancer and the Importance of Epidermal Growth Factor (EGFR

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    Kazem Anvari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC is one of the most frequent malignancies, worldwide. It is important to find out what prognostic factors can facilitate diagnosis, optimize therapeutic decisions, and improve the survival of these patients. Despite improvements in surgical techniques combined with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy, the novel therapies such as small molecule inhibitors of tyrosine kinases (TKIs and humanized monoclonal antibodies (mAbs are very much needed. On the other hand, neoadjuvant chemotherapy which may improve the outcome is accompanied by toxicity by destruction of normal cells. Side effects may be avoided by developing therapies that specifically target molecular characteristics of tumors. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR is one of tyrosine kinases receptors widely distributed in human epithelial cell membrane. Genetic polymorphisms in EGFR genes influence cell cycle progression, angiogenesis, apoptosis and metastasis. EGFR mutations are mostly observed in lung tumors; curiously they are more prevalent in Asian women diagnosed with adenocarcinoma. Also, esophageal SCC shows a relatively high incidence of EGFR (33% and/or HER2 (31% overexpression. Patients who carry these mutations in EGFR have been founded tending to have a better response to gefitinib, an EGFR-TKI, whereas patients with the wild-type genotype show a better response to conventional chemotherapy. Therefore, finding clinical characteristics and environmental interactions with EGFR can affect on investigations about novel anti-cancer therapies like monoclonal antibodies and gene therapy and studies which identify patients who may benefit from EGFR targeted therapies. Hence, it may be effective on the improvement of prognosis in these patients.

  13. EGFR-inhibitors, radiotherapy and normal tissue toxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, J. G.

    2015-01-01

    EGFR-inhibitors have been used in several clinical settings during the last decade and side-effects related to normal tissues like the skin, mucosa and kidney has been well described. However, when EGFR-inhibitors are combined with radiotherapy, then different skin and mucosa toxicity profiles can...... will be explained with references to the current knowledge of the biology of skin toxicity. Treatment options for acute side-effects in skin and mucosa after bio-radiotherapy is rarely causal. A few attempts have been done; some of them aiming to rephosphorylate the EGFreceptor in the skin with vitamin K3. The talk...... single nucleotide polymorphisms in the EGF-gene that alter the ligand-receptor binding might be responsible for the observed clinical correlation. These data will be discussed in the light of EGFR-inhibition in combination with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy....

  14. Sulforaphane attenuates EGFR signaling in NSCLC cells.

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    Chen, Chi-Yuan; Yu, Zhu-Yun; Chuang, Yen-Shu; Huang, Rui-Mei; Wang, Tzu-Chien V

    2015-06-03

    EGFR, a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK), is frequently overexpressed and mutated in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have been widely used in the treatment of many cancers, including NSCLC. However, intrinsic and acquired resistance to TKI remains a common obstacle. One strategy that may help overcome EGFR-TKI resistance is to target EGFR for degradation. As EGFR is a client protein of heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90) and sulforaphane is known to functionally regulate HSP90, we hypothesized that sulforaphane could attenuate EGFR-related signaling and potentially be used to treat NSCLC. Our study revealed that sulforaphane displayed antitumor activity against NSCLC cells both in vitro and in vivo. The sensitivity of NSCLC cells to sulforaphane appeared to positively correlate with the inhibition of EGFR-related signaling, which was attributed to the increased proteasomal degradation of EGFR. Combined treatment of NSCLC cells with sulforaphane plus another HSP90 inhibitor (17-AAG) enhanced the inhibition of EGFR-related signaling both in vitro and in vivo. We have shown that sulforaphane is a novel inhibitory modulator of EGFR expression and is effective in inhibiting the tumor growth of EGFR-TKI-resistant NSCLC cells. Our findings suggest that sulforaphane should be further explored for its potential clinical applications against NSCLC.

  15. A Chimeric Egfr Protein Reporter Mouse Reveals Egfr Localization and Trafficking In Vivo

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    Yu-Ping Yang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available EGF receptor (EGFR is a critical signaling node throughout life. However, it has not been possible to directly visualize endogenous Egfr in mice. Using CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing, we appended a fluorescent reporter to the C terminus of the Egfr. Homozygous reporter mice appear normal and EGFR signaling is intact in vitro and in vivo. We detect distinct patterns of Egfr expression in progenitor and differentiated compartments in embryonic and adult mice. Systemic delivery of EGF or amphiregulin results in markedly different patterns of Egfr internalization and trafficking in hepatocytes. In the normal intestine, Egfr localizes to the crypt rather than villus compartment, expression is higher in adjacent epithelium than in intestinal tumors, and following colonic injury expression appears in distinct cell populations in the stroma. This reporter, under control of its endogenous regulatory elements, enables in vivo monitoring of the dynamics of Egfr localization and trafficking in normal and disease states.

  16. R497K polymorphism in epidermal growth factor receptor gene is associated with the risk of acute coronary syndrome

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    Pan Xin-Min

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies suggested that genetic polymorphisms in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR gene had been implicated in the susceptibility to some tumors and inflammatory diseases. EGFR has been recently implicated in vascular pathophysiological processes associated with excessive remodeling and atherosclerosis. Acute coronary syndrome (ACS is a clinical manifestation of preceding atherosclerosis. Our purpose was to investigate the association of the EGFR polymorphism with the risk of ACS. In this context, we analyzed the HER-1 R497K and EGFR intron 1 (CAn repeat polymorphisms in 191 patients with ACS and 210 age- and sex-matched controls in a Chinese population, using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP strategy and direct sequencing. Results There were significant differences in the genotype and allele distribution of R497K polymorphism of the EGFR gene between cases and controls. The Lys allele had a significantly increased risk of ACS compared with the Arg allele (adjusted OR = 1.49, 95% CI: 1.12–1.98, adjusted P = 0.006. However, no significant relationship between the number of (CAn repeats of EGFR intron 1 (both alleles P = 0.911. Considering these two polymorphisms together, there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups. Conclusion R497K polymorphism of the EGFR gene is significantly associated with the risk of ACS. Our data suggests that R497K polymorphism may be used as a genetic susceptibility marker of the ACS.

  17. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR mutations and expression in squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus in central Asia

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    Abedi-Ardekani Behnoush

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC shows geographic variations in incidence, with high incidences (>50/105 person-years in central Asia, including North Eastern Iran (Golestan and Northern India (Kashmir. In contrast to Western countries, smoking does not appear to be a significant risk factor for ESCC in central Asia. In lung adenocarcinoma, activating mutations in the gene encoding epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR are frequent in tumors of never smokers of Asian origin, predicting therapeutic sensitivity to Egfr-targeting drugs. Methods In this study 152 cases of histologically confirmed ESCC from Iran (Tehran and Golestan Province and North India (Kashmir Valley have been analyzed for EGFR mutation by direct sequencing of exons 18–21. Egfr protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 34 samples from Tehran and HER2 mutations were analyzed in 54 cases from Kashmir. Results A total of 14 (9.2% EGFR variations were detected, including seven variations in exons. Among those, four (2.6% were already documented in lung cancers, two were reported as polymorphisms and one was a potentially new activating mutation. All but one variation in introns were previously identified as polymorphisms. Over-expression of Egfr was detected in 22/34 (65% of tested cases whereas no HER2 mutation was found in 54 cases from Kashmir. Conclusion Overall, EGFR mutations appear to be a rare event in ESCC in high incidence areas of central Asia, although a very small proportion of cases may harbor mutations predicting sensitivity to anti-Egfr drugs.

  18. Lack of EGFR mutations benefiting gefitinib treatment in adenocarcinoma of esophagogastric junction

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    Wang Wen-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR inhibitor, gefitinib, has been reported to successfully treat advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients with genetic mutations in EGFR. The aim of this study was to investigate the existence of EGFR mutations in carcinoma of esophagogastric junction, and also to explore the possibility of treating carcinoma of esophagogastric junction using gefitinib. Methods From Aug. 2009 to Jun. 2010, 65 patients with carcinoma of esophagogastric junction underwent surgical resection. The tumor tissue and corresponding blood specimens were collected from all cases. The DNA was extracted and PCR amplification was accomplished based on designed primers for exons 18, 19, 20, and 21. EGFR exons 18, 19, 20 and 21 of both cancer cell and white blood cell were finally successfully sequenced. Results In exon 20, a variant from CAG to CAA at codon 787 (2361G-> A was identified in 19 patients, which was a genomic variation of EGFR since it was found in both cancer tissue and white blood cells. This EGFR alteration was a synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP since CAA and CAG were encoding the same amino-acid of Glutamine (Q787Q, NCBI database 162093G > A, SNP ID: rs10251977. No genetic alteration was found in exons 18, 19 or 21. Conclusions Adenocarcinoma of esophagogastric junction rarely presents EGFR mutation, especially gefitinib-associated mutations such as L858R, or delE746-A750. This means that the gefitinib-based gene target therapy should not be recommended for treating carcinoma of esophagogastric junction.

  19. Including total EGFR staining in scoring improves EGFR mutations detection by mutation-specific antibodies and EGFR TKIs response prediction.

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    Shang-Gin Wu

    Full Text Available Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR is a novel target for therapy in subsets of non-small cell lung cancer, especially adenocarcinoma. Tumors with EGFR mutations showed good response to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs. We aimed to identify the discriminating capacity of immunohistochemical (IHC scoring to detect L858R and E746-A750 deletion mutation in lung adenocarcinoma patients and predict EGFR TKIs response. Patients with surgically resected lung adenocarcinoma were enrolled. EGFR mutation status was genotyped by PCR and direct sequencing. Mutation-specific antibodies for L858R and E746-A750 deletion were used for IHC staining. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves were used to determine the capacity of IHC, including intensity and/or quickscore (Q score, in differentiating L858R and E746-A750 deletion. We enrolled 143 patients during September 2000 to May 2009. Logistic-regression-model-based scoring containing both L858R Q score and total EGFR expression Q score was able to obtain a maximal area under the curve (AUC: 0.891 to differentiate the patients with L858R. Predictive model based on IHC Q score of E746-A750 deletion and IHC intensity of total EGFR expression reached an AUC of 0.969. The predictive model of L858R had a significantly higher AUC than L858R intensity only (p = 0.036. Of the six patients harboring complex EGFR mutations with classical mutation patterns, five had positive IHC staining. For EGFR TKI treated cancer recurrence patients, those with positive mutation-specific antibody IHC staining had better EGFR TKI response (p = 0.008 and longer progression-free survival (p = 0.012 than those without. In conclusion, total EGFR expression should be included in the IHC interpretation of L858R. After adjusting for total EGFR expression, the scoring method decreased the false positive rate and increased diagnostic power. According to the scoring method, the IHC method is useful to predict the

  20. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and EGFR mutations, function and possible role in clinical trials.

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    Voldborg, B R; Damstrup, L; Spang-Thomsen, M; Poulsen, H S

    1997-12-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a growth factor receptor that induces cell differentiation and proliferation upon activation through the binding of one of its ligands. The receptor is located at the cell surface, where the binding of a ligand activates a tyrosine kinase in the intracellular region of the receptor. This tyrosine kinase phosphorylates a number of intracellular substrates that activates pathways leading to cell growth, DNA synthesis and the expression of oncogenes such as fos and jun. EGFR is thought to be involved the development of cancer, as the EGFR gene is often amplified, and/or mutated in cancer cells. In this review we will focus on: (I) the structure and function of EGFR, (II) implications of receptor/ligand coexpression and EGFR mutations or overexpression, (III) its effect on cancer cells, (IV) the development of the malignant phenotype and (V) the clinical aspects of therapeutic targeting of EGFR.

  1. Alterations in EGFR and related genes following neo-adjuvant chemotherapy in Chinese patients with non-small cell lung cancer.

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    Shuhang Wang

    Full Text Available Genetic aberrancies within epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR pathway are associated with therapeutic outcomes of EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. However, the impact of chemotherapy on EGFR-related genes alterations has not been defined in NSCLC. Our study aims to investigate the impact of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (Neoadj-Chemo on EGFR activating mutations and associated EGFR-TKIs resistance-related genes.Matched tumor samples were obtained retrospectively from 66 NSCLC patients (stages IIb-IIIb corresponding to pre- and post- Neoadj-Chemo. EGFR mutations were detected by denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC and confirmed by Amplification Refractory Mutation System technology (ARMS, KRAS mutations, T790M mutation and c-MET amplification were identified using Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP, ARMS, and real-time PCR, respectively.Before Neoadj-Chemo, EGFR mutations were identified in 33.3% (22/66 of NSCLC patients. Only 18.2% (12/66 of patients carried EGFR mutations after Neoadj-Chemo (p = 0.013. The median peak value of EGFR 19 exon mutations decreased non-significantly after Neoadj-Chemo. KRAS mutation rate decreased from 4.6% (3/66 to 3.0% (2/66 with Neoadj-Chemo. Although the overall percentage of patients exhibiting c-MET amplifications (6.1% [4/66] did not change with Neoadj-Chemo, two patients transitioned from negative to positive c-MET amplification, and two patients reversed these changes post-Neoadj-Chemo. T790M mutations were absent from all samples.Neoadjuvant chemotherapy tends to decrease the mutation frequency of EGFR mutation and downstream genes, which suggests that real-time samples analysis for genetic aberrancies within EGFR pathways have important value to delineate specific patient populations and facilitate individualized treatment.

  2. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and EGFR mutations, function and possible role in clinical trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voldborg, B R; Damstrup, L; Spang-Thomsen, M

    1997-01-01

    in the intracellular region of the receptor. This tyrosine kinase phosphorylates a number of intracellular substrates that activates pathways leading to cell growth, DNA synthesis and the expression of oncogenes such as fos and jun. EGFR is thought to be involved the development of cancer, as the EGFR gene is often...... amplified, and/or mutated in cancer cells. In this review we will focus on: (I) the structure and function of EGFR, (II) implications of receptor/ligand coexpression and EGFR mutations or overexpression, (III) its effect on cancer cells, (IV) the development of the malignant phenotype and (V) the clinical...

  3. EGFR Activation by Spatially Restricted Ligands

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goodrich, Jennifer S

    2005-01-01

    ...) activity has been associated with an increased prognosis of breast cancer. During oogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster, local EGFR activation by the spatially restricted TGF alpha-like ligand, Gurken (Grk...

  4. EGFR Mutation Status in Uighur Lung Adenocarcinoma Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Shan, Li; Zhang, Yan; Zhao, Feng; Limou ZHENG; Zhang, Guoqing

    2013-01-01

    Background and objective Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a transmembrane protein, is a member of the tyrosine kinase family. Gefitinib, an EGFR tyrosine-kinase inhibitors, has shown a high response rate in the treatment of lung cancer in patients with EGFR mutation. However, significant differences in EGFR mutations exist among different ethnic groups. The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of EGFR mutations in Uighur lung adenocarcinoma patients by using a rapid and ...

  5. Immunohistochemical Detections of EGFR Mutations in NSCLC

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    Chang LIU

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, it has been well known that non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients with mutations of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR response better to EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment. Although DNA-based assays (e.g. DNA sequencing are the most frequently used and a relatively reliable method to detect EGFR mutations, they are complex, time-consuming and relatively expensive for routine use in clinical laboratories, besides they require high quality tumor samples. In contrast, the immunohistochemistry (IHC methods make up fully for the above shortcomings and can serve as screening tests for EGFR mutations. However, there are many factors that can influence the results of IHC methods, such as different staining procedures, different antigen retrieval solutions and different sets of criteria, etc. Thus the IHC methods for detecting EGFR mutations have not been widely used in clinic and only in the research stage. This article reviews the use of IHC methods by different researchers and further discusses how to make the IHC methods work best for the detection of EGFR mutations.

  6. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and EGFR mutations, function and possible role in clinical trials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rude Voldborg, B; Damstrup, L; Spang-Thomsen, M; Skovgaard Poulsen, H

    1997-01-01

    ... ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and EGFR mutations, function a n dp o s s i b l er o l ei nc l i n i c a lt r i a l s B. Rude V oldborg, 1 L. Damstrup, 1 M...

  7. EGFR mutation frequency and effectiveness of erlotinib

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Britta; Hager, Henrik; Sorensen, Boe S

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In 2008, we initiated a prospective study to explore the frequency and predictive value of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations in an unselected population of Danish patients with non-small cell lung cancer offered treatment with erlotinib, mainly in second-line. MATERIALS...... AND METHODS: Four hundred and eighty eight patients with advanced NSCLC were included. The mutation status was assessed using the cobas EGFR Mutation Test. Erlotinib was administrated (150 mg/d) until disease progression or unacceptable toxicities occurred. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival....... Secondary endpoints were overall survival and response. RESULTS: Biopsies were retrieved from 467 patients, and mutation results obtained for 462. We identified 57 (12%) patients with EGFR mutations: 33 exon 19 deletions, 13 exon 21 mutations, 5 exon 18 mutations, 3 exon 20 insertions, 1 exon 20 point...

  8. Epidermal growth factor receptor gene polymorphisms predict pelvic recurrence in patients with rectal cancer treated with chemoradiation.

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    Zhang, Wu; Park, David J; Lu, Bo; Yang, Dong Yun; Gordon, Michael; Groshen, Susan; Yun, Jim; Press, Oliver A; Vallböhmer, Daniel; Rhodes, Katrin; Lenz, Heinz-Josef

    2005-01-15

    An association between epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway and response of cancer cells to ionizing radiation has been reported. Recently, a polymorphic variant in the EGFR gene that leads to an arginine-to-lysine substitution in the extracellular domain at codon 497 within subdomain IV of EGFR has been identified. The variant EGFR (HER-1 497K) may lead to attenuation in ligand binding, growth stimulation, tyrosine kinase activation, and induction of proto-oncogenes myc, fos, and jun. A (CA)(n) repeat polymorphism in intron 1 of the EGFR gene that alters EGFR expression in vitro and in vivo has also been described. In the current pilot study, we assessed both polymorphisms in 59 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer treated with adjuvant or neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy using PCR-RFLP and a 5'-end [gamma-(33)P]ATP-labeled PCR protocol. We tested whether either polymorphism alone or in combination can be associated with local recurrence in the setting of chemoradiation treatment. We found that patients with HER-1 497 Arg/Arg genotype or lower number of CA repeats (both alleles HER-1 497 Arg allele and HER-1 R497K and EGFR intron 1 (CA)(n) repeat polymorphisms may be potential indicators of radiosensitivity in patients with rectal cancer treated with chemoradiation.

  9. Sex bias occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma in Poly7 molecular subclass is associated with EGFR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keng, Vincent W; Sia, Daniela; Sarver, Aaron L; Tschida, Barbara R; Fan, Danhua; Alsinet, Clara; Solé, Manel; Lee, Wai L; Kuka, Timothy P; Moriarity, Branden S; Villanueva, Augusto; Dupuy, Adam J; Riordan, Jesse D; Bell, Jason B; Silverstein, Kevin A T; Llovet, Josep M; Largaespada, David A

    2013-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the deadliest solid cancers and is the third leading cause of cancer-related death. There is a universal estimated male/female ratio of 2.5, but the reason for this is not well understood. The Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon system was used to elucidate candidate oncogenic drivers of HCC in a forward genetics screening approach. Sex bias occurrence was conserved in our model, with male experimental mice developing liver tumors at reduced latency and higher tumor penetrance. In parallel, we explored sex differences regarding genomic aberrations in 235 HCC patients. Liver cancer candidate genes were identified from both sexes and genotypes. Interestingly, transposon insertions in the epidermal growth factor receptor (Egfr) gene were common in SB-induced liver tumors from male mice (10/10, 100%) but infrequent in female mice (2/9, 22%). Human single-nucleotide polymorphism data confirmed that polysomy of chromosome 7, locus of EGFR, was more frequent in males (26/62, 41%) than females (2/27, 7%) (P = 0.001). Gene expression-based Poly7 subclass patients were predominantly male (9/9) compared with 67% males (55/82) in other HCC subclasses (P = 0.02), and this subclass was accompanied by EGFR overexpression (P < 0.001). Sex bias occurrence of HCC associated with EGFR was confirmed in experimental animals using the SB transposon system in a reverse genetic approach. This study provides evidence for the role of EGFR in sex bias occurrences of liver cancer and as the driver mutational gene in the Poly7 molecular subclass of human HCC. Copyright © 2012 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  10. Nuclear localization of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in ameloblastomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Núbia Braga; do Carmo, Ana Carolina de Melo; Diniz, Marina Gonçalves; Gomez, Ricardo Santiago; Gomes, Dawidson Assis; Gomes, Carolina Cavalieri

    2015-01-01

    Ameloblastoma is a locally invasive neoplasm often associated with morbidity and facial deformities, showing increased Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) expression. Inhibition of EGFR was suggested as a treatment option for a subset of ameloblastomas. However, there are resistance mechanisms that impair anti-EGFR therapies. One important resistance mechanism for EGFR-inhibition is the EGFR nuclear localization, which activates genes responsible for its mitogenic effects, such as Cyclin D1. We assessed EGFR nuclear localization in encapsulated (unicystic, n = 3) and infiltrative (multicystic, n = 11) ameloblastomas and its colocalization with Cyclin D1 by using anti-EGFR and anti-lamin B1 double labeling immunofluorescence analyzed by confocal microscopy. Oral inflammatory fibrous hyperplasia and oral squamous cell carcinoma samples were used for comparison. Twelve cases of ameloblastoma exhibited nuclear EGFR colocalization with lamin B1. This positive staining was mainly observed in the ameloblast-like cells. The EGFR nuclear localization was also observed in control samples. In addition, nuclear EGFR colocalized with Cyclin D1 in ameloblastomas. Nuclear EGFR occurs in ameloblastomas in association with Cyclin D1 expression, which is important in terms of tumor biology clarification and raises a concern about anti-EGFR treatment resistance in ameloblastomas.

  11. EGFR Mutation Status in Uighur Lung Adenocarcinoma Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li SHAN

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, a transmembrane protein, is a member of the tyrosine kinase family. Gefitinib, an EGFR tyrosine-kinase inhibitors, has shown a high response rate in the treatment of lung cancer in patients with EGFR mutation. However, significant differences in EGFR mutations exist among different ethnic groups. The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of EGFR mutations in Uighur lung adenocarcinoma patients by using a rapid and sensitive detection method and to analyze EGFR mutation differences compared with Han lung adenocarcinoma patients. Methods We examined lung adenocarcinoma tissues from 138 patients, including 68 Uighur lung adenocarcinoma patients and 70 Han lung adenocarcinoma patients, for EGFR mutations in exons 18, 19, 20, and 21 by using the amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS PCR method. The mutation differences between Uighur and Han lung adenocarcinoma were compared by using the chi-square test method. Results EGFR mutations were detected in 43 (31.2% of the 138 lung adenocarcinoma patients. EGFR mutations were detected in 11 (16.2% of the 68 Uighur lung adenocarcinoma patients and in 32 (45.7% of the 70 Han lung adenocarcinoma patients. Significant differences were observed in the EGFR mutations between Uighur lung adenocarcinoma patients and Han lung adenocarcinoma patients (P<0.001. Conclusion Our results indicate that the EGFR mutation in Uighur lung adenocarcinoma patients (16.2% is significantly lower than that in Han lung adenocarcinoma patients (45.7%.

  12. [EGFR-expression in pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhnen, C; Winter, B U

    2006-03-01

    15 cases of pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia (carcinoid-tumorlets, diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia/DIPNECH) and 20 neuroendocrine pulmonary tumors (10 carcinoid tumors, 5 large cell neuroendocrine, and 5 small cell neuroendocrine lung carcinomas) were immunohistochemically analyzed for the expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, = HER-1). All cases of neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia exhibited a maximum EGFR expression (score 3 in 100% of cells) showing predominantly membranous, partly cytoplasmic staining. 4 ot the 10 carcinoid tumors were strongly positive for EGFR, whereas the other 6 were EGFR-negative. A total of 90% of large cell neuroendocrine and small cell neuroendocrine carcinomas were negative for EGFR. Overexpression of EGFR in pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia might be significant for the pathogenesis of these lesions. As DIPNECH is characterized by clinical signs and symptoms including mild cough and obstructive functional impairment, a specific antagonistic therapeutic trial could aim at blocking EGFR/HER-1 or its subsequent signal transduction pathway.

  13. Interaction between EGFR and EphA2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Alice Bjerregaard

    2010-01-01

    Enhanced or altered epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activity has been reported in many human cancers and several molecular targeting therapies has been developed. However, despite intense research, therapies targeting EGFR have shown conflicting results in clinical studies, indicating...... the involvement of other important molecular players. Several different EGFR mutations have been reported in cancer, one of which is the cancer specific type III EGFR deletion mutant (EGFRvIII, de2-7EGFR, ¿EGFR). In a global search for EGFR and EGFRvIII regulated genes we identified the receptor tyrosine kinase...... (RTK) EphA2. EphA2 belongs to the large Eph-receptor family, which has mainly been associated with neuronal development. More recently, expression of several Eph-receptors has been detected in many different cancer types. Elevated EphA2 expression has been reported in a broad range of human cancer...

  14. Interaction between EGFR and EphA2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Alice Bjerregaard

    2010-01-01

    Enhanced or altered epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activity has been reported in many human cancers and several molecular targeting therapies has been developed. However, despite intense research, therapies targeting EGFR have shown conflicting results in clinical studies, indicating...... the involvement of other important molecular players. Several different EGFR mutations have been reported in cancer, one of which is the cancer specific type III EGFR deletion mutant (EGFRvIII, de2-7EGFR, ΔEGFR). In a global search for EGFR and EGFRvIII regulated genes we identified the receptor tyrosine kinase...... (RTK) EphA2. EphA2 belongs to the large Eph-receptor family, which has mainly been associated with neuronal development. More recently, expression of several Eph-receptors has been detected in many different cancer types. Elevated EphA2 expression has been reported in a broad range of human cancer...

  15. Lung adenocarcinoma patients of young age have lower EGFR mutation rate and poorer efficacy of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang-Gin Wu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Patients aged ≤50 years are rarely diagnosed with nonsmall cell lung cancer. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to understand the mutation status of EGFR and the efficacy of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI treatment in young Asian patients with lung adenocarcinoma. We collected tumour specimens and malignant pleural effusions from lung adenocarcinoma patients from June 2005 to April 2014, recorded their clinical demographic data, and analysed EGFR mutations by reverse transcriptase PCR. EGFR mutation data were collected from 1039 lung adenocarcinoma patients, including 161 patients aged ≤50 years and 878 patients aged >50 years. Fewer patients aged ≤50 years had EGFR mutations than older patients (p=0.043, but they showed a higher rate of uncommon EGFR mutations (p=0.035. A total of 524 patients with EGFR mutations received EGFR-TKI treatment, including 81 patients aged ≤50 years. Younger patients had a lower response rate than older patients (p=0.038 and had the shortest progression-free survival compared with other predefined age categories (p=0.033. Multivariate analysis of overall survival revealed age ≤50 years as a poor prognostic factor. In conclusion, fewer Asian patients aged ≤50 years had EGFR mutations, but the EGFR mutation types were more uncommon. Age ≤50 years is associated with poorer efficacy of EGFR-TKI treatment.

  16. Brigatinib combined with anti-EGFR antibody overcomes osimertinib resistance in EGFR-mutated non-small-cell lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchibori, Ken; Inase, Naohiko; Araki, Mitsugu; Kamada, Mayumi; Sato, Shigeo; Okuno, Yasushi; Fujita, Naoya; Katayama, Ryohei

    2017-03-01

    Osimertinib has been demonstrated to overcome the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-T790M, the most relevant acquired resistance to first-generation EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs). However, the C797S mutation, which impairs the covalent binding between the cysteine residue at position 797 of EGFR and osimertinib, induces resistance to osimertinib. Currently, there are no effective therapeutic strategies to overcome the C797S/T790M/activating-mutation (triple-mutation)-mediated EGFR-TKI resistance. In the present study, we identify brigatinib to be effective against triple-mutation-harbouring cells in vitro and in vivo. Our original computational simulation demonstrates that brigatinib fits into the ATP-binding pocket of triple-mutant EGFR. The structure-activity relationship analysis reveals the key component in brigatinib to inhibit the triple-mutant EGFR. The efficacy of brigatinib is enhanced markedly by combination with anti-EGFR antibody because of the decrease of surface and total EGFR expression. Thus, the combination therapy of brigatinib with anti-EGFR antibody is a powerful candidate to overcome triple-mutant EGFR.

  17. R497K polymorphism in epidermal growth factor receptor gene is associated with the risk of acute coronary syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lin-Bo; Zhou, Bin; Zhang, Lin; Wei, Ye-Sheng; Wang, Yan-Yun; Liang, Wei-Bo; Lv, Mei-Li; Pan, Xin-Min; Chen, Yu-Cheng; Rao, Li

    2008-01-01

    Background Previous studies suggested that genetic polymorphisms in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene had been implicated in the susceptibility to some tumors and inflammatory diseases. EGFR has been recently implicated in vascular pathophysiological processes associated with excessive remodeling and atherosclerosis. Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a clinical manifestation of preceding atherosclerosis. Our purpose was to investigate the association of the EGFR polymorphism with the risk of ACS. In this context, we analyzed the HER-1 R497K and EGFR intron 1 (CA)n repeat polymorphisms in 191 patients with ACS and 210 age- and sex-matched controls in a Chinese population, using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) strategy and direct sequencing. Results There were significant differences in the genotype and allele distribution of R497K polymorphism of the EGFR gene between cases and controls. The Lys allele had a significantly increased risk of ACS compared with the Arg allele (adjusted OR = 1.49, 95% CI: 1.12–1.98, adjusted P = 0.006). However, no significant relationship between the number of (CA)n repeats of EGFR intron 1 (both alleles < 20 or any allele ≥ 20) and the risk of ACS was observed (adjusted OR = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.58–1.64, adjusted P = 0.911). Considering these two polymorphisms together, there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups. Conclusion R497K polymorphism of the EGFR gene is significantly associated with the risk of ACS. Our data suggests that R497K polymorphism may be used as a genetic susceptibility marker of the ACS. PMID:18664296

  18. Metaplastic Breast Cancer and EGFR Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilufer Avci

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Metaplastic breast cancer has poor prognosis and is usually triple negative. Although it is morphologically more heterogeneous than triple negative breast cancers, expression profile is more homogeneous. In this study, we investigated our metaplastic breast cancer cases regarding their pathology and clinical characteristics. Material and Method: 16 metaplastic breast cancer cases from four different center were included in the study. Pathology and clinical characteristics of the cases were evaluated retrospectively. Results: All the cases are female and median age is 48 (39-45. Tumor is commonly localized to the outer quadrant and mean diameter of the mass is 37.5 (15-100 mm. Tumor diameter is ≤20 mm in 3 (15.8%, >20-≤50 mm in 11 (57.9% and >50 mm in 3 (10.51% of the cases. Only 4 (16.1% patients have axillary lymph node involvement. When considering histological subtypes, five of the cases has squamous cell, five of them has spindle cell, one of them has mucoepidermoid, and in five cases the subtype was not identified. Considering hormone receptor status ER and PR was negative in 78.9%, 63.2% respectively. HER2 protein expression was positive by immunohistochemical staining in 1 (5.3% case. CK5/6 and CK17 was both positive in 7 (36.8% cases. EGFR expression was positive in 4 (21.1% cases, was negative in 5 (26.3% cases and not identified in 7 (36.8% cases. Three of the cases were offered neoadjuvant chemotherapy. As neoadjuvant chemotherapy, anthracycline and taxane combination (n:2 TAC, n:1 AC-paclitaxel was preferred. Mean follow-up was 41 months. Mean survival was 42.4 months in EGFR negative patients and 47.5 months in EGFR positive patients. This difference was not statistically significant. During follow-up 3 cases had recurrence. Discussion: EGFR expression is seen in metaplastic breast cancer. Although EGFR expression is related to poor prognosis, it is not a predictive marker. Therefore, predictive molecular markers are

  19. EGFR transactivation: mechanisms, pathophysiology and potential therapies in cardiovascular system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Steven J.; Kawai, Tatsuo; Elliott, Katherine J.; O’Brien, Shannon; Thomas, Walter; Harris, Raymond C.; Eguchi, Satoru

    2017-01-01

    Accumulating studies suggest that the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation is associated with the physiology and pathophysiology of the cardiovascular system, and inhibition of EGFR activity is emerging as a potential therapeutic strategy to treat diseases, including hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy, renal fibrosis and abdominal aortic aneurysm. The capacity of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) agonists, such as angiotensin II (AngII), to promote EGFR signaling is well described – a process termed EGFR “transactivation” – yet delineating the molecular processes and functional relevance of this crosstalk has been challenging. Moreover, these critical findings are dispersed among many different fields. The aim of our review is to highlight the recent advancement of the signaling cascades and downstream consequences of EGFR transactivation within the cardiovascular renal system in vitro and in vivo. We will also focus on linking EGFR transactivation to animal models of the disease as well as the potential therapeutic applications. PMID:26566153

  20. Cellular Plasticity and Heterogeneity of EGFR Mutant Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0177 TITLE: Cellular Plasticity and Heterogeneity of EGFR Mutant Lung Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Katerina...5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Cellular Plasticity and Heterogeneity of EGFR Mutant Lung Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0177 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...epigenomic landscape of EGFR mutant SCLCs and their corresponding pre- treatment LUADs. These are very rare specimens. Through our Yale rebiopsy program

  1. Tyrosine Kinase Domain Gene Polymorphism of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor in Gastric Cancer in Northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeivad F

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gastric cancer is one of the most common diseases of digestive system with a low 5-year survival rate and metastasis is the main cause of death. Multi-factors, such as changes in molecular pathways and deregulation of cells are involved in the disease development. Epidermal growth factor receptor pathway (EGFR which is associated with cell proliferation and survival can influence cancer development. EGFR function is governed by its genetic polymorphism; thus, we aimed to study the tyrosine kinase domain gene mutations of the receptor in patients with gastric cancer.Methods : In this experimental study, 123 subjects (83 patients with gastric cancer and 40 normal subjects were investigated in north of Iran for EGFR gene polymorphisms during 1 year. Genomic DNA was extracted by DNA extraction kit according to the manufacture's protocol. Polymerase chain reaction single-stranded conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP and silver staining were performed for investigating EGFR gene polymorphisms. Results : The participants included 72 men and 44 women. Gene polymorphism in exon 18 was present in 10% of the study population but SSCP pattern in exon 19 did not show different migrate bands neither in patients nor in normal subjects.Conclusion: It seems that screening for tyrosine kinas gene polymorphism of epidermal growth factor receptor in patients with gastric cancer and use of tyrosine kinas inhibitors could be useful in the prevention of disease progress and improvement of treatment process for a better quality of life in these patients.

  2. EGFR(s) in aging and carcinogenesis of the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nautiyal, Jyoti; Kanwar, Shailender Singh; Majumdar, Adhip P N

    2010-09-01

    Cells of the gastrointestinal (GI) mucosa are subject to a constant process of renewal which, in normal adults, reflects a balance between the rates of cell production and cell loss. Detailed knowledge of these events is, therefore, essential for a better understanding of the normal aging processes as well as many GI diseases, particularly malignancy, that represent disorders of tissue growth. In general, many GI dysfunctions, including malignancy, increase with advancing age, and aging itself is associated with alterations in structural and functional integrity of the GI tract. Although the regulatory mechanisms for age-related increase in the incidence of GI-cancers are yet to be fully delineated, recent evidence suggests a role for epidermal growth family receptors and its family members {referred to as EGFR(s)} in the development and progression of carcinogenesis during aging. The present communication discusses the involvement of EGFR(s) in regulating events of GI cancers during advancing age and summarizes the current available therapeutics targeting these receptors. The current review also describes the effectiveness of ErbB inhibitors as well as combination therapies. Additionally, the involvement of GI stem cells in the development of the age-related rise in GI cancers is emphasized.

  3. Decreased EGFR mRNA expression in response to antipsoriatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dithranol is enormously effective in the treatment of psoriasis; however its molecular mode of action should be further elucidated. Since epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is involved in the pathogenesis of psoriasis, the objective of this study was to investigate the transcriptional effect of dithranol on EGFR gene ...

  4. Graf regulates hematopoiesis through GEEC endocytosis of EGFR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungdae; Nahm, Minyeop; Kim, Najin; Kwon, Yumi; Kim, Joohyung; Choi, Sukwoo; Choi, Eun Young; Shim, Jiwon; Lee, Cheolju; Lee, Seungbok

    2017-11-15

    GTPase regulator associated with focal adhesion kinase 1 (GRAF1) is an essential component of the GPI-enriched endocytic compartment (GEEC) endocytosis pathway. Mutations in the human GRAF1 gene are associated with acute myeloid leukemia, but its normal role in myeloid cell development remains unclear. We show that Graf, the Drosophila ortholog of GRAF1, is expressed and specifically localizes to GEEC endocytic membranes in macrophage-like plasmatocytes. We also find that loss of Graf impairs GEEC endocytosis, enhances EGFR signaling and induces a plasmatocyte overproliferation phenotype that requires the EGFR signaling cascade. Mechanistically, Graf-dependent GEEC endocytosis serves as a major route for EGFR internalization at high, but not low, doses of the predominant Drosophila EGFR ligand Spitz (Spi), and is indispensable for efficient EGFR degradation and signal attenuation. Finally, Graf interacts directly with EGFR in a receptor ubiquitylation-dependent manner, suggesting a mechanism by which Graf promotes GEEC endocytosis of EGFR at high Spi. Based on our findings, we propose a model in which Graf functions to downregulate EGFR signaling by facilitating Spi-induced receptor internalization through GEEC endocytosis, thereby restraining plasmatocyte proliferation. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. Detecting and treating breast cancer resistance to EGFR inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moonlee, Sun-Young; Bissell, Mina J.; Furuta, Saori; Meier, Roland; Kenny, Paraic A.

    2016-04-05

    The application describes therapeutic compositions and methods for treating cancer. For example, therapeutic compositions and methods related to inhibition of FAM83A (family with sequence similarity 83) are provided. The application also describes methods for diagnosing cancer resistance to EGFR inhibitors. For example, a method of diagnosing cancer resistance to EGFR inhibitors by detecting increased FAM83A levels is described.

  6. Aspirin Prevents Colorectal Cancer by Normalizing EGFR Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haitao; Zhu, Feng; Boardman, Lisa A; Wang, Lei; Oi, Naomi; Liu, Kangdong; Li, Xiang; Fu, Yang; Limburg, Paul J; Bode, Ann M; Dong, Zigang

    2015-05-01

    Aspirin intake reduces the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), but the molecular underpinnings remain elusive. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which is overexpressed in about 80% of CRC cases, is implicated in the etiology of CRC. Here, we investigated whether aspirin can prevent CRC by normalizing EGFR expression. Immunohistochemistry staining was performed on paraffin-embedded tissue sections from normal colon mucosa, adenomatous polyps from FAP patients who were classified as regular aspirin users or nonusers. The interplay between cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and EGFR was studied in primary intestinal epithelial cells isolated from Apc(Min) mice, immortalized normal human colon epithelial cells (HCEC) as well as murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). Immunohistochemistry staining results established that EGFR overexpression is an early event in colorectal tumorigenesis, which can be greatly attenuated by regular use of aspirin. Importantly, EGFR and COX-2 were co-overexpressed and co-localized with each other in FAP patients. Further mechanistic studies revealed that COX-2 overexpression triggers the activation of the c-Jun-dependent transcription factor, activator protein-1 (AP-1), which binds to the Egfr promoter. Binding facilitates the cellular accumulation of EGFR and lowers the threshold required for pre-neoplastic cells to undergo transformation. Aspirin might exert its chemopreventive activity against CRC, at least partially, by normalizing EGFR expression in gastrointestinal precancerous lesions.

  7. Anti-EGFR Agents: Current Status, Forecasts and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwapiszewski, Radoslaw; Pawlak, Sebastian D; Adamkiewicz, Karolina

    2016-12-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is one of the most important and attractive targets for specific anticancer therapies. It is a robust regulator of pathways involved in cancer pathogenesis and progression. Thus far, clinical trials have demonstrated the benefits of monoclonal antibodies and synthetic tyrosine kinase inhibitors in targeting this receptor; however, novel strategies are still being developed. This article reviews the current state of efforts in targeting the EGFR in cancer therapy. Following a brief characterization of EGFR, we will present a complete list of anti-EGFR agents that are already approved, and available in clinical practice. Aside from the indications, we will present the sales forecasts and expiry dates of product patents for the selected agents. Finally, we discuss the novel anti-EGFR strategies that are currently in preclinical development.

  8. Family Polymorphism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    2001-01-01

    safety and flexibility at the level of multi-object systems. We are granted the flexibility of using different families of kinds of objects, and we are guaranteed the safety of the combination. This paper highlights the inability of traditional polymorphism to handle multiple objects, and presents family...... polymorphism as a way to overcome this problem. Family polymorphism has been implemented in the programming language gbeta, a generalized version of Beta, and the source code of this implementation is available under GPL....

  9. Coexpression of receptor tyrosine kinase AXL and EGFR in human primary lung adenocarcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhenzhou; Bai, Fan; Fan, Liyun; Pang, Wenshuai; Han, Ruiyu; Wang, Juan; Liu, Yueping; Yan, Xia; Duan, Huijun; Xing, Lingxiao

    2015-12-01

    AXL has been identified as a tyrosine kinase switch that causes resistance to inhibitors targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the relationship between 2 receptor tyrosine kinases, AXL and EGFR, and the relevance of AXL expression with EGFR mutation status in treatment-naive human NSCLCs remain uncertain. In this study, we evaluated the coexpression pattern of AXL, EGFR, and pEGFR(1068) in 109 lung adenocarcinoma patients with or without an EGFR mutation. There were 68 (62.4%) patients with tumors harboring EGFR mutations such as 19 del and/or L858R; 2 patients were T790M positive. The expression of AXL, EGFR, and pEGFR(1068) was detected in 60 (55%), 68 (62.4%), and 57 (52.3%) of 109 patients, respectively. The positive rates of EGFR and pEGFR(1068) were associated with the L858R mutation alone or with the 19 del and L858R mutation status. Further analysis indicated that the percentage of AXL(+)/EGFR(+)/pEGFR(1068) coexpression in 68 EGFR-activating mutations patients was significantly higher than that in 39 EGFR wild-type patients (30.9% versus 10.3%, P=.015). Furthermore, in the subgroup of AXL(+) patients (35 mutation(+) and 23 wild-type patients), the coexpression rates of AXL(+)/pEGFR(1068+) and AXL(+)/EGFR(+)/pEGFR(1068+) in patients with EGFR mutations were significantly higher compared with those in wild-type patients (both P<.05). Our study emphasized that the AXL and EGFR receptor tyrosine kinases were coexpressed in a subgroup of treatment-naive lung adenocarcinomas with or without EGFR mutations. Anti-AXL therapeutics delivered up front in combination with an EGFR inhibitor might prevent or delay resistance in patients with AXL-positive, EGFR-mutant, or wild-type NSCLC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. EGFR(S) inhibitors in the treatment of gastro-intestinal cancers: what's new?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanwar, Shailender Singh; Nautiyal, Jyoti; Majumdar, Adhip P N

    2010-06-01

    In the past 10 to 15 years, a considerable progress has been made in the treatment of gastrointestinal (GI) related malignancies, as number of agents expanded from only one in 1995 to seven in 2006. Current review describes the recent role of targeted therapies, specifically EGFR inhibitors in the treatment of GI cancers. Importance of dietary agents in the treatment and prevention of GI cancers is also reviewed.

  11. Cellular Functions Regulated by Phosphorylation of EGFR on Tyr845

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken-ichi Sato

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Src gene product (Src and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR are prototypes of oncogene products and function primarily as a cytoplasmic non-receptor tyrosine kinase and a transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase, respectively. The identification of Src and EGFR, and the subsequent extensive investigations of these proteins have long provided cutting edge research in cancer and other molecular and cellular biological studies. In 1995, we reported that the human epidermoid carcinoma cells, A431, contain a small fraction of Src and EGFR in which these two kinase were in physical association with each other, and that Src phosphorylates EGFR on tyrosine 845 (Y845 in the Src-EGFR complex. Y845 of EGFR is located in the activation segment of the kinase domain, where many protein kinases contain kinase-activating autophosphorylation sites (e.g., cAMP-dependent protein kinase, Src family kinases, transmembrane receptor type tyrosine kinases or trans-phosphorylation sites (e.g., cyclin-dependent protein kinase, mitogen-activated protein kinase, Akt protein kinase. A number of studies have demonstrated that Y845 phosphorylation serves an important role in cancer as well as normal cells. Here we compile the experimental facts involving Src phosphorylation of EGFR on Y845, by which cell proliferation, cell cycle control, mitochondrial regulation of cell metabolism, gamete activation and other cellular functions are regulated. We also discuss the physiological relevance, as well as structural insights of the Y845 phosphorylation.

  12. Interaction between EGFR and EphA2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Alice Bjerregaard

    2010-01-01

    Enhanced or altered epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activity has been reported in many human cancers and several molecular targeting therapies has been developed. However, despite intense research, therapies targeting EGFR have shown conflicting results in clinical studies, indicating...... phosphorylation and activation of downstream signaling pathways. Importantly, EphA2 downregulation inhibits EGF-induced cancer cell migration and viability. The EGFR regulated EphA2 expression and functional cross-talk between the two receptor–ligand systems could be very important when targeting either receptor...

  13. A high expression EGFR/cell membrane chromatography and online high performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry method for screening EGFR antagonists from Rhizoma Polygoni Cuspidati

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Sun

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs in some tumor cells are significant targets for drug discovery. In this work, we have developed an EGFR cell membrane chromatography and online high performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry system for screening active component from Rhizoma Polygoni Cuspidati. As a result, resveratrol from Rhizoma Polygoni Cuspidati was found to be the active component acting on EGFR like gefitinib. There was a good relationship between their inhibiting effects on EGFR secretion and HEK293 EGFR cell growth in vitro. The EGFR/CMC-online-HPLC/MS system demonstrated fast and effective characteristics for screening leading compounds from traditional Chinese medicine.

  14. Response to the Dorsal Anterior Gradient of EGFR Signaling in Drosophila Oogenesis Is Prepatterned by Earlier Posterior EGFR Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Fregoso Lomas

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Spatially restricted epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR activity plays a central role in patterning the follicular epithelium of the Drosophila ovary. In midoogenesis, localized EGFR activation is achieved by the graded dorsal anterior localization of its ligand, Gurken. Graded EGFR activity determines multiple dorsal anterior fates along the dorsal-ventral axis but cannot explain the sharp posterior limit of this domain. Here, we show that posterior follicle cells express the T-box transcription factors Midline and H15, which render cells unable to adopt a dorsal anterior fate in response to EGFR activation. The posterior expression of Midline and H15 is itself induced in early oogenesis by posteriorly localized EGFR signaling, defining a feedback loop in which early induction of Mid and H15 confers a molecular memory that fundamentally alters the outcome of later EGFR signaling. Spatial regulation of the EGFR pathway thus occurs both through localization of the ligand and through localized regulation of the cellular response.

  15. Frequency of EGFR mutations in lung adenocarcinoma with malignant pleural effusion: Implication of cancer biological behaviour regulated by EGFR mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, JianYong; Bella, Amos Ela; Chen, ZhenGuang; Han, XiangQian; Su, ChunHua; Lei, YiYan; Luo, HongHe

    2014-10-01

    A retrospective single-centre study to compare the clinical features of patients with lung adenocarcinoma with and without epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations. Pretreatment medical records of patients with lung adenocarcinoma were reviewed. DNA was extracted from paraffin wax-embedded tumour tissue for analysis of EGFR mutations. Malignant pleural effusion (MPE) was diagnosed by cytopathological testing of pleural fluid. EGFR mutations (19-Del and L858R) were recorded in 81/283 patients (28.6%). MPE was found in 42/283 patients (14.8%). In patients with stage IV disease, the frequency of EGFR mutations was higher in those with MPE than in those without MPE. EGFR mutations were independently associated with female sex, no history of smoking and presence of MPE. There was a positive association between EGFR mutation and the presence of MPE. EGFR mutations may play an important role in the formation of MPE. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  16. Identifying EGFR-Expressed Cells and Detecting EGFR Multi-Mutations at Single-Cell Level by Microfluidic Chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ren; Zhou, Mingxing; Li, Jine; Wang, Zihua; Zhang, Weikai; Yue, Chunyan; Ma, Yan; Peng, Hailin; Wei, Zewen; Hu, Zhiyuan

    2018-03-01

    EGFR mutations companion diagnostics have been proved to be crucial for the efficacy of tyrosine kinase inhibitor targeted cancer therapies. To uncover multiple mutations occurred in minority of EGFR-mutated cells, which may be covered by the noises from majority of un-mutated cells, is currently becoming an urgent clinical requirement. Here we present the validation of a microfluidic-chip-based method for detecting EGFR multi-mutations at single-cell level. By trapping and immunofluorescently imaging single cells in specifically designed silicon microwells, the EGFR-expressed cells were easily identified. By in situ lysing single cells, the cell lysates of EGFR-expressed cells were retrieved without cross-contamination. Benefited from excluding the noise from cells without EGFR expression, the simple and cost-effective Sanger's sequencing, but not the expensive deep sequencing of the whole cell population, was used to discover multi-mutations. We verified the new method with precisely discovering three most important EGFR drug-related mutations from a sample in which EGFR-mutated cells only account for a small percentage of whole cell population. The microfluidic chip is capable of discovering not only the existence of specific EGFR multi-mutations, but also other valuable single-cell-level information: on which specific cells the mutations occurred, or whether different mutations coexist on the same cells. This microfluidic chip constitutes a promising method to promote simple and cost-effective Sanger's sequencing to be a routine test before performing targeted cancer therapy.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  17. EGFR gene copy number predicts response to anti-EGFR treatment in RAS wild type and RAS/BRAF/PIK3CA wild type metastatic colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ålgars, Annika; Sundström, Jari; Lintunen, Minnamaija; Jokilehto, Terhi; Kytölä, Soili; Kaare, Milja; Vainionpää, Reetta; Orpana, Arto; Österlund, Pia; Ristimäki, Ari; Carpen, Olli; Ristamäki, Raija

    2017-02-15

    Anti-EGFR antibodies are used for the treatment of RAS wild type metastatic colorectal cancer. We previously showed that EGFR gene copy number (GCN) predicts response to anti-EGFR therapy in KRAS exon 2 wild type metastatic colorectal cancer. The aim of our study was to analyse the predictive role of EGFR GCN in RAS/BRAF/PIK3CA wild type metastatic colorectal cancer. The material included 102 patients with KRAS exon 2 wild type metastatic colorectal cancer treated with anti-EGFR ± cytotoxic therapy. Next generation sequencing was used for KRAS, NRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA gene mutation analyses. EGFR GCN was analysed by EGFR immunohistochemistry guided automated silver in situ hybridisation. Increased EGFR GCN (≥4.0) predicted a better response and prolonged progression free survival in anti-EGFR treated RAS/BRAF/PIK3CA wild type patients (Log-rank test, p = 0.0004). In contrast, survival of RAS/BRAF/PIK3CA wild type, EGFR GCN below 4.0 patients did not differ from patients with mutant RAS, BRAF or PIK3CA. Our study indicates that EGFR GCN predicts anti-EGFR treatment efficacy in patients with RAS/BRAF/PIK3CA wt metastatic CRC. Tumours with EGFR GCN below 4.0 appear to be as refractory to anti-EGFR treatment as tumours with mutation in any of the RAS/RAF/PIK3CA pathway genes. © 2016 UICC.

  18. EGFR transactivation contributes to neuroinflammation in Streptococcus suis meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao-Pei; Fu, Ji-Yang; Yang, Rui-Cheng; Liu, Wen-Tong; Zhang, Tao; Yang, Bo; Miao, Ling; Dou, Bei-Bei; Tan, Chen; Chen, Huan-Chun; Wang, Xiang-Ru

    2016-10-19

    Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (SS2) is an important zoonotic bacterial pathogen in both humans and animals, which can cause high morbidity and mortality. Meningitis is one of the major clinical manifestations of SS2 infection. However, the specific process of SS2 meningitis and its molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been reported to initiate transduction of intracellular signals and regulate host inflammatory responses. Whether and how EGFR contributes to the development of S. suis meningitis are currently unknown. The tyrosine phosphorylation of cellular proteins, the transactivation of EGFR, as well as its dimerization, and the associated signal transduction pathways were investigated by immunoprecipitation and western blotting. Real-time quantitative PCR was used to investigate the transcriptional level of the ErbB family members, EGFR-related ligands, cytokines, and chemokines. The secretion of cytokines and chemokines in the serum and brain were detected by Q-Plex™ Chemiluminescent ELISA. We found an important role of EGFR in SS2 strain SC19-induced meningitis. SC19 increasingly adhered to human brain microvascular endothelial cells (hBMEC) and caused inflammatory lesions in the brain tissues, with significant induction and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in the serum and brains. SC19 infection of hBMEC induced tyrosine phosphorylation of cellular EGFR in a ligand-dependent manner involving the EGF-like ligand HB-EGF, amphiregulin (AREG), and epiregulin (EREG) and led to heterodimerization of EGFR/ErbB3. The EGFR transactivation did not participate in SS2 strain SC19 adhesion of hBMEC, as well as in bacterial colonization in vivo. However, its transactivation contributed to the bacterial-induced neuroinflammation, via triggering the MAPK-ERK1/2 and NF-κB signaling pathways in hBMEC that promote the production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. We investigated for the first time

  19. Reversing EGFR Mediated Immunoescape by Targeted Monoclonal Antibody Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Concha-Benavente; Ferris, Robert L.

    2017-01-01

    Uncontrolled growth is a signature of carcinogenesis, in part mediated by overexpression or overstimulation of growth factor receptors. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mediates activation of multiple oncogenic signaling pathways and escape from recognition by the host immune system. We discuss how EGFR signaling downregulates tumor antigen presentation, upregulates suppressive checkpoint receptor ligand programmed death ligand (PD-L1), induces secretion of inhibitory molecules suc...

  20. Expression and clinical value of EGFR in human meningiomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus B. Arnli

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Meningiomas are common intracranial tumors in humans that frequently recur despite having a predominantly benign nature. Even though these tumors have been shown to commonly express EGFR/c-erbB1 (epidermal growth factor receptor, results from previous studies are uncertain regarding the expression of either intracellular or extracellular domains, cellular localization, activation state, relations to malignancy grade, and prognosis. Aims This study was designed to investigate the expression of the intracellular and extracellular domains of EGFR and of the activated receptor as well as its ligands EGF and TGFα in a large series of meningiomas with long follow-up data, and investigate if there exists an association between antibody expression and clinical and histological data. Methods A series of 186 meningiomas consecutively operated within a 10-year period was included. Tissue microarrays were constructed and immunohistochemically analyzed with antibodies targeting intracellular and extracellular domains of EGFR, phosphorylated receptor, and EGF and TGFα. Expression levels were recorded as a staining index (SI. Results Positive immunoreactivity was observed for all antibodies in most cases. There was in general high SIs for the intracellular domain of EGFR, phosphorylated EGFR, EGF, and TGFα but lower for the extracellular domain. Normal meninges were negative for all antibodies. Higher SIs for the phosphorylated EGFR were observed in grade II tumors compared with grade I (p = 0.018. Survival or recurrence was significantly decreased in the time to recurrence analysis (TTR with high SI-scores of the extracellular domain in a univariable survival analysis (HR 1.152, CI (1.036–1.280, p = 0.009. This was not significant in a multivariable analysis. Expression of the other antigens did not affect survival. Conclusion EGFR is overexpressed and in an activated state in human meningiomas. High levels of ligands also support this

  1. EGFR signaling in colorectal cancer: a clinical perspective

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    Saletti P

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Piercarlo Saletti,1 Francesca Molinari,2 Sara De Dosso,1 Milo Frattini2 1Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Bellinzona, 2Laboratory of Molecular Pathology, Institute of Pathology, Locarno, Switzerland Abstract: Colorectal cancer (CRC remains a formidable health burden worldwide, with up to 50% of patients developing metastases during the course of their disease. This group of CRC patients, characterized by the worst prognosis, has been extensively investigated to improve their life expectancy. Main efforts, focused on the epidermal growth-factor receptor (EGFR, which plays a pivotal role in CRC pathogenesis, have led to the development and introduction in clinical practice of specific targeted therapies (ie, monoclonal antibodies. Subsequently, the scientific community has tried to identify molecular predictors of the efficacy of such therapies. However, it has become clear that EGFR alterations occurring in CRC are difficult to investigate, and therefore their predictive role is unclear. In contrast, the clinical role of two downstream members (KRAS and NRAS has been clearly demonstrated. Currently, EGFR-targeted therapies can be administered only to patients with wild-type KRAS and NRAS genes. Our review addresses the medical management of metastatic CRC. Specifically, we describe in detail the molecular biology of metastatic CRC, focusing on the EGFR signaling pathway, and we discuss the role of current and emerging related biomarkers and therapies in this field. We also summarize the clinical evidence regarding anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies and examine potential future perspectives. Keywords: colorectal cancer, EGFR, gene mutations, cetuximab, panitumumab

  2. Prevalence of EGFR Mutations in Lung Cancer in Uruguayan Population

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    Nora Berois

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Incorporation of molecular analysis of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR gene into routine clinical practice represents a milestone for personalized therapy of the non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC. However, the genetic testing of EGFR mutations has not yet become a routine clinical practice in developing countries. In view of different prevalence of such mutations among different ethnicities and geographic regions, as well as the limited existing data from Latin America, our aim was to study the frequency of major types of activating mutations of the EGFR gene in NSCLC patients from Uruguay. Methods. We examined EGFR mutations in exons 18 through 21 in 289 NSCLC Uruguayan patients by PCR-direct sequencing. Results. EGFR mutations were detected in 53 of the 289 (18.3% patients, more frequently in women (23.4% than in men (14.5%. The distribution by exon was similar to that generally reported in the literature. Conclusions. This first epidemiological study of EGFR mutations in Uruguay reveals a wide spectrum of mutations and an overall prevalence of 18.3%. The background ethnic structure of the Uruguayan population could play an important role in explaining our findings.

  3. Identification of EGFR Mutations by Immunohistochemistry with EGFR Mutation-Specific Antibodies in Biopsy and Resection Specimens from Pulmonary Adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chi Hong; Kim, Seung Hoon; Park, Sonya Youngju; Yoo, Jinyoung; Kim, Sung Kyoung; Kim, Hoon Kyo

    2015-10-01

    Mutation-specific antibodies have recently been developed for identification of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations by immunohistochemistry (IHC). This study was designed to investigate whether the type of specimen (biopsy vs. resection) would make a difference in determining mutation status by IHC, and to evaluate whether biopsies are suitable for detection of mutant EGFR protein. IHC was performed using mutation-specific antibodies for E746-A750 deletion (DEL) and L858R point mutation (L858R) in biopsies and tissue microarrays of resected tumors from 154 patients with pulmonary adenocarcinoma. Results were then compared with DNA sequencing data. Molecular-based assays detected EGFR mutations in 62 patients (40.3%), including 14 (9.1%) with DEL, and 31 (20.1%) with L858R. IHC with two mutation-specific antibodies showed a homogeneous staining pattern, and correctly identified EGFR mutation status in 89% (137/154). Overall (biopsy/resection) sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 75.6% (78.3%/72.7%), 94.5% (90.9%/96.3%), 85% (78.3%/88.9%), and 90.4% (90.9%/89.7%), respectively. Our data showed that IHC using EGFR mutation-specific antibodies is useful for detection of EGFR mutations with high specificity and good sensitivity not only for resection specimens but also for biopsy materials. Therefore, IHC using EGFR mutation-specific antibodies may preclude a second biopsy procedure to obtain additional tissues for identification of EGFR mutations by molecular assays in biopsies from advanced cancer, particularly when tumor cells in the samples are limited.

  4. KIR Genes and their Ligands Predict the Response to Anti-2 EGFR Monoclonal Antibodies in Solid Tumors

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    Cristina Morales-Estevez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs regulate the killing function of NK cells, which play an important role in the antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC response exerted by therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs. However, it is unknown whether the extensive genetic variability of KIR genes and/or their HLA ligands might influence the response to these treatments. This study aimed to explore whether the variability in KIR/HLA genes may be associated to the variable response observed to mAbs-based anti-EGFR therapies. Thirty-nine patients treated with anti-EGFR mAbs (trastuzumab for advanced breast cancer, or cetuximab for advanced colorectal or advanced head and neck cancer, were included in the study. All the patients had progressed to mAbs therapy and were grouped into two categories taking into account time to treatment failure (TTF ≤6 months and TTF ≥10 months. KIR genotyping (16 genetic variability was performed in genomic DNA from peripheral blood by PCR sequence-specific primer technique and HLA ligand typing was performed for HLA-B & -C loci by reverse PCR-SSO methodology. Subjects carrying the KIR/HLA ligand combinations KIR2DS1/HLAC2C2-C1C2 and KIR3DS1/HLABw4w4-w4w6 showed longer TTF than non-carriers counterparts (14,76 m vs 3,73 m, p<0.001, and 14,93 m vs 4,6 m, p=0.005 respectively. No other significant differences were observed. Two activating KIR/HLA ligand combinations predict better response of patients to anti-EGFR therapy. These findings increase the overall knowledge on the role of specific gene variants related with responsivenessto anti-EGFR treatment in solid tumours and highlight the importance of assessing gene polymorphisms related with cancer medications.

  5. Convergent Akt activation drives acquired EGFR inhibitor resistance in lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Kirstine; Bertran-Alamillo, Jordi; Molina, Miguel Angel

    2017-01-01

    Non-small-cell lung cancer patients with activating epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations typically benefit from EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment. However, virtually all patients succumb to acquired EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance that occurs via diverse mechanisms....... The diversity and unpredictability of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance mechanisms presents a challenge for developing new treatments to overcome EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance. Here, we show that Akt activation is a convergent feature of acquired EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance...... phospho-Akt levels to therapeutically combat the heterogeneity of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance mechanisms.EGFR-mutant non-small cell lung cancer are often resistant to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment. In this study, the authors show that resistant tumors display high Akt activation...

  6. EGFR/ARF6 regulation of Hh signalling stimulates oncogenic Ras tumour overgrowth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabu, Chiswili; Li, Da-Ming; Xu, Tian

    2017-03-10

    Multiple signalling events interact in cancer cells. Oncogenic Ras cooperates with Egfr, which cannot be explained by the canonical signalling paradigm. In turn, Egfr cooperates with Hedgehog signalling. How oncogenic Ras elicits and integrates Egfr and Hedgehog signals to drive overgrowth remains unclear. Using a Drosophila tumour model, we show that Egfr cooperates with oncogenic Ras via Arf6, which functions as a novel regulator of Hh signalling. Oncogenic Ras induces the expression of Egfr ligands. Egfr then signals through Arf6, which regulates Hh transport to promote Hh signalling. Blocking any step of this signalling cascade inhibits Hh signalling and correspondingly suppresses the growth of both, fly and human cancer cells harbouring oncogenic Ras mutations. These findings highlight a non-canonical Egfr signalling mechanism, centered on Arf6 as a novel regulator of Hh signalling. This explains both, the puzzling requirement of Egfr in oncogenic Ras-mediated overgrowth and the cooperation between Egfr and Hedgehog.

  7. Mapping EGFR1 mutations in patients with lung adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlastos, Fotis; Zinszner, Julie; Hussenet, Thomas; du Manoir, Stanislas; Vordonis, Leonidas; Nikolakopoulou, Sofia; Hardavella, Georgia; Lacomme, Stéfanie; Vignaud, Jean Michel; Martinet, Nadine

    2010-12-01

    Unselected lung cancer patients seem unable to gain in terms of survival from treatment with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors. Screening for specific molecular targets involves detection of EGFR1 mutations. The aim of our study was to develop a simple set of tests to detect mutations at the tyrosine kinase domain of the EGFR1 gene while avoiding expensive DNA sequencing to select patients eligible for treatment. DNA samples from 85 adenocarcinoma patients were analyzed. The cohort consisted of 65 female (40 nonsmokers and 25 smokers) and 20 male patients [15 smokers and 5 diagnosed with bronchioloalveolar carcinomas (BAC)]. Different restriction enzymes were identified that recognize mutations at the EGFR1's tyrosine kinase domain. Biocomputing and polymerase chain reaction were used to develop molecular screening tools. Eight mutations were found in 7 patients, of which 5 were female nonsmokers (14.3%), 1 was a male nonsmoker, and 1 a male smoker. Among the mutations that were discovered, 5 (71%) were found at exon 19 and 3 (29%) at exon 20. At exon 19, 4 were deletions found in nonsmoker women, whereas the fifth was a deletion-insertion found in a nonsmoker male patient with BAC. At exon 20, 3 mutations were identified in 2 patients: a duplication (in a nonsmoker woman) and 2 substitutions (in a smoker male with BAC). No mutations were found at exons 18 and 21. Gene copy number was increased in 6 patients (4 female and 2 male) with the highest being found in a smoking female patient diagnosed with BAC. Mapping of EGFR1 mutations by alternative methods should be used in the screening of patients with non-small cell lung cancer who are candidates for EGFR inhibitor treatment. Patients with an increased EGFR1 copy number could benefit from the monoclonal antibody therapy.

  8. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR)-targeted Photoimmunotherapy (PIT) for the Treatment of EGFR-expressing Bladder Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Railkar, Reema; Krane, L Spencer; Li, Q Quentin; Sanford, Thomas; Siddiqui, Mohammad Rashid; Haines, Diana; Vourganti, Srinivas; Brancato, Sam J; Choyke, Peter L; Kobayashi, Hisataka; Agarwal, Piyush K

    2017-10-01

    The use of light as a means of therapy for bladder cancer has a long history but has been hampered by a lack of tumor specificity and therefore, damage to the normal bladder mucosa. Here, we describe a targeted form of phototherapy called photoimmunotherapy (PIT), which targets EGFR-expressing bladder cancer. Anti-EGFR antibody panitumumab was labeled with the photoabsorber (PA), IRDye 700Dx (IR700), to create a panitumumab-IR700 antibody-PA conjugate that is activated by near-infrared radiation (NIR). Bladder cancer tissue microarray (TMA) and bladder cancer cell lines were analyzed for expression of EGFR. Mechanism of PIT-induced cell death was studied using proliferation assays, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and production of reactive oxygen species. Finally, the in vivo effect was studied in xenografts. EGFR staining of TMAs showed that while most bladder cancers have expression of EGFR to a varying degree, squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) have the highest expression of EGFR. Panitumumab-IR700 activated by NIR light rapidly killed UMUC-5 cells, a bladder SCC line. Panitumumab alone, panitumumab-IR700 without NIR, or NIR alone had no effect on cells. TEM demonstrated that cell death is due to necrosis. Singlet oxygen species contributed toward cell death. NIR-PIT with panitumumab-IR700 reduced growth compared with only panitumumab-IR700-treated UMUC-5 xenograft tumors. PIT is a new targeted treatment for bladder cancer. Panitumumab-IR700-induced PIT selectively kills EGFR-expressing bladder cancer cells in vitro and in vivo and therefore warrants further therapeutic studies in orthotopic xenografts of bladder cancer and ultimately in patients. Mol Cancer Ther; 16(10); 2201-14. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  9. Differential effects of EGFR ligands on endocytic sorting of the receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roepstorff, Kirstine; Grandal, Michael Vibo; Henriksen, Lasse

    2009-01-01

    Endocytic downregulation is a pivotal mechanism turning off signalling from the EGF receptor (EGFR). It is well established that whereas EGF binding leads to lysosomal degradation of EGFR, transforming growth factor (TGF)-alpha causes receptor recycling. TGF-alpha therefore leads to continuous...... recycling. EGF leads to lysosomal degradation of the majority but not all EGFRs. Amphiregulin does not target EGFR for lysosomal degradation but causes fast as well as slow EGFR recycling. The Cbl ubiquitin ligases, especially c-Cbl, are responsible for EGFR ubiquitination after stimulation with all ligands...

  10. EGFR and HER2 signaling in breast cancer brain metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirkisoon, Sherona R.; Carpenter, Richard L.; Rimkus, Tadas; Miller, Lance; Metheny-Barlow, Linda; Lo, Hui-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer occurs in approximately 1 in 8 women and 1 in 37 women with breast cancer succumbed to the disease. Over the past decades, new diagnostic tools and treatments have substantially improved the prognosis of women with local diseases. However, women with metastatic disease still have a dismal prognosis without effective treatments. Among different molecular subtypes of breast cancer, the HER2-enriched and basal-like subtypes typically have higher rates of metastasis to the brain. Basal-like metastatic breast tumors frequently express EGFR. Consequently, HER2- and EGFR-targeted therapies are being used in the clinic and/or evaluated in clinical trials for treating breast cancer patients with brain metastases. In this review, we will first provide an overview of the HER2 and EGFR signaling pathways. The roles that EGFR and HER2 play in breast cancer metastasis to the brain will then be discussed. Finally, we will summarize the preclinical and clinical effects of EGFR- and HER2-targeted therapies on breast cancer metastasis. PMID:26709660

  11. Immunohistochemical expression of EGFR in oral leukoplakia: Association with clinicopathological features and cellular proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Daniela C.; Gleber-Netto, Frederico O.; Sousa, Sílvia F.; Bernardes, Vanessa F.; Guimarães-Abreu, Mauro H.N.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: to investigate the immunoexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in a sample of oral leukoplakias (OL) and to determine the receptor’s association with dysplasia, tobacco consumption, lesion site, and proliferation rate. Although EGFR should be overexpressed in some oral leukoplakias, the factors that may interfere with this expression and the influence of this receptor on epithelial proliferation have yet to be investigated. Study Design: Samples of oral leukoplakias (48) and of normal oral epithelium (10) were immunohistologically examined for expression of EGFR. Immunohistochemistry for Ki-67, and p27 were also performed in leukoplakias. EGFR expression was associated with clinical and pathological features. Results: EGFR was positive in 62.5% of the leukoplakias and 50% of normal oral epithelium. The number of EGFR positive OL located in high-risk sites was significantly higher than EGFR positive OL located in low-risk sites. Most of the p27 negative leukoplakias were EGFR positive, and the p27 index in the parabasal layer was diminished in the presence of dysplasia. Positivity for EGFR was not associated with dysplasia, tobacco exposure, or Ki-67. Conclusion: EGFR is expressed in leukoplakia regardless of dysplasia, but EGFR positivity should be more frequent in lesions sited in areas of high cancer risk. The association between EGFR and p27 may represent an important mechanism in the control of cellular proliferation and malignant progression of oral epithelium and therefore warrants further investigation. Key words:Oral leukoplakia, EGFR, p27, Ki-67, epithelial dysplasia. PMID:22322523

  12. Interaction between EGFR and EphA2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Alice Bjerregaard

    2010-01-01

    Enhanced or altered epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activity has been reported in many human cancers and several molecular targeting therapies has been developed. However, despite intense research, therapies targeting EGFR have shown conflicting results in clinical studies, indicating...... (RTK) EphA2. EphA2 belongs to the large Eph-receptor family, which has mainly been associated with neuronal development. More recently, expression of several Eph-receptors has been detected in many different cancer types. Elevated EphA2 expression has been reported in a broad range of human cancer...... phosphorylation and activation of downstream signaling pathways. Importantly, EphA2 downregulation inhibits EGF-induced cancer cell migration and viability. The EGFR regulated EphA2 expression and functional cross-talk between the two receptor–ligand systems could be very important when targeting either receptor...

  13. Computational design of binding proteins to EGFR domain II.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Sup Choi

    Full Text Available We developed a process to produce novel interactions between two previously unrelated proteins. This process selects protein scaffolds and designs protein interfaces that bind to a surface patch of interest on a target protein. Scaffolds with shapes complementary to the target surface patch were screened using an exhaustive computational search of the human proteome and optimized by directed evolution using phage display. This method was applied to successfully design scaffolds that bind to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR domain II, the interface of EGFR dimerization, with high reactivity toward the target surface patch of EGFR domain II. One potential application of these tailor-made protein interactions is the development of therapeutic agents against specific protein targets.

  14. Targeting EGFR in bilio-pancreatic and liver carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratto, Maria Elisabetta; Santini, Daniele; Vincenzi, Bruno; Silvestris, Nicola; Azzariti, Amalia; Tommasi, Stefania; Zoccoli, Alice; Galluzzo, Sara; Maiello, Evaristo; Colucci, Giuseppe; Tonini, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    The key role of epidermal growth factor receptor(EGFR) in tumorigenesis has been demonstrated in several cancer types, so recent clinical trials have investigated their activity/efficacy in different settings. Two different types of EGFR-targeted agents were developed: monoclonal antibodies such as cetuximab and panitumumab, and tyrosine kinase inhibitors, such as gefitinib and erlotinib. In this review, we summarize the preclinical rational of potential activity and the most important clinical trials evaluated anti-EGFR targeted agents in non-colorectal digestive cancer, both in monotherapy and in combination with other chemotherapeutic or targeted agents. Patient selection by use of biologic markers will identify which patients are more likely to respond, contributing to the successful use of these agents.

