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Sample records for efremov test conditions

  1. The high-heat-flux test facilities in the joint stock company “D.V. Efremov Institute of Electrophysical Apparatus”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volodin, A., E-mail: volodin@sintez.niiefa.spb.su [JSC “NIIEFA”, 196641 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Kuznetcov, V.; Davydov, V.; Kokoulin, A.; Komarov, A.; Mazul, I.; Mudyugin, B.; Ovchinnikov, I.; Stepanov, N.; Rulev, R.; Eremkin, A.; Rogov, A.; Prianikov, V. [JSC “NIIEFA”, 196641 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Fedosov, A. [ITER Organization, Building 81/124, TKM, Internal Components Division, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • The IDTF was created for the high heat flux tests of the PFUs of the ITER divertor. • At the present on the TSEFEY-M a brazing of fingers a FW semi-prototype is performing. • The IDTF and TSEFEY-M facilities are ready for the HHF testing of the ITER components. - Abstract: The current ITER design involves beryllium and tungsten as plasma facing materials for in-vessel components. Due to a high number of operating cycles and to the expected surface heat loads, thermal fatigue is one of the most damaging mechanisms for the plasma facing components (PFCs) of the ITER machine. Therefore, it is essential to perform an assessment of the behavior of PFCs under cycling heat loads to demonstrate the fitness for purpose of the selected technologies. This article summarizes the features of high heat flux facilities designed and constructed in the Efremov Institute for the performance of high heat flux (HHF) tests under ITER procurements as well as related R&D works. The TSEFEY-M facility was commissioned in 1994. The main purpose of this facility is thermal fatigue testing of mock-ups with various plasma-facing materials (carbon fiber reinforced composite (CFC), tungsten, beryllium, etc.) and with various cooling agents (water or gas). The ITER divertor test facility (IDTF) was created in the framework of ITER project, specifically for the HHF tests of the vertical targets (inner and outer) and domes of the ITER divertor. After commissioning in 2008, the IDTF facility was qualified in 2012–2013 for HHF tests of ITER PFCs.

  2. Il viaggio utopico nella fantascienza sovietica: La Nebulosa di Andromeda di I.A. Efremov

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Zenobi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The Utopian Journey in Soviet Science Fiction. The Andromeda nebula by I. a: Efremov Tumannost’ Andromedy by I.A. Efremov, a novel set in the 30-th century, can be interpreted in its utopic entreaties according to the theme of journey, in order to emphasize its strong link with the composite and problematic cultural climate during the Thaw. The journey can be considered as a technical device to depict the changed landscapes of a future communist society that will create a planet Earth totally resembling human rationality, in Efremov’s project. From the structural point of view, the journey is necessary to face the new and to enlarge one’s conceptual system: thanks to the plausible scientifi c hypothesis, the writer casts his project in the 30-th century, extrapolating the present premises and developing them in a better future. The reader is entrusted with the task of gradually discovering the criticisms of contemporaneity, while the definition of it remains rather ambiguous, since many of its aspects are omitted or denied. The evaluation of science as the concrete instrument with which to reach happiness gives the possibility to read the journey as the metaphor of the impulse towards knowledge and the unknown, as well as to the transcendent. In this perspective, the pages of the novel re-echo the Cosmist’s ideals, as the research of a friendly contact with other worlds, and the human victory against space and time represented by the colonization of the Universe.

  3. The Permotriassic branchiosaurid Tungussogyrinus Efremov, 1939 (Temnospondyli, Dissorophoidea from Siberia restudied

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Werneburg

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The enigmatic temnospondyl amphibian Tungussogyrinus bergi Efremov, 1939 shares clear synapomorphies with other branchiosaurids indicated by an anteriorly elongated infratemporal fossa and small branchial denticles. Therefore Tungussogyrinus clearly belongs to the dissorophoid family Branchiosauridae. This species is characterized by a number of derived features among temnospondyls: (1 an unusually elongated anterodorsal process of the ilium; (2 the character complex concerning the tricuspid dentition. Tungussogyrinus differs from all other branchiosaurids in these two autapomorphic characters. Herein, Tungussogyrinus is thought to represent the closest relative of a clade including all other branchiosaurids with its placement outside of this clade associated with a new feeding strategy to scrape algae with the tricuspid anterior dentition and the gracile built snout region. The subfamily Tungussogyrininae Kuhn, 1962 is newly defined here by the two derived characters of Tungussogyrinus bergi. All other branchiosaurid genera and species are included in a second subfamily Branchiosaurinae Fritsch, 1879. doi:10.1002/mmng.200900001

  4. Cointegration rank testing under conditional heteroskedasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavaliere, Giuseppe; Rahbek, Anders Christian; Taylor, Robert M.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the properties of the conventional Gaussian-based cointegrating rank tests of Johansen (1996, Likelihood-Based Inference in Cointegrated Vector Autoregressive Models) in the case where the vector of series under test is driven by globally stationary, conditionally heteroskedastic......, relative to tests based on the asymptotic critical values or the i.i.d. bootstrap, the wild bootstrap rank tests perform very well in small samples under a variety of conditionally heteroskedastic innovation processes. An empirical application to the term structure of interest rates is given....

  5. Present state of works on development of electron accelerators for energy consuming processes at Efremov Research Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, A. S.; Maznev, V. P.; Ovchinnikov, V. P.; Svinin, M. P.; Tolstun, N. G. [Efremov Research Institute of Electrophysical Apparatus, Saint-Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2011-07-01

    Necessity to decrease anthropogenic environmental pollution puts a task of development of HV accelerators for introduction of nature conservation technologies in commercial scale. High efficiency and operation reliability in a power range noticeably higher than already mastered level are required. In design of the accelerators basic units, namely, HV generators, accelerating structures, electron beam irradiation field forming systems and extraction devices solutions that demonstrated already theirs operational capacity in the machines of a lesser power may be used. From the other hand, experience gained by already full-scale built powerful installations shows that a number of problems remain unsolved that put obstacles on a way of wide implementation of exhaust gases irradiation processing. Attempts to built the accelerator meeting all requirements in a frame of specific contracts, although already shown noticeable progress in a sense of the power grow, acquiring of very valuable experience, carry some risk caused by insufficient study of the problems connected with power increasing, lack of time and means for the thorough research works. It looks reasonable to suggest creation of full-scale pilot installation with HV accelerator of required power (1 MW, for example) not bound to a specific commercial contract, where researches and studies of the accelerator main systems, theirs optimization and longevity tests can be carried out thus providing development of the accelerator into really reliable and effective tool for applying to environmental tasks.

  6. Nuclides migration tests under deep geological conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumata, M.; Vandergraaf, T.T.

    1991-01-01

    Migration behaviour of technetium and iodine under deep geological conditions was investigated by performing column tests under in-situ conditions at the 240 m level of the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) constructed in a granitic batholith near Pinawa, Manitoba, Canada. 131 I was injected with tritiated water into the column. Tritium and 131 I were eluted simultaneously. Almost 100 % of injected 131 I was recovered in the tritium breakthrough region, indicating that iodine moved through the column almost without retardation under experimental conditions. On the other hand, the injected technetium with tritium was strongly retarded in the column even though the groundwater was mildly reducing. Only about 7 % of injected 95m Tc was recovered in the tritium breakthrough region and the remaining fraction was strongly sorbed on the dark mafic minerals of column materials. This strong sorption of technetium on the column materials had not been expected from the results obtained from batch experiments carried out under anaerobic conditions. (author)

  7. The Negated Conditional: A Litmus Test for the Suppositional Conditional?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, Simon J.; Evans, Jonathan St. B. T.; Thompson, Valerie A.

    2006-01-01

    Under the suppositional account of conditionals, when people think about a conditional assertion, "if p then q," they engage in a mental simulation in which they imagine p holds and evaluate the probability that q holds under this supposition. One implication of this account is that belief in a conditional equates to conditional probability…

  8. Preliminary test conditions for KNGR SBLOCA DVI ECCS performance test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Kyoo Whan; Song, Jin Ho; Chung, Young Jong; Sim, Suk Ku; Park, Jong Kyun

    1999-03-01

    The Korean Next Generation Reactor (KNGR) adopts 4-train Direct Vessel Injection (DVI) configuration and injects the safety injection water directly into the downcomer through the 8.5'' DVI nozzle. Thus, the thermal hydraulic phenomena such as ECCS mixing and bypass are expected to be different from those observed in the cold leg injection. In order to investigate the realistic injection phenomena and modify the analysis code developed in the basis of cold leg injection, thermal hydraulic test with the performance evaluation is required. Preliminarily, the sequence of events and major thermal hydraulic phenomena during the small break LOCA for KNGR are identified from the analysis results calculated by the CEFLASH-4AS/REM. It is shown from the analysis results that the major transient behaviors including the core mixture level are largely affected by the downcomer modeling. Therefore, to investigate the proper thermal hydraulic phenomena occurring in the downcomer with limited budget and time, the separate effects test focusing on this region is considered to be effective and the conceptual test facility based on this recommended. For this test facility the test initial and boundary conditions are developed using the CEFLASH-4AS/REM analysis results that will be used as input for the preliminary test requirements. The final test requirements will be developed through the further discussions with the test performance group. (Author). 10 refs., 18 tabs., 4 figs

  9. Optimizing conditions for an accelerated leach test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietrzak, R.F.; Fuhrmann, M.; Heiser, J.; Franz, E.M.; Colombo, P.

    1988-01-01

    An accelerated leach test for low-level radioactive waste forms is being developed to provide, in a short time, data that can be extrapolated to long time periods. The approach is to provide experimental conditions that will accelerate leaching without changing the dominant release mechanism. Experimental efforts have focused on combining individual factors that have been observed to accelerate leaching. These include elevated temperature, increased leachant volume, and reduced specimen size. The response of diffusion coefficients to various acceleration factors have been evaluated and provide information on experimental parameters that need to be optimized to increase leach rates. Preliminary modeling using a diffusion mechanism (allowing for depletion) of a finite cylinder geometry indicates that during early portions of experiments (daily sampling intervals), leaching is diffusion controlled and more rapid than later in the same experiments (weekly or greater sampling intervals). For cement waste forms, this reduction in rate may be partially controlled by changes in physical structure and chemistry (sometimes related to environmental influences such as CO 2 ), but it is more likely associated with the duration of the sampling interval. By using a combination of mathematical modeling and by experimentally investigating various leach rate controlling factors, a more complete understanding of leaching processes is being developed. This, in turn, is leading to optimized accelerating conditions for a leach test

  10. Optimizing conditions for an accelerated leach test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietrzak, R.F.; Fuhrmann, M.; Heiser, J.; Franz, E.M.; Colombo, P.

    1988-01-01

    An accelerated leach test for low-level radioactive waste forms is being developed to provide, in a short time, data that can be extrapolated to long time periods. The approach is to provide experimental conditions that will accelerate leaching without changing the dominant release mechanism. Experimental efforts have focused on combining individual factors that have been observed to accelerate leaching. These include elevated temperature, increased leachant volume, and reduced specimen size. The response of diffusion coefficients to various acceleration factors have been evaluated and provide information on experimental parameters that need to be optimized to increase leach rates. For example, these data show that large volumes of leachant are required when leaching portland cement waste forms at elevated temperatures because of high concentrations of dissolved species. Sr-85 leaching is particularly susceptible to suppression due to concentration effects while Cs-137 leaching is less so. Preliminary modeling using a diffusion mechanism (allowing for depletion) of a finite cylinder geometry indicates that during early portions of experiments (daily sampling intervals), leaching is diffusion controlled and more rapid than later in the same experiments (weekly or greater sampling intervals). For cement waste forms, this reduction in rate may be partially controlled by changes in physical structure and chemistry (sometimes related to environmental influences such as CO 2 ), but it is more likely associated with the duration of the sampling interval. 9 refs., 6 figs

  11. Testing the Conditional Mean Function of Autoregressive Conditional Duration Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hautsch, Nikolaus

    be subject to censoring structures. In an empirical study based on financial transaction data we present an application of the model to estimate conditional asset price change probabilities. Evaluating the forecasting properties of the model, it is shown that the proposed approach is a promising competitor......This paper proposes a dynamic proportional hazard (PH) model with non-specified baseline hazard for the modelling of autoregressive duration processes. A categorization of the durations allows us to reformulate the PH model as an ordered response model based on extreme value distributed errors...

  12. Reliability Testing of Cable on Environmental Humidity Condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Situmorang, Johnny; Puradwi, I.W; Sony T, D.T; Handoyo, Demon; Mulyanto, Dwijo; Kusmono, Slamet

    2000-01-01

    Reliability testing of cable on humidified condition has been carried out. As a result, the failure occurred due to reduction of current by increasing the resistance on rising temperature testing. For humidified condition the result which are observed did not significant at the stated condition of testing. The needed time up to the failure criteria increased as a temperature testing increased

  13. Testing the Conditional Convergence Hypothesis for Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajjad Ahmad Jan (Corresponding Author

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates for the existence or non-existence of conditional convergence across the provinces of Pakistan. The annual output data from 1973 to 2000 is pooled for the four Pakistani provinces. The cross-sectional specific effects, the time specific effects, the manufacturing output, and the structural variable for aggregate supply or production shocks are used to control the different steady state levels of per capita incomes of thedifferent provinces. The equation for conditional convergence is estimated through generalized least squares (GLS method, after controlling for the different steady states of the provinces. The result shows that the provinces of Pakistan converge to their own respective steady states with a convergence speed of 11% per annum. At the same time manufacturing output is also statistically significant and positively affects the economic growth in the provinces. However the structural variable is not statistically significant.

  14. Uncertainty Evaluation of Residential Central Air-conditioning Test System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haoxue

    2018-04-01

    According to national standards, property tests of air-conditioning are required. However, test results could be influenced by the precision of apparatus or measure errors. Therefore, uncertainty evaluation of property tests should be conducted. In this paper, the uncertainties are calculated on the property tests of Xinfei13.6 kW residential central air-conditioning. The evaluation result shows that the property tests are credible.

  15. 49 CFR 572.21 - Test conditions and instrumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-Year-Old Child § 572.21 Test conditions and instrumentation. (a)(1) The test probe used for head and... surface of the lumbar spine, and 0.3 inches dorsal to the accelerometer mounting plate surface. (1) The.... For thorax and lumbar spine tests, the seating surface is without the back support as shown in Figures...

  16. 49 CFR 572.127 - Test conditions and instrumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-year-old Child Test Dummy, Beta Version § 572.127 Test conditions and instrumentation. (a) The test... ends of ribs #1 and #6 and at the spine box at the levels of #1 and #6 ribs as shown in 127-0000 sheet...) The optional lumbar spine force-moment transducer shall have the dimensions, response characteristics...

  17. Liquid oxygen (LO2) propellant conditioning concept testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Gretchen L. E.; Orth, Michael S.; Mehta, Gopal K.

    1993-01-01

    Testing of a simplified LO2 propellant conditioning concept for future expendable launch vehicles is discussed. Four different concepts are being investigated: no-bleed, low-bleed, use of a recirculation line, and He bubbling. A full-scale test article, which is a facsimile of a propellant feed duct with an attached section to simulate heat input from an LO2 turbopump, is to be tested at the Cold Flow Facility of the Marshall Space Flight Center West Test Area. Work to date includes: design and fabrication of the test article, design of the test facility and initial fabrication, development of a test matrix and test procedures, initial predictions of test output, and heat leak calibration and heat exchanger tests on the test articles.

  18. Continuous Strip Reduction Test Simulating Tribological Conditions in Ironing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Üstünyagiz, Esmeray; Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Christiansen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    materials, surface roughnesses, normal pressure, sliding length, sliding speed, interface temperature and lubrication. This paper proposes a new Strip Reduction Test (SRT) for industrial ironing processes that is capable of replicating the highly severe tribological conditions that are experienced during...

  19. Evaluation of accelerated stability test conditions for medicated chewing gums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggi, Lauretta; Conte, Ubaldo; Nhamias, Alain; Grenier, Pascal; Vergnault, Guy

    2013-10-01

    The overall stability of medicated chewing gums is investigated under different storage conditions. Active substances with different chemical stabilities in solid state are chosen as model drugs. The dosage form is a three layer tablet obtained by direct compression. The gum core contains the active ingredient while the external layers are formulated to prevent gum adhesion to the punches of the tableting machine. Two accelerated test conditions (40°C/75% RH and 30°C/65% RH) are performed for 6 months. Furthermore, a long-term stability test at room conditions is conducted to verify the predictability of the results obtained from the stress tests. Some drugs are stable in all the conditions tested, but other drugs, generally considered stable in solid dosage forms, have shown relevant stability problems particularly when stress test conditions are applied to this particular semi-solid dosage forms. For less stable drugs, the stress conditions of 40°C/75% RH are not always predictable of chewing gum stability at room temperature and may produce false negative; intermediate conditions, 30°C/65% RH, are more predictive for this purpose, the results of drug content found after 6 months at intermediate stress conditions and 12 months at room conditions are generally comparable. But the results obtained show that only long-term conditions stability tests gave consistent results. During aging, the semi solid nature of the gum base itself, may also influence the drug delivery rate during chewing and great attention should be given also to the dissolution stability.

  20. Validation of Helicopter Gear Condition Indicators Using Seeded Fault Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Paula; Brandon, E. Bruce

    2013-01-01

    A "seeded fault test" in support of a rotorcraft condition based maintenance program (CBM), is an experiment in which a component is tested with a known fault while health monitoring data is collected. These tests are performed at operating conditions comparable to operating conditions the component would be exposed to while installed on the aircraft. Performance of seeded fault tests is one method used to provide evidence that a Health Usage Monitoring System (HUMS) can replace current maintenance practices required for aircraft airworthiness. Actual in-service experience of the HUMS detecting a component fault is another validation method. This paper will discuss a hybrid validation approach that combines in service-data with seeded fault tests. For this approach, existing in-service HUMS flight data from a naturally occurring component fault will be used to define a component seeded fault test. An example, using spiral bevel gears as the targeted component, will be presented. Since the U.S. Army has begun to develop standards for using seeded fault tests for HUMS validation, the hybrid approach will be mapped to the steps defined within their Aeronautical Design Standard Handbook for CBM. This paper will step through their defined processes, and identify additional steps that may be required when using component test rig fault tests to demonstrate helicopter CI performance. The discussion within this paper will provide the reader with a better appreciation for the challenges faced when defining a seeded fault test for HUMS validation.

  1. Standardization of incubation conditions for hemolysis testing of biomaterials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henkelman, Sandra; Rakhorst, Gerhard; Blanton, John; van Oeveren, Willem

    2009-01-01

    Hemolysis testing is the most common method to determine the hemocompatibility properties of biomaterials. There is however no consensus on the procedures of hemolysis testing due to insufficient comparative studies on the quality of the red blood cells used and the experimental conditions of

  2. Influence of thermal conditioning media on Charpy specimen test temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanstad, R.K.; Swain, R.L.; Berggren, R.G.

    1989-01-01

    The Charpy V-notch (CVN) impact test is used extensively for determining the toughness of structural materials. Research programs in many technologies concerned with structural integrity perform such testing to obtain Charpy energy vs temperature curves. American Society for Testing and Materials Method E 23 includes rather strict requirements regarding determination and control of specimen test temperature. It specifies minimum soaking times dependent on the use of liquids or gases as the medium for thermally conditioning the specimen. The method also requires that impact of the specimen occur within 5 s removal from the conditioning medium. It does not, however, provide guidance regarding choice of conditioning media. This investigation was primarily conducted to investigate the changes in specimen temperature which occur when water is used for thermal conditioning. A standard CVN impact specimen of low-alloy steel was instrumented with surface-mounted and embedded thermocouples. Dependent on the media used, the specimen was heated or cooled to selected temperatures in the range -100 to 100 degree C using cold nitrogen gas, heated air, acetone and dry ice, methanol and dry ice, heated oil, or heated water. After temperature stabilization, the specimen was removed from the conditioning medium while the temperatures were recorded four times per second from all thermocouples using a data acquisition system and a computer. The results show that evaporative cooling causes significant changes in the specimen temperatures when water is used for conditioning. Conditioning in the other media did not result in such significant changes. The results demonstrate that, even within the guidelines of E 23, significant test temperature changes can occur which may substantially affect the Charpy impact test results if water is used for temperature conditioning. 7 refs., 11 figs

  3. NNWSI waste form test method for unsaturated disposal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, J.K.; Gerding, T.J.

    1985-03-01

    A test method has been developed to measure the release of radionuclides from the waste package under simulated NNWSI repository conditions, and to provide information concerning materials interactions that may occur in the repository. Data are presented from Unsaturated testing of simulated Savannah River Laboratory 165 glass completed through 26 weeks. The relationship between these results and those from parametric and analog testing are described. The data indicate that the waste form test is capable of producing consistent, reproducible results that will be useful in evaluating the role of the waste package in the long-term performance of the repository. 6 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs

  4. System for stress corrosion conditions tests on PWR reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Andre Cesar de Jesus

    2007-01-01

    The study of environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) involves the consideration and evaluation of the inherent compatibility between a material and the environment under conditions of either applied or residual stress. EAC is a critical problem because equipment, components and structure are subject to the influence of mechanical stress, water environment of different composition, temperature and different material history. Testing for resistance to EAC is one of the most effective ways to determine the interrelationships among this variables on the process of EAC. Up to now, several experimental techniques have been developed worldwide, which address different aspects of environmental caused damage. Constant loading of CT specimens test is a typical example of test, which is used for the estimation of parameters of stress corrosion cracking. To assess the initiation stages and kinetics of crack growth, the testing facility should allow active loading of specimens in the environment that is close to the actual operation conditions of assessed component. This paper presents a testing facility for stress corrosion cracking to be installed at CDTN, which was designed and developed at CDTN. The facility is used to carry out constant load tests under simulated PWR environment, where temperature, water pressure and chemistry are controlled, which are considered the most important factors in SCC. Also, the equipment operational conditions, its applications, and restrictions are presented. The system was developed to operate at temperature until 380 degree C and pressure until 180 bar. It consists in a autoclave stuck at a mechanical system, responsible of producing load , a water treatment station, and a data acquisition system. This testing facility allows the evaluation of cracking progress, especially at PWR reactor. (author) operational conditions. (author)

  5. IVVS actuating system compatibility test to ITER gamma radiation conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.rossi@enea.it [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, 45 Via Enrico Fermi, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Collibus, M. Ferri de; Florean, M.; Monti, C.; Mugnaini, G.; Neri, C.; Pillon, M.; Pollastrone, F. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, 45 Via Enrico Fermi, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Baccaro, S.; Piegari, A. [ENEA CR Casaccia, 301 Via Anguillarese, 00123 Santa Maria di Galeria, Rome (Italy); Damiani, C.; Dubus, G. [Fusion For Energy c/Josep Pla, n° 2 Torres Diagonal Litoral, 08019 Barcelona (Spain)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • ENEA developed and tested a prototype of a laser In Vessel Viewing and ranging System (IVVS) for ITER. • One piezo-motor prototype has been tested on the ENEA Calliope gamma irradiation facility to verify its compatibility to ITER gamma radiation conditions. • After a total dose of more than 4 MGy the piezo-motor maintained almost the same working parameters monitored before test without any evident and significant degradation of functionality. • After the full gamma irradiation test, the same piezo-motor assembly will be tested with 14 MeV neutrons irradiation using ENEA FNG facility. -- Abstract: The In Vessel Viewing System (IVVS) is a fundamental remote handling equipment, which will be used to make a survey of the status of the blanket first wall and divertor plasma facing components. A design and testing activity is ongoing, in the framework of a Fusion for Energy (F4E) grant agreement, to make the IVVS probe design compatible with ITER operating conditions and in particular, but not only, with attention to neutrons and gammas fluxes and both space constraints and interfaces. The paper describes the testing activity performed on the customized piezoelectric motors and the main components of the actuating system of the IVVS probe with reference to ITER gamma radiation conditions. In particular the test is performed on the piezoelectric motor, optical encoder and small scale optical samples .The test is carried out on the ENEA Calliope gamma irradiation facility at ITER relevant gamma fields at rate of about 2.5 kGy/h and doses of 4 MGy. The paper reports in detail the setup arrangement of the test campaign in order to verify significant working capability of the IVVS actuating components and the results are shown in terms of functional performances and parameters. The overall test campaign on IVVS actuating system will be completed on other ENEA testing facilities in order to verify compatibility to Magnetic field, neutrons and thermal

  6. IVVS actuating system compatibility test to ITER gamma radiation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, Paolo; Collibus, M. Ferri de; Florean, M.; Monti, C.; Mugnaini, G.; Neri, C.; Pillon, M.; Pollastrone, F.; Baccaro, S.; Piegari, A.; Damiani, C.; Dubus, G.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • ENEA developed and tested a prototype of a laser In Vessel Viewing and ranging System (IVVS) for ITER. • One piezo-motor prototype has been tested on the ENEA Calliope gamma irradiation facility to verify its compatibility to ITER gamma radiation conditions. • After a total dose of more than 4 MGy the piezo-motor maintained almost the same working parameters monitored before test without any evident and significant degradation of functionality. • After the full gamma irradiation test, the same piezo-motor assembly will be tested with 14 MeV neutrons irradiation using ENEA FNG facility. -- Abstract: The In Vessel Viewing System (IVVS) is a fundamental remote handling equipment, which will be used to make a survey of the status of the blanket first wall and divertor plasma facing components. A design and testing activity is ongoing, in the framework of a Fusion for Energy (F4E) grant agreement, to make the IVVS probe design compatible with ITER operating conditions and in particular, but not only, with attention to neutrons and gammas fluxes and both space constraints and interfaces. The paper describes the testing activity performed on the customized piezoelectric motors and the main components of the actuating system of the IVVS probe with reference to ITER gamma radiation conditions. In particular the test is performed on the piezoelectric motor, optical encoder and small scale optical samples .The test is carried out on the ENEA Calliope gamma irradiation facility at ITER relevant gamma fields at rate of about 2.5 kGy/h and doses of 4 MGy. The paper reports in detail the setup arrangement of the test campaign in order to verify significant working capability of the IVVS actuating components and the results are shown in terms of functional performances and parameters. The overall test campaign on IVVS actuating system will be completed on other ENEA testing facilities in order to verify compatibility to Magnetic field, neutrons and thermal

  7. Recommendations on practice of conditioned pain modulation (CPM) testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarnitsky, D; Bouhassira, D; Drewes, A M; Fillingim, R B; Granot, M; Hansson, P; Landau, R; Marchand, S; Matre, D; Nilsen, K B; Stubhaug, A; Treede, R D; Wilder-Smith, O H G

    2015-07-01

    Protocols for testing conditioned pain modulation (CPM) vary between different labs/clinics. In order to promote research and clinical application of this tool, we summarize the recommendations of interested researchers consensus meeting regarding the practice of CPM and report of its results. © 2014 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  8. Standardization of test conditions for gamma camera performance measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, K.

    1980-01-01

    The actual way of measuring gamma camera performance is to use point sources or flood sources in air, often in combination with bar phantoms. This method mostly brings best performance parameters for cameras but it has nothing in common with the use of a camera in clinical practice. Particular in the case of low energy emitters, like Tc-99m, the influence of scattered radiation over the performance of cameras is very high. Therefore it is important to have test conditions of radionuclide imaging devices, that will approach as best as practicable the measuring conditions in clinical applications. It is therefore a good news that the International Electrochemical Commission IEC has prepared a draft 'Characteristics and test conditions of radionuclide imaging devices' which is now submitted to the national committees for formal approval under the Six Months' Rule. Some essential points of this document are discussed in the paper. (orig.) [de

  9. Controlling flow conditions of test filters in iodine filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmberg, R.; Laine, J.

    1979-03-01

    Several different iodine filter and test filter designs and experience gained from their operation are presented. For the flow experiments, an iodine filter system equipped with flow regulating and measuring devices was built. In the experiments the influence of the packing method of the iodine sorption material and the influence of the flow regulating and measuring divices upon the flow conditions in the test filters was studied. On the basis of the experiments it has been shown that the flows through the test filters always can be adjusted to a correct value if there only is a high enough pressure difference available across the test filter ducting. As a result of the research, several different methods are presented with which the flows through the test filters in both operating and future iodine sorption system can easily be measured and adjusted to their correct values. (author)

  10. Filter Media Tests Under Simulated Martian Atmospheric Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agui, Juan H.

    2016-01-01

    Human exploration of Mars will require the optimal utilization of planetary resources. One of its abundant resources is the Martian atmosphere that can be harvested through filtration and chemical processes that purify and separate it into its gaseous and elemental constituents. Effective filtration needs to be part of the suite of resource utilization technologies. A unique testing platform is being used which provides the relevant operational and instrumental capabilities to test articles under the proper simulated Martian conditions. A series of tests were conducted to assess the performance of filter media. Light sheet imaging of the particle flow provided a means of detecting and quantifying particle concentrations to determine capturing efficiencies. The media's efficiency was also evaluated by gravimetric means through a by-layer filter media configuration. These tests will help to establish techniques and methods for measuring capturing efficiency and arrestance of conventional fibrous filter media. This paper will describe initial test results on different filter media.

  11. Thermal tests of a transport / Storage cask in buried conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamakawa, H.; Gomi, Y.; Saegusa, T.; Ito, C.

    1998-01-01

    Thermal tests for a hypothetical accident which simulated accidents caused by building collapse in case of an earthquake were conducted using a full-scale dry type transport and storage cask (total heat load: 23 kW). The objectives of these tests were to clarify the heat transfer features of the buried cask under such accidents and the time limit for maintaining the thermal integrity of the cask. Moreover, thermal analyses of the test cask under the buried conditions were carried out on basis of experimental results to establish methodology for the thermal analysis. The characteristics of the test cask are described as well as the test method used. The heat transfer features of the buried cask under such accidents and a time for maintaining the thermal integrity of the cask have been obtained. (O.M.)

  12. Radiation measurements during cavities conditioning on APS RF test stand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grudzien, D.M.; Kustom, R.L.; Moe, H.J.; Song, J.J.

    1993-01-01

    In order to determine the shielding structure around the Advanced Photon Source (APS) synchrotron and storage ring RF stations, the X-ray radiation has been measured in the near field and far field regions of the RF cavities during the normal conditioning process. Two cavity types, a prototype 352-MHz single-cell cavity and a 352-MHz five-cell cavity, are used on the APS and are conditioned in the RF test stand. Vacuum measurements are also taken on a prototype 352-MHz single-cell cavity and a 352-MHz five-cell cavity. The data will be compared with data on the five-cell cavities from CERN

  13. Accelerated Testing with Multiple Failure Modes under Several Temperature Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongyue Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A complicated device may have multiple failure modes, and some of the failure modes are sensitive to low temperatures. To assess the reliability of a product with multiple failure modes, this paper presents an accelerated testing in which both of the high temperatures and the low temperatures are applied. Firstly, an acceleration model based on the Arrhenius model but accounting for the influence of both the high temperatures and low temperatures is proposed. Accordingly, an accelerated testing plan including both the high temperatures and low temperatures is designed, and a statistical analysis method is developed. The reliability function of the product with multiple failure modes under variable working conditions is given by the proposed statistical analysis method. Finally, a numerical example is studied to illustrate the proposed accelerated testing. The results show that the proposed accelerated testing is rather efficient.

  14. Standardization of test conditions for gamma camera performance measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, K.

    1982-02-01

    The way of measuring gamma camera performance is to use point sources or flood sources in air, often in combination with bar phantoms. This method has nothing in common with the use of a camera in clinical practice. Particularly in the case of low energy emitters, like Tc-99m, the influence of scattered radiation over the performance of cameras is very high. The IEC document 'Characteristics and test conditions of radionuclide imaging devices' is discussed

  15. Testing of newly developed functional surfaces under pure sliding conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godi, Alessandro; Mohaghegh, Kamran; Grønbæk, J.

    2013-01-01

    the surfaces in an industrial context. In this paper, a number of experimental tests were performed using a novel test rig, called axial sliding test, simulating the contact of surfaces under pure sliding conditions. The aim of the experiments is to evaluate the frictional behavior of a new typology...... of textured surfaces, the so-called multifunctional surfaces, characterized by a plateau area able to bear loads and a deterministic pattern of lubricant pockets. Six surface typologies, namely three multifunctional and three machined using classical processes, were chosen to slide against a mirror....... The results comparison showed clearly how employing multifunctional surfaces can reduce friction forces up to 50 % at high normal loads compared to regularly ground or turned surfaces. Friction coefficients approximately equal to 0.12 were found for classically machined surfaces, whereas the values were 0...

  16. Aeroheating Test of CEV Entry Vehicle at Turbulent Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, Brian R.; Berger, Karen T.; Horvath, Thomas J.; Coblish, Joseph J.; Norris, Joseph D.; Lillard, Randolph P.; Kirk, Ben

    2008-01-01

    An investigation of the aeroheating environment of the Project Orion Crew Entry Vehicle has been performed in the Arnold Engineering Development Center Tunnel 9. Data were measured on a approx. 3.5% scale model (0.1778m/7-inch diam.) of the vehicle using coaxial thermocouples in the Mach 8 and Mach 10 nozzles of Tunnel 9. Runs were performed at free stream Reynolds numbers of 1 106/ft to 20 10(exp 6)/ft in the Mach 10 nozzle and 8 10(exp 6)/ft to 48 10(exp 6)/ft in the Mach 8 nozzle. The test gas in Tunnel 9 is pure N2, which at these operating conditions remains un-dissociated and may be treated as a perfect gas. At these conditions, laminar, transitional, and turbulent flow was produced on the model at Mach 10, and transitional and turbulent conditions were produced on the model at Mach 8. The majority of runs were made on a clean, smooth-surface model configuration and a limited number of runs were made in which inserts with varying boundary-layer trips configurations were used to force the occurrence of transition. Laminar and turbulent predictions were generated for all wind tunnel test conditions and comparisons were performed with the data for the purpose of helping to define uncertainty margins for the computational method. Data from both the wind tunnel test and the computations are presented herein. Figure 1 shows a schematic of the thermocouple locations on the model and figures 2 and 3 show a photo and schematic of the AEDC Hypervelocity Tunnel 9. Figure 4 shows a typical grid used in the computations. From the comparisons shown in figures 5 through 8 it was concluded that for perfect-gas conditions, the computations could predict either fully-laminar or full-turbulent flow to within +/-10% of the experimental data. The experimental data showed that transition began on the leeside of the heatshield at a free stream Reynolds number of 9 10(exp 6)/ft in the Mach 10 nozzle and fully-developed turbulent flow was produced at 20 10(exp 6)/ft. In the Mach 8

  17. 42 CFR 84.99 - Man tests; testing conditions; general requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Man tests; testing conditions; general requirements. 84.99 Section 84.99 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.99...

  18. Conditional Monte Carlo randomization tests for regression models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parhat, Parwen; Rosenberger, William F; Diao, Guoqing

    2014-08-15

    We discuss the computation of randomization tests for clinical trials of two treatments when the primary outcome is based on a regression model. We begin by revisiting the seminal paper of Gail, Tan, and Piantadosi (1988), and then describe a method based on Monte Carlo generation of randomization sequences. The tests based on this Monte Carlo procedure are design based, in that they incorporate the particular randomization procedure used. We discuss permuted block designs, complete randomization, and biased coin designs. We also use a new technique by Plamadeala and Rosenberger (2012) for simple computation of conditional randomization tests. Like Gail, Tan, and Piantadosi, we focus on residuals from generalized linear models and martingale residuals from survival models. Such techniques do not apply to longitudinal data analysis, and we introduce a method for computation of randomization tests based on the predicted rate of change from a generalized linear mixed model when outcomes are longitudinal. We show, by simulation, that these randomization tests preserve the size and power well under model misspecification. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Testing of high-level waste forms under repository conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mc Menamin, T.

    1989-01-01

    The workshop on testing of high-level waste forms under repository conditions was held on 17 to 21 October 1988 in Cadarache, France, and sponsored by the Commission of the European Communities (CEC), the Commissariat a l'energie atomique (CEA) and the Savannah River Laboratory (US DOE). Participants included representatives from Australia, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland, The United Kingdom and the United States. The first part of the conference featured a workshop on in situ testing of simulated nuclear waste forms and proposed package components, with an emphasis on the materials interface interactions tests (MIIT). MIIT is a sevent-part programme that involves field testing of 15 glass and waste form systems supplied by seven countries, along with potential canister and overpack materials as well as geologic samples, in the salt geology at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico, USA. This effort is still in progress and these proceedings document studies and findings obtained thus far. The second part of the meeting emphasized multinational experimental studies and results derived from repository systems simulation tests (RSST), which were performed in granite, clay and salt environments

  20. Inspection and testing in conditioning of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-08-01

    This report was prepared as part of the IAEA's programme on quality assurance and quality control requirements for radioactive waste packages. The report provides guidance and rationale for the application of inspections and tests as part of the entire quality assurance programme to verify and demonstrate that waste conditioning is being performed in a manner that protects human health and the environment from hazards associated with radioactive waste. The report is relevant to the Technical Reports Series No. 376, ''Quality Assurance for Radioactive Waste Packages'' dealing in general with the quality assurance programme of organization consigning radioactive waste to the repository, and elaborates its section devoted to inspection and testing for acceptance. 14 refs, 7 figs

  1. Testing and modelling autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity of streamflow processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Wang

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional streamflow models operate under the assumption of constant variance or season-dependent variances (e.g. ARMA (AutoRegressive Moving Average models for deseasonalized streamflow series and PARMA (Periodic AutoRegressive Moving Average models for seasonal streamflow series. However, with McLeod-Li test and Engle's Lagrange Multiplier test, clear evidences are found for the existence of autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (i.e. the ARCH (AutoRegressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity effect, a nonlinear phenomenon of the variance behaviour, in the residual series from linear models fitted to daily and monthly streamflow processes of the upper Yellow River, China. It is shown that the major cause of the ARCH effect is the seasonal variation in variance of the residual series. However, while the seasonal variation in variance can fully explain the ARCH effect for monthly streamflow, it is only a partial explanation for daily flow. It is also shown that while the periodic autoregressive moving average model is adequate in modelling monthly flows, no model is adequate in modelling daily streamflow processes because none of the conventional time series models takes the seasonal variation in variance, as well as the ARCH effect in the residuals, into account. Therefore, an ARMA-GARCH (Generalized AutoRegressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity error model is proposed to capture the ARCH effect present in daily streamflow series, as well as to preserve seasonal variation in variance in the residuals. The ARMA-GARCH error model combines an ARMA model for modelling the mean behaviour and a GARCH model for modelling the variance behaviour of the residuals from the ARMA model. Since the GARCH model is not followed widely in statistical hydrology, the work can be a useful addition in terms of statistical modelling of daily streamflow processes for the hydrological community.