  15. Pooled analysis of clinical outcome for EGFR TKI-treated patients with EGFR mutation-positive NSCLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz-Ares, Luis; Soulières, Denis; Moecks, Joachim; Bara, Ilze; Mok, Tony; Klughammer, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) appear to gain particular benefit from treatment with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine-kinase inhibitors (TKI) if their disease tests positive for EGFR activating mutations. Recently, several large, controlled, phase III studies have been published in NSCLC patients with EGFR mutation-positive tumours. Given the increased patient dataset now available, a comprehensive literature search for EGFR TKIs or chemotherapy in EGFR mutation-positive NSCLC was undertaken to update the results of a previously published pooled analysis. Pooling eligible progression-free survival (PFS) data from 27 erlotinib studies (n = 731), 54 gefitinib studies (n = 1802) and 20 chemotherapy studies (n = 984) provided median PFS values for each treatment. The pooled median PFS was: 12.4 months (95% accuracy intervals [AI] 11.6–13.4) for erlotinib-treated patients; 9.4 months (95% AI 9.0–9.8) for gefitinib-treated patients; and 5.6 months (95% AI 5.3–6.0) for chemotherapy. Both erlotinib and gefitinib resulted in significantly longer PFS than chemotherapy (permutation testing; P = 0.000 and P = 0.000, respectively). Data on more recent TKIs (afatinib, dacomitinib and icotinib) were insufficient at this time-point to carry out a pooled PFS analysis on these compounds. The results of this updated pooled analysis suggest a substantial clear PFS benefit of treating patients with EGFR mutation-positive NSCLC with erlotinib or gefitinib compared with chemotherapy. PMID:25100284

  16. Modelling the correlation between EGFr expression and tumour cell radiosensitivity, and combined treatments of radiation and monoclonal antibody EGFr inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedicini Piernicola

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To estimate the effects of heterogeneity on tumour cell sensitivity to radiotherapy combined with radiosensitizing agents attributable to differences in expression levels of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFr. Materials and methods Differences in radiosensitivity are not limited to cells of different cancer histotypes but also occur within the same cancer, or appear during radiotherapy if radiosensitizing drugs are combined with ionizing radiation. A modified biologically effective dose (MBED, has been introduced to account for changes in radiosensitivity parameters (α and α/β rather than changes in dose/fraction or total dose as normally done with standard biologically effective dose (BED. The MBED approach was applied to cases of EGFr over-expression and cases where EGFr inhibitors were combined with radiation. Representative examples in clinical practice were considered. Results Assuming membrane EGFr over-expression corresponds to reduced radiosensitivity (αH = 0.15 Gy-1 and αH/βH = 7.5 Gy relative to normal radiosensitivity (α = 0.2 Gy-1 and α/β = 10 Gy, an increased dose per fraction of 2.42 Gy was obtained through the application of MBED, which is equivalent to the effect of a reference schedule with 30 fractions of 2 Gy. An equivalent hypo-fractionated regime with a dose per fraction of 2.80 Gy is obtained if 25 fractions are set. Dose fractionations modulated according to drug pharmacokinetics are estimated for combined treatments with biological drugs. Soft and strong modulated equivalent hypo-fractionations result from subtraction of 5 or 10 fractions, respectively. Conclusions During this computational study, a new radiobiological tool has been introduced. The MBED allows the required dose per fraction to be estimated when tumour radiosensitivity is reduced because EGFr is over-expressed. If radiotherapy treatment is combined with EGFr inhibitors, MBED suggests new treatment strategies

  17. EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors versus chemotherapy in EGFR wild-type pre-treated advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer in daily practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasini, Pascale; Brosseau, Solenn; Mazières, Julien; Merlio, Jean-Philippe; Beau-Faller, Michèle; Mosser, Jean; Wislez, Marie; Ouafik, L'Houcine; Besse, Benjamin; Rouquette, Isabelle; Debieuvre, Didier; Escande, Fabienne; Westeel, Virginie; Audigier-Valette, Clarisse; Missy, Pascale; Langlais, Alexandra; Morin, Frank; Moro-Sibilot, Denis; Zalcman, Gérard

    2017-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) are approved for second-line treatment of EGFR wild-type (EGFR-wt) nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, results from randomised trials performed to compare EGFR-TKIs with chemotherapy in this population did not show any survival benefit. In the era of immunotherapy, many drugs are approved for second-line treatment of EGFR-wt NSCLC and there is a need to reassess the role of EGFR-TKIs in this setting. The Biomarkers France study is a large nationwide cohort of NSCLC patients tested for EGFR mutations. We used this database to collect clinical, biological, treatment and outcome data on EGFR-wt patients who received second-line treatment with either EGFR-TKIs or chemotherapy. Among 1278 patients, 868 received chemotherapy and 410 received an EGFR-TKI. Median overall survival and progression-free survival were longer with chemotherapy than with an EGFR-TKI. Overall survival was 8.38 versus 4.99 months, respectively (hazard ratio 0.70, 95% CI 0.59–0.83; p<0.0001) and progression-free survival was 4.30 versus 2.83 months, respectively (hazard ratio 0.66, 95% CI 0.57–0.77; p<0.0001). This study is helpful to guide a multiline treatment strategy for EGFR-wt NSCLC patients. Immunotherapy is approved for second-line treatment. For third-line treatment, chemotherapy results in longer overall survival and progression-free survival, and should be preferred to EGFR-TKIs. PMID:28798090

  18. Polymorphic Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belo, João Filipe; Greenberg, Michael; Igarashi, Atsushi; Pierce, Benjamin C.

    Manifest contracts track precise properties by refining types with predicates - e.g., {x : Int |x > 0 } denotes the positive integers. Contracts and polymorphism make a natural combination: programmers can give strong contracts to abstract types, precisely stating pre- and post-conditions while hiding implementation details - for example, an abstract type of stacks might specify that the pop operation has input type {x :α Stack |not ( empty x )} . We formalize this combination by defining FH, a polymorphic calculus with manifest contracts, and establishing fundamental properties including type soundness and relational parametricity. Our development relies on a significant technical improvement over earlier presentations of contracts: instead of introducing a denotational model to break a problematic circularity between typing, subtyping, and evaluation, we develop the metatheory of contracts in a completely syntactic fashion, omitting subtyping from the core system and recovering it post facto as a derived property.

  19. A Targetable EGFR-Dependent Tumor-Initiating Program in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Savage

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Therapies targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR have variable and unpredictable responses in breast cancer. Screening triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC patient-derived xenografts (PDXs, we identify a subset responsive to EGFR inhibition by gefitinib, which displays heterogeneous expression of wild-type EGFR. Deep single-cell RNA sequencing of 3,500 cells from an exceptional responder identified subpopulations displaying distinct biological features, where elevated EGFR expression was significantly enriched in a mesenchymal/stem-like cellular cluster. Sorted EGFRhi subpopulations exhibited enhanced stem-like features, including ALDH activity, sphere-forming efficiency, and tumorigenic and metastatic potential. EGFRhi cells gave rise to EGFRhi and EGFRlo cells in primary and metastatic tumors, demonstrating an EGFR-dependent expansion and hierarchical state transition. Similar tumorigenic EGFRhi subpopulations were identified in independent PDXs, where heterogeneous EGFR expression correlated with gefitinib sensitivity. This provides new understanding for an EGFR-dependent hierarchy in TNBC and for patient stratification for therapeutic intervention. : Savage et al. demonstrate that sensitivity to EGFR inhibitor, gefitinib, in triple-negative breast cancer is paradoxically associated with EGFR heterogeneity. Using single-cell RNA sequencing in conjunction with functional assays, they identify TNBC tumors in which EGFR expression identifies cells with tumor-initiating capacity whose proliferative expansion is sensitive to EGFR inhibition. Keywords: breast cancer, tumor heterogeneity, patient-derived xenograft, single-cell RNA sequencing, EGFR inhibition, therapeutic response, tumor-initiating cell, cell hierarchy, BRCA1 mutation

  20. EGFR Signaling in the Brain Is Necessary for Olfactory Learning in "Drosophila" Larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahn, Tasja; Leippe, Matthias; Roeder, Thomas; Fedders, Henning

    2013-01-01

    Signaling via the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway has emerged as one of the key mechanisms in the development of the central nervous system in "Drosophila melanogaster." By contrast, little is known about the functions of EGFR signaling in the differentiated larval brain. Here, promoter-reporter lines of EGFR and its most prominent…

  1. Regulation of EGFR Protein Stability by the HECT-type Ubiquitin Ligase SMURF2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipankar Ray

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR is overexpressed in a variety of epithelial tumors and is considered to be an important therapeutic target. Although gene amplification is responsible for EGFR overexpression in certain human malignancies including lung and head and neck cancers, additional molecular mechanisms are likely. Here, we report a novel interaction of EGFR with an HECT-type ubiquitin ligase SMURF2, which can ubiquitinate, but stabilize EGFR by protecting it from c-Cbl-mediated degradation. Conversely, small interfering RNA (siRNA-mediated knockdown of SMURF2 destabilized EGFR, induced an autophagic response and reduced the clonogenic survival of EGFR-expressing cancer cell lines, with minimal effects on EGFR-negative cancer cells, normal fibroblasts, and normal epithelial cells. UMSCC74B head and neck squamous cancer cells, which form aggressive tumors in nudemice, significantly lost in vivo tumor-forming ability on siRNA-mediated SMURF2 knockdown. Gene expressionmicroarray data from 443 lung adenocarcinoma patients, and tissue microarray data from 67 such patients, showed a strong correlation of expression between EGFR and SMURF2 at the messenger RNA and protein levels, respectively. Our findings suggest that SMURF2-mediated protective ubiquitination of EGFR may be responsible for EGFR overexpression in certain tumors and support targeting SMURF2-EGFR interaction as a novel therapeutic approach in treating EGFR-addicted tumors.

  2. Potential roles of Centipede Scolopendra extracts as a strategy against EGFR-dependent cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Weina; Zhang, Dongdong; Zheng, Lei; Zhan, Yingzhuan; Zhang, Yanmin

    2015-01-01

    Centipede Scolopendra, a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine, has been shown to have anti-cancer effects. In this study, the inhibitory effect of alcohol extracts of Centipede Scolopendra (AECS) was more prominent when treating cells highly expressing epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) (A431 and HEK293/EGFR cells versus HEK293 cells). The elution profiles of AECS on cell membrane chromatography (CMC) column showed that AECS could bind to EGFR, and competition studies indicated that AECS and gefitinib may have direct competition at a single common binding site on EGFR. SiRNA knockdown of EGFR in A431 cells attenuated AECS effects, suggesting that EGFR was a target mediated by AECS. In a cell culture system, AECS dramatically induced apoptosis of A431 and HEK293/EGFR cells, which was associated with the effects on Bcl-2 family. Furthermore, AECS could alter EGFR kinase activity and reduce phosphorylation of EGFR and downstream signaling players AKT and Erk1/2. The mechanism of AECS to inhibit high-EGFR expression cell proliferation is due to its ability to induce apoptosis and modulate the EGFR pathway. This study might provide a novel therapy for cancer with high-EGFR expression.

  3. Construction of a high-EGFR expression cell line and its biological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Targeted screening of EGFR compounds has become one of the medical research focuses for tumor therapy. A431, which naturally expresses high levels of EGFR, was compared with the stably high expressing EGFR cell line HEK293. Flow cytometry was used to analyze cell growth and Western blot was used to ...

  4. Construction of a high-EGFR expression cell line and its biological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-07-26

    EGFR ... γ)/protein kinase C (PKC), and the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) .... HEK293 cells. Figure 5. p-EGFR and p-ERK protein expression in HEK293-EGFR and A431 cell lines. expression in the ...

  5. Reversing EGFR Mediated Immunoescape by Targeted Monoclonal Antibody Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Concha-Benavente

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Uncontrolled growth is a signature of carcinogenesis, in part mediated by overexpression or overstimulation of growth factor receptors. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR mediates activation of multiple oncogenic signaling pathways and escape from recognition by the host immune system. We discuss how EGFR signaling downregulates tumor antigen presentation, upregulates suppressive checkpoint receptor ligand programmed death ligand (PD-L1, induces secretion of inhibitory molecules such as transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ and reprograms the metabolic pathways in cancer cells to upregulate aerobic glycolysis and lactate secretion that ultimately lead to impaired cellular immunity mediated by natural killer (NK cell and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL. Ultimately, our understanding of EGFR-mediated escape mechanisms has led us to design EGFR-specific monoclonal antibody therapies that not only inhibit tumor cell metabolic changes and intrinsic oncogenic signaling but also activates immune cells that mediate tumor clearance. Importantly, targeted immunotherapy may also benefit from combination with antibodies that target other immunosuppressive pathways such PD-L1 or TGFβ and ultimately enhance clinical efficacy.

  6. Decreased EGFR mRNA expression in response to antipsoriatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-20

    Jul 20, 2009 ... tors (Hashimoto, 2000). Of these mediators, the most crucial mechanism for the proliferation of keratinocytes is the signal from the EGFR. The EGF family consists of. EGF, TGF-α, heparin binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-. EGF), amphiregulin, epiregulin, betacellulin, epigen, neu- regulin (NRG)-1, NRG-2, ...

  7. UV light blocks EGFR signalling in human cancer cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, BB; Neves-Petersen, M T; Klitgaard, S

    2007-01-01

    overexpress the EGF receptor, leads to arrest of the EGFR signaling pathway. The phosphorylation status of the receptor and the level of phosphorylated downstream signaling molecules i.e. AKT and the mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) ERK1 and 2 is detected by Western blotting using phosphospecific...

  8. Gene copy number variation and protein overexpression of EGFR and HER2 in distal extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Min Jung; Woo, Chang Gok; Lee, Saetbyeol; Chin, Susie; Kim, Hee Kyung; Kwak, Jeong Ja; Koh, Eun Suk; Lee, Bora; Jang, Kee-Taek; Moon, Ahrim

    2017-10-01

    EGFR and HER2 are among the most promising therapeutic targets in solid cancers. The expression status of EGFR and HER2 are associated with the prognosis, and with a number of clinicopathological factors, in many cancers. However, few studies have examined this association in distal extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (EHCC). Therefore, we investigated EGFR and HER2 protein expression and gene copy number variation (CNV) in distal EHCC. We also studied the association of these factors with clinicopathological parameters and prognosis. Immunostaining, using antibodies against EGFR and HER2, was performed on 84 cases of distal EHCC. All positive (3+) and equivocal (2+) EGFR and HER2 expression cases, together with randomly selected negative (1+ and 0) cases, were evaluated for EGFR and HER2 CNV. Among distal EHCC samples, 6.0% (n=5) were positive (3+) for EGFR expression and 6.0% (n=5) were equivocal (2+). HER2 expression was positively identified in 2.4% of samples (n=2), and was equivocal in 1.2% of samples (n=1). All cases of positive EGFR expression showed amplification (n=1) or high polysomy (n=4) involving the EGFR gene; three cases (60%) of equivocal EGFR expression showed high polysomy of the EGFR gene. All cases of positive or equivocal HER2 expression (n=3, 3.6%) showed amplification of the HER2 gene. In univariate analysis, EGFR expression and CNV were associated with shorter cancer-specific overall survival (p=0.003 and p=0.018, respectively). Multivariate analysis also showed that EGFR CNV was a significant prognostic factor in distal EHCC (p=0.015). Although further study is warranted, our findings suggest that EGFR expression and CNV are factors associated with poor prognosis, and that anticancer therapeutics against EGFR and HER2 receptors may be promising therapeutic options for patients with distal EHCC. Copyright © 2017 Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of different ligands on epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) nuclear translocation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria, Jerusa A.Q.A.; Andrade, Carolina de; Goes, Alfredo M. [Department of Biochemistry and Immunology, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antonio Carlos, 6627, Belo Horizonte, MG, 31270-901 (Brazil); Rodrigues, Michele A. [Department of Biochemistry and Immunology, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antonio Carlos, 6627, Belo Horizonte, MG, 31270-901 (Brazil); Department of General Pathology, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antonio Carlos, 6627, Belo Horizonte, MG, 31270-901 (Brazil); Gomes, Dawidson A., E-mail: dawidson@ufmg.br [Department of Biochemistry and Immunology, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antonio Carlos, 6627, Belo Horizonte, MG, 31270-901 (Brazil)

    2016-09-09

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is activated through binding to specific ligands and generates signals for proliferation, differentiation, migration, and cell survival. Recent data show the role of nuclear EGFR in tumors. Although many EGFR ligands are upregulated in cancers, little is known about their effects on EGFR nuclear translocation. We have compared the effects of six EGFR ligands (EGF, HB-EGF, TGF-α, β-Cellulin, amphiregulin, and epiregulin) on nuclear translocation of EGFR, receptor phosphorylation, migration, and proliferation. Cell fractionation and confocal immunofluorescence detected EGFR in the nucleus after EGF, HB-EGF, TGF-α and β-Cellulin stimulation in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, amphiregulin and epiregulin did not generate nuclear translocation of EGFR. EGF, HB-EGF, TGF-α and β-Cellulin showed correlations between a higher rate of wound closure and increased phosphorylation of residues in the carboxy-terminus of EGFR, compared to amphiregulin and epiregulin. The data indicate that EGFR is translocated to the nucleus after stimulation with EGF, HB-EGF, TGF-α and β-Cellulin, and that these ligands are related to increased phosphorylation of EGFR tyrosine residues, inducing migration of SkHep-1 cells. - Highlights: • EGF, HB-EGF, TGF-α, β-Cellulin are involved in the EGFR nuclear translocation. • Amphiregulin and epiregulin did not promote nuclear translocation of EGFR. • EGF, HB-EGF, TGF-α and β-Cellulin have a role in SkHep-1 cells migration. • EGFR ligands associated with better prognosis don't stimulate EGFR translocation.

  10. [Lung adenocarcinoma with concomitant EGFR mutation and ALK rearrangement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliez, J; Monnet, I; Pujals, A; Rousseau-Bussac, G; Jabot, L; Boudjemaa, A; Leroy, K; Chouaid, C

    2017-05-01

    Among patients with non-small-cell lung cancer, coexistence of EGFR mutation and ALK rearrangement is rare. We describe the clinical features of two patients with this double anomaly. A 62-year-old Caucasian non-smoking woman was diagnosed with cT4N0M0 lung adenocarcinoma. Initial biopsy showed EGFR mutation and ALK rearrangement. She received cisplatin-gemcitabine, followed by 17 months of gemcitabine. Owing to progression, she received erlotinib for 14 months, then paclitaxel for 6 months and finally crizotinib. A partial response was achieved and maintained for 24 months. A 45-year-old Caucasian woman, light smoker, was diagnosed with cT2N3M0 lung adenocarcinoma. Only EGFR mutation was found on initial analysis. She underwent treatment with cisplatin-gemcitabine and thoracic radiotherapy. Progression occurred after 8 months and afatinbib was started. Eight months later, progression was observed with a neoplasic pleural effusion in which tumor cells expressing ALK rearrangement were found. A new FISH analysis was performed on the initial tumor but did not find this rearrangement. Despite a third line of crizotinib, the patient died one month later. The literature shows 45 other cases of these two abnormalities, observed either from the start or during follow-up. EGFR's TKI were almost always given before ALK's TKI. Therapeutic strategy needs to be clarified in cases of double alteration. With regard to the second patient, appearance of ALK rearrangement may constitute a resistance mechanism to EGFR's TKI. Copyright © 2016 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. EGFR FISH analysis in colorectal cancer as a tool in selecting patients for antiEGFR monoclonal antibodies therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Moroni

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The recent introduction of targeted therapies in the treatment of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC not only improved efficacy but also toxicity and costs of the therapy, therefore requiring the identification of decision-making tools to select patients who are likely to benefit from them. By now, several studies have demonstrated an association between epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR non-increased gene copy number, evaluated by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH, and resistance to the treatment with antiEGFR monoclonal antibodies (moAbs in patients with mCRC. However, the reproducibility of data by standardization of methods still remains an obstacle to be faced for clinical application of the test. We present a review of studies pertaining EGFR FISH analysis as a predictive test of clinical outcome to the treatment with antiEGFR moAbs in mCRC to point out the existing knowledge and the open questions about this issue.

  12. Mechanistic insights into EGFR membrane clustering revealed by super-resolution imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jing; Wang, Ye; Cai, Mingjun; Pan, Yangang; Xu, Haijiao; Jiang, Junguang; Ji, Hongbin; Wang, Hongda

    2015-01-01

    The clustering of membrane receptors such as EGFR is critical for various biological processes, for example cell signaling and tumorigenesis. However, the mechanism involved remains poorly understood. Here, we used a super resolution imaging technique, which has shattered the longstanding resolution barrier of light diffraction, to investigate the distribution of membrane EGFR on apical or basal surfaces of COS-7 cells and on the surface of suspended COS-7 cells. Our data show that more and larger EGFR clusters are detected on the apical surface in comparison with those on the basal surface and this difference is not affected by the EGFR activation state, whereas suspended COS-7 cells exhibit a moderate clustering state and a homogeneous distribution pattern, indicating that the external environment surrounding the cell membrane is the decisive factor in the EGFR clustering pattern. A dual-color dSTORM image reveals the significant colocalization of EGFR and lipid rafts; interestingly MβCD treatment leads to a dramatic decrease of the amount and size of EGFR clusters on both apical and basal surfaces, highlighting a key role of lipid rafts in EGFR cluster formation. Altogether, our results illustrate the distribution pattern of EGFR in polarized cells and uncover the essential role of lipid rafts in EGFR cluster maintenance.The clustering of membrane receptors such as EGFR is critical for various biological processes, for example cell signaling and tumorigenesis. However, the mechanism involved remains poorly understood. Here, we used a super resolution imaging technique, which has shattered the longstanding resolution barrier of light diffraction, to investigate the distribution of membrane EGFR on apical or basal surfaces of COS-7 cells and on the surface of suspended COS-7 cells. Our data show that more and larger EGFR clusters are detected on the apical surface in comparison with those on the basal surface and this difference is not affected by the EGFR

  13. A functional siRNA screen identifies genes modulating angiotensin II-mediated EGFR transactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Amee J; Purdue, Brooke W; Gould, Cathryn M; Thomas, Daniel W; Handoko, Yanny; Qian, Hongwei; Quaife-Ryan, Gregory A; Morgan, Kylie A; Simpson, Kaylene J; Thomas, Walter G; Hannan, Ross D

    2013-12-01

    The angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) transactivates the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) to mediate cellular growth, however, the molecular mechanisms involved have not yet been resolved. To address this, we performed a functional siRNA screen of the human kinome in human mammary epithelial cells that demonstrate a robust AT1R-EGFR transactivation. We identified a suite of genes encoding proteins that both positively and negatively regulate AT1R-EGFR transactivation. Many candidates are components of EGFR signalling networks, whereas others, including TRIO, BMX and CHKA, have not been previously linked to EGFR transactivation. Individual knockdown of TRIO, BMX or CHKA attenuated tyrosine phosphorylation of the EGFR by angiotensin II stimulation, but this did not occur following direct stimulation of the EGFR with EGF, indicating that these proteins function between the activated AT1R and the EGFR. Further investigation of TRIO and CHKA revealed that their activity is likely to be required for AT1R-EGFR transactivation. CHKA also mediated EGFR transactivation in response to another G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) ligand, thrombin, indicating a pervasive role for CHKA in GPCR-EGFR crosstalk. Our study reveals the power of unbiased, functional genomic screens to identify new signalling mediators important for tissue remodelling in cardiovascular disease and cancer.

  14. Comparison of uncommon EGFR exon 21 L858R compound mutations with single mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Liang; Song, Zhigang; Jiao, Shunchang

    2015-01-01

    Non-small-cell lung cancer with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation is sensitive to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). But little is known about the response to EGFR TKIs and the prognostic role of compound mutations. This study compared the uncommon EGFR exon 21 L858R compound mutations with single mutation to characterize EGFR compound mutations and investigated their response to EGFR TKI treatment. We retrospectively screened 799 non-small-cell lung cancer patients from August 1, 2009 to June 1, 2012 by EGFR mutation testing. EGFR mutations were detected in 443 patients, with 22 (4.97%) compound mutations. Subsequently, six patients with EGFR exon 21 L858R compound mutations and 18 paired patients with single L858R mutation were well characterized. Finally, we also analyzed the EGFR TKI treatment response and patients' outcomes of compound or single L858R mutations. There was no differential treatment effect on the disease control rate and objective response rate between the L858R compound mutations and single mutation groups. No significant difference in overall survival or progression-free survival of these two groups was found by log-rank test. In conclusion, we demonstrated that no significant difference was detected in the response to EGFR TKIs and patients' outcomes in the compound and single mutation groups.

  15. Bioinformatics-driven discovery of rational combination for overcoming EGFR-mutant lung cancer resistance to EGFR therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jihye; Vasu, Vihas T.; Mishra, Rangnath; Singleton, Katherine R.; Yoo, Minjae; Leach, Sonia M.; Farias-Hesson, Eveline; Mason, Robert J.; Kang, Jaewoo; Ramamoorthy, Preveen; Kern, Jeffrey A.; Heasley, Lynn E.; Finigan, James H.; Tan, Aik Choon

    2014-01-01

    Motivation: Non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) directed against the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) have been widely and successfully used in treating NSCLC patients with activating EGFR mutations. Unfortunately, the duration of response is short-lived, and all patients eventually relapse by acquiring resistance mechanisms. Result: We performed an integrative systems biology approach to determine essential kinases that drive EGFR-TKI resistance in cancer cell lines. We used a series of bioinformatics methods to analyze and integrate the functional genetics screen and RNA-seq data to identify a set of kinases that are critical in survival and proliferation in these TKI-resistant lines. By connecting the essential kinases to compounds using a novel kinase connectivity map (K-Map), we identified and validated bosutinib as an effective compound that could inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis in TKI-resistant lines. A rational combination of bosutinib and gefitinib showed additive and synergistic effects in cancer cell lines resistant to EGFR TKI alone. Conclusions: We have demonstrated a bioinformatics-driven discovery roadmap for drug repurposing and development in overcoming resistance in EGFR-mutant NSCLC, which could be generalized to other cancer types in the era of personalized medicine. Availability and implementation: K-Map can be accessible at: http://tanlab.ucdenver.edu/kMap. Contact: aikchoon.tan@ucdenver.edu or finiganj@njhealth.org Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:24812339

  16. Improved response by co-targeting EGFR/EGFRvIII and Src family kinases in human cancer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter; Villingshøj, Mette; Poulsen, Hans Skovgaard

    2009-01-01

    or normal levels of wild-type EGFR. Furthermore, cells with mutated EGFR responded to low doses of gefitinib with increased proliferation. AZD0530 was an effective inhibitor of proliferation and migration, irrespective of EGFR status. These results suggest that co-targeting EGFR and Src might be a valuable...

  17. ALK and ROS1 concurrent with EGFR mutation in patients with lung adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao Y

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Yanjiao Mao, Shixiu Wu Department of Radiotherapy Oncology, Hangzhou Cancer Hospital, Hangzhou, People’s Republic of China Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore the frequencies of ALK and ROS1 fusion genes in EGFR-mutant lung adenocarcinoma patients and examine the therapeutic efficacies of EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs.Materials and methods: A total of 421 EGFR-mutated patients taking EGFR-TKIs were examined for ALK and ROS1 fusion genes based on reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Progression-free survival (PFS and overall survival (OS were evaluated by the Kaplan–Meier method and compared by the log-rank test.Results: The mutations of ALK rearrangement (n=10 and ROS1 rearrangement (n=3 were detected. All the patients received EGFR-TKIs, and eight took subsequent ALK/ROS1 inhibitor. PFS was longer in single EGFR mutants (n=408 than in EGFR/ALK or EGFR/ROS1 counterparts (n=13; 10.7 vs 6.6 months, P=0.004. No difference in OS existed between single EGFR and EGFR/ALK or EGFR/ROS1 mutants (21.0 vs 23.0 months, P=0.196. The median PFS of eight patients treated with ALK/ROS1 inhibitor was 6.0 months.Conclusion: Concomitant ALK/ROS1 fusion genes occurred in 3.1% EGFR-mutated lung adenocarcinoma patients. Concomitant ALK/ROS1–EGFR mutations may influence the therapeutic efficacy of EGFR-TKIs. Keywords: epidermal growth factor receptor, ALK, ROS1, lung adenocarcinoma, efficacy 

  18. Tests for the replication of an association between Egfr and natural variation in Drosophila melanogaster wing morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dodgson James

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitative differences between individuals stem from a combination of genetic and environmental factors, with the heritable variation being shaped by evolutionary forces. Drosophila wing shape has emerged as an attractive system for genetic dissection of multi-dimensional traits. We utilize several experimental genetic methods to validation of the contribution of several polymorphisms in the Epidermal growth factor receptor (Egfr gene to wing shape and size, that were previously mapped in populations of Drosophila melanogaster from North Carolina (NC and California (CA. This re-evaluation utilized different genetic testcrosses to generate heterozygous individuals with a variety of genetic backgrounds as well as sampling of new alleles from Kenyan stocks. Results Only one variant, in the Egfr promoter, had replicable effects in all new experiments. However, expanded genotyping of the initial sample of inbred lines rendered the association non-significant in the CA population, while it persisted in the NC sample, suggesting population specific modification of the quantitative trait nucleotide QTN effect. Conclusion Dissection of quantitative trait variation to the nucleotide level can identify sites with replicable effects as small as one percent of the segregating genetic variation. However, the testcross approach to validate QTNs is both labor intensive and time-consuming, and is probably less useful than resampling of large independent sets of outbred individuals.

  19. Identification of potent EGFR inhibitors from TCM Database@Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun-Chieh Yang

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR has been associated with cancer. Targeted inhibition of the EGFR pathway has been shown to limit proliferation of cancerous cells. Hence, we employed Traditional Chinese Medicine Database (TCM Database@Taiwan (http://tcm.cmu.edu.tw to identify potential EGFR inhibitor. Multiple Linear Regression (MLR, Support Vector Machine (SVM, Comparative Molecular Field Analysis (CoMFA, and Comparative Molecular Similarities Indices Analysis (CoMSIA models were generated using a training set of EGFR ligands of known inhibitory activities. The top four TCM candidates based on DockScore were 2-O-caffeoyl tartaric acid, Emitine, Rosmaricine, and 2-O-feruloyl tartaric acid, and all had higher binding affinities than the control Iressa®. The TCM candidates had interactions with Asp855, Lys716, and Lys728, all which are residues of the protein kinase binding site. Validated MLR (r² = 0.7858 and SVM (r² = 0.8754 models predicted good bioactivity for the TCM candidates. In addition, the TCM candidates contoured well to the 3D-Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (3D-QSAR map derived from the CoMFA (q² = 0.721, r² = 0.986 and CoMSIA (q² = 0.662, r² = 0.988 models. The steric field, hydrophobic field, and H-bond of the 3D-QSAR map were well matched by each TCM candidate. Molecular docking indicated that all TCM candidates formed H-bonds within the EGFR protein kinase domain. Based on the different structures, H-bonds were formed at either Asp855 or Lys716/Lys728. The compounds remained stable throughout molecular dynamics (MD simulation. Based on the results of this study, 2-O-caffeoyl tartaric acid, Emitine, Rosmaricine, and 2-O-feruloyl tartaric acid are suggested to be potential EGFR inhibitors.

  20. IMPAIRED SHP2-MEDIATED ERK ACTIVATION CONTRIBUTES TO GEFITINIB SENSITIVITY OF LUNG CANCER CELLS WITH EGFR-ACTIVATING MUTATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Lazzara, Matthew J.; Lane, Keara; Chan, Richard; Jasper, Paul J; Yaffe, Michael B.; Sorger, Peter K.; Jacks, Tyler; Neel, Benjamin G.; Lauffenburger, Douglas A.

    2010-01-01

    Most non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) display elevated expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), but response to EGFR kinase inhibitors is predominantly limited to NSCLC harboring EGFR-activating mutations. These mutations are associated with increased activity of survival pathways including PI3K/AKT and STAT3/5. We report that EGFR-activating mutations also surprisingly lead to decreased ability to activate ERK compared to wild-type EGFR. In NSCLC cells and mouse embryonic fi...

  1. Genome-Wide Association of Copy Number Polymorphisms and Kidney Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Li

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs have identified more than 50 loci associated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, a measure of kidney function. However, significant SNPs account for a small proportion of eGFR variability. Other forms of genetic variation have not been comprehensively evaluated for association with eGFR. In this study, we assess whether changes in germline DNA copy number are associated with GFR estimated from serum creatinine, eGFRcrea. We used hidden Markov models (HMMs to identify copy number polymorphic regions (CNPs from high-throughput SNP arrays for 2,514 African (AA and 8,645 European ancestry (EA participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC study. Separately for the EA and AA cohorts, we used Bayesian Gaussian mixture models to estimate copy number at regions identified by the HMM or previously reported in the HapMap Project. We identified 312 and 464 autosomal CNPs among individuals of EA and AA, respectively. Multivariate models adjusted for SNP-derived covariates of population structure identified one CNP in the EA cohort near genome-wide statistical significance (Bonferroni-adjusted p = 0.067 located on chromosome 5 (876-880kb. Overall, our findings suggest a limited role of CNPs in explaining eGFR variability.

  2. Coexpression of EGFR and CXCR4 predicts poor prognosis in resected pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanwen Wu

    Full Text Available Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR is highly expressed in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC and is involved in tumorigenesis and development. However, EGFR expression alone has limited clinical and prognostic significance. Recently, the cross-talk between EGFR and G-protein-coupled chemokine receptor CXCR4 has become increasingly recognized.In the present study, immunohistochemical staining of EGFR and CXCR4 was performed on paraffin-embedded specimens from 131 patients with surgically resected PDAC. Subsequently, the associations between EGFR expression, CXCR4 expression, EGFR/CXCR4 coexpression and clinicopathologic factors were assessed, and survival analyses were performed.In total, 64 (48.9% patients expressed EGFR, 68 (51.9% expressed CXCR4, and 33 (25.2% coexpressed EGFR and CXCR4. No significant association between EGFR and CXCR4 expression was observed (P = 0.938. EGFR expression significantly correlated with tumor differentiation (P = 0.031, whereas CXCR4 expression significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis (P = 0.001. EGFR/CXCR4 coexpression was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis (P = 0.026, TNM stage (P = 0.048, and poor tumor differentiation (P = 0.004. By univariate survival analysis, both CXCR4 expression and EGFR/CXCR4 coexpression were significant prognostic factors for poor disease-free survival (DFS and overall survival (OS. Moreover, EGFR/CXCR4 coexpression significantly increased the hazard ratio for both recurrence and death compared with EGFR or CXCR4 protein expression alone. Multivariate survival analysis demonstrated that EGFR/CXCR4 coexpression was an independent prognostic factor for DFS (HR = 2.33, P<0.001 and OS (HR = 2.48, P = 0.001.In conclusion, our data indicate that although EGFR expression alone has limited clinical and prognostic significance, EGFR/CXCR4 coexpression identified a subset of PDAC patients with more aggressive tumor characteristics and a significantly worse

  3. MET signaling in keratinocytes activates EGFR and initiates squamous carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataisson, Christophe; Michalowski, Aleksandra M; Shibuya, Kelly; Ryscavage, Andrew; Klosterman, Mary; Wright, Lisa; Dubois, Wendy; Liu, Fan; Zhuang, Anne; Rodrigues, Kameron B; Hoover, Shelley; Dwyer, Jennifer; Simpson, Mark R; Merlino, Glenn; Yuspa, Stuart H

    2016-06-21

    The receptor tyrosine kinase MET is abundant in many human squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), but its functional significance in tumorigenesis is not clear. We found that the incidence of carcinogen-induced skin squamous tumors was substantially increased in transgenic MT-HGF (mouse metallothionein-hepatocyte growth factor) mice, which have increased abundance of the MET ligand HGF. Squamous tumors also erupted spontaneously on the skin of MT-HGF mice that were promoted by wounding or the application of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate, an activator of protein kinase C. Carcinogen-initiated tumors had Ras mutations, but spontaneous tumors did not. Cultured keratinocytes from MT-HGF mice and oncogenic RAS-transduced keratinocytes shared phenotypic and biochemical features of initiation that were dependent on autocrine activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) through increased synthesis and release of EGFR ligands, which was mediated by the kinase SRC, the pseudoproteases iRhom1 and iRhom2, and the metallopeptidase ADAM17. Pharmacological inhibition of EGFR caused the regression of MT-HGF squamous tumors that developed spontaneously in orthografts of MT-HGF keratinocytes combined with dermal fibroblasts and implanted onto syngeneic mice. The global gene expression profile in MET-transformed keratinocytes was highly concordant with that in RAS-transformed keratinocytes, and a core RAS/MET coexpression network was activated in precancerous and cancerous human skin lesions. Tissue arrays revealed that many human skin SCCs have abundant HGF at both the transcript and protein levels. Thus, through the activation of EGFR, MET activation parallels a RAS pathway to contribute to human and mouse cutaneous cancers. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  4. Lapatinib, a dual EGFR and HER2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor, downregulates thymidylate synthase by inhibiting the nuclear translocation of EGFR and HER2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwang-Phill Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI has been shown to exert a synergistic antitumor effect when combined with fluoropyrimidine. This synergy may be attributable to the downregulation of thymidylate synthase (TS, which is frequently overexpressed in fluoropyrimidine-resistant cancer cells. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the downregulation of TS has yet to be clearly elucidated. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we demonstrate that lapatinib, a dual TKI of EGFR and HER2 downregulates TS via inhibition of the nuclear translocation of EGFR and HER2. From our cDNA microarray experiments, we determined that a variety of nucleotide synthesis-related genes, including TS, were downregulated with lapatinib, and this was apparent in HER2-amplified cells. Targeted and pharmacologic inhibition assays confirmed that the dual inhibition of EGFR and HER2 is required for the more effective reduction of TS as compared to what was observed with gefitinib or trasutuzumab alone. Additionally, we determined that co-transfected EGFR and HER2 activate the TS gene promoter more profoundly than do either EGFR or HER2 alone. The translocation of EGFR and HER2 into the nucleus and the subsequent activation of the TS promoter were inhibited by lapatinib. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: These results demonstrate that lapatinib inhibits the nuclear translocation of EGFR and HER2 and downregulates TS, thus sensitizing cancer cells to fluoropyrimidine.

  5. Lapatinib, a Dual EGFR and HER2 Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor, Downregulates Thymidylate Synthase by Inhibiting the Nuclear Translocation of EGFR and HER2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hwang-Phill; Yoon, Young-Kwang; Kim, Jin-Won; Han, Sae-Won; Hur, Hyung-Seok; Park, Jinah; Lee, Ju-Hee; Oh, Do-Youn; Im, Seock-Ah; Bang, Yung-Jue; Kim, Tae-You

    2009-01-01

    Background Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) has been shown to exert a synergistic antitumor effect when combined with fluoropyrimidine. This synergy may be attributable to the downregulation of thymidylate synthase (TS), which is frequently overexpressed in fluoropyrimidine-resistant cancer cells. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the downregulation of TS has yet to be clearly elucidated. Methodology and Principal Findings In this study, we demonstrate that lapatinib, a dual TKI of EGFR and HER2 downregulates TS via inhibition of the nuclear translocation of EGFR and HER2. From our cDNA microarray experiments, we determined that a variety of nucleotide synthesis-related genes, including TS, were downregulated with lapatinib, and this was apparent in HER2-amplified cells. Targeted and pharmacologic inhibition assays confirmed that the dual inhibition of EGFR and HER2 is required for the more effective reduction of TS as compared to what was observed with gefitinib or trasutuzumab alone. Additionally, we determined that co-transfected EGFR and HER2 activate the TS gene promoter more profoundly than do either EGFR or HER2 alone. The translocation of EGFR and HER2 into the nucleus and the subsequent activation of the TS promoter were inhibited by lapatinib. Conclusions and Significance These results demonstrate that lapatinib inhibits the nuclear translocation of EGFR and HER2 and downregulates TS, thus sensitizing cancer cells to fluoropyrimidine. PMID:19529774

  6. EGFR and KRAS mutations in lung carcinomas in the Dutch population: increased EGFR mutation frequency in malignant pleural effusion of lung adenocarcinoma.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, A.J.A.; Kummer, J.A.; Hinrichs, J.W.; Herder, G.J.; Scheidel-Jacobse, K.C.; Jiwa, N.M.; Ruijter, T.E.G.; Nooijen, P.T.G.A.; Looijen-Salamon, M.G.; Ligtenberg, M.J.L.; Thunnissen, F.B.J.M.; Heideman, D.A.; Weger, R.A. de; Vink, A.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Frequencies of EGFR and KRAS mutations in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have predominantly been determined in East Asian and North American populations, showing large differences between these populations. The aim of the present study was to determine the frequency of EGFR and KRAS

  7. Research progress on criteria for discontinuation of EGFR inhibitor therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuang HQ

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Hong-qing Zhuang, Zhi-yong Yuan, Jun Wang, Ping Wang, Lu-jun Zhao, Bai-lin ZhangDepartment of Radiotherapy, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Tianjin Lung Cancer Center, Tianjin, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: The clinical success of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI as therapeutic agents has prompted great interest in their further development and clinical testing for a wide variety of malignancies. However, most studies have focused on the efficacy of TKI, and few studies have been done on the criteria for their discontinuation. The current standard for drug discontinuation is “until progression”, based on change in tumor size. However, tumor size is not related to the gene expression which determines the efficacy of TKI in the final analysis, and it is also difficult to make a thorough and correct prediction based on tumor size when the TKI is discontinued. Nevertheless, clinical evaluation of the criteria for TKI discontinuation is still in its early days. Some promising findings have started to emerge. With the improving knowledge of EGFR and its inhibitors, it is expected that the criteria for discontinuation of EGFR inhibitor therapy will become clearer.Keywords: epidermal growth factor receptor, drug discontinuation, acquired drug-resistance

  8. Cardiac GPCR-Mediated EGFR Transactivation: Impact and Therapeutic Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisanti, Laurel A; Guo, Shuchi; Tilley, Douglas G

    2017-07-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) remain primary therapeutic targets for numerous cardiovascular disorders, including heart failure (HF), because of their influence on cardiac remodeling in response to elevated neurohormone signaling. GPCR blockers have proven to be beneficial in the treatment of HF by reducing chronic G protein activation and cardiac remodeling, thereby extending the lifespan of patients with HF. Unfortunately, this effect does not persist indefinitely, thus next-generation therapeutics aim to selectively block harmful GPCR-mediated pathways while simultaneously promoting beneficial signaling. Transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been shown to be mediated by an expanding repertoire of GPCRs in the heart, and promotes cardiomyocyte survival, thus may offer a new avenue of HF therapeutics. However, GPCR-dependent EGFR transactivation has also been shown to regulate cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis by different GPCRs and through distinct molecular mechanisms. Here, we discuss the mechanisms and impact of GPCR-mediated EGFR transactivation in the heart, focusing on angiotensin II, urotensin II, and β-adrenergic receptor systems, and highlight areas of research that will help us to determine whether this pathway can be engaged as future therapeutic strategy.

  9. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations in lung cancer: preclinical and clinical data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorge, S.E.D.C.; Kobayashi, S.S.; Costa, D.B. [Harvard Medical School, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology/Oncology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-09-05

    Lung cancer leads cancer-related mortality worldwide. Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the most prevalent subtype of this recalcitrant cancer, is usually diagnosed at advanced stages, and available systemic therapies are mostly palliative. The probing of the NSCLC kinome has identified numerous nonoverlapping driver genomic events, including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene mutations. This review provides a synopsis of preclinical and clinical data on EGFR mutated NSCLC and EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Classic somatic EGFR kinase domain mutations (such as L858R and exon 19 deletions) make tumors addicted to their signaling cascades and generate a therapeutic window for the use of ATP-mimetic EGFR TKIs. The latter inhibit these kinases and their downstream effectors, and induce apoptosis in preclinical models. The aforementioned EGFR mutations are stout predictors of response and augmentation of progression-free survival when gefitinib, erlotinib, and afatinib are used for patients with advanced NSCLC. The benefits associated with these EGFR TKIs are limited by the mechanisms of tumor resistance, such as the gatekeeper EGFR-T790M mutation, and bypass activation of signaling cascades. Ongoing preclinical efforts for treating resistance have started to translate into patient care (including clinical trials of the covalent EGFR-T790M TKIs AZD9291 and CO-1686) and hold promise to further boost the median survival of patients with EGFR mutated NSCLC.

  10. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli dynamically regulates EGFR signaling in intestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roxas, Jennifer Lising; Ryan, Katheryn; Vedantam, Gayatri; Viswanathan, V K

    2014-08-01

    The diarrheagenic pathogen enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) dynamically modulates the survival of infected host intestinal epithelial cells. In the initial stages of infection, several prosurvival signaling events are activated in host cells. These include the phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and the consequent activation of the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/Akt pathway. While studying this pathway in infected epithelial cells, we observed EGFR depletion at later stages of infection, followed subsequently by a decrease in phospho-EGFR. EGFR loss was not dependent on receptor phosphorylation, or on canonical proteasome- and lysosome-dependent processes. Although a type III secretion mutant (ΔescN) stimulated EGFR phosphorylation, it failed to induce receptor degradation. To identify the specific EPEC effector molecule(s) that influenced EGFR stability, epithelial cells infected with isogenic mutant EPEC strains were examined. An EPEC ΔespF strain failed to induce EGFR degradation, whereas EPEC ΔespZ accentuated receptor loss in infected cells. Given the known and contrasting effects of EspF and EspZ on caspase activation, and the known role of proteases in cleaving EGFR, we explored the effect of caspase inhibitors on infection-dependent EGFR loss. The pan-caspase inhibitor Q-VD-OPh blocked EPEC-induced EGFR cleavage in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, our data suggest that EPEC EspF stimulates caspase-dependent EGFR cleavage and loss, whereas EspZ inhibits this process. Whereas EGFR phosphorylation contributes to the survival of host cells early in infection, EspF-driven caspase activation and consequent EGFR loss likely induce a precipitous increase in host cell death later in the infectious process. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 sensitizes EGFR/HER-2 positive breast cancer cells to trastuzumab through modulating phosphorylation of EGFR and HER-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yifen; Li, Rong; Zhang, Junyi; Wang, Gang; Liu, Bin; Huang, Xiaofang; Zhang, Tao; Luo, Rongcheng

    2015-01-01

    Trastuzumab resistance in HER-2 positive breast cancer cells is closely related to overexpression of both epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and human epidermal receptor (HER-2). SHP-1 has been demonstrated to downregulate tyrosine kinase activity including EGFR via its phosphatase function, but its effect on HER-2 activity is still unknown. Here, we examined the hypothesis that SHP-1 enhances the anticancer efficacy of trastuzumab in EGFR/HER-2 positive breast cancer cells through combining dual inhibition of EGFR and HER-2. Trastuzumab-resistant breast cancer SKBr-3 cells were generated by long-term in vitro culture of SKBr-3cells in the presence of trastuzumab. The SHP-1 was ectopically expressed by stable transfection. The activity and expression of EGFR, HER-2, and downstream signaling pathways were tested by Western blot. Cell viability was examined by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, and apoptosis was examined by flow cytometry. The binding between SHP-1 and EGFR/HER-2 was evaluated by immunoprecipitation assay and bimolecular fluorescence complementation. The effects of SHP-1 on tumorigenicity and trastuzumab sensitivity were confirmed via in vivo xenograft model. Trastuzumab-resistant SKBr-3 cells showed aberrant co-expression of EGFR and HER-2. Introduction of wild-type SHP-1 inhibited cell proliferation, clone formation, and promoted the apoptosis induced by trastuzumab. Meanwhile, SHP-1 overexpression reduced phosphorylation levels of EGFR and HER-2 both in parental and trastuzumab-resistant SKBr-3 cells. In vivo study showed an increased antitumor effect of trastuzumab in SHP-1 overexpressed xenografts. At last, we discovered that SHP-1 can make complexes with both EGFR and HER-2, and both phospho-EGFR and phosphor-HER-2 levels in wild-type SHP-1 immunoprecipitates were less than those in phosphatase-inactive SHP-1 (C453S) immunoprecipitates, indicating that EGFR and HER-2 are potential substrates of

  12. Presence of the minor EGFR T790M mutation is associated with drug-sensitive EGFR mutations in lung adenocarcinoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashida, Shinsuke; Soh, Junichi; Toyooka, Shinichi; Tanaka, Tomoaki; Furukawa, Masashi; Shien, Kazuhiko; Yamamoto, Hiromasa; Asano, Hiroaki; Tsukuda, Kazunori; Hagiwara, Koichi; Miyoshi, Shinichiro

    2014-07-01

    The T790M mutation in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene is known to be associated with the acquired resistance of lung adenocarcinoma patients to EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs). The minor T790M mutant allele is occasionally detected in EGFR-TKI-naive tumor samples, yet findings concerning the clinical impact of the minor T790M mutation vary among previous studies. In the present study, we assessed the clinical impact of the minor T790M mutation using a novel, highly sensitive assay combining high-resolution melting (HRM), mutant-enriched PCR and co-amplification at a lower denaturation temperature (COLD)-PCR. We determined the T790M mutational status in 146 surgically resected lung adenocarcinomas without a history of EGFR-TKI treatment using mutant-enriched COLD-HRM (MEC-HRM) and standard HRM assays. The sensitivities of the MEC-HRM and standard HRM assays for the detection of T790M-mutant alleles among wild-type alleles were 0.01 and 10%, respectively. Although the T790M mutation was not detected using a standard HRM assay, we identified 19 (13%) T790M mutations using the MEC-HRM assay and defined these 19 mutations as minor T790M mutations. The proportion of T790M alleles was mutation was significantly associated with the presence of EGFR exon 19 deletions or the L858R mutation (both of which are drug-sensitive EGFR mutations) (P=0.04). In conclusion, the minor EGFR T790M mutations were present in 13% of EGFR-TKI-naive surgically resected lung adenocarcinomas and were associated with drug-sensitive EGFR mutations.

  13. DDX3X induces primary EGFR-TKI resistance based on intratumor heterogeneity in lung cancer cells harboring EGFR-activating mutations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichiro Nozaki

    Full Text Available The specific mechanisms how lung cancer cells harboring epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR activating mutations can survive treatment with EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs until they eventually acquire treatment-resistance genetic mutations are unclear. The phenotypic diversity of cancer cells caused by genetic or epigenetic alterations (intratumor heterogeneity confers treatment failure and may foster tumor evolution through Darwinian selection. Recently, we found DDX3X as the protein that was preferentially expressed in murine melanoma with cancer stem cell (CSC-like phenotypes by proteome analysis. In this study, we transfected PC9, human lung cancer cells harboring EGFR exon19 deletion, with cDNA encoding DDX3X and found that DDX3X, an ATP-dependent RNA helicase, induced CSC-like phenotypes and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT accompanied with loss of sensitivity to EGFR-TKI. DDX3X expression was associated with upregulation of Sox2 and increase of cancer cells exhibiting CSC-like phenotypes, such as anchorage-independent proliferation, strong expression of CD44, and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH. The EMT with switching from E-cadherin to N-cadherin was also facilitated by DDX3X. Either ligand-independent or ligand-induced EGFR phosphorylation was inhibited in lung cancer cells that strongly expressed DDX3X. Lack of EGFR signal addiction resulted in resistance to EGFR-TKI. Moreover, we found a small nonadherent subpopulation that strongly expressed DDX3X accompanied by the same stem cell-like properties and the EMT in parental PC9 cells. The unique subpopulation lacked EGFR signaling and was highly resistant to EGFR-TKI. In conclusion, our data indicate that DDX3X may play a critical role for inducing phenotypic diversity, and that treatment targeting DDX3X may overcome primary resistance to EGFR-TKI resulting from intratumor heterogeneity.

  14. Association of an Osteopontin gene promoter polymorphism with susceptibility to diabetic nephropathy in Asian Indians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheema, Balneek Singh; Iyengar, Sreenivasa; Ahluwalia, Tarun Veer Singh

    2012-01-01

    Genetic predisposition has been proposed to be a major determinant in the development of renal complications of diabetes. Osteopontin (OPN) has been suggested to be associated with renal diseases characterized by tubulointerstitial fibrosis and proteinuria. However, information on association...... with proteinuria and lower eGFR, a hallmark of diabetic nephropathy, in both our cohorts. This is the first study which suggests that OPN C-443T polymorphism may be a significant risk factor for diabetic nephropathy in type 2 diabetic patients....

  15. Adaptive and Acquired Resistance to EGFR Inhibitors Converge on the MAPK Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Pengfei; Fu, Yujie; Chen, Minjiang; Jing, Ying; Wu, Jie; Li, Ke; Shen, Ying; Gao, Jian-Xin; Wang, Mengzhao; Zhao, Xiaojing; Zhuang, Guanglei

    2016-01-01

    Both adaptive and acquired resistance significantly limits the efficacy of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase inhibitors. However, the distinct or common mechanisms of adaptive and acquired resistance have not been fully characterized. Here, through systematic modeling of erlotinib resistance in lung cancer, we found that feedback reactivation of MAPK signaling following erlotinib treatment, which was dependent on the MET receptor, contributed to the adaptive resistance of EGFR inhibitors. Interestingly, acquired resistance to erlotinib was also associated with the MAPK pathway activation as a result of CRAF or NRAS amplification. Consequently, combined inhibition of EGFR and MAPK impeded the development of both adaptive and acquired resistance. These observations demonstrate that adaptive and acquired resistance to EGFR inhibitors can converge on the same pathway and credential cotargeting EGFR and MAPK as a promising therapeutic approach in EGFR mutant tumors.

  16. EGFR tyrosine kinases inhibitors in cancer treatment: in vitro and in vivo evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quatrale, Anna Elisa; Porcelli, Letizia; Silvestris, Nicola; Colucci, Giuseppe; Angelo, Angelo; Azzariti, Amalia

    2011-01-01

    The increasing understanding of the molecular mechanisms of neoplastic transformation and progression has prompted the search for novel drugs that could interfere with the intracellular targets involved in this process. EGFR is implicated in the development and progression of the majority of the common human epithelial cancer; therefore different agents have been developed to block EGFR activation in cancer cells. This review focuses on EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors in clinical practice that interfere with ATP binding, inhibiting tyrosine kinase activity and subsequently blocking signal transduction from EGFR. We report current knowledge on molecular mechanisms underlying the anticancer activity of EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors in preclinical models, with particular attention to EGFR downstream effectors responsible for treatment efficacy or resistance.

  17. Drug Resistance to EGFR Inhibitors in Lung Cancer | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The discovery of mutations in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has dramatically changed the treatment of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. EGFR-targeted therapies show considerable promise, but drug resistance has become a substantial issue. We reviewed the literature to provide an overview of the drug resistance to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in NSCLC. The mechanisms causing primary, acquired and persistent drug resistance to TKIs vary.

  18. A regional analysis of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutated lung cancer for HSE South.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, D; Mc Sorley, L; O'Shea, E; Mc Carthy, E; Bowe, S; Brady, C; Sui, J; Dawod, M A; O'Brien, O; Graham, D; McCarthy, J; Burke, L; Power, D; O'Reilly, S; Bambury, R M; Mahony, D O

    2017-11-01

    EGFR mutated lung cancer represents a subgroup with distinct clinical presentations, prognosis, and management requirements. We investigated the survival, prognostic factors, and real-world treatment of NSCLC patients with EGFR mutation in clinical practice. A retrospective review of all specimens sent for EGFR analysis from December 2009 to September 2015 was performed. Patient demographics, specimen type, EGFR mutation status/type, stage at diagnosis, treatment, response rate, and survival data were recorded. 27/334 (8%) patient specimens sent for EGFR testing tested positive for a sensitising EGFR mutation. The median age was 65 years (40-85 years). Exon 19 deletion represented the most commonly detected alteration, accounting for 39% (n = 11). First-line treatment for those with Exon 18, 19, or 21 alterations (n = 24) was with an EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) in 79% (n = 19). Objective response rate among these patients was 74% and median duration of response was 13 months (range 7-35 months). The incidence of EGFR mutation in our cohort of NSCLC is 9% which is consistent with mutation incidence reported in other countries. The rate of EGFR mutation in our population is slightly below that reported internationally, but treatment outcomes are consistent with published data. Real-world patient data have important contributions to make with regard to quality measurement, incorporating patient experience into guidelines and identifying safety signals.

  19. EGFR mutation testing using archival-stained smears in non-small cell lung carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozluk, Y; Firat, P; Yegen, G; Hocaoglu, J; Tas, S; Yilmazbayhan, D

    2017-02-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have shown benefits regarding progression-free and overall survival in patients whose tumours show EGFR mutations. Most patients' lung cancer is metastatic when detected. Small tissue samples and cytological materials are widely used in diagnosis. The aim of the present study was to compare the EGFR mutation analysis results between cytology, small biopsies and resections. Archival material for EGFR testing was reviewed. Cell blocks and/or stained smears and tissue blocks were used where appropriate. The tumour cell count and percentage were recorded as well as the DNA content. The influence of TTF-1 immunoreactivity on EGFR testing was also investigated. The study cohort included 300 unpaired specimens of 84 resections, 83 small biopsies and 133 cytological materials. EGFR mutation rates did not differ significantly for cytology, small biopsy and resections (P > 0.05). The higher tumour cell percentage in FNAs than in exfoliative cytology did not affect the EGFR mutation status. EGFR mutation rates were similar when either slides or cell blocks were used. Cytology slides revealed a higher tumour cell content and DNA concentration than the cell blocks. May-Grünwald-Giemsa (MGG)-stained smears had higher rates of the EGFR mutation than the Papanicolaou (Pap)-stained slides (P Cytological materials can be used successfully for mutation analysis in lung cancer. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Exosome production and its regulation of EGFR during wound healing in renal tubular cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiangjun; Zhang, Wei; Yao, Qisheng; Zhang, Hao; Dong, Guie; Zhang, Ming; Liu, Yutao; Chen, Jian-Kang; Dong, Zheng

    2017-06-01

    Kidney repair following injury involves the reconstitution of a structurally and functionally intact tubular epithelium. Growth factors and their receptors, such as EGFR, are important in the repair of renal tubules. Exosomes are cell-produced small (~100 nm in diameter) vesicles that contain and transfer proteins, lipids, RNAs, and DNAs between cells. In this study, we examined the relationship between exosome production and EGFR activation and the potential role of exosome in wound healing. EGFR activation occurred shortly after scratch wounding in renal tubular cells. Wound repair after scratching was significantly promoted by EGF and suppressed by EGFR inhibitor gefitinib. Interestingly, scratch wounding induced a significant increase of exosome production. The exosome production was decreased by EGF and increased by gefitinib, suggesting a suppressive role of EGFR signaling in exosome production. Conversely, inhibition of exosome release by GW4869 and manumycin A markedly increased EGFR activation and promoted wound healing. Moreover, exosomes derived from scratch-wounding cells could inhibit wound healing. Collectively, the results indicate that wound healing in renal tubular cells is associated with EGFR activation and exosome production. Although EGFR activation promotes wound healing, released exosomes may antagonize EGFR activation and wound healing. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Highly sensitive and quantitative evaluation of the EGFR T790M mutation by nanofluidic digital PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwama, Eiji; Takayama, Koichi; Harada, Taishi; Okamoto, Isamu; Ookubo, Fumihiko; Kishimoto, Junji; Baba, Eishi; Oda, Yoshinao; Nakanishi, Yoichi

    2015-08-21

    The mutation of T790M in EGFR is a major mechanism of resistance to treatment with EGFR-TKIs. Only qualitative detection (presence or absence) of T790M has been described to date, however. Digital PCR (dPCR) analysis has recently been applied to the quantitative detection of target molecules in cancer with high sensitivity. In the present study, 25 tumor samples (13 obtained before and 12 after EGFR-TKI treatment) from 18 NSCLC patients with activating EGFR mutations were evaluated for T790M with dPCR. The ratio of the number of T790M alleles to that of activating mutation alleles (T/A) was determined. dPCR detected T790M in all 25 samples. Although T790M was present in all pre-TKI samples from 13 patients, 10 of these patients had a low T/A ratio and manifested substantial tumor shrinkage during treatment with EGFR-TKIs. In six of seven patients for whom both pre- and post-TKI samples were available, the T/A ratio increased markedly during EGFR-TKI treatment. Highly sensitive dPCR thus detected T790M in all NSCLC patients harboring activating EGFR mutations whether or not they had received EGFR-TKI treatment. Not only highly sensitive but also quantitative detection of T790M is important for evaluation of the contribution of T790M to EGFR-TKI resistance.

  2. Protein Kinase G facilitates EGFR-mediated cell death in MDA-MB-468 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, Nicole M.; Ceresa, Brian P., E-mail: brian.ceresa@louisville.edu

    2016-08-15

    The Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) is a transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase with critical implications in cell proliferation, migration, wound healing and the regulation of apoptosis. However, the EGFR has been shown to be hyper-expressed in a number of human malignancies. The MDA-MB-468 metastatic breast cell line is one example of this. This particular cell line hyper-expresses the EGFR and undergoes EGFR-mediated apoptosis in response to EGF ligand. The goal of this study was to identify the kinases that could be potential intermediates for the EGFR-mediated induction of apoptosis intracellularly. After identifying Cyclic GMP-dependent Protein Kinase G (PKG) as a plausible intermediate, we wanted to determine the temporal relationship of these two proteins in the induction of apoptosis. We observed a dose-dependent decrease in MDA-MB-468 cell viability, which was co-incident with increased PKG activity as measured by VASPSer239 phosphorylation. In addition, we observed a dose dependent decrease in cell viability, as well as an increase in apoptosis, in response to two different PKG agonists, 8-Bromo-cGMP and 8-pCPT-cGMP. MDA-MB-468 cells with reduced PKG activity had attenuated EGFR-mediated apoptosis. These findings indicate that PKG does not induce cell death via transphosphorylation of the EGFR. Instead, PKG activity occurs following EGFR activation. Together, these data indicate PKG as an intermediary in EGFR-mediated cell death, likely via apoptotic pathway.

  3. Evolution of the EGFR pathway in Metazoa and its diversification in the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberán, Sara; Martín-Durán, José M; Cebrià, Francesc

    2016-06-21

    The EGFR pathway is an essential signaling system in animals, whose core components are the epidermal growth factors (EGF ligands) and their trans-membrane tyrosine kinase receptors (EGFRs). Despite extensive knowledge in classical model organisms, little is known of the composition and function of the EGFR pathway in most animal lineages. Here, we have performed an extensive search for the presence of EGFRs and EGF ligands in representative species of most major animal clades, with special focus on the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea. With the exception of placozoans and cnidarians, we found that the EGFR pathway is potentially present in all other analyzed animal groups, and has experienced frequent independent expansions. We further characterized the expression domains of the EGFR/EGF identified in S. mediterranea, revealing a wide variety of patterns and localization in almost all planarian tissues. Finally, functional experiments suggest an interaction between one of the previously described receptors, Smed-egfr-5, and the newly found ligand Smed-egf-6. Our findings provide the most comprehensive overview to date of the EGFR pathway, and indicate that the last common metazoan ancestor had an initial complement of one EGFR and one putative EGF ligand, which was often expanded or lost during animal evolution.

  4. Quantification and kinetic analysis of Grb2-EGFR interaction on micro-patterned surfaces for the characterization of EGFR-modulating substances.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Lanzerstorfer

    Full Text Available The identification of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR as an oncogene has led to the development of several anticancer therapeutics directed against this receptor tyrosine kinase. However, drug resistance and low efficacy remain a severe challenge, and have led to a demand for novel systems for an efficient identification and characterization of new substances. Here we report on a technique which combines micro-patterned surfaces and total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF microscopy (μ-patterning assay for the quantitative analysis of EGFR activity. It does not simply measure the phosphorylation of the receptor, but instead quantifies the interaction of the key signal transmitting protein Grb2 (growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 with the EGFR in a live cell context. It was possible to demonstrate an EGF dependent recruitment of Grb2 to the EGFR, which was significantly inhibited in the presence of clinically tested EGFR inhibitors, including small tyrosine kinase inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies targeting the EGF binding site. Importantly, in addition to its potential use as a screening tool, our experimental setup offers the possibility to provide insight into the molecular mechanisms of bait-prey interaction. Recruitment of the EGFR together with Grb2 to clathrin coated pits (CCPs was found to be a key feature in our assay. Application of bleaching experiments enabled calculation of the Grb2 exchange rate, which significantly changed upon stimulation or the presence of EGFR activity inhibiting drugs.

  5. Unexpected combined effects of NADH dehydrogenase subunit-2 237 Leu/Met polymorphism and green tea consumption on renal function in male Japanese health check-up examinees: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaze, Akatsuki; Ishikawa, Mamoru; Matsunaga, Naomi; Karita, Kanae; Yoshida, Masao; Ohtsu, Tadahiro; Ochiai, Hirotaka; Shirasawa, Takako; Nanri, Hinako; Hoshino, Hiromi; Takashima, Yutaka

    2013-11-20

    NADH dehydrogenase subunit-2 237 leucine/methionine (ND2-237 Leu/Met) polymorphism is associated with longevity in Japanese. A previous study has shown that ND2-237 Leu/Met polymorphism modulates the effects of green tea consumption on risk of hypertension. For men with ND2-237Leu, habitual green tea consumption may reduce the risk of hypertension. Moreover, there is a combined effect of ND2-237 Leu/Met polymorphism and alcohol consumption on risk of mildly decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (consumption on risk of mildly decreased eGFR in male Japanese health check-up examinees. For ND2-237Leu genotypic men, after adjustment for confounding factors, green tea consumption may increase the risk of mildly decreased eGFR (P for trend = 0.016). The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for mildly decreased eGFR was significantly higher in subjects with ND2-237Leu who consume ≥6 cups of green tea per day than those who consume ≤1 cup of green tea per day (adjusted OR = 5.647, 95% confidence interval: 1.528-20.88, P = 0.009). On the other hand, for ND2-237Met genotypic men, green tea consumption does not appear to determine the risk of mildly decreased eGFR. The present results suggest that ND2-237 Leu/Met polymorphism unexpectedly modifies the effects of green tea consumption on eGFR and the risk of mildly decreased eGFR in male Japanese subjects.

  6. Quantitative PET of EGFR expression in xenograft-bearing mice using {sup 64}Cu-labeled cetuximab, a chimeric anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Weibo; Chen, Kai; He, Lina; Cao, Qizhen; Chen, Xiaoyuan [Stanford University School of Medicine, The Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford (MIPS), Department of Radiology and Bio-X Program, Stanford, CA (United States); Koong, Albert [Stanford University School of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2007-06-15

    Cetuximab, a chimeric monoclonal antibody targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) on the surface of cancer cells, was approved by the FDA to treat patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. It is currently also in advanced-stage development for the treatment of several other solid tumors. Here we report for the first time the quantitative positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of EGFR expression in xenograft-bearing mice using {sup 64}Cu-labeled cetuximab. We conjugated cetuximab with macrocyclic chelating agent 1,4,7,10-tetraazadodecane-N,N',N'',N'''-tetraacetic acid (DOTA), labeled with {sup 64}Cu, and tested the resulting {sup 64}Cu-DOTA-cetuximab in seven xenograft tumor models. The tracer uptake measured by PET was correlated with the EGFR expression quantified by western blotting. The estimated human dosimetry based on the PET data in Sprague-Dawley rats was also calculated. MicroPET imaging showed that {sup 64}Cu-DOTA-cetuximab had increasing tumor activity accumulation over time in EGFR-positive tumors but relatively low uptake in EGFR-negative tumors at all times examined (<5%ID/g). There was a good correlation (R {sup 2} = 0.80) between the tracer uptake (measured by PET) and the EGFR expression level (measured by western blotting). Human dosimetry estimation indicated that the tracer may be safely administered to human patients for tumor diagnosis, with the dose-limiting organ being the liver. The success of EGFR-positive tumor imaging using {sup 64}Cu-DOTA-cetuximab can be translated into the clinic to characterize the pharmacokinetics, to select the right population of patients for EGFR-targeted therapy, to monitor the therapeutic efficacy of anti-EGFR treatment, and to optimize the dosage of either cetuximab alone or cetuximab in combination with other therapeutic agents. (orig.)

  7. EGFR gene copy number as a predictive biomarker for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer with anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zu-Yao

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidermal growth factor receptor gene copy number (EGFR GCN has been heavily investigated as a potential predictive biomarker for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC with anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies (MAbs. The objective of this study was to systematically review current evidences on this issue. Methods PubMed, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, Wanfang Data, and the conference abstracts of American Society of Clinical Oncology and European Society of Medical Oncology were comprehensively searched. Studies that reported the objective response rate (ORR, progression-free survival, and/or overall survival of mCRC patients treated with anti-EGFR MAbs, stratified by EGFR GCN status, were included. The effect measures for binary outcome (response and time-to-event outcomes (progression-free survival and overall survival were risk difference and hazard ratio, respectively. Statistical heterogeneity among the studies was assessed by the Cochran’s Q-test and the I2 statistic. If appropriate, a quantitative synthesis of data from different studies would be conducted with a random-effects model. Results Nineteen eligible studies were identified. The criteria for increased EGFR GCN (GCN+ were highly inconsistent across different studies. The prevalence of GCN + ranged from 6.9% to 88.9%, and the difference in ORR between patients with GCN + and those with non-increased EGFR GCN (GCN- varied from −28% to 84%. Because of the significant heterogeneity, no quantitative synthesis of data was performed. There was a general trend towards higher ORR in patients with GCN+. The difference in ORRs between patients with GCN + and those with GCN- was even greater in KRAS wild-type patients, while in KRAS mutated patients the difference often did not exist. Almost all patients with EGFR amplification responded to the treatment. However, the prevalence of EGFR amplification was

  8. The role of primary tumour sidedness, EGFR gene copy number and EGFR promoter methylation in RAS/BRAF wild-type colorectal cancer patients receiving irinotecan/cetuximab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demurtas, Laura; Puzzoni, Marco; Giampieri, Riccardo; Ziranu, Pina; Pusceddu, Valeria; Mandolesi, Alessandra; Cremolini, Chiara; Masi, Gianluca; Gelsomino, Fabio; Antoniotti, Carlotta; Loretelli, Cristian; Meriggi, Fausto; Zaniboni, Alberto; Falcone, Alfredo; Cascinu, Stefano; Scartozzi, Mario

    2017-07-25

    The data from randomised trials suggested that primary tumour sidedness could represent a prognostic and predictive factor in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients, particularly during treatment with anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) therapy. However, an in-deep molecular selection might overcome the predictive role of primary tumour location in this setting. We conducted a retrospective analysis in which tumour samples from RAS/BRAF wild-type (WT) metastatic CRC patients treated with second-third-line irinotecan/cetuximab were analysed for EGFR gene copy number (GCN) and promoter methylation. Study objective was to evaluate the correlation of tumour sidedness, EGFR promoter methylation and EGFR GCN with clinical outcome. Median follow-up duration was 14.3 months. Eighty-eight patients were included in the study, 27.3% had right-sided CRC, 72.7% had left-sided CRC; 36.4% had EGFR GCNcancer (RSCRC) were associated with reduced overall response rate (ORR) (4.2% for RSCRC vs 35.9% for left sided colorectal cancer (LSCRC), P=0.0030), shorter progression-free survival (PFS) (3.0 vs 6.75 months, P<0.0001) and shorter overall survival (OS) (8 vs 13.6 months, P<0.0001). EGFR GCN<2.12 tumours were associated with reduced ORR (6.2% for EGFR GCN<2.12 vs 39.3% for EGFR GCN⩾2.12 tumours, P=0.0009), shorter PFS (3.5 vs 6.5 months, P=0.0006) and shorter OS (8.5 vs 14.0 months, P<0.0001). Epidermal growth factor receptor-methylated tumours were associated with reduced ORR (9.1% for methylated vs 45.5% for unmethylated, P=0.0001), shorter PFS (3 vs 7.67 months, P<0.0001) and shorter OS (8 vs 17 months, P<0.0001). At multivariate analysis, EGFR GCN and EGFR promoter methylation maintained their independent role for ORR (respectively P=0.0082 and 0.0025), PFS (respectively P=0.0048 and<0.0001) and OS (respectively P=0.0001 and<0.0001). In our study, an accurate molecular selection based on an all RAS and BRAF analysis along with EGFR GCN and EGFR promoter methylation status

  9. Toward precision medicine with next-generation EGFR inhibitors in non-small-cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yap TA

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Timothy A Yap,1,2 Sanjay Popat1,3 1Lung Cancer Unit, Department of Medicine, The Royal Marsden National Health Service Foundation Trust, London, United Kingdom; 2The Institute of Cancer Research, London, United Kingdom; 3National Heart and Lung Institute, London, United Kingdom Abstract: The use of genomics to discover novel targets and biomarkers has placed the field of oncology at the forefront of precision medicine. First-generation epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR inhibitors have transformed the therapeutic landscape of EGFR mutant non-small-cell lung carcinoma through the genetic stratification of tumors from patients with this disease. Somatic EGFR mutations in lung adenocarcinoma are now well established as predictive biomarkers of response and resistance to small-molecule EGFR inhibitors. Despite early patient benefit, primary resistance and subsequent tumor progression to first-generation EGFR inhibitors are seen in 10%–30% of patients with EGFR mutant non-small-cell lung carcinoma. Acquired drug resistance is also inevitable, with patients developing disease progression after only 10–13 months of antitumor therapy. This review details strategies pursued in circumventing T790M-mediated drug resistance to EGFR inhibitors, which is the most common mechanism of acquired resistance, and focuses on the clinical development of second-generation EGFR inhibitors, exemplified by afatinib (BIBW2992. We discuss the rationale, mechanism of action, clinical efficacy, and toxicity profile of afatinib, including the LUX-Lung studies. We also discuss the emergence of third-generation irreversible mutant-selective inhibitors of EGFR and envision the future management of EGFR mutant lung adenocarcinoma. Keywords: afatinib, EGFR, erlotinib, gefitinib, LUX-Lung, NSCLC 

  10. COPI-mediated retrograde trafficking from the Golgi to the ER regulates EGFR nuclear transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ying-Nai; Wang, Hongmei; Yamaguchi, Hirohito [Department of Molecular and Cellular Oncology, The University of Texas, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Lee, Hong-Jen; Lee, Heng-Huan [Department of Molecular and Cellular Oncology, The University of Texas, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Hung, Mien-Chie, E-mail: mhung@mdanderson.org [Department of Molecular and Cellular Oncology, The University of Texas, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Center for Molecular Medicine and Graduate Institute of Cancer Biology, China Medical University and Hospital, Taichung 404, Taiwan (China); Asia University, Taichung 413, Taiwan (China)

    2010-09-03

    Research highlights: {yields} ARF1 activation is involved in the EGFR transport to the ER and the nucleus. {yields} Assembly of {gamma}-COP coatomer mediates EGFR transport to the ER and the nucleus. {yields} Golgi-to-ER retrograde trafficking regulates nuclear transport of EGFR. -- Abstract: Emerging evidence indicates that cell surface receptors, such as the entire epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family, have been shown to localize in the nucleus. A retrograde route from the Golgi to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is postulated to be involved in the EGFR trafficking to the nucleus; however, the molecular mechanism in this proposed model remains unexplored. Here, we demonstrate that membrane-embedded vesicular trafficking is involved in the nuclear transport of EGFR. Confocal immunofluorescence reveals that in response to EGF, a portion of EGFR redistributes to the Golgi and the ER, where its NH{sub 2}-terminus resides within the lumen of Golgi/ER and COOH-terminus is exposed to the cytoplasm. Blockage of the Golgi-to-ER retrograde trafficking by brefeldin A or dominant mutants of the small GTPase ADP-ribosylation factor, which both resulted in the disassembly of the coat protein complex I (COPI) coat to the Golgi, inhibit EGFR transport to the ER and the nucleus. We further find that EGF-dependent nuclear transport of EGFR is regulated by retrograde trafficking from the Golgi to the ER involving an association of EGFR with {gamma}-COP, one of the subunits of the COPI coatomer. Our findings experimentally provide a comprehensive pathway that nuclear transport of EGFR is regulated by COPI-mediated vesicular trafficking from the Golgi to the ER, and may serve as a general mechanism in regulating the nuclear transport of other cell surface receptors.

  11. EGFR kinase inhibitors and gastric acid suppressants in EGFR-mutant NSCLC: a retrospective database analysis of potential drug interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumarakulasinghe, Nesaretnam Barr; Syn, Nicholas; Soon, Yu Yang; Asmat, Atasha; Zheng, Huili; Loy, En Yun; Pang, Brendan; Soo, Ross Andrew

    2016-12-20

    Erlotinib and gefitinib are weak base drugs whose absorption and clinical efficacy may be impaired by concomitant gastric acid suppressive (AS) therapy, yet proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and histamine-2 receptor antagonists (H2As) are widely indicated in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients for the prevention and treatment of erlotinib-induced gastrointestinal injury and corticosteroid-associated gastric irritation. We assessed the clinical relevance of this potential drug-drug interaction (DDI) in a retrospective cohort of EGFR-mutant NSCLC patients. The AS usage rate was 35%. In the overall cohort, AS users did not experience poorer OS (HR: 1.47, 95% CI: 0.92 - 2.35, P = 0.10; median, 11.4 versus 17.5 months) or PFS (HR = 1.37, 95% CI: 0.89 - 2.12, P = 0.16; median, 7.6 versus 8.7 months) compared with non-users in multivariate Cox regression analysis. However, subgroup analyses indicated that AS usage was associated with significantly poorer OS and PFS in patients who had fewer or milder comorbidities (Charlson comorbidity index ≤ 2), those with Karnofsky performance status < 90, and never-smokers. A retrospective database analysis of 157 patients given erlotinib or gefitinib for EGFR-mutant advanced NSCLC from two institutions was conducted. Patients were classified as AS-users if the periods of AS and anti-EGFR therapy overlapped by ≥ 30%. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were assessed according to AS usage. Concomitant AS therapy did not have an adverse impact on OS and/or PFS in the overall cohort. Our subgroup findings should be regarded exploratory and require replication in a large prospective cohort.

  12. Association between Osteopontin Promoter Gene Polymorphisms and Haplotypes with Risk of Diabetic Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balneek Singh Cheema

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Osteopontin (OPN C-443T promoter polymorphism has been shown as a genetic risk factor for diabetic nephropathy (DN in type 2 diabetic patients (T2D. Methods: In the present study we investigated the association of three functional promoter gene polymorphisms C-443T, delG-156G, and G-66T and their haplotypes with the risk of DN and estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR in Asian Indians T2D patients using Real time PCR based Taqman assay. A total of 1165 T2D patients, belonging to two independently ascertained Indian Asian cohorts, were genotyped for three OPN promoter polymorphisms C-443T (rs11730582, delG-156G (rs17524488 and G-66T (rs28357094. Results: -156G allele and GG genotypes (delG-156G and haplotypes G-C-G and T-C-G (G-66T, C-443T, delG-156G were associated with decreased risk of DN and higher eGFR. Haplotype G-T-delG and T-T-delG (G-66T, C-443T, delG-156G were identified as risk haplotypes, as shown by lower eGFR. Conclusion: This is the first study to report an association of OPN promoter gene polymorphisms; G-66T and delG-156G and their haplotypes with DN in T2D. Our results suggest an association between OPN promoter gene polymorphisms and their haplotypes with DN.

  13. Radiolabeled Cetuximab Conjugates for EGFR Targeted Cancer Diagnostics and Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiebke Sihver

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR has evolved over years into a main molecular target for the treatment of different cancer entities. In this regard, the anti-EGFR antibody cetuximab has been approved alone or in combination with: (a chemotherapy for treatment of colorectal and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and (b with external radiotherapy for treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. The conjugation of radionuclides to cetuximab in combination with the specific targeting properties of this antibody might increase its therapeutic efficiency. This review article gives an overview of the preclinical studies that have been performed with radiolabeled cetuximab for imaging and/or treatment of different tumor models. A particularly promising approach seems to be the treatment with therapeutic radionuclide-labeled cetuximab in combination with external radiotherapy. Present data support an important impact of the tumor micromilieu on treatment response that needs to be further validated in patients. Another important challenge is the reduction of nonspecific uptake of the radioactive substance in metabolic organs like liver and radiosensitive organs like bone marrow and kidneys. Overall, the integration of diagnosis, treatment and monitoring as a theranostic approach appears to be a promising strategy for improvement of individualized cancer treatment.

  14. Graphene-induced apoptosis in lung epithelial cells through EGFR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Shih-Ming; Bangalore, Preeti; Chen, Eric Y.; Lu, David; Chiu, Meng-Hsuen; Suh, Andrew; Gehring, Matthew; Cangco, John P.; Garcia, Santiago G.; Chin, Wei-Chun

    2017-07-01

    Expanding interest in nanotechnology applied to electronic and biomedical fields has led to fast-growing development of various nanomaterials. Graphene is a single-atom thick, two-dimensional sheet of hexagonally arranged carbon atoms with unique physical and chemical properties. Recently, graphene has been used in many studies on electronics, photonics, composite materials, energy generation and storage, sensors, and biomedicine. However, the current health risk assessment for graphene has been relatively limited and inconclusive. This study evaluated the toxicity effects of graphene on the airway epithelial cell line BEAS-2B, which represents the first barrier of the human body to interact with airborne graphene particles. Our result showed that graphene can induce the cellular Ca2+ by phospholipase C (PLC) associated pathway by activating epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Subsequently, inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) receptors activate the release of Ca2+ from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+ stores. Those Ca2+ signals further trigger the calcium-regulated apoptosis in the cell. Furthermore, the stimulation can cause EGFR upregulation, which have been demonstrated to associate with diseases such as lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and cardiovascular diseases. This study highlights the additional health risk considering that it can function as a contributing factor for other respiratory diseases.

  15. Hypoxia activated EGFR signaling induces epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Misra

    Full Text Available Metastasis is a multi-step process which requires the conversion of polarized epithelial cells to mesenchymal cells, Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT. EMT is essential during embryonic morphogenesis and has been implicated in the progression of primary tumors towards metastasis. Hypoxia is known to induce EMT; however the molecular mechanism is still poorly understood. Using the A431 epithelial cancer cell line, we show that cells grown under hypoxic conditions migrated faster than cells grown under normal oxygen environment. Cells grown under hypoxia showed reduced adhesion to the extracellular matrix (ECM probably due to reduced number of Vinculin patches. Growth under hypoxic conditions also led to down regulation of E-cadherin and up regulation of vimentin expression. The increased motility of cells grown under hypoxia could be due to redistribution of Rac1 to the plasma membrane as opposed to increased expression of Rac1. EGF (Epidermal Growth Factor is a known inducer of EMT and growth of A431 cells in the absence of oxygen led to increased expression of EGFR (EGF Receptor. Treatment of A431 cells with EGF led to reduced cell adhesion to ECM, increased cell motility and other EMT characteristics. Furthermore, this transition was blocked by the monoclonal antibody Cetuximab. Cetuximab also blocked the hypoxia-induced EMT suggesting that cell growth under hypoxic conditions led to activation of EGFR signaling and induction of EMT phenotype.

  16. Increased concentrations of growth factors and activation of the EGFR system in breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aalund Olsen, Dorte; Bechmann, Troels; Østergaard, Birthe

    2012-01-01

    In this study the total and phosphorylated amount of epidermal growth factor receptor 1 (EGFR) and 2 (HER2) were measured together with EGFR ligands in tissue samples of breast cancer patients in order to investigate interrelations and possible prognostic values....

  17. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and estimation of the GFR (eGFR) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    30 No. 7. GFR and eGFR. Limitations to the use of the MDRD- derived eGFR include age 70 years, pregnancy, oedematous conditions, extremes of body size, mass and nutritional status (vegetarianism, high-protein diet, creatine or amino acid supplementation), conditions affecting skeletal muscle (muscle.

  18. The Potential Value of EGFR and P53 Immunostaining in Tumors of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The expression of EGFR and p53 has not been adequately studied as a prognostic tool in urinary bladder tumors. We analyzed 74 bladder cancer samples from Egypt for EGFR and p53 expression using immunohistochemistry. The tumors were of different histological types, grades and clinical stages, and with established ...

  19. Frequent EGFR Positivity and Overexpression in High-Grade Areas of Human MPNSTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Séverine Tabone-Eglinger

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours (MPNSTs are highly malignant and resistant. Transformation might implicate up regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR. Fifty-two MPNST samples were studied for EGFR, Ki-67, p53, and survivin expression by immunohistochemistry and for EGFR amplification by in situ hybridization. Results were correlated with clinical data. EGFR RNA was also quantified by RT-PCR in 20 other MPNSTs and 14 dermal neurofibromas. Half of the patients had a neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1. EGFR expression, detected in 86% of MPNSTs, was more frequent in NF1 specimens and closely associated with high-grade and p53-positive areas. MPNSTs expressed more EGFR transcripts than neurofibromas. No amplification of EGFR locus was observed. NF1 status was the only prognostic factor in multivariate analysis, with median survivals of 18 and 43 months for patients with or without NF1. Finally, EGFR might become a new target for MPNSTs treatment, especially in NF1-associated MPNSTs.

  20. Dimerization drives EGFR endocytosis through two sets of compatible endocytic codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Chen, Xinmei; Wang, Zhixiang

    2015-03-01

    We have shown previously that epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) endocytosis is controlled by EGFR dimerization. However, it is not clear how the dimerization drives receptor internalization. We propose that EGFR endocytosis is driven by dimerization, bringing two sets of endocytic codes, one contained in each receptor monomer, in close proximity. Here, we tested this hypothesis by generating specific homo- or hetero-dimers of various receptors and their mutants. We show that ErbB2 and ErbB3 homodimers are endocytosis deficient owing to the lack of endocytic codes. Interestingly, EGFR-ErbB2 or EGFR-ErbB3 heterodimers are also endocytosis deficient. Moreover, the heterodimer of EGFR and the endocytosis-deficient mutant EGFRΔ1005-1017 is also impaired in endocytosis. These results indicate that two sets of endocytic codes are required for receptor endocytosis. We found that an EGFR-PDGFRβ heterodimer is endocytosis deficient, although both EGFR and PDGFRβ homodimers are endocytosis-competent, indicating that two compatible sets of endocytic codes are required. Finally, we found that to mediate the endocytosis of the receptor dimer, the two sets of compatible endocytic codes, one contained in each receptor molecule, have to be spatially coordinated. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. Anti-EGFR immunonanoparticles containing IL12 and salmosin genes for targeted cancer gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Seok; Kang, Seong Jae; Jeong, Hwa Yeon; Kim, Min Woo; Park, Sang Il; Lee, Yeon Kyung; Kim, Hong Sung; Kim, Keun Sik; Park, Yong Serk

    2016-09-01

    Tumor-directed gene delivery is of major interest in the field of cancer gene therapy. Varied functionalizations of non-viral vectors have been suggested to enhance tumor targetability. In the present study, we prepared two different types of anti-EGF receptor (EGFR) immunonanoparticles containing pDNA, neutrally charged liposomes and cationic lipoplexes, for tumor-directed transfection of cancer therapeutic genes. Even though both anti-EGFR immunonanoparticles had a high binding affinity to the EGFR-positive cancer cells, the anti-EGFR immunolipoplex formulation exhibited approximately 100-fold higher transfection to the target cells than anti-EGFR immunoliposomes. The lipoplex formulation also showed a higher transfection to SK-OV-3 tumor xenografts in mice. Thus, IL12 and/or salmosin genes were loaded in the anti-EGFR immunolipoplexes and intravenously administered to mice carrying SK-OV-3 tumors. Co-transfection of IL12 and salmosin genes using anti-EGFR immunolipoplexes significantly reduced tumor growth and pulmonary metastasis. Furthermore, combinatorial treatment with doxorubicin synergistically inhibited tumor growth. These results suggest that anti-EGFR immunolipoplexes containing pDNA encoding therapeutic genes could be utilized as a gene-transfer modality for cancer gene therapy.

  2. Analysis of intratumor heterogeneity of EGFR mutations in mixed type lung adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomonaga, Nanae; Nakamura, Yoichi; Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki; Ikeda, Takaya; Mizoguchi, Kosuke; Motoshima, Kohei; Doi, Seiji; Nakatomi, Katsumi; Iida, Tetsuya; Hayashi, Tomayoshi; Nagayasu, Takeshi; Tsukamoto, Kazuhiro; Kohno, Shigeru

    2013-09-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor mutations are predictive of the success of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment in patients with advanced non--small-cell lung cancer. As with other solid tumors, lung cancer is thought to be the result of an accumulation of genetic alterations after exposure to carcinogens. The aim of the present study was to clarify the relationship between multistep carcinogenesis and the accumulation of EGFR mutations. The intratumor heterogeneity of EGFR mutations was analyzed in 38 patients with resected mixed-type lung adenocarcinoma according to histological patterns, and the clinical features of the patients harboring intratumor heterogeneity of EGFR mutations were evaluated. Intratumor heterogeneity of EGFR mutations was detected in 9 of 38 tumors. EGFR mutations were more common in the bronchioloalveolar (lepidic) carcinoma pattern than in the papillary and acinar patterns, although this difference was not significant. However, there was a significant correlation between intratumor heterogeneity of EGFR mutations and smoking history (P heterogeneity of EGFR mutations correlates with the distribution of histological subtype in mixed type adenocarcinoma and is associated with smoking history. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Is the eGFR formula adequate for evaluating renal function before chemotherapy in patients with urogenital cancer? A suggestion for clinical application of eGFR formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uozumi, Jiro; Noguchi, Mitsuru; Tokuda, Yuji; Tobu, Shohei; Udo, Kazuma; Kakinoki, Hiroaki; Kurata, Saya; Nanri, Maki; Ichibagase, Yuka; Takahara, Kohei

    2015-08-01

    Accurate evaluation of renal function is required before cancer chemotherapy. Various kinds of formula have been developed for estimating creatinine clearance (Ccr) or glomerular filtration rate (GFR) conveniently. We retrospectively examined the reliability of the GFR estimating formula using the renal function data in cancer chemotherapy. Clinical data of 12 patients with urogenital cancer from 1998 to 2013 in Saga University Hospital were reviewed. Patients were treated with 6-21 (median 10.5) courses of chemotherapy and those patients underwent 9-29 (median 14.5) times of 24hrCcr tests before and during chemotherapy. We compared estimated GFR (eGFR) with 24hrCcr. In addition, we developed a novel method to estimate the Ccr using the patient-inherent 24hrCcr/eGFR ratio, which is calculated from initial 3 or 4 determinations of 24hrCcr and the corresponding eGFR. Those estimated Ccrs were also compared with 24hrCcr. The dissociation between 24hrCcr and eGFR was not constant, and a large dissociation was observed in some cases. The newly devised estimated Ccr demonstrated less dissociation from 24hrCcr compared with eGFR. The eGFR formula is not adequate for the clinical use in cancer chemotherapy. The absolute value of eGFR is not reliable, but clinical use of eGFR as relative value seems to be acceptable. To avoid troublesome 24hrCcr measurement in long-term cancer chemotherapy, eGFR formula can be used for estimating Ccr in combination with the specific inherent 24hrCcr/eGFR ratio, which is obtained from 3 or 4 times of actual 24hrCcr measurements.

  4. Correlation of EGFR mutation and histological subtype according to the IASLC/ATS/ERS classification of lung adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhen; Liu, Xiaoyan; Zhao, Jing; Yang, Hanjin; Teng, Xiaodong

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the correlation of EGFR mutation and histological subtypes of lung adenocarcinoma based on the IASLC/ATS/ERS classification. EGFR exons 18-21 of 206 resected lung adenocarcinoma specimens were analyzed with pyrosequecing, then the differences between histological subtypes and EGFR mutation were compared. EGFR mutation was detected in 123 specmens, most of which were papillary and acinar predominant adenocarcinoma. EGFR mutation rate of the specimens with papillary, acinar or lepidic component was higher than without these components (P lung adenocarcinoma, such as lepidic, papillary and acinar, indicates a higher EGFR mutation rate, while the solid and mucinous component indicate a lower EGFR mutation rate. There is heterogeneity of EGFR mutation in lung adenocarcinoma.

  5. Metaplastic breast carcinomas are negative for Her-2 but frequently express EGFR (Her-1): potential relevance to adjuvant treatment with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibl, S; Moinfar, F

    2005-07-01

    Metaplastic carcinomas (MCs) of the breast rarely express steroid receptors and Her-2, which minimises the options for adjuvant treatment in patients with advanced disease. To investigate the possible eligibility of patients with MCs for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) targeted treatment. Immunohistochemical assessment of the expression of steroid receptors and four members of the EGFR/Her family (EGFR/Her-1-4) in 20 MCs (eight with heterologous elements, seven spindle cell MCs, four carcinosarcomas, and one matrix producing carcinoma). Fourteen of the 20 MCs were positive for EGFR (Her-1). Among these cases, 1+, 2+, and 3+ reactivity were seen in two, four, and eight cases, respectively. Her-2 was only present in one MC with 1+ reactivity. Her-3 (1+ reactivity), Her-4 (2+ reactivity), and the androgen receptor (2+ reactivity) were also expressed by one tumour. Oestrogen and progesterone receptors (3+ reactivity each) were detected in the epithelial component only of two carcinosarcoma-type MCs. MCs express EGFR considerably more frequently than the types of breast carcinomas that have been investigated previously. Although molecular analyses for possible genetic alterations in the EGFR might be required, these results suggest that women suffering from this aggressive form of breast carcinoma might benefit from treatment with protein kinase inhibitors, such as gefitinib.

  6. SMARCE1 suppresses EGFR expression and controls responses to MET and ALK inhibitors in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, Andreas I; Sun, Chong; Knijnenburg, Theo A; Xue, Yibo; Grernrum, Wipawadee; Hölzel, Michael; Nijkamp, Wouter; Wessels, Lodewyk F A; Beijersbergen, Roderick L; Bernards, Rene; Huang, Sidong

    2015-04-01

    Recurrent inactivating mutations in components of SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complexes have been identified across cancer types, supporting their roles as tumor suppressors in modulating oncogenic signaling pathways. We report here that SMARCE1 loss induces EGFR expression and confers resistance to MET and ALK inhibitors in non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). We found that SMARCE1 binds to regulatory regions of the EGFR locus and suppresses EGFR transcription in part through regulating expression of Polycomb Repressive Complex component CBX2. Addition of the EGFR inhibitor gefitinib restores the sensitivity of SMARCE1-knockdown cells to MET and ALK inhibitors in NSCLCs. Our findings link SMARCE1 to EGFR oncogenic signaling and suggest targeted treatment options for SMARCE1-deficient tumors.

  7. Anti-EGFR Therapy: Mechanism and Advances in Clinical Efficacy in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F. Flynn

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This review will focus on recent advances in the application of antiepidermal growth factor receptor (anti-EGFR for the treatment of breast cancer. The choice of EGFR, a member of the ErbB tyrosine kinase receptor family, stems from evidence pinpointing its role in various anti-EGFR therapies. Therefore, an increase in our understanding of EGFR mechanism and signaling might reveal novel targets amenable to intervention in the clinic. This knowledge base might also improve existing medical treatment options and identify research gaps in the design of new therapeutic agents. While the approved use of drugs like the dual kinase inhibitor Lapatinib represents significant advances in the clinical management of breast cancer, confirmatory studies must be considered to foster the use of anti-EGFR therapies including safety, pharmacokinetics, and clinical efficacy.

  8. Impact of Specific Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) Mutations and Clinical Characteristics on Outcomes After Treatment With EGFR Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors Versus Chemotherapy in EGFR-Mutant Lung Cancer: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chee Khoon; Wu, Yi-Long; Ding, Pei Ni; Lord, Sarah J; Inoue, Akira; Zhou, Caicun; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya; Rosell, Rafael; Pavlakis, Nick; Links, Matthew; Gebski, Val; Gralla, Richard J; Yang, James Chih-Hsin

    2015-06-10

    We examined the impact of different epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations and clinical characteristics on progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with advanced EGFR-mutated non-small-cell lung cancer treated with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) as first-line therapy. This meta-analysis included randomized trials comparing EGFR TKIs with chemotherapy. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for PFS for the trial population and prespecified subgroups and calculated pooled estimates of treatment efficacy using the fixed-effects inverse-variance-weighted method. All statistical tests were two sided. In seven eligible trials (1,649 patients), EGFR TKIs, compared with chemotherapy, significantly prolonged PFS overall (HR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.32 to 0.42) and in all subgroups. For tumors with exon 19 deletions, the benefit was 50% greater (HR, 0.24; 95% CI, 0.20 to 0.29) than for tumors with exon 21 L858R substitution (HR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.39 to 0.58; Pinteraction < .001). Never-smokers had a 36% greater benefit (HR, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.27 to 0.37) than current or former smokers (HR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.40 to 0.63; Pinteraction < .001). Women had a 27% greater benefit (HR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.28 to 0.38) than men (HR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.36 to 0.55; treatment-sex interaction P = .02). Performance status, age, ethnicity, and tumor histology did not significantly predict additional benefit from EGFR TKIs. Although EGFR TKIs significantly prolonged PFS overall and in all subgroups, compared with chemotherapy, greater benefits were observed in those with exon 19 deletions, never-smokers, and women. These findings should enhance drug development and economic analyses, as well as the design and interpretation of clinical trials. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  9. Prediction for response duration to epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors in EGFR mutated never smoker lung adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Ryun; Cho, Byoung Chul; Shim, Hyo Sup; Lim, Sun Min; Kim, Se Kyu; Chang, Joon; Kim, Dae Joon; Kim, Joo Hang

    2014-03-01

    Among non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients harboring activating epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations, ∼ 20-30% exhibit de novo resistance to EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI). The aim of this study was to examine whether mutations in the EGFR-downstream genes may be associated with de novo resistance to EGFR-TKIs in EGFR mutation-positive patients. Sixty-eight never-smoker adenocarcinoma patients with an activating EGFR mutation were included in the mutational analysis and 55 patients treated with EGFR-TKIs were analyzed for the treatment outcomes to EGFR-TKIs. We concurrently analyzed mutations in PIK3CA, PTEN, AKT and STK11, which are all EGFR-downstream genes. Mutations in PIK3CA, PTEN, AKT, and STK11 were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-based sequencing. PIK3CA mutations were detected in 4.4% (3/68) of patients, PTEN mutations in 16.1% (11/68), AKT mutations in 5.9% (4/68), and STK11 mutations in 13.2% (9/68). One patient with an activating exon 21 L858R mutation concomitantly had an exon 20 T790M mutation in EGFR. The proportion of patients who had mutations in EGFR-downstream genes was 32.4% (22/68). When we analyzed the treatment outcome of 55 patients treated with EGFR-TKI, the presence of mutations in EGFR-downstream genes correlated with a poor overall response rate to EGFR-TKIs (63.6 vs.14.5% in patients with mutation in EGFR-downstream gene, Padenocarcinoma patients with activating EGFR mutations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Detecting intratumoral heterogeneity of EGFR activity by liposome-based in vivo transfection of a fluorescent biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitsman, G; Mitchell, N J; Evans, R; Cheung, A; Kalber, T L; Bofinger, R; Fruhwirth, G O; Keppler, M; Wright, Z V F; Barber, P R; Gordon, P; de Koning, T; Wulaningsih, W; Sander, K; Vojnovic, B; Ameer-Beg, S; Lythgoe, M; Arnold, J N; Årstad, E; Festy, F; Hailes, H C; Tabor, A B; Ng, T

    2017-06-22

    Despite decades of research in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signalling field, and many targeted anti-cancer drugs that have been tested clinically, the success rate for these agents in the clinic is low, particularly in terms of the improvement of overall survival. Intratumoral heterogeneity is proposed as a major mechanism underlying treatment failure of these molecule-targeted agents. Here we highlight the application of fluorescence lifetime microscopy (FLIM)-based biosensing to demonstrate intratumoral heterogeneity of EGFR activity. For sensing EGFR activity in cells, we used a genetically encoded CrkII-based biosensor which undergoes conformational changes upon tyrosine-221 phosphorylation by EGFR. We transfected this biosensor into EGFR-positive tumour cells using targeted lipopolyplexes bearing EGFR-binding peptides at their surfaces. In a murine model of basal-like breast cancer, we demonstrated a significant degree of intratumoral heterogeneity in EGFR activity, as well as the pharmacodynamic effect of a radionuclide-labeled EGFR inhibitor in situ. Furthermore, a significant correlation between high EGFR activity in tumour cells and macrophage-tumour cell proximity was found to in part account for the intratumoral heterogeneity in EGFR activity observed. The same effect of macrophage infiltrate on EGFR activation was also seen in a colorectal cancer xenograft. In contrast, a non-small cell lung cancer xenograft expressing a constitutively active EGFR conformational mutant exhibited macrophage proximity-independent EGFR activity. Our study validates the use of this methodology to monitor therapeutic response in terms of EGFR activity. In addition, we found iNOS gene induction in macrophages that are cultured in tumour cell-conditioned media as well as an iNOS activity-dependent increase in EGFR activity in tumour cells. These findings point towards an immune microenvironment-mediated regulation that gives rise to the observed intratumoral

  11. EGFR as a potential target for the treatment of pancreatic cancer: dilemma and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedaeinia, Reza; Avan, Amir; Manian, Mostafa; Salehi, Rasoul; Ghayour-Mobarhan, Majid

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is among the most lethal solid tumors with grim prognosis. This dismal outcome can partially be explained by the resistance to currently available chemotherapy regimens or the failure of most anticancer agents, which prompted the development of new and effective therapeutic-approaches, such as inhibitors of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Some of these EGFR inhibitors (e.g., erlotinib) are approved for lungcancer, however available data are inconclusive for treatment of pancreatic cancer patients with EGFR-targeted-therapies. Here we describe the critical role of EGFR pathway in pancreatic-cancer, strategies to enhance the effectiveness of EGFRinhibitors as well as the preclinical/clinical studies with particular emphasis on recent findings with monoclonal antibodies and tyrosine-inhibitors. Several combinations of EGFR inhibitors with other agents illustrate inhibition of tumor-induced angiogenesis and cell growth. Moreover, combination of erlotinib with gemcitabine showed statistically significance in overall-survival, compared to gemcitabine-alone. However high cost, little survival gain and increased risk of toxicities have limited its efficacy. Considering the multiple genetic mutations and the crosstalk of signaling pathways, (1) development of multiple targeted-therapies; (2) identification of predictive-biomarkers; and (3) those patients who are most likely benefit from therapy, could provide valuable direction for the clinical development of EGFR inhibitors. Moreover further preclinical/clinical studies are warranted to identify determinants of the activity of EGFR-inhibitors and mechanisms leading to resistance to EGFR inhibitors, through the analysis of genetic and environmental alterations affecting EGFR and parallel pro-cancer pathways. These studies will be critical to improve the efficacy and selectivity of current anticancer strategies targeting EGFR in pancreatic cancer.

  12. RAB-7 antagonizes LET-23 EGFR signaling during vulva development in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Skorobogata

    Full Text Available The Rab7 GTPase regulates late endosome trafficking of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR to the lysosome for degradation. However, less is known about how Rab7 activity, functioning late in the endocytic pathway, affects EGFR signaling. Here we used Caenorhabditis elegans vulva cell fate induction, a paradigm for genetic analysis of EGFR/Receptor Tyrosine Kinase (RTK signaling, to assess the genetic requirements for rab-7. Using a rab-7 deletion mutant, we demonstrate that rab-7 antagonizes LET-23 EGFR signaling to a similar extent, but in a distinct manner, as previously described negative regulators such as sli-1 c-Cbl. Epistasis analysis places rab-7 upstream of or in parallel to lin-3 EGF and let-23 EGFR. However, expression of gfp::rab-7 in the Vulva Presursor Cells (VPCs is sufficient to rescue the rab-7(- VPC induction phenotypes indicating that RAB-7 functions in the signal receiving cell. We show that components of the Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport (ESCRT-0, and -I, complexes, hgrs-1 Hrs, and vps-28, also antagonize signaling, suggesting that LET-23 EGFR likely transits through Multivesicular Bodies (MVBs en route to the lysosome. Consistent with RAB-7 regulating LET-23 EGFR trafficking, rab-7 mutants have increased number of LET-23::GFP-positive endosomes. Our data imply that Rab7, by mediating EGFR trafficking and degradation, plays an important role in downregulation of EGFR signaling. Failure to downregulate EGFR signaling contributes to oncogenesis, and thus Rab7 could possess tumor suppressor activity in humans.

  13. COX-2/EGFR expression and survival among women with adenocarcinoma of the lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyke, Alison L; Cote, Michele L; Prysak, Geoffrey M; Claeys, Gina B; Wenzlaff, Angie S; Murphy, Valerie C; Lonardo, Fulvio; Schwartz, Ann G

    2008-09-01

    Previous studies suggest that cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression may predict survival among patients with non-small cell lung cancer. COX-2 may interact with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), suggesting that combined COX-2/EGFR expression may provide predictive value. The extent to which their independent or combined expression is associated with prognosis in women with adenocarcinoma of the lung is unknown. In the present study, we examined relationships between COX-2 expression (n = 238), EGFR expression (n = 158) and dual COX-2/EGFR expression (n = 157) and survival among women with adenocarcinoma of the lung. Overall survival was estimated by constructing Cox proportional hazards models adjusting for other significant variables and stratifying by stage at diagnosis and race. Clinical or demographic parameters were not associated with either COX-2 or EGFR expression. Patients with COX-2-positive tumors tended to have poorer prognosis than did patients with COX-2-negative tumors [hazard ratio (HR) 1.67, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-2.78]. African-Americans with COX-2-positive tumors had a statistically non-significant higher risk of death than African-Americans with COX-2-negative tumors (HR 5.58, 95% CI 0.64-48.37). No association between COX-2 expression and survival was observed among Caucasians (HR 1.29, 95% CI 0.72-2.30). EGFR expression was associated with a 44% reduction in the risk of death (HR 0.56, 95% CI 0.32-0.98). COX-2-/EGFR+ tumor expression, but not COX-2+/EGFR+ tumor expression, was associated with survival when compared with other combined expression results. In conclusion, COX-2 and EGFR expression, but not combined COX-2+/EGFR+ expression, independently predict survival of women with adenocarcinoma of the lung.

  14. Assessment of EGFR mutation status using cell-free DNA from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sojung; Hur, Jae Young; Lee, Kye Young; Lee, Jae Cheol; Rho, Jin Kyung; Shin, Sun Hwa; Choi, Chang-Min

    2017-08-28

    Much attention has been focused on epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation testing since the introduction of EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors have improved survival in EGFR-positive lung cancer patients. Liquid biopsy using circulating tumor cells or cell-free DNA (cfDNA) has enabled less invasive testing, but requires a highly sensitive method. To date, liquid biopsy using bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid has rarely been used. From 20 patients with lung adenocarcinoma, we isolated cfDNA from 20 samples of cell-free BAL fluid and 19 cell-free bronchial washing samples. cfDNA was examined for EGFR mutations using peptide nucleic acid (PNA)-mediated PCR clamping method. In cases where the results from the tumor biopsy and BAL-derived cfDNA test were not consistent, PANAMutyper™ R EGFR kit was used along with PNA clamping-assisted fluorescence melting curve analysis. We included 17 patients with advanced stage disease and three with non-advanced stage disease. Tumor biopsy detected EGFR mutations in 12 of the patients. One patient had a p.L858R mutation and a de novo p.T790M mutation. The results from PNA-mediated PCR clamping were 75.0% (9/12) concordant with the tumor biopsy results for EGFR mutation status. PANAMutyper with fluorescence melting curve analysis was performed in three cases, which detected EGFR mutations in two more patients (11/12, 91.7%). EGFR mutations were detected in the cfDNA extracted from two bronchial washing samples. cfDNA from BAL fluid could be used for molecular testing of EGFR mutations and identification of p.T790M mutations, with an easily applicable method.

  15. Mucinous Colorectal Adenocarcinoma: Influence of EGFR and E-Cadherin Expression on Clinicopathologic Features and Prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Abd AlRahman M; AbdelAziz, Azza; El-Hawary, Amira K; Hosni, Ali; Zalata, Khalid R; Gado, Asmaa I

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies have shown conflicting results on epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and E-cadherin expression in colorectal carcinoma and their prognostic significance. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to investigate EGFR and E-cadherin expression, interrelation and relation to clinicopathologic, histologic parameters, and survival in rare colorectal mucinous adenocarcinoma (MA). In this study, we studied tumor tissue specimens from 150 patients with colorectal MA and nonmucinous adenocarcinoma (NMA). High-density manual tissue microarrays were constructed using modified mechanical pencil tips technique, and immunohistochemistry for EGFR and E-cadherin was performed. All relations were analyzed using established statistical methodologies. NMA expressed EGFR and E-cadherin in significantly higher rates with significant heterogenous pattern than MA. EGFR and E-cadherin positivity rates were significantly interrelated in both NMA and MA groups. In the NMA group, high EGFR expression was associated with old age, male sex, multiplicity of tumors, lack of mucinous component, and association with schistosomiasis. However, in the MA group, high EGFR expression was associated only with old age and MA subtype rather than signet ring carcinoma subtype. Conversely, high E-cadherin expression in MA cases was associated with old age, fungating tumor configuration, MA subtype, and negative intratumoral lymphocytic response. However, in the NMA cases, none of these factors was statistically significant. In a univariate analysis, neither EGFR nor E-cadherin expression showed a significant impact on disease-free or overall survival. Targeted therapy against EGFR and E-cadherin may not be useful in patients with MA. Neither EGFR nor E-cadherin is an independent prognostic factor in NMA or MA.

  16. Improved response by co-targeting EGFR/EGFRvIII and Src family kinases in human cancer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter; Villingshøj, Mette; Poulsen, Hans Skovgaard

    2009-01-01

    We hypothesized that co-targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and Src with the EGFR inhibitor gefitinib and the Src inhibitor AZD0530 would increase growth inhibition and impede migration. Cells overexpressing EGFR were more sensitive to gefitinib than cells expressing mutated EGF...

  17. The ErbB4 CYT2 variant protects EGFR from ligand-induced degradation to enhance cancer cell motility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiuchi, Tai; Ortiz-Zapater, Elena; Monypenny, James; Matthews, Daniel R; Nguyen, Lan K; Barbeau, Jody; Coban, Oana; Lawler, Katherine; Burford, Brian; Rolfe, Daniel J; de Rinaldis, Emanuele; Dafou, Dimitra; Simpson, Michael A; Woodman, Natalie; Pinder, Sarah; Gillett, Cheryl E; Devauges, Viviane; Poland, Simon P; Fruhwirth, Gilbert; Marra, Pierfrancesco; Boersma, Ykelien L; Plückthun, Andreas; Gullick, William J; Yarden, Yosef; Santis, George; Winn, Martyn; Kholodenko, Boris N; Martin-Fernandez, Marisa L; Parker, Peter; Tutt, Andrew; Ameer-Beg, Simon M; Ng, Tony

    2014-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a member of the ErbB family that can promote the migration and proliferation of breast cancer cells. Therapies that target EGFR can promote the dimerization of EGFR with other ErbB receptors, which is associated with the development of drug resistance.

  18. Blood as a Substitute for Tumor Tissue in Detecting EGFR Mutations for Guiding EGFR TKIs Treatment of Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Chen; Yuan, Jin-Qiu; Yang, Zu-Yao; Fu, Xiao-Hong; Wu, Xin-Yin; Tang, Jin-Ling

    2015-05-01

    Tumor tissues are often absent or insufficient for testing epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations to guide EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) treatment of patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis to assess whether blood can be used as a substitute for tumor tissue in detecting EGFR mutations. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library were searched for studies that provided data to estimate the accuracy of blood testing against tissue testing in NSCLC patients and/or those directly compared the efficacy of EGFR TKIs in EGFR mutant and wild-type patients according to sources of specimens. Sensitivity, specificity, and concordance rate were used as measures of the accuracy. Risk ratio (RR) for objective response and hazard ratio (HR) for progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were used as measures for treatment efficacy. We combined the effects by using the fixed-effects model unless there was evidence of heterogeneity, in which case a random-effects mode was used. This systematic review included 25 studies with 2605 patients. The pooled overall sensitivity, specificity, and concordance rate were 0.61, 0.90, and 0.79, respectively. Serum showed lower sensitivity (0.56 vs 0.65) but higher specificity (0.95 vs 0.85) and higher concordance (0.86 vs 0.74) than plasma. EGFR mutations (exon 19 or 21) in blood were significantly associated with objective response (RR: 4.08; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.48-6.70), PFS (HR: 0.72; 95% CI 0.64-0.80), and OS (HR: 0.71; 95% CI 0.50-0.99). Importantly, the association of the mutations with the 3 clinical outcomes for serum was similar to that for tumor tissue and higher than that for plasma. Blood, in particular serum, is a good substitute when tumor tissue is absent or insufficient for testing EGFR mutations to guide EGFR TKIs treatment in patients with NSCLC. EGFR mutation positivity in blood could be used to recommend EGFR TKIs

  19. Expression and genomic status of EGFR and ErbB-2 in alveolar and embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganti, Ramapriya; Skapek, Stephen X; Zhang, Jie; Fuller, Christine E; Wu, Jianrong; Billups, Catherine A; Breitfeld, Philip P; Dalton, James D; Meyer, William H; Khoury, Joseph D

    2006-09-01

    Both epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and ErbB-2 play an important role in cancer biology and constitute promising molecular targets of therapy. EGFR and ErbB-2 expression has been observed in rhabdomyosarcoma cell lines but not analyzed systematically in rhabdomyosarcoma tumors. Tissue microarray sections representing 66 rhabdomyosarcoma tumors (34 embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma, 32 alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma) were surveyed by immunohistochemistry using antibodies specific for EGFR and ErbB-2. Immunostains were assessed for intensity (0: no immunostaining; 1: weak; 2: moderate; 3: strong) and percentage of at least 500 neoplastic cells exhibiting membranous or membranous and cytoplasmic immunostaining. EGFR and ErbB-2 expression was considered positive if the product of intensity and percentage was greater than 10. Patients had a median age of 5.7 years (range 8 months-19.1 years), and of 65/66 patients, 38 were males and 27 were females. Expression of ErbB-2 was identified in 22/66 (33%) cases and tended to be more frequent in the alveolar subtype (13/32, 41%, vs 9/34, 26%, P=0.30). Expression of EGFR was identified in 31/66 (47%) cases and correlated with the embryonal subtype (26/34, 76%, vs 5/32, 16%, P<0.0001) independent of stage, age, and gender. Coexpression of EGFR and ErbB-2 was identified in eight tumors, of which six were embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma. None of the cases exhibited EGFR or ErbB-2 gene amplification, as assessed using fluorescence in situ hybridization. Furthermore, analysis of 11 additional rhabdomyosarcoma tumors (six alveolar; five embryonal) revealed no evidence of mutations in EGFR exons 18, 19, 20, and 21. In summary, expression of EGFR and/or ErbB-2 is detected in a sizeable subset of rhabdomyosarcoma tumors without evidence of EGFR or ErbB-2 amplification or mutations in the EGFR tyrosine kinase domain. Notably, expression of EGFR correlates with the embryonal subtype, which is also more likely to coexpress EGFR and ErbB-2

  20. Combined effect of mitochondrial DNA 5178 C/A polymorphism and alcohol consumption on estimated glomerular filtration rate in male Japanese health check-up examinees: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kokaze Akatsuki

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevention of chronic kidney disease (CKD is a major public health issue. Although several studies have been performed on the association between alcohol consumption and CKD or renal function, it remains controversial. Numerous genetic polymorphisms have been reported to be associated with CKD and kidney function. Mitochondrial DNA cytosine/adenine (Mt5178 C/A polymorphism is associated with longevity in Japanese. This polymorphism modifies the effects of alcohol consumption on blood pressure, risk of hypertension, serum triglyceride levels, risk of hyper-LDL cholesterolemia and serum uric acid levels. The objective of this study was to investigate whether Mt5178 C/A polymorphism modifies the effects of alcohol consumption on renal function in male Japanese health check-up examinees. Methods A total of 394 male subjects aged 29–76 years were selected from among individuals visiting the hospital for regular medical check-ups. After Mt5178 C/A genotyping, a cross-sectional study assessing the combined effects of Mt5178 C/A polymorphism and habitual drinking on the risk of mildly decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR (2 was conducted. Results For Mt5178A genotypic men, habitual drinking may increase eGFR (P for trend = 0.003 or reduce the risk of mildly decreased eGFR (P for trend = 0.003. Daily drinkers had a significantly higher eGFR than non-drinkers (P = 0.005. The crude odds ratio for decreased eGFR was significantly lower in daily drinkers than in non-drinkers (odds ratio = 0.092, 95% confidence interval: 0.012-0.727, P = 0.024. On the other hand, for Mt5178C genotypic men, habitual drinking does not appear to affect eGFR. Conclusion The present results suggest a joint effect of Mt5178 C/A polymorphism and alcohol consumption on eGFR and the risk of mildly decreased eGFR in male Japanese subjects.

  1. The impact of common and rare EGFR mutations in response to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors and platinum-based chemotherapy in patients with non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrieta, Oscar; Cardona, Andrés Felipe; Corrales, Luis; Campos-Parra, Alma Delia; Sánchez-Reyes, Roberto; Amieva-Rivera, Eduardo; Rodríguez, July; Vargas, Carlos; Carranza, Hernán; Otero, Jorge; Karachaliou, Nikki; Astudillo, Horacio; Rosell, Rafael

    2015-02-01

    In non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the association between common EGFR mutations (Del EX19/L858R) with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) has been well established. However, this has not been investigated for rare EGFR mutations or their impact on treatment response and outcome to EGFR TKIs (primary objective) and chemotherapy (secondary objective). In an observational prospective cohort, we analyzed 188 NSCLC patients from Mexico, Colombia and Costa Rica with EGFR mutations. As a first line of treatment, 66.5% received platinum-based chemotherapy. All patients received TKIs in first-line treatment or after progression to chemotherapy. The clinical-pathological characteristics as well as the f of common and rare EGFR mutations associated with treatment response were analyzed. Of all patients, 79.5% had common and 20.5% had rare EGFR mutations. Lepidic and acinar adenocarcinomas were associated with common EGFR mutations (p=0.010). Patients with common EGFR mutations had higher response rates to EGFR-TKIs than those who had rare EGFR mutations (63.8 vs 32.4%, p<0.001). Women had increased progression-free survival (PFS) to EGFR-TKIs than men (16.4 vs 9.5 months, p=0.02). The median PFS and overall survival (OS) were better in patients with common EGFR mutations (15.5 vs 3.9 months, p<0.001; and 37.3 vs 17.4 months, p<0.001) respectively. Our findings suggested that only patients with rare EGFR mutations could receive platinum-based chemotherapy as a first-line treatment, due to their low response rates and short PFS in response to EGFR-TKIs. Consequently, EGFR-TKIs could be reserved as a second- or third-line treatment. In patients with EGFR mutations, women have better PFS to EGFR-TKIs than men, and rare EGFR mutations are more frequent in high grade adenocarcinomas than in low grade tumors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Monitoring of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level is predictive of EGFR mutation and efficacy of EGFR-TKI in patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lv Y

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Yang Lv,1,2 Li-Yun Miao,2 Qiu-Fang Chen,1 Yan Li,2 Zhi-Xiang Shi,1 Xuan-Sheng Ding1 1Department of Clinical Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, People’s Republic of China; 2Division of Respiratory Medicine, Department of Respiration, The Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital of Nanjing University Medical College, Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing, Jiangsu, People’s Republic of China Abstract: High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C has an inverse association with the incidence of lung cancer. However, whether it can be used as a predictive factor in advanced lung adenocarcinoma patients treated with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI still remains undefined. This research aimed at studying the relationship of serum HDL-C baseline level and HDL-C kinetics to EGFR mutation, the efficacy of EGFR-TKI, and the predictive value of PFS. The presence of mutation rate in the 192 patients with lung adenocarcinoma was compared within stratified groups. Levels of baseline HDL-C and kinetics of HDL-C were analyzed retrospectively in patients treated with EGFR-TKI harboring EGFR mutation. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to investigate the prognostic value of HDL-C. EGFR mutation rate of HDL-C high-level group was significantly higher than that of low-level group (59.0% vs 35.6%, P=0.001. Multivariate logistic analysis showed that high-level HDL-C was an independent predictive factor for EGFR gene mutation (P=0.005; odds ratio =0.417; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.227–0.768. Patients with a low level of HDL-C before therapy showed a progression of disease in most cases (P<0.001. According to HDL-C kinetics, patients who received EGFR-TKI treatment harboring EGFR mutation were divided into four groups. Univariate analysis showed that patients in nondecreased group had longer progression-free survival (P<0.001; hazard ratio =0.003; 95% CI, 0.001–0.018. Multivariate

  3. EGFR/HER-targeted therapeutics in ovarian cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilken, Jason A; Badri, Tayf; Cross, Sarah; Raji, Rhoda; Santin, Alessandro D; Schwartz, Peter; Branscum, Adam J; Baron, Andre T; Sakhitab, Adam I; Maihle, Nita J

    2013-01-01

    Despite decades of research and evolving treatment modalities, survival among patients with epithelial ovarian cancer has improved only incrementally. During this same period, the development of biologically targeted therapeutics has improved survival for patients with diverse malignancies. Many of these new drugs target the human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR/HER/ErbB) family of tyrosine kinases, which play a major role in the etiology and progression of many carcinomas, including epithelial ovarian cancer. While several HER-targeted therapeutics are US FDA approved for the treatment of various malignancies, none have gained approval for the treatment of ovarian cancer. Here, we review the published literature on HER-targeted therapeutics for the treatment of ovarian cancer, including novel HER-targeted therapeutics in various stages of clinical development, as well as the challenges that have limited the use of these inhibitors in clinical settings. PMID:22416774

  4. Identification of the zinc finger 216 (ZNF216) in human carcinoma cells: a potential regulator of EGFR activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mincione, Gabriella; Di Marcantonio, Maria Carmela; Tarantelli, Chiara; Savino, Luca; Ponti, Donatella; Marchisio, Marco; Lanuti, Paola; Sancilio, Silvia; Calogero, Antonella; Di Pietro, Roberta; Muraro, Raffaella

    2016-11-15

    Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR), a member of the ErbB family of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) proteins, is aberrantly expressed or deregulated in tumors and plays pivotal roles in cancer onset and metastatic progression. ZNF216 gene has been identified as one of Immediate Early Genes (IEGs) induced by RTKs. Overexpression of ZNF216 protein sensitizes 293 cell line to TNF-α induced apoptosis. However, ZNF216 overexpression has been reported in medulloblastomas and metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinomas. Thus, the role of this protein is still not clearly understood. In this study, the inverse correlation between EGFR and ZNF216 expression was confirmed in various human cancer cell lines differently expressing EGFR. EGF treatment of NIH3T3 cells overexpressing both EGFR and ZNF216 (NIH3T3-EGFR/ZNF216), induced a long lasting activation of EGFR in the cytosolic fraction and an accumulation of phosphorylated EGFR (pEGFR) more in the nuclear than in the cytosolic fraction compared to NIH3T3-EGFR cells. Moreover, EGF was able to stimulate an increased expression of ZNF216 in the cytosolic compartment and its nuclear translocation in a time-dependent manner in NIH3T3-EGFR/ZNF216. A similar trend was observed in A431 cells endogenously expressing the EGFR and transfected with Znf216. The increased levels of pEGFR and ZNF216 in the nuclear fraction of NIH3T3-EGFR/ZNF216 cells were paralleled by increased levels of phospho-MAPK and phospho-Akt. Surprisingly, EGF treatment of NIH3T3-EGFR/ZNF216 cells induced a significant increase of apoptosis thus indicating that ZNF216 could sensitize cells to EGF-induced apoptosis and suggesting that it may be involved in the regulation and effects of EGFR signaling.

  5. Pan-HER-An antibody mixture targeting EGFR, HER2 and HER3 abrogates preformed and ligand-induced EGFR homo- and heterodimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellebaek, Sofie; Brix, Susanne; Grandal, Michael; Lantto, Johan; Horak, Ivan D; Kragh, Michael; Poulsen, Thomas Tuxen

    2016-11-01

    The human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER)-family is involved in development of many epithelial cancers. Therefore, HER-family members constitute important targets for anti-cancer therapeutics such as monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). A limitation to the success of single HER-targeting mAbs is development of acquired resistance through mechanisms such as alterted receptor dimerization patterns and dependencies. Pan-HER is a mixture of six mAbs simultaneously targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), HER2 and HER3 with two mAbs against each receptor. Pan-HER has previously demonstrated broader efficacy than targeting single or dual receptor combinations also in resistant settings. In light of this broad efficacy, we decided to investigate the effect of Pan-HER compared with single HER-targeting with single and dual mAbs on HER-family cross-talk and dimerization focusing on EGFR. The effect of Pan-HER on cell proliferation and HER-family receptor degradation was superior to treatment with single mAbs targeting either single receptor, and similar to targeting a single receptor with two non-overlapping antibodies. Furthermore, changes in EGFR-dimerization patterns after treatment with Pan-HER were investigated by in situ proximity ligation assay and co-immunoprecipitation, demonstrating that Pan-HER and the EGFR-targeting mAb mixture efficiently down-regulate basal EGFR homo- and heterodimerization in two tested cell lines, whereas single mAbs had limited effects. Pan-HER and the EGFR-targeting mAb mixture also blocked EGF-binding and thereby ligand-induced changes in EGFR-dimerization levels. These results suggest that Pan-HER reduces the cellular capability to switch HER-dependency and dimerization pattern in response to treatment and thus hold promise for future clinical development of Pan-HER in resistant settings. © 2016 UICC.

  6. Analysis of tumor specimens at the time of acquired resistance to EGFR-TKI therapy in 155 patients with EGFR-mutant lung cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Helena A; Arcila, Maria E; Rekhtman, Natasha; Sima, Camelia S; Zakowski, Maureen F; Pao, William; Kris, Mark G; Miller, Vincent A; Ladanyi, Marc; Riely, Gregory J

    2013-04-15

    All patients with EGF receptor (EGFR)-mutant lung cancers eventually develop acquired resistance to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI). Smaller series have identified various mechanisms of resistance, but systematic evaluation of a large number of patients to definitively establish the frequency of various mechanisms has not been conducted. Patients with lung adenocarcinomas and acquired resistance to erlotinib or gefitinib enrolled onto a prospective biopsy protocol and underwent a rebiopsy after the development of acquired resistance. Histology was reviewed. Samples underwent genotyping for mutations in EGFR, AKT1, BRAF, ERBB2, KRAS, MEK1, NRAS and PIK3CA, and FISH for MET and HER2. Adequate tumor samples for molecular analysis were obtained in 155 patients. Ninety-eight had second-site EGFR T790M mutations [63%; 95% confidence interval (CI), 55%-70%] and four had small cell transformation (3%, 95% CI, 0%-6%). MET amplification was seen in 4 of 75 (5%; 95% CI, 1%-13%). HER2 amplification was seen in 3 of 24 (13%; 95% CI, 3%-32%). We did not detect any acquired mutations in PIK3CA, AKT1, BRAF, ERBB2, KRAS, MEK1, or NRAS (0 of 88, 0%; 95% CI, 0%-4%). Overlap among mechanisms of acquired resistance was seen in 4%. This is the largest series reporting mechanisms of acquired resistance to EGFR-TKI therapy. We identified EGFR T790M as the most common mechanism of acquired resistance, whereas MET amplification, HER2 amplification, and small cell histologic transformation occur less frequently. More comprehensive methods to characterize molecular alterations in this setting are needed to improve our understanding of acquired resistance to EGFR-TKIs.

  7. Monitoring of Circulating Tumor Cells and Their Expression of EGFR/Phospho-EGFR During Combined Radiotherapy Regimens in Locally Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

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    Tinhofer, Ingeborg, E-mail: ingeborg.tinhofer@charite.de [Translational Radiooncology Laboratory, Department of Radiooncology and Radiotherapy, Charite Campus Mitte, Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Hristozova, Tsvetana; Stromberger, Carmen [Translational Radiooncology Laboratory, Department of Radiooncology and Radiotherapy, Charite Campus Mitte, Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Berlin (Germany); KeilhoIz, Ulrich [Department of Hematology and Oncology, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Budach, Volker [Translational Radiooncology Laboratory, Department of Radiooncology and Radiotherapy, Charite Campus Mitte, Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Berlin (Germany)

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: The numbers of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and their expression/activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) during the course of combined chemo- or bioradiotherapy regimens as potential biomarkers of treatment efficacy in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) were determined. Methods and Materials: Peripheral blood samples from SCCHN patients with locally advanced stage IVA/B disease who were treated with concurrent radiochemotherapy or induction chemotherapy followed by bioradiation with cetuximab were included in this study. Using flow cytometry, the absolute number of CTCs per defined blood volume as well as their expression of EGFR and its phosphorylated form (pEGFR) during the course of treatment were assessed. Results: Before treatment, we detected {>=}1 CTC per 3.75 mL blood in 9 of 31 patients (29%). Basal expression of EGFR was detected in 100% and pEGFR in 55% of the CTC+ cases. The frequency of CTC detection was not influenced by induction chemotherapy. However, the number of CTC+ samples significantly increased after radiotherapy. This radiation-induced increase in CTC numbers was less pronounced when radiotherapy was combined with cetuximab compared to its combination with cisplatin/5-fluorouracil. The former treatment regimen was also more effective in reducing pEGFR expression in CTCs. Conclusions: Definitive radiotherapy regimens of locally advanced SCCHN can increase the number of CTCs and might thus contribute to a systemic spread of tumor cells. Further studies are needed to evaluate the predictive value of the radiation-induced increase in CTC numbers and the persistent activation of the EGFR signalling pathway in individual CTC+ cases.

  8. In vivo photoacoustic tomography of EGFR overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma mouse xenograft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Zhou

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available EGFR is a promising cell surface target for in vivo imaging that is highly overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, a common cancer worldwide. Peptides penetrate easily into tumors for deep imaging, and clear rapidly from the circulation to minimize background. We aim to demonstrate use of an EGFR specific peptide to detect HCC xenograft tumors in mice with photoacoustic imaging. Nude mice implanted with human HCC cells that overexpress EGFR were injected intravenously with Cy5.5-labeled EGFR and scrambled control peptides respectively. Photoacoustic images collected from 0 to 24 h. Photoacoustic signal peaked in tumors at 3 h post-injection. Images from 0 to 1.8 cm beneath the skin revealed increased target-to-background (T/B ratio from tumors. The T/B ratio was significantly greater for the EGFR versus control peptide. Clearance of signal was observed by ∼24 h. EGFR overexpression was validated with immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry. A peptide specific for EGFR delivered systemically can detect HCC xenograft tumors in vivo with photoacoustic imaging.

  9. Mitochondrial translocation of EGFR regulates mitochondria dynamics and promotes metastasis in NSCLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Ting-Fang; Lin, Ching-Wen; Wu, Yi-Ying; Chen, Yu-Ju; Han, Chia-Li; Chang, Yih-leong; Wu, Chen-Tu; Hsiao, Tzu-Hung; Hong, Tse-Ming; Yang, Pan-Chyr

    2015-11-10

    Dysfunction of the mitochondria is well-known for being associated with cancer progression. In the present study, we analyzed the mitochondria proteomics of lung cancer cell lines with different invasion abilities and found that EGFR is highly expressed in the mitochondria of highly invasive non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. EGF induces the mitochondrial translocation of EGFR; further, it leads to mitochondrial fission and redistribution in the lamellipodia, upregulates cellular ATP production, and enhances motility in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, EGFR can regulate mitochondrial dynamics by interacting with Mfn1 and disturbing Mfn1 polymerization. Overexpression of Mfn1 reverses the phenotypes resulting from EGFR mitochondrial translocation. We show that the mitochondrial EGFR expressions are higher in paired samples of the metastatic lymph node as compared with primary lung tumor and are inversely correlated with the overall survival in NSCLC patients. Therefore, our results demonstrate that besides the canonical role of EGFR as a receptor tyrosine, the mitochondrial translocation of EGFR may enhance cancer invasion and metastasis through regulating mitochondria dynamics.

  10. Differences in EGFR and KRAS mutation spectra in lung adenocarcinoma of never and heavy smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamochi, Kazuya; Oh, Shiaki; Suzuki, Kenji

    2013-11-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations are common in lung adenocarcinomas of never smokers, while KRAS mutations are more frequent among heavy smokers. Different clinicopathological and biological characteristics may, therefore, exist in lung adenocarcinoma according to smoking status. In the present study, a retrospective review was performed using 521 patients with surgically resected lung adenocarcinomas. The clinicopathological factors of age, gender, pathological tumor size, nodal status, lymphatic permeation and blood vessel invasion and the EGFR and KRAS mutation spectra were compared between never and heavy smokers. EGFR mutations were detected in 233 (45%) patients, while KRAS mutations were detected in 56 (11%) patients. EGFR-mutated adenocarcinomas had a higher prevalence of females in the never smokers compared with the heavy smokers (Pnever smokers compared with the heavy smokers. Minor EGFR mutations, excluding exon 21 L858R and exon 19 deletions, were more common in heavy smokers than never smokers (P=0.055). KRAS G to A transition was more common in never smokers, while KRAS G to T and G to C transversions were more common in heavy smokers (P=0.036). The clinicopathological characteristics and the spectra of the EGFR and KRAS mutations in lung adenocarcinoma were different between the never and heavy smokers. Further large-scale studies are required to evaluate the efficacy of molecular targeting agents with consideration to specific EGFR and KRAS mutations.

  11. EGFR and HER2 activate rigidity sensing only on rigid matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Mayur; Liu, Shuaimin; Yang, Bo; Hajal, Cynthia; Changede, Rishita; Hu, Junqiang; Wolfenson, Haguy; Hone, James; Sheetz, Michael P.

    2017-07-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) interacts with integrins during cell spreading and motility, but little is known about the role of EGFR in these mechanosensing processes. Here we show, using two different cell lines, that in serum- and EGF-free conditions, EGFR or HER2 activity increase spreading and rigidity-sensing contractions on rigid, but not soft, substrates. Contractions peak after 15-20 min, but diminish by tenfold after 4 h. Addition of EGF at that point increases spreading and contractions, but this can be blocked by myosin-II inhibition. We further show that EGFR and HER2 are activated through phosphorylation by Src family kinases (SFK). On soft surfaces, neither EGFR inhibition nor EGF stimulation have any effect on cell motility. Thus, EGFR or HER2 can catalyse rigidity sensing after associating with nascent adhesions under rigidity-dependent tension downstream of SFK activity. This has broad implications for the roles of EGFR and HER2 in the absence of EGF both for normal and cancerous growth.

  12. Drug combination approach to overcome resistance to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Christy W S; Wu, William K K; Loong, Herbert H F; Cho, William C S; To, Kenneth K W

    2017-10-01

    The discovery of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR TKI) has led to unprecedented clinical response in a subset of lung cancer patients carrying the sensitizing EGFR mutations (L858R or exon 19 deletion). However, disease progression invariably occurs within a year after the initial TKI treatment, predominantly due to the development of acquired resistance caused by the secondary EGFR T790 M mutation. Numerous second generation irreversible and third generation EGFR T790 M selective EGFR TKIs have been developed to overcome resistance. Besides developing new EGFR TKIs, combination therapy represents another promising strategy to combat resistance. This approach aims at circumventing drug resistance through a so-called bypass signaling mechanism by targeting horizontal pathways or vertical pathways or both. The logical combinations of different molecular targeted drugs inhibiting various oncogenic signaling have been studied. On the other hand, the repurposing of drugs with indications other than oncology has also emerged as a promising approach. In this review, we focus on the effectiveness of combination therapy of EGFR-TKIs with different agents in advanced lung cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The complexity of targeting EGFR signalling in cancer: from expression to turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Sinto; Settleman, Jeffrey; Reshkin, Stephan J; Azzariti, Amalia; Bellizzi, Antonia; Paradiso, Angelo

    2006-08-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (ErbB1 or EGFR) has been found to be altered in a variety of human cancers. A number of agents targeting these receptors, including specific antibodies directed against the ligand-binding domain of the receptor and small molecules that inhibit kinase activity are either in clinical trials or are already approved for clinical treatment. However, identifying patients that are likely to respond to such treatments has been challenging. As a consequence, it still remains important to identify additional alterations of the tumor cell that contribute to the response to EGFR-targeted agents. While EGFR-mediated signalling pathways have been well established, there is still a rather limited understanding of how intracellular protein-protein interactions, ubiquitination, endocytosis and subsequent degradation of EGFR contribute to the determination of sensitivity to EGFR targeting agents and are emerging areas of investigation. This review primarily focuses on the basic signal transduction pathways mediated through activated membrane bound and/or endosomal EGFR and emphasizes the need to co-target additional proteins that function either upstream or downstream of EGFR to improve cancer therapy.

  14. Anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody in cancer treatment: in vitro and in vivo evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quatrale, Anna Elisa; Petriella, Daniela; Porcelli, Letizia; Tommasi, Stefania; Silvestris, Nicola; Colucci, Giuseppe; Angelo, Angelo; Azzariti, Amalia

    2011-01-01

    The complexity of EGFR signaling network suggests that the receptor could be promising targets for new personalised therapy. In clinical practice two strategies targeting the receptor are available; they utilise monoclonal antibodies, directed towards the extracellular domain of EGFR, and small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors, which bind the catalytic kinase domain of the receptor. In this review, we summarise currently known pre-clinical data on the antitumor effects of monoclonal antibodies, which bind to EGFR in its inactive configuration, competing for ligand binding and thereby blocking ligand-induced EGFR tyrosine kinase activation. As a consequence of treatment, key EGFR-dependent intracellular signals in cancer cells are affected. Data explaining the mechanisms of action of anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies, currently used in clinical setting and under development for the treatment of solid tumors, are revised with the aim to provide an overview of the most important preclinical studies showing the impact of this class of EGFR targeted agents on tumor biology.

  15. Dacomitinib in lung cancer: a “lost generation” EGFR tyrosine-kinase inhibitor from a bygone era?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ou SH

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sai-Hong Ignatius Ou,1 Ross A Soo21Chao Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of California, Irvine School of Medicine, Orange, CA, USA; 2National University Health System and Cancer Science Institute of Singapore, SingaporeAbstract: EGFR tyrosine-kinase inhibitors (TKIs have now been firmly established as the first-line treatment for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients harboring activating EGFR mutations, based on seven prospective randomized Phase III trials. However, despite significantly improved overall response rate and improved median progression-free survival when compared to platinum-doublet chemotherapy, EGFR-mutant NSCLC patients treated with EGFR TKIs invariably progress due to the emergence of acquired resistances, with the gatekeeper T790M mutation accounting for up to 60% of the resistance mechanisms. Second-generation irreversible EGFR TKIs were developed in part to inhibit the T790M mutation, in addition to the common activating EGFR mutations. Dacomitinib is one such second-generation EGFR TKI designed to inhibit both the wild-type (WT EGFR and EGFR T790M. Afatinib is another second-generation EGR TKI that has been now been approved for the first-line treatment of EGFR-mutant NSCLC patients, while dacomitinib continues to undergo clinical evaluation. We will review the clinical development of dacomitinib from Phase I to Phase III trials, including the two recently published negative large-scale randomized Phase III trials (ARCHER 1009, NCIC-BR-26. Results from another large-scale randomized trial (ARCHER 1050 comparing dacomitinib to gefitinib as first-line treatment of advanced treatment-naïve EGFR-mutant NSCLC patients will soon be available and will serve as the lynchpin trial for the potential approval of dacomitinib in NSCLC. Meanwhile, third-generation EGFR TKIs (eg, CO-1686 [rociletinib], AZ9291, HM61713, EGF816, and ASP8273 that preferentially

  16. EGFR and Bcl-2 in gastric mucosa of children infected with Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Ryszczuk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the expression of EGFR and Bcl-2 proteins as inhibitory markers of apoptosis in surface epithelial cells and gland cells of antral gastric mucosa in children infected with Helicobacter pylori according to the severity and activity of antral gastritis and to assess the correlation between the number of cells expressing EGFR and the number of cells expressing Bcl-2 in H. pylori infected children.Materials and methods: The study included 44 children: 68.2% with chronic gastritis and positive IgG against H. pylori, and 31.8% with functional disorders of the gastrointestinal tract and with normal IgG against H. pylori. The evaluation of EGFR expression in gastric mucosa was performed immunohistochemically using monoclonal mouse anti-EGFR antibody. The polyclonal antibody was used to determine the expression of anti-Bcl-2.Results: A significant increase in the number of cells expressing EGFR and Bcl-2 protein was found in the epithelial cells in severe as well as mild and moderate gastritis in the group of children infected with H. pylori. An increase in the number of cells expressing EGFR and Bcl-2 protein was also found in the epithelial cells in group I according to the activity of gastritis. There was a statistically significant positive correlation between the numbers of cells expressing EGFR and Bcl-2 in H. pylori infected children.Conclusion: Increased expression of EGFR and Bcl-2 proteins in the epithelial cells and a statistically significant positive correlation between the numbers of cells expressing EGFR and Bcl-2 in H. pylori infected children could suggest increased regeneration abilities of gastric mucosa.

  17. Cationic Polyamidoamine Dendrimers as Modulators of EGFR Signaling In Vitro and In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Saghir; Al-Zaid, Bashayer; El-Hashim, Ahmed Z.; Chandrasekhar, Bindu; Attur, Sreeja; Yousif, Mariam H. M.; Benter, Ibrahim F.

    2015-01-01

    Cationic polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers are branch-like spherical polymers being investigated for a variety of applications in nanomedicine including nucleic acid drug delivery. Emerging evidence suggests they exhibit intrinsic biological and toxicological effects but little is known of their interactions with signal transduction pathways. We previously showed that the activated (fragmented) generation (G) 6 PAMAM dendrimer, Superfect (SF), stimulated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase signaling—an important signaling cascade that regulates cell growth, survival and apoptosis- in cultured human embryonic kidney (HEK 293) cells. Here, we firstly studied the in vitro effects of Polyfect (PF), a non-activated (intact) G6 PAMAM dendrimer, on EGFR tyrosine kinase signaling via extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in cultured HEK 293 cells and then compared the in vivo effects of a single administration (10mg/kg i.p) of PF or SF on EGFR signaling in the kidneys of normal and diabetic male Wistar rats. Polyfect exhibited a dose- and time-dependent inhibition of EGFR, ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK phosphorylation in HEK-293 cells similar to AG1478, a selective EGFR inhibitor. Administration of dendrimers to non-diabetic or diabetic animals for 24h showed that PF inhibited whereas SF stimulated EGFR phosphorylation in the kidneys of both sets of animals. PF-mediated inhibition of EGFR phosphorylation as well as SF or PF-mediated apoptosis in HEK 293 cells could be significantly reversed by co-treatment with antioxidants such as tempol implying that both these effects involved an oxidative stress-dependent mechanism. These results show for the first time that SF and PF PAMAM dendrimers can differentially modulate the important EGFR signal transduction pathway in vivo and may represent a novel class of EGFR modulators. These findings could have important clinical implications for the use of PAMAM

  18. Heat stress induced, ligand-independent MET and EGFR signalling in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Scott M; Jondal, Danielle E; Butters, Kim A; Knudsen, Bruce E; Anderson, Jill L; Stokes, Matthew P; Jia, Xiaoying; Grande, Joseph P; Roberts, Lewis R; Callstrom, Matthew R; Woodrum, David A

    2017-11-06

    The aims of the present study were 2-fold: first, to test the hypothesis that heat stress induces MET and EGFR signalling in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells and inhibition of this signalling decreases HCC clonogenic survival; and second, to identify signalling pathways associated with heat stress induced MET signalling. MET(+) and EGFR(+) HCC cells were pre-treated with inhibitors to MET, EGFR, PI3K/mTOR or vehicle and subjected to heat stress or control ± HGF or EGF growth factors and assessed by colony formation assay, Western blotting and/or quantitative mass spectrometry. IACUC approved partial laser thermal or sham ablation was performed on orthotopic N1S1 and AS30D HCC tumours and liver/tumour assessed for phospho-MET and phospho-EGFR immunostaining. Heat-stress induced rapid MET and EGFR phosphorylation that is distinct from HGF or EGF in HCC cells and thermal ablation induced MET but not EGFR phosphorylation at the HCC tumour ablation margin. Inhibition of the MET and EGFR blocked both heat stress and growth factor induced MET and EGFR phosphorylation and inhibition of MET decreased HCC clonogenic survival following heat stress. Pathway analysis of quantitative phosphoproteomic data identified downstream pathways associated with heat stress induced MET signalling including AKT, ERK, Stat3 and JNK. However, inhibition of heat stress induced MET signalling did not block AKT signalling. Heat-stress induced MET and EGFR signalling is distinct from growth factor mediated signalling in HCC cells and MET inhibition enhances heat stress induced HCC cell killing via a PI3K/AKT/mTOR-independent mechanism.

  19. EGFR Is Regulated by TFAP2C in Luminal Breast Cancer and Is a Target for Vandetanib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Andrade, James P; Park, Jung M; Gu, Vivian W; Woodfield, George W; Kulak, Mikhail V; Lorenzen, Allison W; Wu, Vincent T; Van Dorin, Sarah E; Spanheimer, Philip M; Weigel, Ronald J

    2016-03-01

    Expression of TFAP2C in luminal breast cancer is associated with reduced survival and hormone resistance, partially explained through regulation of RET. TFAP2C also regulates EGFR in HER2 breast cancer. We sought to elucidate the regulation and functional role of EGFR in luminal breast cancer. We used gene knockdown (KD) and treatment with a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) in cell lines and primary cancer isolates to determine the role of RET and EGFR in regulation of p-ERK and tumorigenesis. KD of TFAP2C decreased expression of EGFR in a panel of luminal breast cancers, and chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) confirmed that TFAP2C targets the EGFR gene. Stable KD of TFAP2C significantly decreased cell proliferation and tumor growth, mediated in part through EGFR. While KD of RET or EGFR reduced proliferation (31% and 34%, P breast cancers to TKIs assessed by ERK activation established a correlation with expression of RET and EGFR. We conclude that TFAP2C regulates EGFR in luminal breast cancer. Response to vandetanib was mediated through the TFAP2C target genes EGFR and RET. Vandetanib may provide a therapeutic effect in luminal breast cancer, and RET and EGFR can serve as molecular markers for response. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  20. Expression of EGFR Under Tumor Hypoxia: Identification of a Subpopulation of Tumor Cells Responsible for Aggressiveness and Treatment Resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoogsteen, Ilse J., E-mail: i.hoogsteen@rther.umcn.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Marres, Henri A.M.; Hoogen, Franciscus J.A. van den [Department of Otorhinolaryngology/Head-Neck Surgery, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Rijken, Paul F.J.W.; Lok, Jasper; Bussink, Johan; Kaanders, Johannes H.A.M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: Overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and tumor hypoxia have been shown to correlate with worse outcome in several types of cancer including head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma. Little is known about the combination and possible interactions between the two phenomena. Methods and Materials: In this study, 45 cases of histologically confirmed squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck were analyzed. All patients received intravenous infusions of the exogenous hypoxia marker pimonidazole prior to biopsy. Presence of EGFR, pimonidazole binding, and colocalization between EGFR and tumor hypoxia were examined using immunohistochemistry. Results: Of all biopsies examined, respectively, 91% and 60% demonstrated EGFR- and pimonidazole-positive areas. A weak but significant association was found between the hypoxic fractions of pimonidazole (HFpimo) and EGFR fractions (F-EGFR) and between F-EGFR and relative vascular area. Various degrees of colocalization between hypoxia and EGFR were found, increasing with distance from the vasculature. A high fraction of EGFR was correlated with better disease-free and metastasis-free survival, whereas a high degree of colocalization correlated with poor outcome. Conclusions: Colocalization of hypoxia and EGFR was demonstrated in head-and-neck squamous cell carcinomas, predominantly at longer distances from vessels. A large amount of colocalization was associated with poor outcome, which points to a survival advantage of hypoxic cells that are also able to express EGFR. This subpopulation of tumor cells might be indicative of tumor aggressiveness and be partly responsible for treatment resistance.