  2. Multirods burst tests under loss-of-coolant conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawasaki, S.; Uetsuka, H.; Furuta, T.

    1983-01-01

    In order to know the upper limit of coolant flow area restriction in a fuel assembly under loss-of-coolant accidents in LWRs, burst tests of fuel bundles were performed. Each bundle consisted of 49 rods(7x7 rods), and bursts were conducted in flowing steam. In some cases, 4 rods were replaced by control rods with guide tubes in a bundle. After the burst, the ballooning behavior of each rod and the degree of coolant flow area restriction in the bundle were measured. Ballooning behavior of rods and degree of coolant flow channel restriction in bundles with control rods were not different from those without control rods. The upper limit of coolant flow channel restriction under loss-of-coolant conditions was estimated to be about 80%. (author)

  3. Testing the effectiveness of monolayers under wind and wave conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palada, C; Schouten, P; Lemckert, C

    2012-01-01

    Monolayers are highly desirable for their evaporation reducing capabilities due to their relatively minimal cost and ease of application. Despite these positive attributes, monolayers have consistently failed to perform effectively due to the harsh wind and wave conditions prevalent across real-world water reserves. An exhaustive and consistent study testing the influence of wind and wave combinations on monolayer performance has yet to be presented in the literature. To remedy this, the effect of simultaneous wind and wave conditions on a benchmark high-performance monolayer (octadecanol suspension, CH(3)(CH(2))(16)CH(2)OH) has been analysed. Subjected only to waves, the monolayer remained intact due to its innate ability to compress and expand. However, the constant simultaneous application of wind and waves caused the monolayer to break up and gather down-wind where it volatilised over time. At wind speeds above 1.3 m s(-1) the monolayer was completely ineffective. For wind speeds below this threshold, the monolayer had an influence on the evaporation rate dependent on wind speed. From these results a series of application protocols can now be developed for the optimised deployment of monolayers in real-world water reserves. This will be of interest to private, commercial and government organisations involved in the storage and management of water resources.

  4. Influence of test conditions and exposure duration on the result of ecotoxicological tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkrantz, Rikke Tjørnhøj

    be calculated from results of ecotoxicological tests performed according to internationally approved guidelines, such as from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) or International Standardization Organisation (ISO). Such guidelines were originally developed to enable classification......H and exposure duration on the toxicity recorded in tests using four sulfonylurea herbicides (SUs) and the aquatic macrophyte Lemna gibba as study objects. The study showed that changing the physical and chemical test conditions influenced the toxicity of sulfonylurea herbicides towards L. gibba. Lowering...

  5. Hyper-binding only apparent under fully implicit test conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Karen L; Hasher, Lynn

    2018-02-01

    We have previously shown that older adults hyper-bind, or form more extraneous associations than younger adults. For instance, when asked to perform a 1-back task on pictures superimposed with distracting words, older adults inadvertently form associations between target-distractor pairs and implicitly transfer these associations to a later paired associate learning task (showing a boost in relearning of preserved over disrupted pairs). We have argued that younger adults are better at suppressing the distracting words and thus, do not form these extraneous associations in the first place. However, an alternative explanation is that younger adults simply fail to access these associations during relearning, possibly because of their superior ability to form boundaries between episodes or shift mental contexts between tasks. In this study, we aimed to both replicate this original implicit transfer effect in older adults and to test whether younger adults show evidence of hyper-binding when informed about the relevance of past information. Our results suggest that regardless of the test conditions, younger adults do not hyper-bind. In contrast, older adults showed hyper-binding under (standard) implicit instructions, but not when made aware of a connection between tasks. These results replicate the original hyper-binding effect and reiterate its implicit nature. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Orion Ground Test Article Water Impact Tests: Photogrammetric Evaluation of Impact Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassilakos, Gregory J.; Mark, Stephen D.

    2018-01-01

    The Ground Test Article (GTA) is an early production version of the Orion Crew Module (CM). The structural design of the Orion CM is being developed based on LS-DYNA water landing simulations. As part of the process of confirming the accuracy of LS-DYNA water landing simulations, the GTA water impact test series was conducted at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) to gather data for comparison with simulations. The simulation of the GTA water impact tests requires the accurate determination of the impact conditions. To accomplish this, the GTA was outfitted with an array of photogrammetry targets. The photogrammetry system utilizes images from two cameras with a specialized tracking software to determine time histories for the 3-D coordinates of each target. The impact conditions can then be determined from the target location data.

  7. Pipe rupture test results; 6 in. pipe whip test under BWR LOCA conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, Ryoichi; Yano, Toshikazu; Ueda, Shuzo; Isozaki, Toshikuni; Miyazaki, Noriyuki; Kato, Rokuro; Miyazono, Shohachiro

    1983-02-01

    A series of pipe rupture tests has been performed in JAERI to demonstrate the safety of the primary coolant circuits in the event of pipe rupture, in nuclear power plants. The present report summarizes the results of 6 in. pipe whip tests (RUN 5605, 5606), under BWR LOCA conditions (285 0 C, 6.8 MPa), which were performed in August, 1981. The test pipe is made of Type 304 stainless steel and its outer diameter is 6 in. and its thickness is 11.1 mm. The restraints are made of Type 304 stainless steel and its diameter is 16.0 mm. Two restraints were set on the restraint support with clearance of 100 mm. Overhang length was varied as the parameter in these tests and was 300 mm or 700 mm. The following results are obtained. (1) The deformations of a pipe and restraints are limited effectively by shorter overhang length of 300. However, they become larger when the overhang length is 700 mm, and the pipe deforms especially at the setting point of restraints. (2) Velocity at the free end of pipe becomes about 30 m/sec just after the break. However, velocity at the setting point of restraint becomes about only 4 m/sec just after the break. (3) It seems from the comparison between the 4 in. tests and 6 in. tests that the maximum restraint force of 6 in. tests is about two times as large as that of 4 in. tests. (author)

  8. Pipe rupture test results: 4-inch pipe whip tests under PWR LOCA conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, Noriyuki; Ueda, Shuzo; Isozaki, Toshikuni; Kato, Rokuro; Kurihara, Ryoichi; Yano, Toshikazu; Miyazono, Shohachiro

    1982-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of 4-inch pipe whip tests (RUN No. 5506, 5507, 5508 and 5604) under the PWR LOCA conditions. The dynamic behaviors of the test pipe and restraints were studied in the tests. In the tests, the gap between the test pipe and the restraints was kept at the constant value of 8.85 mm and the overhang length was varied from 250 mm to 650 mm. The dynamic behaviors of the test pipe and the restraint were made clear by the outputs of strain gages and the measurements of residual deformations. The data of water hammer in subcooled water were also obtained by the pressure transducers mounted on the test pipe. The main conclusions obtained from the tests are as follows. (1) The whipping of pipe can be prevented more effectively as the overhang length becomes shorter. (2) The load acting on the restraint-support structure becomes larger as the overhang length becomes shorter. (3) The restraint farther from the break location does not limit the pipe movement except for the first impact when the overhang length is long. (4) The ultimate moment M sub(u) of the pipe at the restraint location can be used to predict the plastic collapse of the whipping pipe. (5) The restraints slide along the pipe axis and are subjected to bending moment, when the overhang length is long. (author)

  9. Enhancement of Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor performance by lithium conditioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansfield, D.K.; Hill, K.W.; Strachan, J.D.; Bell, M.G.; Scott, S.D.; Budny, R.; Marmar, E.S.; Snipes, J.A.; Terry, J.L.; Batha, S.; Bell, R.E.; Bitter, M.; Bush, C.E.; Chang, Z.; Darrow, D.S.; Ernst, D.; Fredrickson, E.; Grek, B.; Herrmann, H.W.; Janos, A.; Jassby, D.L.; Jobes, F.C.; Johnson, D.W.; Johnson, L.C.; Levinton, F.M.; Mikkelsen, D.R.; Mueller, D.; Owens, D.K.; Park, H.; Ramsey, A.T.; Roquemore, A.L.; Skinner, C.H.; Stevenson, T.; Stratton, B.C.; Synakowski, E.; Taylor, G.; von Halle, A.; von Goeler, S.; Wong, K.L.; Zweben, S.J.

    1996-01-01

    Wall conditioning in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) [K. M. McGuire et al., Phys. Plasmas 2, 2176 (1995)] by injection of lithium pellets into the plasma has resulted in large improvements in deuterium endash tritium fusion power production (up to 10.7 MW), the Lawson triple product (up to 10 21 m -3 s keV), and energy confinement time (up to 330 ms). The maximum plasma current for access to high-performance supershots has been increased from 1.9 to 2.7 MA, leading to stable operation at plasma stored energy values greater than 5 MJ. The amount of lithium on the limiter and the effectiveness of its action are maximized through (1) distributing the Li over the limiter surface by injection of four Li pellets into Ohmic plasmas of increasing major and minor radius, and (2) injection of four Li pellets into the Ohmic phase of supershot discharges before neutral-beam heating is begun. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  10. Analytical expressions for conditional averages: A numerical test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécseli, H.L.; Trulsen, J.

    1991-01-01

    Conditionally averaged random potential fluctuations are an important quantity for analyzing turbulent electrostatic plasma fluctuations. Experimentally, this averaging can be readily performed by sampling the fluctuations only when a certain condition is fulfilled at a reference position...

  11. Post-test investigation result on the WWER-1000 fuel tested under severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goryachev, A.; Shtuckert, Yu.; Zwir, E.; Stupina, L.

    1996-01-01

    The model bundle of WWER-type were tested under SFD condition in the out-of-pile CORA installation. The objective of the test was to provide an information on the WWER-type fuel bundles behaviour under severe fuel damage accident conditions. Also it was assumed to compare the WWER-type bundle damage mechanisms with these experienced in the PWR-type bundle tests with aim to confirm a possibility to use the various code systems, worked our for PWR as applied to WWER. In order to ensure the possibility of the comparison of the calculated core degradation parameters with the real state of the tested bundle, some parameters have been measured on the bundle cross-sections under examination. Quantitative parameters of the bundle degradation have been evaluated by digital image processing of the bundle cross-sections. The obtained results are shown together with corresponding results obtained by the other participants of this investigation. (author). 3 refs, 13 figs

  12. 49 CFR 572.200 - Instrumentation and test conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES IIsD... Test, unless noted otherwise. (g) All instrumented response signal measurements shall be treated to the... conform to the Sign Convention For Vehicle Crash Testing, Surface Vehicle Information Report, SAE J1733...

  13. Exercise testing in Warmblood sport horses under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munsters, Carolien C B M; van Iwaarden, Alexandra; van Weeren, René; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, Marianne M

    2014-10-01

    Regular exercise testing in Warmblood sport horses may, as in racing, potentially help to characterise fitness indices in different disciplines and at various competition levels and assist in understanding when a horse is 'fit to compete'. In this review an overview is given of the current state of the art of exercise testing in the Olympic disciplines of eventing, show jumping and dressage, and areas for further development are defined. In event horses, a simple four-step incremental exercise test measuring heart rate (HR), lactate concentration (LA) and velocity (V) is most often used. In dressage and riding horses, a wide variety of exercise tests have been developed, including incremental exercise tests, indoor riding tests and lunging tests. In show jumping, the use of a five-step incremental exercise test and exercise tests evaluating technical skills and fatigue of the horse has been reported. The velocity at a plasma LA of 4 mmol/L (VLA4) and HR recovery during submaximal exercise intensity have been shown to be the best parameters in event horses for predicting performance and impending injuries. In riding horses, the fitness level of horses is also an important determinant of injuries. Implementation of regular exercise testing and monitoring of training sessions may have important added value in the assessment of performance ability and potential future injuries in Warmblood sport horses. However, there is an urgent need to standardise methodologies and outcome parameters in order to make results comparable. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Practical issues for testing thin film PV modules at standard test conditions.

    OpenAIRE

    Marín González, Omar; Raga Arroyo, Manuela Pilar; Alonso Garcia, M. Carmen; Muñoz-García, Miguel Angel

    2013-01-01

    Thin film photovoltaic (TF) modules have gained importance in the photovoltaic (PV) market. New PV plants increasingly use TF technologies. In order to have a reliable sample of a PV module population, a huge number of modules must be measured. There is a big variety of materials used in TF technology. Some of these modules are made of amorphous or microcrystalline silicon. Other are made of CIS or CdTe. Not all these materials respond the same under standard test conditions (STC) of power...

  15. Sensitivity of MRQAP tests to collinearity and autocorrelation conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, David; Krackhardt, David; Snijders, Tom A. B.

    2007-01-01

    Multiple regression quadratic assignment procedures (MRQAP) tests are permutation tests for multiple linear regression model coefficients for data organized in square matrices of relatedness among n objects. Such a data structure is typical in social network studies, where variables indicate some

  16. 49 CFR 572.78 - Performance test conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES 6-Year-Old Child § 572.78...), § 572.74 (thorax), § 572.75 (lumbar spine, abdomen, and pelvis), and § 572.76 (limbs), position the.... (3) For the thorax, lumbar spine, and knee tests, the horizontal surface is without a back support as...

  17. Probability in reasoning: a developmental test on conditionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrouillet, Pierre; Gauffroy, Caroline

    2015-04-01

    Probabilistic theories have been claimed to constitute a new paradigm for the psychology of reasoning. A key assumption of these theories is captured by what they call the Equation, the hypothesis that the meaning of the conditional is probabilistic in nature and that the probability of If p then q is the conditional probability, in such a way that P(if p then q)=P(q|p). Using the probabilistic truth-table task in which participants are required to evaluate the probability of If p then q sentences, the present study explored the pervasiveness of the Equation through ages (from early adolescence to adulthood), types of conditionals (basic, causal, and inducements) and contents. The results reveal that the Equation is a late developmental achievement only endorsed by a narrow majority of educated adults for certain types of conditionals depending on the content they involve. Age-related changes in evaluating the probability of all the conditionals studied closely mirror the development of truth-value judgements observed in previous studies with traditional truth-table tasks. We argue that our modified mental model theory can account for this development, and hence for the findings related with the probability task, which do not consequently support the probabilistic approach of human reasoning over alternative theories. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Co-integration Rank Testing under Conditional Heteroskedasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavaliere, Guiseppe; Rahbæk, Anders; Taylor, A.M. Robert

    null distributions of the rank statistics coincide with those derived by previous authors who assume either i.i.d. or (strict and covariance) stationary martingale difference innovations. We then propose wild bootstrap implementations of the co-integrating rank tests and demonstrate that the associated...... bootstrap rank statistics replicate the first-order asymptotic null distributions of the rank statistics. We show the same is also true of the corresponding rank tests based on the i.i.d. bootstrap of Swensen (2006). The wild bootstrap, however, has the important property that, unlike the i.i.d. bootstrap......, it preserves in the re-sampled data the pattern of heteroskedasticity present in the original shocks. Consistent with this, numerical evidence sug- gests that, relative to tests based on the asymptotic critical values or the i.i.d. bootstrap, the wild bootstrap rank tests perform very well in small samples un...

  19. Eye Movement Analysis of Information Processing under Different Testing Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Ronna F.

    1985-01-01

    Undergraduates were given complex figural analogies items, and eye movements were observed under three types of feedback: (1) elaborate feedback; (2) subjects verbalized their thinking and application of rules; and (3) no feedback. Both feedback conditions enhanced the rule-governed information processing during inductive reasoning. (Author/GDC)

  20. Fitting and Testing Conditional Multinormal Partial Credit Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessen, David J.

    2012-01-01

    A multinormal partial credit model for factor analysis of polytomously scored items with ordered response categories is derived using an extension of the Dutch Identity (Holland in "Psychometrika" 55:5-18, 1990). In the model, latent variables are assumed to have a multivariate normal distribution conditional on unweighted sums of item…

  1. Experimental results from containment piping bellows subjected to severe accident conditions: Results from bellows tested in corroded conditions. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, L.D.; Parks, M.B.

    1995-10-01

    Bellows are an integral part of the containment pressure boundary in nuclear power plants. They are used at piping penetrations to allow relative movement between piping and the containment wall, while minimizing the load imposed on the piping and wall. Piping bellows are primarily used in steel containments; however, they have received limited use in some concrete (reinforced and prestressed) containments. In a severe accident they may be subjected to pressure and temperature conditions that exceed the design values, along with a combination of axial and lateral deflections. A test program to determine the leak-tight capacity of containment penetration bellows is being conducted at Sandia National Laboratories under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Several different bellows geometries, representative of actual containment bellows, have been subjected to extreme deflections along with pressure and temperature loads. The bellows geometries and loading conditions are described along with the testing apparatus and procedures. A total of nineteen bellows have been tested. Thirteen bellows were tested in ''like-new'' condition (results reported in Volume 1), and six were tested in a corroded condition. The tests showed that bellows in ''like-new'' condition are capable of withstanding relatively large deformations, up to, or near, the point of full compression or elongation, before developing leakage, while those in a corroded condition did not perform as well, depending on the amount of corrosion. The corroded bellows test program and results are presented in this report

  2. Immunological condition in population living near Semipalatinsk tests site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satow, Yukio; Ueda, Masafumi.

    1992-01-01

    This is the brief introduction of the immunological survey at Pavlodar, Kazakhstan SSR, a 300 km away from the Semipalatinsk test site, originally reported by Beysembaev E.A.,Valivach M.N. (Course of Clinical Immunology in Pavlodar Dzerzhynsky str., 166), Molochanov N.E. (Pavlodar Regional Hospital), Kazakav, V.M. (Radiologist Lab. of Regional Sanitary and Epidemiology Station), Ounusov B.A. and Osorodnikova O.P. (Clinical Immunology Centre in Pavlodar). The comparative investigations on (1) 150 preschool age children in Pavlodar before and 6 months after the cessation of nuclear tests, (2) 25 children suffering from frequent respiratory infections before the cessation and 25 analogous children after the cessation, and (3) 69 children (age 1 - 7) and 70 adults (age 28 - 58) inhabitants of Maysky district, where radioactivity is especially high, and 50 children and 50 adults of Pavlodar inhabitants, are reported. Erythrocyte rosette-forming cells, immunoglobulins G, A, and M, etc. are tested. (A.Y.)

  3. Exercise testing in Warmblood sport horses under field conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munsters, Carolien C B M; van Iwaarden, Alexandra; van Weeren, René; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, Marianne M

    2014-01-01

    Regular exercise testing in Warmblood sport horses may, as in racing, potentially help to characterise fitness indices in different disciplines and at various competition levels and assist in understanding when a horse is 'fit to compete'. In this review an overview is given of the current state of

  4. Power plant cable condition monitoring and testing at Georgia Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champion, T.C.

    1988-01-01

    Georgia Power's Research Center has been heavily involved in the evaluation of electrical insulating materials and cables since its inception more than 17 years ago. For the past ten years that expertise has been applied to cables used in generation plants. This paper discusses the results of two test programs. The first is a quality control inspection on 169 samples of new power generation cables. The second is a material degradation evaluation on four short cable samples removed from a coal fired plant during an equipment upgrade. The new material evaluation was performed to identify the cause of a high failure rate upon initial hi-pot testing of newly installed cables. The material degradation evaluation was performed to evaluate the need for replacement of existing cables during an equipment upgrade. Results of the evaluations have led to development of a detailed proposal for a program to evaluate cable degradation and remaining life for cables used in power generation facilities

  5. Accelerated Testing with Multiple Failure Modes under Several Temperature Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Zongyue Yu; Zhiqian Ren; Junyong Tao; Xun Chen

    2014-01-01

    A complicated device may have multiple failure modes, and some of the failure modes are sensitive to low temperatures. To assess the reliability of a product with multiple failure modes, this paper presents an accelerated testing in which both of the high temperatures and the low temperatures are applied. Firstly, an acceleration model based on the Arrhenius model but accounting for the influence of both the high temperatures and low temperatures is proposed. Accordingly, an accelerated testi...

  6. Condition For Strain-Hardening In Ecc Uniaxial Test Specimen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dick-Nielsen, Lars; Stang, Henrik; Poulsen, Peter Noe

    2006-01-01

    and infinite sheets under uniaxial tension. The crack is assumed to be cohesive and the cohesive law applied takes into account fiber as well as mortar properties. It is shown that the maximum crack opening observed during crack propagation in various test specimen geometries is small, 20 m and also small......This paper discusses the adequateness of the steady state flat crack criterion for crack propagation in Engineered Cementitious Composites. The investigation is performed by use of a semi-analytical model as well as a Finite Element Model. The simulations are for one crack propagating in finite...

  7. Ultrasonic testing of fatigue cracks under various conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jessop, T.J.; Cameron, A.G.B.

    1983-01-01

    Reliable detection of the fatigue cracks was possible under all conditions studied. Applied load affected the ultrasonic response in a variety of ways but never more than by 20dB and generally considerably less. Material variations affected the response under applied load by up to 20dB. Oxide in the crack and crack morphology affected the response by up to 9dB (12dB under load). Crack size variations and presence of water had little effect. Sizing accuracy was generally within 2mm although there was a tendency to undersize. The time of flight sizing technique gave the best accuracy if a tensile load was applied

  8. Evaluation of electrical test conditions in MIL-M-38510 slash sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandgren, K.

    1980-08-01

    Adequacy of MIL-M-38510 slash sheet requirements for electrical test conditions in an automated test environment were evaluated. Military temperature range commercial devices of 13 types from 6 manufacturers were purchased. Software for testing these devices and for varying the test conditions was written for the Tektronix S-3260 test system. The devices were tested to evaluate the effects of pin-condition settling time, measurement sequence of the same and different D-C parameters, temperature sequence, differently defined temperature ambients, variable measurement conditions, sequence of time measurements, pin-application sequence, and undesignated pin condition ambiguity. An alternative to current tri-state enable and disable time measurements is proposed; S-3260 'open' and 'ground' conditions are characterized; and suggestions for changes in MIL-M-38510 slash sheet specifications and MIL-STD-883 test methods are proposed, both to correct errors and ambiguities and to facilitate the gathering of repeatable data on automated test equipment. Data obtained showed no sensitivity to measurement or temperature sequence nor to temperature ambient, provided that test times were not excessive. V sub ICP tests and some low current measurements required allowance for a pin condition settling time because of the test system speed. Some pin condition application sequences yielded incorrect measurements. Undefined terminal conditions of output pins were found to affect I sub OS and propagation delay time measurements. Truth table test results varied with test frequency and V sub IL for low-power Schottky devices.

  9. Acoustic conditions in open plan offices – Pilot test results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold Mikulski

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The main source of noise in open plan office are conversations. Office work standards in such premises are attained by applying specific acoustic adaptation. This article presents the results of pilot tests and acoustic evaluation of open space rooms. Material and Methods: Acoustic properties of 6 open plan office rooms were the subject of the tests. Evaluation parameters, measurement methods and criterial values were adopted according to the following standards: PN-EN ISO 3382- 3:2012, PN-EN ISO 3382-2:2010, PN-B-02151-4:2015-06 and PN-B-02151-3:2015-10. Results: The reverberation time was 0.33– 0.55 s (maximum permissible value in offices – 0.6 s; the criterion was met, sound absorption coefficient in relation to 1 m2 of the room’s plan was 0.77–1.58 m2 (minimum permissible value – 1.1 m2; 2 out of 6 rooms met the criterion, distraction distance was 8.5–14 m (maximum permissible value – 5 m; none of the rooms met the criterion, A-weighted sound pressure level of speech at a distance of 4 m was 43.8–54.7 dB (maximum permissible value – 48 dB; 2 out of 6 rooms met the criterion, spatial decay rate of the speech was 1.8–6.3 dB (minimum permissible value – 7 dB; none of the rooms met the criterion. Conclusions: Standard acoustic treatment, containing sound absorbing suspended ceiling, sound absorbing materials on the walls, carpet flooring and sound absorbing workplace barriers, is not sufficient. These rooms require specific advanced acoustic solutions. Med Pr 2016;67(5:653–662

  10. Effects of reclaimed asphalt pavement on indirect tensile strength test of foamed asphalt mix tested in dry condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katman, Herda Yati; Norhisham, Shuhairy; Ismail, Norlela; Ibrahim, Mohd Rasdan; Matori, Mohd Yazip

    2013-01-01

    Indirect tensile strength (ITS) test was conducted to analyse strength of the foamed asphalt mixes incorporating reclaimed asphalt pavement. Samples were tested for ITS after cured in the oven at 40°C for 72 hours. This testing condition known as dry condition or unconditioned. Laboratory results show that reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) contents insignificantly affect the ITS results. ITS results significantly affected by foamed bitumen contents.

  11. Multiple unit root tests under uncertainty over the initial condition : some powerful modifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanck, C.

    We modify the union-of-rejection unit root test of Harvey et al. "Unit Root Testing in Practice: Dealing with Uncertainty over the Trend and Initial Condition" (Harvey, Econom Theory 25:587-636, 2009). This test rejects if either of two different unit root tests rejects but controls the inherent

  12. 42 CFR 493.1453 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; clinical consultant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; clinical consultant. The laboratory must have a... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; clinical consultant. 493.1453 Section 493.1453 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID...

  13. Effects of common chronic medical conditions on psychometric tests used to diagnose minimal hepatic encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, M M; Poulsen, L; Rasmussen, C K

    2016-01-01

    Many chronic medical conditions are accompanied by cognitive disturbances but these have only to a very limited extent been psychometrically quantified. An exception is liver cirrhosis where hepatic encephalopathy is an inherent risk and mild forms are diagnosed by psychometric tests. The preferred...... diagnostic test battery in cirrhosis is often the Continuous Reaction Time (CRT) and the Portosystemic Encephalopathy (PSE) tests but the effect on these of other medical conditions is not known. We aimed to examine the effects of common chronic (non-cirrhosis) medical conditions on the CRT and PSE tests. We...

  14. Conditional dependence between tests affects the diagnosis and surveillance of animal diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gardner, I.A.; Stryhn, Henrik; Lind, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Dependence between the sensitivities or specificities of pairs of tests affects the sensitivity and specificity of tests when used in combination. Compared with values expected if tests are conditionally independent, a positive dependence in test sensitivity reduces the sensitivity of parallel te...... for toxoplasmosis and brucellosis in swine, and Johne's disease in cattle to illustrate calculation methods and to indicate the likely magnitude of the dependence between serologic tests used for diagnosis and surveillance of animal diseases....

  15. Evaluation of HIV testing recommendations in specialty guidelines for the management of HIV indicator conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lord, E; Stockdale, A J; Malek, R

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: European guidelines recommend HIV testing for individuals presenting with indicator conditions (ICs) including AIDS-defining conditions (ADCs). The extent to which non-HIV specialty guidelines recommend HIV testing in ICs and ADCs is unknown. Our aim was to pilot a methodology in the UK...... are piloting methods to engage with guideline development groups to ensure that patients diagnosed with ICs/ADCs are tested for HIV. We then plan to apply our methodology in other European settings as part of the Optimising Testing and Linkage to Care for HIV across Europe (OptTEST) project....... to review specialty guidelines and ascertain if HIV was discussed and testing recommended. METHODS: UK and European HIV testing guidelines were reviewed to produce a list of 25 ADCs and 49 ICs. UK guidelines for these conditions were identified from searches of the websites of specialist societies...

  16. Test of safety injection supply by diesel generator under reactor vessel closed condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hao; Bi Fengchuan; Che Junxia; Zhang Jianwen; Yang Bo

    2014-01-01

    The paper studied that the test of diesel generator full load take-up under the condition of actual safety injection and reactor vessel closed in Ningde nuclear project unit l. It is proved that test result accorded with design criteria, meanwhile, the test was removed from the key path of project schedule, which cut a huge cost. (authors)

  17. Homogeneity tests for variances and mean test under heterogeneity conditions in a single way ANOVA method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales P, J.R.; Avila P, P.

    1996-01-01

    If we have consider the maximum permissible levels showed for the case of oysters, it results forbidding to collect oysters at the four stations of the El Chijol Channel ( Veracruz, Mexico), as well as along the channel itself, because the metal concentrations studied exceed these limits. In this case the application of Welch tests were not necessary. For the water hyacinth the means of the treatments were unequal in Fe, Cu, Ni, and Zn. This case is more illustrative, for the conclusion has been reached through the application of the Welch tests to treatments with heterogeneous variances. (Author)

  18. Materials interactions test methods to measure radionuclide release from waste forms under repository-relevant conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strickert, R.G.; Erikson, R.L.; Shade, J.W.

    1984-10-01

    At the request of the Basalt Waste Isolation Project, the Materials Characterization Center has collected and developed a set of procedures into a waste form compliance test method (MCC-14.4). The purpose of the test is to measure the steady-state concentrations of specified radionuclides in solutions contacting a waste form material. The test method uses a crushed waste form and basalt material suspended in a synthetic basalt groundwater and agitated for up to three months at 150 0 C under anoxic conditions. Elemental and radioisotopic analyses are made on filtered and unfiltered aliquots of the solution. Replicate experiments are performed and simultaneous tests are conducted with an approved test material (ATM) to help ensure precise and reliable data for the actual waste form material. Various features of the test method, equipment, and test conditions are reviewed. Experimental testing using actinide-doped borosilicate glasses are also discussed. 9 references, 2 tables

  19. Effect of Drainage Conditions on Cone Penetration Testing in Silty Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Rikke; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the challenges that occur when performing Cone Penetration Tests (CPT) in silty soil due to changes in drainage conditions. In this paper, CPT results from various papers and researchers are collected and interpreted. Results from cone penetrations tests with various penetrat......This paper discusses the challenges that occur when performing Cone Penetration Tests (CPT) in silty soil due to changes in drainage conditions. In this paper, CPT results from various papers and researchers are collected and interpreted. Results from cone penetrations tests with various...

  20. Model test study of evaporation mechanism of sand under constant atmospheric condition

    OpenAIRE

    CUI, Yu Jun; DING, Wenqi; SONG, Weikang

    2014-01-01

    The evaporation mechanism of Fontainebleau sand using a large-scale model chamber is studied. First, the evaporation test on a layer of water above sand surface is performed under various atmospheric conditions, validating the performance of the chamber and the calculation method of actual evaporation rate by comparing the calculated and measured cumulative evaporations. Second,the evaporation test on sand without water layer is conducted under constant atmospheric condition. Both the evoluti...

  1. 76 FR 25229 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Aerospace LP (GALP) Model G250 Airplane, Dynamic Test Requirements...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-04

    ... Memorandum ``Side-Facing Seats on Transport Category Airplanes'' and draft Issue Paper ``Dynamic Test...; Special Conditions No. 25-425-SC] Special Conditions: Gulfstream Aerospace LP (GALP) Model G250 Airplane... are issued for the Gulfstream Aerospace LP (GALP) model G250 airplane. This airplane will have a novel...

  2. 42 CFR 493.1415 - Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing; clinical consultant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... § 493.1415 Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing; clinical consultant. The laboratory must have a clinical consultant who meets the qualification requirements of § 493.1417 of this... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Laboratories performing moderate...

  3. Study of the Permeability of Foam Conditioned Soils with Laboratory Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Borio, Luca; Peila, Daniele

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: EPB tunneling requires that the excavated soil has a plastic and pulpy behavior to be able to apply a stabilizing pressure to the face, but it should also be impervious to counteract filtration forces that could develop ahead of the face. The evaluation of this parameter in granular soil, before and after conditioning, is therefore of key importance for a correct conditioning agents choice. Approach: A new laboratory procedure for testing the permeability of conditioned soi...

  4. Effects of reclaimed asphalt pavement on indirect tensile strength test of conditioned foamed asphalt mix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katman, Herda Yati; Norhisham, Shuhairy; Ismail, Norlela; Ibrahim, Mohd Rasdan; Matori, Mohd Yazip

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of Indirect Tensile Strength (ITS) Test for samples prepared with reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP). Samples were conditioned in water at 25°C for 24 hours prior to testing. Results show that recycled aggregate from reclaimed asphalt pavement performs as well as virgin aggregate.

  5. Wind Turbine Drivetrain Condition Monitoring During GRC Phase 1 and Phase 2 Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, S.; Link, H.; LaCava, W.; van Dam, J.; McNiff, B.; Veers, P.; Keller, J.; Butterfield, S.; Oyague, F.

    2011-10-01

    This report will present the wind turbine drivetrain condition monitoring (CM) research conducted under the phase 1 and phase 2 Gearbox Reliability Collaborative (GRC) tests. The rationale and approach for this drivetrain CM research, investigated CM systems, test configuration and results, and a discussion on challenges in wind turbine drivetrain CM and future research and development areas, will be presented.

  6. Inference and testing on the boundary in extended constant conditional correlation GARCH models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus Søndergaard

    2017-01-01

    We consider inference and testing in extended constant conditional correlation GARCH models in the case where the true parameter vector is a boundary point of the parameter space. This is of particular importance when testing for volatility spillovers in the model. The large-sample properties...

  7. 42 CFR 493.1467 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytology general supervisor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... testing; cytology general supervisor. 493.1467 Section 493.1467 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE....1467 Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytology general supervisor. For the subspecialty of cytology, the laboratory must have a general supervisor who meets the qualification...

  8. Collaborative testing for key-term definitions under representative conditions: Efficiency costs and no learning benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissman, Kathryn T; Rawson, Katherine A

    2018-01-01

    Students are expected to learn key-term definitions across many different grade levels and academic disciplines. Thus, investigating ways to promote understanding of key-term definitions is of critical importance for applied purposes. A recent survey showed that learners report engaging in collaborative practice testing when learning key-term definitions, with outcomes also shedding light on the way in which learners report engaging in collaborative testing in real-world contexts (Wissman & Rawson, 2016, Memory, 24, 223-239). However, no research has directly explored the effectiveness of engaging in collaborative testing under representative conditions. Accordingly, the current research evaluates the costs (with respect to efficiency) and the benefits (with respect to learning) of collaborative testing for key-term definitions under representative conditions. In three experiments (ns = 94, 74, 95), learners individually studied key-term definitions and then completed retrieval practice, which occurred either individually or collaboratively (in dyads). Two days later, all learners completed a final individual test. Results from Experiments 1-2 showed a cost (with respect to efficiency) and no benefit (with respect to learning) of engaging in collaborative testing for key-term definitions. Experiment 3 evaluated a theoretical explanation for why collaborative benefits do not emerge under representative conditions. Collectively, outcomes indicate that collaborative testing versus individual testing is less effective and less efficient when learning key-term definitions under representative conditions.

  9. The Six-Minute Walk Test in Chronic Pediatric Conditions: A Systematic Review of Measurement Properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bart Bartels; Janke de Groot; Caroline Terwee

    2013-01-01

    Background The Six-Minute Walk Test (6MWT) is increasingly being used as a functional outcome measure for chronic pediatric conditions. Knowledge about its measurement properties is needed to determine whether it is an appropriate test to use. Purpose The purpose of this study was to systematically

  10. The six-minute walk test in chronic pediatric conditions: a systematic review of measurement properties.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels, B.; Groot, J.F. de; Terwee, C.B.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The Six-Minute Walk Test (6MWT) is increasingly being used as a functional outcome measure for chronic pediatric conditions. Knowledge about its measurement properties is needed to determine whether it is an appropriate test to use. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to

  11. The effect of a discrete signal on context conditioning: Assessment by preference and freezing tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maes, J.H.R.; LoLordo, V.M.

    1996-01-01

    Four experiments with rats assessed conditioning to contextual cues after the delivery of footshocks that were either signaled by a discrete stimulus or unsignaled. Two different tests were used. The first was a context preference test in which subjects were allowed to move freely in a brightly lit,

  12. Chapter 2. Experimental testing methods of materials under hot working conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossard, C.

    1976-01-01

    The deformation under hot working conditions is defined and the purpose of laboratory tests is explained: strength, structure, hot-workability. The concepts of generalized stress strain and strain rate are introduced. These concepts find an interesting application in the equivalence principle. The different testing methods (tension, compression, torsion) and their possibilities are reviewed. The softening mechanisms are recalled: dynamic recovery and recrystallization, static and post-dynamic recrystallization. To explain the possibilities of simulation tests in hot working conditions, some examples are given: the evaluation of the stress-strain relationship (effect of the mechanical and thermal history); the determination of structural behavior (quenching, controled cooling law, decomposition kinetics) [fr

  13. Seed vigour tests for predicting field emergence of maize under severe conditions

    OpenAIRE

    García de Yzaguirre, Álvaro; Lasa Dolhagaray, José Manuel

    1989-01-01

    [EN] With 40 to 50 different seed vigour tests available, appropiate procedures for choosing the best single test or combination the best predictors of seedling emergence of maize (Zea Mays L.) under severe conditions. Thirteen vigour tests and various field emergence trials were performed on six inbred lines and two commercial hybrids. The best single predictors of field emergence were identified by calculating simple correlation coefficients. The calculation of the geometric mean of the res...

  14. Stability of selected volatile contact allergens in different patch test chambers under different storage conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mose, Kristian Fredløv; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Christensen, Lars Porskjaer

    2012-01-01

    Background. Patch test preparations of volatile substances may evaporate during storage, thereby giving rise to reduced patch test concentrations. Objectives. To investigate the stability of selected acrylates/methacrylates and fragrance allergens in three different test chambers under different...... both storage conditions, whereas MMA and 2-HPA required cool storage for maintenance of the limit. Conclusion. The Van der Bend® transport container was the best device for storage of samples of volatile contact allergens....

  15. LOGICAL CONDITIONS ANALYSIS METHOD FOR DIAGNOSTIC TEST RESULTS DECODING APPLIED TO COMPETENCE ELEMENTS PROFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Freyman

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research.Representation features of education results for competence-based educational programs are analyzed. Solution importance of decoding and proficiency estimation for elements and components of discipline parts of competences is shown. The purpose and objectives of research are formulated. Methods. The paper deals with methods of mathematical logic, Boolean algebra, and parametrical analysis of complex diagnostic test results, that controls proficiency of some discipline competence elements. Results. The method of logical conditions analysis is created. It will give the possibility to formulate logical conditions for proficiency determination of each discipline competence element, controlled by complex diagnostic test. Normalized test result is divided into noncrossing zones; a logical condition about controlled elements proficiency is formulated for each of them. Summarized characteristics for test result zones are imposed. An example of logical conditions forming for diagnostic test with preset features is provided. Practical Relevance. The proposed method of logical conditions analysis is applied in the decoding algorithm of proficiency test diagnosis for discipline competence elements. It will give the possibility to automate the search procedure for elements with insufficient proficiency, and is also usable for estimation of education results of a discipline or a component of competence-based educational program.

  16. Subliminal influence on preferences? A test of evaluative conditioning for brief visual conditioned stimuli using auditory unconditioned stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heycke, Tobias; Aust, Frederik; Stahl, Christoph

    2017-09-01

    In the field of evaluative conditioning (EC), two opposing theories-propositional single-process theory versus dual-process theory-are currently being discussed in the literature. The present set of experiments test a crucial prediction to adjudicate between these two theories: Dual-process theory postulates that evaluative conditioning can occur without awareness of the contingency between conditioned stimulus (CS) and unconditioned stimulus (US); in contrast, single-process propositional theory postulates that EC requires CS-US contingency awareness. In a set of three studies, we experimentally manipulate contingency awareness by presenting the CSs very briefly, thereby rendering it unlikely to be processed consciously. We address potential issues with previous studies on EC with subliminal or near-threshold CSs that limited their interpretation. Across two experiments, we consistently found an EC effect for CSs presented for 1000 ms and consistently failed to find an EC effect for briefly presented CSs. In a third pre-registered experiment, we again found evidence for an EC effect with CSs presented for 1000 ms, and we found some indication for an EC effect for CSs presented for 20 ms.

  17. Manufacturing, testing and post-test examination of ITER divertor vertical target W small scale mock-ups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visca, Eliseo; Cacciotti, Emanuele; Komarov, Anton; Libera, Stefano; Litunovsky, Nikolay; Makhankov, Alexey; Mancini, Andrea; Merola, Mario; Pizzuto, Aldo; Riccardi, Bruno; Roccella, Selanna

    2011-01-01

    ENEA is involved in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) R and D activities. During the last years ENEA has set up and widely tested a manufacturing process, named Hot Radial Pressing (HRP), suitable for the construction of high heat flux plasma-facing components, such as the divertor targets. In the frame of the EFDA contract six mock-ups were manufactured by HRP in the ENEA labs using W monoblocks supplied by the Efremov Institute in St. Petersburg, Russian Federation and IG CuCrZr tubes. According to the technical specifications the mock-ups were examined by ultrasonic technique and after their acceptance they were delivered to the Efremov Institute TSEFEY-M e-beam facility for the thermal fatigue testing. The test consisted in 3000 cycles of 15 s heating and 15 s cooling at 10 MW/m 2 and finally 1000 cycles at 20 MW/m 2 . After the testing the ultrasonic non-destructive examination was repeated and the results compared with the investigation performed before the testing. A microstructure modification of the W monoblock material due to the overheating of the surfaces and the copper interlayer structure modification were observed in the high heat flux area. The leakage points of the mock-ups that did not conclude the testing were localized in the middle of the monoblock while they were expected between two monoblocks. This paper reports the manufacturing route, the thermal fatigue testing, the pre and post non destructive examination and finally the results of the destructive examination performed on the monoblock small scale mock-ups.

  18. 42 CFR 410.32 - Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests, and other diagnostic tests: Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Procedural Terminology published by the American Medical Association. (3) Levels of supervision. Except where... & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.32 Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory...

  19. A New Rig for Testing Textured Surfaces in Pure Sliding Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godi, Alessandro; Grønbæk, J.; Mohaghegh, Kamran

    2013-01-01

    machineries are necessary: a press to provide the normal pressure and a tensile machine to perform the axial movements. The test is calibrated so that the correspondence between the normal pressure and the container advancement is found. Preliminary tests are carried out involving a multifunctional and a fine......Throughout the years, it has become more and more important to find new methods for reducing friction and wear occurrence in machine elements. A possible solution is found in texturing the surfaces under tribological contact, as demonstrated by the development and spread of plateau-honed surface...... for cylinder liners. To prove the efficacy of a particular textured surface, it is paramount to perform experimental tests under controlled laboratory conditions. In this paper, a new test rig simulating pure sliding conditions is presented, dubbed axial sliding test. It presents four major components: a rod...

  20. Conversion Method of the Balance Test Results in Open Jet Tunnel on the Free Flow Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. T. Bui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a problem of sizing a model and converting the balance test results in the low speed open-jet wind tunnel to free-flow conditions. The ANSYS Fluent commercial code performs flow model calculations in the test section and in the free flow, and the ANSYS ICEM CFD module is used to provide grid generation. A structured grid is generated in the free flow and an unstructured one is provided in the test section. The changes of aerodynamic coefficients are determined at the different values of the blockage factor for the segmental-conical and hemisphere cylinder-cone shapes of the model. The blockage factor values are found at which the interference of the test section – model is neglected. The paper presents a technique to convert the wind tunnel test results to the free flow conditions.

  1. Long- and short-term trends in vessel conditioning of TFTR [Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaMarche, P.H.; Dylla, H.F.; Bell, M.G.

    1986-10-01

    We have investigated trends in the conditioning of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) vacuum vessel during the May 1984 to April 1985 run period. The initial conditioning of the vessel, consisting of glow discharge cleaning (GDC) and pulse discharge cleaning (PDC) in concert with a 150 0 C vessel bakeout, is necessary to assure plasma operation after atmospheric venting. A long-term conditioning process, ascribed to limiter conditioning, effectively improves operational conditions during the course of the run. Over several thousand high power plasma discharges, the improvement was documented by using standard parameter (fiducial) plasma discharges. Several techniques demonstrated short-term improvements in vessel conditioning during this time period, including: Cr gettering and programming the plasma position relative to the limiter contact area

  2. Societal Conditions and the Gender Difference in Well-Being: Testing a Three-Stage Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, Miron; Li, Chen; Diener, Edward F

    2017-03-01

    Findings from a meta-analysis on gender differences in self-esteem (Zuckerman et al., 2016) suggest that the relation between the degree to which societal conditions are favorable to women and gender difference in self-esteem might be quadratic; when conditions improve, women's self-esteem (relative to that of men) trends downward but when conditions continue to improve, women's self-esteem begins to trend upward. Testing whether these relations generalize to subjective well-being, the present study found a quadratic relation between improving societal conditions and the gender difference in life satisfaction and positive affect (women are lower than men when societal conditions are moderately favorable compared to when they are at their worst and at their best); the relation was linear for negative emotion (women report more negative emotions than men when societal conditions are better). Directions for future research that will address potential explanations for these results are proposed.

  3. Test plan for reactions between spent fuel and J-13 well water under unsaturated conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finn, P.A.; Wronkiewicz, D.J.; Hoh, J.C.; Emery, J.W.; Hafenrichter, L.D.; Bates, J.K.

    1993-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project is evaluating the long-term performance of a high-level nuclear waste form, spent fuel from commercial reactors. Permanent disposal of the spent fuel is possible in a potential repository to be located in the volcanic tuff beds near Yucca Mountain, Nevada. During the post-containment period the spent fuel could be exposed to water condensation since of the cladding is assumed to fail during this time. Spent fuel leach (SFL) tests are designed to simulate and monitor the release of radionuclides from the spent fuel under this condition. This Test Plan addresses the anticipated conditions whereby spent fuel is contacted by small amounts of water that trickle through the spent fuel container. Two complentary test plans are presented, one to examine the reaction of spent fuel and J-13 well water under unsaturated conditions and the second to examine the reaction of unirradiated UO 2 pellets and J-13 well water under unsaturated conditions. The former test plan examines the importance of the water content, the oxygen content as affected by radiolysis, the fuel burnup, fuel surface area, and temperature. The latter test plant examines the effect of the non-presence of Teflon in the test vessel

  4. Effects of Test Conditions on APA Rutting and Prediction Modeling for Asphalt Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available APA rutting tests were conducted for six kinds of asphalt mixtures under air-dry and immersing conditions. The influences of test conditions, including load, temperature, air voids, and moisture, on APA rutting depth were analyzed by using grey correlation method, and the APA rutting depth prediction model was established. Results show that the modified asphalt mixtures have bigger rutting depth ratios of air-dry to immersing conditions, indicating that the modified asphalt mixtures have better antirutting properties and water stability than the matrix asphalt mixtures. The grey correlation degrees of temperature, load, air void, and immersing conditions on APA rutting depth decrease successively, which means that temperature is the most significant influencing factor. The proposed indoor APA rutting prediction model has good prediction accuracy, and the correlation coefficient between the predicted and the measured rutting depths is 96.3%.

  5. Test-potentiated learning: three independent replications, a disconfirmed hypothesis, and an unexpected boundary condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissman, Kathryn T; Rawson, Katherine A

    2018-04-01

    Arnold and McDermott [(2013). Test-potentiated learning: Distinguishing between direct and indirect effects of testing. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 39, 940-945] isolated the indirect effects of testing and concluded that encoding is enhanced to a greater extent following more versus fewer practice tests, referred to as test-potentiated learning. The current research provided further evidence for test-potentiated learning and evaluated the covert retrieval hypothesis as an alternative explanation for the observed effect. Learners initially studied foreign language word pairs and then completed either one or five practice tests before restudy occurred. Results of greatest interest concern performance on test trials following restudy for items that were not correctly recalled on the test trials that preceded restudy. Results replicate Arnold and McDermott (2013) by demonstrating that more versus fewer tests potentiate learning when trial time is limited. Results also provide strong evidence against the covert retrieval hypothesis concerning why the effect occurs (i.e., it does not reflect differential covert retrieval during pre-restudy trials). In addition, outcomes indicate that the magnitude of the test-potentiated learning effect decreases as trial length increases, revealing an unexpected boundary condition to test-potentiated learning.

  6. Comparison of Test Stand and Helicopter Oil Cooler Bearing Condition Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Paula J.; Branning, Jeremy; Wade, Damiel R.; Bolander, Nathan

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this paper was to compare the performance of HUMS condition indicators (CI) when detecting a bearing fault in a test stand or on a helicopter. This study compared data from two sources: first, CI data collected from accelerometers installed on two UH-60 Black Hawk helicopters when oil cooler bearing faults occurred, along with data from helicopters with no bearing faults; and second, CI data that was collected from ten cooler bearings, healthy and faulted, that were removed from fielded helicopters and installed in a test stand. A method using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves to compare CI performance was demonstrated. Results indicated the bearing energy CI responded differently for the helicopter and the test stand. Future research is required if test stand data is to be used validate condition indicator performance on a helicopter.

  7. Testing of one-inch UF{sub 6} cylinder valves under simulated fire conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, P.G. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Paducah, KY (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Accurate computational models which predict the behavior of UF{sub 6} cylinders exposed to fires are required to validate existing firefighting and emergency response procedures. Since the cylinder valve is a factor in the containment provided by the UF{sub 6} cylinder, its behavior under fire conditions has been a necessary assumption in the development of such models. Consequently, test data is needed to substantiate these assumptions. Several studies cited in this document provide data related to the behavior of a 1-inch UF{sub 6} cylinder valve in fire situations. To acquire additional data, a series of tests were conducted at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) under a unique set of test conditions. This document describes this testing and the resulting data.

  8. Effect of the stringency of conditions on caloric test results in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krstulovic, Claudio; Tulsidas Mahtani, Bharti; Atrache Al Attrache, Nabil; Pérez-Garrigues, Herminio

    The caloric test is widely used to assess vestibular function, but the conditions in which it is performed can vary. Caloric nystagmus obtained in 57 healthy subjects were compared: 24 subjects studied in ideal conditions and 33 subjects in non-ideal conditions. A statistically significant decrease in the slow phase velocity of the 4 irrigations performed on the subjects in non-ideal conditions was observed. This must be considered, especially in subjects with suspected bilateral involvement. Stringent conditions reduce the risk of misdiagnosis with bilateral deficit. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. All rights reserved.

  9. Laboratory Test Methods to Determine the Degradation of Plastics in Marine Environmental Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Tosin, Maurizio; Weber, Miriam; Siotto, Michela; Lott, Christian; Degli Innocenti, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    In this technology report, three test methods were developed to characterize the degradation of plastic in marine environment. The aim was to outline a test methodology to measure the physical and biological degradation in different habitats where plastic waste can deposit when littered in the sea. Previously, research has focused mainly on the conditions encountered by plastic items when floating in the sea water (pelagic domain). However, this is just one of the possible habitats that plast...

  10. In-core materials testing under LWR conditions in the Halden reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, P.J.; Hauso, E.; Hoegberg, N.W.; Karlsen, T.M.; McGrath, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    The Halden boiling water reactor (HBWR) has been in operation since 1958. It is a test reactor with a maximum power of 18 MW and is cooled and moderated by boiling heavy water, with a normal operating temperature of 230 C and a pressure of 34 bar. In the past 15 years increasing emphasis has been placed on materials testing, both of in-core structural materials and fuel claddings. These tests require representative light water reactor (LWR) conditions, which are achieved by housing the test rigs in pressure flasks that are positioned in fuel channels in the reactor and connected to dedicated water loops, in which boiling water reactor (BWR) or pressurised water reactor (PWR) conditions are simulated. Understanding of the in-core behaviour of fuel or reactor materials can be greatly improved by on-line measurements during power operation. The Halden Project has performed in-pile measurements for a period of over 35 years, beginning with fuel temperature measurements using thermocouples and use of differential transformers for measurement of fuel pellet or cladding dimensional changes and internal rod pressure. Experience gained over this period has been applied to on-line instrumentation for use in materials tests. This paper gives details of the systems used at Halden for materials testing under LWR conditions. The techniques used to provide on-line data are described and illustrative results are presented. (authors)

  11. In-core materials testing under LWR conditions in the Halden reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, P.J.; Hauso, E.; Hoegberg, N.W.; Karlsen, T.M.; McGrath, M.A. [OECD Halden Reactor Project (Norway)

    2002-07-01

    The Halden boiling water reactor (HBWR) has been in operation since 1958. It is a test reactor with a maximum power of 18 MW and is cooled and moderated by boiling heavy water, with a normal operating temperature of 230 C and a pressure of 34 bar. In the past 15 years increasing emphasis has been placed on materials testing, both of in-core structural materials and fuel claddings. These tests require representative light water reactor (LWR) conditions, which are achieved by housing the test rigs in pressure flasks that are positioned in fuel channels in the reactor and connected to dedicated water loops, in which boiling water reactor (BWR) or pressurised water reactor (PWR) conditions are simulated. Understanding of the in-core behaviour of fuel or reactor materials can be greatly improved by on-line measurements during power operation. The Halden Project has performed in-pile measurements for a period of over 35 years, beginning with fuel temperature measurements using thermocouples and use of differential transformers for measurement of fuel pellet or cladding dimensional changes and internal rod pressure. Experience gained over this period has been applied to on-line instrumentation for use in materials tests. This paper gives details of the systems used at Halden for materials testing under LWR conditions. The techniques used to provide on-line data are described and illustrative results are presented. (authors)

  12. Discussions On Worst-Case Test Condition For Single Event Burnout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sandra; Zafrani, Max; Sherman, Phillip

    2011-10-01

    This paper discusses the failure characteristics of single- event burnout (SEB) on power MOSFETs based on analyzing the quasi-stationary avalanche simulation curves. The analyses show the worst-case test condition for SEB would be using the ion that has the highest mass that would result in the highest transient current due to charge deposition and displacement damage. The analyses also show it is possible to build power MOSFETs that will not exhibit SEB even when tested with the heaviest ion, which have been verified by heavy ion test data on SEB sensitive and SEB immune devices.

  13. High heat flux tests at divertor relevant conditions on water-cooled swirl tube targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlosser, J.; Boscary, J.

    1994-01-01

    High heat flux experiments were performed to provide a technology for heat flux removal under NET/ITER relevant conditions. The water-cooled rectangular test sections were made of hardened copper with a stainless steel twisted tape installed inside a circular channel and one-side heated. The tests aimed to investigate the heat transfer and the critical heat flux in the subcooled boiling regime. A CHF data base of 63 values was established. Test results have shown the thermalhydraulic ability of swirl tubes to sustain an incident heat flux up to a 30 MW.m -2 range. (author) 10 refs.; 7 figs

  14. Assessment of ichthyo-fauna condition within zone of Semipalatinsk test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamilov, N.Sh.; Mitrofanov, I.V.; Matmuratov, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents studies of biological factors and calculating morphological features for fish from the Uzunbulak and Shagan Rivers situated in the Semipalatinsk test site area. The conditions of fish habitat are characterized as favorable; however alteration of phenotypic features shows radiation water contamination. (author)

  15. Applied Chaos Level Test for Validation of Signal Conditions Underlying Optimal Performance of Voice Classification Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Boquan; Polce, Evan; Sprott, Julien C.; Jiang, Jack J.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to introduce a chaos level test to evaluate linear and nonlinear voice type classification method performances under varying signal chaos conditions without subjective impression. Study Design: Voice signals were constructed with differing degrees of noise to model signal chaos. Within each noise power, 100…

  16. Density-dependent effects on physical condition and reproduction in North American elk: an experimental test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley M. Stewart; R. Terry Bowyer; Brian L. Dick; Bruce K. Johnson; John G. Kie

    2005-01-01

    Density dependence plays a key role in life-history characteristics and population ecology of large, herbivorous mammals. We designed a manipulative experiment to test hypotheses relating effects of density-dependent mechanisms on physical condition and fecundity of North American elk (Cervus elaphus) by creating populations at low and high density...

  17. Assessing Boundary Conditions of the Testing Effect: On the Relative Efficacy of Covert vs. Overt Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max L. Sundqvist

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Repeated testing during learning often improves later memory, which is often referred to as the testing effect. To clarify its boundary conditions, we examined whether the testing effect was selectively affected by covert (retrieved but not articulated or overt (retrieved and articulated response format. In Experiments 1 and 2, we compared immediate (5 min and delayed (1 week cued recall for paired associates following study-only, covert, and overt conditions, including two types of overt articulation (typing and writing. A clear testing effect was observed in both experiments, but with no selective effects of response format. In Experiments 3 and 4, we compared covert and overt retrieval under blocked and random list orders. The effect sizes were small in both experiments, but there was a significant effect of response format, with overt retrieval showing better final recall performance than covert retrieval. There were no significant effects of blocked vs. random list orders with respect to the testing effect produced. Taken together, these findings suggest that, under specific circumstances, overt retrieval may lead to a greater testing effect than that of covert retrieval, but because of small effect sizes, it appears that the testing effect is mainly the result of retrieval processes and that articulation has fairly little to add to its magnitude in a paired-associates learning paradigm.

  18. Stability of selected volatile contact allergens in different patch test chambers under different storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mose, Kristian F; Andersen, Klaus E; Christensen, Lars Porskjaer

    2012-04-01

    Patch test preparations of volatile substances may evaporate during storage, thereby giving rise to reduced patch test concentrations. To investigate the stability of selected acrylates/methacrylates and fragrance allergens in three different test chambers under different storage conditions. Petrolatum samples of methyl methacrylate (MMA), 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (2-HEMA), 2-hydroxypropyl acrylate (2-HPA), cinnamal and eugenol in patch test concentrations were stored in three different test chambers (IQ chamber™, IQ Ultimate™, and Van der Bend® transport container) at room temperature and in a refrigerator. The samples were analysed in triplicate with high-performance liquid chromatography. The decrease in concentration was substantial for all five allergens under both storage conditions in IQ chamber™ and IQ Ultimate™, with the exception of 2-HEMA during storage in the refrigerator. For these two chamber systems, the contact allergen concentration dropped below the stability limit in the following order: MMA, cinnamal, 2-HPA, eugenol, and 2-HEMA. In the Van der Bend® transport container, the contact allergens exhibited acceptable stability under both storage conditions, whereas MMA and 2-HPA required cool storage for maintenance of the limit. The Van der Bend® transport container was the best device for storage of samples of volatile contact allergens. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. Analysis of results obtained from field tracing test under natural rain condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukai, M.; Kamiyama, H.; Tanaka, T.; Wang Zhiming; Zhao Yingjie; Li Zhengtang

    1993-01-01

    As one of the tests arranged by the cooperative research between CIRP and JAERI, field tracing tests using 3 H, 60 Co, 85 Sr and 134 Cs were conducted in pits at the CIRP's field test site located on a loess tableland under natural rain condition. Precipitation amount and evaporation rate were measured to study complicated spatial-temporal behavior of soil water movement under that condition. The evaporation rate was obtained through an analysis on the measured data by a combined method of heat balance and eddy correlation. Numerical model, that is based on piston flow assumption of soil water movement, was developed and applied to determine the behavior of the soil water movement in the pits. Using the determined water movement, 3 H migration was evaluated by numerical simulation. Change of 3 H distribution as a function of elapsed time as well explained by careful evaluation of the soil water movement that carried out before the analysis. (5 figs.)

  20. Hypothetical accident conditions free drop and thermal tests USA/5791/BLF (ERDA-AL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blankenship, R.W.

    1980-05-01

    The USA/5791/BLF (ERDA-AL) shipping container with rolled-top food pack cans as inner containers is evaluated under conditions required by 10 CFR 71.42. One kilogram of depleted uranium as UO 2 was packaged in each of the inner containers. After completion of a free drop test and a simulated thermal test, the maximum observed leakage of UO 2 for the following week was 3.0 μg. This leakage is well below the allowable leakage per week for most plutonium isotopic mixtures. Using the examples provided, any plutonium isotopic mixture can be easily compared with the allowable leakage per week. Test conditions and results are reported

  1. Hypothetical accident conditions, free drop and thermal tests: Specification 6M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blankenship, R.W.

    1980-05-01

    The 30 gallon Specification 6M shipping container with rolled-top food pack cans as inner containers is evaluated under conditions required by 10 CFR 71.42. One kilogram of depleted uranium as UO 2 was packaged in each of the inner containers. After completion of a free drop test and a simulated thermal test, the maximum observed leakage of UO 2 for the following week was 3.2 μg. This leakage is well below the allowable leakage per week for most plutonium isotopic mixtures. Using the examples provided, any plutonium isotopic mixture can be easily compared with the allowable leakage per week. Test conditions and results are reported

  2. A new condition for assessing the clinical efficiency of a diagnostic test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokhari, Ehsan; Hubert, Lawrence

    2015-09-01

    When prediction using a diagnostic test outperforms simple prediction using base rates, the test is said to be "clinically efficient," a term first introduced into the literature by Meehl and Rosen (1955) in Psychological Bulletin. This article provides three equivalent conditions for determining the clinical efficiency of a diagnostic test: (a) Meehl-Rosen (Meehl & Rosen, 1955); (b) Dawes (Dawes, 1962); and (c) the Bokhari-Hubert condition, introduced here for the first time. Clinical efficiency is then generalized to situations where misclassification costs are considered unequal (for example, false negatives are more costly than false positives). As an illustration, the clinical efficiency of an actuarial device for predicting violent and dangerous behavior is examined that was developed as part of the MacArthur Violence Risk Assessment Study. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. An experimental test of condition-dependent male and female mate choice in zebra finches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Jeanne Holveck

    Full Text Available In mating systems with social monogamy and obligatory bi-parental care, such as found in many songbird species, male and female fitness depends on the combined parental investment. Hence, both sexes should gain from choosing mates in high rather than low condition. However, theory also predicts that an individual's phenotypic quality can constrain choice, if low condition individuals cannot afford prolonged search efforts and/or face higher risk of rejection. In systems with mutual mate choice, the interaction between male and female condition should thus be a better predictor of choice than either factor in isolation. To address this prediction experimentally, we manipulated male and female condition and subsequently tested male and female mating preferences in zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata, a songbird species with mutual mate choice and obligatory bi-parental care. We experimentally altered phenotypic quality by manipulating the brood size in which the birds were reared. Patterns of association for high- or low-condition individuals of the opposite sex differed for male and female focal birds when tested in an 8-way choice arena. Females showed repeatable condition-assortative preferences for males matching their own rearing background. Male preferences were also repeatable, but not predicted by their own or females' rearing background. In combination with a brief review of the literature on condition-dependent mate choice in the zebra finch we discuss whether the observed sex differences and between-studies differences arise because males and females differ in context sensitivity (e.g. male-male competition suppressing male mating preferences, sampling strategies or susceptibility to rearing conditions (e.g. sex-specific effect on physiology. While a picture emerges that juvenile and current state indeed affect preferences, the development and context-dependency of mutual state-dependent mate choice warrants further study.

  4. Experience with High Voltage Tests of the W7-X Magnets in Paschen-Minimum Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen-Zarling, B.M.; Risse, K.; Viebke, H.; Gustke, D.; Ehmler, H.; Baldzuhn, J.; Sborchia, C.; Scheller, H.

    2006-01-01

    The W7-X machine is a low-shear stellarator of the Wendelstein line, which is being assembled at the IPP Branch Institute of Greifswald, Germany. The machine features a superconducting magnet system with 50 non-planar and 20 planar magnets operated at about 6 T and discharged with peak voltage levels up to 6 kV. Following the factory tests, the magnets are delivered to CEA Saclay, France, for the final acceptance tests at cryogenic condition. A series of high voltage tests in air and vacuum are part of the final acceptance test. During these tests the quality of the insulation, especially the hand-wrapped ground insulation in the termination area, has proven not to be adequate. In order to improve the reliability of the insulation system and detect defects for early repair, high voltage tests in reduced pressure of air (Paschen-minimum conditions) have been added as part of the factory acceptance procedure. This has been implemented in the vacuum chambers of BNN/Ansaldo for the test of the 50 non-planar coils, while other tests have been carried out at CEA/Saclay after cold testing. IPP has also installed a vacuum tank to perform Paschen tests during the preparation of all the coils for assembly, including also the 20 planar coils which cannot be tested at the manufacturer Tesla. These tests have proven to be a powerful tool to detect hidden insulation defects and void/cavities in the primary impregnation system, which could not be detected otherwise with the standard high voltage tests. This paper will summarize the background and experience accumulated in about 2 years of Paschen tests on the W7-X coils, including a description of the equipment, main results and statistics, weak points detected and repaired on the coils, and possibilities of improvements in the development and production of the W7-X magnets. The importance and the need of Paschen tests as part of the acceptance procedure for superconducting magnets to be used in future projects will also be

  5. Nuclear power plant Olkiluoto 3. Containment leakage test under extreme conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleckenstein, Tobias [TUEV SUED Industrie Service GmbH, Munich (Germany). Measaruement Technology Dept.

    2015-01-15

    Modern nuclear power plants place high demands on the design and execution of safety checks. TUEV SUED supported the containment leakage test for the largest- capacity third generation nuclear power plant in the world - Olkiluoto 3 in Finland. The experts successfully met the challenges presented by exceptional parameters of the project. The containment of Olkiluoto 3 is unique in that the vessel's volume is 80,000 m{sup 3} while measurements were carried out over a period of ten days. To execute the test, 75 temperature and 15 humidity sensors had to be installed and correctly interlinked by more than ten kilometres of cable. These instruments also needed to withstand an absolute pressure of 6 bar, ambient temperatures of 30 C and high levels of humidity. These conditions required comprehensive preparation and a high amount of qualification tests. Parts of the qualifications were carried out at the autoclave system of the Technical University in Munich, Germany, where the project test conditions could be simulated. The software required to determine the tests was developed by TUEV SUED and verified by German's national accreditation body DAkkS under ISO 17025. TUEV SUED enabled the test schedule to continue without delay by analysing all recorded data continuously on site, including pressure, temperature, humidity and leakage mass flow curves. With the comprehensive preparation, data acquisition system recording measurements continuously and the on-time result calculation, all components of the leak-tightness assessment were successfully completed in accordance with requirements.

  6. Fuel Accident Condition Simulator (FACS) Furnace for Post-Irradiation Heating Tests of VHTR Fuel Compacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul A Demkowicz; Paul Demkowicz; David V Laug

    2010-10-01

    Abstract –Fuel irradiation testing and post-irradiation examination are currently in progress as part of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Fuels Development and Qualification Program. The PIE campaign will include extensive accident testing of irradiated very high temperature reactor fuel compacts to verify fission product retention characteristics at high temperatures. This work will be carried out at both the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, beginning with accident tests on irradiated fuel from the AGR-1 experiment in 2010. A new furnace system has been designed, built, and tested at INL to perform high temperature accident tests. The Fuel Accident Condition Simulator furnace system is designed to heat fuel specimens at temperatures up to 2000°C in helium while monitoring the release of volatile fission metals (e.g. Cs, Ag, Sr, Eu, and I) and fission gases (Kr, Xe). Fission gases released from the fuel to the sweep gas are monitored in real time using dual cryogenic traps fitted with high purity germanium detectors. Condensable fission products are collected on a plate attached to a water-cooled cold finger that can be exchanged periodically without interrupting the test. Analysis of fission products on the condensation plates involves dry gamma counting followed by chemical analysis of selected isotopes. This paper will describe design and operational details of the Fuel Accident Condition Simulator (FACS) furnace system, as well as preliminary system calibration results.

  7. Expert Assessment of Conditions for Accredited Quality Management System Functioning in Testing Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mytych, Joanna; Ligarski, Mariusz J.

    2018-03-01

    The quality management systems compliant with the ISO 9001:2009 have been thoroughly researched and described in detail in the world literature. The accredited management systems used in the testing laboratories and compliant with the ISO/IEC 17025:2005 have been mainly described in terms of the system design and implementation. They have also been investigated from the analytical point of view. Unfortunately, a low number of studies concerned the management system functioning in the accredited testing laboratories. The aim of following study was to assess the management system functioning in the accredited testing laboratories in Poland. On 8 October 2015, 1,213 accredited testing laboratories were present in Poland. They investigated various scientific areas and substances/objects. There are more and more such laboratories that have various problems and different long-term experience when it comes to the implementation, maintenance and improvement of the management systems. The article describes the results of the conducted expert assessment (survey) carried out to examine the conditions for the functioning of a management system in an accredited laboratory. It also focuses on the characteristics of the accredited research laboratories in Poland. The authors discuss the selection of the external and internal conditions that may affect the accredited management system. They show how the experts assessing the selected conditions were chosen. The survey results are also presented.

  8. Testing of LWR fuel rods to support criticality safety analysis of transport accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purcell, P.C. [BNFL International Transport, Spent Fuel Services (United Kingdom); Dallongeville, M. [COGEMA Logistics (AREVA Group) (France)

    2004-07-01

    For the transport of low enriched materials, criticality safety may be demonstrated by applying pessimistic modelling assumptions that bound any realistic case. Where Light Water Reactor (LWR) fuel is being transported, enrichment levels are usually too high to permit this approach and more realistic data is needed. This requires a method by which the response of LWR fuel under impact accident conditions can be approximated or bounded. In 2000, BNFL and COGEMA LOGISTICS jointly commenced the Fuel Integrity Project (FIP) whose objective was to develop such methods. COGEMA LOGISTICS were well advanced with a method for determining the impact response of unirradiated fuel, but required further test data before acceptance by the Transport Regulators. The joint project team extensively discussed the required inputs to the FIP, from which it was agreed that BNFL would organise new tests on both unirradiated and irradiated fuel samples and COGEMA LOGISTICS would take major responsibility for evaluating the test results. Tests on unirradiated fuel rod samples involved both dynamic and quasi-static loading on fuel samples. PWR fuel rods loaded with uranium pellets were dropped vertically from 9m onto a rigid target and this was repeated on BWR fuel rods, similar tests on empty fuel rods were also conducted. Quasi-static tests were conducted on 530 mm long PWR and BWR fuel specimens under axial loading. Tests on irradiated fuel samples were conducted on high burn-up fuel rods of both PWR and BWR types. These were believed original to the FIP project and involved applying bending loads to simply supported pressurised rod specimens. In one test the fuel rod was heated to nearly 500oC during loading, all specimens were subject to axial impact before testing. Considerable experience of fuel rod testing and new data was gained from this test programme.

  9. Testing of LWR fuel rods to support criticality safety analysis of transport accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purcell, P.C.; Dallongeville, M.

    2004-01-01

    For the transport of low enriched materials, criticality safety may be demonstrated by applying pessimistic modelling assumptions that bound any realistic case. Where Light Water Reactor (LWR) fuel is being transported, enrichment levels are usually too high to permit this approach and more realistic data is needed. This requires a method by which the response of LWR fuel under impact accident conditions can be approximated or bounded. In 2000, BNFL and COGEMA LOGISTICS jointly commenced the Fuel Integrity Project (FIP) whose objective was to develop such methods. COGEMA LOGISTICS were well advanced with a method for determining the impact response of unirradiated fuel, but required further test data before acceptance by the Transport Regulators. The joint project team extensively discussed the required inputs to the FIP, from which it was agreed that BNFL would organise new tests on both unirradiated and irradiated fuel samples and COGEMA LOGISTICS would take major responsibility for evaluating the test results. Tests on unirradiated fuel rod samples involved both dynamic and quasi-static loading on fuel samples. PWR fuel rods loaded with uranium pellets were dropped vertically from 9m onto a rigid target and this was repeated on BWR fuel rods, similar tests on empty fuel rods were also conducted. Quasi-static tests were conducted on 530 mm long PWR and BWR fuel specimens under axial loading. Tests on irradiated fuel samples were conducted on high burn-up fuel rods of both PWR and BWR types. These were believed original to the FIP project and involved applying bending loads to simply supported pressurised rod specimens. In one test the fuel rod was heated to nearly 500oC during loading, all specimens were subject to axial impact before testing. Considerable experience of fuel rod testing and new data was gained from this test programme

  10. Prenatal Testing for Adult-Onset Conditions: the Position of the National Society of Genetic Counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hercher, Laura; Uhlmann, Wendy R; Hoffman, Erin P; Gustafson, Shanna; Chen, Kelly M

    2016-12-01

    Advances in genetic testing and the availability of such testing in pregnancy allows prospective parents to test their future child for adult-onset conditions. This ability raises several complex ethical issues. Prospective parents have reproductive rights to obtain information about their fetus. This information may or may not alter pregnancy management. These rights can be in conflict with the rights of the future individual, who will be denied the right to elect or decline testing. This paper highlights the complexity of these issues, details discussions that went into the National Society of Genetic Counselors (NSGC) Public Policy Task Force's development of the Prenatal testing for Adult-Onset Conditions position statement adopted in November 2014, and cites relevant literature on this topic through December 2015. Issues addressed include parental rights and autonomy, rights of the future child, the right not to know, possible adverse effects on childhood and the need for genetic counseling. This paper will serve as a reference to genetic counselors and healthcare professionals when faced with this situation in clinical practice.

  11. Test on Similarity between the Flooded and Optimum Moderation Conditions of the Spent Fuel Storage Pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Gil Soo; Jang, Chang Sun; Woo, Sweng Woong [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-05-15

    In the criticality safety analysis, uncertainty and bias should be considered. The final multiplication factor including uncertainty and bias in addition to calculated k-eff should be below the administrative limit. The administrative limit of spent fuel pool is 0.95 with flooded condition (filled with unborated water), and 0.98 with optimum moderation condition (filled with foggy unborated water, usually occurs near 0.1g/cc water density) for new fuel storage. The bias is determined by comparing the calculation results of the critical experiments ever performed. It is important to choose 'good' experiments which have 'similar' condition with application. To obtain realistic bias, many experiments with similar conditions should be chosen and considered. In previous approach, same critical experiment set are used to determine bias of the flooded and optimum moderation conditions. It would be correct way if two conditions are similar. The similarity test on this paper was performed by TSUNAMI code included in SCALE5.1 package. TSUNAMI code produces sensitivity data for each nuclear reaction by using first order perturbation theory. TSUNAMI code performs forward and adjoint multigroup Monte Carlo calculation. Sensitivity data are obtained by forward and adjoint results. TSUNAMI also produces uncertainty data with sensitivity data and cross section covariance data. In this paper, similarity is determined by comparing energy of average lethargy of fission (EALF), uncertainty data, sensitivity data, and correlation coefficient which is also output of the TSUNAMI code.