  1. Development of new mouse lung tumor models expressing EGFR T790M mutants associated with clinical resistance to kinase inhibitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Regales

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The EGFR T790M mutation confers acquired resistance to kinase inhibitors in human EGFR mutant lung adenocarcinoma, is occasionally detected before treatment, and may confer genetic susceptibility to lung cancer.To study further its role in lung tumorigenesis, we developed mice with inducible expression in type II pneumocytes of EGFR(T790M alone or together with a drug-sensitive L858R mutation. Both transgenic lines develop lung adenocarcinomas that require mutant EGFR for tumor maintenance but are resistant to an EGFR kinase inhibitor. EGFR(L858R+T790M-driven tumors are transiently targeted by hsp90 inhibition. Notably, EGFR(T790M-expressing animals develop tumors with longer latency than EGFR(L858R+T790M-bearing mice and in the absence of additional kinase domain mutations.These new mouse models of mutant EGFR-dependent lung adenocarcinomas provide insight into clinical observations. The models should also be useful for developing improved therapies for patients with lung cancers harboring EGFR(T790M alone or in conjunction with drug-sensitive EGFR kinase domain mutations.

  2. Relationship between EGFR gene mutation and local metastasis of resectable lung adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Yunqiang; Gao, Wei; Li, Na; Chen, Wenjun; Wang, Hui; Li, Cuiyun; Zhang, Haiyan; Han, Ping; Zhang, Yingmei; Lv, Xin; Xu, Xinyi; Liu, Hongyan

    2017-03-03

    Resectable lung adenocarcinoma is dominated by peripheral distribution, and surgical resection is the main treatment protocol. However, high recurrence rate remains after surgery. Lung adenocarcinoma with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation has strong invasion ability, but the effects of this mutation on local invasion in early lung adenocarcinoma have been rarely studied. This study aimed to assess the effects of EGFR mutation on local invasion in resectable lung adenocarcinoma. A retrospective analysis of 103 patients clinically diagnosed with peripheral lung adenocarcinoma was included. They underwent preoperative bronchoscopy, which indicated grades 2 or 3 bronchial involvement (lumen of the lobe or segment). The associations of EGFR mutation with pleural invasion, endobronchial metastasis, and lymph node metastasis were analyzed according to pathologies of pleural invasion and lymph node metastasis, as well as EGFR gene mutation detected by postoperative pathological specimens. Statistical analyses were performed by unpaired Chi-square test using the SPSS16.0 software. In patients with EGFR mutation, pleural invasion, endobronchial metastasis, and lymph node metastasis rates were 62.5, 39.1, and 34.4%, respectively, indicating statistically significant differences (p = 0.003). Meanwhile, the pleural invasion rate in patients with wild-type EGFR was 43.6%, significantly reduced compared with patients with mutated EGFR (62.5%; p = 0.018). In addition, the endobronchial metastasis rate in patients with wild-type EGFR was 17.9%, significantly lower than in patients with EGFR mutation (39.1%; p = 0.005). However, lymph node metastasis rates were similar between EGFR mutated and wild-type patients (34.4 vs 25.6%, respectively, p > 0.05). Early resectable lung adenocarcinoma patients with EGFR mutation showed a higher rate of local invasion compared with those harboring wild-type EGFR. This finding provides a basis for improved therapy

  3. Co-activation of STAT3 and YES-Associated Protein 1 (YAP1) Pathway in EGFR-Mutant NSCLC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaib, Imane; Karachaliou, Niki; Pilotto, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Background: The efficacy of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in EGFR-mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is limited by adaptive activation of cell survival signals. We hypothesized that both signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3......) and Src-YES-associated protein 1 (YAP1) signaling are dually activated during EGFR TKI treatment to limit therapeutic response. Methods: We used MTT and clonogenic assays, immunoblotting, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction to evaluate the efficacy of EGFR TKI alone and in combination with STAT3...... that lung cancer cells survive initial EGFR inhibitor treatment through activation of not only STAT3 but also Src-YAP1 signaling. Cotargeting EGFR, STAT3, and Src was synergistic in two EGFR-mutant NSCLC cell lines with a combination index of 0.59 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.54 to 0.63) for the PC-9...

  4. Efficacy of chemotherapy in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutated metastatic pulmonary adenocarcinoma patients who had acquired resistance to first-line EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Yen-Han; Hung, Hsiu-Ying; Sung, Yi-Chen; Tseng, Yen-Chiang; Lee, Yu-Chin; Whang-Peng, Jacqueline; Chen, Yuh-Min

    2016-01-01

    Salvage chemotherapy is frequently used when tumour epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutated patients experience disease progression with first-line EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment. However, the efficacy of salvage chemotherapy is still unknown. We retrospectively reviewed the chart records of our pulmonary adenocarcinoma patients between 2010 and 2013. Five hundred and six of the 1240 stage IV adenocarcinoma patients had an EGFR mutation and 338 received first-line EGFR-TKI treatment. In all, 169 patients in this group received salvage chemotherapy after failure of EGFR-TKI, and 102 patients were eligible for this study. The chemotherapy response rate of these 102 patients was 24.5%, with a median progression-free survival (PFS) of 4.5?months, and median survival time was 14.6?months. Patients who received pemetrexed-based chemotherapy had longer PFS and overall survival (OS), although the extent was statistically insignificant. Progression-free survival and OS were longer for patients who received combination chemotherapy than single-agent chemotherapy. Pemetrexed-based combination chemotherapy is preferred before a more efficient treatment strategy is found.

  5. Polymorphism in Energetic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    the classic cases of polymorphism at ambient conditions in the energetic field are TNT, HMX , and CL20 (Fig. 1). TNT [2,4,6-trinitrotoluene] is known...2008 NRL REVIEW 71 Polymorphism in Energetic Materials J.R. Deschamps,1 D.A. Parrish,1 and R.J. Butcher2 1Laboratory for Structure of Matter...2Department of Chemistry, Howard University Polymorphism often occurs in energetic materials. Differences in the forms range from conformational changes in

  6. Clinical Observation of EGFR-TKI as A First-line Therapy on Advanced Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjie LI

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective It has been proven that epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI significantly benefits advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients harboring EGFR mutations in progression-free survival time with better tolerance. This study is undertaken to analyze efficacy and tolerance of advanced NSCLC patients harboring EGFR mutations taking EGFR-TKI as a first-line therapy. Methods Tumor samples from 54 patients with advanced NSCLC were examined for EGFR activating mutations (deletion mutation in exon 19 and the L858R point mutation in exon 21 by direct sequencing. The patients were first-line treated with oral administration of EGFR-TKI until disease progression. The efficacy and adverse events were observed, and survival was followed up. Results Among the patients, 61% (33 of 54 had EGFR exon 19 deletion, and 39% (21 of 54 had EGFR L858R point mutation. All patients received first-line TKI therapy. The total response rate was 96%, median progression free survival (PFS was 8.3 months and median survival was 19.5 months. The patients with EGFR exon 19 deletion had significantly longer median PFS (9 versus 7 months, P=0.002 and longer median overall survival (OS(25 versus 16 months, P=0.001 than patients with EGFR L858R point mutation. There is no significance in efficacy between gefitinib and erlotinib, and gefitinib is safer than erlotinib. The most common adverse events were rash and diarrhea. Two (4% grade 4 skin toxity effects, two (4% grade 3 aminotransferase level elevations, and one (1 grade 3 stomatitis were observed. Conclusion The first-line EGFR-TKI treatment in advanced NSCLC patients harboring EGFR mutations is efficient and safe, which is more efficient in patients with EGFR exon 19 deletion than those with EGFR L858R mutation.

  7. Detection and clinical significance of intratumoral EGFR mutational heterogeneity in Chinese patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Bai

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: This study evaluated occurrence and potential clinical significance of intratumoral EGFR mutational heterogeneity in Chinese patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty-five stage IIIa-IV NSCLC patients who had undergone palliative surgical resection were included in this study. Of these, 45 patients carried EGFR mutations (group-M and 40 patients were wild-type (group-W. Each tumor sample was microdissected to yield 28-34 tumor foci and Intratumoral EGFR mutation were determined using Denaturing High Performance Liquid Chromatography (DHPLC and Amplification Refractory Mutation System (ARMS. EGFR copy numbers were measured using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH. RESULTS: Microdissection yielded 1,431 tumor foci from EGFR mutant patients (group-M and 1,238 foci from wild-type patients (group-W. The EGFR mutant frequencies in group-M were 80.6% (1,154/1,431 and 87.1% (1,247/1,431 using DHPLC and ARMS, respectively. A combination of EGFR-mutated and wild-type cells was detected in 32.9% (28/85 of samples by DHPLC and 28.2% (24/85 by ARMS, supporting the occurrence of intratumoral heterogeneity. Thirty-one patients (36.5% were identified as EGFR FISH-positive. Patients harboring intratumoral mutational heterogeneity possessed lower EGFR copy numbers than those tumors contained mutant cells alone (16.7% vs. 71.0%, P<0.05. Among 26 patients who had received EGFR-TKIs, the mean EGFR mutation content was higher in patients showing partial response (86.1% or stable disease (48.7% compared with patients experiencing progressive disease (6.0% (P = 0.001. There also showed relationship between progression-free survival (PFS and different content of EGFR mutation groups (pure wild type EGFR, EGFR mutation with heterogeneity and pure mutated EGFR (P = 0.001. CONCLUSION: Approximately 30% of patients presented intratumoral EGFR mutational heterogeneity, accompanying with relatively low EGFR copy

  8. EGFR-STAT3 signaling promotes formation of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J; Patmore, D M; Jousma, E; Eaves, D W; Breving, K; Patel, A V; Schwartz, E B; Fuchs, J R; Cripe, T P; Stemmer-Rachamimov, A O; Ratner, N

    2014-01-09

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) develop sporadically or in the context of neurofibromatosis type 1. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) overexpression has been implicated in MPNST formation, but its precise role and relevant signaling pathways remain unknown. We found that EGFR overexpression promotes mouse neurofibroma transformation to aggressive MPNST (GEM-PNST). Immunohistochemistry demonstrated phosphorylated STAT3 (Tyr705) in both human MPNST and mouse GEM-PNST. A specific JAK2/STAT3 inhibitor FLLL32 delayed MPNST formation in an MPNST xenograft nude mouse model. STAT3 knockdown by shRNA prevented MPNST formation in vivo. Finally, reducing EGFR activity strongly reduced pSTAT3 in vivo. Thus, an EGFR-STAT3 pathway is necessary for MPNST transformation and establishment of MPNST xenografts growth but not for tumor maintenance. Efficacy of the FLLL32 pharmacological inhibitor in delaying MPNST growth suggests that combination therapies targeting JAK/STAT3 might be useful therapeutics.

  9. EGFR-mediated Beclin 1 phosphorylation in autophagy suppression, tumor progression, and tumor chemoresistance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wei, Yongjie; Zou, Zhongju; Becker, Nils; Anderson, Matthew; Sumpter, Rhea; Xiao, Guanghua; Kinch, Lisa; Koduru, Prasad; Christudass, Christhunesa S; Veltri, Robert W; Grishin, Nick V; Peyton, Michael; Minna, John; Bhagat, Govind; Levine, Beth

    2013-01-01

    ...) tyrosine kinase regulates autophagy. Active EGFR binds the autophagy protein Beclin 1, leading to its multisite tyrosine phosphorylation, enhanced binding to inhibitors, and decreased Beclin 1-associated VPS34 kinase activity...

  10. The EGFR signaling pathway controls gut progenitor differentiation during planarian regeneration and homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberán, Sara; Fraguas, Susanna; Cebrià, Francesc

    2016-06-15

    The planarian Schmidtea mediterranea maintains and regenerates all its adult tissues through the proliferation and differentiation of a single population of pluripotent adult stem cells (ASCs) called neoblasts. Despite recent advances, the mechanisms regulating ASC differentiation into mature cell types are poorly understood. Here, we show that silencing of the planarian EGF receptor egfr-1 by RNA interference (RNAi) impairs gut progenitor differentiation into mature cells, compromising gut regeneration and maintenance. We identify a new putative EGF ligand, nrg-1, the silencing of which phenocopies the defects observed in egfr-1(RNAi) animals. These findings indicate that egfr-1 and nrg-1 promote gut progenitor differentiation, and are thus essential for normal cell turnover and regeneration in the planarian gut. Our study demonstrates that the EGFR signaling pathway is an important regulator of ASC differentiation in planarians. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. Successful crizotinib monotherapy in EGFR-mutant lung adenocarcinoma with acquired MET amplification after erlotinib therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuhiro Yoshimura, MD

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available MET is a driver oncogene in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC, and its amplification is associated with acquired resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors. A 56-year-old Japanese male with lung adenocarcinoma harboring an EGFR exon 21 L858R mutation received erlotinib to which he responded for 12 months. After disease progression, re-biopsy analyses revealed newly developed MET amplification. Neither EGFR exon 20 T790M mutation nor MET exon 14 mutations were detected. The MET inhibitor, crizotinib, showed a dramatic response. This is the first report of successful crizotinib single-agent therapy in EGFR-mutant NSCLC that acquired MET amplification during erlotinib therapy.

  12. Bisphenol A activates EGFR and ERK promoting proliferation, tumor spheroid formation and resistance to EGFR pathway inhibition in estrogen receptor-negative inflammatory breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Scott J; Tarpley, Michael; Shah, Imran; Save, Akshay V; Lyerly, H Kim; Patierno, Steven R; Williams, Kevin P; Devi, Gayathri R

    2017-03-01

    Emerging evidence from epidemiological studies suggests a link between environmental chemical exposure and progression of aggressive breast cancer subtypes. Of all clinically distinct types of breast cancers, the most lethal phenotypic variant is inflammatory breast cancer (IBC). Overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR/HER2) along with estrogen receptor (ER) negativity is common in IBC tumor cells, which instead of a solid mass present as rapidly proliferating diffuse tumor cell clusters. Our previous studies have demonstrated a role of an adaptive response of increased antioxidants in acquired resistance to EGFR-targeting drugs in IBC. Environmental chemicals are known to induce oxidative stress resulting in perturbations in signal transduction pathways. It is therefore of interest to identify chemicals that can potentiate EGFR mitogenic effects in IBC. Herein, we assessed in ER-negative IBC cells a subset of chemicals from the EPA ToxCast set for their effect on EGFR activation and in multiple cancer phenotypic assays. We demonstrated that endocrine-disrupting chemicals such as bisphenol A (BPA) and 2,2-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane can increase EGFR/ERK signaling. BPA also caused a corresponding increase in expression of SOD1 and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2, key markers of antioxidant and anti-apoptotic processes. BPA potentiated clonogenic growth and tumor spheroid formation in vitro, reflecting IBC-specific pathological characteristics. Furthermore, we identified that BPA was able to attenuate the inhibitory effect of an EGFR targeted drug in a longer-term anchorage-independent growth assay. These findings provide a potential mechanistic basis for environmental chemicals such as BPA in potentiating a hyperproliferative and death-resistant phenotype in cancer cells by activating mitogenic pathways to which the tumor cells are addicted for survival. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For

  13. Comparison of the Analytical Performance Between cobas EGFR Assay and PCR-Clamp Method in the Detection of EGFR Mutations in Japanese Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Tomohiko; Yuri, Maiko; Tabe, Yoko; Kakimoto, Atsushi; Morishita, Soji; Tsuchiya, Koji; Takamochi, Kazuya; Kodama, Yuzo; Takahashi, Fumiyuki; Shigeki, Misawa; Horii, Takashi; Suzuki, Kenji; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Miida, Takashi; Ohsaka, Akimichi

    2017-05-01

    EGFR, a tyrosine-kinase, plays an important role in the progression of lung cancer. Since genetic abnormality of EGFR alters the effects of tyrosine-kinase inhibitors targeting EGFR, molecular analyses of EGFR have recently gained more attention in the treatment of lung cancer. However, several different techniques are available and which method is superior has not been determined. In this study, we compared two recently developed PCR-based techniques, PCR-clamp method and cobas EGFR assay. Ninety-four surgical samples and 58 biopsy samples from patients suffering from non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) were included in the study. Samples with positive and negative genetic abnormalities, 66 and 28 respectively, were chosen for PCR-Clamp methods. Those same samples were reanalyzed with cobas EGFR assay. The concordance between PCR-Clamp and cobas EGFR methods was 95.7%. PCR-Clamp failed to detect four mutations that were detected with cobas EGFR assay. These two methods were further tested by analyzing 58 random biopsy samples. The concordance for the biopsy samples was 93.1%, and PCR-Clamp, again, failed to detect three mutations that were detected with cobas EGFR assay. Our results showed both methods detected most of the known EGFR mutations and the concordance was similar to those previously reported in different ethnicities. However, in our study, PCR-Clamp method failed to detect a total of seven mutations that were detected with cobas EGFR assay. Thus, we concluded that cobas EGFR assay is an easier and more accurate screening assay than PCR-Clamp method in detecting EGFR genetic abnormalities.

  14. TWIST1 a new determinant of epithelial to mesenchymal transition in EGFR mutated lung adenocarcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Pallier

    Full Text Available Metastasis is a multistep process and the main cause of mortality in lung cancer patients. We previously showed that EGFR mutations were associated with a copy number gain at a locus encompassing the TWIST1 gene on chromosome 7. TWIST1 is a highly conserved developmental gene involved in embryogenesis that may be reactivated in cancers promoting both malignant conversion and cancer progression through an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible implication of TWIST1 reactivation on the acquisition of a mesenchymal phenotype in EGFR mutated lung cancer. We studied a series of consecutive lung adenocarcinoma from Caucasian non-smokers for which surgical frozen samples were available (n = 33 and showed that TWIST1 expression was linked to EGFR mutations (P<0.001, to low CDH1 expression (P<0.05 and low disease free survival (P = 0.044. To validate that TWIST1 is a driver of EMT in EGFR mutated lung cancer, we used five human lung cancer cell lines and demonstrated that EMT and the associated cell mobility were dependent upon TWIST1 expression in cells with EGFR mutation. Moreover a decrease of EGFR pathway stimulation through EGF retrieval or an inhibition of TWIST1 expression by small RNA technology reversed the phenomenon. Collectively, our in vivo and in vitro findings support that TWIST1 collaborates with the EGF pathway in promoting EMT in EGFR mutated lung adenocarcinoma and that large series of EGFR mutated lung cancer patients are needed to further define the prognostic role of TWIST1 reactivation in this subgroup.

  15. Toxoplasma gondii-induced activation of EGFR prevents autophagy protein-mediated killing of the parasite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Muniz-Feliciano

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii resides in an intracellular compartment (parasitophorous vacuole that excludes transmembrane molecules required for endosome-lysosome recruitment. Thus, the parasite survives by avoiding lysosomal degradation. However, autophagy can re-route the parasitophorous vacuole to the lysosomes and cause parasite killing. This raises the possibility that T. gondii may deploy a strategy to prevent autophagic targeting to maintain the non-fusogenic nature of the vacuole. We report that T. gondii activated EGFR in endothelial cells, retinal pigment epithelial cells and microglia. Blockade of EGFR or its downstream molecule, Akt, caused targeting of the parasite by LC3(+ structures, vacuole-lysosomal fusion, lysosomal degradation and killing of the parasite that were dependent on the autophagy proteins Atg7 and Beclin 1. Disassembly of GPCR or inhibition of metalloproteinases did not prevent EGFR-Akt activation. T. gondii micronemal proteins (MICs containing EGF domains (EGF-MICs; MIC3 and MIC6 appeared to promote EGFR activation. Parasites defective in EGF-MICs (MIC1 ko, deficient in MIC1 and secretion of MIC6; MIC3 ko, deficient in MIC3; and MIC1-3 ko, deficient in MIC1, MIC3 and secretion of MIC6 caused impaired EGFR-Akt activation and recombinant EGF-MICs (MIC3 and MIC6 caused EGFR-Akt activation. In cells treated with autophagy stimulators (CD154, rapamycin EGFR signaling inhibited LC3 accumulation around the parasite. Moreover, increased LC3 accumulation and parasite killing were noted in CD154-activated cells infected with MIC1-3 ko parasites. Finally, recombinant MIC3 and MIC6 inhibited parasite killing triggered by CD154 particularly against MIC1-3 ko parasites. Thus, our findings identified EGFR activation as a strategy used by T. gondii to maintain the non-fusogenic nature of the parasitophorous vacuole and suggest that EGF-MICs have a novel role in affecting signaling in host cells to promote parasite survival.

  16. Combined effects of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors and vATPase inhibitors in NSCLC cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Hyeon-Ok [KIRAMS Radiation Biobank, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, 75 Nowon-ro, Nowon-gu, Seoul, 139–706 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Sung-Eun [Division of Radiation Cancer Research, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, 75 Nowon-ro, Nowon-gu, Seoul, 139–706 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chang Soon [Department of Microbiological Engineering, Kon-Kuk University, 120 Neungdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul, 143–701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jin-Ah; Kim, Jin-Hee; Kim, Ji-Young; Kim, Bora [KIRAMS Radiation Biobank, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, 75 Nowon-ro, Nowon-gu, Seoul, 139–706 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Yoon Hwan; Hong, Seok-Il; Hong, Young Jun [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, 75 Nowon-ro, Nowon-gu, Seoul, 139–706 (Korea, Republic of); Park, In-Chul, E-mail: parkic@kirams.re.kr [Division of Radiation Cancer Research, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, 75 Nowon-ro, Nowon-gu, Seoul, 139–706 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jin Kyung, E-mail: jklee@kirams.re.kr [KIRAMS Radiation Biobank, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, 75 Nowon-ro, Nowon-gu, Seoul, 139–706 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Laboratory Medicine, Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, 75 Nowon-ro, Nowon-gu, Seoul, 139–706 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    Despite excellent initial clinical responses of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), many patients eventually develop resistance. According to a recent report, vacuolar H + ATPase (vATPase) is overexpressed and is associated with chemotherapy drug resistance in NSCLC. We investigated the combined effects of EGFR TKIs and vATPase inhibitors and their underlying mechanisms in the regulation of NSCLC cell death. We found that combined treatment with EGFR TKIs (erlotinib, gefitinib, or lapatinib) and vATPase inhibitors (bafilomycin A1 or concanamycin A) enhanced synergistic cell death compared to treatments with each drug alone. Treatment with bafilomycin A1 or concanamycin A led to the induction of Bnip3 expression in an Hif-1α dependent manner. Knock-down of Hif-1α or Bnip3 by siRNA further enhanced cell death induced by bafilomycin A1, suggesting that Hif-1α/Bnip3 induction promoted resistance to cell death induced by the vATPase inhibitors. EGFR TKIs suppressed Hif-1α and Bnip3 expression induced by the vATPase inhibitors, suggesting that they enhanced the sensitivity of the cells to these inhibitors by decreasing Hif-1α/Bnip3 expression. Taken together, we conclude that EGFR TKIs enhance the sensitivity of NSCLC cells to vATPase inhibitors by decreasing Hif-1α/Bnip3 expression. We suggest that combined treatment with EGFR TKIs and vATPase inhibitors is potentially effective for the treatment of NSCLC. - Highlights: • Co-treatment with EGFR TKIs and vATPase inhibitors induces synergistic cell death • EGFR TKIs enhance cell sensitivity to vATPase inhibitors via Hif-1α downregulation • Co-treatment of these inhibitors is potentially effective for the treatment of NSCLC.

  17. Characterization of ABT-806, a Humanized Tumor-Specific Anti-EGFR Monoclonal Antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Edward B; Phillips, Andrew C; Buchanan, Fritz G; Kingsbury, Gillian; Zhang, Yumin; Meulbroek, Jonathan A; Cole, Todd B; DeVries, Peter J; Falls, Hugh D; Beam, Christine; Gu, Jinming; Digiammarino, Enrico L; Palma, Joann P; Donawho, Cherrie K; Goodwin, Neal C; Scott, Andrew M

    2015-05-01

    Despite clinical efficacy, current approved agents targeting EGFR are associated with on-target toxicities as a consequence of disrupting normal EGFR function. MAb 806 is a novel EGFR antibody that selectively targets a tumor-selective epitope suggesting that a mAb 806-based therapeutic would retain antitumor activity without the on-target toxicities associated with EGFR inhibition. To enable clinical development, a humanized variant of mAb 806 designated ABT-806 was generated and is currently in phase 1 trials. We describe the characterization of binding and functional properties of ABT-806 compared with the clinically validated anti-EGFR antibody cetuximab. ABT-806 binds the mutant EGFRvIII with high affinity and, relative to cetuximab, exhibits increased potency against glioblastoma multiforme cell line and patient-derived xenografts expressing this form of the receptor. ABT-806 also inhibits the growth of squamous cell carcinoma xenograft models expressing high levels of wild-type EGFR, associated with inhibition of EGFR signaling, although higher doses of ABT-806 than cetuximab are required for similar activity. ABT-806 enhances in vivo potency of standard-of-care therapies used to treat glioblastoma multiforme and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. An indium-labeled version of ABT-806, [(111)In]-ABT-806, used to investigate the relationship between dose and receptor occupancy, revealed greater receptor occupancy at lowers doses in an EGFRvIII-expressing model and significant uptake in an orthotopic model. Collectively, these results suggest that ABT-806 may have antitumor activity superior to cetuximab in EGFRvIII-expressing tumors, and similar activity to cetuximab in tumors highly overexpressing wild-type EGFR with reduced toxicity. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  18. 001. EGFR mutations in Greek patients with lung adenocarcinoma: a multi-center study (preliminary results)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarogoulidis, Pavlos; Kallianos, Anastasios; Kerasiotis, Haralampos; Marosis, Konstantinos; Vlastos, Fotios; Veldekis, Ioannis; Aggelidou, Maria; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Rapti, Aggeliki

    2015-01-01

    Background Integration of mutational epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) profiling to identify driver alterations in a clinical setting, is necessary to facilitate personalized lung cancer medicine. A tumor genotyping EGFR panel was developed and the Greek Mutation Study was initiated as a prospective tumor genotyping study. This study reports the frequency of driver genetic alterations in Greek lung adenocarcinoma patients, and epidemiology correlations with EGFR genotype. Methods Between November 2012 and June 2014, 211 lung adenocarcinoma patients were included in this study. EGFR mutations were tested in lung cancer tissues and histologic specimen. All patients completed informed consent. The method was high resolution melting analysis (HRMA) about mutations 18-21 and further analysis with method sequencing-ABI prism 3130 sequencer (DNA). Eighteen Surgically resected tissues (8.5%), 174 tumor biopsies (82%) and 19 (9%) body cavity fluids were collected and tested for EGFR mutations. We describe clinical and epidemiological profile of EGFR positive adenocarcinoma patients. Results Genetic EGFR positive mutations were detected in 10.8% (24 of 221) of all patients, fifteen women and nine men. All women were nonsmokers (100%) and seven of nine (78%) men were smokers. Mean age of this group was 64.3 years old. Eighteen patients were with stage IV and rest of them IIIa. None of them was operable. Conclusions This is one report of tumor EGFR positive Greek patients with adenocarcinoma. These data suggest that patients profiling data using a mutational testing platform would be valuable for observation for each group of patients helping clinical doctor for further molecular-targeted therapeutics in lung cancer.

  19. Assessment of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR expression in human meningioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perry Arie

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose This study explores whether meningioma expresses epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR and determines if there is a correlation between the WHO grade of this tumor and the degree of EGFR expression. Methods Following institutional review board approval, 113 meningioma specimens from 89 patients were chosen. Of these, 85 were used for final analysis. After a blinded review, immunohistochemical stains for EGFR were performed. Staining intensity (SI was scored on a scale 0-3 (from no staining to strong staining. Staining percentage of immunoreactive cells (SP was scored 1-5 (from the least to the maximum percent of the specimen staining. Immunohistochemical score (IHS was calculated as the product of SI and SP. Results Eighty-five samples of meningioma were classified in accordance with World Health Organization (WHO criteria: benign 57/85 (67%, atypical 23/85 (27%, and malignant 5/85 (6%. The majority of samples demonstrated a moderate SI for EGFR. IHS for EGFR demonstrated a significant association between SI and histopathologic subtype. Also, there was a correlation between the SP and histopathologic subtype (p = 0.029. A significant association was determined when the benign and the atypical samples were compared to the malignant with respect to the SP (p = 0.009. While there was a range of the IHS for the benign and the atypical histologic subtypes, malignant tumors exhibited the lowest score and were statistically different from the benign and the atypical specimens (p Conclusions To our knowledge, this represents the largest series of meningioma samples analyzed for EGFR expression reported in the literature. EGFR expression is greatest in benign meningiomas and may serve a potential target for therapeutic intervention with selective EGFR inhibitors.

  20. EGFR, HER-2 and KRAS in canine gastric epithelial tumors: a potential human model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terragni, Rossella; Casadei Gardini, Andrea; Sabattini, Silvia; Bettini, Giuliano; Amadori, Dino; Talamonti, Chiara; Vignoli, Massimo; Capelli, Laura; Saunders, Jimmy H; Ricci, Marianna; Ricci, Marianna; Ulivi, Paola; Ulivi, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR or HER-1) and its analog c-erbB-2 (HER-2) are protein tyrosine kinases correlated with prognosis and response to therapy in a variety of human cancers. KRAS mediates the transduction of signals between EGFR and the nucleus, and its mutation has been identified as a predictor of resistance to anti-EGFR drugs. In human oncology, the importance of the EGFR/HER-2/KRAS signalling pathway in gastric cancer is well established, and HER-2 testing is required before initiating therapy. Conversely, this pathway has never been investigated in canine gastric tumours. A total of 19 canine gastric epithelial neoplasms (5 adenomas and 14 carcinomas) were retrospectively evaluated for EGFR/HER-2 immunohistochemical expression and KRAS mutational status. Five (35.7%) carcinomas were classified as intestinal-type and 9 (64.3%) as diffuse-type. EGFR was overexpressed (≥ 1+) in 8 (42.1%) cases and HER-2 (3+) in 11 (57.9%) cases, regardless of tumour location or biological behaviour. The percentage of EGFR-positive tumours was significantly higher in the intestinal-type (80%) than in the diffuse-type (11.1%, p = 0.023). KRAS gene was wild type in 18 cases, whereas one mucinous carcinoma harboured a point mutation at codon 12 (G12R). EGFR and HER-2 may be promising prognostic and therapeutic targets in canine gastric epithelial neoplasms. The potential presence of KRAS mutation should be taken into account as a possible mechanism of drug resistance. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the role of dog as a model for human gastric cancer.

  1. EGFR, HER-2 and KRAS in canine gastric epithelial tumors: a potential human model?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossella Terragni

    Full Text Available Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR or HER-1 and its analog c-erbB-2 (HER-2 are protein tyrosine kinases correlated with prognosis and response to therapy in a variety of human cancers. KRAS mediates the transduction of signals between EGFR and the nucleus, and its mutation has been identified as a predictor of resistance to anti-EGFR drugs. In human oncology, the importance of the EGFR/HER-2/KRAS signalling pathway in gastric cancer is well established, and HER-2 testing is required before initiating therapy. Conversely, this pathway has never been investigated in canine gastric tumours. A total of 19 canine gastric epithelial neoplasms (5 adenomas and 14 carcinomas were retrospectively evaluated for EGFR/HER-2 immunohistochemical expression and KRAS mutational status. Five (35.7% carcinomas were classified as intestinal-type and 9 (64.3% as diffuse-type. EGFR was overexpressed (≥ 1+ in 8 (42.1% cases and HER-2 (3+ in 11 (57.9% cases, regardless of tumour location or biological behaviour. The percentage of EGFR-positive tumours was significantly higher in the intestinal-type (80% than in the diffuse-type (11.1%, p = 0.023. KRAS gene was wild type in 18 cases, whereas one mucinous carcinoma harboured a point mutation at codon 12 (G12R. EGFR and HER-2 may be promising prognostic and therapeutic targets in canine gastric epithelial neoplasms. The potential presence of KRAS mutation should be taken into account as a possible mechanism of drug resistance. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the role of dog as a model for human gastric cancer.

  2. Analysis of Intratumor Heterogeneity of EGFR Mutations in Mixed Type Lung Adenocarcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Tomonaga, Nanae; Nakamura, Yoichi; Yamaguchi,Hiroyuki; Ikeda, Takaya; Mizoguchi, Kosuke; Motoshima, Kohei; Doi, Seiji; Nakatomi, Katsumi; Iida, Tetsuya; Hayashi, Tomayoshi; Nagayasu, Takeshi; Tsukamoto, Kazuhiro; Kohno, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    Background: Epidermal growth factor receptor mutations are predictive of the success of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. As with other solid tumors, lung cancer is thought to be the result of an accumulation of genetic alterations after exposure to carcinogens. The aim of the present study was to clarify the relationship between multistep carcinogenesis and the accumulation of EGFR mutations. Patients and Methods: The intratumor he...

  3. Typing polymorphic recursion

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiredo, Lucília Camarão de; Camarão, Carlos

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses some advantages of supporting polymorphic recursión in programming languages and describes a decidable type inference algorithm for typing polymorphic and possibly mutually recursive definitions, using Haskell to provide an executable high level specification of the algorithm.

  4. The relevance of EGFR overexpression for the prediction of the malignant transformation of oral leukoplakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, Jutta; Vairaktaris, Eleftherios; Agaimy, Abbas; Bechtold, Moritz; Gorecki, Patricia; Neukam, Friedrich W; Nkenke, Emeka

    2013-09-01

    The present study evaluated the relevance of EGFR overexpression in prediction of malignant transformation of oral leukoplakia (OLP). The retrospective study comprised paraffin-embedded tissue samples of OLP that transformed into oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) (n=53) and tissue samples of OLP that did not transform into OSCC (n=45) during a follow-up period of 5 years. EGFR overexpression was assessed immunohistochemically. A significantly different expression rate of EGFR was determined between transformed and non-transformed OLP (p=0.017). A statistically significant increase of EGFR expression for low dysplasia lesions in group I compared to group II was proven (D0, p=0.013; D1, p=0.049). By calculation of ROC curve and determination of highest Youden index the optimal threshold value [cut-off point (COP) = 44.96] for distinguishing the transformed from non-transformed lesions was estimated (critical expression rate of EGFR). Using the determined COP the correlation between high-risk lesions and the detection of increased expression rates were significant (p=0.001). In the future, the assessment of EGFR overexpression in OLP may allow identifying OLP lesions with an increased risk of malignant transformation that may have been regarded harmless when only the grade of dysplasia had been taken into account.

  5. BDNF/TrkB signaling protects HT-29 human colon cancer cells from EGFR inhibition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunetto de Farias, Caroline [Cancer Research Laboratory, University Hospital Research Center (CPE-HCPA), Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, 90035-003 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Children' s Cancer Institute, 90420-140 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Laboratory of Neuropharmacology and Neural Tumor Biology, Department of Pharmacology, Institute for Basic Health Sciences, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, 90050-170 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); National Institute for Translational Medicine (INCT-TM), 90035-003 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Heinen, Tiago Elias; Pereira dos Santos, Rafael [Cancer Research Laboratory, University Hospital Research Center (CPE-HCPA), Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, 90035-003 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Laboratory of Neuropharmacology and Neural Tumor Biology, Department of Pharmacology, Institute for Basic Health Sciences, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, 90050-170 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); National Institute for Translational Medicine (INCT-TM), 90035-003 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Abujamra, Ana Lucia [Cancer Research Laboratory, University Hospital Research Center (CPE-HCPA), Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, 90035-003 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Children' s Cancer Institute, 90420-140 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); National Institute for Translational Medicine (INCT-TM), 90035-003 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Schwartsmann, Gilberto [Cancer Research Laboratory, University Hospital Research Center (CPE-HCPA), Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, 90035-003 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); National Institute for Translational Medicine (INCT-TM), 90035-003 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, 90035-003 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); and others

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BDNF protected HT-29 colorectal cancer cells from the antitumor effect of cetuximab. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TrkB inhibition potentiated the antitumor effect of cetuximab. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BDNF/TrkB signaling might be involved in resistance to anti-EGFR therapy. -- Abstract: The clinical success of targeted treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC) is often limited by resistance to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) therapy. The neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor TrkB have recently emerged as anticancer targets, and we have previously shown increased BDNF levels in CRC tumor samples. Here we report the findings from in vitro experiments suggesting that BDNF/TrkB signaling can protect CRC cells from the antitumor effects of EGFR blockade. The anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody cetuximab reduced both cell proliferation and the mRNA expression of BDNF and TrkB in human HT-29 CRC cells. The inhibitory effect of cetuximab on cell proliferation and survival was counteracted by the addition of human recombinant BDNF. Finally, the Trk inhibitor K252a synergistically enhanced the effect of cetuximab on cell proliferation, and this effect was blocked by BDNF. These results provide the first evidence that increased BDNF/TrkB signaling might play a role in resistance to EGFR blockade. Moreover, it is possible that targeting TrkB could potentiate the anticancer effects of anti-EGFR therapy.

  6. Unraveling the pivotal role of ALIX in MVB sorting and silencing of activated EGFR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Sheng; Zhou, Xi; Zhang, Wei; Gallick, Gary E.; Kuang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    ESCRT-III mediated membrane invagination and scission is a critical step in MVB sorting of ubiquitinated membrane receptors and generally thought to be required for degradation of these receptors in lysosomes. The adaptor protein ALIX is critically involved in multiple ESCRT-III-mediated membrane remodeling processes in mammalian cells. However, ALIX knockdown does not inhibit degradation of activated EGFR in mammalian cell lines, leading to a widely held notion that ALIX is not critically involved in MVB sorting of ubiquitinated membrane receptors in mammalian cells. In this study, we demonstrate that despite its non-essential roles in degradation of activated EGFR, ALIX plays a critical role in MVB sorting and silencing of activated EGFR. EGF stimulation of mammalian cell lines induces ALIX interaction with ubiquitinated EGFR through the ALIX V domain and increases ALIX association with membrane-bound CHMP4 through the ALIX Bro1 domain. Under both continuous and pulse-chase EGF stimulation conditions, inhibition of ALIX interaction with membrane-bound CHMP4, inhibition of ALIX dimerization through the V domain or ALIX knockdown dramatically inhibits MVB sorting of activated EGFR and promotes sustained activation of ERK1/2. Under the continuous EGF stimulation conditions, these cell treatments also retard degradation of activated EGFR. These findings indicate that ALIX is critically involved in MVB sorting of ubiquitinated membrane receptors in mammalian cells. PMID:25510652

  7. EGFR mutations as a prognostic and predictive marker in non-small-cell lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Shu; Wang, Zhehai

    2014-01-01

    Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has entered the age of individual treatment, and increasing point mutations of specific oncogenes and rearrangement of some chromosomes are biomarkers used to predict the therapeutic effect of targeted therapy. At present, there is a consensus among clinicians that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have shown favorable efficacy in NSCLC patients with EGFR mutation, and some relevant research has suggested that the presence of EGFR mutations is a favorable prognostic marker. However, the association of EGFR mutation status with the responsiveness to conventional chemotherapy agents and survival in NSCLC patients is still unclear. This review provides an overview of and assesses the role of EGFR as a prognostic marker for postoperative patients and as a predictive marker for response to cytotoxic chemotherapy. In addition, we review the comparison of response to chemotherapy between EGFR mutations in exon 19 and in exon 21 and the predictive role of p.T790M mutation. PMID:25302015

  8. Relationship between EGFR mutations and clinicopathological features of lung adenocarcinomas diagnosed via small biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Jung; Choi, Eun Young; Jin, Hyun Jung; Shin, Kyeong-Cheol

    2014-06-01

    We performed this study to evaluate the frequency of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations and their association with the histological subtype of lung adenocarcinoma diagnosed via small biopsy specimens. Three hundred and fifty-nine lung adenocarcinoma specimens were tested for EGFR mutation by a direct sequencing method. In 135 patients, histological subtypes were classified according to the 2011 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer/American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society classification. We compared the EGFR mutation frequency by clinicopathological characteristics. We detected 135 (37.6%) EGFR mutations and the incidence was highest in women who never smoked (54.6%). With regard to histological subtype, the highest prevalence of EGFR mutation was found in papillary (81.3%), followed by lepidic (70.4%), acinar (58.1%) and solid (28.3%) tumor types. In addition, the expression of thyroid transcription factor-1 was significantly higher in tumors with the EGFR mutation than in those without (pbiopsies. Copyright© 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  9. 2D-QSAR and 3D-QSAR Analyses for EGFR Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manman Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR is an important target for cancer therapy. In this study, EGFR inhibitors were investigated to build a two-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (2D-QSAR model and a three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR model. In the 2D-QSAR model, the support vector machine (SVM classifier combined with the feature selection method was applied to predict whether a compound was an EGFR inhibitor. As a result, the prediction accuracy of the 2D-QSAR model was 98.99% by using tenfold cross-validation test and 97.67% by using independent set test. Then, in the 3D-QSAR model, the model with q2=0.565 (cross-validated correlation coefficient and r2=0.888 (non-cross-validated correlation coefficient was built to predict the activity of EGFR inhibitors. The mean absolute error (MAE of the training set and test set was 0.308 log units and 0.526 log units, respectively. In addition, molecular docking was also employed to investigate the interaction between EGFR inhibitors and EGFR.

  10. FDG-PET/CT response evaluation during EGFR-TKI treatment in patients with NSCLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gool, Matthijs H; Aukema, Tjeerd S; Hartemink, Koen J; Valdés Olmos, Renato A; van Tinteren, Harm; Klomp, Houke M

    2014-07-28

    Over recent years, [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography acquired together with low dose computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) has proven its role as a staging modality in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The purpose of this review was to present the evidence to use FDG-PET/CT for response evaluation in patients with NSCLC, treated with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI). All published articles from 1 November 2003 to 1 November 2013 reporting on 18F-FDG-PET response evaluation during EGFR-TKI treatment in patients with NSCLC were collected. In total 7 studies, including data of 210 patients were eligible for analyses. Our report shows that FDG-PET/CT response during EGFR-TKI therapy has potential in targeted treatment for NSCLC. FDG-PET/CT response is associated with clinical and radiologic response and with survival. Furthermore FDG-PET/CT response monitoring can be performed as early as 1-2 wk after initiation of EGFR-TKI treatment. Patients with substantial decrease of metabolic activity during EGFR-TKI treatment will probably benefit from continued treatment. If metabolic response does not occur within the first weeks of EGFR-TKI treatment, patients may be spared (further) unnecessary toxicity of ineffective treatment. Refining FDG-PET response criteria may help the clinician to decide on continuation or discontinuation of targeted treatment.

  11. Comparative analysis of clinicoradiologic characteristics of lung adenocarcinomas with ALK rearrangements or EGFR mutations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, J.Y.; Zheng, J.; Chen, X.; Zhou, J.Y. [Zhejiang University, Department of Respiratory Disease, Thoracic Disease Center, First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Hangzhou (China); Yu, Z.F.; Xiao, W.B.; Jiang, L.N. [Zhejiang University, Department of Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Hangzhou (China); Zhao, J.; Sun, K.; Wang, B.; Ding, W. [Zhejiang University, Department of Pathology, First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Hangzhou (China)

    2015-05-01

    To compare the clinicoradiologic features of tumours with echinoderm anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangements, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations, or wild type (WT) for both genes in a cohort of patients with lung adenocarcinoma to identify useful characteristics of different gene statuses. In 346 lung adenocarcinoma patients, ALK rearrangements were confirmed with fluorescence in situ hybridisation, and EGFR mutations were determined by pyrosequencing assay. Patients were divided into three groups: ALK rearrangement (ALK+ group, n = 48), EGFR mutation (EGFR+ group, n = 166), and WT for both genes (WT group, n = 132). Chest computed tomography (CT) examinations were performed in all patients. The percentages of ground-glass opacity volume (pGGO) and tumour shadow disappearance rate (TDR) were measured using semi-automated nodule assessment software. The pGGO was significantly lower in the ALK+ group (25.1 % ± 24.3) than in the EGFR+ group (37.2 % ± 25.7, p < 0.001) and the WT group (36.1 % ± 24.6, p = 0.001). The TDR in the ALK+ group (17.3 % ± 25.1) was significantly lower than in the EGFR+ group (26.8 % ± 24.9, p = 0.002) and the WT group (25.7 % ± 24.6, p = 0.003). Solid pattern with lower incidence of lobulated border, finely spiculated margins, pleural retraction, and bubble-like lucency on CT imaging are the main characteristics of ALK rearrangement tumours. (orig.)

  12. IMPAIRED SHP2-MEDIATED ERK ACTIVATION CONTRIBUTES TO GEFITINIB SENSITIVITY OF LUNG CANCER CELLS WITH EGFR-ACTIVATING MUTATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzara, Matthew J.; Lane, Keara; Chan, Richard; Jasper, Paul J.; Yaffe, Michael B.; Sorger, Peter K.; Jacks, Tyler; Neel, Benjamin G.; Lauffenburger, Douglas A.

    2010-01-01

    Most non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) display elevated expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), but response to EGFR kinase inhibitors is predominantly limited to NSCLC harboring EGFR-activating mutations. These mutations are associated with increased activity of survival pathways including PI3K/AKT and STAT3/5. We report that EGFR-activating mutations also surprisingly lead to decreased ability to activate ERK compared to wild-type EGFR. In NSCLC cells and mouse embryonic fibroblasts expressing mutant EGFR, this effect on ERK correlates with decreased EGFR internalization and reduced phosphorylation of SHP2, a tyrosine phosphatase required for the full activation of ERK. We further demonstrate that ERK activation levels impact cellular response to gefitinib. NSCLC cells with EGFR mutation display reduced gefitinib sensitivity when ERK activation is augmented by expression of constitutively active mutants of MEK. Conversely, in an NSCLC cell line expressing wild-type EGFR, gefitinib treatment along with or following MEK inhibition increases death response compared to treatment with gefitinib alone. Our results demonstrate that EGFR-activating mutations may promote some survival pathways but simultaneously impair others. This multivariate alteration of the network governing cellular response to gefitinib, which we term “oncogene imbalance”, portends a potentially broader ability to treat gefitinib-resistant NSCLC. PMID:20406974

  13. WASH and Tsg101/ALIX-dependent diversion of stress-internalized EGFR from the canonical endocytic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomas, Alejandra; Vaughan, Simon O; Burgoyne, Thomas; Sorkin, Alexander; Hartley, John A; Hochhauser, Daniel; Futter, Clare E

    2015-06-12

    Stress exposure triggers ligand-independent EGF receptor (EGFR) endocytosis, but its post-endocytic fate and role in regulating signalling are unclear. We show that the p38 MAP kinase-dependent, EGFR tyrosine kinase (TK)-independent EGFR internalization induced by ultraviolet light C (UVC) or the cancer therapeutic cisplatin, is followed by diversion from the canonical endocytic pathway. Instead of lysosomal degradation or plasma membrane recycling, EGFR accumulates in a subset of LBPA-rich perinuclear multivesicular bodies (MVBs) distinct from those carrying EGF-stimulated EGFR. Stress-internalized EGFR co-segregates with exogenously expressed pre-melanosomal markers OA1 and fibrillar PMEL, following early endosomal sorting by the actin polymerization-promoting WASH complex. Stress-internalized EGFR is retained intracellularly by continued p38 activity in a mechanism involving ubiquitin-independent, ESCRT/ALIX-dependent incorporation onto intraluminal vesicles (ILVs) of MVBs. In contrast to the internalization-independent EGF-stimulated activation, UVC/cisplatin-triggered EGFR activation depends on EGFR internalization and intracellular retention. EGFR signalling from this MVB subpopulation delays apoptosis and might contribute to chemoresistance.

  14. Elevated BCRP/ABCG2 expression confers acquired resistance to gefitinib in wild-type EGFR-expressing cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Ju Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The sensitivity of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs is strongly associated with activating EGFR mutations. Although not as sensitive as patients harboring these mutations, some patients with wild-type EGFR (wtEGFR remain responsive to EGFR TKIs, suggesting that the existence of unexplored mechanisms renders most of wtEGFR-expressing cancer cells insensitive. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we show that acquired resistance of wtEGFR-expressing cancer cells to an EGFR TKI, gefitinib, is associated with elevated expression of breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2, which in turn leads to gefitinib efflux from cells. In addition, BCRP/ABCG2 expression correlates with poor response to gefitinib in both cancer cell lines and lung cancer patients with wtEGFR. Co-treatment with BCRP/ABCG2 inhibitors enhanced the anti-tumor activity of gefitinib. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Thus, BCRP/ABCG2 expression may be a predictor for poor efficacy of gefitinib treatment, and targeting BCRP/ABCG2 may broaden the use of gefitinib in patients with wtEGFR.

  15. EGFR testing and clinical management of advanced NSCLC: a Galician Lung Cancer Group study (GGCP 048-10).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, Sergio; Casal, Joaquín; Afonso Afonso, Francisco Javier; Fírvida, José Luis; Santomé, Lucía; Barón, Francisco; Lázaro, Martín; Pena, Carolina; Amenedo, Margarita; Abdulkader, Ihab; González-Arenas, Carmen; Fachal, Laura; Vega, Ana

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the incidence of mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients in the Galician region of Spain and the clinical management and outcome of patients carrying EGFR mutations. All newly diagnosed advanced or metastatic NSCLC patients were screened for EGFR mutations in matched tumor samples (tissue or cytology specimens) and serum samples. Of 198 patients screened for EGFR mutations in tumor samples, 184 had evaluable data and, of these, 25 (13.6%) had EGFR mutations (84% sensitizing mutations). EGFR mutation was found in serum in 14 (8.1%) patients (of 174 evaluable). Compared to matched tumor tissue, serum EGFR mutation testing specificity and sensitivity were 99% and 52%, respectively. All but two patients received gefitinib. Median progression-free survival and overall survival were 10 (95% confidence interval: 4.8-15.3) months and 17.8 (95% confidence interval: 13.9-21.6) months, respectively, in patients carrying sensitizing mutations. The incidence of EGFR mutations in Galicia is consistent with previous data in Spain. Our results also support the feasibility of EGFR testing to guide treatment decision making using tumor tissue or cytology samples, or serum samples if tumor specimens are unavailable. These findings also confirm that first-line gefitinib is an active treatment option in Caucasians with EGFR mutation-positive NSCLC.

  16. High levels of EGFR expression in tumor stroma are associated with aggressive clinical features in epithelial ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke; Li, Dan; Sun, Lu

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical significance and biological function of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expressed in tumor stroma of epithelial ovarian cancer. Immunohistological staining of EGFR was evaluated in 242 patients with epithelial ovarian cancer. The correlations of EGFR expression in tumor stroma with clinicopathological features and with the expression level of Ki-67 were analyzed by SPSS software. Kaplan-Meier analysis and the Cox proportional hazard model were used to analyze the effect of EGFR expression in tumor stroma on the prognosis of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer. Meanwhile, the activities of proliferation and migration of tumor cells were detected when EGFR overexpressed in stroma cells. EGFR expression in tumor stroma correlated significantly with clinical stage (χ (2)=7.002, P=0.008) and distant metastases (χ (2)=16.59, Pstroma and the level of Ki-67 expressed in tumor cells (χ (2)=6.120, P=0.013). Patients with high EGFR expression level in tumor stroma showed poor survival (P=0.002). Multivariate analysis showed that high expression of EGFR in tumor stroma was an independent predictor for epithelial ovarian cancer patients (hazard ratio =1.703; 95% confidence interval 1.125-2.578, P=0.012). Furthermore, stroma cells overexpressing EGFR could promote the proliferation and migration of adjacent tumor cells. High expression of EGFR in tumor stroma correlates with aggressive clinical features in epithelial ovarian cancer, and is an independent prognostic factor.

  17. A Rapid and Sensitive Method for Detection of the T790M Mutation of EGFR in Plasma DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Hideharu; Nishikawa, Shingo; Koba, Hayato; Yoneda, Taro; Sone, Takashi; Kasahara, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) T790M mutation is associated with resistance to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors' (EGFR-TKIs) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The aims of this study are to develop a blood-based, non-invasive approach to detecting the EGFR T790M mutation in advanced NSCLC patients, using PointMan™ EGFR DNA Enrichment Kit which is a novel method for selective amplification of genotype specific sequences.Pairs of blood samples and tumor tissues were collected from NSCLC patients with an EGFR activating mutation and who were resistant to EGFR-TKI treatment. EGFR T790M mutation in plasma DNA were detected using the PointMan™ EGFR DNA Enrichment Kit. The concentrations of plasma DNA were determined using quantitative real-time PCR.Of the 52 patients enrolled in this study, 41 of the patients' plasma samples were collected at post EGFR-TKIs. Nineteen (46.3 %) of the 41 patients had an EGFR T790M mutation in their plasma DNA as detected using the PointMan™ EGFR DNA Enrichment Kit after disease progression to EFGR-TKI. Of 11 cases with a detected T790M mutation from tumor tissues, 10 (90.9 %) also had a detectable T790M mutation in the plasma DNA. There was no difference in the progression-free survival between patients with T790M and those without T790M.The PointMan™ proved to be a useful method for determining plasma EGFR T790M mutation status.

  18. Preliminary Evidence on the Diagnostic and Molecular Role of Circulating Soluble EGFR in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Lococo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of biological diagnostic factors providing clinically-relevant information to guide physician decision-making are still needed for diseases with poor outcomes, such as non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR is a promising molecule in the clinical management of NSCLC. While the EGFR transmembrane form has been extensively investigated in large clinical trials, the soluble, circulating EGFR isoform (sEGFR, which may have a potential clinical use, has rarely been considered. This study investigates the use of sEGFR as a potential diagnostic biomarker for NSCLC and also characterizes the biological function of sEGFR to clarify the molecular mechanisms involved in the course of action of this protein. Plasma sEGFR levels from a heterogeneous cohort of 37 non-advanced NSCLC patients and 54 healthy subjects were analyzed by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The biological function of sEGFR was analyzed in vitro using NSCLC cell lines, investigating effects on cell proliferation and migration. We found that plasma sEGFR was significantly decreased in the NSCLC patient group as compared to the control group (median value: 48.6 vs. 55.6 ng/mL respectively; p = 0.0002. Moreover, we demonstrated that sEGFR inhibits growth and migration of NSCLC cells in vitro through molecular mechanisms that included perturbation of EGF/EGFR cell signaling and holoreceptor internalization. These data show that sEGFR is a potential circulating biomarker with a physiological protective role, providing a first approach to the functional role of the soluble isoform of EGFR. However, the impact of these data on daily clinical practice needs to be further investigated in larger prospective studies.

  19. Polarised Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis of EGFR During Chemotactic Invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutch, Laura Jane; Howden, Jake Davey; Jenner, Emma Poppy Louise; Poulter, Natalie Sarah; Rappoport, Joshua Zachary

    2014-01-01

    Directed cell migration is critical for numerous physiological processes including development and wound healing. However chemotaxis is also exploited during cancer progression. Recent reports have suggested links between vesicle trafficking pathways and directed cell migration. Very little is known about the potential roles of endocytosis pathways during metastasis. Therefore we performed a series of studies employing a previously characterised model for chemotactic invasion of cancer cells to assess specific hypotheses potentially linking endocytosis to directed cell migration. Our results demonstrate that clathrin-mediated endocytosis is indispensable for epidermal growth factor (EGF) directed chemotactic invasion of MDA-MB-231 cells. Conversely, caveolar endocytosis is not required in this mode of migration. We further found that chemoattractant receptor (EGFR) trafficking occurs by clathrin-mediated endocytosis and is polarised towards the front of migrating cells. However, we found no role for clathrin-mediated endocytosis in focal adhesion disassembly in this migration model. Thus, this study has characterised the role of endocytosis during chemotactic invasion and has identified functions mechanistically linking clathrin-mediated endocytosis to directed cell motility. PMID:24921075

  20. Selected Reaction Monitoring (SRM Analysis of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR in Formalin Fixed Tumor Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hembrough Todd

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Analysis of key therapeutic targets such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR in clinical tissue samples is typically done by immunohistochemistry (IHC and is only subjectively quantitative through a narrow dynamic range. The development of a standardized, highly-sensitive, linear, and quantitative assay for EGFR for use in patient tumor tissue carries high potential for identifying those patients most likely to benefit from EGFR-targeted therapies. Methods A mass spectrometry-based Selected Reaction Monitoring (SRM assay for the EGFR protein (EGFR-SRM was developed utilizing the Liquid Tissue®-SRM technology platform. Tissue culture cells (n = 4 were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA to establish quantitative EGFR levels. Matching formalin fixed cultures were analyzed by the EGFR-SRM assay and benchmarked against immunoassay of the non-fixed cultured cells. Xenograft human tumor tissue (n = 10 of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC origin and NSCLC patient tumor tissue samples (n = 23 were microdissected and the EGFR-SRM assay performed on Liquid Tissue lysates prepared from microdissected tissue. Quantitative curves and linear regression curves for correlation between immunoassay and SRM methodology were developed in Excel. Results The assay was developed for quantitation of a single EGFR tryptic peptide for use in FFPE patient tissue with absolute specificity to uniquely distinguish EGFR from all other proteins including the receptor tyrosine kinases, IGF-1R, cMet, Her2, Her3, and Her4. The assay was analytically validated against a collection of tissue culture cell lines where SRM analysis of the formalin fixed cells accurately reflects EGFR protein levels in matching non-formalin fixed cultures as established by ELISA sandwich immunoassay (R2 = 0.9991. The SRM assay was applied to a collection of FFPE NSCLC xenograft tumors where SRM data range from 305amol/μg to 12,860amol/μg and

  1. Combined EGFR and VEGFR versus single EGFR signaling pathways inhibition therapy for NSCLC: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinji Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is a heterogeneous disease with multiple signaling pathways influencing tumor cell survival and proliferation, and it is likely that blocking only one of these pathways allows others to act as salvage or escape mechanisms for cancer cells. Whether combined inhibition therapy has greater anti-tumor activity than single inhibition therapy is a matter of debate. Hence, a meta-analysis comparing therapy inhibiting both VEGFR and EGFR signaling pathways with that inhibiting EGFR signaling pathway alone was performed. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We searched PubMed, EMBASE database and the proceedings of major conferences for relevant clinical trials. Outcomes analyzed were objective tumor response rate (ORR, progression-free survival (PFS, overall survival (OS and toxicity. Besides, subgroup analyses were performed to investigate whether the combined inhibition therapy is best performed using combination of selective agents or a single agent with multiple targets. Six trials recruiting 3,302 patients were included in the analysis. Combined inhibition therapy was associated with a 3% improvement in OS as compared with single-targeted therapy, but this difference was not statistically significant (HR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.89-1.05; P=0.472. Patients receiving combined inhibition therapy had significant longer PFS than the group with single-targeted therapy (HR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.67-0.95; P=0.011. There was no difference in the ORR between the groups (OR, 1.44; 95% CI, 0.95-2.18; P=0.085. Subgroup analysis revealed that combined inhibition therapy using combination regimens was associated with statistically significant improvement in both ORR and PFS. Toxicity was greater in combined inhibition therapy. CONCLUSIONS: There is no evidence to support the use of combined inhibition therapy in unselected patients with advanced NSCLC. However, given the significant advantage in ORR and PFS, combined inhibition therapy using combination

  2. Third-generation inhibitors targeting EGFR T790M mutation in advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhang Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI against epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR are widely used in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. However, EGFR T790M mutation leads to resistance to most clinically available EGFR TKIs. Third-generation EGFR TKIs against the T790M mutation have been in active clinical development. These agents include osimertinib, rociletinib, HM61713, ASP8273, EGF816, and PF-06747775. Osimertinib and rociletinib have shown clinical efficacy in phase I/II trials in patients who had acquired resistance to first- or second-generation TKIs. Osimertinib (AZD9291, TAGRISSO was recently approved by FDA for metastatic EGFR T790M mutation-positive NSCLC. HM61713, ASP8237, EGF816, and PF-06747775 are still in early clinical development. This article reviews the emerging data regarding third-generation agents against EGFR T790M mutation in the treatment of patients with advanced NSCLC.

  3. Polymorphic Embedding of DSLs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofer, Christian; Ostermann, Klaus; Rendel, Tillmann

    2008-01-01

    propose polymorphic embedding of DSLs, where many different interpretations of a DSL can be provided as reusable components, and show how polymorphic embedding can be realized in the programming language Scala. With polymorphic embedding, the static type-safety, modularity, composability and rapid......The influential pure embedding methodology of embedding domain-specific languages (DSLs) as libraries into a general-purpose host language forces the DSL designer to commit to a single semantics. This precludes the subsequent addition of compilation, optimization or domain-specific analyses. We...

  4. Curcumin Induces EGFR Degradation in Lung Adenocarcinoma and Modulates p38 Activation in Intestine: The Versatile Adjuvant for Gefitinib Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Jen-Yi Lee; Yee-Ming Lee; Gee-Chen Chang; Sung-Liang Yu; Wan-Yu Hsieh; Jeremy J W Chen; Huei-Wen Chen; Pan-Chyr Yang

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with L858R or exon 19 deletion mutations in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) have good responses to the tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), gefitinib. However, patients with wild-type EGFR and acquired mutation in EGFR T790M are resistant to gefitinib treatment. Here, we showed that curcumin can improve the efficiency of gefitinib in the resistant NSCLC cells both in vitro and in vivo models. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: After screeni...

  5. High levels of EGFR expression in tumor stroma are associated with aggressive clinical features in epithelial ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang K

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ke Wang, Dan Li, Lu Sun Department of Gynecologic Cancer, National Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical significance and biological function of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR expressed in tumor stroma of epithelial ovarian cancer. Methods: Immunohistological staining of EGFR was evaluated in 242 patients with epithelial ovarian cancer. The correlations of EGFR expression in tumor stroma with clinicopathological features and with the expression level of Ki-67 were analyzed by SPSS software. Kaplan–Meier analysis and the Cox proportional hazard model were used to analyze the effect of EGFR expression in tumor stroma on the prognosis of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer. Meanwhile, the activities of proliferation and migration of tumor cells were detected when EGFR overexpressed in stroma cells. Results: EGFR expression in tumor stroma correlated significantly with clinical stage (χ2=7.002, P=0.008 and distant metastases (χ2=16.59, P<0.001. Furthermore, there was a significantly positive correlation between the level of EGFR expressed in tumor stroma and the level of Ki-67 expressed in tumor cells (χ2=6.120, P=0.013. Patients with high EGFR expression level in tumor stroma showed poor survival (P=0.002. Multivariate analysis showed that high expression of EGFR in tumor stroma was an independent predictor for epithelial ovarian cancer patients (hazard ratio =1.703; 95% confidence interval 1.125–2.578, P=0.012. Furthermore, stroma cells overexpressing EGFR could promote the proliferation and migration of adjacent tumor cells. Conclusion: High expression of EGFR in tumor stroma correlates with aggressive clinical features in epithelial ovarian cancer, and is an independent prognostic factor. Keywords: EGFR, epithelial

  6. EGFR, CD10 and proliferation marker Ki67 expression in ameloblastoma: possible role in local recurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Aziz Azza

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ameloblastoma is an odontogenic neoplasm characterized by local invasiveness and tendency towards recurrence. Aims Studying the role played by EGFR, CD10 and Ki67 in the recurrence of ameloblastoma. Methods This study was carried out on 22 retrospective cases of mandibular ameloblastoma from the period from Jan 2002 to Jan 2008 with follow up period until Jan 2011 (3 to 8 years follow up peroid. Archival materials were obtained from pathology department, Mansoura university. Paraffin sections of tumor tissue from all cases were submitted for routine H&E stains and immunohistochemistry using EGFR, CD10 and Ki67 monoclonal antibodies. Statistical analysis using of clinical data for all patients, tumor type, EGFR, CD10 and Ki67 expression in relation to recurrence were evaluated. Results Among the 22 cases, 10 cases were males and 12 were females with sex ratio 1:1.2. Age ranged from 34 to 59 years old with a mean age 44.18 year. Five cases showed local recurrence within studied period and proved by biopsy. No statistically significant relation was found between local recurrence and patient age, tumor size, tumor type, EGFR expression. There was a significant relation between CD10 expression as well as Ki67 labelling index and recurrence (P value = 0.003, 0.000 respectively. Conclusion Evaluation of CD10 and Ki67 status together with conventional histological evaluation can help in providing more information about the biologic behavior of the tumor, while EGFR could be a target of an expanding class of anticancer therapies. Since ameloblastomas are EGFR-positive tumors, anti-EGFR agents could be considered to reduce the size of large tumors and to treat unresectable tumors that are in close proximity to vital structures. Virtual Slides The virtual slide(s for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1902106905645651

  7. A neutralizing RNA aptamer against EGFR causes selective apoptotic cell death.

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    Carla Lucia Esposito

    Full Text Available Nucleic acid aptamers have been developed as high-affinity ligands that may act as antagonists of disease-associated proteins. Aptamers are non immunogenic and characterised by high specificity and low toxicity thus representing a valid alternative to antibodies or soluble ligand receptor traps/decoys to target specific cancer cell surface proteins in clinical diagnosis and therapy. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR has been implicated in the development of a wide range of human cancers including breast, glioma and lung. The observation that its inhibition can interfere with the growth of such tumors has led to the design of new drugs including monoclonal antibodies and tyrosine kinase inhibitors currently used in clinic. However, some of these molecules can result in toxicity and acquired resistance, hence the need to develop novel kinds of EGFR-targeting drugs with high specificity and low toxicity. Here we generated, by a cell-Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment (SELEX approach, a nuclease resistant RNA-aptamer that specifically binds to EGFR with a binding constant of 10 nM. When applied to EGFR-expressing cancer cells the aptamer inhibits EGFR-mediated signal pathways causing selective cell death. Furthermore, at low doses it induces apoptosis even of cells that are resistant to the most frequently used EGFR-inhibitors, such as gefitinib and cetuximab, and inhibits tumor growth in a mouse xenograft model of human non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Interestingly, combined treatment with cetuximab and the aptamer shows clear synergy in inducing apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, we demonstrate that this neutralizing RNA-aptamer is a promising bio-molecule that can be developed as a more effective alternative to the repertoire of already existing EGFR-inhibitors.

  8. Regulation of HGF Expression by ΔEGFR-Mediated c-Met Activation in Glioblastoma Cells

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    Jeannine Garnett

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The hepatocyte growth factor receptor (c-Met and a constitutively active mutant of the epidermal growth factor receptor (ΔEGFR/EGFRvIII are frequently overexpressed in glioblastoma (GBM and promote tumorigenesis. The mechanisms underlying elevated hepatocyte growth factor (HGF production in GBM are not understood. We found higher, coordinated mRNA expression levels of HGF and c-Met in mesenchymal (Mes GBMs, a subtype associated with poor treatment response and shorter overall survival. In an HGF/c-Met–dependent GBM cell line, HGF expression declined upon silencing of c-Met using RNAi or by inhibiting its activity with SU11274. Silencing c-Met decreased anchorage-independent colony formation and increased the survival of mice bearing intracranial GBM xenografts. Consistent with these findings, c-Met activation by ΔEGFR also elevated HGF expression, and the inhibition of ΔEGFR with AG1478 reduced HGF levels. Interestingly, c-Met expression was required for ΔEGFR-mediated HGF production, anchorage-independent growth, and in vivo tumorigenicity, suggesting that these pathways are coupled. Using an unbiased mass spectrometry–based screen, we show that signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3 Y705 is a downstream target of c-Met signaling. Suppression of STAT3 phosphorylation with WP1193 reduced HGF expression in ΔEGFR-expressing GBM cells, whereas constitutively active STAT3 partially rescued HGF expression and colony formation in c-Met knockdown cells expressing ΔEGFR. These results suggest that the c-Met/HGF signaling axis is enhanced by ΔEGFR through increased STAT3-dependent HGF expression and that targeting c-Met in Mes GBMs may be an important strategy for therapy.

  9. Factors Associated with the Decline of Kidney Function Differ among eGFR Strata in Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meguro, Shu; Tomita, Masuomi; Kabeya, Yusuke; Katsuki, Takeshi; Oikawa, Yoichi; Shimada, Akira; Kawai, Toshihide; Itoh, Hiroshi; Atsumi, Yoshihito

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. There is no report about risk factors for renal deterioration according to the clinical stage, divided by the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods. We evaluated the factors correlated with the annual eGFR decline in 1303 subjects with type 2 diabetes whose eGFR was ≥30 mL/min/1.73 m(2). eGFR strata were defined by baseline eGFR value as follows: stratum 1: ≥90, stratum 2: ≥60, strata, and hemoglobin concentration were significantly correlated with the annual eGFR decline. When stratified by eGFR, the factors that showed a significant correlation were different among eGFR strata. AER was significantly correlated with annual eGFR decline in all eGFR strata. Hemoglobin concentration showed a significant correlation only in the advanced eGFR stratum. Conclusion. The factors correlated with the annual eGFR decline were different among eGFR strata in type 2 diabetes mellitus, and hemoglobin concentration and AER were important factors for renal deterioration, especially in the advanced eGFR stratum.

  10. Proteomic profiling of patient-derived glioblastoma xenografts identifies a subset with activated EGFR: Implications for drug development

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    Brown, Kristine E.; Chagoya, Gustavo; Kwatra, Shawn G.; Yen, Timothy; Keir, Stephen T.; Cooter, Mary; Hoadley, Katherine A.; Rasheed, Ahmed; Lipp, Eric S.; Mclendon, Roger; Ali-Osman, Francis; Bigner, Darell D.; Sampson, John H.; Kwatra, Madan M.

    2015-01-01

    The development of drugs to inhibit glioblastoma (GBM) growth requires reliable preclinical models. To date, proteomic level validation of widely used patient-derived glioblastoma xenografts (PDGX) has not been performed. In the present study, we characterized 20 PDGX models according to subtype classification based on The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) criteria, TP53, PTEN, IDH 1/2 and TERT promoter genetic analysis, EGFR amplification status, and examined their proteomic profiles against those of their parent tumors. The 20 PDGXs belonged to three of four TCGA subtypes: 8 classical, 8 mesenchymal, and 4 proneural; none neural. Amplification of EGFR gene was observed in 9 out of 20 xenografts, and of these, 3 harbored the EGFRvIII mutation. We then performed proteomic profiling of PDGX, analyzing expression/activity of several proteins including EGFR. Levels of EGFR phosphorylated at Y1068 vary considerably between PDGX samples, and this pattern was also seen in primary GBM. Partitioning of 20 PDGX into high (n=5) and low (n=15) groups identified a panel of proteins associated with high EGFR activity. Thus, PDGX with high EGFR activity represent an excellent preclinical model to develop therapies for a subset of GBM patients whose tumors are characterized by high EGFR activity. Further, the proteins found to be associated with high EGFR activity can be monitored to assess the effectiveness of targeting EGFR. PMID:25598002

  11. Maintenance of EGFR and EGFRvIII expressions in an in vivo and in vitro model of human glioblastoma multiforme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stockhausen, Marie-Thérése; Broholm, Helle; Villingshøj, Mette

    2011-01-01

    , clinical studies with EGFR inhibitors have shown inconsistent results, and as such, further knowledge regarding the role of EGFR and EGFRvIII in GBM is needed. For this, an appropriate in vivo/in vitro tumor model is required. Here, we report the establishment of an experimental GBM model in which...... the expressions of EGFR and EGFRvIII are maintained both in xenograft tumors growing subcutaneously on mice and in cell cultures established in stem cell conditions. With this model it will be possible to further study the role of EGFR and EGFRvIII, and response to targeted therapy, in GBM....