  12. Numerical ductile tearing simulation of circumferential cracked pipe tests under dynamic loading conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Hyun Suk; Kim, Ji Soo; Ryu, Ho Wan; Kim, Yun Jae [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Weon [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    This paper presents a numerical method to simulate ductile tearing in cracked components under high strain rates using finite element damage analysis. The strain rate dependence on tensile properties and multiaxial fracture strain is characterized by the model developed by Johnson and Cook. The damage model is then defined based on the ductility exhaustion concept using the strain rate dependent multiaxial fracture strain concept. The proposed model is applied to simulate previously published three cracked pipe bending test results under two different test speed conditions. Simulated results show overall good agreement with experimental results.

  13. Verification of the machinery condition monitoring technology by fault simulation tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maehara, Takafumi; Watanabe, Yukio; Osaki, Kenji; Higuma, Koji; Nakano, Tomohito

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows the test items and equipments introduced by Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization to establish the monitoring technique for machinery conditions. From the result of vertical pump simulation tests, it was confirmed that fault analysis was impossible by measuring the accelerations on both motor and pump column pipes, however, was possible by measuring of pump shaft vibrations. Because hydraulic whirls by bearing wear had significant influences over bearing misalignments and flow rates, the monitoring trends must be done under the same condition (on bearing alignments and flow rates). We have confirmed that malfunctions of vertical pumps can be diagnosed using measured shaft vibration by ultrasonic sensors from outer surface of pump casing on the floor. (author)

  14. Fission product aerosol removal test by containment spray under accident management conditions (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Atsushi; Nagasaka, Hideo; Yokobori, Seiichi; Akinaga, Makoto

    2000-01-01

    In order to demonstrate the effective FP aerosol removal by containment spray under Japanese AM conditions, two system integral tests and two separate effect tests were carried out using a full-height simulation test facility. In case of PWR LOCA, aerosol concentration in the upper containment vessel decreased even under low spray flow rate. In case of BWR LOCA with water injection into RPV, the aerosol concentration in the entire vessel also decreased rapidly after aerosol supply stopping. In both cases, the removal rate estimated from the NUREG-1465 was coincided with test results. The aerosol washing effect by spray was confirmed to be predominant by conducting suppression chamber isolation test. It turned out that the effect of aerosol solubility and density on aerosol removal by spray was quite small by conducting insoluble aerosol injection test. After the modification of aerosol removal model by the spray and hygroscopic aerosol model in original MELCOR 1.8.4, calculated aerosol concentration transient in the containment vessel agreed well with the test data. (author)

  15. Elevated-Temperature Tests Under Static and Aerodynamic Conditions on Honeycomb-Core Sandwich Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen, Joseph M.; Johnson, Aldie E., Jr.

    1959-01-01

    Stainless-steel honeycomb-core sandwich panels which differed primarily in skin thicknesses were tested at elevated temperatures under static and aerodynamic conditions. The results of these tests were evaluated to determine the insulating effectiveness and structural integrity of the panels. The static radiant-heating tests were performed in front of a quartz-tube radiant heater at panel skin temperatures up to 1,5000 F. The aerodynamic tests were made in a Mach 1.4 heated blowdown wind tunnel. The tunnel temperature was augmented by additional heat supplied by a radiant heater which raised the panel surface temperature above 8000 F during air flow. Static radiant-heating tests of 2 minutes duration showed that all the panels protected the load-carrying structure about equally well. Thin-skin panels showed an advantage for this short-time test over thick-skin panels from a standpoint of weight against insulation. Permanent inelastic strains in the form of local buckles over each cell of the honeycomb core caused an increase in surface roughness. During the aero- dynamic tests all of the panels survived with little or no damage, and panel flutter did not occur.

  16. Technologies for exhaust aftertreatment testing under real conditions; Abgasnachbehandlungs-Technologien. Erprobung im realen Bahnbetrieb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weigel, Claudia; Schaeffner, Guido; Hehle, Marc; Bergmann, Dirk [MTU Friedrichshafen GmbH, Friedrichshafen (Germany); Kattwinkel, Peter [Umicore AG und Co. KG, Hanau-Wolfgang (Germany). Geschaeftsbereich Automotive Catalysts; Viehweg, Petra [DB AG, Leipzig (Germany). Bereich Technik Systemverbund und Dienstleistungen

    2010-11-15

    The use of exhaust aftertreatment technology in off-highway applications is not yet universally established. For this reason, MTU Friedrichshafen GmbH and Deutsche Bahn AG conducted a joint research project involving early testing of various basic technologies for exhaust gas aftertreatment (EGA) under real conditions. The knowledge gained in the rail applications sector will be transferrable to other sectors and it will also be possible to combine the basic technologies involved in different ways. (orig.)

  17. IMAGE Project: Results of Laboratory Tests on Tracers for Supercritical Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandvoll, Øyvind; Opsahl Viig, Sissel; Nardini, Isabella; Muller, Jiri

    2016-04-01

    The use of tracers is a well-established technique for monitoring dynamic behaviour of water and gas through a reservoir. In geothermal reservoirs special challenges are encountered due to high temperatures and pressures. In this work, tracer candidates for monitoring water at supercritical conditions (temperature > 374°C, pressure ca 218 bar), are tested in laboratory experiments. Testing of tracers at supercritical water conditions requires experimental set-ups which tolerate harsh conditions with respect to high temperature and pressure. In addition stringent HES (health, environment and safety) factors have to be taken into consideration when designing and performing the experiments. The setup constructed in this project consists of a pressure vessel, high pressure pump, instrumentation for pressure and temperature control and instrumentation required for accurate sampling of tracers. In order to achieve accurate results, a special focus has been paid to the development of the tracer sampling technique. Perfluorinated cyclic hydrocarbons (PFCs) have been selected as tracer candidates. This group of compounds is today commonly used as gas tracers in oil reservoirs. According to the literature they are stable at temperatures up to 400°C. To start with, five PFCs have been tested for thermal stability in static experiments at 375°C and 108 bar in the experimental setup described above. The tracer candidates will be further tested for several months at the relevant conditions. Preliminary results indicate that some of the PFC compounds show stability after three months. However, in order to arrive at conclusive results, the experiments have to be repeated over a longer period and paying special attention to more accurate sampling procedures.

  18. Conditions for testing the corrosion rates of ceramics in coal gasification systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurley, J.P.; Nowok, J.W. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Coal gasifier operating conditions and gas and ash compositions affect the corrosion rates of ceramics used for construction in three ways: (1) through direct corrosion of the materials, (2) by affecting the concentration and chemical form of the primary corrodents, and (3) by affecting the mass transport rate of the primary corrodents. To perform an accurate corrosion test on a system material, the researcher must include all relevant corrodents and simulate conditions in the gasifier as closely as possible. In this paper, the authors present suggestions for conditions to be used in such corrosion tests. Two main types of corrosion conditions are discussed: those existing in hot-gas cleanup systems where vapor and dry ash may contribute to corrosion and those experienced by high-temperature heat exchangers and refractories where the main corrodent will be coal ash slag. Only the fluidized-bed gasification systems such as the Sierra Pacific Power Company Pinon Pine Power Project system are proposing the use of ceramic filters for particulate cleanup. The gasifier is an air-blown 102-MWe unit employing a Westinghouse{trademark} ceramic particle filter system operating at as high as 1100{degrees}F at 300 psia. Expected gas compositions in the filter will be approximately 25% CO, 15% H{sub 2}, 5% CO{sub 2}, 5% H{sub 2}O, and 50% N{sub 2}. Vapor-phase sodium chloride concentrations are expected to be 10 to 100 times the levels in combustion systems at similar temperatures, but in general the concentrations of the minor primary and secondary corrodents are not well understood. Slag corrosiveness will depend on its composition as well as viscosity. For a laboratory test, the slag must be in a thermodynamically stable form before the beginning of the corrosion test to assure that no inappropriate reactions are allowed to occur. Ideally, the slag would be flowing, and the appropriate atmosphere must be used to assure realistic slag viscosity.

  19. Local conditions and uncertainty bands for Semiscale Test S-02-9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varacalle, D.J. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Analysis was performed to derive local conditions heat transfer parameters and their uncertainties using computer codes and experimentally derived boundary conditions for the Semiscale core for LOCA Test S-02-9. Calculations performed consisted of nominal code cases using best-estimate input parameters and cases where the specified input parameters were perturbed in accordance with the response surface method of uncertainty analysis. The output parameters of interest were those that are used in film boiling heat transfer correlations including enthalpy, pressure, quality, and coolant flow rate. Large uncertainty deviations occurred during low core mass flow periods where the relative flow uncertainties were large. Utilizing the derived local conditions and their associated uncertainties, a study was then made which showed the uncertainty in film boiling heat transfer coefficient varied between 5 and 250%

  20. [Influence of testing conditions on the susceptibility results of Staphylococcus cohnii to beta-lactams].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Tonmasz; Szewczyk, Eligia M

    2006-01-01

    The high occurence of coagulase-negative staphylococci among bacteria responsible for hospital infections is unquestioned. Studies on the poorly-known novobiocin-resistant, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus cohnii were undertaken. The possibilities of optimizing conditions for determination of susceptibility to beta-lactam antibiotics of this species were researched. In the case of S. cohnii the new cefoxitin test for detection of methicillin resistant strains, introduced by the National Reference Centre for Antibiotics in Poland was found as a good and of credible quality. It was also shown, that application in in vitro examination conditions stimulating the mechanisms of resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics, supplies credible results relating to their true susceptibility. The necessity of establishing individual conditions for susceptibility determination in different species of coagulase-negative staphylococci was suggested.

  1. Safety Evaluation of Radioactive Material Transport Package under Stacking Test Condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ju Chan; Seo, Ki Seog; Yoo, Seong Yeon

    2012-01-01

    Radioactive waste transport package was developed to transport eight drums of low and intermediate level waste(LILW) in accordance with the IAEA and domestic related regulations. The package is classified with industrial package IP-2. IP-2 package is required to undergo a free drop test and a stacking test. After free drop and stacking tests, it should prevent the loss or dispersal of radioactive contents, and loss of shielding integrity which would result in more than 20 % increase in the radiation level at any external surface of the package. The objective of this study is to establish the safety test method and procedure for stacking test and to prove the structural integrities of the IP-2 package. Stacking test and analysis were performed with a compressive load equal to five times the weight of the package for a period of 24 hours using a full scale model. Strains and displacements were measured at the corner fitting of the package during the stacking test. The measured strains and displacements were compared with the analysis results, and there were good agreements. It is very difficult to measure the deflection at the container base, so the maximum deflection of the container base was calculated by the analysis method. The maximum displacement at the corner fitting and deflection at the container base were less than their allowable values. Dimensions of the test model, thickness of shielding material and bolt torque were measured before and after the stacking test. Throughout the stacking test, it was found that there were no loss or dispersal of radioactive contents and no loss of shielding integrity. Thus, the package was shown to comply with the requirements to maintain structural integrity under the stacking condition.

  2. Standard test method for conducting friction tests of piston ring and cylinder liner materials under lubricated conditions

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers procedures for conducting laboratory bench-scale friction tests of materials, coatings, and surface treatments intended for use in piston rings and cylinder liners in diesel or spark-ignition engines. The goal of this procedure is to provide a means for preliminary, cost-effective screening or evaluation of candidate ring and liner materials. A reciprocating sliding arrangement is used to simulate the contact that occurs between a piston ring and its mating liner near the top-dead-center position in the cylinder where liquid lubrication is least effective, and most wear is known to occur. Special attention is paid to specimen alignment, running-in, and lubricant condition. 1.2 This test method does not purport to simulate all aspects of a fired engine’s operating environment, but is intended to serve as a means for preliminary screening for assessing the frictional characteristics of candidate piston ring and liner material combinations in the presence of fluids that behave as u...

  3. Pipe rupture test results; 4 inch pipe whip tests under BWR operational condition-clearance parameter experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Syuzo; Isozaki, Toshikuni; Miyazaki, Noriyuki; Kurihara, Ryoichi; Kato, Rokuro; Saito, Kazuo; Miyazono, Shohachiro

    1981-05-01

    The purpose of pipe rupture studies in JAERI is to perform the model tests on pipe whip, restraint behavior, jet impingement and jet thrust force, and to establish the computational method for analyzing these phenomena. This report describes the experimental results of pipe whip on the pipe specimens of 4 inch in diameter under BWR condition on which the pressure is 6.77 MPa and the temperature is 285 0 C. The pipe specimens were 114.3 mm (4 inch) in diameter and 8.6 mm in thickness and 4500 mm in length. Four pipe whip restraints used in the tests were the U-bar type of 8 mm in diameter and fabricated from type 304 stainless steel. The experimental parameter was the clearance (30, 50 and 100 mm). The dynamic strain behavior of the pipe specimen and the restraints was investigated by strain gages and their residual deformation was obtained by measuring marking points provided on their surface. The Pressure-time history in the pipe specimens was also obtained by pressure gages. The maximum pipe strain is caused near the restraints and increases with increase of the clearance. The experimental results of pipe whip tests indicate the effectiveness of pipe whip restraints. The ratio of absorbed strain energy of the pipe specimen to that of the restraints is nearly constant for different clearances at the overhang length of 400 mm. (author)

  4. Radiation resistance of polymer materials. Degradation evaluation by accelerated testing for application condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seguchi, Tadao; Tamura, Kiyotoshi; Sorimachi, Masami

    2010-02-01

    This paper presents re-evaluated radiation resistance property data of polymer materials, which had been tested in past times in TAKASAKI Quantum Beam Science Directorate, for the future study of ageing evaluation of low voltage electric cable insulation materials used in light-water nuclear reactors. The radiation resistance of 25 types of plastics and rubbers materials applied in practical environments was evaluated by the accelerated testing of gamma-ray irradiation under oxygen pressure, and was compared with the radiation resistance determined from the traditional testing by irradiation with a high dose rate in air. The polymer materials were formulated to be similar or equivalent to practical materials, and the most of formulation (chemical compounds and quantities) were described. For all materials, the tensile properties (elongation at break, ultimate strength, 100% or 200% modulus), electric resistivity, gel-fraction, and density were measured after irradiation in oxidation conditions and irradiation in air with a high dose rate (non-oxidation conditions). The data of relations between each properties and total dose at various conditions were compiled, and the relations among the changes of mechanical properties, electrical properties, and radiation induced chemical reactions were discussed. (author)

  5. Study for Determining the Testing Condition of Compressor and Turbine System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sri Sudadiyo

    2009-01-01

    Study for Determining the Testing Condition of Compressor and Turbine System. From the viewpoint of energy system and environment, the concept for nuclear reactors of the generation IV have good potential for electricity and heat generation devices in producing hydrogen. These gas cooled nuclear reactors employ turbine cycle in transferring the heat. To analyses that coolant system, it is proposed a model of compressor and turbine system with power 3 kW. The used working fluid was hydrogen that be burnt with air within combustion chamber, then be expanded through a turbine for getting shaft work that will be used in driving compressor and generator. This study is aimed to determine the optimum testing conditions of gas turbine system. The used method is by applying the balance equations of energy, mass, and momentum. Gas turbine and compressor were placed at the single shaft, in which it was about 55 percent of power output for running the compressor. Under the testing condition for the speed of 20305 rpm, it was obtained thermal efficiency of the turbine cycle approximate 18 % (equal to the Carnot efficiency ratio 65 %), so that it is properly developed for the development of nuclear power installation in supporting the electricity energy demand and it will be very promising for the future facility. (author)

  6. Effects of different centrifugation conditions on clinical chemistry and Immunology test results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesic Predrag

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effect of centrifugation time of heparinized blood samples on clinical chemistry and immunology results has rarely been studied. WHO guideline proposed a 15 min centrifugation time without citing any scientific publications. The centrifugation time has a considerable impact on the turn-around-time. Methods We investigated 74 parameters in samples from 44 patients on a Roche Cobas 6000 system, to see whether there was a statistical significant difference in the test results among specimens centrifuged at 2180 g for 15 min, at 2180 g for 10 min or at 1870 g for 7 min, respectively. Two tubes with different plasma separators (both Greiner Bio-One were used for each centrifugation condition. Statistical comparisons were made by Deming fit. Results Tubes with different separators showed identical results in all parameters. Likewise, excellent correlations were found among tubes to which different centrifugation conditions were applied. Fifty percent of the slopes lay between 0.99 and 1.01. Only 3.6 percent of the statistical tests results fell outside the significance level of p Conclusion A centrifugation time of either 7 or 10 min provided identical test results compared to the time of 15 min as proposed by WHO under the conditions used in our study.

  7. The Comparison of Falling Risk of Elderly by Speed Gait Test Under Dual Tasks Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Fathi Rezaie

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to compare elderly fallers and non fallers by balance test under dual tasks conditions. Methods & Materials: This study was a analyse-comparative study. Subjects were chosen from three parks of Tehran. Subjects were 20 older adults with no history of falls (aged 72.60±5 years and 21 older adults with a history of 2 or more falls in the last one year (aged 74.50±6 Years. All subjects performed speed gait test under 3 conditions (speed gait, speed gait with numbers counter randomly [speed gait cognitive], and speed gait while carrying a full cup of water [speed gait manual]. Data was analysed from multivariate analysis with SPSS 17. Results: The results showed significant difference between elderly fallers and non fallers in fall risk composed dependent variable (P=0.0005, as the non fallers had greater score than elderly fallers. Conclusion: Consequently, we can apply the Gait Speed test under both dual task conditions (Cognitive and Motor for identification of risk of falling in elderly adults with and without of falling history.

  8. Large scale access tests and online interfaces to ATLAS conditions databases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amorim, A; Lopes, L; Pereira, P; Simoes, J; Soloviev, I; Burckhart, D; Schmitt, J V D; Caprini, M; Kolos, S

    2008-01-01

    The access of the ATLAS Trigger and Data Acquisition (TDAQ) system to the ATLAS Conditions Databases sets strong reliability and performance requirements on the database storage and access infrastructures. Several applications were developed to support the integration of Conditions database access with the online services in TDAQ, including the interface to the Information Services (IS) and to the TDAQ Configuration Databases. The information storage requirements were the motivation for the ONline A Synchronous Interface to COOL (ONASIC) from the Information Service (IS) to LCG/COOL databases. ONASIC avoids the possible backpressure from Online Database servers by managing a local cache. In parallel, OKS2COOL was developed to store Configuration Databases into an Offline Database with history record. The DBStressor application was developed to test and stress the access to the Conditions database using the LCG/COOL interface while operating in an integrated way as a TDAQ application. The performance scaling of simultaneous Conditions database read accesses was studied in the context of the ATLAS High Level Trigger large computing farms. A large set of tests were performed involving up to 1000 computing nodes that simultaneously accessed the LCG central database server infrastructure at CERN

  9. Modeling and fuzzy control of the engine coolant conditioning system in an IC engine test bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohtasebi, Seyed Saeid; Shirazi, Farzad A.; Javaheri, Ahmad; Nava, Ghodrat Hamze

    2010-01-01

    Mechanical and thermodynamical performance of internal combustion engines is significantly affected by the engine working temperature. In an engine test bed, the internal combustion engines are tested in different operating conditions using a dynamometer. It is required that the engine temperature be controlled precisely, particularly in transient states. This precise control can be achieved by an engine coolant conditioning system mainly consisting of a heat exchanger, a control valve, and a controller. In this study, constitutive equations of the system are derived first. These differential equations show the second- order nonlinear time-varying dynamics of the system. The model is validated with the experimental data providing satisfactory results. After presenting the dynamic equations of the system, a fuzzy controller is designed based on our prior knowledge of the system. The fuzzy rules and the membership functions are derived by a trial and error and heuristic method. Because of the nonlinear nature of the system the fuzzy rules are set to satisfy the requirements of the temperature control for different operating conditions of the engine. The performance of the fuzzy controller is compared with a PI one for different transient conditions. The results of the simulation show the better performance of the fuzzy controller. The main advantages of the fuzzy controller are the shorter settling time, smaller overshoot, and improved performance especially in the transient states of the system

  10. Intelligent Condition Diagnosis Method Based on Adaptive Statistic Test Filter and Diagnostic Bayesian Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ke; Zhang, Qiuju; Wang, Kun; Chen, Peng; Wang, Huaqing

    2016-01-08

    A new fault diagnosis method for rotating machinery based on adaptive statistic test filter (ASTF) and Diagnostic Bayesian Network (DBN) is presented in this paper. ASTF is proposed to obtain weak fault features under background noise, ASTF is based on statistic hypothesis testing in the frequency domain to evaluate similarity between reference signal (noise signal) and original signal, and remove the component of high similarity. The optimal level of significance α is obtained using particle swarm optimization (PSO). To evaluate the performance of the ASTF, evaluation factor Ipq is also defined. In addition, a simulation experiment is designed to verify the effectiveness and robustness of ASTF. A sensitive evaluation method using principal component analysis (PCA) is proposed to evaluate the sensitiveness of symptom parameters (SPs) for condition diagnosis. By this way, the good SPs that have high sensitiveness for condition diagnosis can be selected. A three-layer DBN is developed to identify condition of rotation machinery based on the Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) theory. Condition diagnosis experiment for rolling element bearings demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  11. Intelligent Condition Diagnosis Method Based on Adaptive Statistic Test Filter and Diagnostic Bayesian Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A new fault diagnosis method for rotating machinery based on adaptive statistic test filter (ASTF and Diagnostic Bayesian Network (DBN is presented in this paper. ASTF is proposed to obtain weak fault features under background noise, ASTF is based on statistic hypothesis testing in the frequency domain to evaluate similarity between reference signal (noise signal and original signal, and remove the component of high similarity. The optimal level of significance α is obtained using particle swarm optimization (PSO. To evaluate the performance of the ASTF, evaluation factor Ipq is also defined. In addition, a simulation experiment is designed to verify the effectiveness and robustness of ASTF. A sensitive evaluation method using principal component analysis (PCA is proposed to evaluate the sensitiveness of symptom parameters (SPs for condition diagnosis. By this way, the good SPs that have high sensitiveness for condition diagnosis can be selected. A three-layer DBN is developed to identify condition of rotation machinery based on the Bayesian Belief Network (BBN theory. Condition diagnosis experiment for rolling element bearings demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  12. Intelligent Condition Diagnosis Method Based on Adaptive Statistic Test Filter and Diagnostic Bayesian Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ke; Zhang, Qiuju; Wang, Kun; Chen, Peng; Wang, Huaqing

    2016-01-01

    A new fault diagnosis method for rotating machinery based on adaptive statistic test filter (ASTF) and Diagnostic Bayesian Network (DBN) is presented in this paper. ASTF is proposed to obtain weak fault features under background noise, ASTF is based on statistic hypothesis testing in the frequency domain to evaluate similarity between reference signal (noise signal) and original signal, and remove the component of high similarity. The optimal level of significance α is obtained using particle swarm optimization (PSO). To evaluate the performance of the ASTF, evaluation factor Ipq is also defined. In addition, a simulation experiment is designed to verify the effectiveness and robustness of ASTF. A sensitive evaluation method using principal component analysis (PCA) is proposed to evaluate the sensitiveness of symptom parameters (SPs) for condition diagnosis. By this way, the good SPs that have high sensitiveness for condition diagnosis can be selected. A three-layer DBN is developed to identify condition of rotation machinery based on the Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) theory. Condition diagnosis experiment for rolling element bearings demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:26761006

  13. SCC tests of AISI 304 and 316L type stainless steels in SCW conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novotny, R.; Prchal, D.; Debarberis, L.; Haehner, P.; Degmova, J.

    2008-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. Super Critical Water Reactors (SCWR) have been pre-selected as a one of the candidate concepts for the new generation of nuclear reactors in frame of Generation IV. Beside the design concept choice of construction materials is the most important question. Despite extensive research due to using various materials either in the conventional supercritical coal power plants or SCWO systems there is still missing knowledge about the properties of the materials in operational conditions of SCWR. That includes influence of irradiation and environment composition on chemistry of water especially process of radiolysis, mechanical properties of the materials and oxide films properties. The process of choice and testing of possible construction and fuel cladding materials are still under R and D (e.g. EU HPLWR project). Two types of tests were undertaken in SCW environment conditions (t = 600 deg C, p = 250 bar): U-bend specimens for constant displacement SCC tests and tensile specimens for SSRT tests. SSRT tests were carried out in SCW environment with different concentration of dissolved O 2 : 1, 10, 100, 20 ppb (±5 ppb) and with different displacement rates: 0.1, 1, 10 μm/min. In SCC test with LI-bend specimens different time expositions were carried out in two concentrations of dissolved O 2 : 0 and 200 ppb. Water chemistry was continually monitored by means of pH, conductivity and dissolved O 2 sensors. After the test the specimens were analysed by optical microscopy, SEM and XRD. (authors)

  14. Effects of different centrifugation conditions on clinical chemistry and Immunology test results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minder, Elisabeth I; Schibli, Adrian; Mahrer, Dagmar; Nesic, Predrag; Plüer, Kathrin

    2011-05-10

    The effect of centrifugation time of heparinized blood samples on clinical chemistry and immunology results has rarely been studied. WHO guideline proposed a 15 min centrifugation time without citing any scientific publications. The centrifugation time has a considerable impact on the turn-around-time. We investigated 74 parameters in samples from 44 patients on a Roche Cobas 6000 system, to see whether there was a statistical significant difference in the test results among specimens centrifuged at 2180 g for 15 min, at 2180 g for 10 min or at 1870 g for 7 min, respectively. Two tubes with different plasma separators (both Greiner Bio-One) were used for each centrifugation condition. Statistical comparisons were made by Deming fit. Tubes with different separators showed identical results in all parameters. Likewise, excellent correlations were found among tubes to which different centrifugation conditions were applied. Fifty percent of the slopes lay between 0.99 and 1.01. Only 3.6 percent of the statistical tests results fell outside the significance level of p < 0.05, which was less than the expected 5%. This suggests that the outliers are the result of random variation and the large number of statistical tests performed. Further, we found that our data are sufficient not to miss a biased test (beta error) with a probability of 0.10 to 0.05 in most parameters. A centrifugation time of either 7 or 10 min provided identical test results compared to the time of 15 min as proposed by WHO under the conditions used in our study.

  15. Using latent class analysis to estimate the test characteristics of the γ-interferon test, the single intradermal comparative tuberculin test and a multiplex immunoassay under Irish conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clegg, Tracy A.; Duignan, Anthony; Whelan, Clare

    2011-01-01

    Considerable effort has been devoted to improving the existing diagnostic tests for bovine tuberculosis (single intradermal comparative tuberculin test [SICTT] and ¿-interferon assay [¿-IFN]) and to develop new tests. Previously, the diagnostic characteristics (sensitivity, specificity) have been...... estimated in populations with defined infection status. However, these approaches can be problematic as there may be few herds in Ireland where freedom from infection is guaranteed. We used latent class models to estimate the diagnostic characteristics of existing (SICTT and ¿-IFN) and new (multiplex...... immunoassay [Enferplex-TB]) diagnostic tests under Irish field conditions where true disease status was unknown. The study population consisted of herds recruited in areas with no known TB problems (2197 animals) and herds experiencing a confirmed TB breakdown (2740 animals). A Bayesian model was developed...

  16. Response of unirradiated and irradiated PWR fuel rods tested under power-cooling-mismatch conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, P.E.; Quapp, W.J.; Martinson, Z.R.; McCardell, R.K.; Mehner, A.S.

    1978-01-01

    This report summarizes the results from the single-rod power-cooling-mismatch (PCM) and irradiation effects (IE) tests conducted to date in the Power Burst Facility (PBF) at the U.S. DOE Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. This work was performed for the U.S. NRC under contact to the Department of Energy. These tests are part of the NRC Fuel Behavior Program, which is designed to provide data for the development and verification of analytical fuel behavior models that are used to predict fuel response to abnormal or postulated accident conditions in commercial LWRs. The mechanical, chemical and thermal response of both previously unirradiated and previously irradiated LWR-type fuel rods tested under power-cooling-mismatch condition is discussed. A brief description of the test designs is presented. The results of the PCM thermal-hydraulic studies are summarized. Primary emphasis is placed on the behavior of the fuel and cladding during and after stable film boiling. (orig.) [de

  17. Optimization of solid-state fermentation conditions for Trichoderma harzianum using an orthogonal test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J D; Yang, Q

    2015-03-13

    The aim of this study was to develop a protocol for the production of fungal bio-pesticides with high efficiency, low cost, and non-polluting fermentation, while also increasing their survival rate under field conditions. This is the first study to develop biocontrol Trichoderma harzianum transformants TS1 that are resistant to benzimidazole fungicides. Agricultural corn stover and wheat bran waste were used as a medium and inducing carbon source for solid fermentation. Spore production was observed, and the method was optimized using single-factor tests with 4 factors at 3 levels in an orthogonal experimental design to determine the optimal culture conditions for T. harzianum TS1. In this step, we determined the best conditions for fermenting the biocontrol fungi. The optimal culture conditions for T. harzianum TS1 were cultivated for 8 days, a ratio of straw to wheat bran of 1:3, ammonium persulfate as the nitrogen source, and a water content of 30 mL. Under optimal culture conditions, the sporulation of T. harzianum TS1 reached 1.49 x 10(10) CFU/g, which was 1.46-fold higher than that achieved before optimization. Increased sporulation of T. harzianum TS1 results in better utilization of space and nutrients to achieve control of plant pathogens. This method allows for the recycling of agricultural waste straw.

  18. Evaluation of HFIR vessel surveillance data and hydro-test conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheverton, R.D.; Nanstad, R.K.

    1994-01-01

    Surveillance specimens for the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) pressure vessel were removed and tested during 1993, after the vessel had accumulated 701,469 MWd of operation. The data agree well with HFIR surveillance data obtained in previous years. In conjunction with this effort, the vessel hydro-test conditions were reevaluated and found to be more than adequate. In view of this result, and because there are economic incentives for reducing the frequency of hydro testing, an analysis was performed to determine the minimum permissible frequency. The value obtained is substantially less than that presently specified. It was also determined that a somewhat lower cooling-tower-basin temperature is acceptable (improves operational flexibility). In 1986, after ∼20 years of reactor operation, it was discovered that the vessel embrittlement rate was substantially greater than expected. Possible reasons for the accelerated rate are reviewed in this report

  19. Standard test method for damage to contacting solid surfaces under fretting conditions

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the studying or ranking the susceptibility of candidate materials to fretting corrosion or fretting wear for the purposes of material selection for applications where fretting corrosion or fretting wear can limit serviceability. 1.2 This test method uses a tribological bench test apparatus with a mechanism or device that will produce the necessary relative motion between a contacting hemispherical rider and a flat counterface. The rider is pressed against the flat counterface with a loading mass. The test method is intended for use in room temperature air, but future editions could include fretting in the presence of lubricants or other environments. 1.3 The purpose of this test method is to rub two solid surfaces together under controlled fretting conditions and to quantify the damage to both surfaces in units of volume loss for the test method. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.5...

  20. Mercury Conditions for the MESSENGER Mission Simulated in High- Solar-Radiation Vacuum Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wayne A.

    2003-01-01

    The MESSENGER (Mercury Surface, Space Environment, Geochemistry, and Ranging) spacecraft, planned for launch in March 2004, will perform two flybys of Mercury before entering a year-long orbit of the planet in September 2009. The mission will provide opportunities for detailed characterization of the surface, interior, atmosphere, and magnetosphere of the closest planet to the Sun. The NASA Glenn Research Center and the MESSENGER spacecraft integrator, the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, have partnered under a Space Act Agreement to characterize a variety of critical components and materials under simulated conditions expected near Mercury. Glenn's Vacuum Facility 6, which is equipped with a solar simulator, can simulate the vacuum and high solar radiation anticipated in Mercury orbit. The MESSENGER test hardware includes a variety of materials and components that are being characterized during the Tank 6 vacuum tests, where the hardware will be exposed to up to 11 suns insolation, simulating conditions expected in Mercury orbit. In 2002, ten solar vacuum tests were conducted, including beginning of life, end of life, backside exposure, and solar panel thermal shock cycling tests. Components tested include candidate solar array panels, sensors, thermal shielding materials, and communication devices. As an example, for the solar panel thermal shock cycling test, two candidate solar array panels were suspended on a lift mechanism that lowered the panels into a liquid-nitrogen-cooled box. After reaching -140 C, the panels were then lifted out of the box and exposed to the equivalent of 6 suns (8.1 kilowatts per square meters). After five cold soak/heating cycles were completed successfully, there was no apparent degradation in panel performance. An anticipated 100-hr thermal shield life test is planned for autumn, followed by solar panel flight qualification tests in winter. Glenn's ongoing support to the MESSENGER program has been instrumental in

  1. Zircaloy PWR fuel cladding deformation tests under mainly convective cooling conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindle, E.D.; Mann, C.A.

    1980-01-01

    In a loss-of-coolant accident the temperature of the cladding of the fuel rods may rise to levels (650-810 0 C) where the ductility of Zircaloy is high (approximately 80%). The net outward pressure which will obtain if the coolant pressure falls to a small fraction of its normal working value produces stresses in the cladding which can result in large strain through secondary creep. An earlier study of the deformation of specimens of PWR Zircaloy cladding tubing 450 mm long under internal pressure had shown that strains of over 50% could be produced over considerable lengths (greater than twenty tube diameters). Extended deformation of this sort might be unacceptable if it occurred in a fuel element. The previous tests had been carried out under conditions of uniform radiative heat loss, and the work reported here extends the study to conditions of mainly convective heat loss believed to be more representative of a fuel element following a loss of coolant. Zircaloy-4 cladding specimens 450 mm long were filled with alumina pellets and tested at temperatures between 630 and 845 0 C in flowing steam at atmospheric pressure. Internal test pressures were in the range 2.9-11.0 MPa (400-1600 1b/in 2 ). Maximum strains were observed of the same magnitude as those seen in the previous tests, but the shape of the deformation differed; in these tests the deformation progressively increased in the direction of the steam flow. These results are compared with those from multi-rod tests elsewhere, and it is suggested that heat transfer has a dominant effect in determining deformation. The implications for the behaviour of fuel elements in a loss-of-coolant accident are outlined. (author)

  2. Development of an In-Situ Decommissioning Sensor Network Test Bed for Structural Condition Monitoring - 12156

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeigler, Kristine E.; Ferguson, Blythe A. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, South Carolina 29808 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has established an In Situ Decommissioning (ISD) Sensor Network Test Bed, a unique, small scale, configurable environment, for the assessment of prospective sensors on actual ISD system material, at minimal cost. The Department of Energy (DOE) is presently implementing permanent entombment of contaminated, large nuclear structures via ISD. The ISD end state consists of a grout-filled concrete civil structure within the concrete frame of the original building. Validation of ISD system performance models and verification of actual system conditions can be achieved through the development a system of sensors to monitor the materials and condition of the structure. The ISD Sensor Network Test Bed has been designed and deployed to addresses the DOE-Environmental Management Technology Need to develop a remote monitoring system to determine and verify ISD system performance. Commercial off-the-shelf sensors have been installed on concrete blocks taken from walls of the P Reactor Building at the Savannah River Site. Deployment of this low-cost structural monitoring system provides hands-on experience with sensor networks. The initial sensor system consists of groutable thermistors for temperature and moisture monitoring, strain gauges for crack growth monitoring, tilt-meters for settlement monitoring, and a communication system for data collection. Baseline data and lessons learned from system design and installation and initial field testing will be utilized for future ISD sensor network development and deployment. The Sensor Network Test Bed at SRNL uses COTS sensors on concrete blocks from the outer wall of the P Reactor Building to measure conditions expected to occur in ISD structures. Knowledge and lessons learned gained from installation, testing, and monitoring of the equipment will be applied to sensor installation in a meso-scale test bed at FIU and in future ISD structures. The initial data collected from the sensors

  3. K Basin Sludge Conditioning Process Testing Project. Results from Test 4, ''Acid Digestion of Mixed-Bed Ion Exchange Resin''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pool, K.H.; Delegard, C.H.; Schmidt, A.J.; Thornton, B.M.; Silvers, K.L.

    1998-06-01

    Approximately 73 m 3 of heterogeneous solid material, ''sludge,'' (upper bound estimate, Packer 1997) have accumulated at the bottom of the K Basins in the 100 K Area of the Hanford Site. This sludge is a mixture of spent fuel element corrosion products, ion exchange materials (organic and inorganic), graphite-based gasket materials, iron and aluminum metal corrosion products, sand, and debris (Makenas et al. 1996, 1997). In addition, small amounts of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been found. Ultimately, it is planned to transfer the K Basins sludge to the Hanford double shell tanks (DSTs). The Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel (HSNF) project has conducted a number of evaluations to examine technology and processing alternatives to pretreat K Basin sludge to meet storage and disposal requirements. From these evaluations, chemical pretreatment has been selected to address criticality issues, reactivity, and the destruction or removal of PCBs before the K Basin sludge can be transferred to the DSTs. Chemical pretreatment, referred to as the K Basin sludge conditioning process, includes nitric acid dissolution of the sludge (with removal of acid insoluble solids), neutrons absorber addition, neutralization, and reprecipitation. Laboratory testing is being conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to provide data necessary to develop the sludge conditioning process

  4. A nanomaterial-based breath test for distinguishing gastric cancer from benign gastric conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Z-q; Broza, Y Y; Ionsecu, R; Tisch, U; Ding, L; Liu, H; Song, Q; Pan, Y-y; Xiong, F-x; Gu, K-s; Sun, G-p; Chen, Z-d; Leja, M; Haick, H

    2013-03-05

    Upper digestive endoscopy with biopsy and histopathological evaluation of the biopsy material is the standard method for diagnosing gastric cancer (GC). However, this procedure may not be widely available for screening in the developing world, whereas in developed countries endoscopy is frequently used without major clinical gain. There is a high demand for a simple and non-invasive test for selecting the individuals at increased risk that should undergo the endoscopic examination. Here, we studied the feasibility of a nanomaterial-based breath test for identifying GC among patients with gastric complaints. Alveolar exhaled breath samples from 130 patients with gastric complaints (37 GC/32 ulcers / 61 less severe conditions) that underwent endoscopy/biopsy were analyzed using nanomaterial-based sensors. Predictive models were built employing discriminant factor analysis (DFA) pattern recognition, and their stability against possible confounding factors (alcohol/tobacco consumption; Helicobacter pylori) was tested. Classification success was determined (i) using leave-one-out cross-validation and (ii) by randomly blinding 25% of the samples as a validation set. Complementary chemical analysis of the breath samples was performed using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Three DFA models were developed that achieved excellent discrimination between the subpopulations: (i) GC vs benign gastric conditions, among all the patients (89% sensitivity; 90% specificity); (ii) early stage GC (I and II) vs late stage (III and IV), among GC patients (89% sensitivity; 94% specificity); and (iii) ulcer vs less severe, among benign conditions (84% sensitivity; 87% specificity). The models were insensitive against the tested confounding factors. Chemical analysis found that five volatile organic compounds (2-propenenitrile, 2-butoxy-ethanol, furfural, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one and isoprene) were significantly elevated in patients with GC and/or peptic ulcer, as compared

  5. INITIAL TEST WELL CONDITIONING AT NOPAL I URANIUM DEPOSIT, SIERRA PENA BLANCA, CHIHUAHUA, MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.D. Oliver; J.C. Dinsmoor; S.J. Goldstein; I. Reyes; R. De La Garza

    2005-07-11

    Three test wells, PB-1, PB-2, and PB-3, were drilled at the Nopal I uranium deposit as part of a natural analogue study to evaluate radionuclide transport processes during March-April 2003. The initial pumping to condition the wells was completed during December 2003. The PB-1 well, drilled immediately adjacent to the Nopal I ore body, was continuously cored to a depth of 250 m, terminating 20 m below the top of the measured water level. The PB-2 and PB-3 wells, which were drilled on opposite sides of PB-1 at a radial distance of approximately 40 to 50 m outside of the remaining projected ore body, were also drilled to about 20 m below the top of the measured water level. Each test well was completed with 4-inch (10.2-cm) diameter PVC casing with a slotted liner below the water table. Initial conditioning of all three wells using a submersible pump at low pump rates [less than 1 gallon (3.8 1) per minute] resulted in measurable draw down and recoveries. The greatest drawdown ({approx}15 m) was observed in PB-2, whereas only minor (<1 m) drawdown occurred in PB-3. For PB-1 and PB-2, the water turbidity decreased as the wells were pumped and the pH values decreased, indicating that the contamination from the drilling fluid was reduced as the wells were conditioned. Test wells PB-1 and PB-2 showed increased inflow after several borehole volumes of fluid were removed, but their inflow rates remained less that the pumping rate. Test well PB-3 showed the smallest drawdown and least change in pH and conductivity during initial pumping and quickest recovery with a rise in measured water level after conditioning. The 195 gallons (750 l) of water pumped from PB-3 during conditioning was discharged through a household sponge. That sponge showed measurable gamma radiation, which decayed to background values in less than 12 hours. Preliminary interpretations include filtration of a radioisotope source with a short half-life or of a radioisotope that volatized as the sponge

  6. INITIAL TEST WELL CONDITIONING AT NOPAL I URANIUM DEPOSIT, SIERRA PENA BLANCA, CHIHUAHUA, MEXICO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, R.D.; Dinsmoor, J.C.; Goldstein, S.J.; Reyes, I.; De La Garza, R.

    2005-01-01

    Three test wells, PB-1, PB-2, and PB-3, were drilled at the Nopal I uranium deposit as part of a natural analogue study to evaluate radionuclide transport processes during March-April 2003. The initial pumping to condition the wells was completed during December 2003. The PB-1 well, drilled immediately adjacent to the Nopal I ore body, was continuously cored to a depth of 250 m, terminating 20 m below the top of the measured water level. The PB-2 and PB-3 wells, which were drilled on opposite sides of PB-1 at a radial distance of approximately 40 to 50 m outside of the remaining projected ore body, were also drilled to about 20 m below the top of the measured water level. Each test well was completed with 4-inch (10.2-cm) diameter PVC casing with a slotted liner below the water table. Initial conditioning of all three wells using a submersible pump at low pump rates [less than 1 gallon (3.8 1) per minute] resulted in measurable draw down and recoveries. The greatest drawdown (∼15 m) was observed in PB-2, whereas only minor (<1 m) drawdown occurred in PB-3. For PB-1 and PB-2, the water turbidity decreased as the wells were pumped and the pH values decreased, indicating that the contamination from the drilling fluid was reduced as the wells were conditioned. Test wells PB-1 and PB-2 showed increased inflow after several borehole volumes of fluid were removed, but their inflow rates remained less that the pumping rate. Test well PB-3 showed the smallest drawdown and least change in pH and conductivity during initial pumping and quickest recovery with a rise in measured water level after conditioning. The 195 gallons (750 l) of water pumped from PB-3 during conditioning was discharged through a household sponge. That sponge showed measurable gamma radiation, which decayed to background values in less than 12 hours. Preliminary interpretations include filtration of a radioisotope source with a short half-life or of a radioisotope that volatized as the sponge dried

  7. SiC/SiC Leading Edge Turbine Airfoil Tested Under Simulated Gas Turbine Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, R. Craig; Hatton, Kenneth S.

    1999-01-01

    Silicon-based ceramics have been proposed as component materials for use in gas turbine engine hot-sections. A high pressure burner rig was used to expose both a baseline metal airfoil and ceramic matrix composite leading edge airfoil to typical gas turbine conditions to comparatively evaluate the material response at high temperatures. To eliminate many of the concerns related to an entirely ceramic, rotating airfoil, this study has focused on equipping a stationary metal airfoil with a ceramic leading edge insert to demonstrate the feasibility and benefits of such a configuration. Here, the idea was to allow the SiC/SiC composite to be integrated as the airfoil's leading edge, operating in a "free-floating" or unrestrained manner. and provide temperature relief to the metal blade underneath. The test included cycling the airfoils between simulated idle, lift, and cruise flight conditions. In addition, the airfoils were air-cooled, uniquely instrumented, and exposed to the same internal and external conditions, which included gas temperatures in excess of 1370 C (2500 F). Results show the leading edge insert remained structurally intact after 200 simulated flight cycles with only a slightly oxidized surface. The instrumentation clearly suggested a significant reduction (approximately 600 F) in internal metal temperatures as a result of the ceramic leading edge. The object of this testing was to validate the design and analysis done by Materials Research and Design of Rosemont, PA and to determine the feasibility of this design for the intended application.

  8. Square baler field test under different sugar cane crop residue conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, Arthur Miola de; Ripoli, Tomaz Caetano Cannavan; Gadanha Junior, Casimiro [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ-USP), Piracicaba (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Rural], E-mail: ammello@esalq.usp.br; Ripoli, Marco Lorezzo Cunali [John Deere, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The energy demand increase of the country allows the sugar cane business sector to be a major player in production and commercialization areas of electric energy using cogeneration powered by bagasse and sugar cane residues. The objective of the study was to evaluate some of the performance parameters of an Express 5040 baler, brand Nogueira, used to collect residues. The tests were conducted in a sugar cane mechanized harvest area. The baler was submitted to three different conditions of residues windrowing: 'in natura', under single and double raking operations. For all treatments soil sampling analyzes were done to find out ground homogeneity conditions were the test took place. The simple raking operation offered better conditions for the machine: Effective Capacity of 8.21 t.{sup h}-{sup 1} and 0.88 ha.h{sup -1}; average bale weight of 22.33 kg (SD=3.58, CV=16.01 %); costs of 7.45 R$.t{sup -1} of baled residue; 0.17 R$.fardo{sup -1} and 69.47 R$.ha{sup -1}. (author)

  9. Cavitation behavior observed in three monoleaflet mechanical heart valves under accelerated testing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Chi-Wen; Liu, Jia-Shing; Li, Chi-Pei; Lu, Po-Chien; Hwang, Ned H

    2008-01-01

    Accelerated testing provides a substantial amount of data on mechanical heart valve durability in a short period of time, but such conditions may not accurately reflect in vivo performance. Cavitation, which occurs during mechanical heart valve closure when local flow field pressure decreases below vapor pressure, is thought to play a role in valve damage under accelerated conditions. The underlying flow dynamics and mechanisms behind cavitation bubble formation are poorly understood. Under physiologic conditions, random perivalvular cavitation is difficult to capture. We applied accelerated testing at a pulse rate of 600 bpm and transvalvular pressure of 120 mm Hg, with synchronized videographs and high-frequency pressure measurements, to study cavitation of the Medtronic Hall Standard (MHS), Medtronic Hall D-16 (MHD), and Omni Carbon (OC) valves. Results showed cavitation bubbles between 340 and 360 micros after leaflet/housing impact of the MHS, MHD, and OC valves, intensified by significant leaflet rebound. Squeeze flow, Venturi, and water hammer effects each contributed to cavitation, depending on valve design.

  10. Elevated serum CA 19-9 at screening tests: underlying conditions and role of abdominopelvic CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Yang [University of Louisville, Department of Radiology and Molecular Imaging Research Center, Louisville, KY (United States); Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Healthcare System Gangnam Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Se Hyung [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology and the Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Soo Young [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Healthcare System Gangnam Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Bundang CHA Hospital, Department of Radiology, Bundang (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    To investigate underlying conditions of patients with elevated CA 19-9 at screening tests and to evaluate diagnostic performance of abdominopelvic CT. One hundred and thirteen patients with elevated CA 19-9 (>37 U/ml) who underwent abdominopelvic CT in a screening program were selected. Underlying conditions were determined by reviewing all available data and follow-up records. Patients were categorized into malignancy, benign, and normal/non-related disease groups. Their mean CA 19-9 and percent of patients with CA 19-9 ≥ 100 U/ml were compared. Diagnostic sensitivity of CT for detecting underlying conditions of elevated CA 19-9 was analysed. Seventeen patients (17/113, 15 %) had 17 elevated CA 19-9-related malignancies, and 55 patients (55/113, 48.7 %) had 70 benign diseases. Mean CA 19-9 and percent of patients with CA 19-9 ≥ 100 U/ml in the malignancy group were significantly higher than in the two other groups. CT detected all except one malignant lesion with a detection sensitivity of 94.1 % (16/17). Of 70 CA 19-9-related benign diseases, CT detected 34 benign diseases (48.6 %) providing an alternative diagnosis for elevated CA 19-9. Abdominopelvic CT is not only useful in detecting malignancies, but can also diagnose alternative benign causes of elevated CA 19-9 in asymptomatic screening tests. (orig.)

  11. Identification of Elderly Falling Risk by Balance Tests Under Dual Tasks Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Aslankhani

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to identify elderly fallers and non-fallers by balance test under dual tasks conditions. Methods & Materials: This study was an analyze-comparative study. Subjects were from three park of Tehran. Subjects were 20 older adults with outhistory of falls (aged 75.95±6.28 years and 21 older adults with a history of 2 or more falls in the previous one year (aged 72.50±7.31 Years . All subjects performed Timed Up & Go test under 3 conditions (TimedUp & Go, Timed Up & Go with numbers counter randomly [TUG cognitive], and Timed Up & Go while carrying a full cup of water [TUG manual]. A multivariate analysis of variance and logistic regression analyses were performed. Results: The results showed significant difference between elderly fallers and non fallers in fall risk composed dependent variable (P=0.0005, as the non fallers had greater score than the elderly fallers. Also, results showed that TUG cognitive has prediction capacity of elderly fall (P=0.013. Conclusion: Consequently, balance under cognitive dual task conditions could be useful method in identification of risk of falling and planning dual task exercise program and physiotherapy to preventfalls.

  12. Testing Genetic Pleiotropy with GWAS Summary Statistics for Marginal and Conditional Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yangqing; Pan, Wei

    2017-12-01

    There is growing interest in testing genetic pleiotropy, which is when a single genetic variant influences multiple traits. Several methods have been proposed; however, these methods have some limitations. First, all the proposed methods are based on the use of individual-level genotype and phenotype data; in contrast, for logistical, and other, reasons, summary statistics of univariate SNP-trait associations are typically only available based on meta- or mega-analyzed large genome-wide association study (GWAS) data. Second, existing tests are based on marginal pleiotropy, which cannot distinguish between direct and indirect associations of a single genetic variant with multiple traits due to correlations among the traits. Hence, it is useful to consider conditional analysis, in which a subset of traits is adjusted for another subset of traits. For example, in spite of substantial lowering of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) with statin therapy, some patients still maintain high residual cardiovascular risk, and, for these patients, it might be helpful to reduce their triglyceride (TG) level. For this purpose, in order to identify new therapeutic targets, it would be useful to identify genetic variants with pleiotropic effects on LDL and TG after adjusting the latter for LDL; otherwise, a pleiotropic effect of a genetic variant detected by a marginal model could simply be due to its association with LDL only, given the well-known correlation between the two types of lipids. Here, we develop a new pleiotropy testing procedure based only on GWAS summary statistics that can be applied for both marginal analysis and conditional analysis. Although the main technical development is based on published union-intersection testing methods, care is needed in specifying conditional models to avoid invalid statistical estimation and inference. In addition to the previously used likelihood ratio test, we also propose using generalized estimating equations under the

  13. Field Performance versus Standard Test Condition Efficiency of Tandem Solar Cells and the Specific Case of Perovskites/Silicon Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Dupre, Olivier; Niesen, Bjö rn; De Wolf, Stefaan; Ballif, Christophe

    2018-01-01

    efficiencies and calculate their energy yields using field data from Denver. We find that annual losses due to differences between operating conditions and standard test conditions are similar for single-junction and four-terminal tandem devices. The additional

  14. Hydrothermal Testing of K Basin Sludge and N Reactor Fuel at Sludge Treatment Project Operating Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Thornton, Brenda M.

    2007-03-30

    The Sludge Treatment Project (STP), managed for the U. S. DOE by Fluor Hanford (FH), was created to design and operate a process to eliminate uranium metal from K Basin sludge prior to packaging for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The STP process uses high temperature liquid water to accelerate the reaction, produce uranium dioxide from the uranium metal, and safely discharge the hydrogen. Under nominal process conditions, the sludge will be heated in pressurized water at 185°C for as long as 72 hours to assure the complete reaction (corrosion) of up to 0.25-inch diameter uranium metal pieces. Under contract to FH, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted bench-scale testing of the STP hydrothermal process in November and December 2006. Five tests (~50 ml each) were conducted in sealed, un-agitated reaction vessels under the hydrothermal conditions (e.g., 7 to 72 h at 185°C) of the STP corrosion process using radioactive sludge samples collected from the K East Basin and particles/coupons of N Reactor fuel also taken from the K Basins. The tests were designed to evaluate and understand the chemical changes that may be occurring and the effects that any changes would have on sludge rheological properties. The tests were not designed to evaluate engineering aspects of the process. The hydrothermal treatment affected the chemical and physical properties of the sludge. In each test, significant uranium compound phase changes were identified, resulting from dehydration and chemical reduction reactions. Physical properties of the sludge were significantly altered from their initial, as-settled sludge values, including, shear strength, settled density, weight percent water, and gas retention.

  15. Anisotropic Behaviour of Opalinus Clay Through Consolidated and Drained Triaxial Testing in Saturated Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favero, Valentina; Ferrari, Alessio; Laloui, Lyesse

    2018-05-01

    This paper investigates the anisotropic hydro-mechanical behaviour of Opalinus Clay shale, the host material currently being considered for the construction of a nuclear waste repository in Switzerland. Consolidated and drained triaxial tests on Opalinus Clay from the Mont Terri URL have been conducted in order to derive information on its strength and stiffness properties. Opalinus Clay specimens were tested both parallel to bedding (P-specimens) and perpendicular to bedding (S-specimens). The considered effective confining stress range (from 2 to 12 MPa) has been selected in order to reproduce possible in situ stress conditions for the repository. In this work, particular attention has been paid to the experimental procedure in order to ensure consolidated conditions and avoid generation of unwanted excess pore water pressure during drained shearing. The Skempton B parameter has been determined for all the tested specimens in order to ensure saturation. Both single-stage and multistage triaxial testing procedures were adopted in the experimental campaign. The results of the triaxial tests highlight an anisotropic elastic response of Opalinus Clay: S-specimens present a more compliant behaviour than P-specimens. The values of the Young modulus are found to increase with the increase in mean effective stress. The analysis of the peak and ultimate shear strength results reveals that the material behaves in a similar manner regardless of the considered direction of loading (P and S directions) with respect to the bedding orientation. Peak and ultimate failure envelopes for Opalinus Clay were derived for the investigated stress range.

  16. The Fuel Accident Condition Simulator (FACS) furnace system for high temperature performance testing of VHTR fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demkowicz, Paul A., E-mail: paul.demkowicz@inl.gov [Idaho National Laboratory, 2525 Fremont Avenue, MS 3860, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-3860 (United States); Laug, David V.; Scates, Dawn M.; Reber, Edward L.; Roybal, Lyle G.; Walter, John B.; Harp, Jason M. [Idaho National Laboratory, 2525 Fremont Avenue, MS 3860, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-3860 (United States); Morris, Robert N. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A system has been developed for safety testing of irradiated coated particle fuel. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FACS system is designed to facilitate remote operation in a shielded hot cell. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer System will measure release of fission gases and condensable fission products. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fuel performance can be evaluated at temperatures as high as 2000 Degree-Sign C in flowing helium. - Abstract: The AGR-1 irradiation of TRISO-coated particle fuel specimens was recently completed and represents the most successful such irradiation in US history, reaching peak burnups of greater than 19% FIMA with zero failures out of 300,000 particles. An extensive post-irradiation examination (PIE) campaign will be conducted on the AGR-1 fuel in order to characterize the irradiated fuel properties, assess the in-pile fuel performance in terms of coating integrity and fission metals release, and determine the fission product retention behavior during high temperature safety testing. A new furnace system has been designed, built, and tested to perform high temperature accident tests. The Fuel Accident Condition Simulator furnace system is designed to heat fuel specimens at temperatures up to 2000 Degree-Sign C in helium while monitoring the release of volatile fission metals (e.g. Cs, Ag, Sr, and Eu), iodine, and fission gases (Kr, Xe). Fission gases released from the fuel to the sweep gas are monitored in real time using dual cryogenic traps fitted with high purity germanium detectors. Condensable fission products are collected on a plate attached to a water-cooled cold finger that can be exchanged periodically without interrupting the test. Analysis of fission products on the condensation plates involves dry gamma counting followed by chemical analysis of selected isotopes. This paper will describe design and operational details of the Fuel Accident Condition Simulator furnace system and the associated

  17. A fully automated Drosophila olfactory classical conditioning and testing system for behavioral learning and memory assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hui; Hanna, Eriny; Gatto, Cheryl L; Page, Terry L; Bhuva, Bharat; Broadie, Kendal

    2016-03-01

    Aversive olfactory classical conditioning has been the standard method to assess Drosophila learning and memory behavior for decades, yet training and testing are conducted manually under exceedingly labor-intensive conditions. To overcome this severe limitation, a fully automated, inexpensive system has been developed, which allows accurate and efficient Pavlovian associative learning/memory analyses for high-throughput pharmacological and genetic studies. The automated system employs a linear actuator coupled to an odorant T-maze with airflow-mediated transfer of animals between training and testing stages. Odorant, airflow and electrical shock delivery are automatically administered and monitored during training trials. Control software allows operator-input variables to define parameters of Drosophila learning, short-term memory and long-term memory assays. The approach allows accurate learning/memory determinations with operational fail-safes. Automated learning indices (immediately post-training) and memory indices (after 24h) are comparable to traditional manual experiments, while minimizing experimenter involvement. The automated system provides vast improvements over labor-intensive manual approaches with no experimenter involvement required during either training or testing phases. It provides quality control tracking of airflow rates, odorant delivery and electrical shock treatments, and an expanded platform for high-throughput studies of combinational drug tests and genetic screens. The design uses inexpensive hardware and software for a total cost of ∼$500US, making it affordable to a wide range of investigators. This study demonstrates the design, construction and testing of a fully automated Drosophila olfactory classical association apparatus to provide low-labor, high-fidelity, quality-monitored, high-throughput and inexpensive learning and memory behavioral assays. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Failure of PWR-RHRS under cold shutdown conditions: Experimental results from the PKL test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandl, R.M.; Umminger, K.J.; Logt, J.V.D.

    1991-01-01

    The Residual Heat Removal System (RHRS) of a PWR is designed to transfer thermal energy from the core after plant shutdown and maintain the plant in cold shutdown or refuelling conditions for extended periods of time. Initial reactor cooling after shutdown is achieved by dissipating heat through the steam generators (SGs) and discharging steam to the condenser by means of the Turbine Bypass System (TBS). When the reactor coolant temperature has dropped to about 160C and pressure has been reduced to 30 bar the RHRS is placed into operation. it reduces the coolant temperature to 50C within 20 hours after shutdown. The time margin for establishing alternate methods of heat removal following a failure of the RHRS depends on the Reactor Coolant System (RCS) temperature, the decay heat rate and the amount of RCS inventory. During some shutdown operations the RCS may be partially drained (e. g. to perform SG inspections). Decreased primary system inventory can significantly reduce the time available to recover the RHRS's function prior to bulk boiling and possible core uncovery. In the PKL test facility, which simulates a 1,300 MWe 4-loop PWR on a scale 1:145, a failure of RHRS under cold shutdown conditions was performed. This presentation gives a brief description of the test facility followed by the test objectives and results of this experiment

  19. Psychophysical testing of spatial and temporal dimensions of endogenous analgesia: conditioned pain modulation and offset analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honigman, Liat; Yarnitsky, David; Sprecher, Elliot; Weissman-Fogel, Irit

    2013-08-01

    The endogenous analgesia (EA) system is psychophysically evaluated using various paradigms, including conditioned pain modulation (CPM) and offset analgesia (OA) testing, respectively, the spatial and temporal filtering processes of noxious information. Though both paradigms assess the function of the EA system, it is still unknown whether they reflect the same aspects of EA and consequently whether they provide additive or equivalent data. Twenty-nine healthy volunteers (15 males) underwent 5 trials of different stimulation conditions in random order including: (1) the classic OA three-temperature stimulus train ('OA'); (2) a three-temperature stimulus train as control for the OA ('OAcon'); (3) a constant temperature stimulus ('constant'); (4) the classic parallel CPM ('CPM'); and (5) a combination of OA and CPM ('OA + CPM'). We found that in males, the pain reduction during the OA + CPM condition was greater than during the OA (P = 0.003) and CPM (P = 0.07) conditions. Furthermore, a correlation was found between OA and CPM (r = 0.62, P = 0.01) at the time of maximum OA effect. The additive effect found suggests that the two paradigms represent at least partially different aspects of EA. The moderate association between the CPM and OA magnitudes indicates, on the other hand, some commonality of their underlying mechanisms.

  20. Acute toxicity of copper oxide nanoparticles to Daphnia magna under different test conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thit, Amalie; Huggins, Krista; Selck, Henriette

    2017-01-01

    suspensions changed in a way similar to what is known for dissolved Cu: first in ISO standard test conditions (pH 7.8), second with slight acidity (pH 6.5), third in the presence of citric acid, and fourth in the presence of humic acid. For all four exposure conditions, the toxicity of Cu employed...... in the three forms followed the same sequence, i.e., CuSO4 > monodispersed 6 nm CuO ≫ poly-dispersed CuO. The toxicity of all Cu forms decreased from pH 6.5, ≫ pH 7.8, > pH 7.8 + citric acid, to ≫ pH 7.8 + humic acid. This pattern is in agreement with concentrations of Cu2+ calculated using the equilibrium...

  1. A contemporary method for monitoring indoor radon and environmental conditions at a remote test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renken, K.J.; Coursin, S.

    1996-01-01

    A state-of-the-art method for automatically monitoring indoor radon and environmental conditions at a remote test site is described. A Wisconsin home that exhibited elevated radon levels has been installed with automated PC-data acquisition system (PC-DAS) that includes: a laptop PC, a data acquisition cardcage, a commercial data acquisition software program plus sensors to measure radon gas concentrations, differential pressures, indoor air quality and meteorological conditions. The isolated PC-DAS is connected to a PC in a university laboratory via a modem and a communications software package. Experimental data is monitored and saved by the remote PC in real time and then automatically downloaded to the lab computer at selected intervals. An example of the formatted field results is presented and analysed. This documentation of the set-up, the off-the-shelf computer hardware and software, and the procedures should assist investigations requiring flexible remote long-term radon and environmental monitoring. (Author)

  2. Damage and failure of unirradiated and irradiated fuel rods tested under film boiling conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehner, A.S.; Hobbins, R.R.; Seiffert, S.L.; MacDonald, P.E.; McCardell, R.K.

    1979-01-01

    Power-cooling-mismatch experiments are being conducted as part of the Thermal Fuels Behavior Program in the Power Burst Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to evaluate the behavior of unirradiated and previously irradiated light water reactor fuel rods tested under stable film boiling conditions. The observed damage that occurs to the fuel rod cladding and the fuel as a result of film boiling operation is reported. Analyses performed as a part of the study on the effects of operating failed fuel rods in film boiling, and rod failure mechanisms due to cladding embrittlement and cladding melting upon being contacted by molten fuel are summarized

  3. Some tests of flat plate photovoltaic module cell temperatures in simulated field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, J. S.; Rathod, M. S.; Paslaski, J.

    1981-01-01

    The nominal operating cell temperature (NOCT) of solar photovoltaic (PV) modules is an important characteristic. Typically, the power output of a PV module decreases 0.5% per deg C rise in cell temperature. Several tests were run with artificial sun and wind to study the parametric dependencies of cell temperature on wind speed and direction and ambient temperature. It was found that the cell temperature is extremely sensitive to wind speed, moderately so to wind direction and rather insensitive to ambient temperature. Several suggestions are made to obtain data more typical of field conditions.

  4. Numerical simulations of the first operational conditions of the negative ion test facility SPIDER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serianni, G.; Agostinetti, P.; Antoni, V.; Baltador, C.; Chitarin, G.; Marconato, N.; Pasqualotto, R.; Sartori, E.; Toigo, V.; Veltri, P.; Cavenago, M.

    2016-01-01

    In view of the realization of the negative ion beam injectors for ITER, a test facility, named SPIDER, is under construction in Padova (Italy) to study and optimize production and extraction of negative ions. The present paper is devoted to the analysis of the expected first operations of SPIDER in terms of single-beamlet and multiple-beamlet simulations of the hydrogen beam optics in various operational conditions. The effectiveness of the methods adopted to compensate for the magnetic deflection of the particles is also assessed. Indications for a sequence of the experimental activities are obtained

  5. Results of tests under normal and abnormal operating conditions concerning LMFBR fuel element behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Languille, A.; Bergeonneau, P.; Essig, C.; Guerin, Y.

    1985-04-01

    The objective of this paper is to improve the knowledge on LMFBR fuel element behaviour during protected and unprotected transients in RAPSODIE and PHENIX reactors in order to evaluate its reliability. The range of the tests performed in these reactors is sufficiently large to cover normal and also extreme off normal conditions such as fuel melting. Results of such tests allow to better establish transient design limits for reactor structural components in particular for fuel pin cladding which play a lead role in controlling the accident sequence. Three main topics are emphasized in this paper: fuel melting during slow over-power excursions; influence of the fuel element geometrical evolution on reactivity feedback effects and reactor dynamic behaviour; clad damage evaluation during a transient (essentially very severe loss of flow)

  6. The behaviour of a vehicle’s suspension system on dynamic testing conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihon, L.; Lontiş, N.; Deac, S.

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents a car suspension’s behaviour on dynamic testing conditions through theoretical and mathematical simulation on specific model, on the single traction wheel, according to the real vehicle and by experiment on the test bench by reproducing the road’s geometry and vehicle’s speed and measuring the acceleration and damping response of the suspension system on that wheel. There are taking in consideration also the geometry and properties of the tyre-wheel model and physical wheel’s properties. The results are important due to the suspension’s model properties which allows to extend the theory and applications to the whole vehicle for improving the vehicle’s dynamics.

  7. The Use of Conditional Probability Integral Transformation Method for Testing Accelerated Failure Time Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalla Ahmed Abdel-Ghaly

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper suggests the use of the conditional probability integral transformation (CPIT method as a goodness of fit (GOF technique in the field of accelerated life testing (ALT, specifically for validating the underlying distributional assumption in accelerated failure time (AFT model. The method is based on transforming the data into independent and identically distributed (i.i.d Uniform (0, 1 random variables and then applying the modified Watson statistic to test the uniformity of the transformed random variables. This technique is used to validate each of the exponential, Weibull and lognormal distributions' assumptions in AFT model under constant stress and complete sampling. The performance of the CPIT method is investigated via a simulation study. It is concluded that this method performs well in case of exponential and lognormal distributions. Finally, a real life example is provided to illustrate the application of the proposed procedure.

  8. Patient empowerment in long-term conditions: development and preliminary testing of a new measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Patient empowerment is viewed by policy makers and health care practitioners as a mechanism to help patients with long-term conditions better manage their health and achieve better outcomes. However, assessing the role of empowerment is dependent on effective measures of empowerment. Although many measures of empowerment exist, no measure has been developed specifically for patients with long-term conditions in the primary care setting. This study presents preliminary data on the development and validation of such a measure. Methods We conducted two empirical studies. Study one was an interview study to understand empowerment from the perspective of patients living with long-term conditions. Qualitative analysis identified dimensions of empowerment, and the qualitative data were used to generate items relating to these dimensions. Study two was a cross-sectional postal study involving patients with different types of long-term conditions recruited from general practices. The survey was conducted to test and validate our new measure of empowerment. Factor analysis and regression were performed to test scale structure, internal consistency and construct validity. Results Sixteen predominately elderly patients with different types of long-term conditions described empowerment in terms of 5 dimensions (identity, knowledge and understanding, personal control, personal decision-making, and enabling other patients). One hundred and ninety seven survey responses were received from mainly older white females, with relatively low levels of formal education, with the majority retired from paid work. Almost half of the sample reported cardiovascular, joint or diabetes long-term conditions. Factor analysis identified a three factor solution (positive attitude and sense of control, knowledge and confidence in decision making and enabling others), although the structure lacked clarity. A total empowerment score across all items showed acceptable levels of internal

  9. Training and testing ERP-BCIs under different mental workload conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Yufeng; Wang, Peiyuan; Chen, Yuqian; Gu, Bin; Qi, Hongzhi; Zhou, Peng; Ming, Dong

    2016-02-01

    Objective. As one of the most popular and extensively studied paradigms of brain-computer interfaces (BCIs), event-related potential-based BCIs (ERP-BCIs) are usually built and tested in ideal laboratory settings in most existing studies, with subjects concentrating on stimuli and intentionally avoiding possible distractors. This study is aimed at examining the effect of simultaneous mental activities on ERP-BCIs by manipulating various levels of mental workload during the training and/or testing of an ERP-BCI. Approach. Mental workload was manipulated during the training or testing of a row-column P300-speller to investigate how and to what extent the spelling performance and the ERPs evoked by the oddball stimuli are affected by simultaneous mental workload. Main results. Responses of certain ERP components, temporal-occipital N200 and the late reorienting negativity evoked by the oddball stimuli and the classifiability of ERP features between targets and non-targets decreased with the increase of mental workload encountered by the subject. However, the effect of mental workload on the performance of ERP-BCI was not always negative but depended on the conditions where the ERP-BCI was built and applied. The performance of ERP-BCI built under an ideal lab setting without any irrelevant mental activities declined with the increasing mental workload of the testing data. However, the performance was significantly improved when an ERP-BCI was built under an appropriate mental workload level, compared to that built under speller-only conditions. Significance. The adverse effect of concurrent mental activities may present a challenge for ERP-BCIs trained in ideal lab settings but which are to be used in daily work, especially when users are performing demanding mental processing. On the other hand, the positive effects of the mental workload of the training data suggest that introducing appropriate mental workload during training ERP-BCIs is of potential benefit to the

  10. LCT-coil design: Mechanical interaction between composite winding and steel casing under various test conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolensky, B.; Messemer, G.; Zehlein, H.; Erb, J.

    1981-01-01

    Finite element computations for the structural design of the large superconducting toroidal field coil contributed by EURATOM to the Large Coil Test Facility (LCTF) at ORNL, USA were performed at KfK, using the ASKA code. The layout of the coil must consider different types of requirements: firstly, an optimal D-shaped contour minimizing circumferential stress gradients under normal operation in the toroidal arrangement must be defined. Secondly, the three-dimensional real design effects due to the actual support conditions, manufacturing tolerances etc. must be mastered for different basic operational and failure load cases. And, thirdly, the design must stand a single coil qualification test in the TOSKA-facility at KfK, Karlsruhe, FRG, before it is plugged into the LCTF. The emphasis of the paper is three-pronged according to these requirements: i) the 3D magnetic body forces as well as the underlying magnetic fields as computed by the HEDO-code are described. ii) The mechanical interaction between casing and winding as given elsewhere in terms of high stress regions, gaps, slide movements and contact forces for various load cases representing the LCTF test conditions is illustrated here by a juxtaposition of the operational deformations and stresses within the LCTF and the TOSKA. iii) Particular effects like the restraint imposed by a corset-type reinforcement of the coil in the TOSKA test facility to limit the breathing deformation are parametrically studied. Moreover, the possibilities to derive scaling laws which make essential results transferable to larger coils by extracting a 1D mechanical response from the 3D finite element model is also demonstrated. (orig./GG)

  11. Hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde (lyral) in patch test preparations under varied storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Dathan; Hamann, Carsten R; Zimerson, Erik; Bruze, Magnus

    2013-01-01

    The common practice of preparing patch tests in advance has recently been called into question by researchers. It has been established that fragrance compounds are volatile and their testing efficacy may be affected by storage conditions and preparation. Allergens in fragrance mix I rapidly decrease in concentration after preapplication to test chambers. This study aimed to investigate the volatility of hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde (HICC) in petrolatum when stored in test chambers and to explore the correlation between vapor pressure and allergen loss in petrolatum during preparation and storage. Standardized HICC in petrolatum was prepared and stored in IQ Chambers and Finn Chambers with covers at 5°C, 25°C, and 35°C, and concentration was analyzed at intervals for up to 9 days using gel permeation chromatography. Changes in HICC concentrations were not statistically significant at 8 hours at 5°C, 25°C, and 35°C. After 9 days, HICC concentrations were found to fall approximately 30% when stored at 35°C, 10% at 25°C, and less than 5% at 5°C. There was no significant difference between IQ and Finn chambers. Hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde concentrations are more stable in petrolatum than many other studied fragrance allergens, but HICC is still at risk for decreasing concentration when exposed to ambient air or heat for prolonged periods.

  12. Learning Classification Models of Cognitive Conditions from Subtle Behaviors in the Digital Clock Drawing Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souillard-Mandar, William; Davis, Randall; Rudin, Cynthia; Au, Rhoda; Libon, David J; Swenson, Rodney; Price, Catherine C; Lamar, Melissa; Penney, Dana L

    2016-03-01

    The Clock Drawing Test - a simple pencil and paper test - has been used for more than 50 years as a screening tool to differentiate normal individuals from those with cognitive impairment, and has proven useful in helping to diagnose cognitive dysfunction associated with neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and other dementias and conditions. We have been administering the test using a digitizing ballpoint pen that reports its position with considerable spatial and temporal precision, making available far more detailed data about the subject's performance. Using pen stroke data from these drawings categorized by our software, we designed and computed a large collection of features, then explored the tradeoffs in performance and interpretability in classifiers built using a number of different subsets of these features and a variety of different machine learning techniques. We used traditional machine learning methods to build prediction models that achieve high accuracy. We operationalized widely used manual scoring systems so that we could use them as benchmarks for our models. We worked with clinicians to define guidelines for model interpretability, and constructed sparse linear models and rule lists designed to be as easy to use as scoring systems currently used by clinicians, but more accurate. While our models will require additional testing for validation, they offer the possibility of substantial improvement in detecting cognitive impairment earlier than currently possible, a development with considerable potential impact in practice.

  13. Normal conditions of transport thermal analysis and testing of a Type B drum package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerrell, J.W.; Alstine, M.N. van; Gromada, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    Increasing the content limits of radioactive material packagings can save money and increase transportation safety by decreasing the total number of shipments required to transport large quantities of material. The contents of drum packages can be limited by unacceptable containment vessel pressures and temperatures due to the thermal properties of the insulation. The purpose of this work is to understand and predict the effects of insulation properties on containment system performance. The type B shipping container used in the study is a double containment fiberboard drum package. The package is primarily used to transport uranium and plutonium metals and oxides. A normal condition of transport (NCT) thermal test was performed to benchmark an NCT analysis of the package. A 21 W heater was placed in an instrumented package to simulate the maximum source decay heat. The package reached thermal equilibrium 120 hours after the heater was turned on. Testing took place indoors to minimize ambient temperature fluctuations. The thermal analysis of the package used fiberboard properties reported in the literature and resulted in temperature significantly greater than those measured during the test. Details of the NCT test will be described and transient temperatures at key thermocouple locations within the package will be presented. Analytical results using nominal fiberboard properties will be presented. Explanations of the results and the attempt to benchmark the analysis will be presented. The discovery that fiberboard has an anisotropic thermal conductivity and its effect on thermal performance will also be discussed

  14. Effect of Boundary Condition on the Shear Behaviour of Rock Joints in the Direct Shear Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahaaddini, M.