  12. Selective regain of egfr gene copies in CD44+/CD24-/low breast cancer cellular model MDA-MB-468

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    Andreas Antje

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased transcription of oncogenes like the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR is frequently caused by amplification of the whole gene or at least of regulatory sequences. Aim of this study was to pinpoint mechanistic parameters occurring during egfr copy number gains leading to a stable EGFR overexpression and high sensitivity to extracellular signalling. A deeper understanding of those marker events might improve early diagnosis of cancer in suspect lesions, early detection of cancer progression and the prediction of egfr targeted therapies. Methods The basal-like/stemness type breast cancer cell line subpopulation MDA-MB-468 CD44high/CD24-/low, carrying high egfr amplifications, was chosen as a model system in this study. Subclones of the heterogeneous cell line expressing low and high EGF receptor densities were isolated by cell sorting. Genomic profiling was carried out for these by means of SNP array profiling, qPCR and FISH. Cell cycle analysis was performed using the BrdU quenching technique. Results Low and high EGFR expressing MDA-MB-468 CD44+/CD24-/low subpopulations separated by cell sorting showed intermediate and high copy numbers of egfr, respectively. However, during cell culture an increase solely for egfr gene copy numbers in the intermediate subpopulation occurred. This shift was based on the formation of new cells which regained egfr gene copies. By two parametric cell cycle analysis clonal effects mediated through growth advantage of cells bearing higher egfr gene copy numbers could most likely be excluded for being the driving force. Subsequently, the detection of a fragile site distal to the egfr gene, sustaining uncapped telomere-less chromosomal ends, the ladder-like structure of the intrachromosomal egfr amplification and a broader range of egfr copy numbers support the assumption that dynamic chromosomal rearrangements, like breakage-fusion-bridge-cycles other than proliferation drive the gain

  13. Primary tumor site and anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody benefit in metastatic colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis.

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    Li, Dandan; Fu, Qiang; Li, Man; Li, Jun; Yin, Can; Zhao, Jin; Li, Feng

    2017-05-01

    This meta-analysis aimed to document the impact of primary tumor site on anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody (mAb) benefit in metastatic colorectal cancer. Tumors with metastatic left-sided colorectal cancer (LCC) were compared with tumors with metastatic right-sided colon cancer (RCC) with respect to anti-EGFR mAb objective response rate (ORR), overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) benefit. Comparing LCC with RCC, LCC was found to have significantly superior anti-EGFR mAb ORR (p analysis demonstrated that LCC had markedly superior anti-EGFR mAb treatment benefit compared with RCC.

  14. Computational modelling of cancerous mutations in the EGFR/ERK signalling pathway

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    Gormand Amelie

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR activated Extracellular-signal Regulated Kinase (ERK pathway is a critical cell signalling pathway that relays the signal for a cell to proliferate from the plasma membrane to the nucleus. Deregulation of the EGFR/ERK pathway due to alterations affecting the expression or function of a number of pathway components has long been associated with numerous forms of cancer. Under normal conditions, Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF stimulates a rapid but transient activation of ERK as the signal is rapidly shutdown. Whereas, under cancerous mutation conditions the ERK signal cannot be shutdown and is sustained resulting in the constitutive activation of ERK and continual cell proliferation. In this study, we have used computational modelling techniques to investigate what effects various cancerous alterations have on the signalling flow through the ERK pathway. Results We have generated a new model of the EGFR activated ERK pathway, which was verified by our own experimental data. We then altered our model to represent various cancerous situations such as Ras, B-Raf and EGFR mutations, as well as EGFR overexpression. Analysis of the models showed that different cancerous situations resulted in different signalling patterns through the ERK pathway, especially when compared to the normal EGF signal pattern. Our model predicts that cancerous EGFR mutation and overexpression signals almost exclusively via the Rap1 pathway, predicting that this pathway is the best target for drugs. Furthermore, our model also highlights the importance of receptor degradation in normal and cancerous EGFR signalling, and suggests that receptor degradation is a key difference between the signalling from the EGF and Nerve Growth Factor (NGF receptors. Conclusion Our results suggest that different routes to ERK activation are being utilised in different cancerous situations which therefore has interesting implications

  15. Characterizing pre-dialysis care in the era of eGFR reporting: a cohort study

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    Moore Charity G

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD is a common disorder associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Primary care physicians (PCPs care for the majority of pre-dialysis CKD patients; however, PCPs often do not recognize the presence of CKD based on serum creatinine levels. Prior studies suggest that PCPs and nephrologists deliver suboptimal CKD care. One strategy to improve disease awareness and treatment is estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR reporting. We examined PCP and nephrologist CKD practices before and after routine eGFR reporting. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients with CKD 3b-4 (eGFR Results CKD co-management increased from 22.6% pre-eGFR to 48.5% post-eGFR (P Conclusions A marked increase in CKD co-management was observed following eGFR implementation. Although some improvements in processes of care were noted, this did not include angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker use. Overall care remained suboptimal despite eGFR reporting; further strategies are needed to improve PCP and nephrologist CKD care.

  16. Antagonizing c-Cbl enhances EGFR-dependent corneal epithelial homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, Jamie S; Boeving, Michael A; Berry, William L; Ceresa, Brian P

    2014-07-01

    In many cell types, the E3 ubiquitin ligase, c-Cbl, induces ligand-dependent ubiquitylation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and targets the receptor for lysosomal degradation. The goal of this study was to determine whether c-Cbl is a negative regulator of EGFR in the corneal epithelium and if it can be inhibited to promote corneal epithelial homeostasis. Expression and activity of c-Cbl were blocked in immortalized human corneal epithelial cells (hTCEpi) using RNAi and pharmacological agents ([4-amino-5-(4-methylphenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolo-d-3,4-pyrimidine] or PP1). Following c-Cbl inhibition, cells were assessed for ligand-dependent receptor ubiquitylation, receptor phosphorylation, and in vitro wound healing. Subsequent experiments used PP1 in hTCEpi cells and monitored in vivo murine corneal epithelial wound healing. Knockdown and inhibition of c-Cbl decreased ligand-dependent ubiquitylation of the EGFR and prolonged receptor activity as measured by tyrosine phosphorylation. Further, these treatments also increased the extent of ligand-dependent corneal epithelial wound healing in vitro and in vivo. Manipulating the duration of EGFR activity can enhance the rate of restoration of the corneal epithelial layer. Based on our findings, c-Cbl is a new therapeutic target to enhance EGFR-mediated corneal epithelial homeostasis that bypasses the limitations of previous approaches. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  17. Genetic deletion of the EGFR ligand epigen does not affect mouse embryonic development and tissue homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlhoff, Maik; Schäfer, Matthias; Wolf, Eckhard; Schneider, Marlon R

    2013-02-15

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a tyrosine kinase receptor with manifold functions during development, tissue homeostasis and disease. EGFR activation, the formation of homodimers or heterodimers (with the related ERBB2-4 receptors) and downstream signaling is initiated by the binding of a family of structurally related growth factors, the EGFR ligands. Genetic deletion experiments clarified the biological function of all family members except for the last characterized ligand, epigen. We employed gene targeting in mouse embryonic stem cells to generate mice lacking epigen expression. Loss of epigen did not affect mouse development, fertility, or organ physiology. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed increased expression of betacellulin and EGF in a few organs of epigen-deficient mice, suggesting a functional compensation by these ligands. In conclusion, we completed the genetic analysis of EGFR ligands and show that epigen has non-essential functions or functions that can be compensated by other EGFR ligands during growth and tissue homeostasis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Gefitinib: a pharmacoeconomic profile of its use in patients with Non Small Cell Lung Cancer EGFR+

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    Viola Sacchi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the most common form of cancer with the highest incidence worldwide. The mortality rates are highest in males and second highest in females, after breast cancer. The genetic predisposition to Non Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC is still under investigation, however, studies have shown that the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR, a receptor tyrosine kinase is frequently over-expressed and activated to a phosphorylated state in NSCLC. The activity of EGFR in cancer cells results in the phosphorylation of downstream proteins that promote cell proliferation, invasion, metastasis, and inhibition of apoptosis. Targeting the EGFR pathway therefore constitutes a relevant strategy for cancer therapy. Gefitinib is a selective inhibitor of the EGFR tyrosine kinase and is indicated for the treatment of adult patients with locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC with activating mutations of EGFR-TK. From the pharmacoeconomic point of view gefitinib is dominant (more effective and less expensive compared to the alternatives. In conclusion, gefitinib is a treatment option for NSCLC tumors with a high clinical and economic value in the Italian setting.

  19. Individualized therapies in colorectal cancer: KRAS as a marker for response to EGFR-targeted therapy

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    Li Kuiyuan

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Individualized therapies that are tailored to a patient's genetic composition will be of tremendous value for treatment of cancer. Recently, Kirsten ras (KRAS status has emerged as a predictor of response to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR targeted therapies. In this article, we will discuss targeted therapies for colorectal cancers (CRC based on EGFR signaling pathway and review published data about the potential usefulness of KRAS as a biological marker for response to these therapies. Results from relevant studies published since 2005 and unpublished results presented at national meetings were retrieved and summarized. These studies reflected response (or lack of response to EGFR-targeted therapies in patients with metastatic CRC as a function of KRAS status. It has become clear that patients with colorectal cancer whose tumor has an activating mutation in KRAS do not respond to monoclonal antibody therapies targeting EGFR. It should now become a standard practice that any patients being considered for EGFR targeted therapies have their tumors tested for KRAS status and only those with wild-type KRAS being offered such therapies.

  20. Reticulon 3-dependent ER-PM contact sites control EGFR nonclathrin endocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldieri, Giusi; Barbieri, Elisa; Nappo, Gilda; Raimondi, Andrea; Bonora, Massimo; Conte, Alexia; Verhoef, Lisette G G C; Confalonieri, Stefano; Malabarba, Maria Grazia; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Cuomo, Alessandro; Bonaldi, Tiziana; Martini, Emanuele; Mazza, Davide; Pinton, Paolo; Tacchetti, Carlo; Polo, Simona; Di Fiore, Pier Paolo; Sigismund, Sara

    2017-05-12

    The integration of endocytic routes is critical to regulate receptor signaling. A nonclathrin endocytic (NCE) pathway of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is activated at high ligand concentrations and targets receptors to degradation, attenuating signaling. Here we performed an unbiased molecular characterization of EGFR-NCE. We identified NCE-specific regulators, including the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident protein reticulon 3 (RTN3) and a specific cargo, CD147. RTN3 was critical for EGFR/CD147-NCE, promoting the creation of plasma membrane (PM)-ER contact sites that were required for the formation and/or maturation of NCE invaginations. Ca2+ release at these sites, triggered by inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)-dependent activation of ER Ca2+ channels, was needed for the completion of EGFR internalization. Thus, we identified a mechanism of EGFR endocytosis that relies on ER-PM contact sites and local Ca2+ signaling. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  1. Concurrent EGFR Mutation and ALK Translocation in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweis, Randy F; Thomas, Sachdev; Bank, Bruce; Fishkin, Paul; Mooney, Colin; Salgia, Ravi

    2016-02-26

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations and anaplastic large-cell lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangements are now routine biomarkers that have been incorporated into the practice of managing non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Historically, the two molecular alterations have been viewed as mutually exclusive, but recent identified cases suggest otherwise. In this report, we describe cases of lung cancer with concurrent EGFR mutation and ALK rearrangement and identify their clinical characteristics. Non-small cell lung cancer patients with multiple molecular alterations were retrospectively analyzed from an academic referral center from 2011-2013. An additional review was conducted of reported cases with dual alterations. Four cases of NSCLC with alterations in both EGFR and ALK were identified and evaluated with 16 published cases for a total of 20 cases. The age of patients ranged from 37 to 77 years. Nine patients were never smokers. The disease control rates in patients treated with EGFR inhibitors and ALK inhibitors were 46% (6/13) and 71% (5/7), respectively. This series highlights the importance of comprehensive molecular profiling of newly diagnosed lung cancer, as NSCLC may be driven by concurrent molecular alterations. EGFR- and ALK-targeted therapies appear to have modest activity in patients with tumors possessing both alterations. Dual-altered NSCLC patients may have distinct clinical characteristics warranting further study. Combination targeted therapy or novel multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors may prove important in these patients, though necessary studies remain ongoing.

  2. Epidermal to Mesenchymal Transition and Failure of EGFR-Targeted Therapy in Glioblastoma

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    Pala, Andrej; Karpel-Massler, Georg [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Ulm School of Medicine, Steinhövelstrasse 9, Ulm D-89077 (Germany); Kast, Richard Eric [Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont, 22 Church Street, Burlington, VT 05401 (United States); Wirtz, Christian Rainer; Halatsch, Marc-Eric, E-mail: marc-eric.halatsch@uniklinik-ulm.de [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Ulm School of Medicine, Steinhövelstrasse 9, Ulm D-89077 (Germany)

    2012-05-08

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most common primary brain tumor in adults, is almost never curable with the current standard treatment consisting of surgical resection, irradiation and temozolomide. The prognosis remains poor despite undisputable advances in the understanding of this tumor’s molecular biology and pathophysiology, which unfortunately has so far failed to translate into a meaningful clinical benefit. Dysregulation and a resulting prominent pathophysiological role of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) have been identified in several different malignant tumor entities, GBM among them. The EGFR is overexpressed in about 40% of GBM cases, and half of these coexpress a mutant, constitutively activated subtype, EGFRvIII. Unfortunately, recent trials studying with therapeutic approaches targeted against the EGFR and EGFRvIII have failed to meet expectations, with only a minority of patients responding despite evidence of good in vitro and rodent model activity. Having potentially high relevance within this context, epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a phenomenon associated with early stages of carcinogenesis, cancer invasion and recurrence. During EMT, epithelial cells lose many of their epithelial characteristics, prominently E-cadherin expression, and acquire properties that are typical for mesenchymal cells such as the expression of vimentin. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition has been specifically demonstrated in GBM. In this review, we summarize the evidence that EMT may precipitate GBM resistance to EGFR-targeted therapy, and may thus be among the principal factors contributing to the clinical failure of targeted therapy against EGFR and EGFRvIII.

  3. EGFR-Targeted Adenovirus Dendrimer Coating for Improved Systemic Delivery of the Theranostic NIS Gene

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    Geoffrey K Grünwald

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We recently demonstrated tumor-selective iodide uptake and therapeutic efficacy of combined radiovirotherapy after systemic delivery of the theranostic sodium iodide symporter (NIS gene using a dendrimer-coated adenovirus. To further improve shielding and targeting we physically coated replication-selective adenoviruses carrying the hNIS gene with a conjugate consisting of cationic poly(amidoamine (PAMAM dendrimer linked to the peptidic, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR-specific ligand GE11. In vitro experiments demonstrated coxsackie-adenovirus receptor-independent but EGFR-specific transduction efficiency. Systemic injection of the uncoated adenovirus in a liver cancer xenograft mouse model led to high levels of NIS expression in the liver due to hepatic sequestration, which were significantly reduced after coating as demonstrated by 123I-scintigraphy. Reduction of adenovirus liver pooling resulted in decreased hepatotoxicity and increased transduction efficiency in peripheral xenograft tumors. 124I-PET-imaging confirmed EGFR-specificity by significantly lower tumoral radioiodine accumulation after pretreatment with the EGFR-specific antibody cetuximab. A significantly enhanced oncolytic effect was observed following systemic application of dendrimer-coated adenovirus that was further increased by additional treatment with a therapeutic dose of 131I. These results demonstrate restricted virus tropism and tumor-selective retargeting after systemic application of coated, EGFR-targeted adenoviruses therefore representing a promising strategy for improved systemic adenoviral NIS gene therapy.

  4. EGFR-Targeted Adenovirus Dendrimer Coating for Improved Systemic Delivery of the Theranostic NIS Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünwald, Geoffrey K; Vetter, Alexandra; Klutz, Kathrin; Willhauck, Michael J; Schwenk, Nathalie; Senekowitsch-Schmidtke, Reingard; Schwaiger, Markus; Zach, Christian; Wagner, Ernst; Göke, Burkhard; Holm, Per S; Ogris, Manfred; Spitzweg, Christine

    2013-11-05

    We recently demonstrated tumor-selective iodide uptake and therapeutic efficacy of combined radiovirotherapy after systemic delivery of the theranostic sodium iodide symporter (NIS) gene using a dendrimer-coated adenovirus. To further improve shielding and targeting we physically coated replication-selective adenoviruses carrying the hNIS gene with a conjugate consisting of cationic poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimer linked to the peptidic, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-specific ligand GE11. In vitro experiments demonstrated coxsackie-adenovirus receptor-independent but EGFR-specific transduction efficiency. Systemic injection of the uncoated adenovirus in a liver cancer xenograft mouse model led to high levels of NIS expression in the liver due to hepatic sequestration, which were significantly reduced after coating as demonstrated by (123)I-scintigraphy. Reduction of adenovirus liver pooling resulted in decreased hepatotoxicity and increased transduction efficiency in peripheral xenograft tumors. (124)I-PET-imaging confirmed EGFR-specificity by significantly lower tumoral radioiodine accumulation after pretreatment with the EGFR-specific antibody cetuximab. A significantly enhanced oncolytic effect was observed following systemic application of dendrimer-coated adenovirus that was further increased by additional treatment with a therapeutic dose of (131)I. These results demonstrate restricted virus tropism and tumor-selective retargeting after systemic application of coated, EGFR-targeted adenoviruses therefore representing a promising strategy for improved systemic adenoviral NIS gene therapy.Molecular Therapy-Nucleic Acids (2013) 2, e131; doi:10.1038/mtna.2013.58; published online 5 November 2013.

  5. Peptide ligands for targeting the extracellular domain of EGFR: Comparison between linear and cyclic peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Tyrslai M; Sable, Rushikesh; Singh, Sitanshu; Vicente, Maria Graca H; Jois, Seetharama D

    2017-10-20

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common solid internal malignancy among cancers. Early detection of cancer is key to increasing the survival rate of colorectal cancer patients. Overexpression of the EGFR protein is associated with CRC. We have designed a series of peptides that are highly specific for the extracellular domain of EGFR, based on our earlier studies on linear peptides. The previously reported linear peptide LARLLT, known to bind to EGFR, was modified with the goals of increasing its stability and its specificity toward EGFR. Peptide modifications, including D-amino acid substitution, cyclization, and chain reversal, were investigated. In addition, to facilitate labeling of the peptide with a fluorescent dye, an additional lysine residue was introduced onto the linear (KLARLLT) and cyclic peptides cyclo(KLARLLT) (Cyclo.L1). The lysine residue was also converted into an azide group in both a linear and reversed cyclic peptide sequences cyclo(K(N3)larllt) (Cyclo.L1.1) to allow for subsequent "click" conjugation. The cyclic peptides showed enhanced binding to EGFR by SPR. NMR and molecular modeling studies suggest that the peptides acquire a β-turn structure in solution. In vitro stability studies in human serum show that the cyclic peptide is more stable than the linear peptide. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  6. Activation of a Neospora caninum EGFR-Like Kinase Facilitates Intracellular Parasite Proliferation

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    Xiaoxia Jin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Apicomplexan parasite Neospora caninum, an obligate intracellular protozoan, causes serious diseases in a number of mammalian species, especially in cattle. Infection with N. caninum is associated with abortions in both dairy and beef cattle worldwide which have a major economic impact on the cattle industry. However, the mechanism by which N. caninum proliferates within host cells is poorly understood. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR is a protein kinase ubiquitously expressed, present on cell surfaces in numerous species, which has been confirmed to be essential in signal transduction involved in cell growth, proliferation, survival, and many other intracellular processes. However, the presence of EGFR in N. caninum and its role in N. caninum proliferation remain unclear. In the present study, we identified a putative EGFR-like kinase in N. caninum, which could be activated in tachyzoites by infection or treatment with rNcMIC3 [containing four epidermal growth factor (EGF domains] or human EGF. Blockade of EGFR-like in tachyzoites by AG1478 significantly reduced parasite proliferation in host cells. Our data suggested that the activation of tachyzoite EGFR-like might facilitate the intracellular proliferation of N. caninum.

  7. Effects of EGFR Inhibitor on Helicobacter pylori Induced Gastric Epithelial Pathology in Vivo

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    Philip A. Robinson

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori transactivates the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR and predisposes to gastric cancer development in humans and animal models. To examine the importance of EGFR signalling to gastric pathology, this study investigated whether treatment of Mongolian gerbils with a selective EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, EKB-569, altered gastric pathology in chronic H. pylori infection. Gerbils were infected with H. pylori and six weeks later received either EKB-569-supplemented, or control diet, for 32 weeks prior to sacrifice. EKB-569-treated H. pylori-infected gerbils had no difference in H. pylori colonisation or inflammation scores compared to infected animals on control diet, but showed significantly less corpus atrophy, mucous metaplasia and submucosal glandular herniations along with markedly reduced antral and corpus epithelial proliferation to apoptosis ratios. EKB-569-treated infected gerbils had significantly decreased abundance of Cox-2, Adam17 and Egfr gastric transcripts relative to infected animals on control diet. EGFR inhibition by EKB-569 therefore reduced the severity of pre-neoplastic gastric pathology in chronically H. pylori-infected gerbils. EKB-569 increased gastric epithelial apoptosis in H. pylori-infected gerbils which counteracted some of the consequences of increased gastric epithelial cell proliferation. Similar chemopreventative strategies may be useful in humans who are at high risk of developing H.pylori-induced gastric adenocarcinoma.

  8. The Emergent Landscape of Detecting EGFR Mutations Using Circulating Tumor DNA in Lung Cancer

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    Wei-Lun Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The advances in targeted therapies for lung cancer are based on the evaluation of specific gene mutations especially the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR. The assays largely depend on the acquisition of tumor tissue via biopsy before the initiation of therapy or after the onset of acquired resistance. However, the limitations of tissue biopsy including tumor heterogeneity and insufficient tissues for molecular testing are impotent clinical obstacles for mutation analysis and lung cancer treatment. Due to the invasive procedure of tissue biopsy and the progressive development of drug-resistant EGFR mutations, the effective initial detection and continuous monitoring of EGFR mutations are still unmet requirements. Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA detection is a promising biomarker for noninvasive assessment of cancer burden. Recent advancement of sensitive techniques in detecting EGFR mutations using ctDNA enables a broad range of clinical applications, including early detection of disease, prediction of treatment responses, and disease progression. This review not only introduces the biology and clinical implementations of ctDNA but also includes the updating information of recent advancement of techniques for detecting EGFR mutation using ctDNA in lung cancer.

  9. Kaempferol inhibits cell proliferation and glycolysis in esophagus squamous cell carcinoma via targeting EGFR signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Shihua; Wang, Xiaowei; Li, Chunguang; Zhao, Tiejun; Jin, Hai; Fang, Wentao

    2016-08-01

    Antitumor activity of kaempferol has been studied in various tumor types, but its potency in esophagus squamous cell carcinoma is rarely known. Here, we reported the activity of kaempferol against esophagus squamous cell carcinoma as well as its antitumor mechanisms. Results of cell proliferation and colony formation assay showed that kaempferol substantially inhibited tumor cell proliferation and clone formation in vitro. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that tumor cells were induced G0/G1 phase arrest after kaempferol treatment, and the expression of protein involved in cell cycle regulation was dramatically changed. Except the potency on cell proliferation, we also discovered that kaempferol had a significant inhibitory effect against tumor glycolysis. With the downregulation of hexokinase-2, glucose uptake and lactate production in tumor cells were dramatically declined. Mechanism studies revealed kaempferol had a direct effect on epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activity, and along with the inhibition of EGFR, its downstream signaling pathways were also markedly suppressed. Further investigations found that exogenous overexpression of EGFR in tumor cells substantially attenuated glycolysis suppression induced by kaempferol, which implied that EGFR also played an important role in kaempferol-mediated glycolysis inhibition. Finally, the antitumor activity of kaempferol was validated in xenograft model and kaempferol prominently restrained tumor growth in vivo. Meanwhile, dramatic decrease of EGFR activity and hexokinase-2 expression were observed in kaempferol-treated tumor tissue, which confirmed these findings in vitro. Briefly, these studies suggested that kaempferol, or its analogues, may serve as effective candidates for esophagus squamous cell carcinoma management.

  10. Chromosome 7 Multiplication in EGFR-positive Lung Carcinomas Based on Tissue Microarray Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiambas, Evangelos; Mastronikolis, Nicholas S; Lefas, Alicia Y; Georgiannos, Stavros N; Ragos, Vasileios; Fotiades, Panagiotis P; Tsoukalas, Nikolaos; Kavantzas, Nikolaos; Karameris, Andreas; Peschos, Dimitrios; Patsouris, Efstratios; Syrigos, Konstantinos

    2017-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) over-activation is observed in significant proportions of non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC). Our aim was to investigate the role of chromosome 7 multiplication with regard to its influence in EGFR expression, combined or not with gene amplification. Using tissue microarray technology, fifty (n=50) primary NSCLCs were cored and re-embedded into the final recipient block. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and also chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) were performed. EGFR expression at any level was detected in 40/50 (80%) cores. Over-expression was observed in 23/40 (57.5%) cases. Gene amplification was identified in 11/50 (22%) cases whereas chromosome 7 polysomy in 8/50 (16%) cases. Pure chromosome 7 multiplication alone led to low or moderate levels of expression. Overall EGFR expression was correlated with gene (p=0.001) and interestingly with chromosome 7 centromere numerical imbalances (p=0.004). EGFR expression is associated not only with amplification, but also with chromosome 7 centromere multiple copies. Chromosome 7 multiplication -due to centromere region amplification or true polysomy- is critical for applying monoclonal antibody targeted therapeutic strategies excluding the pure non-amplified cases. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  11. EGFR Expression and KRAS and BRAF Mutational Status in Intestinal-Type Sinonasal Adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Costes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Accumulation of molecular alterations, including EGFR overexpression and mutations in KRAS and BRAF, contribute to colorectal carcinogenesis. Since intestinal-type adenocarcinoma (ITAC of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinus has morphologic and phenotypic features that are usually indistinguishable from colorectal cancer (CRC, it is likely that both tumor types share equivalent genetic alterations. Data from a series of 43 patients treated surgically for ITAC in Montpellier, France between November 1998 and December 2012 were collected. Tumors were characterized for mutations in KRAS and BRAF as well as EGFR overexpression. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were constructed using overall survival as the primary end points. Patient survival was analyzed using the hazards ratio. Twenty seven tumors (63% showed EGFR positivity and 30% exhibited a high expression level (+2/+3. KRAS mutations were detected in 43% of cases. BRAF mutations were identified in 3.6% of specimens. Patients with age superior to 60 years, metastatic status, and KRAS mutations had significant overall survival values (p = 0.026, p = 0.001 and p = 0.03, respectively. Our results indicate that KRAS mutations and EGFR expression are frequent in ITAC and that KRAS mutations predict good patient prognosis in ITAC. Finally, EGFR directed molecular treatments could be investigated in a subset of patients affected by ITAC.

  12. Curcumin Induces EGFR Degradation in Lung Adenocarcinoma and Modulates p38 Activation in Intestine: The Versatile Adjuvant for Gefitinib Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jen-Yi; Lee, Yee-Ming; Chang, Gee-Chen; Yu, Sung-Liang; Hsieh, Wan-Yu; Chen, Jeremy J. W.; Chen, Huei-Wen; Yang, Pan-Chyr

    2011-01-01

    Background Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with L858R or exon 19 deletion mutations in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) have good responses to the tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), gefitinib. However, patients with wild-type EGFR and acquired mutation in EGFR T790M are resistant to gefitinib treatment. Here, we showed that curcumin can improve the efficiency of gefitinib in the resistant NSCLC cells both in vitro and in vivo models. Methods/Principal Findings After screening 598 herbal and natural compounds, we found curcumin could inhibit cell proliferation in different gefitinib-resistant NSCLC cell lines; concentration-dependently down-regulate EGFR phosphorylation through promoting EGFR degradation in NSCLC cell lines with wild-type EGFR or T790M EGFR. In addition, the anti-tumor activity of gefitinib was potentiated via curcumin through blocking EGFR activation and inducing apoptosis in gefitinib-resistant NSCLC cell lines; also the combined treatment with curcumin and gefitinib exhibited significant inhibition in the CL1-5, A549 and H1975 xenografts tumor growth in SCID mice through reducing EGFR, c-MET, cyclin D1 expression, and inducing apoptosis activation through caspases-8, 9 and PARP. Interestingly, we observed that the combined treatment group represented better survival rate and less intestinal mucosal damage compare to gefitinib-alone therapy. We showed that curcumin attenuated the gefitinib-induced cell proliferation inhibition and apoptosis through altering p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation in intestinal epithelia cell. Conclusions/Significance Curcumin potentiates antitumor activity of gefitinib in cell lines and xenograft mice model of NSCLC through inhibition of proliferation, EGFR phosphorylation, and induction EGFR ubiquitination and apoptosis. In addition, curcumin attenuates gefitinib-induced gastrointestinal adverse effects via altering p38 activation. These findings provide a novel treatment strategy

  13. Curcumin induces EGFR degradation in lung adenocarcinoma and modulates p38 activation in intestine: the versatile adjuvant for gefitinib therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Yi Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients with L858R or exon 19 deletion mutations in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR have good responses to the tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI, gefitinib. However, patients with wild-type EGFR and acquired mutation in EGFR T790M are resistant to gefitinib treatment. Here, we showed that curcumin can improve the efficiency of gefitinib in the resistant NSCLC cells both in vitro and in vivo models. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: After screening 598 herbal and natural compounds, we found curcumin could inhibit cell proliferation in different gefitinib-resistant NSCLC cell lines; concentration-dependently down-regulate EGFR phosphorylation through promoting EGFR degradation in NSCLC cell lines with wild-type EGFR or T790M EGFR. In addition, the anti-tumor activity of gefitinib was potentiated via curcumin through blocking EGFR activation and inducing apoptosis in gefitinib-resistant NSCLC cell lines; also the combined treatment with curcumin and gefitinib exhibited significant inhibition in the CL1-5, A549 and H1975 xenografts tumor growth in SCID mice through reducing EGFR, c-MET, cyclin D1 expression, and inducing apoptosis activation through caspases-8, 9 and PARP. Interestingly, we observed that the combined treatment group represented better survival rate and less intestinal mucosal damage compare to gefitinib-alone therapy. We showed that curcumin attenuated the gefitinib-induced cell proliferation inhibition and apoptosis through altering p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK activation in intestinal epithelia cell. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Curcumin potentiates antitumor activity of gefitinib in cell lines and xenograft mice model of NSCLC through inhibition of proliferation, EGFR phosphorylation, and induction EGFR ubiquitination and apoptosis. In addition, curcumin attenuates gefitinib-induced gastrointestinal adverse effects via altering p38 activation. These findings provide a novel

  14. Spectrum of EGFR gene copy number changes and KRAS gene mutation status in Korean triple negative breast cancer patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoonjung Kim

    Full Text Available Anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR therapy has been tried in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC patients without evaluation of molecular and clinical predictors in several randomized clinical studies. Only fewer than 20% of metastatic TNBCs showed response to anti-EGFR therapy. In order to increase the overall response rate, first step would be to classify TNBC into good or poor responders according to oncogenic mutation profiles. This study provides the molecular characteristics of TNBCs including EGFR gene copy number changes and mutation status of EGFR and KRAS gene in Korean TNBC patients. Mutation analysis for EGFR, KRAS, BRAF and TP53 from a total of 105 TNBC tissue samples was performed by direct sequencing, peptide nucleic acid-mediated PCR clamping method and real-time PCR. Copy number changes of EGFR gene were evaluated using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. Out of all 105 TNBCs, 15.2% (16/105 showed EGFR copy number changes. Among them, increased or decreased EGFR copy number was detected in 13 (5 single copy gain, 2 amplification and 4 high-copy number amplification and 3 cases (3 hemizygous deletion, respectively. The mutation frequencies of KRAS, EGFR and TP53 gene were 1.9% (G12V and G12D, 1.0% (exon 19 del and 31.4%, respectively. There was no BRAF V600E mutation found. Future studies are needed to evaluate the clinical outcomes of TNBC patients who undergo anti-EGFR therapy according to the genetic status of EGFR.

  15. Downregulation of E-Cadherin enhances proliferation of head and neck cancer through transcriptional regulation of EGFR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Dong M

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR has been reported to downregulate E-cadherin (E-cad; however, whether the downregulation of E-cad has any effect on EGFR expression has not been elucidated. Our previous studies have found an inverse correlation between EGFR and E-cad expression in tissue specimens of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN. To understand the biological mechanisms underlying this clinical observation, we knocked down E-cad expression utilizing E-cad siRNA in four SCCHN cell lines. Results It was observed that downregulation of E-cad upregulated EGFR expression compared with control siRNA-transfected cells after 72 hours. Cellular membrane localization of EGFR was also increased. Consequently, downstream signaling molecules of the EGFR signaling pathway, p-AKT, and p-ERK, were increased at 72 hours after the transfection with E-cad siRNA. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR showed EGFR mRNA was upregulated by E-cad siRNA as early as 24 hours. In addition, RT-PCR revealed this upregulation was due to the increase of EGFR mRNA stability, but not protein stability. Sulforhodamine B (SRB assay indicated growth of E-cad knocked down cells was enhanced up to 2-fold more than that of control siRNA-transfected cells at 72-hours post-transfection. The effect of E-cad reduction on cell proliferation was blocked by treating the E-cad siRNA-transfected cells with 1 μM of the EGFR-specific tyrosine kinase inhibitor erlotinib. Conclusion Our results suggest for the first time that reduction of E-cad results in upregulation of EGFR transcriptionally. It also suggests that loss of E-cad may induce proliferation of SCCHN by activating EGFR and its downstream signaling pathways.

  16. Peptide vaccines and peptidomimetics of EGFR (HER-1) ligand binding domain inhibit cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foy, Kevin Chu; Wygle, Ruthie M; Miller, Megan J; Overholser, Jay P; Bekaii-Saab, Tanios; Kaumaya, Pravin T P

    2013-07-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a validated target for several cancers including lung, colorectal, and certain subtypes of breast cancer. Cetuximab targets ligand binding of EGFR, but major problems like high cost, short t1/2, toxicity, and emergence of resistance are associated with the drug. Immunization with EGFR B cell epitopes will train the immune system to produce specific Abs that can kill cancer cells. Also, therapy with stable, less-expensive, and nontoxic EGFR peptide mimics will block EGFR signaling and inhibit cancer growth. We designed three peptides based on the contact sites between EGF and EGFR. The B cell epitopes were synthesized alone and also linked with the measles virus T cell epitope to produce a chimeric peptide vaccine. The peptide vaccines were immunogenic in both mice and rabbits and Abs raised against the vaccine specifically bound EGFR-expressing cells and recombinant human EGFR protein. The peptide mimics and the anti-peptide Abs were able to inhibit EGFR signaling pathways. Immunization with the peptide vaccine or treatment with the B cell epitopes significantly reduced tumor growth in both transplantable breast and lung cancer models. Immunohistochemical analysis also showed significant reductions in microvascular density and actively dividing cells in the tumor sections after treatment in the FVB/n breast cancer model. The 418-435 B cell epitope was the best candidate both as a vaccine or peptide mimic because it caused significant inhibition in the two mouse models. Our results show that this novel EGFR B cell epitope has great potential to be used as a vaccine or treatment option for EGFR-expressing cancers.

  17. Gene copy number gain of EGFR is a poor prognostic biomarker in gastric cancer: evaluation of 855 patients with bright-field dual in situ hybridization (DISH) method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higaki, Eiji; Kuwata, Takeshi; Nagatsuma, Akiko Kawano; Nishida, Yasunori; Kinoshita, Takahiro; Aizawa, Masaki; Nitta, Hiroaki; Nagino, Masato; Ochiai, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    EGFR overexpression is a prognostic biomarker and is expected to be a predictive biomarker for anti-EGFR therapies in gastric cancer. However, few studies have reported the clinical impact of EGFR gene copy number (GCN) and its correlation with EGFR overexpression. We used dual in situ hybridization (DISH) to detect EGFR GCN and chromosome 7 centromere (CEN7) in a set of tissue microarrays representing 855 patients with gastric cancer. These data were compared with those of immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis of EGFR expression to evaluate prognostic value. EGFR GCN gain (≥ 2.5 EGFR signals per cell) was detected in 194 patients (22.7%) and indicated poor prognosis. Among 194 patients, EGFR amplification (EGFR/CEN7 ≥ 2.0) was observed in 29 patients (14.9%), which was almost identical to the IHC 3+ subgroup and worst prognostic subgroup. Patients with EGFR GCN gain but not amplification, including those exhibiting polysomy, also exhibited poorer prognosis than GCN non-gain patients and were distributed between IHC 0/1+ and 2+ subgroups. GCN gain was frequently observed in patients with more advanced disease, but served as an independent prognostic factor regardless of the pathological stage. EGFR GCN gain is a more accurate prognostic biomarker than EGFR overexpression in patients with gastric cancer.

  18. Cell adhesion and EGFR activation regulate EphA2 expression in cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Alice Bjerregaard; Stockhausen, Marie-Thérése; Poulsen, Hans Skovgaard

    2010-01-01

    largely unknown. Here we show that the expression of EphA2 in in vitro cultured cells, is restricted to cells growing adherently and that adhesion-induced EphA2 expression is dependent upon activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), mitogen activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) and Src...... family kinases (SRC). Moreover, the results show that adhesion-induced EGFR activation and EphA2 expression is affected by interactions with extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins working as integrin ligands. Stimulation with the EphA2 ligand, ephrinA1 inhibited ERK phosphorylation and cancer cell viability....... These effects were however abolished by activation of the EGF-receptor ligand system favoring Ras/MAPK signaling and cell proliferation. Based on our results, we propose a regulatory mechanism where cell adhesion induces EGFR kinase activation and EphA2 expression; and where the effect of ephrinA1 mediated...

  19. [Study on the correlation between EGFR-STAT3 signal pathway and laryngeal papilloma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinhua; Sun, Jingwu

    2009-09-01

    To explore the relationship between the expression of EGFR and STAT3 in human laryngeal papilloma and its biological behavior. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR), immunohistochemical staining and Western blot were used to evaluate the mRNA and protein expression of EGFR and STAT3 (p-STAT3) in 42 laryngeal papilloma tissues and 15 samples of normal laryngeal tissue, and the relationship between the protein expression of them and clinic pathological parameters was also analyzed. The mRNA expression levels of EGFR and STAT3 in laryngeal papilloma tissue were significantly higher than that in normal laryngeal tissue (P laryngeal papilloma than normal laryngeal tissue by immunohistochemistry and western blot (P laryngeal papilloma (P laryngeal papilloma (P laryngeal papilloma,, and the persistent activation of STAT3 gene plays an important role in the recurrence and canceration of laryngeal papilloma.

  20. CHIP is a novel tumor suppressor in pancreatic cancer and inhibits tumor growth through targeting EGFR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tianxiao; Yang, Jingxuan; Xu, Jianwei; Li, Jian; Cao, Zhe; Zhou, Li; You, Lei; Shu, Hong; Lu, Zhaohui; Li, Huihua; Li, Min; Zhang, Taiping; Zhao, Yupei

    2014-01-01

    Carboxyl terminus of heat shock protein 70-interacting protein (CHIP) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that is involved in protein quality control and mediates several tumor-related proteins in many cancers, but the function of CHIP in pancreatic cancer is not known. Here we show that CHIP interacts and ubiquitinates epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) for proteasome-mediated degradation in pancreatic cancer cells, thereby inhibiting the activation of EGFR downstream pathways. CHIP suppressed cell proliferation, anchor-independent growth, invasion and migration, as well as enhanced apoptosis induced by erlotinib in vitro and in vivo. The expression of CHIP was decreased in pancreatic cancer tissues or sera. Low CHIP expression in tumor tissues was correlated with tumor differentiation and shorter overall survival. These observations indicate that CHIP serves as a novel tumor suppressor by down-regulating EGFR pathway in pancreatic cancer cells, decreased expression of CHIP was associated with poor prognosis in pancreatic cancer. PMID:24722501

  1. Development of Cu-64 labeled EGF for In Vivo PET Imaging of EGFR Expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backer, Joseph M.

    2009-07-12

    In this project we proposed to establish feasibility of the development of targeted tracers for radionuclide imaging of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) in cancer patients. The significance and impact of the proposed radiotracers are determined by the crucial role that EGFR plays in many cancers and by the rapid entrance of EGFR-inhibiting drugs into clinic. Clinical experience, however, revealed that only 10-25% of patients that are defined as EGFR-positive by immunohistochemical analysis respond to EGFR-directed therapeutics and there is poor correlation between EGFR immunohistochemistry and treatment. Therefore, for more efficacious use of EGFR-targeting therapeutics, there is a need for information about EGFR activity in patients. We hypothesized that radionuclide imaging of functionally active EGFR will provide such information and would allow for 1) rational patient stratification, 2) rapid monitoring of responses to therapy, and 3) development of personalized treatment regimens. We hypothesized that tracers based epidermal growth factor (EGF), a natural EGFR ligand, as a targeting vector would be particularly advantageous. First, only functionally active and therefore critical for disease progression EGFRs will bind and internalize an EGF-based tracer. Second, continuous internalization of EGF-based tracers by recyclable EGFR would lead to intracellular accumulation of radionuclide and improved signal-to-background ratio. Third, small size of EGF relative to antibodies would facilitate tumor penetration with vastly better non-specific soft tissue and blood clearance rates. Fourth, as a human protein, EGF is not expected to be immunogenic. Finally, at the beginning of this project, we have already engineered and expressed functionally active EGF with an N-terminal Cys-tag for site-specific conjugation of various payloads, including radionuclide chelators. In the Phase I of this project, in collaboration with Dr. Blankenberg’s group at Stanford

  2. Dietary calcium supplementation enhances efficacy but also toxicity of EGFR inhibitor therapy for colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinella, Erica S; Bankaitis, Eric D; Threadgill, David W

    2012-02-01

    The inverse correlation between levels of dietary calcium and colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence has been extensively investigated. However, the impact of supplemental calcium on cancer therapy remains unknown. We used four models of CRC, Caco-2 and HCT116 human cancer cell lines and Apc (Min/+) and azoxymethane carcinogen-induced mouse models, to investigate the impact of a western-style diet low in calcium (0.05%) vs. a similar diet but supplemented with calcium (5%) on therapeutic targeting of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). We found that calcium supplementation combined with pharmacologic blockade of EGFR results in an additive effect on tumor growth inhibition in all models. Unexpectedly, the combined use of dietary calcium supplementation and EGFR inhibitors also resulted in elevated toxicity suggesting that careful consideration be given when combining dietary supplements with prescribed cancer therapies.

  3. Multilayered proteomics reveals molecular switches dictating ligand-dependent EGFR trafficking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Francavilla, Chiara; Papetti, Moreno; Rigbolt, Kristoffer T G

    2016-01-01

    , we devised an integrated multilayered proteomics approach (IMPA). We analyzed dynamic changes in the receptor interactome, ubiquitinome, phosphoproteome, and late proteome in response to both ligands in human cells by quantitative MS and identified 67 proteins regulated at multiple levels. We...... identified RAB7 phosphorylation and RCP recruitment to EGFR as switches for EGF and TGF-α outputs, controlling receptor trafficking, signaling duration, proliferation, and migration. By manipulating RCP levels or phosphorylation of RAB7 in EGFR-positive cancer cells, we were able to switch a TGF......-α-mediated response to an EGF-like response or vice versa as EGFR trafficking was rerouted. We propose IMPA as an approach to uncover fine-tuned regulatory mechanisms in cell signaling....

  4. Synergistic antiproliferative and antiangiogenic effects of EGFR and mTOR inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcelli, L; Quatrale, A E; Mantuano, P; Silvestris, N; Rolland, J F; Biancolillo, L; Paradiso, A; Azzariti, A

    2013-01-01

    Single-agent therapy with molecularly targeted agents has shown limited success in tumor growth control, mainly because escape or resistance mechanisms are activated once a signalling molecule is inhibited. Rational combinations of target-specific agents could counteract this response providing a useful strategy in cancer treatment. In this regard, the EGFR and mTOR inhibitors have been used together to generate a synergistic effect and maximize the efficacy of each individual agent. Overall, the in vivo and in vitro evidences support the utilization of combinations targeting EGFR and mTOR, for malignancies characterized by deregulated EGFR/PI3K/Akt/ mTOR signalling cascade; whereas the clinical experience points out that the assessment of the therapeutic value of such combination awaits further investigations.

  5. EGFR and VEGFR as potential target for biological therapies in HCC cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannelli, Gianluigi; Sgarra, Concetta; Porcelli, Letizia; Azzariti, Amalia; Antonaci, Salvatore; Paradiso, Angelo

    2008-04-18

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a highly malignant cancer with poor prognosis. Inhibitors of EGFR and VEGFR for HCC treatment are currently under investigation. Gefitinib and vandetanib inhibit migration of HCC cells on Laminin-5 and Fibronectin, and invasion through matrigel. Both drugs inhibit p-EGFR after short time, while their efficacy on p-Erk1/2 and p-Akt is progressive and stable over time. PI3K/Akt and MEK/Erk1/2 inhibitors, inhibit migration and invasion as well as inducing de-phosphorylation of downstream effectors. Finally, both inhibitors, vandetanib and gefitinib down-regulated the secretion of matrix metalloproteases MMP-2 and MMP-9. All these biological effects seem to depend on the activity of gefitinib and vandetanib blocking activity towards p-EGFR mediated pathways.

  6. Bio markers and Anti-EGFR therapies for Krads wild-type tumors in metastatic colorectal cancer patients; Biomarcadores y terapeutica ANTI-EGFR en el cancer colorrectal metastasico en pacientes con K-Ras no mutado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz Rubio Garcia, E.

    2009-07-01

    The natural history of metastasis colorectal cancer has being clearly modified in terms of response rate, time to progression and overall survival, once the anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies (cetuximab and panitumumab) have emerged in combination with the standard cytotoxic chemotherapy (FOLFOX and FOLFIRI). However, the benefit from cetuximab and panitumumab is only confined to KRAS-wild type (KRAS-wt) colorectal tumors, while KRAS mutated tumors do not respond to these drugs. The 65 % of colorectal tumors are KRAS-wt tumors, but efficacy of antiEGFR therapies is detected only in 60-70 % of these KRAS-wt tumors. Other biomarkers and molecular pathways must be involved in the response of the antiEGFR therapies for the KRAS-wt colorectal tumors, such as the EGFR ligands, the EGFR-phosphorilated levels, the number of EGFR copies, the status of the KRAS effected B-RAF and the alternative intracellular signaling pathways PIK3CA/PTEN/AKT and JAK/STAT. A battery of these biomarkers is needed to select the most sensitive patients to the antiEGFR therapies. This pattern may represent a novel favorable cost-effectiveness tool to develop tailored treatments. A review of these biomarkers and molecular pathways, involved in the antiEGFR therapies response, is performed. (Author) 68 refs.

  7. Combined analysis of TERT, EGFR, and IDH status defines distinct prognostic glioblastoma classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labussière, Marianne; Boisselier, Blandine; Mokhtari, Karima; Di Stefano, Anna-Luisa; Rahimian, Anais; Rossetto, Marta; Ciccarino, Pietro; Saulnier, Olivier; Paterra, Rosina; Marie, Yannick; Finocchiaro, Gaetano; Sanson, Marc

    2014-09-23

    To identify the prognostic significance of TERT promoter mutations (TERTp-mut) and their associations with common molecular alterations in glioblastomas (GBMs). We sequenced the TERTp-mut in DNA from 395 GBMs and analyzed the results with their respective histology, genetic profile (IDH1 mutation, EGFR amplification, CDKN2A homozygous deletion, loss of chromosome 10, TP53 mutation), and overall survival (OS). TERTp-mut were found in 299 of 395 GBMs (75.7%) and were associated with an older age (median 59.6 years for TERTp-mut vs 53.6 years for TERT promoter wild type [TERTp-wt], p IDH-mutated (OS = 13.8 vs 37.6 months, p = 0.022) and IDH-wt GBMs (OS = 13.7 vs 17.5 months, p = 0.006). TERTp-mut was associated with IDH-wt, EGFR amplification, CDKN2A deletion, and chromosome 10q loss, but not with MGMT promoter methylation. In the TERTp-wt group, OS was twice longer in EGFR-wt than in EGFR amplification GBMs (OS = 26.6 vs 13.3 months; p = 0.005). In the EGFR-wt group, patients with TERTp-wt had a significantly better outcome (OS = 26.3 vs 12.5 months, p IDH-wt, 36.7 months for patients with IDH mutation). The analysis of TERTp-mut, in combination with EGFR amplification and IDH mutation status, refines the prognostic classification of GBMs. © 2014 American Academy of Neurology.

  8. Observations of the genomic landscape beyond 1p19q deletions and EGFR amplification in glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Christian N; Rowe, Leslie R; South, Sarah T

    2015-01-01

    With recent advancements in molecular techniques, the opportunities to gather whole genome information have increased, even in degraded samples such as FFPE tissues. As a result, a broader view of the genomic landscape of solid tumors may be explored. Whole genome copy number and loss of heterozygosity patterns can advance our understanding of mechanisms and complexity of various tumors. Genome-wide alterations involving copy number changes and loss of heterozygosity were identified in 17 glioma samples with positive FISH results for 1p19q co-deletions (n = 9) or EGFR amplification (n = 8). Gliomas positive for 1p19q co-deletions did not have other frequently recurrent genomic alterations. Additional copy-number alterations were observed in individual cases, and consisted primarily of large-scale changes, including gains or losses of entire chromosomes. The genomic architecture of EGFR amplified gliomas was much more complex, with a high number of gains and losses across the genome. Recurrent alterations in EGFR amplified gliomas were both focal, such as CDKN2A homozygous deletions, and large, such as chromosome 10 loss. Microarray enabled a broader picture of the genomic alterations occurring in glioma cases. Gliomas with 1p19q co-deletion had a relatively quiet genome, apart from the selected co-deletion. Additional alterations in isolated cases, involved primarily larger aberrations. On the other hand, EGFR amplified cases tended to be more complex and have specific abnormalities associated with the EGFR amplification. Furthermore, 1p19q co-deletions and EGFR amplification associated copy number changes appeared to often be mutually exclusive.

  9. Detection of Lung Cancer and EGFR Mutation by Electronic Nose System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlomi, Dekel; Abud, Manal; Liran, Ori; Bar, Jair; Gai-Mor, Naomi; Ilouze, Maya; Onn, Amir; Ben-Nun, Alon; Haick, Hossam; Peled, Nir

    2017-10-01

    Early detection of lung cancer (LC) has been well established as a significant key point in patient survival and prognosis. New highly sensitive nanoarray sensors for exhaled volatile organic compounds that have been developed and coupled with powerful statistical programs may be used when diseases such as LC are suspected. Detection of genetic aberration mutation by nanoarray sensors is the next target. Breath samples were taken from patients who were evaluated for suspicious pulmonary lesions. Patients were classified as those with benign nodules, as patients with LC with or without the EGFR mutation, and according to their smoking status. Breath prints were recognized by nanomaterial-based sensor array, and pattern recognition methods were used. A total of 119 patients participated in this study, 30 patients with benign nodules and 89 patients with LC (16 with early disease and 73 with advanced disease). Patients with LC who harbored the EGFR mutation (n = 19) could be discriminated from those with wild-type EGFR (n = 34) with an accuracy of 83%, sensitivity of 79%, and specificity of 85%. Discrimination of early LC from benign nodules had 87% accuracy and positive and negative predictive values of 87.7 and 87.5% respectively. Moderate discrimination (accuracy of 76%) was found between LC of heavy smokers and that of never-smokers or distant past light smokers. Breath analysis could discriminate patients with LC who harbor the EGFR mutation from those with wild-type EGFR and those with benign pulmonary nodules from those patients with early LC. A positive breath print for the EGFR mutation may be used in treatment decisions if tissue sampling does not provide adequate material for definitive mutation analysis. Copyright © 2017 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Sulfated Galactans from Red Seaweed Gracilaria fisheri Target EGFR and Inhibit Cholangiocarcinoma Cell Proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sae-Lao, Thannicha; Tohtong, Rutaiwan; Bates, David O; Wongprasert, Kanokpan

    2017-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is increasing in incidence worldwide and is resistant to chemotherapeutic agents, making treatment of CCA a major challenge. Previous studies reported that natural sulfated polysaccharides (SPs) disrupted growth factor receptor activation in cancer cells. The present study, therefore, aimed at investigating the antiproliferation effect of sulfated galactans (SG) isolated from the red seaweed Gracilaria fisheri (G. fisheri) on CCA cell lines. Direct binding activity of SG to CCA cells, epidermal growth factor (EGF) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) were determined. The effect of SG on proliferation of CCA cells was investigated. Cell cycle analyses and expression of signaling molecules associated with proliferation were also determined. The results demonstrated that SG bound directly to EGFR. SG inhibited proliferation of various CCA cell lines by inhibiting EGFR and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) phosphorylation, and inhibited EGF-induced increased cell proliferation. Cell cycle analyses showed that SG induced cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase, down-regulated cell cycle genes and proteins (cyclin-D, cyclin-E, cdk-4, cdk-2), and up-regulated the tumor suppressor protein P53 and the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor P21. Taken together, these data demonstrate that SG from G. fisheri inhibited proliferation of CCA cells, and its mechanism of inhibition is mediated, to some extent, by inhibitory effects on EGFR activation and EGFR/ERK signaling pathway. SG presents a potential EGFR targeted molecule, which may be further clinically developed in a combination therapy for CCA treatment.

  11. Cell adhesion and EGFR activation regulate EphA2 expression in cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Alice Bjerregaard; Stockhausen, Marie-Thérése; Poulsen, Hans Skovgaard

    2010-01-01

    family kinases (SRC). Moreover, the results show that adhesion-induced EGFR activation and EphA2 expression is affected by interactions with extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins working as integrin ligands. Stimulation with the EphA2 ligand, ephrinA1 inhibited ERK phosphorylation and cancer cell viability....... These effects were however abolished by activation of the EGF-receptor ligand system favoring Ras/MAPK signaling and cell proliferation. Based on our results, we propose a regulatory mechanism where cell adhesion induces EGFR kinase activation and EphA2 expression; and where the effect of ephrinA1 mediated...

  12. Fluctuations in eGFR in relation to unenhanced and enhanced MRI and CT outpatients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azzouz, Manal; Rømsing, Janne; Thomsen, Henrik S

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study fluctuations in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in relation to contrast medium (CM) enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) compared to control groups in outpatients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: eGFR was determined right before the imaging...... procedure and three days later at the department or at the patient's home. The iodine-based and gadolinium-based contrast media were the same as used for all other examinations at the department. RESULTS: A total of 716 patients completed the study. There was a statistically significant, but not clinically...

  13. RRx-001-Induced Tumor Necrosis and Immune Cell Infiltration in an EGFR Mutation-Positive NSCLC with Resistance to EGFR Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Brzezniak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of a 49-year-old male with metastatic epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR mutation-positive adenocarcinoma of the lung that continues to outlive stage IV diagnosis of non-small cell lung cancer after treatment with RRx-001, an experimental anticancer agent with epigenetic and immunologic activity, in the context of a phase II clinical trial called TRIPLE THREAT. Currently, no adequate treatment options exist for patients with EGFR mutation-positive tumors who have failed a 1st-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor (erlotinib or gefitinib treatment and do not develop a resistant mutation. Biopsy of a large pancreatic metastasis after RRx-001 demonstrated extensive necrosis with CD3+ and CD8+ immune cell infiltration that appears to correlate with prolonged survival despite end-stage disease. These results suggest that the mode of action of RRx-001 is related to immune stimulation in addition to epigenetic inhibition.

  14. Comparison of EGFR Mutation Status in Paired Pre- and Post-chemotherapy Serum for Advanced Pulmonary Adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubing HAN

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC with mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR is a distinct subgroup of NSCLC, which is particularly responsive to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs. The aim of this study is to detect EGFR mutations in paired serum of pre- and post-chemotherapy from advanced pulmonary adenocarcinoma patients to evaluate impact of chemotherapy on EGFR mutation status. Methods Magnetic beads were used for DNA extraction from paired serum of pre- and post-chemotherapy of 33 advanced pulmonary adenocarcinoma patients. The EGFR exon 19 and 21 were amplified by mutant-enriched nested PCR and analyzed by direct sequencing. Results EGFR mutations were detected in 39.4% (13/33 and 54.5% (18/33 serum samples of pre- and postchemotherapy, respectively. The EGFR mutation status was consistent in 54.5% (18/33 patients. Among 15 discordant cases, 10 changed from pre-chemo wild-type to post-chemo mutant-type status, while 5 from pre-chemo mutant-type to post-chemo wild-type status. Conclusion Chemotherapy may have influence on serum EGFR mutation status in advanced adenocacinoma patients.

  15. Prospective evaluation of angiogenic, hypoxic and EGFR-related biomarkers in recurrent glioblastoma multiforme treated with cetuximab, bevacizumab and irinotecan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Benedikte; Eriksen, Jesper Grau; Broholm, Helle

    2010-01-01

    , hypoxia and mediators of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway were investigated. Tumor tissue was obtained from a previous phase II study, treating recurrent primary glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients with the EGFR inhibitor cetuximab in combination with bevacizumab and irinotecan...

  16. Influence of Age and Measure of eGFR on the Association between Renal Function and Cardiovascular Events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velde, Marije; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; de Jong, Paul E.; Gansevoort, Ron T.

    2010-01-01

    Background and objectives: This study investigates whether the association between estimated GFR (eGFR) and cardiovascular (CV) outcome differs for different measures of eGFR and different age groups. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: Between 1997 and 1998, 8047 participants visited our

  17. Differential Roles of Grb2 and AP-2 in p38 MAPK- and EGF-Induced EGFR Internalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandal, Michael V; Grøvdal, Lene M; Henriksen, Lasse

    2012-01-01

    epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced EGFR internalization also required Grb2, p38 MAPK-induced internalization did not. Interestingly, AP-2 knock down blocked p38 MAPK-induced EGFR internalization, but only mildly affected EGF-induced internalization. In line with this, simultaneously mutating two AP-2...

  18. Endometrial stromal sarcomas frequently express epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, HER-1): potential basis for a new therapeutic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moinfar, Farid; Gogg-Kamerer, Margit; Sommersacher, Andrea; Regitnig, Peter; Man, Yan Gao; Zatloukal, Kurt; Denk, Helmut; Tavassoli, Fattaneh A

    2005-04-01

    Endometrial stromal sarcomas are rare malignant mesenchymal uterine tumors. The expressions of different epidermal growth factor receptors such as EGFR (HER-1), HER-2, HER-3, and HER-4 have not yet been examined in these tumors. Twenty-three cases of endometrial sarcomas consisting of 20 low-grade endometrial stromal sarcomas and 3 undifferentiated endometrial sarcomas were examined immunohistochemically for EGFR (HER-1), HER-2, HER-3, and HER-4. EGFR (HER-1) was positive in 17 of 23 (74%) cases. While the three undifferentiated endometrial sarcomas were positive for EGFR, 14 of 20 (70%) low-grade endometrial stromal sarcomas showed positive reactions for EGFR. All examined cases were negative for HER-2, HER-3, and HER-4. This study is the first to show common expression of EGFR (HER-1) in endometrial stromal sarcomas. This finding may provide the basis for a new therapeutic strategy using monoclonal antibodies against EGFR (such as cetuximab) or small molecule inhibitors of EGFR (such as gefitinib) in patients with endometrial sarcomas.

  19. Predictors of eGFR progression, stabilisation or improvement after chronic renal impairment in HIV-positive individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryom, Lene; Mocroft, Amanda; Kirk, Ole; Reiss, Peter; Ross, Michael; Smith, Colette; Moranne, Olivier; Morlat, Philippe; Fux, Christoph A; Sabin, Caroline; Phillips, Andrew; Law, Matthew; Lundgren, Jens D

    2017-03-28

    The objectives of this analysis were to investigate predictors of progression, stabilisation or improvement in eGFR after development of chronic renal impairment (CRI) in HIV-positive individuals. Prospective observational study. D:A:D study participants progressing to CRI defined as confirmed, ≥3 months apart, eGFR≤70 mL/min/1.73m were included in the analysis. The median of all eGFRs measured 24-36 months post-CRI was compared to the median eGFR defining CRI, and changes were grouped into: improvement (>+10 mL/min/1.73m), stabilisation (-10 to +10 mL/min/1.73m) and progression (12 months (1.17 [0.87-1.57]) had similar eGFR outcomes as those unexposed to these ARVs. Older age, hypertension, later date of CRI and diabetes were associated with worse eGFR outcomes. Current TDF and ATV/r use after a diagnosis of CRI was associated with worse eGFR outcomes. In contrast, TDF and ATV/r discontinuation lead to similar longer-term eGFR outcomes as in those unexposed suggesting these drug- associated eGFR declines may be halted or reversed after their cessation.

  20. EGFR somatic mutations in lung tumors: radon exposure and passive smoking in former- and never-smoking U.S. women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taga, Masataka; Mechanic, Leah E; Hagiwara, Nobutoshi; Vähäkangas, Kirsi H; Bennett, William P; Alavanja, Michael C R; Welsh, Judith A; Khan, Mohammed A; Lee, Adam; Diasio, Robert; Edell, Eric; Bungum, Aaron; Jang, Jin Sung; Yang, Ping; Jen, Jin; Harris, Curtis C

    2012-06-01

    Patients with lung cancer with mutations in EGF receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase have improved prognosis when treated with EGFR inhibitors. We hypothesized that EGFR mutations may be related to residential radon or passive tobacco smoke. This hypothesis was investigated by analyzing EGFR mutations in 70 lung tumors from a population of never and long-term former female smokers from Missouri with detailed exposure assessments. The relationship with passive smoking was also examined in never-smoking female lung cancer cases from the Mayo clinic. Overall, the frequency of EGFR mutation was 41% [95% confidence interval (CI), 32%-49%]. Neither radon nor passive-smoking exposure was consistently associated with EGFR mutations in lung tumors. The results suggest that EGFR mutations are common in female, never-smoking lung cancer cases from the United States, and EGFR mutations are unlikely due to exposure to radon or passive smoking.

  1. An open label phase II study evaluating first-line EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor erlotinib in non-small cell lung cancer patients with tumors showing high EGFR gene copy number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczyk, Anna; Suszko-Kazarnowicz, Malgorzata; Duchnowska, Renata; Szczesna, Aleksandra; Ratajska, Magdalena; Sowa, Aleksander; Limon, Janusz; Biernat, Wojciech; Burzykowski, Tomasz; Jassem, Jacek; Dziadziuszko, Rafal

    2017-01-01

    Background First-line treatment with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors in NSCLC is effective in patients with activating EGFR mutations. The activity of erlotinib in patients harboring high EGFR gene copy number has been considered debatable. Patients and Methods A multicenter, open-label, single-arm phase II clinical trial was performed to test the efficacy of erlotinib in the first-line treatment of NSCLC patients harboring high EGFR gene copy number defined as =4 copies in =40% of cells. Findings Between December 2007 and April 2011, tumor samples from 149 subjects were screened for EGFR gene copy number by fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH), Out of 49 patients with positive EGFR FISH test, 45 were treated with erlotinib. Median PFS in the intent-to-treat population was 3.3 months (95%CI: 1.83.9 months), and median overall survival was 7.9 months (95% CI: 5.112.6 months). Toxicity profile of erlotinib was consistent with its known safety profile. The trial was stopped prematurely at 63% of originally planned sample size due to accumulating evidence that EGFR gene copy number should not be used to select NSCLC patients to first-line therapy with EGFR TKI. Data on erlotinib efficacy according to EGFR, KRAS and BRAF mutations are additionally presented. Interpretation This trial argues against using high gene copy number for selection of NSCLC patients to first-line therapy with EGFR TKIs. The study adds to the discussion on efficacy of other targeted agents in patients with target gene amplified tumors. PMID:27924059

  2. An open label phase II study evaluating first-line EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor erlotinib in non-small cell lung cancer patients with tumors showing high EGFR gene copy number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szutowicz-Zielińska, Ewa; Konopa, Krzysztof; Kowalczyk, Anna; Suszko-Każarnowicz, Małgorzata; Duchnowska, Renata; Szczęsna, Aleksandra; Ratajska, Magdalena; Sowa, Aleksander; Limon, Janusz; Biernat, Wojciech; Burzykowski, Tomasz; Jassem, Jacek; Dziadziuszko, Rafał

    2017-03-07

    First-line treatment with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors in NSCLC is effective in patients with activating EGFR mutations. The activity of erlotinib in patients harboring high EGFR gene copy number has been considered debatable. A multicenter, open-label, single-arm phase II clinical trial was performed to test the efficacy of erlotinib in the first-line treatment of NSCLC patients harboring high EGFR gene copy number defined as ≥4 copies in ≥40% of cells. Between December 2007 and April 2011, tumor samples from 149 subjects were screened for EGFR gene copy number by fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH), Out of 49 patients with positive EGFR FISH test, 45 were treated with erlotinib. Median PFS in the intent-to-treat population was 3.3 months (95%CI: 1.8-3.9 months), and median overall survival was 7.9 months (95% CI: 5.1-12.6 months). Toxicity profile of erlotinib was consistent with its known safety profile. The trial was stopped prematurely at 63% of originally planned sample size due to accumulating evidence that EGFR gene copy number should not be used to select NSCLC patients to first-line therapy with EGFR TKI. Data on erlotinib efficacy according to EGFR, KRAS and BRAF mutations are additionally presented. This trial argues against using high gene copy number for selection of NSCLC patients to first-line therapy with EGFR TKIs. The study adds to the discussion on efficacy of other targeted agents in patients with target gene amplified tumors.

  3. MET-Driven Resistance to Dual EGFR and BRAF Blockade May Be Overcome by Switching from EGFR to MET Inhibition in BRAF-Mutated Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrantonio, Filippo; Oddo, Daniele; Gloghini, Annunziata; Valtorta, Emanuele; Berenato, Rosa; Barault, Ludovic; Caporale, Marta; Busico, Adele; Morano, Federica; Gualeni, Ambra Vittoria; Alessi, Alessandra; Siravegna, Giulia; Perrone, Federica; Di Bartolomeo, Maria; Bardelli, Alberto; de Braud, Filippo; Di Nicolantonio, Federica

    2016-09-01

    A patient with metastatic BRAF-mutated colorectal cancer initially responded to combined EGFR and BRAF inhibition with panitumumab plus vemurafenib. Pre-existing cells with increased MET gene copy number in the archival tumor tissue likely underwent clonal expansion during treatment, leading to the emergence of MET amplification in the rebiopsy taken at progression. In BRAF-mutated colorectal cancer cells, ectopic expression of MET conferred resistance to panitumumab and vemurafenib, which was overcome by combining BRAF and MET inhibition. Based on tumor genotyping and functional in vitro data, the patient was treated with the dual ALK-MET inhibitor crizotinib plus vemurafenib, thus switching to dual MET and BRAF blockade, with rapid and marked effectiveness of such strategy. Although acquired resistance is a major limitation to the clinical efficacy of anticancer agents, the identification of molecular targets emerging during the first treatment may afford the opportunity to design the next line of targeted therapies, maximizing patient benefit. MET amplification is here identified-clinically and preclinically-as a new mechanism of resistance to EGFR and BRAF dual/triple block combinations in BRAF-mutated colorectal cancer. Switching from EGFR to MET inhibition, while maintaining BRAF inhibition, resulted in clinical benefit after the occurrence of MET-driven acquired resistance. Cancer Discov; 6(9); 963-71. ©2016 AACR.This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 932. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  4. Heterogeneity in primary colorectal cancer and its corresponding metastases: a potential reason of EGFR-targeted therapy failure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhongqi; Jin, Ketao; Lan, Huanrong; Teng, Lisong

    2011-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeted therapy represents an important approach in metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) therapy. However, a number of CRC patients show intrinsic or acquired resistance to EGFR-targeted therapy. EGFR antibody therapy is established in CRC patients with wild-type KRAS. However, up to half of these patients do not respond to this therapy. This phenomenon implied some potential mechanisms of resistance to EGFR inhibitors might exist. One of the potential reasons to explain this phenomenon is heterogeneity of CRC. The heterogeneity of CRC has been well described at the morphological, molecular and genomic levels. This review discussed the potential relationship of heterogeneity, including intratumor heterogeneity of CRC and heterogeneity in primary CRC and its corresponding metastases, to EGFR-targeted therapy failure.

  5. Factors Associated with the Decline of Kidney Function Differ among eGFR Strata in Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Meguro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. There is no report about risk factors for renal deterioration according to the clinical stage, divided by the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR in type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods. We evaluated the factors correlated with the annual eGFR decline in 1303 subjects with type 2 diabetes whose eGFR was ≥30 mL/min/1.73 m2. eGFR strata were defined by baseline eGFR value as follows: stratum 1: ≥90, stratum 2: ≥60, <90, and stratum 3: ≥30, <60. Results. The annual eGFR decline was 2.3±5.4 mL/min/1.73 m2 in overall subjects. Multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated that age, male sex, systolic blood pressure, logarithmically transformed albumin excretion rate (AER, eGFR strata, and hemoglobin concentration were significantly correlated with the annual eGFR decline. When stratified by eGFR, the factors that showed a significant correlation were different among eGFR strata. AER was significantly correlated with annual eGFR decline in all eGFR strata. Hemoglobin concentration showed a significant correlation only in the advanced eGFR stratum. Conclusion. The factors correlated with the annual eGFR decline were different among eGFR strata in type 2 diabetes mellitus, and hemoglobin concentration and AER were important factors for renal deterioration, especially in the advanced eGFR stratum.

  6. Symptomatic subependymoma with nuclear polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, A; Ahyai, A; Hori, A

    1987-01-01

    Two patients with symptomatic subependymomas are described. Histologically prominent cellular polymorphism was revealed. The existence of subependymoma with unusually marked polymorphism of the tumor cells should be taken into consideration in diagnosis and treatment.

  7. LIGAND-INDEPENDENT PHOSPHORYLATION OF Y869 LINKS MUTANT EGFR SIGNALING TO STAT-MEDIATED GENE EXPRESSION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Seungchan; Park, Kyungho; Turkson, James; Arteaga, Carlos L.

    2011-01-01

    Activating mutants of EGFR have been identified in a subset of non-small-cell lung cancers. To investigate mutant-driven signaling, we focused on Y869, a residue in the same activation loop where the L858R and L861Q mutations are located. We observed ligand-independent phosphorylation of Y869 in 32D cells EGFRL858R and EGFRL861Q. The EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) erlotinib inhibited Y869 P-EGFR in intact cells as well as in a cell-free kinase reaction. Expression of kinase domain of EGFRL858R and EGFRL861Q exhibited auto-phosphorylation of Y869; this was inhibited by EGFR TKIs but not by Src kinase inhibitor. P-Y859 of EGFR-mediated downstream component, STAT5, was also analyzed. Y694 P-STAT5 was eliminated by erlotinib treatment. Analysis of immune-complexes showed constitutive association of mutant EGFRs with STAT5 and Src which was unaffected by erlotinib or PP1. On the other hand, 32D-EGFRWT exhibited constitutive STAT5 phosphorylation and association of EGFR with JAK2. In these cells, a JAK2 inhibitor abrogated P-STAT5 whereas mutant EGFRs did not associate with JAK2. Expression of c-myc was regulated by EGFR/STAT5 signaling in cells expressing EGFRL858R and EGFRL861Q. Our results suggest that ligand-independent and Src activity-independent phosphorylation of Y869 in mutant EGFR regulates STAT5 activation and c-myc expression. PMID:17927978

  8. Alpha6beta4 integrin crosslinking induces EGFR clustering and promotes EGF-mediated Rho activation in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woodward Wendy A

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The α6β4 integrin is overexpressed in the basal subtype of breast cancer and plays an important role in tumor cell motility and invasion. EGFR is also overexpressed in the basal subtype of breast cancer, and crosstalk between α6β4 integrin and EGFR appears to be important in tumor progression. Methods We evaluated the effects of α6β4 crosslinking on the distribution and function of EGFR in breast carcinoma cell line MDA-MB-231. Receptor distribution was evaluated by fluorescence microscopy and multispectral imaging flow cytometry, and ligand-mediated EGFR signaling was evaluated using Western blots and a Rho pull-down assay. Results Antibody-mediated crosslinking of α6β4 integrin was sufficient to induce cell-surface clustering of not only α6β4 but also EGFR in nonadherent cells. The induced clustering of EGFR was observed minimally after 5 min of integrin crosslinking but was more prominent after 15 min. EGFR clustering had minimal effect on the phosphorylation of Akt or Erk1,2 in response to EGF in suspended cells or in response to HB-EGF in adherent cells. However, EGFR clustering induced by crosslinking α6β4 had a marked effect on Rho activation in response to EGF. Conclusion Crosslinking α6β4 integrin in breast carcinoma cells induces EGFR clustering and preferentially promotes Rho activation in response to EGF. We hypothesize that this integrin-EGFR crosstalk may facilitate tumor cell cytoskeletal rearrangements important for tumor progression.

  9. A Panel of High Resolution Melting (HRM Technology-Based Assays with Direct Sequencing Possibility for Effective Mutation Screening of EGFR and K-ras Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. M. Heideman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increasing data from clinical trials support EGFR and K-ras mutation status as predictive markers of tumour response to EGFR-targeted therapies. Consequently, rapid and reliable mutation screening assays are demanded to guide rational use of EGFR-targeted therapies.