    2017-05-01

    The common method for determination of the mechanical properties of the rock joints is the direct shear test. This paper aims to study the effect of boundary condition on the results of direct shear tests. Experimental studies undertaken in this research showed that the peak shear strength is mostly overestimated. This problem is more pronounced for steep asperities and under high normal stresses. Investigation of the failure mode of these samples showed that tensile cracks are generated at the boundary of sample close to the specimen holders and propagated inside the intact materials. In order to discover the reason of observed failure mechanism in experiments, the direct shear test was simulated using PFC2D. Results of numerical models showed that the gap zone size between the upper and lower specimen holders has a significant effect on the shear mechanism. For the high gap size, stresses concentrate at the vicinity of the tips of specimen holders and result in generation and propagation of tensile cracks inside the intact material. However, by reducing the gap size, stresses are concentrated on asperities, and damage of specimen at its boundary is not observed. Results of this paper show that understanding the shear mechanism of rock joints is an essential step prior to interpreting the results of direct shear tests.

  15. Ice-sheet flow conditions deduced from mechanical tests of ice core

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miyamoto, Atsushi; Narita, Hideki; Hondoh, Takeo

    1999-01-01

    Uniaxial compression tests were performed on samples of the Greenland Ice Core Project (GRIP) deep ice core, both in the field and later in a cold-room laboratory, in order to understand the ice-flow behavior of large ice sheets. Experiments were conducted under conditions of constant strain rate....... It was revealed that cloudy bands affect ice-deformation processes, but the details remain unclear. Udgivelsesdato: June......Uniaxial compression tests were performed on samples of the Greenland Ice Core Project (GRIP) deep ice core, both in the field and later in a cold-room laboratory, in order to understand the ice-flow behavior of large ice sheets. Experiments were conducted under conditions of constant strain rate......-core samples with basal planes parallel to the horizontal plane of the ice sheet. The ice-flow enhancement factors show a gradual increase with depth down to approximately 2000 m. These results can be interpreted in terms of an increase in the fourth-order Schmid factor. Below 2000 m depth, the flow...

  16. The influence of the curing conditions of concrete on durability after freeze-thaw accelerated testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Assadi, G.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This work relates the curing conditions of concrete with the damage caused by rapid freeze-thaw cycles (ASTM C 666. The “potential” durability of concrete after testing is also studied. In countries with a continental climate, the curing of concrete in summer is performed under high-temperature and low-humidity conditions, and during the winter the concrete undergoes freezing and thawing. This paper shows the experimental results of the behaviour of concrete specimens cured under climatic summer conditions and then subjected to freeze-thaw cycles. Curing of the specimens includes conditions of good and bad practice in relation to wetting and protection of the concrete. Mechanical properties, cement hydration, volume and pore sizes, oxygen permeability, chloride diffusion and water penetration under pressure tests of the concrete are assessed. These tests were performed before and after the application of the freeze-thaw cycles. Statistical analysis of the correlation among variables is also included.Este trabajo relaciona las condiciones de curado del hormigón con los daños causados por ciclos hielo-deshielo (ASTM C 666. Estudia la durabilidad “potencial” del hormigón dañado por este ensayo. En países con clima continental, el curado del hormigón en verano se realiza con alta temperatura y baja humedad, y durante el invierno sufre condiciones de hielo-deshielo. Se presentan los resultados experimentales de probetas de hormigón curadas bajo condiciones climáticas del verano y luego sometidas a ciclos hielo-deshielo. El curado de las probetas incluye condiciones de buenas y malas prácticas en relación con el curado del hormigón. Se miden las propiedades mecánicas, grado de hidratación, volumen de poros y distribución de tamaños, permeabilidad al oxígeno, penetración de agua bajo presión y coeficiente de difusión de cloruros antes y después de la aplicación de los ciclos de hielo-deshielo. Se incluye un estudio estad

  17. Numerical tests of evolution systems, gauge conditions, and boundary conditions for 1D colliding gravitational plane waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardeen, J.M.; Buchman, L.T.

    2002-01-01

    We investigate how the accuracy and stability of numerical relativity simulations of 1D colliding plane waves depends on choices of equation formulations, gauge conditions, boundary conditions, and numerical methods, all in the context of a first-order 3+1 approach to the Einstein equations, with basic variables some combination of first derivatives of the spatial metric and components of the extrinsic curvature tensor. Hyperbolic schemes, specifically variations on schemes proposed by Bona and Masso and Anderson and York, are compared with variations of the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner formulation. Modifications of the three basic schemes include raising one index in the metric derivative and extrinsic curvature variables and adding a multiple of the energy constraint to the extrinsic curvature evolution equations. Redundant variables in the Bona-Masso formulation may be reset frequently or allowed to evolve freely. Gauge conditions which simplify the dynamical structure of the system are imposed during each time step, but the lapse and shift are reset periodically to control the evolution of the spacetime slicing and the longitudinal part of the metric. We show that physically correct boundary conditions, satisfying the energy and momentum constraint equations, generically require the presence of some ingoing eigenmodes of the characteristic matrix. Numerical methods are developed for the hyperbolic systems based on decomposing flux differences into linear combinations of eigenvectors of the characteristic matrix. These methods are shown to be second-order accurate, and in practice second-order convergent, for smooth solutions, even when the eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the characteristic matrix are spatially varying

  18. Forgeability test of extruded Mg–Sn–Al–Zn alloys under warm forming conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Jonghun; Park, Sunghyuk

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We compared forgeability of new developed TAZ alloys with conventional AZ alloys. • Forgeability was evaluated with a T-shape forging under hot forming condition. • TAZ alloys show the best performance in forgeability under hot forging condition. • Microstructures of the forged part were investigated with EBSD experiments. • YS and UTS of forged part with TAZ alloy are enhanced compared with AZ alloy. - Abstract: Magnesium (Mg) alloys have been thoroughly researched to replace steel or aluminum parts in automotives for reducing weight without sacrificing their strength. The widespread use of Mg alloys has been limited by its insufficient formability, which results from a lack of active slip systems at room temperature. It leads to a hot forming process for Mg alloys to enhance the formability and plastic workability. In addition, forged or formed parts of Mg alloys should have the reliable initial yield and ultimate tensile strength after hot working processes since its material properties should be compatible with other parts thereby guaranteeing structural safety against external load and crash. In this research, an optimal warm forming condition for applying extruded Mg–Sn–Al–Zn (TAZ) Mg alloys into automotive parts is proposed based on T-shape forging tests and the feasibility of forged parts is evaluated by measuring the initial yield strength and investigating the grain size in orientation imaging microscopy (OIM) maps

  19. Effects of boundary conditions on thermomechanical calculations: Spent fuel test - climax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butkovich, T.R.

    1982-10-01

    The effects of varying certain boundary conditions on the results of finite-element calculations were studied in relation to the Spent Fuel Test - Climax. The study employed a thermomechanical model with the ADINA structural analysis. Nodal temperature histories were generated with the compatible ADINAT heat flow codes. The boundary conditions studied included: (1) The effect of boundary loading on three progressively larger meshes. (2) Plane strain vs plane stress conditions. (3) The effect of isothermal boundaries on a small mesh and on a significantly larger mesh. The results showed that different mesh sizes had an insignificant effect on isothermal boundaries up to 5 y, while on the smallest and largest mesh, the maximum temperature difference in the mesh was 0 C. In the corresponding ADINA calculation, these different mesh sizes produce insignificant changes in the stress field and displacements in the region of interest near the heat sources and excavations. On the other hand, plane stress produces horizontal and vertical stress differences approx. 9% higher than does plane strain

  20. Turbine Airfoil With CMC Leading-Edge Concept Tested Under Simulated Gas Turbine Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, R. Craig; Hatton, Kenneth S.

    2000-01-01

    Silicon-based ceramics have been proposed as component materials for gas turbine engine hot-sections. When the Navy s Harrier fighter experienced engine (Pegasus F402) failure because of leading-edge durability problems on the second-stage high-pressure turbine vane, the Office of Naval Research came to the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field for test support in evaluating a concept for eliminating the vane-edge degradation. The High Pressure Burner Rig (HPBR) was selected for testing since it could provide temperature, pressure, velocity, and combustion gas compositions that closely simulate the engine environment. The study focused on equipping the stationary metal airfoil (Pegasus F402) with a ceramic matrix composite (CMC) leading-edge insert and evaluating the feasibility and benefits of such a configuration. The test exposed the component, with and without the CMC insert, to the harsh engine environment in an unloaded condition, with cooling to provide temperature relief to the metal blade underneath. The insert was made using an AlliedSignal Composites, Inc., enhanced HiNicalon (Nippon Carbon Co. LTD., Yokohama, Japan) fiber-reinforced silicon carbide composite (SiC/SiC CMC) material fabricated via chemical vapor infiltration. This insert was 45-mils thick and occupied a recessed area in the leading edge and shroud of the vane. It was designed to be free floating with an end cap design. The HPBR tests provided a comparative evaluation of the temperature response and leading-edge durability and included cycling the airfoils between simulated idle, lift, and cruise flight conditions. In addition, the airfoils were aircooled, uniquely instrumented, and exposed to the exact set of internal and external conditions, which included gas temperatures in excess of 1370 C (2500 F). In addition to documenting the temperature response of the metal vane for comparison with the CMC, a demonstration of improved leading-edge durability was a primary goal. First, the

  1. Laboratory test methods to determine the degradation of plastics in marine environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio eTosin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this technology report, three test methods were developed to characterize the degradation of plastic in marine environment. The aim was to outline a test methodology to measure the physical and biological degradation in different habitats where plastic waste can deposit when littered in the sea. Previously, research has focused mainly on the conditions encountered by plastic items when floating in the sea water (pelagic domain. However, this is just one of the possible habitats that plastic waste can be exposed to. Waves and tides tend to wash up plastic waste on the shoreline, which is also a relevant habitat to be studied. Therefore, the degradation of plastic items buried under sand kept wet with sea water has been followed by verifying the disintegration (visual disappearing as a simulation of the tidal zone. Most biodegradable plastics have higher densities than water and also as a consequence of fouling, they tend to sink and lay on the sea floor. Therefore, the fate of plastic items lying on the sediment has been followed by monitoring the oxygen consumption (biodegradation. Also the effect of a prolonged exposure to the sea water, to simulate the pelagic domain, has been tested by measuring the decay of mechanical properties. The test material (Mater-Bi was shown to degrade (total disintegration achieved in less than 9 months when buried in wet sand (simulation test of the tidal zone, to lose mechanical properties but still maintain integrity (tensile strength at break = -66% in 2 years when exposed to sea water in an aquarium (simulation of pelagic domain, and substantially biodegrade (69% in 236 days; biodegradation relative to paper: 88% when located at the sediment/sea water interface (simulation of benthic domain. This study is not conclusive as the methodological approach must be completed by also determining degradation occurring in the supralittoral zone, on the deep sea floor, and in the anoxic sediment.

  2. Laboratory test methods to determine the degradation of plastics in marine environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosin, Maurizio; Weber, Miriam; Siotto, Michela; Lott, Christian; Degli Innocenti, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    In this technology report, three test methods were developed to characterize the degradation of plastic in marine environment. The aim was to outline a test methodology to measure the physical and biological degradation in different habitats where plastic waste can deposit when littered in the sea. Previously, research has focused mainly on the conditions encountered by plastic items when floating in the sea water (pelagic domain). However, this is just one of the possible habitats that plastic waste can be exposed to. Waves and tides tend to wash up plastic waste on the shoreline, which is also a relevant habitat to be studied. Therefore, the degradation of plastic items buried under sand kept wet with sea water has been followed by verifying the disintegration (visual disappearing) as a simulation of the tidal zone. Most biodegradable plastics have higher densities than water and also as a consequence of fouling, they tend to sink and lay on the sea floor. Therefore, the fate of plastic items lying on the sediment has been followed by monitoring the oxygen consumption (biodegradation). Also the effect of a prolonged exposure to the sea water, to simulate the pelagic domain, has been tested by measuring the decay of mechanical properties. The test material (Mater-Bi) was shown to degrade (total disintegration achieved in less than 9 months) when buried in wet sand (simulation test of the tidal zone), to lose mechanical properties but still maintain integrity (tensile strength at break = -66% in 2 years) when exposed to sea water in an aquarium (simulation of pelagic domain), and substantially biodegrade (69% in 236 days; biodegradation relative to paper: 88%) when located at the sediment/sea water interface (simulation of benthic domain). This study is not conclusive as the methodological approach must be completed by also determining degradation occurring in the supralittoral zone, on the deep sea floor, and in the anoxic sediment.

  3. Laboratory Test Methods to Determine the Degradation of Plastics in Marine Environmental Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosin, Maurizio; Weber, Miriam; Siotto, Michela; Lott, Christian; Degli Innocenti, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    In this technology report, three test methods were developed to characterize the degradation of plastic in marine environment. The aim was to outline a test methodology to measure the physical and biological degradation in different habitats where plastic waste can deposit when littered in the sea. Previously, research has focused mainly on the conditions encountered by plastic items when floating in the sea water (pelagic domain). However, this is just one of the possible habitats that plastic waste can be exposed to. Waves and tides tend to wash up plastic waste on the shoreline, which is also a relevant habitat to be studied. Therefore, the degradation of plastic items buried under sand kept wet with sea water has been followed by verifying the disintegration (visual disappearing) as a simulation of the tidal zone. Most biodegradable plastics have higher densities than water and also as a consequence of fouling, they tend to sink and lay on the sea floor. Therefore, the fate of plastic items lying on the sediment has been followed by monitoring the oxygen consumption (biodegradation). Also the effect of a prolonged exposure to the sea water, to simulate the pelagic domain, has been tested by measuring the decay of mechanical properties. The test material (Mater-Bi) was shown to degrade (total disintegration achieved in less than 9 months) when buried in wet sand (simulation test of the tidal zone), to lose mechanical properties but still maintain integrity (tensile strength at break = −66% in 2 years) when exposed to sea water in an aquarium (simulation of pelagic domain), and substantially biodegrade (69% in 236 days; biodegradation relative to paper: 88%) when located at the sediment/sea water interface (simulation of benthic domain). This study is not conclusive as the methodological approach must be completed by also determining degradation occurring in the supralittoral zone, on the deep sea floor, and in the anoxic sediment. PMID:22737147

  4. Change in geometrical parameters of WWER high burnup fuel rods under operational conditions and transient testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanashov, B.; Amosov, S.; Lyadov, G.; Markov, D.; Ovchinnikov, V; Polenok, V.; Smirnov, A.; Sukhikh, A.; Bek, E.; Yenin, A.; Novikov, V.

    2001-01-01

    The paper discusses changes in fuel rods geometric parameters as result of operation conditions and burnups. The degree of geometry variability of fuel rods, cladding and column is one of the most important characteristics affecting fuel serviceability. On the other hand, changes in fuel rod geometric parameters influence fuel temperature, fission gas release, fuel-to-cladding stress strained state as well as the degree of interaction with FA skeleton elements and skeleton rigidity. Change in fuel-to-cladding gap is measured using compression technique. The axial distribution of fuel-to-cladding gap demonstrates the largest decrease of the gap in the region 500 to 2000 mm from the bottom of the fuel rod (WWER-440) and in the region of 500 to 3000 mm for WWER-1000. The cladding material creep in WWER fuel rods together with the radiation growth results in fuel rod cladding elongation. A set of transient tests for spent WWER-440 and WWER-1000 fuel rods carried out in SSC RIAR during a period 1995-1999, with the aim to estimate the changes in geometric parameters of FRs. The estimation of changes in outer diameter of cladding and fuel column and fuel-to-cladding gap are performed in transient conditions (changes in linear power range of 180 to 400 W/cm) for both WWER-440 and WWER-1000. WWER-440 fuel rods having the same burnup and close fuel-cladding contact before testing are subjected to considerable hoop cladding strain in testing up to 300 W/cm. But the hoop strain does not grow due to the structural changes in fuel column and decrease in central hole diameter occurred when the power is higher

  5. Gas migration in KBS-3 buffer bentonite. Sensitivity of test parameters to experimental boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrington, J.F.; Horseman, S.T.

    2003-01-01

    In the current Swedish repository design concept, hydrogen gas can be generated inside a waste canister by anaerobic corrosion of the ferrous metal liner. If the gas generation rate exceeds the diffusion rate of gas molecules in the buffer porewater, gas will accumulate in the void-space of a canister until its pressure becomes large enough for it to enter the bentonite as a discrete gaseous phase. Three long tenn gas injection tests have been performed on cylinders of pre-compacted MX80 bentonite. Two of these tests were undertaken using a custom-designed constant volume and radial flow (CVRF) apparatus. Gas was injected at a centrally located porous filter installed in the clay before hydration. Arrangements were made for gas to flow to three independently monitored sink-filter arrays mounted around the specimen. Axial and radial total stresses and internal porewater pressures were continuously monitored. Breakthrough and peak gas pressures were substantially larger than the sum of the swelling pressure and the external porewater. The third test was performed. using an apparatus which radially constrains the specimen during gas flow. Observed sensitivity of the breakthrough and peak gas pressures to the test boundary conditions suggests that gas entry must be accompanied by dilation of the bentonite fabric. In other words, there is a tendency for the volume of the specimen to increase during this process. The experimental evidence is consistent with the flow of gas along a relatively small number of crack-like pathways which propagate through the clay as gas pressure increases. Gas entry and breakthrough under constant volume boundary conditions causes a substantial increase in the total stress and the internal porewater pressure. It is possible to determine the point at which gas enters the clay by monitoring changes in these parameters. Localisation of gas flow within multiple pathways results, in nonuniform discharge rates at the sinks. When gas injection

  6. Gas migration in KBS-3 buffer bentonite. Sensitivity of test parameters to experimental boundary conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrington, J.F.; Horseman, S.T. [British Geological Survey, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2003-01-01

    In the current Swedish repository design concept, hydrogen gas can be generated inside a waste canister by anaerobic corrosion of the ferrous metal liner. If the gas generation rate exceeds the diffusion rate of gas molecules in the buffer porewater, gas will accumulate in the void-space of a canister until its pressure becomes large enough for it to enter the bentonite as a discrete gaseous phase. Three long tenn gas injection tests have been performed on cylinders of pre-compacted MX80 bentonite. Two of these tests were undertaken using a custom-designed constant volume and radial flow (CVRF) apparatus. Gas was injected at a centrally located porous filter installed in the clay before hydration. Arrangements were made for gas to flow to three independently monitored sink-filter arrays mounted around the specimen. Axial and radial total stresses and internal porewater pressures were continuously monitored. Breakthrough and peak gas pressures were substantially larger than the sum of the swelling pressure and the external porewater. The third test was performed. using an apparatus which radially constrains the specimen during gas flow. Observed sensitivity of the breakthrough and peak gas pressures to the test boundary conditions suggests that gas entry must be accompanied by dilation of the bentonite fabric. In other words, there is a tendency for the volume of the specimen to increase during this process. The experimental evidence is consistent with the flow of gas along a relatively small number of crack-like pathways which propagate through the clay as gas pressure increases. Gas entry and breakthrough under constant volume boundary conditions causes a substantial increase in the total stress and the internal porewater pressure. It is possible to determine the point at which gas enters the clay by monitoring changes in these parameters. Localisation of gas flow within multiple pathways results, in nonuniform discharge rates at the sinks. When gas injection

  7. Analysis of incoloy 800ht alloy tested in thermal transient conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velciu, L.; Meleg, T.; Nitu, A.; Popa, L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigated Incoloy 800 HT alloy after following thermal transient tests: fast heating rates (50° and 90°C/minute) up to 1,000°C, maintaining this temperature level (0 and 60 minutes), furnace-cooling until 220°C, and then air-cooling. This alloy is one of the candidate materials for construction of the steam generators of the future NPP reactors. The analysis consisted in metallographic examination and traction tests. The samples were investigated using the Olympus GX 71 optical microscope, the OPL microdurometer with automatic cycle and WALTER BAI traction device. The average grain size was determined by linear interception method. The micro hardness was calculated by the relationship from the device technical book. On the traction diagrams were obtained: strength resistance (Rm), elongation at rupture (A) and elastic modulus (E). The tested alloy was compared with the ''as received'' material, and the results showed a good behavior of this alloy in the presented conditions. (authors)

  8. Development Of A Sensor Network Test Bed For ISD Materials And Structural Condition Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeigler, K.; Ferguson, B.; Karapatakis, D.; Herbst, C.; Stripling, C.

    2011-01-01

    The P Reactor at the Savannah River Site is one of the first reactor facilities in the US DOE complex that has been placed in its end state through in situ decommissioning (ISD). The ISD end state consists of a grout-filled concrete civil structure within the concrete frame of the original building. To evaluate the feasibility and utility of remote sensors to provide verification of ISD system conditions and performance characteristics, an ISD Sensor Network Test Bed has been designed and deployed at the Savannah River National Laboratory. The test bed addresses the DOE-EM Technology Need to develop a remote monitoring system to determine and verify ISD system performance. Commercial off-the-shelf sensors have been installed on concrete blocks taken from walls of the P Reactor Building. Deployment of this low-cost structural monitoring system provides hands-on experience with sensor networks. The initial sensor system consists of: (1) Groutable thermistors for temperature and moisture monitoring; (2) Strain gauges for crack growth monitoring; (3) Tiltmeters for settlement monitoring; and (4) A communication system for data collection. Preliminary baseline data and lessons learned from system design and installation and initial field testing will be utilized for future ISD sensor network development and deployment.

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF A SENSOR NETWORK TEST BED FOR ISD MATERIALS AND STRUCUTRAL CONDITION MONITORING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeigler, K.; Ferguson, B.; Karapatakis, D.; Herbst, C.; Stripling, C.

    2011-07-06

    The P Reactor at the Savannah River Site is one of the first reactor facilities in the US DOE complex that has been placed in its end state through in situ decommissioning (ISD). The ISD end state consists of a grout-filled concrete civil structure within the concrete frame of the original building. To evaluate the feasibility and utility of remote sensors to provide verification of ISD system conditions and performance characteristics, an ISD Sensor Network Test Bed has been designed and deployed at the Savannah River National Laboratory. The test bed addresses the DOE-EM Technology Need to develop a remote monitoring system to determine and verify ISD system performance. Commercial off-the-shelf sensors have been installed on concrete blocks taken from walls of the P Reactor Building. Deployment of this low-cost structural monitoring system provides hands-on experience with sensor networks. The initial sensor system consists of: (1) Groutable thermistors for temperature and moisture monitoring; (2) Strain gauges for crack growth monitoring; (3) Tiltmeters for settlement monitoring; and (4) A communication system for data collection. Preliminary baseline data and lessons learned from system design and installation and initial field testing will be utilized for future ISD sensor network development and deployment.

  10. Test results of a jet impingement from a 4 inch pipe under BWR LOCA conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isozaki, Toshikuni; Yano, Toshikazu; Miyazaki, Noriyuki; Kato, Rokuro; Kurihara, Ryoichi; Ueda, Shuzo; Miyazono, Shohachiro

    1982-09-01

    Hypothetical instantaneous pipe rupture is now considered to be one of the design basis accidents during the operation of the light water reactor. If a pipe rupture accidnet occurs, the pipe will start moving with the sudden discharge of internal fluid. So, the various apparatus such as pipe whip restraints and jet deflectors are being installed near the postulated break location to protect the nuclear power plants against the effect of postulated pipe rupture. Pipe whipping test and jet discharge test are now being conducted at the Division of Reactor Safety of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. This report describes the test results of the jet discharge from a 4 inch pipe under BWR LOCA condition. In front of the pipe exit the target disk of 1000 mm in diameter was installed. The distance between the pipe exit and the target was 500 mm. 13 pressure transducers and 13 thermocouples were mounted on the target disk to measure the pressure and temperature increase due to jet impingement on the target. (author)

  11. Leaching of biocides used in façade coatings under laboratory test conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoknecht, Ute; Gruycheva, Jana; Mathies, Helena; Bergmann, Hannelore; Burkhardt, Michael

    2009-12-15

    The European Biocidal Products Directive 98/8/EC requires a risk assessment concerning possible effects of active ingredients on the environment. Biocides can be leached from treated materials exposed to outdoor use. These emissions have to be estimated and evaluated during the authorization procedure. Different immersion and irrigation tests were performed to investigate leaching of biocides from façade coatings. Several marketed formulations of textured coatings and paints spiked with a mixture of commonly used active ingredients (OIT, DCOIT, IPBC, carbendazim, isoproturon, diuron, terbutryn, and Irgarol 1051) were investigated. The emission process can be described by time-dependent functions that depend on the test conditions. The results of all test procedures confirm that leachability is related to water solubility and n-octanol-water partition coefficient of the active ingredients and that leaching of biocides from façade coatings is mainly a diffusion controlled process. Other factors like the composition of the product, availability and transport of water, concentration of active ingredients in the coatings, as well as UV-exposure of the coatings influence biocide emissions.

  12. Tests of a sodium bonded type control element of 'Monju' with the actual conditions. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katoh, Jungo; Tanaka, Masako; Ikarimoto, Iwao

    2004-03-01

    This report provides a summary of the following three experimental and analytical results conducted on the sodium bonded double porous-plug type control element: the pretest of retention of the absorber in the double C-type shroud tube (the ASMI test); the stress analysis of the double C-type shroud tube; and the long-term submersion test of the sodium bonded type control element. The objective of the ASMI test and the stress analysis is to define the shroud tube's bottom structure. First, simulating the absorber shroud mechanical interaction (ASMI), we checked the function of absorber holding of the double C-type shroud tube. Second, we conducted the stress analysis, changing the distance between the end plug of the tube and the bottom end of the absorber, to determine proper position of the absorber. In addition, we conducted the long-term submersion test of the control element on which sodium residues had been left, and confirmed that no trouble occurred even though the element was submerged for a long time. The results of the above tests and analysis are as follows: (1) On the conditions that the end plug of the shroud tube was fitted from outside of the double C-type shroud tube was double-layered, we checked through the ASMI test that no absorber leaked and the holding property was secured even though the absorber be powdery. (2) The stress analysis showed that the structural integrity was satisfied when the distance between the end plug of the tube and the bottom end of the absorber was 40 mm or longer, and that the stress in the shroud tube was within the elastic range when the distance was 50 mm or longer. From these results, we could assure the structure integrity of 50 mm distance case. (3) The result of the long-term submersion test showed that no trouble occurred when the sodium bonded type control rod assembly (control element) is stored under water with sodium residues after cleaning in the sodium cleansing facility, the temperature increase and the

  13. Laboratory algal bioassays using PAM fluorometry: effects of test conditions on the determination of herbicide and field sample toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjollema, Sascha B; van Beusekom, Sebastiaan A M; van der Geest, Harm G; Booij, Petra; de Zwart, Dick; Vethaak, A Dick; Admiraal, Wim

    2014-05-01

    Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) fluorometry, based on chlorophyll a fluorescence, is a frequently used technique in algal bioassays to assess toxicity of single compounds or complex field samples. Several test conditions can influence the test results, and because a standardized test protocol is currently lacking, linking the results of different studies is difficult. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to gain insight into the effects of test conditions of laboratory algal bioassays using PAM fluorometry on the outcome of toxicity tests. To this purpose, we described the results from several pilot studies on test development in which information is provided on the effects of the main test factors during the pretest phase, the test preparation, the exposure period, and the actual measurement. The experiments were focused on individual herbicides and complex field samples and included the effects of culturing conditions, cell density, solvent concentration, exposure time, and the presence of actinic light. Several of these test conditions were found to influence the outcome of the toxicity test, and the presented information provides important background information for the interpretation of toxicity results and describes which test conditions should be taken into account when using an algal bioassay with PAM fluorometry. Finally, the application of PAM fluorometry in algal toxicity testing is discussed. © 2014 SETAC.

  14. Development of a test method for protective gloves against nanoparticles in conditions simulating occupational use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolez, Patricia; Vinches, Ludwig; Vu-Khanh, Toan; Wilkinson, Kevin; Plamondon, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Nanoparticle manufacture and use are in full expansion. The associated risks of occupational exposure raise large concerns due to their potential toxicity. Even if they stand as a last resort in the traditional occupational Health and Safety (H and S) risk management strategy, personal protective equipment (PPE) against nanoparticles are an absolute need in the context of precautionary principle advocated by H and S organizations worldwide. However no standard test method is currently available for evaluating the efficiency of PPE against nanoparticles, in particular in the case of gloves. A project is thus underway to develop a test method for measuring nanoparticle penetration through protective gloves in conditions simulating glove-nanoparticle occupational interaction. The test setup includes an exposure and a sampling chamber separated by a circular glove sample. A system of cylinders is used to deform the sample while it is exposed to nanoparticles. The whole system is enclosed in a glove box to ensure the operator safety during assembly, dismounting and clean-up operations as well as during the tests. Appropriate nanoparticle detection techniques were also identified. Results are reported here for commercial 15nm TiO2 nanoparticles - powder and colloidal solutions in 1,2-propanediol, ethylene glycol and water - and four types of protective gloves: disposable nitrile and latex as well as unsupported neoprene and butyl rubber gloves. They show that mechanical deformations and contact with colloidal solution liquid carriers may affect glove materials. Preliminary results obtained with TiO2 powder indicate a possible penetration of nanoparticles through gloves following mechanical deformations.

  15. Development of a test method for protective gloves against nanoparticles in conditions simulating occupational use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolez, Patricia; Vinches, Ludwig; Vu-Khanh, Toan [Ecole de technologie superieure, 1100 rue Notre-Dame Ouest, Montreal QC H3C 1K3 (Canada); Wilkinson, Kevin [Universite de Montreal, C.P. 6128, succ. Centre-ville Montreal QC H3C 3J7 (Canada); Plamondon, Philippe, E-mail: patricia.dolez@etsmtl.ca [Ecole polytechnique, C.P. 6079, succ. Centre-ville, Montreal QC H3C 3A7 (Canada)

    2011-07-06

    Nanoparticle manufacture and use are in full expansion. The associated risks of occupational exposure raise large concerns due to their potential toxicity. Even if they stand as a last resort in the traditional occupational Health and Safety (H and S) risk management strategy, personal protective equipment (PPE) against nanoparticles are an absolute need in the context of precautionary principle advocated by H and S organizations worldwide. However no standard test method is currently available for evaluating the efficiency of PPE against nanoparticles, in particular in the case of gloves. A project is thus underway to develop a test method for measuring nanoparticle penetration through protective gloves in conditions simulating glove-nanoparticle occupational interaction. The test setup includes an exposure and a sampling chamber separated by a circular glove sample. A system of cylinders is used to deform the sample while it is exposed to nanoparticles. The whole system is enclosed in a glove box to ensure the operator safety during assembly, dismounting and clean-up operations as well as during the tests. Appropriate nanoparticle detection techniques were also identified. Results are reported here for commercial 15nm TiO2 nanoparticles - powder and colloidal solutions in 1,2-propanediol, ethylene glycol and water - and four types of protective gloves: disposable nitrile and latex as well as unsupported neoprene and butyl rubber gloves. They show that mechanical deformations and contact with colloidal solution liquid carriers may affect glove materials. Preliminary results obtained with TiO2 powder indicate a possible penetration of nanoparticles through gloves following mechanical deformations.

  16. Development of a test method for protective gloves against nanoparticles in conditions simulating occupational use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolez, Patricia; Vinches, Ludwig; Wilkinson, Kevin; Plamondon, Philippe; Vu-Khanh, Toan

    2011-07-01

    Nanoparticle manufacture and use are in full expansion. The associated risks of occupational exposure raise large concerns due to their potential toxicity. Even if they stand as a last resort in the traditional occupational Health & Safety (H&S) risk management strategy, personal protective equipment (PPE) against nanoparticles are an absolute need in the context of precautionary principle advocated by H&S organizations worldwide. However no standard test method is currently available for evaluating the efficiency of PPE against nanoparticles, in particular in the case of gloves. A project is thus underway to develop a test method for measuring nanoparticle penetration through protective gloves in conditions simulating glove-nanoparticle occupational interaction. The test setup includes an exposure and a sampling chamber separated by a circular glove sample. A system of cylinders is used to deform the sample while it is exposed to nanoparticles. The whole system is enclosed in a glove box to ensure the operator safety during assembly, dismounting and clean-up operations as well as during the tests. Appropriate nanoparticle detection techniques were also identified. Results are reported here for commercial 15nm TiO2 nanoparticles - powder and colloidal solutions in 1,2-propanediol, ethylene glycol and water - and four types of protective gloves: disposable nitrile and latex as well as unsupported neoprene and butyl rubber gloves. They show that mechanical deformations and contact with colloidal solution liquid carriers may affect glove materials. Preliminary results obtained with TiO2 powder indicate a possible penetration of nanoparticles through gloves following mechanical deformations.

  17. Wind tunnel testing of the DeepWind demonstrator in design and tilted operating conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battistia, L.; Benini, E.; Brighenti, A.

    2016-01-01

    The DeepWind Project aims at investigating the feasibility of a new floating vertical-axis wind turbine (VAWT) concept, whose purpose is to exploit wind resources at deep-water offshore sites. The results of an extensive experimental campaign on the DeepWind reduced scale demonstrator are here...... was installed on a high precision test bench, whose axis was suitable to be inclined up to 15° with respect to the design (i.e. upright) operating condition. The experiments were performed at the large scale, high speed wind tunnel of the Politecnico di Milano (Italy), using a “free jet” (open channel...... presented for different wind speeds and rotor angular velocities, including also skewed flow operation due to a tilted rotor arrangement. To accomplish this, after being instrumented to measure aerodynamic power and thrust (both in streamwise and transversal directions), a troposkien three-bladed rotor...

  18. Degradation testing and failure analysis of DC film capacitors under high humidity conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Huai; Nielsen, Dennis Achton; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    Metallized polypropylene film capacitors are widely used for high-voltage DC-link applications in power electronic converters. They generally have better reliability performance compared to aluminum electrolytic capacitors under electro-thermal stresses within specifications. However......, the degradation of the film capacitors is a concern in applications exposed to high humidity environments. This paper investigates the degradation of a type of plastic-boxed metallized DC film capacitors under different humidity conditions based on a total of 8700 h of accelerated testing and also post failure...... of interest is also presented. The study enables a better understanding of the humidity-related failure mechanisms and reliability performance of DC film capacitors for power electronics applications....

  19. An Exploratory Study on the Optimized Test Conditions of the Lock-in Thermography Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Yong Jin

    2011-01-01

    This work is devoted to the technique application of lock-in infrared thermography in the shipbuilding and ocean engineering industry. For this purpose, an exploratory study to find the optimized test conditions is carried out by the design of experiments. It has been confirmed to be useful method that the phase contrast images were quantified by a reference image and weighted by defect hole size. Illuminated optical intensity of lower or medium strength give a good result for getting a phase contrast image. In order to get a good phase contrast image, lock-in frequency factors should be high in proportion to the illuminated optical intensity. The integration time of infrared camera should have been inversely proportional to the optical intensity. The other hand, the difference of specimen materials gave a slightly biased results not being discriminative reasoning

  20. The development and testing of a modular containment system under plutonium active conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, M.J.; Pengelly, M.G.A.

    1984-05-01

    A Modular Containment System has been designed, constructed and tested under plutonium active conditions at AEE Winfrith. The unit consists of a portable self-contained pressurised suit area, complete with shower entry tunnel and ventilation plant which can be assembled to enclose active plant to enable active operations to be carried out safely by operators dressed in standard pressurised suits. A fundamental feature of the system is the use of strippable coatings which are used to treat the interior surfaces prior to active operations to prevent permanent contamination of the structure. Details of construction are given together with results of trials. Whilst this report describes work with plutonium, the system has clear applications wherever temporary containment of radioactive or toxic materials is needed. (U.K.)

  1. Surrogate fuel assembly multi-axis shaker tests to simulate normal conditions of rail and truck transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConnell, Paul E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Koenig, Greg John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Uncapher, William Leonard [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Grey, Carissa [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Engelhardt, Charles [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Saltzstein, Sylvia J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sorenson, Ken B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-05-01

    This report describes the third set of tests (the “DCLa shaker tests”) of an instrumented surrogate PWR fuel assembly. The purpose of this set of tests was to measure strains and accelerations on Zircaloy-4 fuel rods when the PWR assembly was subjected to rail and truck loadings simulating normal conditions of transport when affixed to a multi-axis shaker. This is the first set of tests of the assembly simulating rail normal conditions of transport.

  2. Surrogate fuel assembly multi-axis shaker tests to simulate normal conditions of rail and truck transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConnell, Paul E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Koenig, Greg John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Uncapher, William Leonard [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Grey, Carissa [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Engelhardt, Charles [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Saltzstein, Sylvia J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sorenson, Ken B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-05-12

    This report describes the third set of tests (the “DCLa shaker tests”) of an instrumented surrogate PWR fuel assembly. The purpose of this set of tests was to measure strains and accelerations on Zircaloy-4 fuel rods when the PWR assembly was subjected to rail and truck loadings simulating normal conditions of transport when affixed to a multi-axis shaker. This is the first set of tests of the assembly simulating rail normal conditions of transport.

  3. Investigation of the mechanical properties of the Euratom LCT coil by tests under different boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurer, A.; Komarek, P.; Maurer, W.; Ulbricht, A.; Wuechner, F.