  10. Polymorphisms associated with renal adverse effects of antiretroviral therapy in a Southern Brazilian HIV cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rocha, Ivete M; Gasparotto, Aline S; Lazzaretti, Rosmeri K; Notti, Regina K; Sprinz, Eduardo; Mattevi, Vanessa S

    2015-11-01

    This study evaluated the impact of seven single nucleotide polymorphisms in five candidate genes (ABCB1, ABCC2, ABCC4, SLC22A6, and SLC22A11) in relation to nephrotoxicity associated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in HIV-infected individuals. The following single nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped by real-time PCR: ABCB1 rs1045642, ABCC2 rs717620 and rs2273697, ABCC4 rs1751034 and rs3742106, SLC22A6 rs11568626, and SLC22A11 rs11231809 in 507 HIV-infected patients from the city of Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil, receiving HAART for, at least, 1 year. From the 507 HIV-infected patients recruited, 19.1% presented a reduction in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). A total of 16 (3.2%) patients fulfilled the criteria for chronic kidney disease (defined as eGFRT (rs717620) presented lower eGFR than C/C homozygotes (104 ± 22 vs. 108 ± 22 ml/min/1.73 m, independent-samples t-test, P=0.040). In multivariate analysis, the predictors associated with decreased eGFR were time of treatment, tenofovir use, atazanavir/ritonavir use, and carrying one T allele of ABCC2 -24 C>T. Our data support the importance of genetic factors in the etiology of nephrotoxicity in patients treated with HAART. Studies to verify treatment implications of genotyping before HAART initiation may be advisable to guide the selection of an appropriate antiretroviral therapy regimen.

  11. Anti-EGFR and antiangiogenic monoclonal antibodies in metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losanno, Tania; Rossi, Antonio; Maione, Paolo; Napolitano, Alba; Gridelli, Cesare

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, several clinical trials have evaluated the efficacy and safety of biological therapies in lung cancer. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and the axis vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGF/VEGFR) are targeted by small molecules and monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), especially in non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The current state of the art of anti-EGFR and antiangiogenic monoclonal antibodies in metastatic NSCLC is reviewed and discussed. Bevacizumab and cetuximab are the most studied mAbs in NSCLC, but only bevacizumab is in clinical practice in the first-line setting. Necitumumab is a new anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody that improves survival when combined to cisplatin/gemcitabine chemotherapy and has been approved in first-line advanced NSCLC. Ramucirumab, an antiangiogenic drug binding with high affinity to VEGFR-2, improves the results of chemotherapy alone when administered with docetaxel and has been approved in second-line setting. Moreover, the novel combination of bevacizumab and erlotinib is very promising for the treatment of patients with NSCLC harbouring EGFR mutations. The association of antiangiogenic mAbs and immunotherapy is under investigation too.

  12. Analysis of the EGFR gene mutation in patients with non- small cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    19, 20, 21 were 0, 13.8, 0.7 and 15.9 %, respectively. The mutation rate of EGFR gene was higher in female patients than that in males. (p < 0.01), and higher in non-smoking patients than in smoking ones, this finding suggests that endogenous agents from female hormone- derived mutagenic metabolites may play a role in.

  13. Mutational landscape of EGFR-, MYC-, and Kras-driven genetically engineered mouse models of lung adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, David G; Politi, Katerina; Bhutkar, Arjun; Chen, Frances K; Song, Xiaoling; Pirun, Mono; Santiago, Philip M; Kim-Kiselak, Caroline; Platt, James T; Lee, Emily; Hodges, Emily; Rosebrock, Adam P; Bronson, Roderick T; Socci, Nicholas D; Hannon, Gregory J; Jacks, Tyler; Varmus, Harold

    2016-10-18

    Genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) of cancer are increasingly being used to assess putative driver mutations identified by large-scale sequencing of human cancer genomes. To accurately interpret experiments that introduce additional mutations, an understanding of the somatic genetic profile and evolution of GEMM tumors is necessary. Here, we performed whole-exome sequencing of tumors from three GEMMs of lung adenocarcinoma driven by mutant epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), mutant Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (Kras), or overexpression of MYC proto-oncogene. Tumors from EGFR- and Kras-driven models exhibited, respectively, 0.02 and 0.07 nonsynonymous mutations per megabase, a dramatically lower average mutational frequency than observed in human lung adenocarcinomas. Tumors from models driven by strong cancer drivers (mutant EGFR and Kras) harbored few mutations in known cancer genes, whereas tumors driven by MYC, a weaker initiating oncogene in the murine lung, acquired recurrent clonal oncogenic Kras mutations. In addition, although EGFR- and Kras-driven models both exhibited recurrent whole-chromosome DNA copy number alterations, the specific chromosomes altered by gain or loss were different in each model. These data demonstrate that GEMM tumors exhibit relatively simple somatic genotypes compared with human cancers of a similar type, making these autochthonous model systems useful for additive engineering approaches to assess the potential of novel mutations on tumorigenesis, cancer progression, and drug sensitivity.

  14. Gene expression reveals evidence for EGFR-dependent proximal-distal limb patterning in a myriapod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Ralf

    2017-05-01

    Evolution of segmented limbs is one of the key innovations of Arthropoda, allowing development of functionally specific specialized head and trunk appendages, a major factor behind their unmatched evolutionary success. Proximodistal limb patterning is controlled by two regulatory networks in the vinegar fly Drosophila melanogaster, and other insects. The first is represented by the function of the morphogens Wingless (Wg) and Decapentaplegic (Dpp); the second by the EGFR-signaling cascade. While the role of Wg and Dpp has been studied in a wide range of arthropods representing all main branches, that is, Pancrustacea (= Hexapoda + Crustacea), Myriapoda and Chelicerata, investigation of the potential role of EGFR-signaling is restricted to insects (Hexapoda). Gene expression analysis of Egfr, its potential ligands, and putative downstream factors in the pill millipede Glomeris marginata (Myriapoda: Diplopoda), reveals that-in at least mandibulate arthropods-EGFR-signaling is likely a conserved regulatory mechanism in proximodistal limb patterning. © 2017 The Authors. Evolution and Development Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Analysis of the EGFR gene mutation in patients with nonsmall cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene mutations and analyze their clinical significance in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in Hubei province of China. Methods: A total of 138 paraffin embedded tissues were taken from patients with NSCLC who were treated at Hubei ...

  16. Efficacy of EGFR-TKI therapy in patients with brain metastases from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: This meta-analysis aimed to systematically evaluate the efficacy of tyrosine kinase inhibitors of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR-TKIs) for patients with brain metastases (BM) from nonsmall- cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and to compare this treatment modality to chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Methods: ...

  17. Cetuximab insufficiently inhibits glioma cell growth due to persistent EGFR downstream signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Benedikte; Lassen, Ulrik; Poulsen, Hans S

    2010-01-01

    Overexpression and/or amplification of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is present in 35-45% of primary glioblastoma multiforme tumors and has been correlated with a poor prognosis. In this study, we investigated the effect of cetuximab and intracellular signaling pathways downstream...

  18. EGFR-dependent TOR-independent endocycles support Drosophila gut epithelial regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Jinyi; Bandura, Jennifer; Zhang, Peng; Jin, Yinhua; Reuter, Hanna; Edgar, Bruce A

    2017-05-09

    Following gut epithelial damage, epidermal growth factor receptor/mitogen-activated protein kinase (EGFR/MAPK) signalling triggers Drosophila intestinal stem cells to produce enteroblasts (EBs) and enterocytes (ECs) that regenerate the gut. As EBs differentiate into ECs, they become postmitotic, but undergo extensive growth and DNA endoreplication. Here we report that EGFR/RAS/MAPK signalling is required and sufficient to drive damage-induced EB/EC growth. Endoreplication occurs exclusively in EBs and newborn ECs that inherit EGFR and active MAPK from fast-dividing progenitors. Mature ECs lack EGF receptors and are refractory to growth signalling. Genetic tests indicated that stress-dependent EGFR/MAPK promotes gut regeneration via a novel mechanism that operates independently of Insulin/Pi3K/TOR signalling, which is nevertheless required in nonstressed conditions. The E2f1 transcription factor is required for and sufficient to drive EC endoreplication, and Ras/Raf signalling upregulates E2f1 levels posttranscriptionally. We illustrate how distinct signalling mechanisms direct stress-dependent versus homeostatic regeneration, and highlight the importance of postmitotic cell growth in gut epithelial repair.

  19. EGFR mutations cause a lethal syndrome of epithelial dysfunction with progeroid features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganetzky, Rebecca; Finn, Erin; Bagchi, Atrish; Zollo, Ornella; Conlin, Laura; Deardorff, Matthew; Harr, Margaret; Simpson, Michael A; McGrath, John A; Zackai, Elaine; Lemmon, Mark A; Sondheimer, Neal

    2015-09-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is part of a large family of receptors required for communicating extracellular signals through internal tyrosine kinases. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling is required for tissue development, whereas constitutive activation of this signaling pathway is associated with oncogenic transformation. We identified homozygous c.1283G>A (p.Gly428Asp) mutations in the extracellular domain of EGFR in two siblings. The children were born prematurely, had abnormalities in skin and hair, suffered multisystem organ failure, and died in the neonatal period from intestinal perforation. EGF failed to induce mutated receptor phosphorylation in patient-derived fibroblasts and activation of downstream targets was suppressed. The heterologously expressed extracellular domain was impaired in stability and the binding of EGF. Cells from the affected patient undergo early senescence with accelerated expression of β-galactosidase and shortened telomeres at all passages when compared to controls. A comparison of homozygous inherited regions from a separate report of a patient from the same ethnic background and EGFR genotype confirms the pathogenicity of EGFR mutations in congenital disease.

  20. Molecular docking, MM/GBSA and 3D-QSAR studies on EGFR ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Information rendered from 3D-QSAR model and sitemap analysis was used to optimize lead molecule to design prospective inhibitors. Improvement in EGFR binding affinity can be achieved by substitutional modification on phenyl ring attached to alkynyl group with bulkier hydrogen bond donor and acceptor substituents ...

  1. Targeting the EGFR pathway for cancer therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnston, JB; Navaratnam, S; Pitz, MW

    2006-01-01

    .g.: Trastuzumab/Herceptin, Pertuzumab/Omnitarg/rhuMab-2C4, Cetuximab/Erbitux/IMC-C225, Panitumumab/Abenix/ABX-EGF, and also ZD6474). In addition, we summarize, both current therapy development driven by antibody-based targeting of the EGFR-dependent signaling pathways, and furthermore, we provide a background...

  2. EMT-induced stemness and tumorigenicity are fueled by the EGFR/Ras pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Chih-Cheng Voon

    Full Text Available Recent studies have revealed that differentiated epithelial cells would acquire stem cell-like and tumorigenic properties following an Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT. However, the signaling pathways that participate in this novel mechanism of tumorigenesis have not been fully characterized. In Runx3 (-/- p53 (-/- murine gastric epithelial (GIF-14 cells, EMT-induced plasticity is reflected in the expression of the embryonal proto-oncogene Hmga2 and Lgr5, an exclusive gastrointestinal stem cell marker. Here, we report the concurrent activation of an EGFR/Ras gene expression signature during TGF-β1-induced EMT in GIF-14 cells. Amongst the altered genes was the induction of Egfr, which corresponded with a delayed sensitization to EGF treatment in GIF-14. Co-treatment with TGF-β1 and EGF or the expression of exogenous KRas led to increased Hmga2 or Lgr5 expression, sphere initiation and colony formation in soft agar assay. Interestingly, the gain in cellular plasticity/tumorigenicity was not accompanied by increased EMT. This uncoupling of EMT and the induction of plasticity reveals an involvement of distinct signaling cues, whereby the EGFR/Ras pathway specifically promotes stemness and tumorigenicity in EMT-altered GIF-14 cells. These data show that the EGFR/Ras pathway requisite for the sustenance of gastric stem cells in vivo and in vitro is involved in the genesis and promotion of EMT-induced tumor-initiating cells.

  3. Conservation of protein abundance patterns reveals the regulatory architecture of the EGFR-MAPK pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, T.; Niepel, M.; McDermott, J. E.; Gao, Y.; Nicora, C. D.; Chrisler, W. B.; Markillie, L. M.; Petyuk, V. A.; Smith, R. D.; Rodland, K. D.; Sorger, P. K.; Qian, W. -J.; Wiley, H. S.

    2016-07-12

    It is not known whether cancer cells generally show quantitative differences in the expression of signaling pathway proteins that could dysregulate signal transduction. To explore this issue, we first defined the primary components of the EGF-MAPK pathway in normal human mammary epithelial cells, identifying 16 core proteins and 10 feedback regulators. We then quantified their absolute abundance across a panel of normal and cancer cell lines. We found that core pathway proteins were expressed at very similar levels across all cell types. In contrast, the EGFR and transcriptionally controlled feedback regulators were expressed at highly variable levels. The absolute abundance of most core pathway proteins was between 50,000- 70,000 copies per cell, but the adaptors SOS1, SOS2, and GAB1 were found at far lower levels (2,000-5,000 per cell). MAPK signaling showed saturation in all cells between 3,000-10,000 occupied EGFR, consistent with the idea that low adaptor levels limit signaling. Our results suggest that the core MAPK pathway is essentially invariant across different cell types, with cell- specific differences in signaling likely due to variable levels of feedback regulators. The low abundance of adaptors relative to the EGFR could be responsible for previous observation of saturable signaling, endocytosis, and high affinity EGFR.

  4. Efficacy of EGFR-TKI therapy in patients with brain metastases from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: This meta-analysis aimed to systematically evaluate the efficacy of tyrosine kinase inhibitors of epidermal ... radiotherapy in terms of ORR (odds ratio (OR) = 2.10, p = 0.035), OS (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.78, p = ... Conclusion: Among the patients with BM from NSCLC, EGFR-TKIs exhibit a therapeutic advantage.

  5. Is Urinary KIM-1 a Predictor of EGFR Decline, Incident Cardiovascular Disease, and All Cause Mortality?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eickhoff, Mie Klessen; von Scholten, Bernt Johan; Reinhard, Henrik

    , smoking, HbA1c, creatinine, systolic blood pressure and urine albumin excretion rate (UAER). A decline in eGFR of >30%, which has recently been suggested as a valid renal outcome, at any time point during follow-up was the predefined endpoint of CKD progression. Hazard ratios (HR) are provided per 1 SD...

  6. Growth Factor Identity Is Encoded by Discrete Coiled-Coil Rotamers in the EGFR Juxtamembrane Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerner, Amy; Scheck, Rebecca; Schepartz, Alanna

    2015-06-18

    Binding of transforming growth factor α (TGF-α) to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) extracellular domain is encoded through the formation of a unique antiparallel coiled coil within the juxtamembrane segment. This new coiled coil is an "inside-out" version of the coiled coil formed in the presence of epidermal growth factor (EGF). A third, intermediary coiled-coil interface is formed in the juxtamembrane region when EGFR is stimulated with betacellulin. The seven growth factors that activate EGFR in mammalian systems (EGF, TGF-α, epigen, epiregulin, betacellulin, heparin-binding EGF, and amphiregulin) fall into distinct categories in which the structure of the coiled coil induced within the juxtamembrane region correlates with cell state. The observation that coiled-coil state tracks with the downstream signaling profiles for each ligand provides evidence for growth factor functional selectivity by EGFR. Encoding growth factor identity in alternative coiled-coil rotamers provides a simple and elegant method for communicating chemical information across the plasma membrane. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A glioma classification scheme based on coexpression modules of EGFR and PDGFRA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Sun (Yingyu); W. Zhang (Wei); D. Chen (Dongfeng); H. Lv (Hui); J. Zheng (Junxiong); H. Lilljebjörnd (Henrik); L. Ran (Liang); T.X. Bao (Tang Xue); C. Soneson (Charlotte); H. Olov Sjögren (Hans); L.G. Salford (Leif); J. Ji (Jianguang); P.J. Frenc (Pim); T. Fioretose (Thoas); T. Jiang (Tao); X. Fan (Xiaolong)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractWe hypothesized that key signaling pathways of glioma genesis might enable the molecular classification of gliomas. Gene coexpression modules around epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) (EM, 29 genes) or platelet derived growth factor receptor A (PDGFRA) (PM, 40 genes) in gliomas were

  8. SMARCE1 suppresses EGFR expression and controls responses to MET and ALK inhibitors in lung cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papadakis, Andreas I; Sun, Chong; Knijnenburg, Theo A; Xue, Yibo; Grernrum, Wipawadee; Hölzel, Michael; Nijkamp, Wouter; Wessels, Lodewyk F A; Beijersbergen, Roderick L; Bernards, Rene; Huang, Sidong

    Recurrent inactivating mutations in components of SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complexes have been identified across cancer types, supporting their roles as tumor suppressors in modulating oncogenic signaling pathways. We report here that SMARCE1 loss induces EGFR expression and confers resistance

  9. Differences in Expression of EGFR, Ki67 and p-EPK in Oral Cavity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the expression of EGFR, Ki67, and p-EPK in oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers, and to investigate their clinical significance as prognostic markers. Methods: One hundred patients who underwent curative surgery for oral cavity or oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma in a Chinese People's ...

  10. Clinical Characteristics and Outcomes of Lung Cancer Patients 
with EGFR Mutations in Exons 19 and 21

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renwang LIU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Studies on the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR signaling pathways and the therapeutic effects of EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs have recently proven that targeted therapy has a major role in the treatment of lung cancer. However, the therapeutic effects of EGFR-TKIs on lung cancers with different EGFR mutation subtypes remain unclear. And if there is a significant difference in the effects of EGFR-TKIs, the mechanisms for the difference remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical importance of EGFR mutations in exons 19 and 21 of lung cancer patients and to compare the outcomes of these patients. Methods The study recruited 113 patients who had non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC with EGFR mutations. EGFR mutations were detected for 47 patients using Real-time PCR or DNA sequencinag. The mutations of the remaining patients were determined using xTag-EGFR liquid chip technology. All stages I-III patients underwent radical resection followed by 4 cycles of postoperative chemotherapy. Patients with pleural metastases underwent pleural biopsy, pleurodesis, and chemotherapy only. Patients with distant metastases underwent biopsy and chemotherapy only. Collected clinical data were analyzed using SPSS 19.0 software. Results EGFR exon mutations 19 and 21 were found in 56 and 57 patients, respectively. The mean age of patients with exon 19 mutations was lower than the age of the patients with exon 21 mutations (57.02±11.31 years vs 62.25±7.76 years, respectively; P0.05 between the patients with exon 19 and 21 mutations; and survival analysis of 91 (80.5% patients with complete clinical data found no differences in overall survival. Stratification analysis found out that patients with exon 19 mutations had longer overall survival associated with age>61 years, male gender, ever smoking, and stage IV disease; although the differences were not significant. Conclusion Compared to the lung

  11. Plasma Vitamin D Level and Change in Albuminuria and eGFR According to Sodium Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyzer, Charlotte A; Lambers-Heerspink, Hiddo J; Joosten, Michel M; Deetman, Petronella E; Gansevoort, Ron T; Navis, Gerjan; Kema, Ido P; de Zeeuw, Dick; Bakker, Stephan J L; de Borst, Martin H

    2015-12-07

    Low circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and high sodium intake are both associated with progressive albuminuria and renal function loss in CKD. Both vitamin D and sodium intake interact with the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. We investigated whether plasma 25(OH)D or 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D] is associated with developing increased albuminuria or reduced renal function and whether these associations depend on sodium intake. Baseline plasma 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D were measured by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, and sodium intake was assessed by 24-hour urine collections in the general population-based Prevention of Renal and Vascular End-Stage Disease cohort (n=5051). Two primary outcomes were development of urinary albumin excretion >30 mg/24 h and eGFR (creatinine/cystatin C-based CKD Epidemiology Collaboration) albuminuria or reduced eGFR and potential interaction with sodium intake. During a median follow-up of 10.4 (6.2-11.4) years, 641 (13%) participants developed increased albuminuria, and 268 (5%) participants developed reduced eGFR. Plasma 25(OH)D was inversely associated with increased albuminuria (fully adjusted hazard ratio [HR] per SD higher, 0.86; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.78 to 0.95; P=0.003) but not reduced eGFR (HR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.87 to 1.12; P=0.85). There was interaction between 25(OH)D and sodium intake for risk of developing increased albuminuria (P interaction =0.03). In participants with high sodium intake, risk of developing increased albuminuria was inversely associated with 25(OH)D (lowest versus highest quartile: adjusted HR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.20 to 2.73, Palbuminuria or reduced eGFR. Low plasma 25(OH)D is associated with higher risk of developing increased albuminuria, particularly in individuals with high sodium intake, but not of developing reduced eGFR. Plasma 1,25(OH)2D is not associated with risk of developing increased albuminuria or reduced eGFR. Copyright © 2015 by the American

  12. Tyrosine kinase domain mutations of EGFR gene in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vatte C

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Chittibabu Vatte,1 Ali M Al Amri,2 Cyril Cyrus,1 Shahanas Chathoth,1 Sadananda Acharya,3 Tariq Mohammad Hashim,4 Zhara Al Ali,2 Saleh Tawfeeq Alshreadah,2 Ahmed Alsayyah,4 Amein K Al-Ali5 1Department of Genetic Research, Institute for Research and Medical Consultation, University of Dammam, Dammam, 2Department of Internal Medicine, King Fahd Hospital of the University, University of Dammam, Al-Khobar, 3Department of Stemcell Research, Institute for Research and Medical Consultation, 4Department of Pathology, King Fahd Hospital of the University, University of Dammam, Al-Khobar, 5Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, University of Dammam, Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Background: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR is a commonly altered gene that is identified in various cancers, including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC. Therefore, EGFR is a promising molecular marker targeted by monoclonal antibodies and small molecule inhibitors targeting the tyrosine kinase (TK domain. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the spectrum of mutations in exons 18, 19, 20, and 21 of the EGFR gene in HNSCC patients. Materials and methods: This retrospective study included 47 confirmed HNSCC cases. Mutations in the TK domain, exons 18, 19, 20, and 21 of the EGFR gene, were detected by Scorpion® chemistry and ARMS® technologies on Rotor-Gene Q real-time polymerase chain reaction.Results: The tumors exhibited EGFR-TK domain mutations in 57% of cases. Four cases of T790M mutations were reported for the first time among HNSCC patients. Out of the total mutations, L861Q (exon 21, exon 20 insertions and deletions of exon 19 accounted for the majority of mutations (21%, 19%, and 17%, respectively. EGFR mutation status was correlated with the higher grade (P=0.026 and advanced stage (P=0.034 of HNSCC tumors.Conclusion: Higher frequency of EGFR-TK domain mutations together with the presence of the T790M mutation suggests

  13. Effects of activated fibroblasts on phenotype modulation, EGFR signalling and cell cycle regulation in OSCC cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berndt, Alexander, E-mail: alexander.berndt@med.uni-jena.de [Center for Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Pathology, Jena University Hospital, 07740 Jena (Germany); Büttner, Robert, E-mail: Robert-Buettner@gmx.net [Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, 07740 Jena (Germany); Gühne, Stefanie, E-mail: stefanie_guehne@gmx.net [Center for Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Pathology, Jena University Hospital, 07740 Jena (Germany); Gleinig, Anna, E-mail: annagleinig@yahoo.com [Center for Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Pathology, Jena University Hospital, 07740 Jena (Germany); Richter, Petra, E-mail: P.Richter@med.uni-jena.de [Center for Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Pathology, Jena University Hospital, 07740 Jena (Germany); Chen, Yuan, E-mail: Yuan.Chen@med.uni-jena.de [Center for Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Pathology, Jena University Hospital, 07740 Jena (Germany); Franz, Marcus, E-mail: Marcus.Franz@med.uni-jena.de [Clinic of Internal Medicine I, Jena University Hospital, 07740 Jena (Germany); Liebmann, Claus, E-mail: Claus.Liebmann@uni-jena.de [Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, 07740 Jena (Germany)

    2014-04-01

    Crosstalk between carcinoma associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells is suggested to mediate phenotype transition of cancer cells as a prerequisite for tumour progression, to predict patients’ outcome, and to influence the efficacy of EGFR inhibitor therapies. Here we investigate the influence of activated fibroblasts as a model for CAFs on phenotype and EGFR signalling in OSCC cells in vitro. For this, immortalised hTERT-BJ1 fibroblasts were activated with TGFβ1 and PDGFAB to generate a myofibroblast or proliferative phenotype, respectively. Conditioned media (FCM{sub TGF}, FCM{sub PDGF}) were used to stimulate PE/CA-PJ15 OSCC cells. Results were compared to the effect of conditioned media of non-stimulated fibroblasts (FCM{sub B}). FCM{sub TGF} stimulation leads to an up-regulation of vimentin in the OSCC cells and an enhancement of invasive behaviour, indicating EMT-like effects. Similarly, FCM{sub TGF}≫FCM{sub PDGF} induced up-regulation of EGFR, but not of ErbB2/ErbB3. In addition, we detected an increase in basal activities of ERK, PI3K/Akt and Stat3 (FCM{sub TGF}>FCM{sub PDGF}) accompanied by protein interaction of vimentin with pERK. These effects are correlated with an increased proliferation. In summary, our results suggest that the activated myofibroblast phenotype provides soluble factors which are able to induce EMT-like phenomena and to increase EGFR signalling as well as cell proliferation in OSCC cells. Our results indicate a possible influence of activated myofibroblasts on EGFR-inhibitor therapy. Therefore, CAFs may serve as promising novel targets for combined therapy strategies. - Highlights: • A cell culture model for cancer associated fibroblasts is described. • The mutual interaction with OSCC cells leads to up-regulation of EGFR in tumour cells. • mCAF induces EGFR downstream signalling with increased proliferation in OSCC. • Erk activation is associated with protein interaction with vimentin

  14. Nanobiopolymer for direct targeting and inhibition of EGFR expression in triple negative breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Inoue

    Full Text Available Treatment options for triple negative breast cancer (TNBC are generally limited to cytotoxic chemotherapy. Recently, anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR therapy has been introduced for TNBC patients. We engineered a novel nanobioconjugate based on a poly(β-L-malic acid (PMLA nanoplatform for TNBC treatment. The nanobioconjugate carries anti-tumor nucleosome-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb 2C5 to target breast cancer cells, anti-mouse transferrin receptor (TfR antibody for drug delivery through the host endothelial system, and Morpholino antisense oligonucleotide (AON to inhibit EGFR synthesis. The nanobioconjugates variants were: (1 P (BioPolymer with AON, 2C5 and anti-TfR for tumor endothelial and cancer cell targeting, and EGFR suppression (P/AON/2C5/TfR, and (2 P with AON and 2C5 (P/AON/2C5. Controls included (3 P with 2C5 but without AON (P/2C5, (4 PBS, and (5 P with PEG and leucine ester (LOEt for endosomal escape (P/mPEG/LOEt. Drugs were injected intravenously to MDA-MB-468 TNBC bearing mice. Tissue accumulation of injected nanobioconjugates labeled with Alexa Fluor 680 was examined by Xenogen IVIS 200 (live imaging and confocal microscopy of tissue sections. Levels of EGFR, phosphorylated and total Akt in tumor samples were detected by western blotting. In vitro western blot showed that the leading nanobioconjugate P/AON/2C5/TfR inhibited EGFR synthesis significantly better than naked AON. In vivo imaging revealed that 2C5 increased drug-tumor accumulation. Significant tumor growth inhibition was observed in mice treated with the lead nanobioconjugate (1 [P = 0.03 vs. controls; P<0.05 vs. nanobioconjugate variant (2]. Lead nanobioconjugate (1 also showed stronger inhibition of EGFR expression and Akt phosphorylation than other treatments. Treatment of TNBC with the new nanobioconjugate results in tumor growth arrest by inhibiting EGFR and its downstream signaling intermediate, phosphorylated Akt. The nanobioconjugate

  15. The EGFR pathway regulates BCRP expression in NSCLC cells: role of erlotinib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcelli, Letizia; Giovannetti, Elisa; Assaraf, Yehuda G; Jansen, Gerrit; Scheffer, George L; Kathman, Ietje; Azzariti, Amalia; Paradiso, Angelo; Peters, Godefridus J

    2014-01-01

    While multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer is well established, little is known about the cellular pathways regulating the expression and trafficking of the MDR efflux transporter like BCRP (ABCG2). Here we evaluated the role of signalling downstream of EGFR on BCRP expression and sub-cellular localization using lung cancer cells harboring BCRP but expressing various EGFR and Ras activating mutations; A549 (K-Ras-G12S), H292 wild-type EGFR and Ras, and H1650 (EGFR-DelE747-A750). Immunocytochemistry and immunofluorescence studies demonstrated that BCRP was predominantly intracellular but its expression was found also on the plasma membrane in A549 and H1650 cells with activated Ras and EGFR. Remarkably, EGFR inhibition by erlotinib at IC₅₀ concentrations induced a differential timedependent alteration in BCRP gene and protein expression. In H1650 cells, erlotinib enhanced both the total and plasma membrane degradation of BCRP by ubiquitination within 6-24 hours, whereas BCRP expression regained the original basal levels after 48 hours. In erlotinib treated H292 cells, BCRP levels decreased at 24 hours until 72 hours, whereas in A549 cells erlotinib initially reduced BCRP expression but then induced its accumulation on the plasma membrane at 72 hours. We further found that the PI3K/Akt inhibitor LY294002 down-regulated BCRP expression, hence showing that the Akt pathway is involved in the regulation of BCRP expression but not in its localization in these lung cancer cell lines. Finally, the selective BCRP transport inhibitor Ko143 did not increase erlotinib sensitivity, but did decrease the transport activity of BCRP in A549 and H1650 cells as it induced the accumulation of its transport substrate topotecan. In conclusion, our results suggest that the EGFR and Akt pathways are involved in regulation of BCRP expression, trafficking and drug transport activity. These findings warrant future studies on the pharmacologic modulation of these pathways to enhance the

  16. Teaching polymorphism early

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2005-01-01

    Is it possible to teach dynamic polymorphism early? What techniques could facilitate teaching it in Java. This panel will bring together people who have considered this question and attempted to implement it in various ways, some more completely than others. It will also give participants...

  17. Investigation of Uranium Polymorphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweet, Lucas E.; Henager, Charles H.; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Meier, David E.; Peper, Shane M.; Schwantes, Jon M.

    2011-08-01

    The UO3-water system is complex and has not been fully characterized, even though these species are common throughout the nuclear fuel cycle. As an example, most production schemes for UO3 result in a mixture of up to six or more different polymorphic phases, and small differences in these conditions will affect phase genesis that ultimately result in measureable changes to the end product. As a result, this feature of the UO3-water system may be useful as a means for determining process history. This research effort attempts to better characterize the UO3-water system with a variety of optical techniques for the purpose of developing some predictive capability for estimating process history in polymorphic phases of unknown origin. Three commercially relevant preparation methods for the production of UO3 were explored. Previously unreported low temperature routes to β- and γ-UO3 were discovered. Raman and fluorescence spectroscopic libraries were established for pure and mixed polymorphic forms of UO3 in addition to the common hydrolysis products of UO3. An advantage of the sensitivity of optical fluorescence microscopy over XRD has been demonstrated. Preliminary aging studies of the α and γ forms of UO3 have been conducted. In addition, development of a 3-D phase field model used to predict phase genesis of the system was initiated. Thermodynamic and structural constants that will feed the model have been gathered from the literature for most of the UO3 polymorphic phases.

  18. Bufalin Reverses HGF-Induced Resistance to EGFR-TKIs in EGFR Mutant Lung Cancer Cells via Blockage of Met/PI3k/Akt Pathway and Induction of Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Hong Kang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs, such as gefitinib and erlotinib, have shown promising therapeutic efficacy in nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients harboring epidermal growth factor receptor- (EGFR- activating mutation. However, the inevitable recurrence resulting from acquired resistance has limited the clinical improvement in therapy outcomes. Many studies demonstrate that hepatocyte growth factor- (HGF- Met axis plays an important role in tumor progression and drug sensitivity. HGF may induce resistance to EGFR-TKIs in EGFR mutant lung cancer cells by Met/PI3K/Akt signaling. The purpose of this study was to determine whether bufalin, a major bioactive component of Venenum Bufonis, could reverse HGF-induced resistance to reversible and irreversible EGFR-TKIs in mutant lung cancer cells PC-9, HCC827, and H1975. Our studies showed that bufalin could reverse resistance to reversible and irreversible EGFR-TKIs induced by exogenous HGF in EGFR mutant lung cancer cells by inhibiting the Met/PI3K/Akt pathway and inducing death signaling. These results suggested that bufalin might have a potential to overcome HGF-induced resistance to molecular-targeted drugs for lung cancer.

  19. Combination of BIBW2992 and ARQ 197 is effective against erlotinib-resistant human lung cancer cells with the EGFR T790M mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Geping; Liu, Changting; Sun, Baojun; Zhou, Changxi; Zhang, Zhijian; Wang, Peng

    2014-07-01

    Although the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKI) erlotinib and gefitinib have shown marked effects against EGFR-mutated lung cancer, patients acquire resistance by various mechanisms, including the EGFR T790M mutation and Met induction, consequently suffering relapse. Thus, novel agents to overcome EGFR-TKI resistance are urgently needed. We aimed to investigate the inhibitory effects of a combination of BIBW2992 (irreversible EGFR inhibitor)/ARQ 197 (MET inhibitor) on the human lung adenocarcinoma cell line H1975. H1975 cells (harboring a T790M mutation in EGFR) were treated with erlotinib, BIBW2992 or ARQ 197 separately or with combinations of erlotinib/ARQ 197 or BIBW2992/ARQ 197. Cell growth, apoptosis and cell cycle distribution were evaluated by MTT assay, Annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) double staining and flow cytometry, respectively. EGFR, MET, AKT, ERK and the respective phosphorylated counterparts were detected by western blot analysis. Pathway-specific knockdown of MET and/or EGFR kinase signaling was achieved by siRNA interference. H1975 cells displayed EGFR and MET activation, and were resistant to erlotinib. The BIBW2992/ARQ 197 combination significantly inhibited growth, induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, and altered the phosphorylation of EGFR, MET, AKT and ERK1/2 in the H1975 cells. Phosphorylation of AKT and ERK1/2, downstream effectors of the EGFR and MET pathways, was not affected by the other tested treatments. Finally, knockdown of MET and/or EGFR in the H1975 cells confirmed the enhanced downstream inhibition of both MET and EGFR pathways. Combination of an irreversible EGFR inhibitor and MET inhibitor is effective in controlling H1975 cells with acquired resistance to erlotinib, by a mechanism involving the downregulation of PI3K/AKT and MEK/ERK signaling pathways.

  20. Conservation of protein abundance patterns reveals the regulatory architecture of the EGFR-MAPK pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Tujin; Niepel, Mario; McDermott, Jason E.; Gao, Yuqian; Nicora, Carrie D.; Chrisler, William B.; Markillie, Lye M.; Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Smith, Richard D.; Rodland, Karin D.; Sorger, Peter K.; Qian, Wei-Jun; Wiley, H. Steven

    2016-01-01

    Various genetic mutations associated with cancer are known to alter cell signaling, but it is not clear whether they dysregulate signaling pathways by altering the abundance of pathway proteins. Using a combination of RNA sequencing and ultrasensitive targeted proteomics, we defined the primary components—16 core proteins and 10 feedback regulators—of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)–mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in normal human mammary epithelial cells and then quantified their absolute abundance across a panel of normal and breast cancer cell lines as well as fibroblasts. We found that core pathway proteins were present at very similar concentrations across all cell types, with a variance similar to that of proteins previously shown to display conserved abundances across species. In contrast, EGFR and transcriptionally controlled feedback regulators were present at highly variable concentrations. The absolute abundance of most core proteins was between 50,000 and 70,000 copies per cell, but the adaptors SOS1, SOS2, and GAB1 were found at far lower amounts (2000 to 5000 copies per cell). MAPK signaling showed saturation in all cells between 3000 and 10,000 occupied EGFRs, consistent with the idea that adaptors limit signaling. Our results suggest that the relative stoichiometry of core MAPK pathway proteins is very similar across different cell types, with cell-specific differences mostly restricted to variable amounts of feedback regulators and receptors. The low abundance of adaptors relative to EGFR could be responsible for previous observations that only a fraction of total cell surface EGFR is capable of rapid endocytosis, high-affinity binding, and mitogenic signaling. PMID:27405981

  1. Association of Cognitive Function with Albuminuria and eGFR in the General Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izaks, Gerbrand J.; Slaets, Joris P.J.; de Jong, Paul E.; Visser, Sipke T.; Bilo, Henk J.G.; Gansevoort, Ron T.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Recent studies found different associations of cognitive function with albuminuria or estimated GFR (eGFR). Most studies were limited to the elderly or did not take both renal variables into account. Therefore, this study analyzed the association of cognitive function with albuminuria and eGFR in community-dwelling persons aged 35 to 82 years. Design, setting, participants, & measurements This was a cross-sectional study comprising 4095 participants of the Prevention of Renal and Vascular End-Stage Disease (PREVEND) study. Cognitive function, measured with the Ruff Figural Fluency Test (RFFT), was treated as the dependent variable, and albuminuria and eGFR were treated as independent variables. Results The prevalence of albuminuria albuminuria and age, analyses were performed per age tertile. After multivariate adjustment, albuminuria ≥ 30 mg/24 h, but not eGFR, was associated with lower RFFT score in the youngest tertile (B −5.3; 95% CI, −0.6 to −9.2; P = 0.05), but not in older tertiles. Moreover, subjects in the youngest tertile with increasing albuminuria (5–15 and >15 mg/24 h) before RFFT measurement had lower mean RFFT scores than subjects with stable albuminuria: mean difference −4.9 (P = 0.3) and −6.7 (P = 0.03), respectively. Conclusions In this community-based cohort, elevated albuminuria was associated with worse cognitive function in young but not in old persons. There was no association of eGFR with cognitive function. PMID:21566108

  2. Activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) by a novel metalloprotease pathway.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bergin, David A

    2008-11-14

    Neutrophil Elastase (NE) is a pro-inflammatory protease present at higher than normal levels in the lung during inflammatory disease. NE regulates IL-8 production from airway epithelial cells and can activate both EGFR and TLR4. TACE\\/ADAM17 has been reported to trans-activate EGFR in response to NE. Here, using 16HBE14o-human bronchial epithelial cells we demonstrate a new mechanism by which NE regulates both of these events. A high molecular weight soluble metalloprotease activity detectable only in supernatants from NE-treated cells by gelatin and casein zymography was confirmed to be meprin alpha by Western immunoblotting. In vitro studies demonstrated the ability of NE to activate meprin alpha, which in turn could release soluble TGFalpha and induce IL-8 production from 16HBE14o- cells. These effects were abrogated by actinonin, a specific meprin inhibitor. NE-induced IL-8 expression was also inhibited by meprin alpha siRNA. Immunoprecipitation studies detected EGFR\\/TLR4 complexes in NE-stimulated cells overexpressing these receptors. Confocal studies confirmed colocalization of EGFR and TLR4 in 16HBE14o- cells stimulated with meprin alpha. NFkappaB was also activated via MyD88 in these cells by meprin alpha. In bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from NE knock-out mice infected intra-tracheally with Pseudomonas aeruginosa meprin alpha was significantly decreased compared with control mice, and was significantly increased and correlated with NE activity, in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from individuals with cystic fibrosis but not healthy controls. The data describe a previously unidentified lung metalloprotease meprin alpha, and its role in NE-induced EGFR and TLR4 activation and IL-8 production.

  3. Effective therapeutic approach for head and neck cancer by an engineered minibody targeting the EGFR receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Pil Kim

    Full Text Available Cetuximab, a chimeric monoclonal antibody developed for targeting the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR, has been intensively used to treat cancer patients with metastatic colorectal cancer and head and neck cancer. Intact immunoglobulin G (IgG antibody like cetuximab, however, has some limitations such as high production cost and low penetration rate from vasculature into solid tumor mass due to its large size. In attempt to overcome these limitations, we engineered cetuximab to create single chain variable fragments (scFv-CH3; Minibody that were expressed in bacterial system. Among three engineered minibodies, we found that MI061 minibody, which is composed of the variable heavy (VH and light (VL region joined by an 18-residue peptide linker, displays higher solubility and better extraction properties from bacterial lysate. In addition, we validated that purified MI061 significantly interferes ligand binding to EGFR and blocks EGFR's phosphorylation. By using a protein microarray composed of 16,368 unique human proteins covering around 2,400 plasma membrane associated proteins such as receptors and channels, we also demonstrated that MI061 only recognizes the EGFR but not other proteins as compared with cetuximab. These results indicated that engineered MI061 retains both binding specificity and affinity of cetuximab for EGFR. Although it had relatively short half-life in serum, it was shown to be highly significant anti-tumor effect by inhibiting ERK pathway in A431 xenograft model. Taken together, our present study provides compelling evidence that engineered minibody is more effective and promising agent for in vivo targeting of solid tumors.

  4. Unravelling the pivotal role of Alix in MVB sorting and silencing of the activated EGFR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Sheng; Zhou, Xi; Zhang, Wei; Gallick, Gary E; Kuang, Jian

    2015-03-15

    Endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT)-III-mediated membrane invagination and scission are a critical step in multivesicular body (MVB) sorting of ubiquitinated membrane receptors, and generally thought to be required for degradation of these receptors in lysosomes. The adaptor protein Alix is critically involved in multiple ESCRT-III-mediated, membrane-remodelling processes in mammalian cells. However, Alix knockdown does not inhibit degradation of the activated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in mammalian cell lines, leading to a widely held notion that Alix is not critically involved in MVB sorting of ubiquitinated membrane receptors in mammalian cells. In the present study, we demonstrate that, despite its non-essential role in degradation of the activated EGFR, Alix plays a critical role in its MVB sorting and silencing Epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulation of mammalian cell lines induces Alix's interaction with the ubiquitinated EGFR via the Alix V domain, and increases Alix's association with membrane-bound charged multivesicular body protein 4 (CHMP4) via the Alix Bro1 domain. Under both continuous and pulse-chase EGF stimulation conditions, inhibition of Alix's interaction with membrane-bound CHMP4, inhibition of Alix dimerization through the V domain or Alix knockdown dramatically inhibits MVB sorting of the activated EGFR and promotes sustained activation of extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK)1/2. Under the continuous EGF stimulation conditions, these cell treatments also retard degradation of the activated EGFR. These findings indicate that Alix is critically involved in MVB sorting of ubiquitinated membrane receptors in mammalian cells.

  5. Residential radon, EGFR mutations and ALK alterations in never-smoking lung cancer cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruano-Ravina, Alberto; Torres-Durán, María; Kelsey, Karl T; Parente-Lamelas, Isaura; Leiro-Fernández, Virginia; Abdulkader, Ihab; Abal-Arca, José; Montero-Martínez, Carmen; Vidal-García, Iria; Amenedo, Margarita; Castro-Añón, Olalla; Golpe-Gómez, Antonio; González-Barcala, Javier; Martínez, Cristina; Guzmán-Taveras, Rosirys; Provencio, Mariano; Mejuto-Martí, María José; Fernández-Villar, Alberto; Barros-Dios, Juan Miguel

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess if residential radon exposure might cause EGFR mutations or ALK rearrangements in never-smokers.We designed a multicentre case-control study in a radon-prone area (Galicia, Spain); only lung cancer cases were included in the study. We obtained residential radon measurements and clinical information for all the participants. We compared the median values of residential radon between patients with EGFR mutations or ALK rearrangements versus those without them.323 patients were included. Median age was 70 years and 19.5% were males. 42 and 15% of patients were EGFR- and ALK-positive, respectively. The most frequent EGFR alterations were exon 19 deletions and exon 21 (L858R) single-point substitution mutations. ALK-positive patients were 10 years younger than ALK-negative patients. Residential radon levels were two-fold higher in patients with exon 19 deletions compared with patients with exon 21 (L858R) single-point substitution mutations (216 versus 118 Bq·m(-3); p=0.057). There were no differences in residential radon levels by EGFR mutation status. ALK-positive patients (n=12) essentially had two-fold residential radon levels compared with ALK-negative patients (290 versus 164 Bq·m(-3), respectively).Residential radon may have a role in the molecular signature of lung cancer in never-smokers, although more studies with larger sample sizes are needed to support this hypothesis. Copyright ©ERS 2016.

  6. Gender bias occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma in Poly7 molecular subclass is associated with EGFR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keng, Vincent W.; Sia, Daniela; Sarver, Aaron L.; Tschida, Barbara R.; Fan, Danhua; Alsinet, Clara; Solé, Manel; Lee, Wai L.; Kuka, Timothy P.; Moriarity, Branden S.; Villanueva, Augusto; Dupuy, Adam J.; Riordan, Jesse D.; Bell, Jason B.; Silverstein, Kevin A.T.; Llovet, Josep M.; Largaespada, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the deadliest solid cancers and represents the third leading cause of cancer-related death. There is a universal HCC male to female estimated ratio of 2.5, but the reason for this is not well understood. The Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon system was used to elucidate candidate oncogenic drivers of HCC in a forward genetics screening approach. Gender bias occurrence was conserved in our model, with male experimental mice developing liver tumors at reduced latency and higher tumor penetrance. In parallel, we explored gender differences regarding genomic aberrations in 235 HCC patients. Liver cancer candidate genes were identified from both genders and genotypes. Interestingly, transposon insertions in the epidermal growth factor receptor (Egfr) gene were common in SB-induced liver tumors from male mice (10/10, 100%) but infrequent in female animals (2/9, 22%). Human SNP data confirmed that polysomy of chromosome 7, locus of EGFR, was more frequent in males (26/62, 41%) than females (2/27, 7%) (P = 0.001). Gene expression based Poly7 subclass patients were predominantly males (9/9) compared with 67% males (55/82) in other HCC subclasses (P = 0.02) and was accompanied by EGFR overexpression (P < 0.001). Gender bias occurrence of HCC associated with EGFR was confirmed in experimental animals using the SB transposon system in a reverse genetic approach. This study provides evidence for the role of EGFR in gender bias occurrences of liver cancer and as the driver mutational gene in the Poly7 molecular subclass of human HCC. PMID:22899566

  7. EGFR signaling promotes β-cell proliferation and survivin expression during pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elina Hakonen

    Full Text Available Placental lactogen (PL induced serotonergic signaling is essential for gestational β-cell mass expansion. We have previously shown that intact Epidermal growth factor -receptor (EGFR function is a crucial component of this pathway. We now explored more specifically the link between EGFR and pregnancy-induced β-cell mass compensation. Islets were isolated from wild-type and β-cell-specific EGFR-dominant negative mice (E1-DN, stimulated with PL and analyzed for β-cell proliferation and expression of genes involved in gestational β-cell growth. β-cell mass dynamics were analyzed both with traditional morphometrical methods and three-dimensional optical projection tomography (OPT of whole-mount insulin-stained pancreata. Insulin-positive volume analyzed with OPT increased 1.4-fold at gestational day 18.5 (GD18.5 when compared to non-pregnant mice. Number of islets peaked by GD13.5 (680 vs 1134 islets per pancreas, non-pregnant vs. GD13.5. PL stimulated beta cell proliferation in the wild-type islets, whereas the proliferative response was absent in the E1-DN mouse islets. Serotonin synthesizing enzymes were upregulated similarly in both the wild-type and E1-DN mice. However, while survivin (Birc5 mRNA was upregulated 5.5-fold during pregnancy in the wild-type islets, no change was seen in the E1-DN pregnant islets. PL induced survivin expression also in isolated islets and this was blocked by EGFR inhibitor gefitinib, mTOR inhibitor rapamycin and MEK inhibitor PD0325901. Our 3D-volumetric analysis of β-cell mass expansion during murine pregnancy revealed that islet number increases during pregnancy. In addition, our results suggest that EGFR signaling is required for lactogen-induced survivin expression via MAPK and mTOR pathways.

  8. Expressions of c-Cbl, Cbl-b and EGFR and Its Role of Prognosis in NSCLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin JIAO

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR is closely correlated with the progression of lung cancer. Its activity is modulated by Casitas B-lineage lymphoma (Cbl family. The aim of this study is to investigate the expression and clinical relevance of c-Cbl, Cbl-b and EGFR in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Methods Expressions of c-Cbl, Cbl-b and EGFR protein were detected with tissue microarrays and immunohistochemistry technique in 94 cases of NSCLC. The correlations between the expression of the three proteins and clinicopathological parameters were analyzed. Results The positive expression rates of EGFR, c-Cbl and Cbl-b were 60.6% (57/94, 30.9% (29/94 and 84.0% (79/94, respectively. The expression of EGFR, c-Cbl and Cbl-b was not associated with age, pathological type, TNM stage, lymph node metastasis, and smoking history. c-Cbl and Cbl-b status was not significantly correlated with overall survival. Subgroup analyses showed that c-Cbl-positive patients had longer survival than c-Cbl-negative patients in EGFR-positive group (P=0.014. Conclusion Detection of c-Cbl protein levels might contribute to the prognosis evaluation of EGFR-positive NSCLC.

  9. CI-988 Inhibits EGFR Transactivation and Proliferation Caused by Addition of CCK/Gastrin to Lung Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, Terry W; Nuche-Berenguer, Bernardo; Moreno, Paola; Jensen, Robert T

    2015-07-01

    Cholecystokinin (CCK) receptors are G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR) which are present on lung cancer cells. CCK-8 stimulates the proliferation of lung cancer cells, whereas the CCK2R receptor antagonist CI-988 inhibits proliferation. GPCR for some gastrointestinal hormones/neurotransmitters mediate lung cancer growth by causing epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) transactivation. Here, the role of CCK/gastrin and CI-988 on EGFR transactivation and lung cancer proliferation was investigated. Addition of CCK-8 or gastrin-17 (100 nM) to NCI-H727 human lung cancer cells increased EGFR Tyr(1068) phosphorylation after 2 min. The ability of CCK-8 to cause EGFR tyrosine phosphorylation was blocked by CI-988, gefitinib (EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor), PP2 (Src inhibitor), GM6001 (matrix metalloprotease inhibitor), and tiron (superoxide scavenger). CCK-8 nonsulfated and gastrin-17 caused EGFR transactivation and bound with high affinity to NCI-H727 cells, suggesting that the CCK2R is present. CI-988 inhibited the ability of CCK-8 to cause ERK phosphorylation and elevate cytosolic Ca(2+). CI-988 or gefitinib inhibited the basal growth of NCI-H727 cells or that stimulated by CCK-8. The results indicate that CCK/gastrin may increase lung cancer proliferation in an EGFR-dependent manner.

  10. Evolution and clinical impact of co-occurring genetic alterations in advanced-stage EGFR-mutant lung cancers. | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    A widespread approach to modern cancer therapy is to identify a single oncogenic driver gene and target its mutant-protein product (for example, EGFR-inhibitor treatment in EGFR-mutant lung cancers). However, genetically driven resistance to targeted therapy limits patient survival. Through genomic analysis of 1,122 EGFR-mutant lung cancer cell-free DNA samples and whole-exome analysis of seven longitudinally collected tumor samples from a patient with EGFR-mutant lung cancer, we identified critical co-occurring oncogenic events present in most advanced-stage EGFR-mutant lung cancers.

  11. Detection and Analysis of EGFR and KRAS Mutations 
in the Patients with Lung Squamous Cell Carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui ZHANG

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Activating mutations in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR and KRAS are important markers in non-small cell lung cancer. However, EGFR and KRAS gene mutations in lung squamous cell carcinoma are rarely reported. The aim of this study was to analyze EGFR and KRAS gene mutation rate and their relationship with clinical features in patients with lung squamous cell carcinomas. Methods A total of 139 patients undergoing treatment for naïve lung squamous cell carcinomas with tumor tissue samples available for testing were recruited. EGFR and KRAS mutation statuses of the tumor samples were detected using a mutant enriched liquid chip. Results Of the 139 cases of lung squamous cell carcinoma, EGFR mutations were detected in 25 cases (18%, KRAS mutations were detected in 7 cases (5%, and the presence of both EGFR and KRAS mutations was detected in 1 case (0.7%. EGFR mutations occurred more often in females than in males (33.3% vs 16.5% and in patients that never smoked than in those who smoke (29.6% vs 16.1%. However, the difference did not reach statistical significance (P>0.05. No significant differences were observed in age, stage, and different biopsy type. KRAS mutations occurred more often in males than in females (5.5% vs 0%, but the difference did not reach statistical significance (P>0.05. No significant differences were observed in age, stage, different biopsy type, and smoking status (P>0.05. Conclusion EGFR and KRAS mutations were low in lung squamous cell carcinomas, and had no significant correlation with clinical features. Before using tyrosine kinase inhibitor targeted therapy, EGFR and KRAS mutations should be detected in patients with lung squamous cell carcinomas.

  12. Frequency of EGFR mutations in non-small cell lung cancer patients: screening data from West Siberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervas, Polina; Ivanova, Anna; Vasiliev, Nikolay; Ananina, Olga; Zharkova, Olga; Rogovieva, Olga; Verzhbitskaya, Natalia; Didichuk, Ivan; Cheremisina, Olga; Popova, Natalia; Goldberg, Victor; Cherdyntsev, Evgeny; Choynzonov, Evgeny; Cherdyntseva, Nadezda

    2015-01-01

    Incorporation of molecular analysis of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene into routine clinical practice has shown great promise to provide personalized therapy of the non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in the developed world. However, the genetic testing of EGFR mutations has not yet become routine clinical practice in territories remote from the central regions of Russia. Therefore, we aimed to study the frequency of major types of activating mutations of the EGFR gene in NSCLC patients residing in West Siberia. We examined EGFR mutations in exons 19 and 21 in 147 NSCLC patients (excluding squamous cell lung carcinomas) by real time polymerase chain reaction. EGFR mutations were detected in 28 of the 147 (19%) patients. There were 19 (13%) cases with mutations in exon 19 and 9 cases (6%) in exon 21. Mutations were more frequently observed in women (42%, p=0.000) than in men (1%). A significantly higher incidence of EGFR mutations was observed in bronchioloalveolar carcinomas (28%, p=0.019) and in adenocarcinomas (21%, p=0.024) than in large cell carcinomas, mixed adenocarcinomas, and NOS (4%). The EGFR mutation rate was much higher in never-smokers than in smokers: 38% vs. 3% (p=0.000). The frequency of EGFR mutations in the Kemerovo and Tomsk regions was 19%. The incorporation of molecular analysis of the EGFR gene into routine clinical practice will allow clinicians to provide personalised therapy, resulting in a significant increase in survival rates and improvement in life quality of advanced NSCLC patients.

  13. Sustained ERK [corrected] inhibition by EGFR targeting therapies is a predictive factor for synergistic cytotoxicity with PDT as neoadjuvant therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyergang, Anette; Selbo, Pål K; Berg, Kristian

    2013-03-01

    Tyrosin kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and monoclonal antibodies aimed to target epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) have shown limited effect as monotherapies and drug resistance is a major limitation for therapeutic success. Adjuvant therapies to EGFR targeting therapeutics are therefore of high clinical relevance. Three EGFR targeting drugs, Cetuximab, Erlotinib and Tyrphostin AG1478 were used in combination with photodynamic therapy (PDT) in two EGFR positive cell lines, A-431 epidermoid skin carcinoma and WiDr colorectal adenocarcinoma cells. The amphiphilic meso-tetraphenylporphine with 2 sulphonate groups on adjacent phenyl rings (TPPS(2a)) was utilized as a photosensitizer for PDT. The cytotoxic outcome of the combined treatments was evaluated by cell counting and MTT. Cellular signalling was explored by Western blotting. PDT as neoadjuvant to Tyrphostin in A-431 cells as well as to Tyrphostin or Erlotinib in WiDr cells revealed synergistic cytotoxicity. In contrast, Erlotinib or Cetuximab combined with neoadjuvant PDT induced an antagonistic effect on cell survival of A-431 cells. Neoadjuvant PDT and EGFR targeting therapies induced a synergistic inhibition of ERK as well as synergistic cytotoxicity only when the EGFR targeting monotherapies caused a prolonged ERK inhibition. There were no correlation between EGFR inhibition by the EGFR targeting monotherapies or the combined therapies and the cytotoxic outcome combination-therapies. The results suggest that sustained ERK inhibition by EGFR targeting monotherapies is a predictive factor for synergistic cytotoxicity when combined with neoadjuvant PDT. The present study provides a rationale for selecting anticancer drugs which may benefit from PDT as adjuvant therapy.

  14. Expression of P-EGFR and P-Akt protein in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and its prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Zheng-Zheng; Chen, Pei-Nan; Wang, Feng; Wang, Jun; Fan, Qing-Xia

    2017-09-01

    The phosphorylated epidermal growth factor receptor (P-EGFR) and phosphorylated Akt (P-Akt) protein in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) were studied, and its significance in clinical prognosis of patients was assessed. The expression of P-EGFR and P-Akt protein in 83 cases of ESCC and 83 normal esophageal tissues was determined by immunohistochemical staining. Log-rank test and correlation analysis were used to analyze the prognosis of ESCC. The positive expression of P-EGFR in ESCC was 88% (73/83 cases) compared with 41% in normal esophageal mucosa (34/83 cases) (PP-Akt protein expression in ESCC was 90.4% (75/83 cases), compared with 27.7% seen in normal esophageal mucosa (23/83 cases) (PP-EGFR and P-Akt protein was positively correlated with lymph node metastasis and degree of differentiation (PP>0.05). The expression of P-EGFR was positively correlated with that of P-Akt protein (r=0.674, PP-EGFR expression was negatively correlated with survival time of patients with ESCC (r=-0.526, PP-EGFR-positive cases was significantly lower than that of the P-EGFR-negative cases (PP-Akt was negatively correlated with survival in patients with ESCC (r=-0.473, PP-Akt-positive cases was significantly lower than that of the P-Akt-negative cases (PP-EGFR and P-Akt protein expression is closely related to the incidence of ESCC and mediates the development of invasive cancer and metastasis. It is used to determine the prognosis of ESCC, and may represent a new therapeutic target for the disease.

  15. Navigating into the binding pockets of the HER family protein kinases: discovery of novel EGFR inhibitor as antitumor agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu W

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Wei Liu,1,* Jin-Feng Ning,2,* Qing-Wei Meng,1 Jing Hu,1 Yan-Bin Zhao,1 Chao Liu,3 Li Cai11The Fourth Department of Medical Oncology, Harbin Medical University Cancer Hospital, 2The Thoracic Surgery Department, Harbin Medical University Cancer Hospital, Harbin, People’s Republic of China; 3General Surgery Department, Mudanjiang Guanliju Central Hospital, Mishan, Heilongjiang Province, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR family has been validated as a successful antitumor drug target for decades. Known EGFR inhibitors were exposed to distinct drug resistance against the various EGFR mutants within non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC, particularly the T790M mutation. Although so far a number of studies have been reported on the development of third-generation EGFR inhibitors for overcoming the resistance issue, the design procedure largely depends on the intuition of medicinal chemists. Here we retrospectively make a detailed analysis of the 42 EGFR family protein crystal complexes deposited in the Protein Data Bank (PDB. Based on the analysis of inhibitor binding modes in the kinase catalytic cleft, we identified a potent EGFR inhibitor (compound A-10 against drug-resistant EGFR through fragment-based drug design. This compound showed at least 30-fold more potency against EGFR T790M than the two control molecules erlotinib and gefitinib in vitro. Moreover, it could exhibit potent HER2 inhibitory activities as well as tumor growth inhibitory activity. Molecular docking studies revealed a structural basis for the increased potency and mutant selectivity of this compound. Compound A-10 may be selected as a promising candidate in further preclinical studies. In addition, our findings could provide a powerful strategy to identify novel selective kinase inhibitors on the basis of detailed kinase–ligand interaction space in the PDB.Keywords: EGFR, kinase

  16. Management of acquired resistance to EGFR TKI-targeted therapy in advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shang-Gin; Shih, Jin-Yuan

    2018-02-19

    Recent advances in diagnosis and treatment are enabling a more targeted approach to treating lung cancers. Therapy targeting the specific oncogenic driver mutation could inhibit tumor progression and provide a favorable prognosis in clinical practice. Activating mutations of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are a favorable predictive factor for EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) treatment. For lung cancer patients with EGFR-exon 19 deletions or an exon 21 Leu858Arg mutation, the standard first-line treatment is first-generation (gefitinib, erlotinib), or second-generation (afatinib) TKIs. EGFR TKIs improve response rates, time to progression, and overall survival. Unfortunately, patients with EGFR mutant lung cancer develop disease progression after a median of 10 to 14 months on EGFR TKI. Different mechanisms of acquired resistance to first-generation and second-generation EGFR TKIs have been reported. Optimal treatment for the various mechanisms of acquired resistance is not yet clearly defined, except for the T790M mutation. Repeated tissue biopsy is important to explore resistance mechanisms, but it has limitations and risks. Liquid biopsy is a valid alternative to tissue re-biopsy. Osimertinib has been approved for patients with T790M-positive NSCLC with acquired resistance to EGFR TKI. For other TKI-resistant mechanisms, combination therapy may be considered. In addition, the use of immunotherapy in lung cancer treatment has evolved rapidly. Understanding and clarifying the biology of the resistance mechanisms of EGFR-mutant NSCLC could guide future drug development, leading to more precise therapy and advances in treatment.

  17. Mutations of the EGFR and K-ras genes in resected stage I lung adenocarcinoma and their clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohba, Taro; Toyokawa, Gouji; Kometani, Takuro; Nosaki, Kaname; Hirai, Fumihiko; Yamaguchi, Masafumi; Hamatake, Motoharu; Seto, Takashi; Ichinose, Yukito; Sugio, Kenji

    2014-03-01

    This study retrospectively assessed the mutations of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and K-ras genes and their clinical significance in patients with resected stage I adenocarcinomas. A total of 354 patients with resected lung adenocarcinomas were included, and 256 patients with stage I disease were analyzed for the prognostic and predictive value of these mutations. Mutations of EGFR and K-ras genes were detected in 149 (41.1 %) and 23 (6.4 %) of all tumors, and in 122 (47.6 %) and 14 (5.5 %) of stage I tumors, respectively. There were no significant differences in the disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) between the EGFR-mutant and wild-type groups. However, the DFS and OS were significantly shorter in patients with K-ras mutations than in those without (5-year DFS: 50.8 vs. 76.9 %, 5-year OS: 70.0 vs. 86.6 %, p ras mutations were an independent poor prognostic factor. Twenty-four of the 41 patients with recurrent disease after surgery were treated with an EGFR-TKI. Fifteen EGFR-mutant patients treated with an EGFR-TKI had a better prognosis than did the nine EGFR-wild-type patients. The presence of an EGFR gene mutation was a predictive factor for the response to EGFR-TKI treatment in patients with resected stage I adenocarcinoma, but was not a prognostic factor. The presence of a K-ras gene mutation was a poor prognostic factor.

  18. Phase III study of afatinib or cisplatin plus pemetrexed in patients with metastatic lung adenocarcinoma with EGFR mutations.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sequist, Lecia V

    2013-09-20

    The LUX-Lung 3 study investigated the efficacy of chemotherapy compared with afatinib, a selective, orally bioavailable ErbB family blocker that irreversibly blocks signaling from epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR\\/ErbB1), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2\\/ErbB2), and ErbB4 and has wide-spectrum preclinical activity against EGFR mutations. A phase II study of afatinib in EGFR mutation-positive lung adenocarcinoma demonstrated high response rates and progression-free survival (PFS).

  19. The E3 ubiquitin ligase NEDD4 mediates cell migration signaling of EGFR in lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Genbao; Wang, Ranran; Sun, Aiqin; Wei, Jing; Peng, Ke; Dai, Qian; Yang, Wannian; Lin, Qiong

    2018-02-19

    EGFR-dependent cell migration plays an important role in lung cancer progression. Our previous study observed that the HECT E3 ubiquitin ligase NEDD4 is significantly correlated with tumor metastasis and required for migration and invasion signaling of EGFR in gastric cancer cells. However, how NEDD4 promotes the EGFR-dependent lung cancer cell migration is unknown. This study is to elucidate the mechanism by which NEDD4 mediates the EGFR lung cancer migration signaling. Lentiviral vector-loaded NEDD4 shRNA was used to deplete endogenous NEDD4 in lung cancer cell lines. Effects of the NEDD4 knockdown on the EGFR-dependent or independent lung cancer cell migration were determined using the wound-healing and transwell assays. Association of NEDD4 with activated EGFR was assayed by co-immunoprecipitation. Co-expression of NEDD4 with EGFR or PTEN was determined by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining in 63 lung adenocarcinoma tissue samples. Effects of NEDD4 ectopic expression or knockdown on PTEN ubiquitination and down-regulation, AKT activation and lysosomal secretion were examined using the GST-Uba pulldown assay, immunoblotting, immunofluorescent staining and a human cathepsin B ELISA assay respectively. The specific cathepsin B inhibitor CA-074Me was used for assessing the role of cathepsin B in lung cancer cell migration. Knockdown of NEDD4 significantly reduced EGF-stimulated cell migration in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cells. Co-immunoprecipitation assay found that NEDD4 is associated with EGFR complex upon EGF stimulation, and IHC staining indicates that NEDD4 is co-expressed with EGFR in lung adenocarcinoma tumor tissues, suggesting that NEDD4 might mediate lung cancer cell migration by interaction with the EGFR signaling complex. Interestingly, NEDD4 promotes the EGF-induced cathepsin B secretion, possibly through lysosomal exocytosis, as overexpression of the ligase-dead mutant of NEDD4 impedes lysosomal secretion, and knockdown of NEDD4

  20. Co-activation of STAT3 and YES-Associated Protein 1 (YAP1) Pathway in EGFR-Mutant NSCLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaib, Imane; Karachaliou, Niki; Pilotto, Sara; Codony Servat, Jordi; Cai, Xueting; Li, Xuefei; Drozdowskyj, Ana; Servat, Carles Codony; Yang, Jie; Hu, Chunping; Cardona, Andres Felipe; Vivanco, Guillermo Lopez; Vergnenegre, Alain; Sanchez, Jose Miguel; Provencio, Mariano; de Marinis, Filipo; Passaro, Antonio; Carcereny, Enric; Reguart, Noemi; Campelo, Charo Garcia; Teixido, Christina; Sperduti, Isabella; Rodriguez, Sonia; Lazzari, Chiara; Verlicchi, Alberto; de Aguirre, Itziar; Queralt, Cristina; Wei, Jia; Estrada, Roger; Puig de la Bellacasa, Raimon; Ramirez, Jose Luis; Jacobson, Kirstine; Ditzel, Henrik J; Santarpia, Mariacarmela; Viteri, Santiago; Molina, Migual Angel; Zhou, Caicun; Cao, Peng; Ma, Patrick C; Bivona, Trever G; Rosell, Rafael

    2017-09-01

    The efficacy of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in EGFR-mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is limited by adaptive activation of cell survival signals. We hypothesized that both signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and Src-YES-associated protein 1 (YAP1) signaling are dually activated during EGFR TKI treatment to limit therapeutic response. We used MTT and clonogenic assays, immunoblotting, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction to evaluate the efficacy of EGFR TKI alone and in combination with STAT3 and Src inhibition in three EGFR-mutant NSCLC cell lines. The Chou-Talalay method was used for the quantitative determination of drug interaction. We examined tumor growth inhibition in one EGFR-mutant NSCLC xenograft model (n = 4 mice per group). STAT3 and YAP1 expression was evaluated in tumors from 119 EGFR-mutant NSCLC patients (64 in an initial cohort and 55 in a validation cohort) by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were used to assess the correlation between survival and gene expression. All statistical tests were two-sided. We discovered that lung cancer cells survive initial EGFR inhibitor treatment through activation of not only STAT3 but also Src-YAP1 signaling. Cotargeting EGFR, STAT3, and Src was synergistic in two EGFR-mutant NSCLC cell lines with a combination index of 0.59 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.54 to 0.63) for the PC-9 and 0.59 (95% CI = 0.54 to 0.63) for the H1975 cell line. High expression of STAT3 or YAP1 predicted worse progression-free survival (hazard ratio [HR] = 3.02, 95% CI = 1.54 to 5.93, P = .001, and HR = 2.57, 95% CI = 1.30 to 5.09, P = .007, respectively) in an initial cohort of 64 EGFR-mutant NSCLC patients treated with firstline EGFR TKIs. Similar results were observed in a validation cohort. Our study uncovers a coordinated signaling network centered on both STAT3 and Src-YAP signaling

  1. Prospective Validation of Rapid Plasma Genotyping for the Detection of EGFR and KRAS Mutations in Advanced Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacher, Adrian G; Paweletz, Cloud; Dahlberg, Suzanne E; Alden, Ryan S; O'Connell, Allison; Feeney, Nora; Mach, Stacy L; Jänne, Pasi A; Oxnard, Geoffrey R

    2016-08-01

    Plasma genotyping of cell-free DNA has the potential to allow for rapid noninvasive genotyping while avoiding the inherent shortcomings of tissue genotyping and repeat biopsies. To prospectively validate plasma droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) for the rapid detection of common epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and KRAS mutations, as well as the EGFR T790M acquired resistance mutation. Patients with advanced nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who either (1) had a new diagnosis and were planned for initial therapy or (2) had developed acquired resistance to an EGFR kinase inhibitor and were planned for rebiopsy underwent initial blood sampling and immediate plasma ddPCR for EGFR exon 19 del, L858R, T790M, and/or KRAS G12X between July 3, 2014, and June 30, 2015, at a National Cancer Institute-designated comprehensive cancer center. All patients underwent biopsy for tissue genotyping, which was used as the reference standard for comparison; rebiopsy was required for patients with acquired resistance to EGFR kinase inhibitors. Test turnaround time (TAT) was measured in business days from blood sampling until test reporting. Plasma ddPCR assay sensitivity, specificity, and TAT. Of 180 patients with advanced NSCLC (62% female; median [range] age, 62 [37-93] years), 120 cases were newly diagnosed; 60 had acquired resistance. Tumor genotype included 80 EGFR exon 19/L858R mutants, 35 EGFR T790M, and 25 KRAS G12X mutants. Median (range) TAT for plasma ddPCR was 3 (1-7) days. Tissue genotyping median (range) TAT was 12 (1-54) days for patients with newly diagnosed NSCLC and 27 (1-146) days for patients with acquired resistance. Plasma ddPCR exhibited a positive predictive value of 100% (95% CI, 91%-100%) for EGFR 19 del, 100% (95% CI, 85%-100%) for L858R, and 100% (95% CI, 79%-100%) for KRAS, but lower for T790M at 79% (95% CI, 62%-91%). The sensitivity of plasma ddPCR was 82% (95% CI, 69%-91%) for EGFR 19 del, 74% (95% CI, 55%-88%) for L858R, and 77% (95% CI, 60

  2. Cross-Validation Study for Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor and KRAS Mutation Detection in 74 Blinded Non-small Cell Lung Carcinoma Samples: A Total of 5550 Exons Sequenced by 15 Molecular French Laboratories (Evaluation of the EGFR Mutation Status for the Administration of EGFR-TKIs in Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma [ERMETIC] Project—Part 1)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beau-Faller, Michèle; Degeorges, Armelle; Rolland, Estelle; Mounawar, Mounia; Antoine, Martine; Poulot, Virginie; Mauguen, Audrey; Barbu, Véronique; Coulet, Florence; Prétet, Jean-Luc; Bièche, Ivan; Blons, Hélène; Boyer, Jean-Christophe; Buisine, Marie-Pierre; de Fraipont, Florence; Lizard, Sarab; Olschwang, Sylviane; Saulnier, Patrick; Prunier-Mirebeau, Delphine; Richard, Nicolas; Danel, Claire; Brambilla, Elisabeth; Chouaid, Christos; Zalcman, Gérard; Hainaut, Pierre; Michiels, Stefan; Cadranel, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION:The Evaluation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) Mutation status for the administration of EGFR-Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors in non-small cell lung Carcinoma (NSCLC) (ERMETIC...

  3. Evaluation of EGFR, KRAS and BRAF gene mutations in renal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Bayrak

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A subset of renal cell carcinoma (RCC patients has been shown to respond to anti-EGFR therapy. As KRAS and BRAF mutations are associated with poor response to anti-EGFR therapy in some cancers, it has been suggested that screening for KRAS and BRAF mutations in RCC may be a promising strategy to identify patients who might respond to EGFR-targeted therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the mutation status of EGFR, KRAS and BRAF in RCC patients. Renal tumors and normal renal samples from forty-eight patients who underwent radical or partial nephrectomy for kidney cancer were used in this study. Histological classification of the tumors was performed according to International Union against Cancer (UICC / American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC classification. Seventeen patients (48% had clear-cell RCC, 7 (20% had chromophobe RCC, and 11 patients (32% had papillary RCC. DNA isolated from the samples was subjected to melting curve mutation analysis for EGFR, BRAF and KRAS using ABI-3130 DNA sequencer. DNA sequencing analysis of RCC samples, when compared with morphologically normal matched regions, did not show any exon mutations. Our results do not support the notion that EGFR, KRAS and BRAF might be mutated in RCC. Normal 0 false false false TR X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:8.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:107%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-ansi-language:TR; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;}

  4. On the polymorphism of griseofulvin: identification of two additional polymorphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahieu, Aurelien; Willart, Jean-Francois; Dudognon, Emeline; Eddleston, Mark D; Jones, William; Danède, Florence; Descamps, Marc

    2013-02-01

    In this paper, we present an investigation of the polymorphism of griseofulvin. In addition to the only reported crystalline form (form I), two new polymorphic forms (II and III) have been identified and characterized by differential scanning calorimetry and powder X-ray diffraction. Reasons why these two polymorphs were isolated during the present study, but not detected during the numerous previous studies on this drug, are also discussed. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Second order conservative languages with a Maltsev polymorphism also have a majority polymorphism

    OpenAIRE

    Vodolazskiy, Evgeniy

    2017-01-01

    The paper proves that for any second order conservative constraint language with a Maltsev polymorphism there is a majority polymorphism. Moreover, the majority polymorphism can be defined by the Maltsev polymorphism.

  6. Heterogeneous resistance mechanisms in an EGFR exon 19-mutated non-small cell lung cancer patient treated with erlotinib

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santoni-Rugiu, Eric; Grauslund, Morten; Melchior, Linea C

    2017-01-01

    an EGFR exon 19-mutation (p.E746_A750delELREA) and a previously unreported 2bp frame-shift microdeletion in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3; p.D785fs*31) gene. Interestingly, FGFR3-mutations have previously been described in other cancer types of Caucasian patients and may represent...... an alternative pathway to EGFR-signaling. The patient received first-line erlotinib but after only 7 weeks showed metastatic pleural effusion, in which transformation to small cell lung cancer (SCLC) that retained the EGFR- and FGFR3-mutations was identified. Consequently, standard carboplatin-etoposide regimen...... for SCLC combined with erlotinib continuation was implemented obtaining significant objective response. However, after completing 6 cycles of this combination, new pulmonary and hepatic metastases appeared and showed persistence of the original EGFR- and FGFR3-mutated ADC phenotype together...

  7. Management of Toxicities in Metastatic NSCLC Related to Anti-Lung Cancer Therapies with EGFR-TKIs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara eMelosky

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs against the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR are the standard of care treatment in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. TKIs are used first line in EGFR mutation-positive NSCLC; erlotinib is the only TKI approved for subsequent lines of treatment in EGFR wild-type NSCLC. As promising as TKIs are in helping patients avoid some of the side effects of traditional cytotoxic chemotherapy, they do come with a variety of side effects.This article will describe the most common adverse events associated with the epidermal EGFR family of TKIs including diarrhea, rash, mucositis, and paronychia. The objective of this paper is to provide simple guidelines to assist oncologists in managing these common toxicities. As patient survival is often directly correlated with successful therapeutic drug delivery, the management of TKI- induced adverse events ensures proper treatment and may avoid discontinuation or reduction of the therapeutic.

  8. High specificity but low sensitivity of mutation-specific antibodies against EGFR mutations in non-small-cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondgaard, Anna-Louise; Høgdall, Estrid; Mellemgaard, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Determination of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations has a pivotal impact on treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A standardized test has not yet been approved. So far, Sanger DNA sequencing has been widely used. Its rather low sensitivity has led to the development......, and staining score (multipum of intensity (graded 0-3) and percentages (0-100%) of stained tumor cells) was calculated. Positivity was defined as staining score >0. Specificity of exon19 antibody was 98.8% (95% confidence interval=95.9-99.9%) and of exon21 antibody 97.8% (95% confidence interval=94...... positive (immunohistochemistry positive, RT-PCR negative). One false positive exon21 mutation had staining score 300. The EGFR variantIII antibody showed no correlation to EGFR mutation status determined by RT-PCR or to EGFR immunohistochemistry. High specificity of the mutation-specific antibodies...

  9. Risk of severe rash in cancer patients treated with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi; Ran, Yu-Ge; Wang, Kun-Jie

    2016-12-01

    We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the incidence and risk factors of severe rash associated with the use of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). PubMed, EMBASE and oncology conference proceedings were searched for articles published till March 2016. A total of 18,309 patients from 37 randomized controlled trials were available for the meta-analysis. The overall incidence for severe rash was 6.6% (95% CI: 5.2-8.3%) among patients receiving EGFR-TKIs. The use of EGFR-TKIs significantly increased the risk of developing severe rash (risk ratio: 7.70; 95% CI: 5.79-10.23) in cancer patients. On subgroup analysis, the increased risk of severe rash was driven predominantly by drug type (p = 0.002). EGFR-TKIs significantly increase the risk of developing severe rash in cancer patients.

  10. Can EGFR mutation status be reliably determined in pre-operative needle biopsies from adenocarcinomas of the lung?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindahl, Kim Hein; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Jonstrup, Søren Peter

    2015-01-01

    of the tumour volume. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of this molecular test. We retrospectively included 201 patients with primary adenocarcinoma of the lung. EGFR mutation status (exon 19 deletions and exon 21 L858R point mutation) was evaluated on both pre......The identification of EGFR mutations in non-small-cell lung cancer is important for selecting patients, who may benefit from treatment with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The analysis is usually performed on cytological aspirates and/or histological needle biopsies, representing a small fraction......-operative biopsies (131 histological and 70 cytological) and on the surgical specimens, using PCR. Samples with low tumour cell fraction were assigned to laser micro-dissection (LMD). We found nine (4.5%) patients with EGFR mutation in the lung tumour resections, but failed to identify mutation in one...

  11. A rapid MZI-IDA sensor system for EGFR mutation testing in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing; Lim, Swee Yin; Soo, Ross A; Park, Mi Kyoung; Shin, Yong

    2015-12-15

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a non-small-cell lung cancer biomarker, based on which several near-patient-testing methods have been developed and applied to predict treatment response on individual patients. Existing methods for detection of EGFR mutation are costly, labor-intensive and time-consuming. In this paper, we report a novel EGFR mutation testing system, which is based on Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (MZI) sensor and isothermal solid-phase DNA amplification (IDA) technique, called MZI-IDA sensor system. The system can deliver results within 30 min and shows high sensitivity to detect trace amounts of genomic DNA (IDA sensor system is proved to be capable of fast and accurate detection of the L858R mutation of EGFR gene in clinical samples. This may greatly help the clinicians develop an appropriate treatment plan. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison of EGFR and K-RAS gene status between primary tumours and corresponding metastases in NSCLC

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kalikaki, A; Koutsopoulos, A; Trypaki, M; Souglakos, J; Stathopoulos, E; Georgoulias, V; Mavroudis, D; Voutsina, A

    2008-01-01

    .... However, the EGFR and K-RAS mutation status in metastases is not well studied. We compared the mutation status of these genes between the primary tumours and the corresponding metastases of 25 patients...

  13. NF-κB-dependent transcriptional upregulation of cyclin D1 exerts cytoprotection against hypoxic injury upon EGFR activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zhi-Dong [Department of Critical Care Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Huzhou Normal College, Huzhou 313000, Zhejiang (China); Xu, Liang [Department of Critical Care Medicine, Zhejiang Provincial People’s Hospital, Hangzhou 310000, Zhejiang (China); Tang, Kan-Kai [Department of Critical Care Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Huzhou Normal College, Huzhou 313000, Zhejiang (China); Gong, Fang-Xiao; Liu, Jing-Quan; Ni, Yin; Jiang, Ling-Zhi; Hong, Jun; Han, Fang; Li, Qian; Yang, Xiang-Hong [Department of Critical Care Medicine, Zhejiang Provincial People’s Hospital, Hangzhou 310000, Zhejiang (China); Sun, Ren-Hua, E-mail: jqin168@hotmail.com [Department of Critical Care Medicine, Zhejiang Provincial People’s Hospital, Hangzhou 310000, Zhejiang (China); Mo, Shi-Jing, E-mail: msj860307@163.com [Department of Critical Care Medicine, Zhejiang Provincial People’s Hospital, Hangzhou 310000, Zhejiang (China)

    2016-09-10

    Apoptosis of neural cells is one of the main pathological features in hypoxic/ischemic brain injury. Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) might be a potential therapeutic target for hypoxic/ischemic brain injury since NF-κB has been found to be inactivated after hypoxia exposure, yet the underlying molecular mechanisms of NF-κB inactivation are largely unknown. Here we report that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation prevents neuron-like PC12 cells apoptosis in response to hypoxia via restoring NF-κB-dependent transcriptional upregulation of cyclin D1. Functionally, EGFR activation by EGF stimulation mitigates hypoxia-induced PC12 cells apoptosis in both dose- and time-dependent manner. Of note, EGFR activation elevates IKKβ phosphorylation, increases IκBα ubiquitination, promotes P65 nuclear translocation and recruitment at cyclin D1 gene promoter as well as upregulates cyclin D1 expression. EGFR activation also abrogates the decrease of IKKβ phosphorylation, reduction of IκBα ubiquitination, blockade of P65 nuclear translocation and recruitment at cyclin D1 gene promoter as well as downregulation of cyclin D1 expression induced by hypoxia. Furthermore, NF-κB-dependent upregulation of cyclin D1 is instrumental for the EGFR-mediated cytoprotection against hypoxic apoptosis. In addition, the dephosphorylation of EGFR induced by either EGF siRNA transfection or anti-HB-EGF neutralization antibody treatment enhances hypoxic cytotoxicity, which are attenuated by EGF administration. Our results highlight the essential role of NF-κB-dependent transcriptional upregulation of cyclin D1 in EGFR-mediated cytoprotective effects under hypoxic preconditioning and support further investigation of EGF in clinical trials of patients with hypoxic/ischemic brain injury. - Highlights: • EGFR activation significantly decreases hypoxia-induced PC12 cells injury. • EGFR activation abrogates the transcriptional repression of cyclin D1 induced by hypoxia in a NF

  14. Optimization of EGFR high positive cell isolation procedure by design of experiments methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Ofer; Tal, Baruch; Hileli, Sagi; Shapira, Assaf; Benhar, Itai; Grabov, Pavel; Eliaz, Noam

    2015-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in blood circulation may play a role in monitoring and even in early detection of metastasis patients. Due to the limited presence of CTCs in blood circulation, viable CTCs isolation technology must supply a very high recovery rate. Here, we implement design of experiments (DOE) methodology in order to optimize the Bio-Ferrography (BF) immunomagnetic isolation (IMI) procedure for the EGFR high positive CTCs application. All consequent DOE phases such as screening design, optimization experiments and validation experiments were used. A significant recovery rate of more than 95% was achieved while isolating 100 EGFR high positive CTCs from 1 mL human whole blood. The recovery achievement in this research positions BF technology as one of the most efficient IMI technologies, which is ready to be challenged with patients' blood samples. © 2015 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  15. EGFR, p53, IDH-1 and MDM2 immunohistochemical analysis in glioblastoma: therapeutic and prognostic correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Murdoch Montgomery

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We studied 36 glioblastoma cases at HC-UNICAMP from 2008 to 2012 and classified the immunohistochemical distribution of the wild-type epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, mutated forms of p53 protein and isocitrate dehydrogenase-1 (IDH-1 and murine double protein 2 (MDM2. Immunostaining findings were correlated with clinical data and response to treatment (surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. About 97% of the tumors were primary, most of them localized in the frontal lobe. Mean time free of clinical or symptomatic disease and free time of radiological disease were 7.56 and 7.14 months, respectively. We observed a significant positive correlation between expressions of p53 and MDM2, EGFR and MDM2. Clinical, radiological and overall survivals also showed a significant positive correlation. p53 staining and clinical survival showed a significant negative correlation. The current series provides clinical and histopathological data that contribute to knowledge on glioblastoma in Brazilians.

  16. EGFR and HER2 expression in primary cervical cancers and corresponding lymph node metastases: Implications for targeted radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhengyan

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteins overexpressed on the surface of tumor cells can be selectively targeted. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2 are among the most often targeted proteins. The level and stability of expression in both primary tumors and corresponding metastases is crucial in the assessment of a receptor as target for imaging in nuclear medicine and for various forms of therapy. So far, the expression of EGFR and HER2 has only been determined in primary cervical cancers, and we have not found published data regarding the receptor status in corresponding metastatic lesions. The goal of this study was to evaluate whether any of these receptors are suitable as target for clinical diagnosis and therapy. Methods Expression of EGFR and HER2 was investigated immunohistochemically in both lymph node metastases and corresponding primary cervical cancers (n = 53. HER2 and EGFR expression was scored using HercepTest criteria (0, 1+, 2+ or 3+. Results EGFR overexpression (2+ or 3+ was found in 64% (35/53 of the primary cervical tumors and 60% (32/53 of the corresponding lymph node metastases. There was a good concordance between the primary tumors and the paired metastases regarding EGFR expression. Only four patients who had 2+ or 3+ in the primary tumors changed to 0 or 1+ in lymph node metastases, and another two cases changed the other way around. None of the primary tumors or the lymph node metastases expressed HER2 protein. Conclusion The EGFR expression seems to be common and stable during cervical cancer metastasis, which is encouraging for testing of EGFR targeted radiotherapy. HER2 appears to be of poor interest as a potential target in the treatment of cervical cancer.

  17. A combinational therapy of EGFR-CAR NK cells and oncolytic herpes simplex virus 1 for breast cancer brain metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xilin; Han, Jianfeng; Chu, Jianhong; Zhang, Lingling; Zhang, Jianying; Chen, Charlie; Chen, Luxi; Wang, Youwei; Wang, Hongwei; Yi, Long; Elder, J Bradley; Wang, Qi-En; He, Xiaoming; Kaur, Balveen; Chiocca, E Antonio; Yu, Jianhua

    2016-05-10

    Breast cancer brain metastases (BCBMs) are common in patients with metastatic breast cancer and indicate a poor prognosis. These tumors are especially resistant to currently available treatments due to multiple factors. However, the combination of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified immune cells and oncolytic herpes simplex virus (oHSV) has not yet been explored in this context. In this study, NK-92 cells and primary NK cells were engineered to express the second generation of EGFR-CAR. The efficacies of anti-BCBMs of EGFR-CAR NK cells, oHSV-1, and their combination were tested in vitro and in a breast cancer intracranial mouse model. In vitro, compared with mock-transduced NK-92 cells or primary NK cells, EGFR-CAR-engineered NK-92 cells and primary NK cells displayed enhanced cytotoxicity and IFN-γ production when co-cultured with breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468, and MCF-7. oHSV-1 alone was also capable of lysing and destroying these cells. However, a higher cytolytic effect of EGFR-CAR NK-92 cells was observed when combined with oHSV-1 compared to the monotherapies. In the mice intracranially pre-inoculated with EGFR-expressing MDA-MB-231 cells, intratumoral administration of either EGFR-CAR-transduced NK-92 cells or oHSV-1 mitigated tumor growth. Notably, the combination of EGFR-CAR NK-92 cells with oHSV-1 resulted in more efficient killing of MDA-MB-231 tumor cells and significantly longer survival of tumor-bearing mice when compared to monotherapies. These results demonstrate that regional administration of EGFR-CAR NK-92 cells combined with oHSV-1 therapy is a potentially promising strategy to treat BCBMs.

  18. Ovarian granulosa cell tumors frequently express EGFR (Her-1), Her-3, and Her-4: An immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibl, Sebastian; Bodo, Koppany; Gogg-Kammerer, Margit; Hrzenjak, Andelko; Petru, Edgar; Winter, Raimund; Denk, Helmut; Moinfar, Farid

    2006-04-01

    Up to 50% of patients with ovarian granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) will develop recurrences; some of these recurrences can be seen as late as 30 years following the initial surgical treatment. Combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy are currently used for patients with advanced or recurrent disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible eligibility of patients with GCTs for anti-Her therapy. The immunohistochemical expression of EGFR (Her-1), Her-2, Her-3, and Her-4 was analyzed in a group of ovarian GCTs encompassing 38 adult type and 2 juvenile type. Thirty-one cases (77.5%) were positive for at least one of the receptors EGFR (Her-1), Her-3, and Her-4. Twenty-six out of 40 (65%) GCTs showed positive reaction for EGFR (Her-1). Eight tumors (20%) were exclusively positive for EGFR (Her-1). None of 40 cases showed a positive reaction for Her-2. Positive reactions for Her-3 and Her-4 were observed in 18 (45%) and 23 (57.5%) tumors. Only one case (2.5%) was exclusively positive for Her-4. Four tumors (10%) showed positivity for Her-3 and Her-4 but were negative for EGFR (HER-1). While one of the two JGCTs was negative for all members of the Her-family, one showed reactivity for EGFR (Her-1), Her-3, and Her-4. In this study, most of the ovarian GCTs express at least one of the receptors EGFR (Her-1), Her-3, and Her-4. These findings provide some evidence to further explore the potential use of agents targeting these receptors (particularly EGFR) in the treatment of ovarian GCTs.

  19. Conservation of protein abundance patterns reveals the regulatory architecture of the EGFR-MAPK pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Tujin; Niepel, Mario; McDermott, Jason E.; Gao, Yuqian; Nicora, Carrie D.; Chrisler, William B.; Markillie, Lye M.; Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Smith, Richard D; Rodland, Karin D.; Sorger, Peter K.; Qian, Wei-Jun; Wiley, H. Steven

    2016-01-01

    Various genetic mutations associated with cancer are known to alter cell signaling, but it is not clear whether they dysregulate signaling pathways by altering the abundance of pathway proteins. Using a combination of RNA sequencing and ultrasensitive targeted proteomics, we defined the primary components—16 core proteins and 10 feedback regulators—of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)–mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in normal human mammary epithelial cells and then q...

  20. PD-1 Axis Inhibitors in EGFR- and ALK-Driven Lung Cancer: Lost Cause?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gettinger, Scott; Politi, Katerina

    2016-09-15

    Programmed death axis 1 (PD-1) inhibitors have ushered in a new error of cancer immunotherapeutics for advanced smoking-associated non-small cell lung cancer. Their role in treating EGFR-mutant and ALK-rearranged lung cancer has yet to be determined. Clin Cancer Res; 22(18); 4539-41. ©2016 AACRSee related article by Gainor et al., p. 4585. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  1. Efficiency of EGFR mutation analysis for small microdissected cytological specimens using multitech DNA extraction solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Seo Young; Lee, Hoon Taek

    2015-07-01

    The microdissection method has greatly facilitated the isolation of pure cell populations for accurate analysis of mutations. However, the absence of coverslips in these preparations leads to poor resolution of cellular morphological features. In the current study, the authors developed the MultiTech DNA extraction solution to improve the visualization of cell morphology for microdissection and tested it for the preservation of morphological properties of cells, quality of DNA, and ability to detect mutations. A total of 121 cytological samples, including fine-needle aspirates, sputum, pleural fluid, and bronchial washings, were selected from hospital archives. DNA extracted from microdissected cells was evaluated by epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation analysis using pyrosequencing, Sanger sequencing, and peptide nucleic acid (PNA)-mediated real-time polymerase chain reaction clamping. Morphological features of cells as well as DNA quality and quantity were analyzed in several cytological samples to assess the performance of the MultiTech DNA extraction solution. The results were compared with previous EGFR mutation tests. The MultiTech DNA extraction solution improved the morphology of archived stained cells before microdissection and provided a higher DNA yield than the commercial QIAamp DNA Mini Kit in samples containing a minimal number of cells (25-50 cells). The authors were able to detect identical EGFR mutations by using different analysis platforms and consistently identified these mutations in samples comprising as few as 25 microdissected cells. The MultiTech DNA extraction solution is a reliable medium that improves the resolution of cell morphology during microdissection. It was particularly useful in EGFR mutations of samples containing a small number of cells. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  2. Cisplatin-alginate conjugate liposomes for targeted delivery to EGFR-positive ovarian cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunfei; Zhou, Jinhua; Qiu, Lihua; Wang, Xinran; Chen, Lilan; Liu, Ting; Di, Wen

    2014-05-01

    Systemic side effects and low aqueous solubility have limited the clinical use of cisplatin (CDDP) in ovarian carcinoma and have contributed to failures in developing effective drug delivery systems. In order to develop a novel drug delivery system with enhanced efficacy and minimal adverse effects, we exploited the properties of sodium alginate (SA) to synthesize CDDP-SA conjugate (CS), which is highly soluble and readily incorporated into liposomes (CS-PEG-Lip). Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is overexpressed in many ovarian cancers, therefore we modified EGF on the liposomes (CS-EGF-Lip) to specifically target EGFR-expressing tumors, thereby increasing the bioavailability and efficacy of CDDP. In vitro experiments confirmed that EGF-Lip selectively recognized EGFR-positive SKOV3 cells and effectively penetrated tumor spheroids. We demonstrated that CS-EGF-Lip possessed satisfactory size distribution and exhibited significantly improved encapsulation and loading efficiency. Furthermore, CS-EGF-Lip sustained release of CDDP in vitro, suggesting that CS-EGF-Lip may retain the antitumor activity of CDDP. Inhibition of proliferation and migration was also greater with CS-EGF-Lip compared to CDDP. In vivo xenograft experiments revealed that administration of CS-EGF-Lip enhanced delivery of CDDP into ovarian tumor tissues and improved the antitumor efficacy of CDDP, while reducing nephrotoxicity and body weight loss in mice. These results suggest that CS-EGF-Lip may offer a promising strategy for CDDP delivery in the treatment of EGFR-positive ovarian carcinoma or similar tumors, with enhanced efficacy and fewer adverse effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Erlotinib Versus Radiation Therapy for Brain Metastases in Patients With EGFR-Mutant Lung Adenocarcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, Naamit K.; Yamada, Yoshiya; Rimner, Andreas [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Shi, Weiji [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Riely, Gregory J. [Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Beal, Kathryn [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Yu, Helena A. [Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Chan, Timothy A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Zhang, Zhigang [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Wu, Abraham J., E-mail: wua@mskcc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose/Objectives: Radiation therapy (RT) is the principal modality in the treatment of patients with brain metastases (BM). However, given the activity of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors in the central nervous system, it is uncertain whether upfront brain RT is necessary for patients with EGFR-mutant lung adenocarcinoma with BM. Methods and Materials: Patients with EGFR-mutant lung adenocarcinoma and newly diagnosed BM were identified. Results: 222 patients were identified. Exclusion criteria included prior erlotinib use, presence of a de novo erlotinib resistance mutation, or incomplete data. Of the remaining 110 patients, 63 were treated with erlotinib, 32 with whole brain RT (WBRT), and 15 with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). The median overall survival (OS) for the whole cohort was 33 months. There was no significant difference in OS between the WBRT and erlotinib groups (median, 35 vs 26 months; P=.62), whereas patients treated with SRS had a longer OS than did those in the erlotinib group (median, 64 months; P=.004). The median time to intracranial progression was 17 months. There was a longer time to intracranial progression in patients who received WBRT than in those who received erlotinib upfront (median, 24 vs 16 months, P=.04). Patients in the erlotinib or SRS group were more likely to experience intracranial failure as a component of first failure, whereas WBRT patients were more likely to experience failure outside the brain (P=.004). Conclusions: The survival of patients with EGFR-mutant adenocarcinoma with BM is notably long, whether they receive upfront erlotinib or brain RT. We observed longer intracranial control with WBRT, even though the WBRT patients had a higher burden of intracranial disease. Despite the equivalent survival between the WBRT and erlotinib group, this study underscores the role of WBRT in producing durable intracranial control in comparison with a targeted biologic agent with known central nervous system activity.

  4. Dynamic Bayesian Network Modeling of the Interplay between EGFR and Hedgehog Signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Fröhlich

    Full Text Available Aberrant activation of sonic Hegdehog (SHH signaling has been found to disrupt cellular differentiation in many human cancers and to increase proliferation. The SHH pathway is known to cross-talk with EGFR dependent signaling. Recent studies experimentally addressed this interplay in Daoy cells, which are presumable a model system for medulloblastoma, a highly malignant brain tumor that predominately occurs in children. Currently ongoing are several clinical trials for different solid cancers, which are designed to validate the clinical benefits of targeting the SHH in combination with other pathways. This has motivated us to investigate interactions between EGFR and SHH dependent signaling in greater depth. To our knowledge, there is no mathematical model describing the interplay between EGFR and SHH dependent signaling in medulloblastoma so far. Here we come up with a fully probabilistic approach using Dynamic Bayesian Networks (DBNs. To build our model, we made use of literature based knowledge describing SHH and EGFR signaling and integrated gene expression (Illumina and cellular location dependent time series protein expression data (Reverse Phase Protein Arrays. We validated our model by sub-sampling training data and making Bayesian predictions on the left out test data. Our predictions focusing on key transcription factors and p70S6K, showed a high level of concordance with experimental data. Furthermore, the stability of our model was tested by a parametric bootstrap approach. Stable network features were in agreement with published data. Altogether we believe that our model improved our understanding of the interplay between two highly oncogenic signaling pathways in Daoy cells. This may open new perspectives for the future therapy of Hedghog/EGF-dependent solid tumors.

  5. Effect of MUC1 Expression on EGFR Endocytosis and Degradation in Human Breast Cancer Cell Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    is knocked down with siRNA. In cells that express high levels of MUC1 protein , I observed a colocalization of MUC1 and EGFR at the endocytic recycling...highly glycosylated membrane protein . It is overexpressed in 90% of breast cancer and has been shown to cause metastatic breast cancer when...endocytic recycling endosome. Additionally we made use of Rab5-GFP constructs to label early endosomes and Rab-7 CFP to label late endosomes. Using

  6. Radiosensitivity and TP 53, EGFR amplification and LOH10 analysis of primary glioma cell cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerlach, B. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, VU Univ. Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Univ. of Duesseldorf (Germany); Harder, A.H.; Slotman, B.J.; Sminia, P. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, VU Univ. Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hulsebos, T.J.M. [Dept. of Human Genetics, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Leenstra, S. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Peter Vandertop, W. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, VU Univ. Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hartmann, K.A. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Univ. of Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2002-09-01

    Aim: Determination of in-vitro radiosensitivity and genetic alterations of cell cultures derived from human glioma biopsy tissue and established glioma cell lines. Material and Methods: Fresh brain tumor specimens of six patients were processed to early passage cell cultures. In addition the cell lines D 384 and Gli 6 were used. Cell cultures were irradiated with doses from 2 to 10 Gy. Following irradiation, cell survival was determined by clonogenic assay and survival curves were generated. The surviving fractions after 2 Gy (SF2) and 4 Gy (SF4) were used as radiosensitivity parameters. Genetic analysis included determination of the mutational and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) status of TP 53 (exons 5-8), the LOH 10- and epidermal growth factor receptor gene (EGFR) amplification status. Results: The SF2 and SF4 values ranged from 0.54 to 0.88 (mean: 0.70) and from 0.13 to 0.52 (mean: 0.32), respectively. Genetic alterations were found in the Gli 6 cell line and in two primary cell cultures. The genetic profile of Gli 6 showed LOH but no TP 53 mutation, complete LOH 10 and no EGFR amplification. The VU 15 cell culture showed TP 53 mutation but no LOH 10 or EGFR amplification, while VU 24 showed incomplete LOH 10, EGFR amplification and no TP 53 mutation. In the other four cell cultures and D 384 cell line no genetic alterations were diagnosed. Histopathological classification of glioblastoma multiforme and/or genetic alterations resulted in lower radiosensitivity. Conclusion: In this small series of early passage glioma cell cultures low radiosensitivity and alterations in cell regulatory genes were seen. Further testing of biological behavior in larger series of patient-derived material is ongoing. (orig.)

  7. Adaptive and Acquired Resistance to EGFR Inhibitors Converge on the MAPK Pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Pengfei; Fu, Yujie; Chen, Minjiang; Jing, Ying; Wu, Jie; Li, Ke; Shen, Ying; Gao, Jian-Xin; Wang, Mengzhao; Zhao, Xiaojing; Zhuang, Guanglei

    2016-01-01

    Both adaptive and acquired resistance significantly limits the efficacy of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase inhibitors. However, the distinct or common mechanisms of adaptive and acquired resistance have not been fully characterized. Here, through systematic modeling of erlotinib resistance in lung cancer, we found that feedback reactivation of MAPK signaling following erlotinib treatment, which was dependent on the MET receptor, contributed to the adaptive resistance of EGF...

  8. EGFR signalling controls cellular fate and pancreatic organogenesis by regulating apicobasal polarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyeng, Pia

    2017-01-01

    Apicobasal polarity is known to affect epithelial morphogenesis and cell differentiation, but it remains unknown how these processes are mechanistically orchestrated. We find that ligand-specific EGFR signalling via PI(3)K and Rac1 autonomously modulates apicobasal polarity to enforce...... the sequential control of morphogenesis and cell differentiation. Initially, EGF controls pancreatic tubulogenesis by negatively regulating apical polarity induction. Subsequently, betacellulin, working via inhibition of atypical protein kinase C (aPKC), causes apical domain constriction within neurogenin3...

  9. Crosstalk between EGFR and integrin affects invasion and proliferation of gastric cancer cell line, SGC7901

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan L

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Li Dan,1,* Ding Jian,2,* Lin Na,1 Wang Xiaozhong,1 1Digestive Department, the Union Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fujian, People’s Republic of China; 2Digestive Department, the First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground/objective: To investigate the crosstalk between epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR and integrin-mediated signal transduction pathways in human gastric adenocarcinoma cells.Methods: EGF was used as a ligand of EGFR to stimulate the gastric adenocarcinoma cell, SGC7901. Signal molecules downstream of the integrin, FAK(Y397 and p130cas(Y410 phosphorylation, were measured by immunoprecipitation and western blot. Fibronectin (Fn was used as a ligand of integrin to stimulate the same cell line. Signal molecules downstream of EGFR and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK general phosphorylation were also measured. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK small-interfering RNA was designed and transfected into SGC7901 cells to decrease the expression of FAK. Modified Boyden chambers and MTT assay were used to examine the effect of FAK inhibition on the invasiveness and proliferation of SGC7901.Results: EGF activated FAK(Y397 and p130cas(Y410 phosphorylation, while Fn activated ERK general phosphorylation. Inhibition of FAK expression decreased p130cas(Y410 phosphorylation activated by EGF and ERK general phosphorylation activated by Fn, also decreased the invasiveness and proliferation of SGC7901 cells activated by EGF or Fn.Conclusion: There is crosstalk between EGFR and integrin signal transduction. FAK may be a key cross point of the two signal pathways and acts as a potential target for human gastric cancer therapy.Keywords: gastric adenocarcinoma, epidermal growth factor receptor, integrin, focal adhesion kinase, crosstalk

  10. Molecular Testing Guideline for Selection of Lung Cancer Patients for EGFR and ALK Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeman, Neal I.; Cagle, Philip T.; Beasley, Mary Beth; Chitale, Dhananjay Arun; Dacic, Sanja; Giaccone, Giuseppe; Jenkins, Robert Brian; Kwiatkowski, David J.; Saldivar, Juan-Sebastian; Squire, Jeremy; Thunnissen, Erik; Ladanyi, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Objective To establish evidence-based recommendations for the molecular analysis of lung cancers that are that are required to guide EGFR- and ALK-directed therapies, addressing which patients and samples should be tested, and when and how testing should be performed. Participants Three cochairs without conflicts of interest were selected, one from each of the 3 sponsoring professional societies: College of American Pathologists, International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer, and Association for Molecular Pathology. Writing and advisory panels were constituted from additional experts from these societies. Evidence Three unbiased literature searches of electronic databases were performed to capture articles published published from January 2004 through February 2012, yielding 1533 articles whose abstracts were screened to identify 521 pertinent articles that were then reviewed in detail for their relevance to the recommendations. Evidence was formally graded for each recommendation. Consensus Process Initial recommendations were formulated by the cochairs and panel members at a public meeting. Each guideline section was assigned to at least 2 panelists. Drafts were circulated to the writing panel (version 1), advisory panel (version 2), and the public (version 3) before submission (version 4). Conclusions The 37 guideline items address 14 subjects, including 15 recommendations (evidence grade A/B). The major recommendations are to use testing for EGFR mutations and ALK fusions to guide patient selection for therapy with an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) or anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitor, respectively, in all patients with advanced-stage adenocarcinoma, regardless of sex, race, smoking history, or other clinical risk factors, and to prioritize EGFR and ALK testing over other molecular predictive tests. As scientific discoveries and clinical practice outpace the completion of randomized clinical trials, evidence-based guidelines developed

  11. Synergic antiproliferative and antiangiogenic effects of EGFR and mTor inhibitors on pancreatic cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzariti, Amalia; Porcelli, Letizia; Gatti, Giuliana; Nicolin, Angelo; Paradiso, Angelo

    2008-03-01

    The in vitro efficacy of both EGFR inhibitor gefitinib and mTor inhibitor rapamycin, either administrated alone or in different combination schedules, was analysed in four pancreas cancer cell lines. Both drugs were found to induce cell growth inhibition, apoptosis as well as a slight but stable accumulation of cells in the G0/G1 phase. In all cell lines, neither gefitinib nor rapamycin affected EGFR and the expression of its downstream effectors. By contrast, gefitinib inhibited in a fast and completely way p-EGFR and partially p-Akt while a 3 days-rapamycin exposure resulted in the inhibition of the expression of both mTor and p70S6K. Moreover, after early stimulation, the mTor inhibitor produced a progressive, and almost complete inhibition of p-Akt. The analysis of combined gefitinib and rapamycin administration showed a clear schedule-dependent activity which turned out to be synergic only when gefitinib was given before rapamycin. This synergism seemed to depend on increase of both p-Akt and p70S6K inhibition, the greater the induction of apoptosis, the higher the decrease in cell cycle rate. Moreover, the antiangiogenic activity of the two drugs given in combination was demonstrated by a strong reduction of VEGF release which turned out to be more pronounced in the synergic schedule, and HIF-1alpha inhibition-independent. Our results suggest that the schedule of gefitinib followed by rapamycin, acting at different levels of the EGFR cellular pathway, could induce antitumor and antiangiogenic effects of clinical interest in the pancreas cancer model.

  12. Targeting TORC1/2 Enhances Sensitivity to EGFR Inhibitors in Head and Neck Cancer Preclinical Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Cassell

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC is characterized by overexpression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR where treatments targeting EGFR have met with limited clinical success. Elucidation of the key downstream-pathways that remain activated in the setting of EGFR blockade may reveal new therapeutic targets. The present study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR complex would enhance the effects of EGFR blockade in HNSCC preclinical models. Treatment of HNSCC cell lines with the newly developed TORC1/TORC2 inhibitor OSI-027/ASP4876 resulted in dose-dependent inhibition of proliferation with abrogation of phosphorylation of known downstream targets including phospho-AKT (Ser473, phospho-4E-BP1, phospho-p70s6K, and phospho-PRAS40. Furthermore, combined treatment with OSI-027 and erlotinib resulted in enhanced biochemical effects and synergistic growth inhibition in vitro. Treatment of mice bearing HNSCC xenografts with a combination of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA-approved EGFR inhibitor cetuximab and OSI-027 demonstrated a significant reduction of tumor volumes compared with either treatment alone. These findings suggest that TORC1/TORC2 inhibition in conjunction with EGFR blockade represents a plausible therapeutic strategy for HNSCC.

  13. Acquired resistance to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors in cancer cells is mediated by loss of IGF-binding proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guix, Marta; Faber, Anthony C.; Wang, Shizhen Emily; Olivares, Maria Graciela; Song, Youngchul; Qu, Sherman; Rinehart, Cammie; Seidel, Brenda; Yee, Douglas; Arteaga, Carlos L.; Engelman, Jeffrey A.

    2008-01-01

    Although some cancers are initially sensitive to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), resistance invariably develops. We investigated mechanisms of acquired resistance to the EGFR TKI gefitinib by generating gefitinib-resistant (GR) A431 squamous cancer cells. In GR cells, gefitinib reduced phosphorylation of EGFR, ErbB-3, and Erk but not Akt. These cells also showed hyperphosphorylation of the IGFI receptor (IGFIR) and constitutive association of IRS-1 with PI3K. Inhibition of IGFIR signaling disrupted the association of IRS-1 with PI3K and restored the ability of gefitinib to downregulate PI3K/Akt signaling and to inhibit GR cell growth. Gene expression analyses revealed that GR cells exhibited markedly reduced IGF-binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) and IGFBP-4 RNA. Addition of recombinant IGFBP-3 restored the ability of gefitinib to downregulate PI3K/Akt signaling and to inhibit cell growth. Finally, gefitinib treatment of mice with A431 xenografts in combination with an IGFIR-specific monoclonal antibody prevented tumor recurrence, whereas each drug given alone was unable to do so. These data suggest that loss of expression of IGFBPs in tumor cells treated with EGFR TKIs derepresses IGFIR signaling, which in turn mediates resistance to EGFR antagonists. Moreover, combined therapeutic inhibition of EGFR and IGFIR may abrogate this acquired mechanism of drug resistance and is thus worthy of prospective clinical investigation. PMID:18568074

  14. Positive Interplay Between CD3+ T-lymphocytes and Concurrent COX-2/EGFR Expression in Canine Malignant Mammary Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Maria Isabel; Pires, Isabel; Prada, Justina; Ferreira, Adriano Fernandes; Queiroga, Felisbina L

    2015-05-01

    The ability of tumors to evade the immune system is one of cancer hallmarks. In breast cancer, it has been demonstrated that the cyclooxygenase-2(+)/ epidermal growth factor receptor(+) (COX-2(+)/EGFR(+)) status might influence tumor microenvironment allowing escape of cancer cells to the immune system. This topic is unknown in canine mammary tumors (CMT). Therefore, the potential relationship between CD3(+) T-lymphocytes and concurrent COX-2/EGFR expression was investigated. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded malignant CMT samples (n=63) were submitted to immunohistochemical staining to detect CD3, COX-2 and EGFR. Tumoral CD3(+) T-lymphocytes were significantly associated with tubular differentiation grade (p=0.006), tumor necrosis (p=0.025), histological grade of malignancy (p=0.027) and presence of lymph node metastasis (p=0.009). A correlation between COX-2 and EGFR was observed (r=0.741, pCD3(+) T-lymphocytes and COX-2/EGFR groups were significantly associated (p=0.025) and positively correlated (r=0.399; p=0.003). The present results suggest that the COX-2(+)/EGFR(+) status may be part of a strategy adopted by tumor cells to evade the cytotoxic tumor-specific immune responses. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  15. A chemical tuned strategy to develop novel irreversible EGFR-TK inhibitors with improved safety and pharmacokinetic profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Guangxin; Chen, Wenteng; Zhang, Jing; Shao, Jiaan; Zhang, Yong; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Leduo; Qi, Weixing; Sun, Xing; Li, Bojun; Xiang, Zhixiong; Ma, Chen; Xu, Jia; Deng, Hailin; Li, Yufeng; Li, Ping; Miao, Hong; Han, Jiansheng; Liu, Yanjun; Shen, Jingkang; Yu, Yongping

    2014-12-11

    Gatekeeper T790 M mutation in EGFR is the most prevalent factor underlying acquired resistance. Acrylamide-bearing quinazoline derivatives are powerful irreversible inhibitors for overcoming resistance. Nevertheless, concerns about the risk of nonspecific covalent modification have motivated the development of novel cysteine-targeting inhibitors. In this paper, we demonstrate that fluoro-substituted olefins can be tuned to alter Michael addition reactivity. Incorporation of these olefins into the quinazoline templates produced potent EGFR inhibitors with improved safety and pharmacokinetic properties. A lead compound 5a was validated against EGFR(WT), EGFR(T790M) as well as A431 and H1975 cancer cell lines. Additionally, compound 5a displayed a weaker inhibition against the EGFR-independent cancer cell line SW620 when compared with afatinib. Oral administration of 5a at a dose of 30 mg/kg induced tumor regression in a murine-EGFR(L858R/T790M) driven H1975 xenograft model. Also, 5a exhibited improved oral bioavailability and safety as well as favorable tissue distribution properties and enhanced brain uptake. These findings provide the basis of a promising strategy toward the treatment of NSCLC patients with drug resistance.

  16. EGFR as a prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target in ovarian cancer: evaluation of patient cohort and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehner, Christine; Oberg, Ann L; Goergen, Krista M; Kalli, Kimberly R; Maurer, Matthew J; Nassar, Aziza; Goode, Ellen L; Keeney, Gary L; Jatoi, Aminah; Radisky, Derek C; Radisky, Evette S

    2017-05-01

    Limited effectiveness of therapeutic agents targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in clinical trials using unselected ovarian cancer patients has prompted efforts to more effectively stratify patients who might best benefit from these therapies. A series of studies that have evaluated immunohistochemical (IHC) staining of EGFR in ovarian cancer biopsies has produced unclear results as to the utility of this measure as a prognostic biomarker. Here, we used one of the largest, single institution cohorts to date to determine possible associations of EGFR expression with patient outcome. We performed IHC staining of EGFR in tissue microarrays including nearly 500 patient tumor samples. Staining was classified by subcellular localization (membranous, cytoplasmic) or by automated image analysis algorithms. We also performed a literature review to place these results in the context of previous studies. No significant associations were found between EGFR subcellular localization or expression and histology, stage, grade, or outcome. These results were broadly consistent with the consensus of the reviewed literature. These results suggest that IHC staining for EGFR may not be a useful prognostic biomarker for ovarian cancer patients. Future studies should pursue other staining methods or analysis in combination with other pathway mediators.

  17. Driven by Mutations: The Predictive Value of Mutation Subtype in EGFR-Mutated Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, Emily; Feld, Emily; Horn, Leora

    2017-04-01

    EGFR-mutated NSCLC is a genetically heterogeneous disease that includes more than 200 distinct mutations. The implications of mutational subtype for both prognostic and predictive value are being increasingly understood. Although the most common EGFR mutations-exon 19 deletions or L858R mutations-predict sensitivity to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), it is now being recognized that outcomes may be improved in patients with exon 19 deletions. Additionally, 10% of patients will have an uncommon EGFR mutation, and response to EGFR TKI therapy is highly variable depending on the mutation. Given the growing recognition of the genetic and clinical variation seen in this disease, the development of comprehensive bioinformatics-driven tools to both analyze response in uncommon mutation subtypes and inform clinical decision making will be increasingly important. Clinical trials of novel EGFR TKIs should prospectively account for the presence of uncommon mutation subtypes in study design. Copyright © 2016 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Clinical Observation of Icotinib Hydrochloride for Advanced Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Patients with EGFR Status Identified

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi LI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Icotinib is the first self-developed small molecular drug in China for targeted therapy of lung cancer. Compared to the other two commercially available epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors, gefitinib and erlotinib, icotinib is similar to them in chemical structure, mechanism of activity and therapeutic effects. To explore the efficacy and side effects of icotinib hydrochloride in the treatment of the advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients with EGFR mutation and wild-type. Methods Patients with advanced NSCLC who were treated with icotinib hydrochloride in Beijing Chest Hospital were retrospective analyzed from March 2009 to December 2014. Results The clinical data of 124 patients (99 with EGFR mutation and 25 with wild type with advanced NSCLC were enrolled in this study. The patients’ overall objective response rate (ORR was 51.6 % and the disease control rate (DCR was 79.8%; The patients with EGFR mutation, ORR was 63.6%, DCR was 93.9%. The ORR was 4.0% and the DCR was 24.0% in the wild-type patients. Median progression-free survival (PFS with icotinib treatment in EGFR mutation patients was 10.5 months and 1.0 month in wild-type patients. The major adverse events were mild skin rash (30.6% and diarrhea (16.1%. Conclusion Monotherapy with icotinib hydrochloride is effective and tolerable for the advanced NSCLC EGFR mutation patients.

  19. Small cell lung cancer transformation from EGFR-mutated lung adenocarcinoma: A case report and literatures review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yangyang

    2018-02-20

    Epithelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) have markedly improved the response of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with EGFR-mutant patients. However, these patients inevitably come cross acquired resistance to EGFR-TKIs. The transformation of lung adenocarcinoma to small cell lung cancer (SCLC) following treatment with EGFR-TKIs is rare, which leads to resistance to EGFR-TKIs. The present case concerns a case of a 38-year-old man presenting with cough and dyspnea. Radical resection was performed and confirmed an EGFR exon 21 L858R lung adenocarcinoma. However, the patient suffered pleural metastasis after successful treatment with surgery and adjuvant treatment. So, erlotinib was administered with 18 months. Because of enlarged pleural nodule, repeat biopsy identified an SCLC and chemotherapy was started. However, despite the brief success of chemotherapy, our patient suffered brain metastasis. Our case emaphsizes both the profile of transformation from NSCLC to SCLC and the importance of repeat biopsy dealing with drug resistance. We also summarize the clinical characteristics, mechanisms, predictors of SCLC transformation, treatment after transformation and other types of transformation to SCLC.

  20. Development of a Novel Human scFv Against EGFR L2 Domain by Phage Display Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbarnia, Leila; Farajnia, Safar; Babaei, Hossein; Majidi, Jafar; Veisi, Kamal; Khosroshahi, Shiva Ahdi; Tanomand, Asghar

    2017-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) as a transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptor frequently overexpresses in tumors with epithelial origin. The L2 domain from extracellular part of EGFR is involved in ligand binding and the blockage of this domain prevents activation of related signaling pathways. This study was aimed to develop a novel human scFv against EGFR L2 domain as a promising target for cancer therapy. The L2 recombinant protein was purified and used for panning a human scFv phage library (Tomlinson I). In this study, a novel screening strategy was applied to select clones with high binding and enrichment of rare specific phage clones of the L2 protein. After five biopanning rounds several specific clones were isolated which among them one phage clone with high binding was purified for further analysis. The specific interaction of selected clone against target antigen was confirmed by ELISA and western blotting. Immunofluorescence staining showed that purified scFv binds to A431 cells surface, displaying EGFR surface receptor. In the present study, we isolated for the first time a novel human scFv against EGFR L2 domain. This study can be the groundwork for developing more effective diagnostic and therapeutic agents against EGFR overexpressing cancers using this novel human anti-L2 ScFv. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  1. EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR (EGFR AND HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS (HPV L1 CAPSID PROTEIN IN CERVICAL SQUAMOUS INTRAEPITHELIAL LESIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balan Raluca

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the immunohistochemical pattern of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR in cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions (SILs in correlation with L1 HPV capsid protein, in order to determine the relationship between EGFR expression and the infection status of human papillomavirus (HPV. The study included 40 cases, 24 LSIL (low grade SIL (CIN1, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and 16 HSIL (high grade SIL (6 cases of CIN2 and 10 cases of CIN3. The immunoexpression of L1 HPV protein was assessed on conventional cervico-vaginal smears and EGFR was immunohistochemically evaluated on the corresponding cervical biopsies. The HPV L1 capsid protein was expressed in 45.83% of LSIL and 25% of HSIL. EGFR was overexpressed in 62,4% of HSIL (58,4% CIN2 and 41,6% CIN3 and 37,6% LSIL. The immunoexpression of L1 HPV has clinical application in the progression assessment of the cervical precancerous lesions without a correlation to the grade of the cervical SIL. EGFR is expressed by all proliferating squamous epithelial cells, thus corresponding with the grade of SIL. The evaluation of EGFR status, correlated with L1 HPV protein expression, can provide useful data of progression risk of cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions

  2. Tetrathiomolybdate mediates cisplatin-induced p38 signaling and EGFR degradation and enhances response to cisplatin therapy in gynecologic cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyu Kwang; Han, Alex; Yano, Naohiro; Ribeiro, Jennifer R.; Lokich, Elizabeth; Singh, Rakesh K.; Moore, Richard G.

    2015-01-01

    Cisplatin and its analogs are among the most widely used chemotherapeutic agents against various types of cancer. It is known that cisplatin can activate epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which may provide a survival benefit in cancers. Tetrathiomolybdate (TM) is a potent anti-cancer and anti-angiogenic agent and has been investigated in a number of clinical trials for cancer. In this study, we explore the therapeutic potential of TM on cisplatin-mediated EGFR regulation. Our study shows that TM is not cytotoxic, but exerts an anti-proliferative effect in ECC-1 cells. However, TM treatment prior to cisplatin markedly improves cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity. TM suppressed cisplatin-induced activation of EGFR while potentiating activation of p38; the activation of p38 signaling appeared to promote cisplatin-induced EGFR degradation. These results are in contrast to what we saw when cells were co-treated with cisplatin plus an EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, where receptor activation was inhibited but receptor degradation was also blocked. Our current study is in agreement with previous findings that TM may have a therapeutic benefit by inhibiting EGFR activation. We furthermore provide evidence that TM may provide an additional benefit by potentiating p38 activation following cisplatin treatment, which may in turn promote receptor degradation by cisplatin. PMID:26568478

  3. Molecular Docking Optimization in the Context of Multi-Drug Resistant and Sensitive EGFR Mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Godoy, María Jesús; López-Camacho, Esteban; García-Nieto, José; Nebro, Antonio J; Aldana-Montes, José F

    2016-11-19

    The human Epidermal Growth Factor (EGFR) plays an important role in signaling pathways, such as cell proliferation and migration. Mutations like G719S, L858R, T790M, G719S/T790M or T790M/L858R can alter its conformation, and, therefore, drug responses from lung cancer patients. In this context, candidate drugs are being tested and in silico studies are necessary to know how these mutations affect the ligand binding site. This problem can be tackled by using a multi-objective approach applied to the molecular docking problem. According to the literature, few studies are related to the application of multi-objective approaches by minimizing two or more objectives in drug discovery. In this study, we have used four algorithms (NSGA-II, GDE3, SMPSO and MOEA/D) to minimize two objectives: the ligand-receptor intermolecular energy and the RMSD score. We have prepared a set of instances that includes the wild-type EGFR kinase domain and the same receptor with somatic mutations, and then we assessed the performance of the algorithms by applying a quality indicator to evaluate the convergence and diversity of the reference fronts. The MOEA/D algorithm yields the best solutions to these docking problems. The obtained solutions were analyzed, showing promising results to predict candidate EGFR inhibitors by using this multi-objective approach.

  4. Growth of glioblastoma is inhibited by miR-133-mediated EGFR suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fulin; Li, Feng; Zhang, Weifeng; Jia, Pifeng

    2015-12-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a severe and highly lethal brain cancer, which malignancy largely stems from its growing in a relatively restrained area in the brain. Hence, the understanding of the molecular regulation of the growth of GBM is critical for improving its treatment. Dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) has recently been shown to contribute to the development of GBM, whereas the role of miR-133 in GBM is unknown. Here, by qualitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), we detected lower miR-133 levels in GBM tissues, compared to the paired normal brain tissue. We overexpressed or inhibited miR-133 in GBM cells. Cell growth and apoptosis were analyzed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and flow cytometry, respectively. We found that overexpression of miR-133 decreased GBM cell growth and increased cell apoptosis, while depletion of miR-133 increased cell growth and decreased cell apoptosis. Bioinformatic analysis was performed, showing that miR-133 may target the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) that transduces cell growth signals. Further, the protein translation inhibition of EGFR by miR-133 was confirmed by a dual luciferase reporter assay. Together, these data suggest that reduced miR-133 levels in GBM tissues promotes cell growth and decreases cell apoptosis, possibly through targeting mRNA of EGFR to suppress its translation.

  5. Adenocarcinoma of the lung with EGFR gene mutation and subsequent resistance mechanisms exploration: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu L

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Li Xu,1,2 Qian Z Wang,1,2 Lin Wu1,2 1Department of the Second Chest Medicine, Hunan Cancer Hospital, Changsha, Hunan, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of the Second Chest Medicine, The Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Xiangya School of Medicine, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, People’s Republic of China Abstract: The treatment of lung cancer has made paradigm-shift advancements in the past decade with the development of therapies directed at specific genetic alterations, such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR. Here, we present a rare case of lung adenocarcinoma harboring EGFR activating mutation and ALK overexpression. During the EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors treatment, next-generation sequencing revealed phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin pathway amplifications in tumor specimen and subsequent T790M mutation via plasma circulating tumor DNA. In conclusion, this case illustrates the existence of concomitant resistance mechanisms and demonstrates that circulating tumor DNA can reflect tumor heterogeneity. Keywords: epidermal growth factor receptor, PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway, T790M, next-generation sequencing, circulating tumor DNA

  6. EGFR Targeted Theranostic Nanoemulsion for Image-Guided Ovarian Cancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganta, Srinivas; Singh, Amit; Kulkarni, Praveen; Keeler, Amanda W; Piroyan, Aleksandr; Sawant, Rupa R; Patel, Niravkumar R; Davis, Barbara; Ferris, Craig; O'Neal, Sara; Zamboni, William; Amiji, Mansoor M; Coleman, Timothy P

    2015-08-01

    Platinum-based therapies are the first line treatments for most types of cancer including ovarian cancer. However, their use is associated with dose-limiting toxicities and resistance. We report initial translational studies of a theranostic nanoemulsion loaded with a cisplatin derivative, myrisplatin and pro-apoptotic agent, C6-ceramide. The surface of the nanoemulsion is annotated with an endothelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) binding peptide to improve targeting ability and gadolinium to provide diagnostic capability for image-guided therapy of EGFR overexpressing ovarian cancers. A high shear microfludization process was employed to produce the formulation with particle size below 150 nm. Pharmacokinetic study showed a prolonged blood platinum and gadolinium levels with nanoemulsions in nu/nu mice. The theranostic nanoemulsions also exhibited less toxicity and enhanced the survival time of mice as compared to an equivalent cisplatin treatment. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies indicate the theranostic nanoemulsions were effective contrast agents and could be used to track accumulation in a tumor. The MRI study additionally indicate that significantly more EGFR-targeted theranostic nanoemulsion accumulated in a tumor than non-targeted nanoemulsuion providing the feasibility of using a targeted theranostic agent in conjunction with MRI to image disease loci and quantify the disease progression.

  7. NF2/Merlin mediates contact-dependent inhibition of EGFR mobility and internalization via cortical actomyosin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiasson-MacKenzie, Christine; Morris, Zachary S; Baca, Quentin; Morris, Brett; Coker, Joanna K; Mirchev, Rossen; Jensen, Anne E; Carey, Thomas; Stott, Shannon L; Golan, David E; McClatchey, Andrea I

    2015-10-26

    The proliferation of normal cells is inhibited at confluence, but the molecular basis of this phenomenon, known as contact-dependent inhibition of proliferation, is unclear. We previously identified the neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) tumor suppressor Merlin as a critical mediator of contact-dependent inhibition of proliferation and specifically found that Merlin inhibits the internalization of, and signaling from, the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in response to cell contact. Merlin is closely related to the membrane-cytoskeleton linking proteins Ezrin, Radixin, and Moesin, and localization of Merlin to the cortical cytoskeleton is required for contact-dependent regulation of EGFR. We show that Merlin and Ezrin are essential components of a mechanism whereby mechanical forces associated with the establishment of cell-cell junctions are transduced across the cell cortex via the cortical actomyosin cytoskeleton to control the lateral mobility and activity of EGFR, providing novel insight into how cells inhibit mitogenic signaling in response to cell contact. © 2015 Chiassson-MacKenzie et al.

  8. Molecular Docking Optimization in the Context of Multi-Drug Resistant and Sensitive EGFR Mutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Jesús García-Godoy

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The human Epidermal Growth Factor (EGFR plays an important role in signaling pathways, such as cell proliferation and migration. Mutations like G719S, L858R, T790M, G719S/T790M or T790M/L858R can alter its conformation, and, therefore, drug responses from lung cancer patients. In this context, candidate drugs are being tested and in silico studies are necessary to know how these mutations affect the ligand binding site. This problem can be tackled by using a multi-objective approach applied to the molecular docking problem. According to the literature, few studies are related to the application of multi-objective approaches by minimizing two or more objectives in drug discovery. In this study, we have used four algorithms (NSGA-II, GDE3, SMPSO and MOEA/D to minimize two objectives: the ligand–receptor intermolecular energy and the RMSD score. We have prepared a set of instances that includes the wild-type EGFR kinase domain and the same receptor with somatic mutations, and then we assessed the performance of the algorithms by applying a quality indicator to evaluate the convergence and diversity of the reference fronts. The MOEA/D algorithm yields the best solutions to these docking problems. The obtained solutions were analyzed, showing promising results to predict candidate EGFR inhibitors by using this multi-objective approach.

  9. Facile and efficient synthesis and biological evaluation of 4-anilinoquinazoline derivatives as EGFR inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng; Wu, Xue; Wang, Li; Zhang, Jiao; Liu, Jianli; Song, Zhongxing; Tang, Zhishu

    2016-06-01

    Series of 4-anilinoquinazoline derivatives were conveniently and efficiently synthesized and their antitumor activities were evaluated by MTT assay in three human cancer cell lines: H1975, HepG2 and SMMC-7721. New compounds 19a-19h were designed and synthesized to seek for powerful EGFR inhibitors and to explore whether methyl group at C-2 position of quinazoline ring has a positive effect on EGFR inhibition. All the compounds of 19a-19h were found potent against all three cell lines and five compounds (19c, 19d, and 19f-19h) were found more potent against H1975 than gefitinib. SAR studies revealed that methyl group at C-2 position of quinazoline ring could significantly improve the antitumor potency of 4-anilinoquinazolines. The same conclusion was also drawn according to the results of Western blotting analysis. Among all the tested compounds, 19g exhibited extremely potent against H1975 with an IC50 value of 0.11μM, remarkably lower than that of gefitinib (1.23μM). The results of western blotting analysis showed that compounds 19c and 19g could notably inhibit the expression of phosphorylated EGFR, especially 19g, almost inhibited completely. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. EGFR Amplification and IDH Mutations in Glioblastoma Patients of the Northeast of Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Senhaji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastomas are the most frequent and aggressive primary brain tumors which are expressing various evolutions, aggressiveness, and prognosis. Thus, the 2007 World Health Organization classification based solely on the histological criteria is no longer sufficient. It should be complemented by molecular analysis for a true histomolecular classification. The new 2016 WHO classification of tumors of the central nervous system uses molecular parameters in addition to histology to reclassify these tumors and reduce the interobserver variability. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of IDH mutations and EGFR amplifications in the population of the northeast region of Morocco and then to compare the results with other studies. Methods. IDH1 codon 132 and IDH2 codon 172 were directly sequenced and the amplification of exon 20 of EGFR gene was investigated by qPCR in 65 glioblastoma tumors diagnosed at the University Hospital of Fez between 2010 and 2014. Results. The R132H IDH1 mutation was observed in 8 of 65 tumor samples (12.31%. No mutation of IDH2 was detected. EGFR amplification was identified in 17 cases (26.15%. Conclusion. A systematic search of both histological and molecular markers should be requisite for a good diagnosis and a better management of glioblastomas.

  11. A drosophila model for EGFR-Ras and PI3K-dependent human glioma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renee D Read

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Gliomas, the most common malignant tumors of the nervous system, frequently harbor mutations that activate the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR and phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K signaling pathways. To investigate the genetic basis of this disease, we developed a glioma model in Drosophila. We found that constitutive coactivation of EGFR-Ras and PI3K pathways in Drosophila glia and glial precursors gives rise to neoplastic, invasive glial cells that create transplantable tumor-like growths, mimicking human glioma. Our model represents a robust organotypic and cell-type-specific Drosophila cancer model in which malignant cells are created by mutations in signature genes and pathways thought to be driving forces in a homologous human cancer. Genetic analyses demonstrated that EGFR and PI3K initiate malignant neoplastic transformation via a combinatorial genetic network composed primarily of other pathways commonly mutated or activated in human glioma, including the Tor, Myc, G1 Cyclins-Cdks, and Rb-E2F pathways. This network acts synergistically to coordinately stimulate cell cycle entry and progression, protein translation, and inappropriate cellular growth and migration. In particular, we found that the fly orthologs of CyclinE, Cdc25, and Myc are key rate-limiting genes required for glial neoplasia. Moreover, orthologs of Sin1, Rictor, and Cdk4 are genes required only for abnormal neoplastic glial proliferation but not for glial development. These and other genes within this network may represent important therapeutic targets in human glioma.

  12. Quinazoline-1-deoxynojirimycin hybrids as high active dual inhibitors of EGFR and α-glucosidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaling; Gao, Hongliang; Liu, Renjie; Liu, Juan; Chen, Li; Li, Xiabing; Zhao, Lijun; Wang, Wei; Li, Baolin

    2017-09-15

    A series of novel quinazoline-1-deoxynojirimycin hybrids were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their inhibitory activities against two drug target enzymes, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase and α-glucosidase. Some synthesized compounds exhibited significantly inhibitory activities against the tested enzymes. Comparing with reference compounds gefitinib and lapatinib, compounds 7d, 8d, 9b and 9d showed higher inhibitory activities against EGFR (IC50: 1.79-10.71nM). Meanwhile the inhibitory activities of 7d, 8d and 9c against α-glucosidase (IC50=0.14, 0.09 and 0.25µM, respectively) were obvious higher than that of miglitol (IC50=2.43µM), a clinical using α-glucosidase inhibitor. Interestingly, compound 9d as a dual inhibitor showed high inhibitory activity to EGFRwt tyrosine kinase (IC50=1.79nM), also to α-glucosidase (IC50=0.39µM). The work could be very useful starting point for developing a new series of enzyme inhibitors targeting EGFR and/or α-glucosidase. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Correlations Between the EGFR Mutation Status and Clinicopathological Features of Clinical Stage I Lung Adenocarcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaka, Tetsuya; Yokose, Tomoyuki; Ito, Hiroyuki; Nagata, Masashi; Furumoto, Hideyuki; Nishii, Teppei; Katayama, Kayoko; Yamada, Kouzo; Nakayama, Haruhiko; Masuda, Munetaka

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Advanced lung cancers with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) exon 19 deletions (Ex19s) and EGFR exon 21 L858R point mutations (Ex21s) exhibit different clinical behavior. However, these differences are unclear in resectable primary lung tumors. The clinicopathological features of 88 (20.9%) Ex19, 124 (29.4%) Ex21, and 198 (46.9%) EGFR wild-type (Wt) clinical stage I primary adenocarcinomas resected between January 1, 2012 and October 31, 2014 were compared by using Chi-square tests, residual error analysis, analysis of variance, and Tukey tests. Ex21 lesions occurred more frequently in women and never-smokers and had a higher tumor disappearance rate (TDR: 59.6% vs 43.9%; P adenocarcinoma (lepidic, acinar, and papillary predominant: 73.9%; P adenocarcinoma in situ and minimally invasive adenocarcinoma) adenocarcinoma, respectively. Wt lesions had smaller lepidic components (42.1% vs 56.3%; P adenocarcinoma with lepidic growth patterns. Wt high-grade adenocarcinomas included solid and papillary components with vascular invasion. Ex19 lesions were intermediate grade between Ex21 and Wt. PMID:26496308

  14. EGFR Targeted Theranostic Nanoemulsion For Image-Guided Ovarian Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganta, Srinivas; Singh, Amit; Kulkarni, Praveen; Keeler, Amanda W.; Piroyan, Aleksandr; Sawant, Rupa R.; Patel, Niravkumar R.; Davis, Barbara; Ferris, Craig; O’Neal, Sara; Zamboni, William; Amiji, Mansoor M.; Coleman, Timothy P.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Platinum-based therapies are the first line treatments for most types of cancer including ovarian cancer. However, their use is associated with dose-limiting toxicities and resistance. We report initial translational studies of a theranostic nanoemulsion loaded with a cisplatin derivative, myrisplatin and pro-apoptotic agent, C6-ceramide. Methods The surface of the nanoemulsion is annotated with an endothelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) binding peptide to improve targeting ability and gadolinium to provide diagnostic capability for image-guided therapy of EGFR overexpressing ovarian cancers. A high shear microfludization process was employed to produce the formulation with particle size below 150 nm. Results Pharmacokinetic study showed a prolonged blood platinum and gadolinium levels with nanoemulsions in nu/nu mice. The theranostic nanoemulsions also exhibited less toxicity and enhanced the survival time of mice as compared to an equivalent cisplatin treatment. Conclusions Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies indicate the theranostic nanoemulsions were effective contrast agents and could be used to track accumulation in a tumor. The MRI study additionally indicate that significantly more EGFR-targeted theranostic nanoemulsion accumulated in a tumor than non-targeted nanoemulsuion providing the feasibility of using a targeted theranostic agent in conjunction with MRI to image disease loci and quantify the disease progression. PMID:25732960

  15. Development of EGFR Targeted Nanoemulsion for Imaging and Novel Platinum Therapy of Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganta, Srinivas; Singh, Amit; Patel, Niravkumar R.; Cacaccio, Joseph; Rawal, Yashesh H.; Davis, Barbara J.; Amiji, Mansoor M.; Coleman, Timothy P.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Platinum-based chemotherapy is the treatment of choice for malignant epithelial ovarian cancers, but generalized toxicity and platinum resistance limits its use. Theranostic nanoemulsion with a novel platinum prodrug, myrisplatin, and the pro-apoptotic agent, C6-ceramide, were designed to overcome these limitations. Methods The nanoemulsions, including ones with an EGFR binding peptide and gadolinium, were made using generally regarded as safe grade excipients and a high shear microfluidization process. Efficacy was evaluated in ovarian cancer cells, SKOV3, A2780 and A2780CP. Results The nanoemulsion with particle size nanoemulsions; improved cytotoxicity was observed for the these nanoemulsions with the latter showing a 50-fold drop in the IC50 in SKOV3 cells as compared to cisplatin alone. The addition of gadolinium did not affect cell viability in vitro, but showed relaxation times comparable to Magnevist®. Conclusion The myrisplatin/C6-ceramide nanoemulsion synergistically enhanced in vitro cytotoxicity. An EGFR binding peptide addition further increased in vitro cytotoxicity in EGFR positive cancer cells. The diagnostic version showed MR imaging similar to the clinically relevant Magnevist® and may be suitable as a theranostic for ovarian cancer. PMID:24643932

  16. Modeling of miRNA and drug action in the EGFR signaling pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Li

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs have gained significant interest due to their widespread occurrence and diverse functions as regulatory molecules, which are essential for cell division, growth, development and apoptosis in eukaryotes. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR signaling pathway is one of the best investigated cellular signaling pathways regulating important cellular processes and its deregulation is associated with severe diseases, such as cancer. In this study, we introduce a systems biological model of the EGFR signaling pathway integrating validated miRNA-target information according to diverse studies, in order to demonstrate essential roles of miRNA within this pathway. The model consists of 1241 reactions and contains 241 miRNAs. We analyze the impact of 100 specific miRNA inhibitors (anit-miRNAs on this pathway and propose that the embedded miRNA-network can help to identify new drug targets of the EGFR signaling pathway and thereby support the development of new therapeutic strategies against cancer.

  17. EGFR Amplification and IDH Mutations in Glioblastoma Patients of the Northeast of Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louati, Sara; Chbani, Laila; El Fatemi, Hind; Hammas, Nawal; Mikou, Karima; Maaroufi, Mustapha; Benzagmout, Mohammed; Boujraf, Said; El Bardai, Sanae; Giry, Marine; Marie, Yannick; Chaoui El Faiz, Mohammed; Mokhtari, Karima; Amarti, Afaf; Bennis, Sanae

    2017-01-01

    Glioblastomas are the most frequent and aggressive primary brain tumors which are expressing various evolutions, aggressiveness, and prognosis. Thus, the 2007 World Health Organization classification based solely on the histological criteria is no longer sufficient. It should be complemented by molecular analysis for a true histomolecular classification. The new 2016 WHO classification of tumors of the central nervous system uses molecular parameters in addition to histology to reclassify these tumors and reduce the interobserver variability. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of IDH mutations and EGFR amplifications in the population of the northeast region of Morocco and then to compare the results with other studies. Methods. IDH1 codon 132 and IDH2 codon 172 were directly sequenced and the amplification of exon 20 of EGFR gene was investigated by qPCR in 65 glioblastoma tumors diagnosed at the University Hospital of Fez between 2010 and 2014. Results. The R132H IDH1 mutation was observed in 8 of 65 tumor samples (12.31%). No mutation of IDH2 was detected. EGFR amplification was identified in 17 cases (26.15%). Conclusion. A systematic search of both histological and molecular markers should be requisite for a good diagnosis and a better management of glioblastomas. PMID:28785587

  18. EGFR mutation testing in lung cancer: a review of available methods and their use for analysis of tumour tissue and cytology samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Gillian; Zhu, Guanshan; Moulis, Alexandros; Dearden, Simon; Speake, Georgina; McCormack, Rose

    2013-02-01

    Activating mutations in the gene encoding epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) can confer sensitivity to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as gefitinib in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. Testing for mutations in EGFR is therefore an important step in the treatment-decision pathway. We reviewed reported methods for EGFR mutation testing in patients with lung cancer, initially focusing on studies involving standard tumour tissue samples. We also evaluated data on the use of cytology samples in order to determine their suitability for EGFR mutation analysis. We searched the MEDLINE database for studies reporting on EGFR mutation testing methods in patients with lung cancer. Various methods have been investigated as potential alternatives to the historical standard for EGFR mutation testing, direct DNA sequencing. Many of these are targeted methods that specifically detect the most common EGFR mutations. The development of targeted mutation testing methods and commercially available test kits has enabled sensitive, rapid and robust analysis of clinical samples. The use of screening methods, subsequent to sample micro dissection, has also ensured that identification of more rare, uncommon mutations is now feasible. Cytology samples including fine needle aspirate and pleural effusion can be used successfully to determine EGFR mutation status provided that sensitive testing methods are employed. Several different testing methods offer a more sensitive alternative to direct sequencing for the detection of common EGFR mutations. Evidence published to date suggests cytology samples are viable alternatives for mutation testing when tumour tissue samples are not available.

  19. Small tyrosine kinase inhibitors interrupt EGFR signaling by interacting with erbB3 and erbB4 in glioblastoma cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrasco-Garcia, Estefania; Saceda, Miguel [Instituto de Biologia Molecular y Celular, Universidad Miguel Hernandez, 03202 Elche (Alicante) (Spain); Unidad de Investigacion, Hospital General Universitario de Elche, 03203 Elche (Alicante) (Spain); Grasso, Silvina; Rocamora-Reverte, Lourdes; Conde, Mariano; Gomez-Martinez, Angeles [Instituto de Biologia Molecular y Celular, Universidad Miguel Hernandez, 03202 Elche (Alicante) (Spain); Garcia-Morales, Pilar [Instituto de Biologia Molecular y Celular, Universidad Miguel Hernandez, 03202 Elche (Alicante) (Spain); Unidad de Investigacion, Hospital General Universitario de Elche, 03203 Elche (Alicante) (Spain); Ferragut, Jose A. [Instituto de Biologia Molecular y Celular, Universidad Miguel Hernandez, 03202 Elche (Alicante) (Spain); Martinez-Lacaci, Isabel, E-mail: imlacaci@umh.es [Instituto de Biologia Molecular y Celular, Universidad Miguel Hernandez, 03202 Elche (Alicante) (Spain); Unidad AECC de Investigacion Traslacional en Cancer, Hospital Universitario Virgen de la Arrixaca, 30120 Murcia (Spain)

    2011-06-10

    Signaling through the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is relevant in glioblastoma. We have determined the effects of the EGFR inhibitor AG1478 in glioblastoma cell lines and found that U87 and LN-229 cells were very sensitive to this drug, since their proliferation diminished and underwent a marked G{sub 1} arrest. T98 cells were a little more refractory to growth inhibition and A172 cells did not undergo a G{sub 1} arrest. This G{sub 1} arrest was associated with up-regulation of p27{sup kip1}, whose protein turnover was stabilized. EGFR autophosphorylation was blocked with AG1478 to the same extent in all the cell lines. Other small-molecule EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors employed in the clinic, such as gefitinib, erlotinib and lapatinib, were able to abrogate proliferation of glioblastoma cell lines, which underwent a G{sub 1} arrest. However, the EGFR monoclonal antibody, cetuximab had no effect on cell proliferation and consistently, had no effect on cell cycle either. Similarly, cetuximab did not inhibit proliferation of U87 {Delta}EGFR cells or primary glioblastoma cell cultures, whereas small-molecule EGFR inhibitors did. Activity of downstream signaling molecules of EGFR such as Akt and especially ERK1/2 was interrupted with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors, whereas cetuximab treatment could not sustain this blockade over time. Small-molecule EGFR inhibitors were able to prevent phosphorylation of erbB3 and erbB4, whereas cetuximab only hindered EGFR phosphorylation, suggesting that EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors may mediate their anti-proliferative effects through other erbB family members. We can conclude that small-molecule EGFR inhibitors may be a therapeutic approach for the treatment of glioblastoma patients.

  20. Molecular Epidemiology of EGFR Mutations in Asian Patients with Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer of Adenocarcinoma Histology - Mainland China Subset Analysis of the PIONEER study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuankai Shi

    Full Text Available Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR mutations are the strongest response predictors to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI therapy, but knowledge of the EGFR mutation frequency on lung adenocarcinoma is still limited to retrospective studies. The PIONEER study (NCT01185314 is a prospective molecular epidemiology study in Asian patients with newly diagnosed advanced lung adenocarcinoma, aiming to prospectively analyze EGFR mutation status in IIIB/IV treatment-naïve lung adenocarcinomas in Asia. We report the mainland China subset results. Eligible patients (≥20 yrs old, IIIB/IV adenocarcinoma and treatment-naïve were registered in 17 hospitals in mainland China. EGFR was tested for mutations by amplification refractory mutation system using biopsy samples. Demographic and clinical characteristics were collected for subgroup analyses. A total of 747 patients were registered. Successful EGFR mutation analysis was performed in 741, with an overall mutation rate of 50.2%. The EGFR active mutation rate is 48.0% (with 1.3% of combined active and resistance mutations. Tobacco use (>30 pack-year vs. 0-10 pack-year, OR 0.27, 95%CI: 0.17-0.42 and regional lymph nodes involvement (N3 vs. N0, OR 0.47, 95%CI: 0.29-0.76 were independent predictors of EGFR mutation in multivariate analysis. However, even in regular smokers, the EGFR mutation frequency was 35.3%. The EGFR mutation frequency was similar between diverse biopsy sites and techniques. The overall EGFR mutation frequency of the mainland China subset was 50.2%, independently associated with the intensity of tobacco use and regional lymph nodes involvement. The relatively high frequency of EGFR mutations in the mainland China subset suggest that any effort to obtain tissue sample for EGFR mutation testing should be encouraged.