    1987-01-01

    The increasing size of superconducting magnets for fusion and other application requires a careful design of the mechanical support structure to avoid expensive overdesign or damage. An encouraging progress was made in this field during the last ten years. Requirements of the Large Coil Task, a program to develop superconducting magnets suitable for TOKAMAKS, made it indispensable to transfer the already existing calculation of the finite element method (FEM) to the field of superconducting magnet technology. There are some conditions which require an additional effort and extension of the FEM models for the usage in this field. As a consequence of the operation at low temperatures material data must be available over the whole temperature range. The winding and the conductor of superconducting coils is a sophisticated composite with orthotropic material properties which have to be determined by suitable detailed FEM models and which have to be also checked by measurements on test samples of the winding pack. In most cases an additional structure of stainless steel or fiberglass reinforced epoxy is necessary to support the winding pack. Therefore a suitable model representing the elastic properties of the mechanism of force transmission has to be introduced in the FEM calculations. The mechanical measurements on a superconducting coil confirm or show weak points of the model and close therefore existing gaps. The Euratom LCT coil is equipped with sensors (strain gauges rosettes, displacement transducers) to analyse local and global structural mechanical behaviour. The spectrum of load cases applied during the testing with partly varying boundary conditions offers an excellent experimental frame to elucidate hidden uncovered model problem areas. (orig.)

  4. Testing ZigBee Motes for Monitoring Refrigerated Vegetable Transportation under Real Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Ruiz-Garcia

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Quality control and monitoring of perishable goods during transportation and delivery services is an increasing concern for producers, suppliers, transport decision makers and consumers. The major challenge is to ensure a continuous ‘cold chain’ from producer to consumer in order to guaranty prime condition of goods. In this framework, the suitability of ZigBee protocol for monitoring refrigerated transportation has been proposed by several authors. However, up to date there was not any experimental work performed under real conditions. Thus, the main objective of our experiment was to test wireless sensor motes based in the ZigBee/IEEE 802.15.4 protocol during a real shipment. The experiment was conducted in a refrigerated truck traveling through two countries (Spain and France which means a journey of 1,051 kilometers. The paper illustrates the great potential of this type of motes, providing information about several parameters such as temperature, relative humidity, door openings and truck stops. Psychrometric charts have also been developed for improving the knowledge about water loss and condensation on the product during shipments.

  5. Centrifuge model tests of rainfall-induced slope failures for the investigation of the initiation conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matziaris, Vasileios; Marshall, Alec; Yu, Hai-Sui

    2015-04-01

    Rainfall-induced landslides are very common natural disasters which cause damage to properties and infrastructure and may result in the loss of human lives. These phenomena often take place in unsaturated soil slopes and are triggered by the saturation of the soil profile, due to rain infiltration, which leads to a loss of shear strength. The aim of this study is to determine rainfall thresholds for the initiation of landslides under different initial conditions. Model tests of rainfall-induced landslides are conducted in the Nottingham Centre for Geomechanics 50g-T geotechnical centrifuge. Initially unsaturated plane-strain slope models made with fine silica sand are prepared at varying densities at 1g and accommodated within a climatic chamber which provides controlled environmental conditions. During the centrifuge flight at 60g, rainfall events of varying intensity and duration are applied to the slope models causing the initiation of slope failure. The impact of soil state properties and rainfall characteristics on the landslide initiation process are discussed. The variation of pore water pressures within the slope before, during and after simulated rainfall events is recorded using miniature pore pressure transducers buried in the soil model. Slope deformation is determined by using a high-speed camera and digital image analysis techniques.

  6. Study on concrete cask for practical use. Heat removal test under normal condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Hirofumi; Wataru, Masumi; Shirai, Koji; Saegusa, Toshiari

    2005-01-01

    In Japan, it is planed to construct interim storage facilities taking account of dry storage away form reactor in 2010. Recently, a concrete cask is noticed from the economical point of view. But data for its safety analysis have not been sufficient yet. Heat removal tests using to types of full-scale concrete casks were conducted. This paper describes the results under normal condition of spent fuel storage. In the tests, data on heat removal performance and integrity of cask components were obtained for different storage periods. The change of decay heat of spent fuel was simulated using electric heaters. Reinforced Concrete cask (RC cask) and Concrete Filled Steel cask (CFS cask) were the specimen casks. The levels of decay heat at the initial period of 60 years of storage, the intermediate period (20 years of storage), and the final period (40 years of storage) correspond to 22.6 kW, 16 kW and 10 kW, respectively. Quantitative temperature data of the cask components were obtained as compared with their limit temperature. In addition, heat balance data required for heat removal analyses were obtained. (author)

  7. Tribological Behaviour of Ti:Ta-DLC Films Under Different Tribo-Test Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efeoglu, İhsan; Keleş, Ayşenur; Totik, Yaşar; Çiçek, Hikmet; Emine Süküroglu, Ebru

    2018-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films are suitable applicants for cutting tools due to their high hardness, low friction coefficient and wear rate. Doping metals in DLC films have been improved its tribological properties. In this study, titanium and tantalum doped hydrogenated DLC films were deposited by closed-field unbalanced magnetron sputtering system onto M2 high speed steels in Ar/N2/C2H2 atmosphere. The friction and wear properties of Ti:Ta-DLC film were investigated under different tribo-test conditions including in atmospheric pressure, distilled water, commercial oil and Ar atmosphere. The coated specimens were characterized by SEM and X-ray diffraction techniques. The bonding state of C-C (sp3) and C=C (sp2) were obtained with XPS. The tribological properties of Ti:Ta-DLC were investigated with pin-on-disc wear test. Hardness measurements performed by micro-indentation. Our results suggest that Ti:Ta-doped DLC film shows very dense columnar microstructure, high hardness (38.2 GPa) with low CoF (µ≈0.02) and high wear resistance (0.5E-6 mm3/Nm).

  8. Incubation of ethanol reinstatement depends on test conditions and how ethanol consumption is reduced

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Brett C.; Lamb, R. J.

    2015-01-01

    In reinstatement studies (a common preclinical procedure for studying relapse), incubation occurs (longer abstinence periods result in more responding). This finding is discordant with the clinical literature. Identifying determinants of incubation could aid in interpreting reinstatement and identifying processes involved in relapse. Reinstated responding was examined in rats trained to respond for ethanol and food under a multiple concurrent schedule (Component 1: ethanol FR5, food FR150; Component 2: ethanol FR5, food FR5–alternating across the 30-min session). Ethanol consumption was then reduced for 1 or 16 sessions either by suspending training (rats remained in home cage) or by providing alternative reinforcement (only Component 2 stimuli and contingencies were presented throughout the session). In the next session, stimuli associated with Component 1 were presented and responses recorded but ethanol and food were never delivered. Two test conditions were studied: fixed-ratio completion either produced ethanol- or food-associated stimuli (signaled) or had no programmed consequence (unsignaled). Incubation of ethanol responding was observed only after suspended training during signaled test sessions. Incubation of food responding was also observed after suspended training. These results are most consistent with incubation resulting from a degradation of feedback functions limiting extinction responding, rather than an increased motivation. PMID:25595114

  9. Performance Analysis Review of Thorium TRISO Coated Particles during Manufacture, Irradiation and Accident Condition Heating Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-03-01

    Thorium, in combination with high enriched uranium, was used in all early high temperature reactors (HTRs). Initially, the fuel was contained in a kernel of coated particles. However, particle quality was low in the 1960s and early 1970s. Modern, high quality, tristructural isotropic (TRISO) fuel particles with thorium oxide and uranium dioxide (UO 2 ) had been manufactured since 1978 and were successfully demonstrated in irradiation and accident tests. In 1980, HTR fuels changed to low enriched uranium UO 2 TRISO fuels. The wide ranging development and demonstration programme was successful, and it established a worldwide standard that is still valid today. During the process, results of the thorium work with high quality TRISO fuel particles had not been fully evaluated or documented. This publication collects and presents the information and demonstrates the performance of thorium TRISO fuels.This publication is an outcome of the technical contract awarded under the IAEA Coordinated Research Project on Near Term and Promising Long Term Options for Deployment of Thorium Based Nuclear Energy, initiated in 2012. It is based on the compilation and analysis of available results on thorium TRISO coated particle performance in manufacturing and during irradiation and accident condition heating tests

  10. Multi-rod burst test under a loss-of coolant accident condition, (4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otomo, Takashi; Hashimoto, Masao; Kawasaki, Satoru; Furuta, Teruo; Uetsuka, Hiroshi

    1983-06-01

    Multi-rod burst test of No.7808 bundle was performed in steam to estimate quantitative coolant flow channel restriction caused by the ballooning of zircaloy claddings in a fuel assembly during a LOCA transient in LWRs. The test was conducted under the condition that the initial internal pressure in each rod was 35kg/cm 2 (RT) and the heating rate was 9 0 C/s in steam with flow rate of 0.4g/cm 2 .min. The following results were obtained; (1) Maximum and burst pressures in rods were in the range 45 to 48kg/cm 2 and 41 to 45kg/cm 2 , respectively. The burst temperature of cladding were estimated to be 850 to 880 0 C. (2) Axial portions of tubes with greater than 34% strain were observed in the range 0 to 40mm in most rod. The mean length was 19mm in the bundle. (3) The degree of maximum increase in cross-sectional area is 54.2% in the bundle(7 x 7) and 66.9% in the internal rods(5 x 5). (4) Maximum channel area restriction was 40.5% in the bundle(7 x 7) and 51.4% in the internal rods(5 x 5). (author)

  11. Cavitating Propeller Performance in Inclined Shaft Conditions with OpenFOAM: PPTC 2015 Test Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaggero, Stefano; Villa, Diego

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we present our analysis of the non-cavitating and cavitating unsteady performances of the Potsdam Propeller Test Case (PPTC) in oblique flow. For our calculations, we used the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equation (RANSE) solver from the open-source OpenFOAM libraries. We selected the homogeneous mixture approach to solve for multiphase flow with phase change, using the volume of fluid (VoF) approach to solve the multiphase flow and modeling the mass transfer between vapor and water with the Schnerr-Sauer model. Comparing the model results with the experimental measurements collected during the Second Workshop on Cavitation and Propeller Performance - SMP'15 enabled our assessment of the reliability of the open-source calculations. Comparisons with the numerical data collected during the workshop enabled further analysis of the reliability of different flow solvers from which we produced an overview of recommended guidelines (mesh arrangements and solver setups) for accurate numerical prediction even in off-design conditions. Lastly, we propose a number of calculations using the boundary element method developed at the University of Genoa for assessing the reliability of this dated but still widely adopted approach for design and optimization in the preliminary stages of very demanding test cases.

  12. FANTM: The First Article NIF Test Module for the Laser Power Conditioning System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammon, Jud; Harjes, Henry C.; Moore, William B.S.; Smith, David L.; Wilson, J. Michael

    1999-01-01

    Designing and developing the 1.7 to 2. 1-MJ Power Conditioning System (PCS) that powers the flashlamps for the National Ignition Facility (NIF), currently being constructed at Lawrence Livermore National Labs (LLNL), is one of several responsibilities assumed by Sandia National Labs (SNL) in support of the NIF Project. The test facility that has evolved over the last three years to satisfy the project requirements is called FANTM. It was built at SNL and has operated for about 17,000 shots to demonstrate component performance expectations over the lifetime of NIF. A few modules similar to the one shown in Fig. 1 will be used initially in the amplifier test phase of the project. The final till NIF system will require 192 of them (48 in each of four capacitor bays). This paper briefly summarizes the final design of the FANTM facility and compares its performance with the predictions of circuit simulations for both normal operation and fault-mode response. Applying both the measured and modeled power pulse waveforms as input to a physics-based, semi-empirical amplifier gain code indicates that the 20-capacitor PCS can satisfy the NIF requirement for an average gain coefficient of 5.00 %/cm and can exceed 5.20%/cm with 24 capacitors

  13. Durability testing of an iodate-substituted hydroxyapatite designed for the conditioning of {sup 129}I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coulon, Antoine [CEA, DEN, DTCD, SECM, Laboratoire d' étude et de Développement de Matrices de Conditionnement, Marcoule, F-30207 Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Grandjean, Agnes [CEA, DEN, DTCD, SPDE, Laboratoire des Procédés Supercritiques et de Décontamination, Marcoule, F-30207 Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Laurencin, Danielle [Institut Charles Gerhardt Montpellier ICGM, UMR 5253 CNRS-UM-ENSCM, Université de Montpellier, Place E. Bataillon, CC1701, F-34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Jollivet, Patrick [CEA, DEN, DTCD, SECM, Laboratoire d' étude du Comportement à Long Terme, Centre de Marcoule, F-30207 Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Rossignol, Sylvie [Groupe d' Etude des Matériaux Hétérogènes, CEC-GEMH-ENSCI, 12 rue de l' Atlantis, F-87068 Limoges Cedex (France); Campayo, Lionel, E-mail: lionel.campayo@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, DTCD, SECM, Laboratoire d' étude et de Développement de Matrices de Conditionnement, Marcoule, F-30207 Bagnols sur Cèze (France)

    2017-02-15

    The safe management of iodine coming from spent nuclear fuels by storage in deep geological repositories requires durable materials. For this purpose, we have recently developed an iodate-substituted hydroxyapatite (HA-CaI). In the present article, the chemical durability of this material is assessed as a function of leaching media and apatite stoichiometry. First, the maximum rate for iodine release was determined in unsaturated conditions leading to a congruent dissolution of HA-CaI. In these conditions, the forward rate was equal to 2 × 10{sup −2} g m{sup −2} d{sup −1} at 50 °C independently of apatite stoichiometry. During this regime, dissolution was controlled by surface reaction and diffusion phenomena. When concentrations of calcium and phosphate ions in solution increased, the system became saturated towards non-substituted hydroxyapatite Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(OH){sub 2} and the rate of iodine release consecutively decreased. Consequently, tests were carried out to determine the behaviour of HA-CaI in such experimental conditions (saturated conditions), which were thought to be time-prevalent given the half-life of {sup 129}I (15.7 million years). During this regime, also called residual regime, iodine was released in the solution at a constant rate without being trapped in a secondary phase. The residual rate at 50 °C on the basis of iodine release was of 10{sup −4} g m{sup −2} d{sup −1} in an initially deionized water, and it fell by one order of magnitude (r = 10{sup −5} g m{sup −2} d{sup −1}) in a clay-equilibrated groundwater (hereafter called Callovo-oxfordian (COx) groundwater). This singular behaviour was ascribed to the presence of calcium in COx water. These preliminary results on the chemical durability of HA-CaI suggest that this material is a viable candidate as repository iodine waste form. - Highlights: • A two-step mechanism can account for the resistance to leaching in pure water of iodate

  14. Aeroheating Testing and Predictions for Project Orion CEV at Turbulent Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, Brian R.; Berger, Karen T.; Horvath, Thomas J.; Coblish, Joseph J.; Norris, Joseph D.; Lillard, Randolph P.; Kirk, Benjamin S.

    2009-01-01

    An investigation of the aeroheating environment of the Project Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle was performed in the Arnold Engineering Development Center Hypervelocity Wind Tunnel No. 9 Mach 8 and Mach 10 nozzles and in the NASA Langley Research Center 20 - Inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel. Heating data were obtained using a thermocouple-instrumented approx.0.035-scale model (0.1778-m/7-inch diameter) of the flight vehicle. Runs were performed in the Tunnel 9 Mach 10 nozzle at free stream unit Reynolds numbers of 1x10(exp 6)/ft to 20x10(exp 6)/ft, in the Tunnel 9 Mach 8 nozzle at free stream unit Reynolds numbers of 8 x 10(exp 6)/ft to 48x10(exp 6)/ft, and in the 20-Inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel at free stream unit Reynolds numbers of 1x10(exp 6)/ft to 7x10(exp 6)/ft. In both facilities, enthalpy levels were low and the test gas (N2 in Tunnel 9 and air in the 20-Inch Mach 6) behaved as a perfect-gas. These test conditions produced laminar, transitional and turbulent data in the Tunnel 9 Mach 10 nozzle, transitional and turbulent data in the Tunnel 9 Mach 8 nozzle, and laminar and transitional data in the 20- Inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel. Laminar and turbulent predictions were generated for all wind tunnel test conditions and comparisons were performed with the experimental data to help define the accuracy of computational method. In general, it was found that both laminar data and predictions, and turbulent data and predictions, agreed to within less than the estimated 12% experimental uncertainty estimate. Laminar heating distributions from all three data sets were shown to correlate well and demonstrated Reynolds numbers independence when expressed in terms of the Stanton number based on adiabatic wall-recovery enthalpy. Transition onset locations on the leeside centerline were determined from the data and correlated in terms of boundary-layer parameters. Finally turbulent heating augmentation ratios were determined for several body-point locations and correlated in terms of the

  15. About condition of soil ground at locations of the former Azgir nuclear test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhmetov, E.Z.; Adymov, Zh.I.; Ermatov, A.S.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Soil condition after underground nuclear explosions at locations of the test sites is considered. The region is situated in the zone of northern deserts and characterized by prevalence of greyish-brown soils in conditions of sharply continental climate and presence of salt in soil-formative complex including tertiary clays, loess-like loam, loam sands and sands. There are small quantity of humus in such soil. During investigation of soil characteristics and ability of soil particles to form conglomerates, possessing of different properties, it is necessary to know both element and phase composition, determining, in the most extent, such physical and mechanical macro-characteristics as: density, stickiness, air and water penetrability, solubility, chemical resistance, granulometric set and others. Phase composition of soil samples can be, to a sufficient extent, determined by the X-ray diffractometry methods using ordinary X-ray experimental facilities. Phase composition of soil includes gypsum, quartz, calcium, potash feldspar hematite, kaolin, peach and mica in different quantities. Data on element composition of soil samples were obtained from the territory of technological locations of test site using the method of X-ray-fluorescent analysis. Granulometric composition of soil ground has been investigated using the methods of dry sieving and wet sieving for determination of radionuclide distribution in different fractions of soil particles. By the method of the dry sieving of soil ground samples there are taken place a sticking the small together of fine fractions and an adhesion of stuck-together particles to more large ones. Therefore, fine fractions cannot be separate completely at dry sieving. As distinct from the dry sieving an use of water jet in the sieving allows to overcome defects of the dry method and, by a sufficiently effective separation of granulometric fractions, to obtain more precise results of investigations of granulometric

  16. Experimental results from containment piping bellows subjected to severe accident conditions. Volume 1, Results from bellows tested in 'like-new' conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, L.D.; Parks, M.B.

    1994-09-01

    Bellows are an integral part of the containment pressure boundary in nuclear power plants. They are used at piping penetrations to allow relative movement between piping and the containment wall, while minimizing the load imposed on the piping and wall. Piping bellows are primarily used in steel containments; however, they have received limited use in some concrete (reinforced and prestressed) containments. In a severe accident they may be subjected to pressure and temperature conditions that exceed the design values, along with a combination of axial and lateral deflections. A test program to determine the leak-tight capacity of containment penetration bellows is being conducted under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission at Sandia National Laboratories. Several different bellows geometries, representative of actual containment bellows, have been subjected to extreme deflections along with pressure and temperature loads. The bellows geometries and loading conditions are described along with the testing apparatus and procedures. A total of thirteen bellows have been tested, all in the 'like-new' condition. (Additional tests are planned of bellows that have been subjected to corrosion.) The tests showed that bellows are capable of withstanding relatively large deformations, up to, or near, the point of full compression or elongation, before developing leakage. The test data is presented and discussed

  17. NASA X-Ray Observatory Completes Tests Under Harsh Simulated Space Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-07-01

    NASA's most powerful X-ray observatory has successfully completed a month-long series of tests in the extreme heat, cold, and airless conditions it will encounter in space during its five-year mission to shed new light on some of the darkest mysteries of the universe. The Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility was put through the rigorous testing as it was alternately heated and cooled in a special vacuum chamber at TRW Space and Electronics Group in Redondo Beach, Calif., NASA's prime contractor for the observatory. "Successful completion of thermal vacuum testing marks a significant step in readying the observatory for launch aboard the Space Shuttle in January," said Fred Wojtalik, manager of the Observatory Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala. "The observatory is a complex, highly sophisticated, precision instrument," explained Wojtalik. "We are pleased with the outcome of the testing, and are very proud of the tremendous team of NASA and contractor technicians, engineers and scientists that came together and worked hard to meet this challenging task." Testing began in May after the observatory was raised into the 60-foot thermal vacuum chamber at TRW. Testing was completed on June 20. During the tests the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility was exposed to 232 degree heat and 195 degree below zero Fahrenheit cold. During four temperature cycles, all elements of the observatory - the spacecraft, telescope, and science instruments - were checked out. Computer commands directing the observatory to perform certain functions were sent from test consoles at TRW to all Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility components. A team of contractor and NASA engineers and scientists monitored and evaluated the results. Commands were also sent from, and test data monitored at, the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility Operations Control Center in Cambridge, Mass., as part of the test series. The observatory will be managed and controlled from

  18. Characterization test of the optimized H type grid spring under the in-grid boundary condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Kyung Ho; Kim, Hyung Tae; Lee, Kang Hee; Kang, Heung Seok

    2004-01-01

    This paper is dealing with the simplified method for the characterization test. In reality, the spring should be tested with the test specimen of spacer grid assembly itself (assembly-based test). But the available space for loading is very small due to the dimples and the spring of the adjacent straps, much care should be necessary in conducting the assembly-based test. Test results are compared with the previous test results for checking the usability of the assembly-based test

  19. Effects of three pesticides on the avoidance behavior of earthworms in laboratory tests performed under temperate and tropical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Marcos; Römbke, Jörg; de Brito, Marcus Torres; Scheffczyk, Adam

    2008-05-01

    Little research has been performed on the impact of pesticides on earthworms under tropical conditions. Taking into consideration the often-limited resources in tropical countries, simple screening tests are needed. Therefore, it was investigated whether three pesticides relevant for the Brazilian Amazon (benomyl, carbendazim, lambda-cyhalothrin) affect the avoidance behavior of the earthworm Eisenia fetida. The tests were performed for two days according to ISO guideline 17512 but were adapted to tropical conditions (i.e. test substrate, test organism and temperature). The results indicate that this test gives reproducible and reliable results. Toxicity values (NOEC, EC50) are lower than those determined in 14 day-acute mortality tests and are approximately in the same range such as those found in 56 day-chronic reproduction tests with the same earthworm species, which were performed in parallel. Therefore, the use of the earthworm avoidance tests is recommended as a screening tool for the risk assessment of pesticides.

  20. Impact of typical steady-state conditions and transient conditions on flow ripple and its test accuracy for axial piston pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bing; Hu, Min; Zhang, Junhui

    2015-09-01

    The current research about the flow ripple of axial piston pump mainly focuses on the effect of the structure of parts on the flow ripple. Therein, the structure of parts are usually designed and optimized at rated working conditions. However, the pump usually has to work in large-scale and time-variant working conditions. Therefore, the flow ripple characteristics of pump and analysis for its test accuracy with respect to variant steady-state conditions and transient conditions in a wide range of operating parameters are focused in this paper. First, a simulation model has been constructed, which takes the kinematics of oil film within friction pairs into account for higher accuracy. Afterwards, a test bed which adopts Secondary Source Method is built to verify the model. The simulation and tests results show that the angular position of the piston, corresponding to the position where the peak flow ripple is produced, varies with the different pressure. The pulsating amplitude and pulsation rate of flow ripple increase with the rise of pressure and the variation rate of pressure. For the pump working at a constant speed, the flow pulsation rate decreases dramatically with the increasing speed when the speed is less than 27.78% of the maximum speed, subsequently presents a small decrease tendency with the speed further increasing. With the rise of the variation rate of speed, the pulsating amplitude and pulsation rate of flow ripple increase. As the swash plate angle augments, the pulsating amplitude of flow ripple increases, nevertheless the flow pulsation rate decreases. In contrast with the effect of the variation of pressure, the test accuracy of flow ripple is more sensitive to the variation of speed. It makes the test accuracy above 96.20% available for the pulsating amplitude of pressure deviating within a range of ±6% from the mean pressure. However, with a variation of speed deviating within a range of ±2% from the mean speed, the attainable test

  1. Design, development and test of the gearbox condition monitoring system using sound signal processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Zamani

    2016-09-01

    format and MATLAB R2014a software used for data processing. Data processing: Signal processing method in the frequency domain is used in order to reveal the defects. Fast Fourier Transform: Fast Fourier Transform FFT for application in electronic equipment specially analyzers have great importance. In this condition, sampling number is chosen exponentially as 2N which decreases the calculation volume significantly. Determination of defect kind of gearwheel using frequency spectrum analysis: In mentioned gearwheel, errors were generated synthetically. Defect kind of these errors was generated in separate gearwheels in order to investigate the defects more precisely and a gearwheel was considered as control gearwheel. Despite of this, the sound of all of the gearwheels in correct condition was stored. Results and Discussion Comparison of processed acoustic signals from gearwheels of gearbox in two correct and incorrect conditions was indicative of gearwheel involvement, frequency, their harmony and the changes resulted from defects. Gearwheel defect detection tests showed that at the speeds of 1496, 1050 and 749 rpm, investigated defects are recognizable with a comparison of the frequency spectrum of obtained signals in correct and incorrect conditions and according to the involvement frequency of gearwheel, its harmony and sided spectrum. Results of the frequency spectrum of signal analysis in speed of 1496 rpm pinion showed the defect of one tooth fracture in involvement frequency of gearwheels by 489, 350 and 249 Hz respectively which became apparent with a mentioned frequency domain increment. A worn tooth defect in a gearwheel was completely determinable as sided bands with equal distance around gearwheel involvement frequency in the signal frequency determination of the speeds of 1496 and 105 rpm pinion, but became a bit harder in less speeds. Investigation of frequency spectrum of acoustic signal resulted from gearwheel, is indicative of the ability of this method

  2. Testing the effects of Delta 9-THC and D-cycloserine on extinction of conditioned fear in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klumpers, Floris; Denys, Damiaan; Kenemans, J. Leon; Grillon, Christian; van der Aart, Jasper; Baas, Johanna M. P.

    2012-01-01

    Preclinical evidence implicates several neurotransmitter systems in the extinction of conditioned fear. These results are of great interest, because the reduction of acquired fear associations is critical in therapies for anxiety disorders. We tested whether findings with respect to the

  3. Testing the effects of Delta9-THC and D-cycloserine on extinction of conditioned fear in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klumpers, F.; Denys, D.; Kenemans, J.L.; Grillon, C.; van der Aart, J.; Baas, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Preclinical evidence implicates several neurotransmitter systems in the extinction of conditioned fear. These results are of great interest, because the reduction of acquired fear associations is critical in therapies for anxiety disorders. We tested whether findings with respect to the

  4. Examination of optimum test conditions for a 3-point bending and cutting test to evaluate sound emission of wafer during deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdem Carsanba

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate optimum test conditions of acoustical-mechanical measurement of wafer analysed by Acoustic Envelope Detector attached to the Texture Analyser. Force-displacement and acoustic signals were simultaneously recorded applying two different methods (3-point bending and cutting test. In order to study acoustical-mechanical behaviour of wafers, the parameters “maximum sound pressure”, “total count peaks” and “mean sound value” were used and optimal test conditions of microphone position and test speed were examined. With a microphone position of 45° angle and 1 cm distance and at a low test speed of 0.5 mm/s wafers of different quality could be distinguished best. The angle of microphone did not have significant effect on acoustic results and the number of peaks of the force and acoustic signal decreased with increasing distance and test speed.

  5. Program of in-pile IASCC testing under the simulated actual plant condition. Development of technique for in-pile IASCC initiation test in JMTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugachi, Hirokazu; Tsukada, Takashi; Kaji, Yoshiyuki; Nagata, Nobuaki; Dozaki, Koji; Takiguchi, Hideki

    2003-01-01

    Irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) is caused by the synergistic effects of neutron irradiation, stress and corrosion by high temperature water. It is, therefore, essential to perform in-pile SCC tests, which are material tests under the conditions simulating those of actual LWR operation, in order to clarify the precise mechanism of the phenomenon, though mainly out-of-pile SCC tests for irradiated materials have been carried out in this research field. There are, however, many difficulties to perform in-pile SCC tests. Performing in-pile SCC tests, essential key techniques must be developed. Hence as a part of development of the key techniques for in-pile SCC tests, we have embarked on development of the test technique which enables us to obtain the information concerning the effect of such parameters as applied stress level, water chemistry, irradiation conditions, etc. on the crack initiation behavior. Although it is difficult to detect the crack initiation in in-pile SCC tests, the crack initiation can be evaluated by the detection of specimen rupture if the cross section area of the specimen is small enough. Therefore, we adopted the uniaxial constant loading (UCL) test with small tensile specimens. This paper will describe the current status of the development of several techniques for in-pile SCC initiation tests in JMTR and the results of the performance tests of the designed testing unit using the out-of-pile loop facility. (author)

  6. Testing and evaluation of different energy storage devices for piezoelectric energy harvesting under road conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, Pratheek

    The increasing needs in green technology have propelled the rapid development in energy conversion and the advancement of electric energy storage systems. A viable storage technology is needed to store intermittent electrical energy in different electronic applications. In this thesis, recent progress on the chemistry and design of batteries is summarized with their challenges and improvements. Along with that, electrolytic capacitors are also reviewed with their types, advantages and disadvantages of each in short. Super capacitors having higher surface area and thinner dielectrics than conventional capacitors along with hybrid capacitors, are discussed in detail. The potential of a hybrid capacitor, Ni(OH)2/ Active Carbon, compared with Ni-Cd batteries and electrolytic capacitors in the application of energy storage for high way energy harvesting has been explored in this work. Both the battery and the hybrid capacitor has been tested under various experimental conditions and their properties in relation to their chemical compositions are compared. The results obtained from the experiments have been analyzed and the most suitable energy storage devices have been selected with their application potential evaluated before drawing conclusion reported in this thesis.

  7. Manufacturing and testing in reactor relevant conditions of brazed plasma facing components of the ITER divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisio, M.; Branca, V.; Marco, M. Di; Federici, A.; Grattarola, M.; Gualco, G.; Guarnone, P.; Luconi, U.; Merola, M.; Ozzano, C.; Pasquale, G.; Poggi, P.; Rizzo, S.; Varone, F.

    2005-01-01

    A fabrication route based on brazing technology has been developed for the realization of the high heat flux components for the ITER vertical target and Dome-Liner. The divertor vertical target is armoured with carbon fiber reinforced carbon and tungsten in the lower straight part and in the upper curved part, respectively. The armour material is joined to heat sinks made of precipitation hardened copper-chromium-zirconium alloy. The plasma facing units of the dome component are based on a tungsten flat tile design with hypervapotron cooling. An innovative brazing technique based on the addition of carbon fibers to the active brazing alloy, developed by Ansaldo Ricerche for applications in the field of the energy production, has been used for the carbon fiber composite to copper joint to reduce residual stresses. The tungsten-copper joint has been realized by direct casting. A proper brazing thermal cycle has been studied to guarantee the required mechanical properties of the precipitation hardened alloy after brazing. The fabrication route of plasma facing components for the ITER vertical target and dome based on the brazing technology has been proved by means of thermal fatigue tests performed on mock-ups in reactor relevant conditions

  8. Testing Transgenic Aspen Plants with bar Gene for Herbicide Resistance under Semi-natural Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedev, V G; Faskhiev, V N; Kovalenko, N P; Shestibratov, K A; Miroshnikov, A I

    2016-01-01

    Obtaining herbicide resistant plants is an important task in the genetic engineering of forest trees. Transgenic European aspen plants (Populus tremula L.) expressing the bar gene for phosphinothricin resistance have been produced using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Successful genetic transformation was confirmed by PCR analysis for thirteen lines derived from two elite genotypes. In 2014-2015, six lines were evaluated for resistance to herbicide treatment under semi-natural conditions. All selected transgenic lines were resistant to the herbicide Basta at doses equivalent to 10 l/ha (twofold normal field dosage) whereas the control plants died at 2.5 l/ha. Foliar NH4-N concentrations in transgenic plants did not change after treatment. Extremely low temperatures in the third ten-day period of October 2014 revealed differences in freeze tolerance between the lines obtained from Pt of f2 aspen genotypes. Stable expression of the bar gene after overwintering outdoors was confirmed by RT-PCR. On the basis of the tests, four transgenic aspen lines were selected. The bar gene could be used for retransformation of transgenic forest trees expressing valuable traits, such as increased productivity.

  9. Single-well injection-withdrawal tests (SWIW). Investigation of evaluation aspects under heterogeneous crystalline bedrock conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordqvist, Rune; Gustafsson, Erik

    2004-08-01

    Single-well injection-withdrawal (SWIW) tracer tests have been identified by SKB as an investigation method for solute transport properties in the forthcoming site investigations. A previous report presents a literature study as well as scoping calculations for SWIW tests in homogeneous crystalline bedrock environments. The present report comprises further scoping calculations under assumptions of heterogeneous bedrock conditions. Simple but plausible homogeneous evaluation models are tested on simulated SWIW tests in hypothetical heterogeneous two-dimensional fractures. The results from this study indicate that heterogeneity may cause effects of flow irreversibility when background hydraulic gradients are significant and the tested section is located in a dominating flow path. This implies that such conditions make it more difficult to interpret results from SWIW tests of longer duration with sorbing and/or diffusing tracers. Sorption and diffusion processes may be best studied when SWIW tests are conducted in borehole sections with low natural flow rates

  10. The Titan Sky Simulator ™ - Testing Prototype Balloons in Conditions Approximating those in Titan's Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nott, Julian

    This paper will describe practical work flying prototype balloons in the "The Titan Sky Simulator TM " in conditions approximating those found in Titan's atmosphere. Saturn's moon, Titan, is attracting intense scientific interest. This has led to wide interest in exploring it with Aerobots, balloons or airships. Their function would be similar to the Rovers exploring Mars, but instead of moving laboriously across the rough terrain on wheels, they would float freely from location to location. To design any balloon or airship it is essential to know the temperature of the lifting gas as this influences the volume of the gas, which in turn influences the lift. To determine this temperature it is necessary to know how heat is transferred between the craft and its surroundings. Heat transfer for existing balloons is well understood. However, Titan conditions are utterly different from those in which balloons have ever been flown, so heat transfer rates cannot currently be calculated. In particular, thermal radiation accounts for most heat transfer for existing balloons but over Titan heat transfer will be dominated by convection. To be able to make these fundamental calculations, it is necessary to get fundamental experimental data. This is being obtained by flying balloons in a Simulator filled with nitrogen gas at very low temperature, about 95° K / minus 180° C, typical of Titan's temperatures. Because the gas in the Simulator is so cold, operating at atmospheric pressure the density is close to that of Titan's atmosphere. "The Titan Sky Simulator TM " has an open interior approximately 4.5 meter tall and 2.5 meters square. It has already been operated at 95° K/-180° C. By the time of the Conference it is fully expected to have data to present from actual balloons flying at this temperature. Perhaps the most important purpose of this testing is to validate numerical [computational fluid dynamics] models being developed by Tim Colonius of Caltech. These numerical

  11. 75 FR 50853 - Special Conditions: Cirrus Design Corporation Model SF50 Airplane; Function and Reliability Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... airplanes. 1. Function and Reliability Testing. Flight tests: In place of 14 CFR 21.35(b)(2), the following...; Function and Reliability Testing AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final special... to CAR part 3 became effective January 15, 1951, and deleted the service test requirements in Section...

  12. 75 FR 29962 - Special Conditions: Cirrus Design Corporation Model SF50 Airplane; Function and Reliability Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... SF50 airplanes. 1. Function and Reliability Testing Flight tests: In place of 14 CFR part 21.35(b)(2... Reliability Testing AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed special..., 1951, and deleted the service test requirements in Section 3.19 for airplanes of 6,000 pounds maximum...

  13. Forecast of thermal-hydrological conditions and air injection test results of the single heater test at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkholzer, J.T.; Tsang, Y.W.

    1996-12-01

    The heater in the Single Heater Test (SHT) in alcove 5 of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) was turned on August 26, 1996. A large number of sensors are installed in the various instrumented boreholes to monitor the coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical-chemical responses of the rock mass to the heat generated in the single heater. In this report the authors present the results of the modeling of both the heating and cooling phases of the Single Heater Test (SHT), with focus on the thermal-hydrological aspect of the coupled processes. Also in this report, the authors present simulations of air injection tests will be performed at different stages of the heating and cooling phase of the SHT

  14. Simplified Space Conditioning in Low-Load Homes: Results from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, New Construction Unoccupied Test House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poerschke, A.; Stecher, D.

    2014-06-01

    Field testing was performed in a new construction unoccupied test house in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Four air-based heating, ventilation, and air conditioning distribution systems--a typical airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, a low airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, a system with transfer fans to the bedrooms, and a system with no ductwork to the bedrooms--were evaluated during heating, cooling, and midseason conditions. The relative ability of each system was assessed with respect to relevant Air Conditioning Contractors of America and ASHRAE standards for house temperature uniformity and stability, respectively.

  15. Simplified Space Conditioning in Low-Load Homes: Results from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, New Construction Unoccupied Test House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poerschke, Andrew [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Stecher, Dave [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Field testing was performed in a new construction unoccupied test house in Pittsburgh, PA. Four air-based heating, ventilation, and air conditioning distribution systems—a typical airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, a low airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, a system with transfer fans to the bedrooms, and a system with no ductwork to the bedrooms—were evaluated during heating, cooling, and midseason conditions. The relative ability of each system was assessed with respect to relevant Air Conditioning Contractors of America and ASHRAE standards for house temperature uniformity and stability, respectively.

  16. The effect of test configuration on the true operating conditions of PEM fuel cells. Paper no. IGEC-1-124

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, T.; Li, X.