  1. Phase II study of erlotinib plus tivantinib (ARQ 197) in patients with locally advanced or metastatic EGFR mutation-positive non-small-cell lung cancer just after progression on EGFR-TKI, gefitinib or erlotinib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Koichi; Hirashima, Tomonori; Yamamoto, Nobuyuki; Okamoto, Isamu; Takahashi, Toshiaki; Nishio, Makoto; Hirata, Taizo; Kubota, Kaoru; Kasahara, Kazuo; Hida, Toyoaki; Yoshioka, Hiroshige; Nakanishi, Kaoru; Akinaga, Shiro; Nishio, Kazuto; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya; Nakagawa, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation mutation-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) respond well to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs), but eventually become resistant in most cases. The hepatocyte growth factor/c-Met (HGF/c-Met) pathway is reported as a poor prognostic factor in various cancers. As c-Met is involved in EGFR-TKI resistance, a c-Met inhibitor and EGFR-TKI combination may reverse the resistance. This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of a c-Met selective inhibitor, tivantinib (ARQ 197), in combination with erlotinib, in Japanese EGFR mutation-positive patients with NSCLC who progressed while on EGFR-TKIs. This study enrolled 45 patients with NSCLC with acquired resistance to EGFR-TKIs, who were orally administered a daily combination of tivantinib/erlotinib. The primary end point was the overall response rate (ORR) and secondary end points included disease control rate, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). The patients underwent a mandatory second biopsy just after progression on EGFR-TKIs. The predictive biomarkers were extensively analysed using tumour and blood samples. The ORR was 6.7% (95% CI 1.4% to 18.3%), and the lower limit of 95% CI did not exceed the target of 5%. The median PFS (mPFS) and median OS (mOS) were 2.7 months (95% CI 1.4 to 4.2) and 18.0 months (95% CI 13.4 to 22.2), respectively. Both were longer in c-Met high patients (c-Met high vs low: mPFS 4.1 vs 1.4 months; mOS 20.7 vs 13.9 months). Partial response was observed in three patients, all of whom were c-Met and HGF high. The common adverse events and their frequencies were similar to those known to occur with tivantinib or erlotinib alone. Although this study did not prove clinical benefit of tivantinib in patients with acquired resistance to EGFR-TKIs, activated HGF/c-Met signalling, a poor prognostic factor, may define a patient subset associated with longer survival by the tivantinib

  2. Risk of Treatment-Related Toxicities from EGFR Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors: A Meta-analysis of Clinical Trials of Gefitinib, Erlotinib, and Afatinib in Advanced EGFR-Mutated Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Pei Ni; Lord, Sarah J; Gebski, Val; Links, Matthew; Bray, Victoria; Gralla, Richard J; Yang, James Chih-Hsin; Lee, Chee Khoon

    2017-04-01

    Gefitinib, erlotinib, and afatinib are tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) used for treatment of advanced EGFR-mutated NSCLC. Estimating differences in toxicity between these EGFR TKIs is important for personalizing treatment. We performed a meta-analysis of randomized trials that compared EGFR TKI therapy against chemotherapy or placebo. We extracted data from the EGFR TKI arm for indirect comparisons to estimate the relative risk for toxic death, grade 3 to 4 (G3/4) adverse events (AEs), and discontinuation of treatment because of AE for each EGFR TKI. Sixteen trials included 2535 patients with mutated or wild-type EGFR. Toxic deaths were rare (1.7%), with pneumonitis being most frequent cause and no significant differences between EGFR TKIs. Overall, 40% of patients experienced G3/4 AEs. The risk for G3/4 AEs was lower with gefitinib (29.1%) than with erlotinib (54.1%) or afatinib (42.1%) (p < 0.01). Discontinuation of treatment because of AEs occurred in 7.7% of patients, with no significant differences between EGFR TKIs. Diarrhea (in 53.3% of cases) and rash (in 66.5%) were the most frequent AEs. The risk for rash was higher with afatinib (84.8%) than with erlotinib (62.0%) or gefitinib (62.0%) (p < 0.01). The risk for diarrhea was higher with afatinib (91.7%) than with erlotinib (42.4%) or gefitinib (44.4%) (p < 0.01). The risk for increased liver enzyme levels was higher with gefitinib (61.7%) than with erlotinib (17.8%) or afatinib (20.1%) (p < 0.01). A risk-benefit contour was used to assess the trade-off between efficacy and toxicity for different EGFR TKIs. EGFR TKIs are well tolerated, with less than 10% of patients discontinuing treatment because of AEs. The profile of and risk for toxicities vary between EGFR TKIs and can be used to inform the selection of treatment. Copyright © 2016 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. 2-Pyridone: monoclinic polymorph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward R. T. Tiekink

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit in the title compound, C5H5NO, comprises two independent but virtually identical molecules of 2-pyridone, and represents a monoclinic polymorph of the previously reported orthorhombic (P212121 form [Penfold (1953. Acta Cryst. 6, 591–600; Ohms et al. (1984. Z. Kristallogr. 169, 185–200; Yang & Craven (1998. Acta Cryst. B54, 912–920]. The independent molecules are linked into supramolecular dimers via eight-membered {...HNC(O}2 amide synthons in contrast to the helical supramolecular chains, mediated by {...HNC(O} links, found in the orthorhombic form.

  4. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Claus; Pereira, Vania; Andersen, Jeppe Dyrberg

    2014-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most frequent DNA sequence variations in the genome. They have been studied extensively in the last decade with various purposes in mind. In this chapter, we will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using SNPs for human identification...... technologies (also called next generation sequencing or NGS) have the potential to completely transform forensic genetic investigations as we know them today. Here, we will make a short introduction to NGS and explain how NGS may combine analysis of the traditional forensic genetic markers with analysis...

  5. Structure of graphane polymorphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belenkova, T. E.; Greshyakov, V. A.; Chernov, V. M.; Belenkov, E. A.

    2017-11-01

    Calculations of the structure and electronic properties for five structural variations of graphane were performed within the framework of density functional theory (DFT) with generalized gradient approximations (GGA). The electron densities of states and band structure of graphene crystals have been calculated. It has been established that the band gap for graphane polymorphs varies from 5.50 eV to 5.65 eV. Sublimation energy of graphane layers with different structure was varying from 11.33 to 11.48 eV per C-H molecular group.

  6. Correlation between egfr expression and accelerated proliferation during radiotherapy of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedicini Piernicola

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To investigate the correlation between the expression of Epidermal Growth Factor receptor (EGFr and the reduction of the effective doubling time (TD during radiotherapy treatment and also to determine the dose per fraction to be taken into account when the overall treatment time (OTT is reduced in accelerated radiotherapy of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC. Methods A survey of the published papers comparing 3-years of local regional control rate (LCR for a total of 2162 patients treated with conventional and accelerated radiotherapy and with a pretreatment assessment of EGFr expression, was made. Different values of TD were obtained by a model incorporating the overall time corrected biologically effective dose (BED and a 3-year clinical LCR for high and low EGFr groups of patients (HEGFr and LEGFr, respectively. By obtaining the TD from the above analysis and the sub-sites’ potential doubling time (Tpot from flow cytometry and immunohistochemical methods, we were able to estimate the average TD for each sub-site included in the analysis. Moreover, the dose that would be required to offset the modified proliferation occurring in one day (Dprolif, was estimated. Results The averages of TD were 77 (27-9095% days in LEGFr and 8.8 (7.3-11.095% days in HEGFr, if an onset of accelerated proliferation TK at day 21 was assumed. The correspondent HEGFr sub-sites’ TD were 5.9 (6.6, 5.9 (6.6, 4.6 (6.1, 14.3 (12.9 days, with respect to literature immunohistochemical (flow cytometry data of Tpot for Oral-Cavity, Oro-pharynx, Hypo-pharynx, and Larynx respectively. The Dprolif for the HEGFr groups were 0.33 (0.29, 0.33 (0.29, 0.42 (0.31, 0.14 (0.15 Gy/day if α = 0.3 Gy-1 and α/β = 10 Gy were assumed. Conclusions A higher expression of the EGFr leads to enhanced proliferation. This study allowed to quantify the extent of the effect which EGFr expression has in terms of reduced TD and Dprolif for each head and neck

  7. Correlation between EGFr expression and accelerated proliferation during radiotherapy of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedicini, Piernicola; Nappi, Antonio; Strigari, Lidia; Jereczek-Fossa, Barbara Alicia; Alterio, Daniela; Cremonesi, Marta; Botta, Francesca; Vischioni, Barbara; Caivano, Rocchina; Fiorentino, Alba; Improta, Giuseppina; Storto, Giovanni; Benassi, Marcello; Orecchia, Roberto; Salvatore, Marco

    2012-08-24

    To investigate the correlation between the expression of Epidermal Growth Factor receptor (EGFr) and the reduction of the effective doubling time (TD) during radiotherapy treatment and also to determine the dose per fraction to be taken into account when the overall treatment time (OTT) is reduced in accelerated radiotherapy of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). A survey of the published papers comparing 3-years of local regional control rate (LCR) for a total of 2162 patients treated with conventional and accelerated radiotherapy and with a pretreatment assessment of EGFr expression, was made. Different values of TD were obtained by a model incorporating the overall time corrected biologically effective dose (BED) and a 3-year clinical LCR for high and low EGFr groups of patients (HEGFr and LEGFr), respectively. By obtaining the TD from the above analysis and the sub-sites' potential doubling time (Tpot) from flow cytometry and immunohistochemical methods, we were able to estimate the average TD for each sub-site included in the analysis. Moreover, the dose that would be required to offset the modified proliferation occurring in one day (Dprolif), was estimated. The averages of TD were 77 (27-90)95% days in LEGFr and 8.8 (7.3-11.0)95% days in HEGFr, if an onset of accelerated proliferation TK at day 21 was assumed. The correspondent HEGFr sub-sites' TD were 5.9 (6.6), 5.9 (6.6), 4.6 (6.1), 14.3 (12.9) days, with respect to literature immunohistochemical (flow cytometry) data of Tpot for Oral-Cavity, Oro-pharynx, Hypo-pharynx, and Larynx respectively. The Dprolif for the HEGFr groups were 0.33 (0.29), 0.33 (0.29), 0.42 (0.31), 0.14 (0.15) Gy/day if α = 0.3 Gy-1 and α/β = 10 Gy were assumed. A higher expression of the EGFr leads to enhanced proliferation. This study allowed to quantify the extent of the effect which EGFr expression has in terms of reduced TD and Dprolif for each head and neck sub-site.

  8. Effect of phosphorylation on EGFR dimer stability probed by single-molecule dynamics and FRET/FLIM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coban, Oana; Zanetti-Dominguez, Laura C; Matthews, Daniel R; Rolfe, Daniel J; Weitsman, Gregory; Barber, Paul R; Barbeau, Jody; Devauges, Viviane; Kampmeier, Florian; Winn, Martyn; Vojnovic, Borivoj; Parker, Peter J; Lidke, Keith A; Lidke, Diane S; Ameer-Beg, Simon M; Martin-Fernandez, Marisa L; Ng, Tony

    2015-03-10

    Deregulation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling has been correlated with the development of a variety of human carcinomas. EGF-induced receptor dimerization and consequent trans- auto-phosphorylation are among the earliest events in signal transduction. Binding of EGF is thought to induce a conformational change that consequently unfolds an ectodomain loop required for dimerization indirectly. It may also induce important allosteric changes in the cytoplasmic domain. Despite extensive knowledge on the physiological activation of EGFR, the effect of targeted therapies on receptor conformation is not known and this particular aspect of receptor function, which can potentially be influenced by drug treatment, may in part explain the heterogeneous clinical response among cancer patients. Here, we used Förster resonance energy transfer/fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FRET/FLIM) combined with two-color single-molecule tracking to study the effect of ATP-competitive small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and phosphatase-based manipulation of EGFR phosphorylation on live cells. The distribution of dimer on-times was fitted to a monoexponential to extract dimer off-rates (koff). Our data show that pretreatment with gefitinib (active conformation binder) stabilizes the EGFR ligand-bound homodimer. Overexpression of EGFR-specific DEP-1 phosphatase was also found to have a stabilizing effect on the homodimer. No significant difference in the koff of the dimer could be detected when an anti-EGFR antibody (425 Snap single-chain variable fragment) that allows for dimerization of ligand-bound receptors, but not phosphorylation, was used. These results suggest that both the conformation of the extracellular domain and phosphorylation status of the receptor are involved in modulating the stability of the dimer. The relative fractions of these two EGFR subpopulations (interacting versus free) were obtained by a fractional-intensity analysis of

  9. miRNA-197 and miRNA-184 are associated with brain metastasis in EGFR-mutant lung cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remon, J; Alvarez-Berdugo, D; Majem, M; Moran, T; Reguart, N; Lianes, P

    2016-02-01

    The prognostic value of EGFR mutation in lung cancer patients with brain metastases is uncertain and therapeutic efficacy with EGFR TKI is limited. Looking for biomarkers closely related with early tumor changes and brain metastases in non-small cell lung cancer is warranted. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are frequently deregulated in lung cancer. The objective of this study was to investigate whether some miRNAs are related with brain metastasis risk in EGFR-mutant non-small cell lung cancer patients. miRNA quantification was retrospectively performed in formalin-fixed, extracranial paraffin-embedded adenocarcinoma tumor tissue available from 17 human samples of advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients. Samples were classified as brain metastasis group (5 EGFR-mutant patients with initial BM, EGFRm-BM+; and 6 EGFR wild-type patients with initial BM) and the control group (6 EGFR-mutant NSCLC patients without BM). The RNA obtained was preamplified and retro-transcribed, and the miRNA was quantified with the TaqMan OpenArray Human MiRNA Panel in the QuantStudio™ 12 K Flex Real-Time PCR system. miRNA-197 and miRNA-184 showed a significant higher expression in EGFRm-BM+ group than in the control group (p = 0.017 and p = 0.01, for miRNA-197 and miRNA-184, respectively), with a trend toward overexpression in BM group compared with the control group (p = 0.08 and p = 0.065, for miRNA-197 and miRNA-184, respectively), without differences in expression in BM group according to EGFR mutational status (EGFR wild type vs. EGFR-mutant: p = 0.175 and p = 0.117, for miRNA-197, miRNA-184 respectively). miRNA-197 and miRNA-184 are overexpressed in EGFR-mutant patients with BM and they might be a new biomarker for stratifying the risk of BM in this subpopulation.

  10. Trophoblast subtype-specific EGFR/ERBB4 expression correlates with cell cycle progression and hyperplasia in complete hydatidiform moles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fock, Valerie; Plessl, Kerstin; Fuchs, Roman; Dekan, Sabine; Milla, Stephanie K; Haider, Sandra; Fiala, Christian; Knöfler, Martin; Pollheimer, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    Do trophoblast subtypes differ in their expression of erythroblastic leukaemia viral oncogene homologue (ERBB) receptor family members and responsiveness towards specific growth factor ligands? Our data reveal a reciprocal expression pattern of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/ERBB4 in proliferative and ERBB2/ERBB3 in invasive trophoblast subtypes, as well as a restricted responsiveness to epidermal growth factor (EGF) and heparin-binding (HB)-EGF. EGFR is expressed by villous cytotrophoblasts (vCTBs), but absent from extravillous trophoblasts (EVTs), which specifically up-regulate ERBB2. Tissue samples of human first trimester placentae (n = 50) and deciduae (n = 5) obtained from elective pregnancy terminations were used to study trophoblast subtype-specific ERBB receptor expression and responsiveness to recombinant human EGF and HB-EGF. Age-matched complete hydatidiform mole (CHM) placentae (n = 12) were assessed for EGFR and ERBB4 expression in proliferation-competent regions. ERBB receptor expression was analysed in primary trophoblast cell isolates by means of microarray, quantitative real-time PCR and western blotting, as well as immunofluorescence stainings of placental and decidual tissue sections. EGF and HB-EGF were tested for their potential to activate ERBB receptors in purified EGFR(+) and HLA-G(+) trophoblasts. 5-Ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation assays were performed to study the effect of both ligands on the proliferative capacity of primary trophoblasts as well as of vCTBs and proximal cell column trophoblasts (pCCTs) in placental floating explants. Finally, the average number of EGFR(+) vCTB and pCCT layers was determined in CHM placentae and compared with healthy age-matched controls. Proliferative vCTBs and pCCTs co-express EGFR and ERBB4, but are devoid of ERBB2 and ERBB3. In contrast, HLA-G(+) trophoblast subtypes exhibit an EGFR/ERBB4(-) and ERBB2/ERBB3(+) phenotype. EGF and HB-EGF activate EGFR, ERBB4, AKT and extracellular signal

  11. Receptor-Mediated Uptake and Intracellular Sorting of Multivalent Lipid Nanoparticles Against the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) and the Human EGFR 2 (HER2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, David Tu

    In the area of receptor-targeted lipid nanoparticles for drug delivery, efficiency has been mainly focused on cell-specificity, endocytosis, and subsequently effects on bioactivity such as cell growth inhibition. Aspects of targeted liposomal uptake and intracellular sorting are not well defined. This dissertation assessed a series of ligands as targeted functional groups against HER2 and EGFR for liposomal drug delivery. Receptor-mediated uptake, both mono-targeted and dual-targeted to multiple receptors of different ligand valence, and the intracellular sorting of lipid nanoparticles were investigated to improve the delivery of drugs to cancer cells. Lipid nanoparticles were functionalized through a new sequential micelle transfer---conjugation method, while the micelle transfer method was extended to growth factors. Through a combination of both techniques, anti-HER2 and anti-EGFR dual-targeted immunoliposomes with different combinations of ligand valence were developed for comparative studies. With the array of lipid nanoparticles, the uptake and cytotoxicity of lipid nanoparticles in relationship to ligand valence, both mono-targeting and dual-targeting, were evaluated on a small panel of breast cancer cell lines that express HER2 and EGFR of varying levels. Comparable uptake ratios of ligand to expressed receptor and apparent cooperativity were observed. For cell lines that express both receptors, additive dose-uptake effects were also observed with dual-targeted immunoliposomes, which translated to marginal improvements in cell growth inhibition with doxorubicin delivery. Colocalization analysis revealed that ligand-conjugated lipid nanoparticles settle to endosomal compartments similar to their attached ligands. Pathway transregulation and pathway saturation were also observed to affect trafficking. In the end, liposomes routed to the recycling endosomes were never observed to traffic beyond the endosomes nor to be exocytose like recycled ligands. Based on

  12. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polymorphisms of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene are associated with abortion, early embryo loss and recurrent spontaneous abortion in human. However, information on the association between MTHFR polymorphism and cow abortion is scarce. In the present study, the effects of MTHFR ...

  13. Radiotherapy of non-small-cell lung cancer in the era of EGFR gene mutations and EGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschini, Ilaria; Dell'Anna, Cristina; Losardo, Pier Luigi; Bordi, Paola; D'Abbiero, Nunziata; Tiseo, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) occurs, approximately, in 80-85% of all cases of lung cancer. The majority of patients present locally advanced or metastatic disease when diagnosed, with poor prognosis. The discovery of activating mutations in the EGFR gene has started a new era of personalized treatment for NSCLC patients. To improve the treatment outcome in patients with unresectable NSCLC and, in particular, EGFR mutated, a combined strategy of radiotherapy and medical treatment can be undertaken. In this review we will discuss preclinical data regarding EGF receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and radiotherapy, available clinical trials investigating efficacy and toxicity of combined treatment (thoracic or whole brain radiotherapy and EGFR-TKIs) and, also, the role of local radiation in mutated EGFR patients who developed EGFR-TKI resistance.

  14. Detection of EGFR mutations in plasma and biopsies from non-small cell lung cancer patients by allele-specific PCR assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Britta; Meldgaard, Peter; Hager, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    samples with allele-specific PCR assays. METHODS: Pairs of the diagnostic biopsy and plasma obtained just prior to start of erlotinib treatment were collected from 199 patients with adenocarcinoma of non-small-cell lung cancer. DNA from both sample types was isolated and examined for the presence...... of mutations in exons 18-21 of the EGFR gene, employing the cobas(®) EGFR Tissue Test and cobas(®) EGFR Blood Test (in development, Roche Molecular Systems, Inc., CA, USA). RESULTS: Test results were obtained in all 199 (100%) plasma samples and 196/199 (98%) of the biopsies. EGFR-activating mutations were...... identified in 24/199 (12%) plasma samples and 28/196 (14%) biopsy samples, and 17/196 (9%) matched pairs contained the same mutation. Six EGFR mutations were present only in plasma samples but not in the biopsy samples. The overall concordance of the EGFR gene mutations detected in plasma and biopsy tissue...

  15. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR / HER-1 gatekeeper mutation T790M is present in European patients with early breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Bemanian

    Full Text Available The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR is one of the major oncogenes identified in a variety of human malignancies including breast cancer (BC. EGFR-mutations have been studied in lung cancer for some years and are established as important markers in guiding therapy with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs. In contrast, EGFR-mutations have been reported to be rare if not absent in human BC, although recent evidence has suggested a significant worldwide variation in somatic EGFR-mutations. Therefore, we investigated the presence of EGFR-mutations in 131 norwegian patients diagnosed with early breast cancer using real-time PCR methods. In the present study we identified three patients with an EGFR-T790M-mutation. The PCR-findings were confirmed by direct Sanger sequencing. Two patients had triple-negative BC (TNBC while the third was classified as luminal-A subtype. The difference in incidence of T790M mutations comparing the TNBC subgroup with the other BC subgroups was statistical significant (P = 0.023. No other EGFR mutations were identified in the entire cohort. Interestingly, none of the patients had received any previous cancer treatment. To our best knowledge, the EGFR-T790M-TKI-resistance mutation has not been previously detected in breast cancer patients. Our findings contrast with the observations made in lung cancer patients where the EGFR-T790M-mutation is classified as a typical "second mutation"causing resistance to TKI-therapy during ongoing anticancer therapy. In conclusion, we have demonstrated for the first time that the EGFR-T790M-mutation occurs in primary human breast cancer patients. In the present study the EGFR-T790M mutation was not accompanied by any simultaneous EGFR-activating mutation.

  16. Rapidly acquired resistance to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors in NSCLC cell lines through de-repression of FGFR2 and FGFR3 expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn E Ware

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite initial and sometimes dramatic responses of specific NSCLC tumors to EGFR TKIs, nearly all will develop resistance and relapse. Gene expression analysis of NSCLC cell lines treated with the EGFR TKI, gefitinib, revealed increased levels of FGFR2 and FGFR3 mRNA. Analysis of gefitinib action on a larger panel of NSCLC cell lines verified that FGFR2 and FGFR3 expression is increased at the mRNA and protein level in NSCLC cell lines in which the EGFR is dominant for growth signaling, but not in cell lines where EGFR signaling is absent. A luciferase reporter containing 2.5 kilobases of fgfr2 5' flanking sequence was activated after gefitinib treatment, indicating transcriptional regulation as a contributing mechanism controlling increased FGFR2 expression. Induction of FGFR2 and FGFR3 protein as well as fgfr2-luc activity was also observed with Erbitux, an EGFR-specific monoclonal antibody. Moreover, inhibitors of c-Src and MEK stimulated fgfr2-luc activity to a similar degree as gefitinib, suggesting that these pathways may mediate EGFR-dependent repression of FGFR2 and FGFR3. Importantly, our studies demonstrate that EGFR TKI-induced FGFR2 and FGFR3 are capable of mediating FGF2 and FGF7 stimulated ERK activation as well as FGF-stimulated transformed growth in the setting of EGFR TKIs. In conclusion, this study highlights EGFR TKI-induced FGFR2 and FGFR3 signaling as a novel and rapid mechanism of acquired resistance to EGFR TKIs and suggests that treatment of NSCLC patients with combinations of EGFR and FGFR specific TKIs may be a strategy to enhance efficacy of single EGFR inhibitors.

  17. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR / HER-1) gatekeeper mutation T790M is present in European patients with early breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemanian, Vahid; Sauer, Torill; Touma, Joel; Lindstedt, Bjørn Arne; Chen, Ying; Ødegård, Hilde Presterud; Vetvik, Katja Marjaana; Bukholm, Ida Rashida; Geisler, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is one of the major oncogenes identified in a variety of human malignancies including breast cancer (BC). EGFR-mutations have been studied in lung cancer for some years and are established as important markers in guiding therapy with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). In contrast, EGFR-mutations have been reported to be rare if not absent in human BC, although recent evidence has suggested a significant worldwide variation in somatic EGFR-mutations. Therefore, we investigated the presence of EGFR-mutations in 131 norwegian patients diagnosed with early breast cancer using real-time PCR methods. In the present study we identified three patients with an EGFR-T790M-mutation. The PCR-findings were confirmed by direct Sanger sequencing. Two patients had triple-negative BC (TNBC) while the third was classified as luminal-A subtype. The difference in incidence of T790M mutations comparing the TNBC subgroup with the other BC subgroups was statistical significant (P = 0.023). No other EGFR mutations were identified in the entire cohort. Interestingly, none of the patients had received any previous cancer treatment. To our best knowledge, the EGFR-T790M-TKI-resistance mutation has not been previously detected in breast cancer patients. Our findings contrast with the observations made in lung cancer patients where the EGFR-T790M-mutation is classified as a typical "second mutation"causing resistance to TKI-therapy during ongoing anticancer therapy. In conclusion, we have demonstrated for the first time that the EGFR-T790M-mutation occurs in primary human breast cancer patients. In the present study the EGFR-T790M mutation was not accompanied by any simultaneous EGFR-activating mutation.

  18. Rate of EGFR mutation testing for patients with nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer with implementation of reflex testing by pathologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheema, P.K.; Raphael, S.; El-Maraghi, R.; Li, J.; McClure, R.; Zibdawi, L.; Chan, A.; Victor, J.C.; Dolley, A.; Dziarmaga, A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Testing for mutation of the EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) gene is a standard of care for patients with advanced nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer (nsclc). To improve timely access to EGFR results, a few centres implemented reflex testing, defined as a request for EGFR testing by the pathologist at the time of a nonsquamous nsclc diagnosis. We evaluated the impact of reflex testing on EGFR testing rates. Methods A retrospective observational review of the Web-based AstraZeneca Canada EGFR Database from 1 April 2010 to 31 March 2014 found centres within Ontario that had requested EGFR testing through the database and that had implemented reflex testing (with at least 2 years’ worth of data, including the pre- and post-implementation period). Results The 7 included centres had requested EGFR tests for 2214 patients. The proportion of pathologists requesting EGFR tests increased after implementation of reflex testing (53% vs. 4%); conversely, the proportion of medical oncologists requesting tests decreased (46% vs. 95%, p testing, the mean number of patients having EGFR testing per centre per month increased significantly [12.6 vs. 4.9 (range: 4.5–14.9), p testing, EGFR testing rates showed a significant monthly increase over time (1.37 more tests per month; 95% confidence interval: 1.19 to 1.55 tests; p testing, because an immediate increase in EGFR test requests was observed with the introduction of reflex testing (p = 0.003), and the overall trend was sustained throughout the post–reflex testing period (p testing for patients with nonsquamous nsclc was successfully implemented at multiple centres and was associated with an increase in EGFR testing. PMID:28270720

  19. Insufficiency of peripheral blood as a substitute tissue for detecting EGFR mutations in lung cancer: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhijun; Zhang, Yongjun; Bao, Wenlong; Jiang, Chuming

    2014-12-01

    The detection of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations in non-small cell lung cancer tissues is necessary for effective treatment with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors. However, tumor tissues may not be available in all situations. Studies have evaluated the potential use of serum or plasma for detecting the EGFR mutation status, but the results have been inconclusive. Here, a meta-analysis was performed to determine whether blood samples could serve as substitutes for tissue specimens in detecting the EGFR mutation status. Databases, including PubMed and Embase, were searched for relevant studies published from 2005 to 2013 that included true-positive, false-positive, true-negative, and false-negative values of the EGFR mutation status of the blood compared with tissue specimens. Summary receiver operating characteristic curves were developed to explore the threshold effect. Spearman's correlation coefficient was calculated to analyze the heterogeneity between studies. Pooled sensitivity and specificity were evaluated using Meta-DiSc version 1.4. Thirteen articles involving 1,591 cases were enrolled, with a pooled sensitivity and specificity of 64.5 % (95 % CI = 0.605-0.683) and 88.5 % (95 % CI = 0.863-0.904), respectively. Heterogeneity among the studies was caused by factors other than threshold effect. The findings were influenced by test method (p = 0.0354). Blood samples had a high specificity and relatively low sensitivity for detecting EGFR mutations compared to tumor tissues. The results of this meta-analysis suggest that peripheral blood is insufficient as a substitute for tumor tissues in detecting EGFR mutations in clinical practice.

  20. Database of somatic mutations in EGFR with analyses revealing indel hotspots but no smoking-associated signature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Dongqing; Scaringe, William A; Li, Kai; Saldivar, Juan-Sebastian; Hill, Kathleen A; Chen, Zhenbin; Gonzalez, Kelly D; Sommer, Steve S

    2007-08-01

    We created an Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) Mutation Database (http://www.cityofhope.org/cmdl/egfr_db) that curates a convenient compilation of somatic EGFR mutations in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and associated epidemiological and methodological data, including response to the tyrosine kinase inhibitors Gefitinib and Erlotinib. Herein, we analyze 809 mutations collected from 26 publications. Four super hotspots account for 70% of reported mutations while two-thirds of 131 unique mutations have been reported only once and account for only 11% of reported mutations. Consistent with strong biological selection for gain of function, the reported mutations are virtually all missense substitutions or in-frame microdeletions, microinsertions, or microindels (colocalized insertion and deletion with a net gain or loss of 1-50 nucleotides). Microdeletions and microindels are common in a region of exon 19. Microindels, which account for 8% of mutations, have smaller inserted sequences (95% are 1 to 5 bp) and are elevated 16-fold relative to mouse somatic microindels and to human germline microindels. Microdeletions/microindels are significantly more frequent in responders to Gefitinib or Erlotinib (P = 0.003). In addition, EGFR mutations in smokers do not carry signatures of mutagens in cigarette smoke. Otherwise, the mutation pattern does not differ significantly with respect to gender, age, or tumor histology. The EGFR Mutation Database is a central resource of EGFR sequence variant data for clinicians, geneticists, and other researchers. Authors are encouraged to submit new publications with EGFR sequence variants to be included in the database or to provide direct submissions via The WayStation submission and publication process (http://www.centralmutations.org). (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Spheroid Culture of Head and Neck Cancer Cells Reveals an Important Role of EGFR Signalling in Anchorage Independent Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunholz, Diana; Saki, Mohammad; Niehr, Franziska; Öztürk, Merve; Borràs Puértolas, Berta; Konschak, Robert; Budach, Volker; Tinhofer, Ingeborg

    2016-01-01

    In solid tumours millions of cells are shed into the blood circulation each day. Only a subset of these circulating tumour cells (CTCs) survive, many of them presumable because of their potential to form multi-cellular clusters also named spheroids. Tumour cells within these spheroids are protected from anoikis, which allows them to metastasize to distant organs or re-seed at the primary site. We used spheroid cultures of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines as a model for such CTC clusters for determining the role of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in cluster formation ability and cell survival after detachment from the extra-cellular matrix. The HNSCC cell lines FaDu, SCC-9 and UT-SCC-9 (UT-SCC-9P) as well as its cetuximab (CTX)-resistant sub-clone (UT-SCC-9R) were forced to grow in an anchorage-independent manner by coating culture dishes with the anti-adhesive polymer poly-2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (poly-HEMA). The extent of apoptosis, clonogenic survival and EGFR signalling under such culture conditions was evaluated. The potential of spheroid formation in suspension culture was found to be positively correlated with the proliferation rate of HNSCC cell lines as well as their basal EGFR expression levels. CTX and gefitinib blocked, whereas the addition of EGFR ligands promoted anchorage-independent cell survival and spheroid formation. Increased spheroid formation and growth were associated with persistent activation of EGFR and its downstream signalling component (MAPK/ERK). Importantly, HNSCC cells derived from spheroid cultures retained their clonogenic potential in the absence of cell-matrix contact. Addition of CTX under these conditions strongly inhibited colony formation in CTX-sensitive cell lines but not their resistant subclones. Altogether, EGFR activation was identified as crucial factor for anchorage-independent survival of HNSCC cells. Targeting EGFR in CTC cluster formation might represent an attractive anti

  2. Genomic activation of the EGFR and HER2-neu genes in a significant proportion of invasive epithelial ovarian cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghislain Vanessa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The status of the EGFR and HER2-neu genes has not been fully defined in ovarian cancer. An integrated analysis of both genes could help define the proportion of patients that would potentially benefit from targeted therapies. Methods We determined the tumour mutation status of the entire tyrosine kinase (TK domain of the EGFR and HER2-neu genes in a cohort of 52 patients with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer as well as the gene copy number and protein expression of both genes in 31 of these patients by DGGE and direct sequecing, immunohistochemistry and Fluorescent in Situ Hybridisation (FISH. Results The EGFR was expressed in 59% of the cases, with a 2+/3+ staining intensity in 38%. HER2-neu expression was found in 35%, with a 2/3+ staining in 18%. No mutations were found in exons 18–24 of the TK domains of EGFR and HER2-neu. High polysomy of the EGFR gene was observed in 13% of the invasive epthelial cancers and amplification of the HER2-neu gene was found in 10% and correlated with a high expression level by immunohistochemistry. Mutations within the tyrosine kinase domain were not found in the entire TK domain of both genes, but have been found in very rare cases by others. Conclusion Genomic alteration of the HER2-neu and EGFR genes is frequent (25% in ovarian cancer. EGFR/HER2-neu targeted therapies should be investigated prospectively and specifically in that subset of patients.

  3. [Value of immunohistochemical staining with mutation-specific antibodies in detecting EGFR mutations: a meta-analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qing; Wang, Jing; Zhong, Diansheng; Ning, Chao; Liu, Chang; Xiao, Ping

    2014-06-20

    It has been proven that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation is the most important predictive factor for determining the effect of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) applied to non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. The patients with EGFR mutations response better to TKIs. To detect EGFR mutation has been particularly essential to select first-line treatment for lung cancer patients. To research and analyze the sensitivity and specificity of immunohistochemistry (IHC) using mutation specific antibodies in detecting EGFR mutations compared with DNA sequencing, and further evaluate the accuracy and clinical application value of IHC. All required articles in Pubmed database were searched. The deadline of retrieval was March 26, 2013. Then further screening the articles based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Meta analysis of diagnostic test was applied to analyze the sensitivity and specificity of IHC compared with DNA sequencing for the detection of EGFR mutations. Ten articles were included in the meta analysis, there were 1,679 samples in L858R group and 1,041 samples in E746-A750del group. The DOR were 225.17 (95%CI: 55.67-910.69) and 267.16 (95%CI: 132.45-538.88) respectively; the AUC of SROC were 0.948,4 (SEAUC=0.014,4) and 0.981,3 (SEAUC=0.009,9) respectively; the Q values were 0.888,3 (SEQ*=0.019,2) and 0.939,7 (SEQ*=0.019,1) respectively. The specificity and sensitivity of IHC method using these two mutation-specific antibodies were relatively high. As a screening method for EGFR mutations, the IHC with mutation specific antibodies is of clinical value.

  4. The expression of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and its receptor (EGFR) during post-natal testes development in the yak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Y; Cui, Y; Yu, S; Zhang, Q; Fan, J; Abdul Rasheed, B; Yang, K

    2014-12-01

    Growth factors play critical role in cell proliferation, regulate tissue differentiation and modulate organogenesis. Several growth factors have been identified in the testes of various mammalian species in last few years. In present investigation, the objective was to determine the expression of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in yak testicular tissue by relative quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blot (WB) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) from mRNA and protein levels. The testicular tissues were collected from male yak at 6 and 24 months old. Results of RT-PCR and WB showed that the expression quantity of EGF and EGFR at 24 months of age was higher than at 6 months, and the increase rate of EGFR on mRNA and protein levels was higher than the increase rate EGF during post-natal testes development. Positive staining for EGF and EGFR was very low and mainly localized to Leydig cells testes at 6 months of age with immunohistochemistry, and seminiferous tubules were not observed. At 24 month of age, both the EGF and EGFR could be detected in Leydig cells, peritubular myoid cells, sertoli cells and germ cells of the yak testes. However, EGF and EGFR were localized to preferential adluminal compartment and basal compartment in the seminiferous tubules, respectively. In conclusion, the findings in present studies suggest that EGF and EGFR as important paracrine and/or autocrine regulators in yak testes development and spermatogenesis. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. EGFR-mediated interleukin enhancer-binding factor 3 contributes to formation and survival of cancer stem-like tumorspheres as a therapeutic target against EGFR-positive non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chun-Chia; Chou, Kuei-Fang; Wu, Cheng-Wen; Su, Nai-Wen; Peng, Cheng-Liang; Su, Ying-Wen; Chang, Jungshan; Ho, Ai-Sheng; Lin, Huan-Chau; Chen, Caleb Gon-Shen; Yang, Bi-Ling; Chang, Yu-Cheng; Chiang, Ya-Wen; Lim, Ken-Hong; Chang, Yi-Fang

    2018-02-01

    YM155, an inhibitor of interleukin enhancer-binding factor 3 (ILF3), significantly suppresses cancer stemness property, implying that ILF3 contributes to cell survival of cancer stem cells. However, the molecular function of ILF3 inhibiting cancer stemness remains unclear. This study aimed to uncover the potential function of ILF3 involving in cell survival of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-positive lung stem-like cancer, and to investigate the potential role to improve the efficacy of anti-EGFR therapeutics. The association of EGFR and ILF3 in expression and regulations was first investigated in this study. Lung cancer A549 cells with deprivation of ILF3 were created by the gene-knockdown method and then RNAseq was applied to identify the putative genes regulated by ILF3. Meanwhile, HCC827- and A549-derived cancer stem-like cells were used to investigate the role of ILF3 in the formation of cancer stem-like tumorspheres. We found that EGFR induced ILF3 expression, and YM155 reduced EGFR expression. The knockdown of ILF3 reduced not only EGFR expression in mRNA and protein levels, but also cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo, demonstrating that ILF3 may play an important role in contributing to cancer cell survival. Moreover, the knockdown and inhibition of ILF3 by shRNA and YM155, respectively, reduced the formation and survival of HCC827- and A549-derived tumorspheres through inhibiting ErbB3 (HER3) expression, and synergized the therapeutic efficacy of afatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, against EGFR-positive A549 lung cells. This study demonstrated that ILF3 plays an oncogenic like role in maintaining the EGFR-mediated cellular pathway, and can be a therapeutic target to improve the therapeutic efficacy of afatinib. Our results suggested that YM155, an ILF3 inhibitor, has the potential for utilization in cancer therapy against EGFR-positive lung cancers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of 'CKD-EPI Pakistan' Equation for estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR): AComparison of eGFR Prediction Equations in Pakistani Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Sibtain; Jafri, Lena; Khan, Aysha Habib

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the results of 24-hour urinary creatinine clearance (CrCl) with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI), CKD-EPI Pakistan (CKD-EPI Pak), Cockcroft Gault (CG) and 4-variable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equations. Descriptive, cross-sectional study. Section of Clinical Chemistry, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, The Aga Khan University, Karachi, from June to October 2013. Laboratory data of subjects ≥18 years ordering 24-hour urinary CrCl from June to October 2013 was retrieved. Statistical comparison of eGFR using CKD-EPI, CKD-EPI Pak, CG and MDRD with the timed urine collection CrCl was done using regression analysis. The mean age of the group (n=670) was 51.3 ±15.4 years with a median of 53 (IQR:22.3) years, 55.7% being males. Median BMI of males and females was 26.98 kg/m2(IQR: 7.09) and 26.16 kg/m2(IQR: 6.97), respectively. Mean GFR using 24-hour creatinine clearance was 57.1 ±35.9 ml/min/1.73m2 with a median of 51 ml/min/1.73m2. Urinary creatinine clearance showed strong correlation with CG, MDRD, CKD-EPI and CKD-EPI Pak, showing r=0.78, r=0.79, r=0.82, and r=0.82, respectively. Sensitivity was highest for the CKD-EPI Pakistan (84.7%). Similarly, CKD-EPI Pakistan equation showed the highest agreement (88.7%) with CrCl compared to the other formulae. The CKD-EPI Pak equation is more accurate and precise than the CG, CKD-EPI and MDRD in estimating GFR in Pakistani population.

  7. Modification of cytokine-induced killer cells with chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) enhances antitumor immunity to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-positive malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xuequn; Ma, Wanli; Lu, Hong; Yuan, Lei; An, Lei; Wang, Xicai; Cheng, Guanchang; Zuo, Shuguang

    2015-12-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, ErbB1, Her-1) is a cell surface molecule overexpressing in a variety of human malignancies and, thus, is an excellent target for immunotherapy. Immunotherapy targeting EGFR-overexpressing malignancies using genetically modified immune effector cells is a novel and promising approach. In the present study, we have developed an adoptive cellular immunotherapy strategy based on the chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified cytokine-induced killer (CAR-CIK) cells specific for the tumor cells expressing EGFR. To generate CAR-CIK cells, a lentiviral vector coding the EGFR-specific CAR was constructed and transduced into the CIK cells. The CAR-CIK cells showed significantly enhanced cytotoxicity and increased production of cytokines IFN-γ and IL-2 when co-cultured with EGFR-positive cancer cells. In tumor xenografts, adoptive immunotherapy of CAR-CIK cells could inhibit tumor growth and prolong the survival of EGFR-overexpressing human tumor xenografts. Moreover, tumor growth inhibition and prolonged survival in mice with EGFR(+) human cancer were associated with the increased persistence of CAR-CIK cells in vivo. Our study indicates that modification with EGFR-specific CAR strongly enhances the antitumor activity of the CIK cells against EGFR-positive malignancies.

  8. Detection of EGFR mutations in plasma and biopsies from non-small cell lung cancer patients by allele-specific PCR assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Britta; Meldgaard, Peter; Hager, Henrik; Wu, Lin; Wei, Wen; Tsai, Julie; Khalil, Azza; Nexo, Ebba; Sorensen, Boe S

    2014-04-28

    Lung cancer patients with mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are primary candidates for EGFR-targeted therapy. Reliable analyses of such mutations have previously been possible only in tumour tissue. Here, we demonstrate that mutations can be detected in plasma samples with allele-specific PCR assays. Pairs of the diagnostic biopsy and plasma obtained just prior to start of erlotinib treatment were collected from 199 patients with adenocarcinoma of non-small-cell lung cancer. DNA from both sample types was isolated and examined for the presence of mutations in exons 18-21 of the EGFR gene, employing the cobas(®) EGFR Tissue Test and cobas(®) EGFR Blood Test (in development, Roche Molecular Systems, Inc., CA, USA). Test results were obtained in all 199 (100%) plasma samples and 196/199 (98%) of the biopsies. EGFR-activating mutations were identified in 24/199 (12%) plasma samples and 28/196 (14%) biopsy samples, and 17/196 (9%) matched pairs contained the same mutation. Six EGFR mutations were present only in plasma samples but not in the biopsy samples. The overall concordance of the EGFR gene mutations detected in plasma and biopsy tissue was 179/196 (91%) (kappa value: 0.621). Mutational analysis of the EGFR gene in plasma samples is feasible with allele-specific PCR assays and represents a non-invasive supplement to biopsy analysis. M-20080012 from March 10, 2008 and reported to ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00815971.

  9. The pan-HER family tyrosine kinase inhibitor afatinib overcomes HER3 ligand heregulin-mediated resistance to EGFR inhibitors in non-small cell lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonesaka, Kimio; Kudo, Keita; Nishida, Satomi; Takahama, Takayuki; Iwasa, Tsutomu; Yoshida, Takeshi; Tanaka, Kaoru; Takeda, Masayuki; Kaneda, Hiroyasu; Okamoto, Isamu; Nishio, Kazuto; Nakagawa, Kazuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Afatinib is a second generation epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) characterized as an irreversible pan-human EGFR (HER) family inhibitor. Afatinib remains effective for a subpopulation of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with acquired resistance to first generation EGFF-TKIs such as erlotinib. Heregulin activates HER3 in an autocrine fashion and causes erlotinib resistance in NSCLC. Here we examine whether afatinib is effective against heregulin-overexpressing NSCLCs harboring EGFR activating mutations. Afatinib but not erlotinib decreased EGFR mutant NSCLC PC9HRG cell proliferation in vitro and in mouse xenografts. Afatinib inhibited phosphorylation of the cell signaling pathway proteins HER3, EGFR, HER2, and HER4, likely by prevention of trans-phosphorylation as HER3 kinase activity is inadequate for auto-phosphorylation. Afatinib, unlike erlotinib, inhibited AKT activation, resulting in elevated apoptosis in PC9HRG cells. Clinically, a subpopulation of 33 patients with EGFR mutations and NSCLC who had received first generation EGFR-TKIs exhibited elevated plasma heregulin levels compared to healthy volunteers; one of these achieved a response with afatinib therapy despite having previously developed erlotinib resistance. Afatinib can overcome heregulin-mediated resistance to erlotinib in EGFR mutant NSCLC. Further studies are necessary to determine whether heregulin can predict afatinib efficacy after development offirst generation EGFR-TKI resistance. PMID:26418897

  10. EGFR testing and clinical management of advanced NSCLC: a Galician Lung Cancer Group study (GGCP 048-10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vázquez S

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Sergio Vázquez,1 Joaquín Casal,2 Francisco Javier Afonso Afonso,3 José Luis Fírvida,4 Lucía Santomé,5 Francisco Barón,6 Martín Lázaro,7 Carolina Pena,7 Margarita Amenedo,8 Ihab Abdulkader,9 Carmen González-Arenas,10 Laura Fachal,11 Ana Vega11 On behalf of the Galician Lung Cancer Group (GGCP1Medical Oncology Department, Lucus Augusti University Hospital, Lugo, 2Medical Oncology Department, University Hospital Complex of Vigo, Pontevedra, 3Medical Oncology Department, University Hospital Complex of Ferrol, Ferrol, 4Medical Oncology Department, University Hospital Complex of Ourense, Ourense, 5Medical Oncology Department Povisa Hospital, Vigo, 6Medical Oncology Department, University Hospital Complex of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, 7Medical Oncology Department, Hospital Complex of Pontevedra, Pontevedra, 8Medical Oncology Department, Oncology Center of Galicia, A Coruña, 9Anatomical Pathology Department, University Hospital Complex of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, 10AstraZeneca, Madrid, 11Galician Public Foundation of Genomic Medicine-SERGAS, Santiago de Compostela Clinic Hospital, Santiago de Compostela, Spain Purpose: This study aimed to assess the incidence of mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR gene in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients in the Galician region of Spain and the clinical management and outcome of patients carrying EGFR mutations. Patients and methods: All newly diagnosed advanced or metastatic NSCLC patients were screened for EGFR mutations in matched tumor samples (tissue or cytology specimens and serum samples. Results: Of 198 patients screened for EGFR mutations in tumor samples, 184 had evaluable data and, of these, 25 (13.6% had EGFR mutations (84% sensitizing mutations. EGFR mutation was found in serum in 14 (8.1% patients (of 174 evaluable. Compared to matched tumor tissue, serum EGFR mutation testing specificity and sensitivity were 99% and 52

  11. The non-small cell lung cancer EGFR extracellular domain mutation, M277E, is oncogenic and drug-sensitive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu S

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Su Yu,1,2 Yang Zhang,1 Yunjian Pan,1 Chao Cheng,1,3 Yihua Sun,1,3 Haiquan Chen1–4 1Department of Thoracic Surgery, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai, China; 2Cancer Research Center, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai, China; 3Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai, China; 4Institutes of Biomedical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai, China Purpose: To identify novel oncogenic mutations in non-small cell lung cancer patient specimens that lack mutations in known targetable genes (“pan-negative” patients.Methods: Comprehensive mutational analyses were performed on 1,356 lung adenocarcinoma specimens. In this cohort of patients, common lung cancer oncogenic driver mutations were detected in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR kinase domain, the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 kinase domain, as well as the KRAS, BRAF, ALK, ROS1 and RET genes. A sub-cohort of pan-negative patient specimens was assayed for mutations in the EGFR extracellular domain (ECD. Additionally, EGFR mutant NIH-3T3 stable cell lines were constructed and assessed for protein content, anchorage-independent growth, and tumor formation in xenograft models to identify oncogenic mutations. BaF3 lymphocytes were also used to test sensitivities of the mutations to tyrosine kinase inhibitors.Results: In pan-negative lung adenocarcinoma cases, a novel oncogenic EGFR ECD mutation was identified (M277E. EGFR M277E mutations encoded oncoproteins that transformed NIH-3T3 cells to grow in the absence of exogenous epidermal growth factor. Transformation was further evidenced by anchorage-independent growth and tumor formation in immunocompromised xenograft mouse models. Finally, as seen in the canonical EGFR L858R mutation, the M277E mutation conferred sensitivity to both erlotinib and cetuximab in BaF3 cell lines and to erlotinib in xenograft models.Conclusion: Here, a new EGFR driver mutation, M277E

  12. High specificity but low sensitivity of mutation-specific antibodies against EGFR mutations in non-small-cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondgaard, Anna-Louise; Høgdall, Estrid; Mellemgaard, Anders; Skov, Birgit G

    2014-12-01

    Determination of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations has a pivotal impact on treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A standardized test has not yet been approved. So far, Sanger DNA sequencing has been widely used. Its rather low sensitivity has led to the development of more sensitive methods including real-time PCR (RT-PCR). Immunohistochemistry with mutation-specific antibodies might be a promising detection method. We evaluated 210 samples with NSCLC from an unselected Caucasian population. Extracted DNA was analyzed for EGFR mutations by RT-PCR (Therascreen EGFR PCR kit, Qiagen, UK; reference method). For immunohistochemistry, antibodies against exon19 deletions (clone 6B6), exon21 mutations (clone 43B2) from Cell Signaling Technology (Boston, USA) and EGFR variantIII (clone 218C9) from Dako (Copenhagen, DK) were applied. Protein expression was evaluated, and staining score (multipum of intensity (graded 0-3) and percentages (0-100%) of stained tumor cells) was calculated. Positivity was defined as staining score >0. Specificity of exon19 antibody was 98.8% (95% confidence interval=95.9-99.9%) and of exon21 antibody 97.8% (95% confidence interval=94.4-99.4%). Sensitivity of exon19 antibody was 63.2% (95% confidence interval=38.4-83.7%) and of exon21 antibody was 80.0% (95% confidence interval=44.4-97.5%). Seven exon19 and four exon21 mutations were false negatives (immunohistochemistry negative, RT-PCR positive). Two exon19 and three exon21 mutations were false positive (immunohistochemistry positive, RT-PCR negative). One false positive exon21 mutation had staining score 300. The EGFR variantIII antibody showed no correlation to EGFR mutation status determined by RT-PCR or to EGFR immunohistochemistry. High specificity of the mutation-specific antibodies was demonstrated. However, sensitivity was low, especially for exon19 deletions, and thus these antibodies cannot yet be used as screening method for EGFR mutations in NSCLC

  13. EGFR Monoclonal Antibodies in the Treatment of Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck: A View beyond Cetuximab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A. Kono

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN is a prevalent disease both in the United States and worldwide with an overall poor prognosis, in part due to limited activity of existing therapy. Primary therapy is largely dictated by the anatomical origin of the cancer and whether distant disease is present. Many patients with localized disease are treated with chemoradiotherapy, either in the definitive or adjuvant setting, and those with metastatic disease are treated with palliative chemotherapy. The chemotherapy used in SCCHN can be toxic, whether given with radiation or alone. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR is highly expressed in SCCHN and serves as a logical therapeutic target. EGFR-directed monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs have higher activity in SCCHN than small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Cetuximab, a widely studied EGFR MoAb, is FDA approved in the metastatic setting, as well as with radiation for locally advanced disease. Despite improvements in survival when cetuximab is incorporated with chemotherapy for metastatic disease, the prognosis of patients remains poor. Novel EGFR MoAbs are being developed with the goal of improving efficacy and tolerability. This paper will summarize the use of EGFR-directed MoAbs in treating SCCHN with a focus on novel agents being tested.

  14. Oncogenic EGFR Represses the TET1 DNA Demethylase to Induce Silencing of Tumor Suppressors in Cancer Cells

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    Matteo Forloni

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Oncogene-induced DNA methylation-mediated transcriptional silencing of tumor suppressors frequently occurs in cancer, but the mechanism and functional role of this silencing in oncogenesis are not fully understood. Here, we show that oncogenic epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR induces silencing of multiple unrelated tumor suppressors in lung adenocarcinomas and glioblastomas by inhibiting the DNA demethylase TET oncogene family member 1 (TET1 via the C/EBPα transcription factor. After oncogenic EGFR inhibition, TET1 binds to tumor suppressor promoters and induces their re-expression through active DNA demethylation. Ectopic expression of TET1 potently inhibits lung and glioblastoma tumor growth, and TET1 knockdown confers resistance to EGFR inhibitors in lung cancer cells. Lung cancer samples exhibited reduced TET1 expression or TET1 cytoplasmic localization in the majority of cases. Collectively, these results identify a conserved pathway of oncogenic EGFR-induced DNA methylation-mediated transcriptional silencing of tumor suppressors that may have therapeutic benefits for oncogenic EGFR-mediated lung cancers and glioblastomas.

  15. Systems biology modeling reveals a possible mechanism of the tumor cell death upon oncogene inactivation in EGFR addicted cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Ping Zhou

    Full Text Available Despite many evidences supporting the concept of "oncogene addiction" and many hypotheses rationalizing it, there is still a lack of detailed understanding to the precise molecular mechanism underlying oncogene addiction. In this account, we developed a mathematic model of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR associated signaling network, which involves EGFR-driving proliferation/pro-survival signaling pathways Ras/extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK and phosphoinositol-3 kinase (PI3K/AKT, and pro-apoptotic signaling pathway apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1/p38. In the setting of sustained EGFR activation, the simulation results show a persistent high level of proliferation/pro-survival effectors phospho-ERK and phospho-AKT, and a basal level of pro-apoptotic effector phospho-p38. The potential of p38 activation (apoptotic potential due to the elevated level of reactive oxygen species (ROS is largely suppressed by the negative crosstalk between PI3K/AKT and ASK1/p38 pathways. Upon acute EGFR inactivation, the survival signals decay rapidly, followed by a fast increase of the apoptotic signal due to the release of apoptotic potential. Overall, our systems biology modeling together with experimental validations reveals that inhibition of survival signals and concomitant release of apoptotic potential jointly contribute to the tumor cell death following the inhibition of addicted oncogene in EGFR addicted cancers.

  16. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure and EGFR and ALK alterations in never smokers' lung cancer. Results from the LCRINS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Durán, María; Ruano-Ravina, Alberto; Kelsey, Karl T; Parente-Lamelas, Isaura; Leiro-Fernández, Virginia; Abdulkader, Ihab; Provencio, Mariano; Abal-Arca, José; Castro-Añón, Olalla; Montero-Martínez, Carmen; Vidal-García, Iria; Amenedo, Margarita; Golpe-Gómez, Antonio; Martínez, Cristina; Guzmán-Taveras, Rosirys; Mejuto-Martí, María José; Fernández-Villar, Alberto; Barros-Dios, Juan Miguel

    2017-12-28

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure is a main risk factor of lung cancer in never smokers. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) mutations and ALK translocations are more frequent in never smokers' lung cancer than in ever-smokers. We performed a multicenter case-control study to assess if ETS exposure is associated with the presence of EGFR mutations and its types and if ALK translocations were related with ETS exposure. All patients were never smokers and had confirmed lung cancer diagnosis. ETS exposure during childhood showed a negative association on the probability of EGRF mutation though not significant. Exposure during adulthood, at home or at workplace, did not show any association with EGFR mutation. The mutation type L858R seemed the most associated with a lower probability of EGFR alterations for ETS exposure at home in adult life. There is no apparent association between ETS exposure and ALK translocation. These results might suggest that ETS exposure during childhood or at home in adult life could influence the EGFR mutations profile in lung cancer in never smokers, reducing the probability of presenting EFGR mutation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Clinical modes of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor failure and subsequent management in advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jin-Ji; Chen, Hua-Jun; Yan, Hong-Hong; Zhang, Xu-Chao; Zhou, Qing; Su, Jian; Wang, Zhen; Xu, Chong-Rui; Huang, Yi-Sheng; Wang, Bin-Chao; Yang, Xue-Ning; Zhong, Wen-Zhao; Nie, Qiang; Liao, Ri-Qiang; Jiang, Ben-Yuan; Dong, Song; Wu, Yi-Long

    2013-01-01

    There is no published overview of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) failure modes in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This study aimed to classify the diversity of EGFR-TKI failure, and to investigate the usefulness of clinical modes in subsequent management and prognosis. One-hundred and twenty consecutive clinical trial patients with EGFR-TKI failure were enrolled as the training set to establish a clinical model based on clinical factors. Another 107 routine patients were enrolled as the validating set according to a Bayes discriminant analysis. EGFR mutations and c-MET amplification were analyzed. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to test the differences among three clinical modes and subsequent management. The duration of disease control, evolution of tumor burden, and clinical symptom were verified as feasible grouping variables. A correct grouping rate achieved 87.9%. The cohort was classified into three groups, as follows: 130 patients with dramatic progression, 42 with gradual progression, and 55 with local progression. Progression-free survivals (PFSs) for the dramatic progression, gradual progression, and local progression groups were 9.3, 12.9, and 9.2 months, respectively (P = 0.007). Overall survivals for the groups (OSs) were 17.1, 39.4, and 23.1 months, respectively (P modes of EGFR-TKI failure could favor strategies for subsequent treatment and predicting a survival benefit in advanced NSCLC. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Serum ZAG Levels Were Associated with eGFR Mild Decrease in T2DM Patients with Diabetic Nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lingling; Yu, Weihong; Niu, Meng; Zheng, Caixia; Qu, Bin; Li, Yan; Wang, Jing; Huang, Ping; Wang, O; Gong, Fengying

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the changes of serum zinc-α2-glycoprotein (ZAG) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with eGFR mild decrease. Subjects and Methods. A total of 438 T2DM patients (61.3 ± 4.0 y) were recruited and the demographic, anthropometric, and biochemical parameters were all collected. Serum ZAG levels were determined by commercially available ELISA kits. Results. The proportion of T2DM patients with the high tertile ZAG levels was 11.9% higher in patients with mildly decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (ZAG levels (P = 0.038). The probability of the eGFR ZAG levels was 94% higher than those with the low serum ZAG levels after adjusting for age, gender, and education [OR = 1.94, 95% CI (1.17-3.23), P = 0.0094]. This phenomenon was more likely to be observed in the condition of uACR ≥ 2.7 mg/mmol, WC ≥ 90 cm for men, or WC ≥ 85 cm for women. Conclusion. Serum ZAG levels were firstly found to be related with eGFR in T2DM patients. The patients with the high tertile ZAG levels were more likely to have mildly eGFR decrease, especially for female patients with higher uACR and bigger WC.

  19. Colorectal adenocarcinoma with mucinous component: relation of MMP-13, EGFR, and E-cadherin expressions to clinicopathological features and prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Abd Al-Rahman Mohammad; El-Hawary, Amira Kamal; Aziz, Azza Abdel

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare colorectal adenocarcinoma with mucinous component, ordinary adenocarcinoma (OA) and mucinous adenocarcinoma (MA) regarding clinicopathological parameters, survival, EGFR, MMP-13, and E-cadherin. We studied tumor tissue specimens from 28 patients with adenocarcinoma with mucinous component, 47 with OA, and 56 with MA, who underwent radical surgery from January 2007 to January 2012 at the Gastroenterology Centre, Mansoura University, Egypt. High density manual tissue microarrays were constructed and immunohistochemistry for EGFR, MMP-13, and E-cadherin was done. Colorectal adenocarcinoma with mucinous component (AWMC) was significantly associated with more perineural invasion, lower EGFR, and MMP-13 expressions than OA, with no difference in E-cadherin expression. Conversely, only microscopic abscess formation was significantly more with colorectal AWMC than MC with no difference in EGFR, MMP-13 and E-cadherin expression between both groups. Colorectal AWMC showed a better survival than MA with no difference with OA. In a univariate analysis, EGFR, MMP-13, and E-cadherin expressions did not show a significant impact on disease-free or overall survival in patients with colorectal AWMC. Colorectal AWMC remains a vague entity that resembles OA in some clinicopathological and molecular respects as well as MA. © 2015 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. EGFR regulation of colon cancer stem-like cells during aging and in response to the colonic carcinogen dimethylhydrazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nautiyal, Jyoti; Du, Jianhua; Yu, Yingjie; Kanwar, Shailender S; Levi, Edi; Majumdar, Adhip P N

    2012-04-01

    One of the most consistent pathological conditions in the gastrointestinal tract with advancing age is malignancy, particularly gastrointestinal cancers, the incidence of which increases sharply with aging. Although the reasons for the age-related rise in colorectal cancer are not fully understood, we hypothesize that aging increases susceptibility of the colon to carcinogen(s)/toxicant(s), leading to an increase in cancer stem-like cells (CSLCs) that express cancer stem cell markers, in the colonic mucosa. The current study demonstrates that aging is associated with increased expression of several colon CSLC markers [CD44, CD166, and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH-1)] and a higher proportion of cells expressing these markers. Aging is also accompanied by increased expression of miR-21 in colon. These increases are further increased in response to the colonic carcinogen dimethylhydrazine (DMH). Aging is also associated with increased tyrosine-phosphorylated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Inhibition of EGFR using the EGFR inhibitor cetuximab abrogated the age-related increase in CD166 and ALDH-1 as well as miRNA (miR)-21. Our results provide new evidence that aging and DMH are associated with increases in CSLC biomarkers and miR21, each of which have been linked to colorectal cancer. EGFR inhibition attenuates these changes, indicating a role for EGFR in age- and mutagen-associated changes in CSLCs.

  1. Propofol enhances the cisplatin-induced apoptosis on cervical cancer cells via EGFR/JAK2/STAT3 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haoran; Lu, Yan; Pang, Yangyang; Li, Mengjiao; Cheng, Xi; Chen, Jiawei

    2017-02-01

    The main purpose of this study was to evaluate propofol and its combined effect with cisplatin on apoptosis of cervical cancer cells and molecular mechanisms of this phenomenon. The effects of propofol and cisplatin on cell viability and apoptosis were detected by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay, colony formation assay and flow cytometry assay. Besides, protein expression of EGFR/JAK2/STAT3 pathway was determined by western blot. STAT3 was over-expressed in cervical cancer cells by STAT3 cDNA. Expression of EGFR and STAT3 protein of human tissues was evaluated by immunohistochemistry (IHC) assay. In this study, we found that not only propofol alone could inhibit cervical cancer cells viability but also could increase the inhibitory effect of cisplatin on cervical cancer cells growth. Meanwhile, propofol sensitized cervical cancer cells to cisplatin-induced apoptosis but not affected normal cervical cells. In genetic level, propofol could enhance the anti-tumor effect of cisplatin through EGFR/JAK2/STAT3 pathway. Further studies indicated that overexpression of EGFR and STAT3 is related to poor prognoses in cervical cancer patients, which contributed to confirm the clinical role of combined application of propofol and cisplatin. Propofol enhances the cisplatin-induced cell apoptosis cervical cancer cells via EGFR/JAK2/STAT3 pathway and may be developed as a potential therapeutic agent to treat cervical cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. GPR54 (KISS1R) transactivates EGFR to promote breast cancer cell invasiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajac, Mateusz; Law, Jeffrey; Cvetkovic, Dragana Donna; Pampillo, Macarena; McColl, Lindsay; Pape, Cynthia; Di Guglielmo, Gianni M; Postovit, Lynne M; Babwah, Andy V; Bhattacharya, Moshmi

    2011-01-01

    Kisspeptins (Kp), peptide products of the Kisspeptin-1 (KISS1) gene are endogenous ligands for a G protein-coupled receptor 54 (GPR54). Previous findings have shown that KISS1 acts as a metastasis suppressor in numerous cancers in humans. However, recent studies have demonstrated that an increase in KISS1 and GPR54 expression in human breast tumors correlates with higher tumor grade and metastatic potential. At present, whether or not Kp signaling promotes breast cancer cell invasiveness, required for metastasis and the underlying mechanisms, is unknown. We have found that kisspeptin-10 (Kp-10), the most potent Kp, stimulates the invasion of human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 and Hs578T cells using Matrigel-coated Transwell chamber assays and induces the formation of invasive stellate structures in three-dimensional invasion assays. Furthermore, Kp-10 stimulated an increase in matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-9 activity. We also found that Kp-10 induced the transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Knockdown of the GPCR scaffolding protein, β-arrestin 2, inhibited Kp-10-induced EGFR transactivation as well as Kp-10 induced invasion of breast cancer cells via modulation of MMP-9 secretion and activity. Finally, we found that the two receptors associate with each other under basal conditions, and FRET analysis revealed that GPR54 interacts directly with EGFR. The stability of the receptor complex formation was increased upon treatment of cells by Kp-10. Taken together, our findings suggest a novel mechanism by which Kp signaling via GPR54 stimulates breast cancer cell invasiveness.

  3. EGFR Inhibition Abrogates Leiomyosarcoma Cell Chemoresistance through Inactivation of Survival Pathways and Impairment of CSC Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sette, Giovanni; Salvati, Valentina; Memeo, Lorenzo; Fecchi, Katia; Colarossi, Cristina; Di Matteo, Paola; Signore, Michele; Biffoni, Mauro; D’Andrea, Vito; De Antoni, Enrico; Canzonieri, Vincenzo; De Maria, Ruggero; Eramo, Adriana

    2012-01-01

    Background Tumor cells with stem-like phenotype and properties, known as cancer stem cells (CSC), have been identified in most solid tumors and are presumed to be responsible for driving tumor initiation, chemoresistance, relapse, or metastasis. A subpopulation of cells with increased stem-like potential has also been identified within sarcomas. These cells are endowed with increased tumorigenic potential, chemoresistance, expression of embryonic markers, and side population(SP) phenotype. Leiomyosarcomas (LMS) are soft tissue sarcomas presumably arising from undifferentiated cells of mesenchymal origin, the Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSC). Frequent recurrence of LMS and chemoresistance of relapsed patients may likely result from the failure to target CSC. Therefore, therapeutic cues coming from the cancer stem cell (CSC) field may drastically improve patient outcome. Methodology/Principal Findings We expanded LMS stem-like cells from patient samples in vitro and examined the possibility to counteract LMS malignancy through a stem-like cell effective approach. LMS stem-like cells were in vitro expanded both as “tumor spheres” and as “monolayers” in Mesenchymal Stem Cell (MSC) conditions. LMS stem-like cells displayed MSC phenotype, higher SP fraction, and increased drug-extrusion, extended proliferation potential, self-renewal, and multiple differentiation ability. They were chemoresistant, highly tumorigenic, and faithfully reproduced the patient tumor in mice. Such cells displayed activation of EGFR/AKT/MAPK pathways, suggesting a possibility in overcoming their chemoresistance through EGFR blockade. IRESSA plus Vincristine treatment determined pathway inactivation, impairment of SP phenotype, high cytotoxicity in vitro and strong antitumor activity in stem-like cell-generated patient-like xenografts, targeting both stem-like and differentiated cells. Conclusions/Significance EGFR blockade combined with vincristine determines stem-like cell effective

  4. Fast Photochemical Oxidation of Proteins (FPOP) Maps the Epitope of EGFR Binding to Adnectin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yuetian; Chen, Guodong; Wei, Hui; Huang, Richard Y.-C.; Mo, Jingjie; Rempel, Don L.; Tymiak, Adrienne A.; Gross, Michael L.

    2014-12-01

    Epitope mapping is an important tool for the development of monoclonal antibodies, mAbs, as therapeutic drugs. Recently, a class of therapeutic mAb alternatives, adnectins, has been developed as targeted biologics. They are derived from the 10th type III domain of human fibronectin (10Fn3). A common approach to map the epitope binding of these therapeutic proteins to their binding partners is X-ray crystallography. Although the crystal structure is known for Adnectin 1 binding to human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), we seek to determine complementary binding in solution and to test the efficacy of footprinting for this purpose. As a relatively new tool in structural biology and complementary to X-ray crystallography, protein footprinting coupled with mass spectrometry is promising for protein-protein interaction studies. We report here the use of fast photochemical oxidation of proteins (FPOP) coupled with MS to map the epitope of EGFR-Adnectin 1 at both the peptide and amino-acid residue levels. The data correlate well with the previously determined epitopes from the crystal structure and are consistent with HDX MS data, which are presented in an accompanying paper. The FPOP-determined binding interface involves various amino-acid and peptide regions near the N terminus of EGFR. The outcome adds credibility to oxidative labeling by FPOP for epitope mapping and motivates more applications in the therapeutic protein area as a stand-alone method or in conjunction with X-ray crystallography, NMR, site-directed mutagenesis, and other orthogonal methods.

  5. Dermatologic events from EGFR inhibitors: the issue of the missing patient voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischer, Bernd; Huber, Renate; Kraemer, Matthias; Lacouture, Mario E

    2017-02-01

    As epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors are associated with a variety of dermatologic adverse events (dAEs), the purpose of this study was to develop an overview of current knowledge of dAEs associated with EGFR inhibitors and to identify knowledge gaps regarding incidence, treatment, impact on quality of life (QOL), and patient acceptance. A structured literature search was conducted using MEDLINE/PubMed (January 1983 to January 2014). In total, 71 publications published from 2004 to 2014 were identified for consideration in the final evidence review. The majority of published articles concentrate on the incidence of skin reactions, duration, treatment, and prevention strategies. Different grading systems based on the symptoms of skin rash or on health-related QOL (HRQOL) are used. An additional topic is the possible correlation between acneiform rash and efficacy of EGFR inhibitors. Knowledge gaps identified in the literature were how dAEs impact QOL compared with other AEs from a patient's perspective, patients' acceptance of dAEs (willingness to tolerate), and the impact of physician-patient communication on treatment decisions. Research is needed on the impact of dAEs on patients' acceptance of cancer treatments. Systematic studies are missing that compare the impact of dAEs with other toxicities on therapy decisions from both physician's and patient's view, and that investigate the balance between efficacy and avoidance of acneiform rash in treatment decisions. Such studies could provide deeper insights into the acceptance of the risk of untoward dermatologic events by both physicians and patients when treating advanced cancers.

  6. GPR54 (KISS1R transactivates EGFR to promote breast cancer cell invasiveness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateusz Zajac

    Full Text Available Kisspeptins (Kp, peptide products of the Kisspeptin-1 (KISS1 gene are endogenous ligands for a G protein-coupled receptor 54 (GPR54. Previous findings have shown that KISS1 acts as a metastasis suppressor in numerous cancers in humans. However, recent studies have demonstrated that an increase in KISS1 and GPR54 expression in human breast tumors correlates with higher tumor grade and metastatic potential. At present, whether or not Kp signaling promotes breast cancer cell invasiveness, required for metastasis and the underlying mechanisms, is unknown. We have found that kisspeptin-10 (Kp-10, the most potent Kp, stimulates the invasion of human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 and Hs578T cells using Matrigel-coated Transwell chamber assays and induces the formation of invasive stellate structures in three-dimensional invasion assays. Furthermore, Kp-10 stimulated an increase in matrix metalloprotease (MMP-9 activity. We also found that Kp-10 induced the transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR. Knockdown of the GPCR scaffolding protein, β-arrestin 2, inhibited Kp-10-induced EGFR transactivation as well as Kp-10 induced invasion of breast cancer cells via modulation of MMP-9 secretion and activity. Finally, we found that the two receptors associate with each other under basal conditions, and FRET analysis revealed that GPR54 interacts directly with EGFR. The stability of the receptor complex formation was increased upon treatment of cells by Kp-10. Taken together, our findings suggest a novel mechanism by which Kp signaling via GPR54 stimulates breast cancer cell invasiveness.

  7. Safe and Effective Sarcoma Therapy through Bispecific Targeting of EGFR and uPAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgatti, Antonella; Koopmeiners, Joseph S; Sarver, Aaron L; Winter, Amber L; Stuebner, Kathleen; Todhunter, Deborah; Rizzardi, Anthony E; Henriksen, Jonathan C; Schmechel, Stephen; Forster, Colleen L; Kim, Jong-Hyuk; Froelich, Jerry; Walz, Jillian; Henson, Michael S; Breen, Matthew; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Oh, Felix; Pilbeam, Kristy; Modiano, Jaime F; Vallera, Daniel A

    2017-05-01

    Sarcomas differ from carcinomas in their mesenchymal origin. Therapeutic advancements have come slowly, so alternative drugs and models are urgently needed. These studies report a new drug for sarcomas that simultaneously targets both tumor and tumor neovasculature. eBAT is a bispecific angiotoxin consisting of truncated, deimmunized Pseudomonas exotoxin fused to EGF and the amino terminal fragment of urokinase. Here, we study the drug in an in vivo "ontarget" companion dog trial as eBAT effectively kills canine hemangiosarcoma and human sarcoma cells in vitro We reasoned the model has value due to the common occurrence of spontaneous sarcomas in dogs and a limited lifespan allowing for rapid accrual and data collection. Splenectomized dogs with minimal residual disease were given one cycle of eBAT followed by adjuvant doxorubicin in an adaptive dose-finding, phase I-II study of 23 dogs with spontaneous, stage I-II, splenic hemangiosarcoma. eBAT improved 6-month survival from 450 days. eBAT abated expected toxicity associated with EGFR targeting, a finding supported by mouse studies. Urokinase plasminogen activator receptor and EGFR are targets for human sarcomas, so thorough evaluation is crucial for validation of the dog mode