    2005-01-01

    The operating conditions of a single PEM fuel cell can be significantly affected by the configuration in which the fuel cell test is setup. This study investigates the effect on the gas dewpoint temperature of not insulating the inlet fittings to a PEM fuel cell and the effect of non-optimal stack control thermocouple placement on fuel cell stack operating temperature. Both of these setup configurations can significantly affect fuel cell membrane humidification conditions, especially in a single fuel cell as demonstrated through the sample test conditions presented in this paper. (author)

  17. Assessing the representativeness of durability tests for wood pellets by DEM Simulation - Comparing conditions in a durability test with transfer chutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Aditya; Dafnomilis, Ioannis; Hancock, Victoria; Lodewijks, Gabriel; Schott, Dingena

    2017-06-01

    Dust generation when handling wood pellets is related to the durability of the product, in other words the wear rate of particles subject to forces. During transport, storage and handling wood pellets undergo different forces when interacting with different pieces of equipment. This paper assesses the representativeness of the tumbling can test in relation to transfer chutes, by comparing forces acting on wood pellets in durability tests and in transfer chutes using DEM. The study also incorporates effects such as shape and size variations. The results showed that the tumbling can test underestimates compressive and tangential forces. Since the tested material is subject to milder conditions than in reality, it can be concluded that this test is not representative for the conditions in the supply chain of wood pellets.

  18. The materials irradiation experiment for testing plasma facing materials at fusion relevant conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrison, L. M., E-mail: garrisonlm@ornl.gov; Egle, B. J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Fusion Technology Institute, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Zenobia, S. J.; Kulcinski, G. L.; Santarius, J. F. [Fusion Technology Institute, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2016-08-15

    The Materials Irradiation Experiment (MITE-E) was constructed at the University of Wisconsin-Madison Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Laboratory to test materials for potential use as plasma-facing materials (PFMs) in fusion reactors. PFMs in fusion reactors will be bombarded with x-rays, neutrons, and ions of hydrogen and helium. More needs to be understood about the interactions between the plasma and the materials to validate their use for fusion reactors. The MITE-E simulates some of the fusion reactor conditions by holding samples at temperatures up to 1000 °C while irradiating them with helium or deuterium ions with energies from 10 to 150 keV. The ion gun can irradiate the samples with ion currents of 20 μA–500 μA; the typical current used is 72 μA, which is an average flux of 9 × 10{sup 14} ions/(cm{sup 2} s). The ion gun uses electrostatic lenses to extract and shape the ion beam. A variable power (1-20 W), steady-state, Nd:YAG laser provides additional heating to maintain a constant sample temperature during irradiations. The ion beam current reaching the sample is directly measured and monitored in real-time during irradiations. The ion beam profile has been investigated using a copper sample sputtering experiment. The MITE-E has successfully been used to irradiate polycrystalline and single crystal tungsten samples with helium ions and will continue to be a source of important data for plasma interactions with materials.

  19. Conditioning of radioactive aluminium generated by the VVR-S Nuclear Reactor Decommissioning Laboratory Inactive Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicu, M.; Ionascu, L.; Turcau, C.; Dragolici, F.; Rotarescu, G.

    2015-01-01

    Aluminium is a reactive amphoteric metal, readily forming a protective oxide layer on contact with air or water. However, as the oxides are amphoteric, aluminium is not resistant to corrosion in acidic and alkaline conditions, because the protective films dissolve. As a consequence radioactive waste containing bulk aluminium alloys can not be embedded in Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC). A potential encapsulating material for the radioactive aluminium is potassium magnesium phosphate (MKP). This paper presents the characterization results obtained from analyzing the potential magnesium phosphate formulations and assesses its potential to reduce the corrosion of aluminium. A series of experiments have been performed. The main conclusions of the paper are as follows. First, the pH values of magnesium phosphate formulation investigated increased gradually over the test duration, with pH measurement ranging from 8.1 - 9.1, indicating lower values compared with the reference composite OPC (pH ∼ 13). The reduction of pH is an important controlling factor for the corrosion of aluminium. Secondly, according to XRD, the hardened magnesium phosphate matrix is polycrystalline and the main reaction product of magnesium phosphate cement formulations was confirmed as MgKPO 4 -6H 2 O, which was found to dominate the crystalline phase composition. Thirdly, the compressive strengths obtained for magnesium phosphate matrices investigated are included in the accepted limits for the embedding matrix with cement (above 5 N/mm 2 ). And fourthly, the corrosion of metallic aluminium in magnesium phosphate matrix is markedly reduced in comparison with the composite OPC

  20. Valve stem packing seal test results for primary heat transport system conditions in Canadian nuclear generating stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, D.F.; Farrell, J.M.; Coutinho, R.F.

    1978-06-01

    Valve stem packing tests were done to obtain performance data on packing already in CANDU-PHW reactor service and on alternative packings. Most of the tests were replicated. Results are presented for ten packings tested under two stem cycle modes; leakage, packing consolidation and packing friction were the main responses. Packing tests were performed with water at close to CANDU-PHW reactor primary heat transport (PHT) system conditions (288 deg C and 10 MPa), but without ionizing radiation. The test rigs had rising, rotating stems. Stuffing box dimensions were typical of a standard Velan valve; packings were spring loaded to control applied packing stress

  1. Monitoring stanja kroz testove analize ulja / Condition monitoring through oil analysis tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreten R. Perić

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available U radu su prikazani testovi analize ulja koji se koriste za procenu njegovog stanja. Predočeni su zahtevi koje testovi moraju da zadovolje, a odnose se na stanja tehničkih sredstava, stanja nečistoća i stanja maziva. Pokazano je da posebnu pažnju treba obratiti na pojavu i trend promene broja metalnih čestica u ulju. Takođe, razmatrani su znaci koji upućuju na promenu viskoznosti, povećanje oksidacije i trošenje aditiva. Razmatrano je stanje nečistoća u ulju, gde je posebna pažnja posvećena brojnosti čestica, sadržaju vode i metalnih nečistoća. Pokazano je da je neophodno koristiti program za analizu motornih ulja, koji osigurava nekoliko prednosti: smanjenje neplaniranog vremena otkaza vozila, poboljšanje pouzdanosti vozila, što je korisno pri organizovanju efikasnog plana održavanja, zatim produženje radnog veka motora, optimiziranje intervala zamene ulja i smanjenje troškova održavanja vozila. Prikazani su i rezultati eksperimentalnih istraživanja fizičko-hemijskih karakteristika uzorkovanih ulja iz motora vozila Mercedes OM 345 koja su bila u eksploataciji. Realizovanim ispitivanjima konstatovano je da dolazi do promena fizičko-hemijskih karakteristika ulja za podmazivanje u motoru vozila, koje su u direktnoj zavisnosti od stanja svih elemenata tribomehaničkog sistema motora, odnosno u zavisnosti od njihovih funkcionalnih karakteristika. / The paper presents the tests in the oil analysis, used for the assessment of oil condition, as well as the requirements to be fulfilled by the tests, regarding the state of technical equipment, impurities and lubricants. Special attention should be paid to the occurrence of metal particles in oil and the tendency in the change of their number. The signs that point to changes in viscosity, oxidation increase and additive wear are also considered. The state of impurities in oil was discussed, with a particular focus on the number of particles, water content and metal impurities

  2. Rationality analysis of field test method for evaluation of geological condition of deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huo Jiandang; Wang Ping

    2008-01-01

    The systematical analysis of data obtained is made combined with practical hydrogeology test. The data are treated with computer software for special hydrogeological parameters to obtain hydrogeological parameters at the test zone. Hydrogeological parameters obtained are discussed, the rationality of well pattern employed for hydrogeological test is analyzed, and suggestions are proposed. (authors)

  3. Feasibility and Effectiveness of Indicator Condition-Guided Testing for HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sullivan, A.K.; Raben, D.; Reekie, J.

    2013-01-01

    % had previously tested HIV negative (median time since last test: 1.58 years); which together with the median CD4 count at diagnosis (400 cell/uL) adds weight to this strategy being effective in diagnosing HIV at an earlier stage. A positive test was more likely for non-white individuals, MSM...

  4. Parametric tests of the effects of water chemistry impurities on corrosion of Zr-alloys under simulated BWR condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimada, S; Ito, K [Nippon Nuclear Fuel Development Co. Ltd., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan); Lin, C C [GE Nucklear Energy (United States); Cheng, B [Electric Power Research Inst. (United States); Ikeda, T [Toshiba Corp. (Japan); Oguma, M [Hitachi, Ltd (Japan); Takei, T [Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. (Japan); Vitanza, C; Karlsen, T M [Institutt for Energiteknikk, Halden (Norway). OECD Halden Reaktor Projekt

    1997-02-01

    The Halden BWR corrosion test loop was constructed to evaluate the impact of water chemistry variables, heat flux and boiling condition on corrosion performance of Zr-alloys in a simulated BWR environment. The loop consists of two in-core rigs, one for testing fuel rod segments and the other for evaluating water chemistry variables utilizing four miniautoclaves. Ten coupon specimens are enclosed in each miniautoclave. The Zr-alloys for the test include Zircaloy-2 having different nodular corrosion resistance and five new alloys. The first and second of the six irradiation tests planned in this program were completed. Post-irradiation examination of those test specimens have shown that the test loop is capable of producing nodular corrosion on the fuel rod cladding tested under the reference chemistry condition. The miniautoclave tests showed that nodular corrosion could be formed without flux and boiling under some water chemistry conditions and the new alloys, generally, had higher corrosion resistance than the Zircaloy in high oxygen environments. (author). 5 refs, 4 figs, 5 tabs.

  5. Demonstration tests of tritium removal device under the conditions of nuclear fusion reactor. Cooperation test between Japan and USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Takumi; Kobayashi, Kazuhiro; Nishi, Masataka

    2001-01-01

    Performance of oxidation catalysis in emergency tritium removal device was tested in Los Alamos National Laboratory by cooperation between Japan and USA on November 8, 2000. To reduce the effects of tritium on the environment, a plan of the closed space for trapping tritium was made. A tritium removal device using oxidation catalysis and water vapor adsorption removes the tritium in the closed space. The treatment flow rate of the device is about 2,500 m 3 /h, the same as ITER(3,000 to 4,500 m 3 /h). Catalysis is Pt/ alumina. The closed space is 3,000m 2 . The initial concentration of tritium was about 7 Bq/cm 2 , ten times as large as the concentration limit in atmosphere. The concentration of tritium in the test laboratory decreased linearly with time and attained to the limit value after about 200 min. Residue of tritium on the wall had been removed and the significant quantity was not detected after three days. The results proved to satisfy safety of ITER. (S.Y.)

  6. Importance of the nature of comparison conditions for testing theory-based interventions: reply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michie, Susan; Prestwich, Andrew; de Bruin, Marijn

    2010-09-01

    The nature of comparison conditions is a much overlooked feature of designing and interpreting the results of randomized controlled trials, as outlined by Williams (see record 2010-18776-001). We agree that understanding the components and mechanisms of the comparison condition is necessary for making inferences about both intervention effectiveness (whether the intervention worked and which components may have contributed to such an effect) and about theoretical mediators (how it worked). The extent to which one can draw strong inferences regarding the efficacy and mechanisms of an intervention over the comparison is conditional upon a number of key points. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Full-scale borehole sealing test in salt under simulated downhole conditions. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheetz, B.E.; Licastro, P.H.; Roy, D.M.

    1986-05-01

    Large-scale testing of the permeability by brine of a salt/grout sample designed to simulate a borehole plug was conducted. The results of these tests showed that a quantity of fluid equivalent to a permeability of 3 microdarcys was collected during the course of the test. This flow rate was used to estimate the smooth bore aperture. Details of this test ware presented in Volume 1 of this report. This report, Volume 2, covers post-test characterization including a detailed study of the salt/grout interface, as well as determination of the physical/mechanical properties of grout samples molded at Terra Tek, Inc. at the time of the large-scale test. Additional studies include heat of hydration, radial stress, and longitudinal volume changes for an equivalent grout mixture

  8. Applicability of laboratory data to large scale tests under dynamic loading conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kussmaul, K.; Klenk, A.

    1993-01-01

    The analysis of dynamic loading and subsequent fracture must be based on reliable data for loading and deformation history. This paper describes an investigation to examine the applicability of parameters which are determined by means of small-scale laboratory tests to large-scale tests. The following steps were carried out: (1) Determination of crack initiation by means of strain gauges applied in the crack tip field of compact tension specimens. (2) Determination of dynamic crack resistance curves of CT-specimens using a modified key-curve technique. The key curves are determined by dynamic finite element analyses. (3) Determination of strain-rate-dependent stress-strain relationships for the finite element simulation of small-scale and large-scale tests. (4) Analysis of the loading history for small-scale tests with the aid of experimental data and finite element calculations. (5) Testing of dynamically loaded tensile specimens taken as strips from ferritic steel pipes with a thickness of 13 mm resp. 18 mm. The strips contained slits and surface cracks. (6) Fracture mechanics analyses of the above mentioned tests and of wide plate tests. The wide plates (960x608x40 mm 3 ) had been tested in a propellant-driven 12 MN dynamic testing facility. For calculating the fracture mechanics parameters of both tests, a dynamic finite element simulation considering the dynamic material behaviour was employed. The finite element analyses showed a good agreement with the simulated tests. This prerequisite allowed to gain critical J-integral values. Generally the results of the large-scale tests were conservative. 19 refs., 20 figs., 4 tabs

  9. Recent experience with testing of parallel disc gate valves under accident flow conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaPointe, P.A.; Clayton, J.K.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents the nuclear valve industry's latest and most extensive valve qualification test program experience. The test program includes a variety of 25 different gate and globe valves. All the test valves are power operated using either air, electric, or gas/hydraulic operators. The valves are categorized in size and pressure class so as to form a group of appropriate parent valve assemblies. Parent valve assembly qualification is used as the basis for qualification of candidate valve assemblies. The parent and candidate valve assemblies are representative of a nuclear plant's safety-related valve applications. The test program was performed in accordance with ANSI B16.41-1983 'Functional Qualification Requirements for Power Operated Active Valve Assemblies for Nuclear Power Plants.' The focus of this paper is on functional valve qualification test experience and specifically flow interruption testing to Annex G of the aforementioned test standard. Results of the flow test are summarized, including the coefficient of friction for each of the gate type valves reported. Information on valve size, pressure class, and actuator are given for all valves in the program. Although all valves performed extremely well, only selected test data are presented. The effects of the speed of operation and the effects of different fluid flow rates as they relate to the coefficient of friction between the valve disc and seat are discussed. The variation in the coefficient of friction based on other variables in the thrust equation, namely, differential pressure area is cited

  10. Cyclic fatigue resistance tests of Nickel-Titanium rotary files using simulated canal and weight loading conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ok-In Cho

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives This study compared the cyclic fatigue resistance of nickel-titanium (NiTi files obtained in a conventional test using a simulated canal with a newly developed method that allows the application of constant fatigue load conditions. Materials and Methods ProFile and K3 files of #25/.06, #30/.06, and #40/.04 were selected. Two types of testing devices were built to test their fatigue performance. The first (conventional device prescribed curvature inside a simulated canal (C-test, the second new device exerted a constant load (L-test whilst allowing any resulting curvature. Ten new instruments of each size and brand were tested with each device. The files were rotated until fracture and the number of cycles to failure (NCF was determined. The NCF were subjected to one-way ANOVA and Duncan's post-hoc test for each method. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was computed to examine any association between methods. Results Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (ρ = -0.905 showed a significant negative correlation between methods. Groups with significant difference after the L-test divided into 4 clusters, whilst the C-test gave just 2 clusters. From the L-test, considering the negative correlation of NCF, K3 gave a significantly lower fatigue resistance than ProFile as in the C-test. K3 #30/.06 showed a lower fatigue resistance than K3 #25/.06, which was not found by the C-test. Variation in fatigue test methodology resulted in different cyclic fatigue resistance rankings for various NiTi files. Conclusions The new methodology standardized the load during fatigue testing, allowing determination fatigue behavior under constant load conditions.

  11. Comparison of sliding friction and wear behaviour of overhead conveyor steels tested under dry and lubrication conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro-Regal, G.; Fernandez-Vicente, A.; Martinez, M. A.

    2005-01-01

    The sliding friction and wear behaviour of different steel qualities were investigated with and without lubrication conditions. Steel qualities tested are normally used in the overhead conveyor system of many industrial fields, like the automotive sector. Sliding wear tests have been conducted by means of a pin-on-disk machine. A 100Cr6 steel similar to that used within the overhead conveyor trolleys has been employed as a pin. Friction coefficient values obtained under lubrication conditions were three times smaller than those obtained without lubrication. The mechanism that controls wear behaviour under lubrication conditions is an abrasive one and the wear values obtained are almost worthless. On the other hand, mechanism controlling wear during non lubrication tests, was a combination of abrasion and adhesion. (Author) 20 refs

  12. Attentional and visual demands for sprint performance in non-fatigued and fatigued conditions: reliability of a repeated sprint test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diercks Ron L

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical performance measures are widely used to assess physical function, providing information about physiological and biomechanical aspects of motor performance. However they do not provide insight into the attentional and visual demands for motor performance. A figure-of-eight sprint test was therefore developed to measure the attentional and visual demands for repeated-sprint performance. The aims of the study were: 1 to assess test-retest reliability of the figure-of-eight sprint test, and 2 to study the attentional and visual demands for sprint performance in a non-fatigued and fatigued condition. Methods Twenty-seven healthy athletes were included in the study. To determine test-retest reliability, a subgroup of 19 athletes performed the figure-of-eight sprint test twice. The figure-of-eight sprint test consisted of nine 30-second sprints. The sprint test consisted of three test parts: sprinting without any restriction, with an attention-demanding task, and with restricted vision. Increases in sprint times with the attention-demanding task or restricted vision are reflective of the attentional and visual demands for sprinting. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs and mean difference between test and retest with 95% confidence limits (CL were used to assess test-retest reliability. Repeated-measures ANOVA were used for comparisons between the sprint times and fatigue measurements of the test parts in both a non-fatigued and fatigued condition. Results The figure-of-eight sprint test showed good test-retest reliability, with ICCs ranging from 0.75 to 0.94 (95% CL: 0.40-0.98. Zero lay within the 95% CL of the mean differences, indicating that no bias existed between sprint performance at test and retest. Sprint times during the test parts with attention-demanding task (P = 0.01 and restricted vision (P Conclusions High ICCs and the absence of systematic variation indicate good test-retest reliability of the figure

  13. Effects of three pesticides on the avoidance behavior of earthworms in laboratory tests performed under temperate and tropical conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Marcos [Embrapa Amazonia Ocidental, Rod. AM-10, Km 28, 69.011-970 Manaus (Brazil); Roembke, Joerg [ECT Oekotoxikologie, Boettgerstr. 2-14, D-65439 Floersheim (Germany)], E-mail: j-roembke@ect.de; Torres de Brito, Marcus [CNPq - PIBIC/Embrapa, Rod. AM-10, Km 28, 69.011-970 Manaus (Brazil); Scheffczyk, Adam [ECT Oekotoxikologie, Boettgerstr. 2-14, D-65439 Floersheim (Germany)

    2008-05-15

    Little research has been performed on the impact of pesticides on earthworms under tropical conditions. Taking into consideration the often-limited resources in tropical countries, simple screening tests are needed. Therefore, it was investigated whether three pesticides relevant for the Brazilian Amazon (benomyl, carbendazim, lambda-cyhalothrin) affect the avoidance behavior of the earthworm Eisenia fetida. The tests were performed for two days according to ISO guideline 17512 but were adapted to tropical conditions (i.e. test substrate, test organism and temperature). The results indicate that this test gives reproducible and reliable results. Toxicity values (NOEC, EC50) are lower than those determined in 14 day-acute mortality tests and are approximately in the same range such as those found in 56 day-chronic reproduction tests with the same earthworm species, which were performed in parallel. Therefore, the use of the earthworm avoidance tests is recommended as a screening tool for the risk assessment of pesticides. - The earthworm avoidance test is a practical and sensitive screening method for assessing the effects of pesticides in tropical soils.

  14. Effects of three pesticides on the avoidance behavior of earthworms in laboratory tests performed under temperate and tropical conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Marcos; Roembke, Joerg; Torres de Brito, Marcus; Scheffczyk, Adam

    2008-01-01

    Little research has been performed on the impact of pesticides on earthworms under tropical conditions. Taking into consideration the often-limited resources in tropical countries, simple screening tests are needed. Therefore, it was investigated whether three pesticides relevant for the Brazilian Amazon (benomyl, carbendazim, lambda-cyhalothrin) affect the avoidance behavior of the earthworm Eisenia fetida. The tests were performed for two days according to ISO guideline 17512 but were adapted to tropical conditions (i.e. test substrate, test organism and temperature). The results indicate that this test gives reproducible and reliable results. Toxicity values (NOEC, EC50) are lower than those determined in 14 day-acute mortality tests and are approximately in the same range such as those found in 56 day-chronic reproduction tests with the same earthworm species, which were performed in parallel. Therefore, the use of the earthworm avoidance tests is recommended as a screening tool for the risk assessment of pesticides. - The earthworm avoidance test is a practical and sensitive screening method for assessing the effects of pesticides in tropical soils

  15. Getting to grips with poor comprehenders: stability of group membership across test conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, Hanne Trebbien; Oakhill, Jane V.; Elbro, Carsten

    Reliable identification of poor comprehenders is difficult because reading comprehension tests do not measure the same thing (Keenan et al., 2014). In addition to different contents, differences in how the same test is administered may also cause instability of the definition of poor comprehenders....

  16. Fire test of container for radioactive materials under the condition of transportation state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, Sanae; Shimada, Hirohisa

    1986-01-01

    To secure the safe transportation of container for radioactive materials, furnace and open fire test for the thermal test of container are provided. Therefore, we have carried out furnace and open fire test using test model simulating a transportation state. Test model used in this test is made of stainless steel with diameter of 200 mm and length of 400 mm, and is set on the rest as in the case of transportation state. From the data on temperature measurement, some interesting results are obtained as follows. Near the surface of model, the temperature gradient in the direction perpendicular to the surface of model with the rest is greater than that without the rest. The temperature rise at the center of the model with the rest is less than that without the rest. In the experiment, temperature distributions are measured in the three radial directions. The temperature differences among three distributions in the model with rest are greater than that without rest. On the other hand, in the furnace test, the heat transfer coefficient on the surface of test model with the rest is 90 - 140 kcal/m 2 h · K for the range of furnace temperature from 700 to 950 deg C and this value is almost equal to the value without the rest. (author)

  17. Hot-Fire Testing of 100 LB(sub F) LOX/LCH4 Reaction Control Engine at Altitude Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, William M.; Kleinhenz, Julie E.

    2010-01-01

    Liquid oxygen/liquid methane (LO2/LCH4 ) has recently been viewed as a potential green propulsion system for both the Altair ascent main engine (AME) and reaction control system (RCS). The Propulsion and Cryogenic Advanced Development Project (PCAD) has been tasked by NASA to develop these green propellant systems to enable safe and cost effective exploration missions. However, experience with LO2/LCH4 as a propellant combination is limited, so testing of these systems is critical to demonstrating reliable ignition and performance. A test program of a 100 lb f reaction control engine (RCE) is underway at the Altitude Combustion Stand (ACS) of the NASA Glenn Research Center, with a focus on conducting tests at altitude conditions. These tests include a unique propellant conditioning feed system (PCFS) which allows for the inlet conditions of the propellant to be varied to test warm to subcooled liquid propellant temperatures. Engine performance, including thrust, c* and vacuum specific impulse (I(sub sp,vac)) will be presented as a function of propellant temperature conditions. In general, the engine performed as expected, with higher performance at warmer propellant temperatures but better efficiency at lower propellant temperatures. Mixture ratio effects were inconclusive within the uncertainty bands of data, but qualitatively showed higher performance at lower ratios.

  18. You make me tired: An experimental test of the role of interpersonal operant conditioning in fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenaert, Bert; Jansen, Rebecca; van Heugten, Caroline M

    2018-04-01

    Chronic fatigue is highly prevalent in the general population as well as in multiple chronic diseases and psychiatric disorders. Its etiology however remains poorly understood and cannot be explained by biological factors alone. Occurring in a psychosocial context, the experience and communication of fatigue may be shaped by social interactions. In particular, interpersonal operant conditioning may strengthen and perpetuate fatigue complaints. In this experiment, individuals (N = 44) repeatedly rated their currently experienced fatigue while engaging in cognitive effort (working memory task). Subtle social reward was given when fatigue increased relative to the previous rating; or disapproval when fatigue decreased. In the control condition, only neutral feedback was given. Although all participants became more fatigued during cognitive effort, interpersonal operant conditioning led to increased fatigue reporting relative to neutral feedback. This effect occurred independently of conscious awareness. Interestingly, the experimental condition also performed worse on the working memory task. Results suggest that fatigue complaints (and cognitive performance) may become controlled by their consequences such as social reward, and not exclusively by their antecedents such as effort. Results have implications for treatment development and suggest that interpersonal operant conditioning may contribute to fatigue becoming a chronic symptom. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Hemograms for and nutritional condition of migrant bald eagles tested for exposure to lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M J; Wayland, M E; Bortolotti, G R

    2001-07-01

    Plasma proteins, hematocrit, differential blood counts were examined and nutritional condition was estimated for bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) trapped (n = 66) during antumn migration, 1994-95 at Galloway Bay (Saskatchewan, Canada), for the purposes of estimating prevalence of exposure to lead. Sex and age differences in hematocrit and plasma proteins were not observed; however, female eagles exhibited larger median absolute heterophil counts than males. Hematologic values were similar to those previously reported from eagles in captivity. Departures from expected hematological values from a healthy population of eagles were not observed in birds with elevated levels of blood lead (> or =0.200 microg/ml). Similarly, nutritional condition was not related to blood-lead concentrations. Therefore, it appears that lead exposure in this population was below a threshold required to indicate toxicological alteration in the hematological values and index of nutritional condition that we measured.

  20. Improvement of the vibration of the test fuel(Type-B) with a guide tube under operational condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Dong Seung; Yim, Jeong Sik; Lim, I. C. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-04-01

    The Type-B test fuel for the Hanaro has a flexible guide tube on top of the fuel to lead and guide the instrumentation wires. Depending on the flow condition in the reactor, the fuel is susceptible to vibration. During the test operation of the fuel, a fairly large amplitude vibration was observed and the possibility of flow tube contact with adjacent flow tubes, due to the excessive vibration of the fuel, and consequent wear or defect of the flow tubes were raised. Thus, to know the vibration characteristics as well as whether the flow tube contact each other, analyses of the Type-B fuel the dummy fuel were performed by BEVIRA and ANSYS. Besides the analyses, vibration tests using the dummy fuel in air and with Type-B fuel in the core at zero power under operational flow condition were executed. The results from the analyses were compared with those from tests to validate the analyses. From the deflection test of the dummy fuel in air to get the maximum displacement of the flow tube at the top, the flow tube were found to contact each other. For the prevention of the contact of the flow tubes caused by the excessive vibration of the guide tube, an additional support to the guide tube was proposed. With the additional support, analysis and in core vibration test under operational flow condition were conducted and there found to be no excessive vibration any more. 6 refs., 16 figs., 6 tabs. (Author)

  1. Considerations of Environmentally Relevant Test Conditions for Improved Evaluation of Ecological Hazards of Engineered Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are increasingly entering the environment with uncertain consequences including potential ecological effects. Various research communities view differently whether ecotoxicological testing of ENMs should be conducted using environmentally relevant ...

  2. Electron beam effects on VLSI MOS conditions for testing and reconfiguration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girard, P.; Roche, F.M.; Pistoulet, B.

    1986-01-01

    Wafer scale integrated-MOS circuits problems related to test and reconfiguration by electron beams are analyzed. First of all the alterations in characteristics of MOS circuits submitted to an electron beam testing are considered. Then the capabilities of reconfiguration by an electron beam bombardment are discussed. The various phenomena involved are reviewed. Experimental data are reported and discussed on the light of data of the literature. (Auth.)

  3. The role equilibrium leach testing in understanding the behaviour of nuclear wastes under disposal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biddle, P.; Rees, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    Results from the equilibrium leach testing of a range of intermediate level nuclear wastes have been modelled successfully using sorption and solubility data obtained in experiments with individual radionuclides. The wastes involved included fuel cladding (after removal of irradiated fuel for reprocessing), combustible plutonium-contaminated materials and ferric/aluminium hydroxide flocs. The test has an important role in validating nearfield models, and helps to build confidence in disposal assessments. (orig.)

  4. The role of equilibrium leach testing in understanding the behaviour of nuclear wastes under disposal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biddle, P.; Rees, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    Results from the equilibrium leach testing of a range of intermediate level nuclear wastes have been modelled using sorption and solubility data obtained in experiments with individual radionuclides. The wastes involved were AGR hulls, Magnox cladding wastes, combustible plutonium-contaminated materials and ferric/aluminium hydroxide flocs. The test has an important role in validating near-field models, and helps to build confidence in disposal assessments. (author)

  5. Demonstration & Testing of ClimaStat for Improved DX Air-Conditioning Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Performance DDC – Direct Digital Control DoD – Department of Defense DOE – Department of Energy DX – Direct Expansion EER – Energy Efficiency...field tests on four Trane (American Standard) systems at a university site were concluded in 2009. A production prototype was constructed based on...dehumidification, giving a 18% reduction in energy consumption. Field test data from four Trane Voyager rooftop package units at a university site

  6. Study of the test method for prediction of air conditioning equipment seasonal performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, S.B.

    1980-05-01

    The test procedure, Method of Testing, Rating and Estimating the Seasonal Performance of Central Air-Conditioners and Heat Pumps Operating in the Cooling Mode, has been analyzed. The analysis of the test procedure incorporated two main functions: (1) to determine the validity of the test procedure; and (2) to determine if there are other alternate methods of obtaining the same results with less testing burden. Data were collected from industry and analyzed for any significant trends. Certain conclusions are drawn about the energy efficiency ratios, degradation coefficients and seasonal energy efficiency ratios. An error analysis was performed on the test procedure to determine the approximate amount of error when using this procedure. A semi-empirical model assuming a first order system response was developed to determine the factors that affect the part-load and cooling-load factors. The corresponding transient characteristics are then determined in terms of a single time constant. A thermostat demand cycle is used to determine the relationship between on-time and cycle-time. Recommendations are made regarding an alternate method being used to determine the seasonal energy efficiency ratio.

  7. Correlation between the immunological condition and the results of immunoenzymatic tests in diagnosing infectious mononucleosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaro, Giorgio; Donato, Michela; Princi, Tanja; Parco, Sergio

    2009-04-01

    A symptom-based diagnosis of infectious mononucleosis is not sufficiently accurate, since some clinical symptoms of infectious mononucleosis are also detected in other virally induced diseases. Moreover, not all patients suffering from infectious mononucleosis show circulating atypical lymphocytes, which are considered characteristic of this disease. Therefore, when this disorder is suspected, serum analyses are carried out to detect the presence of certain immunoglobulins associated with infectious mononucleosis in the patient's blood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity and the specificity of a rapid test detecting heterophil antibodies in diagnosing infectious mononucleosis in a paediatric population. We considered 163 paediatric patients with suspected infectious mononucleosis and we tested their serums to detect heterophil antibodies (using an inexpensive and rapid test) and specific immunoglobulins directed against Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) (these assays are known to be characterized by high sensitivity and specificity, but are more expensive and time-consuming). By comparing the results of the rapid test with those of the other assays, we found that the sensitivity of the first test was 61.8%, whereas its specificity was sufficiently high (about 90%). We show that, in paediatric patients, the detection of heterophil antibodies is not a very sensitive test, therefore the determination of immunoglobulins against specific antigens of EBV is recommended.

  8. Pedestrian headform testing: inferring performance at impact speeds and for headform masses not tested, and estimating average performance in a range of real-world conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, T Paul; Anderson, Robert W G; Searson, Daniel J

    2012-01-01

    Tests are routinely conducted where instrumented headforms are projected at the fronts of cars to assess pedestrian safety. Better information would be obtained by accounting for performance over the range of expected impact conditions in the field. Moreover, methods will be required to integrate the assessment of secondary safety performance with primary safety systems that reduce the speeds of impacts. Thus, we discuss how to estimate performance over a range of impact conditions from performance in one test and how this information can be combined with information on the probability of different impact speeds to provide a balanced assessment of pedestrian safety. Theoretical consideration is given to 2 distinct aspects to impact safety performance: the test impact severity (measured by the head injury criterion, HIC) at a speed at which a structure does not bottom out and the speed at which bottoming out occurs. Further considerations are given to an injury risk function, the distribution of impact speeds likely in the field, and the effect of primary safety systems on impact speeds. These are used to calculate curves that estimate injuriousness for combinations of test HIC, bottoming out speed, and alternative distributions of impact speeds. The injuriousness of a structure that may be struck by the head of a pedestrian depends not only on the result of the impact test but also the bottoming out speed and the distribution of impact speeds. Example calculations indicate that the relationship between the test HIC and injuriousness extends over a larger range than is presently used by the European New Car Assessment Programme (Euro NCAP), that bottoming out at speeds only slightly higher than the test speed can significantly increase the injuriousness of an impact location and that effective primary safety systems that reduce impact speeds significantly modify the relationship between the test HIC and injuriousness. Present testing regimes do not take fully into

  9. Do nest light conditions affect rejection of parasitic eggs? A test of the light environment hypothesis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Honza, Marcel; Procházka, Petr; Morongová, Klára; Čapek, Miroslav; Jelínek, Václav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 117, č. 6 (2011), s. 539-546 ISSN 0179-1613 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600930903; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Acrocephalus arundinaceus * nest light conditions * egg recognition * Great reed warbler * cuckoo Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.008, year: 2011

  10. ON TESTING OF CRYPTOGRAPHYC GENERATORS OUTPUT SEQUENCES USING MARKOV CHAINS OF CONDITIONAL ORDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Maltsev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the Markov chain of conditional order, which is used for statisticaltesting of cryptographic generators. Statistical estimations of model parameters are given. Consistency of the order estimator is proved. Results of computer experiments are presented.

  11. About some indicators of environment condition at the Semipalatinsk tests site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakhtin, M.M.; Sejsebaev, A.T.

    2002-01-01

    The paper discusses the opportunity to select methods and indicators of the environment contamination. Using a water object - Chironomini - as an example, methods for assessment of ionizing radiation cytogenetic effects are considered. Indices of chromosomal aberrations generated in living organism cells serve as criteria of the environment ecological condition. (author)

  12. Foam Core Particleboards with Intumescent FRT Veneer: Cone Calorimeter Testing With Varying Adhesives, Surface Layer Thicknesses, and Processing Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Dietenberger; Johannes Welling; Ali Shalbafan

    2014-01-01

    Intumescent FRT Veneers adhered to the surface of foam core particleboard to provide adequate fire protection were evaluated by means of cone calorimeter tests (ASTM E1354). The foam core particleboards were prepared with variations in surface layer treatment, adhesives, surface layer thicknesses, and processing conditions. Ignitability, heat release rate profile, peak...

  13. Infant Long-Term Memory for a Conditioned Response and Intelligence Test Performance at 2 Years of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagen, Jeffrey W.; And Others

    To find predictive relations between measures taken in infancy and later scores on intelligence tests, a study was made that measured in the infant those cognitive processes examined later in life. Operant conditioning tasks were employed which required 3-, 7-, and 11-month-old infants to execute some response to produce an environmental…

  14. Numerical analysis of thermal-hydrological conditions in the single heater test at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkholzer, Jens T.; Tsang, Yvonne W.

    1998-01-01

    The Single Heater Test (SHT) is one of two in-situ thermal tests included in the site characterization program for the potential underground nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The heating phase of the SHT started in August 1996, and was completed in May 1997 after 9 months of heating. The coupled processes in the unsaturated fractured rock mass around the heater were monitored by numerous sensors for thermal, hydrological, mechanical and chemical data. In addition to passive monitoring, active testing of the rock mass moisture content was performed using geophysical methods and air injection testing. The extensive data set available from this test gives a unique opportunity to improve the understanding of the thermal-hydrological situation in the natural setting of the repository rocks. The present paper focuses on the 3-D numerical simulation of the thermal-hydrological processes in the SHT using TOUGH2. In the comparative analysis, they are particularly interested in the accuracy of different fracture-matrix-interaction concepts such as the Effective Continuum (ECM), the Dual Continuum (DKM), and the Multiple Interacting Continua (MINC) method

  15. The Likelihood Ratio Test of Common Factors under Non-Ideal Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Angulo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El modelo espacial de Durbin ocupa una posición interesante en econometría espacial. Es la forma reducida de un modelo de corte transversal con dependencia en los errores y puede ser utilizado como ecuación de anidación en un enfoque más general de selección de modelos. En concreto, a partir de esta ecuación puede obtenerse el Ratio de Verosimilitudes conocido como test de Factores Comunes (LRCOM. Como se muestra en Mur y Angulo (2006, este test tiene buenas propiedades si el modelo está correctamente especificado. Sin embargo, por lo que sabemos, no hay referencias en la literatura sobre el comportamiento de este test bajo condiciones no ideales. En concreto, estudiamos el comportamiento del test en los casos de heterocedasticidad, no normalidad, endogeneidad, matrices de contactos densas y no-linealidad. Nuestros resultados ofrecen una visión positiva del test de Factores Comunes que parece una técnica útil en el instrumental propio de la econometría espacial contemporánea.

  16. K Basin Sludge Conditioning Testing. Nitric Acid Dissolution Testing of K East Area Sludge Composite, Small- and Large-Scale Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, C.D.; Delegard, C.H.; Burgeson, I.E.; Schmidt, A.J.; Silvers, K.L.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes work performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for Numatec Hanford Corporation (NHC) to support the development of the K Basin Sludge Treatment System. For this work, testing was performed to examine the dissolution behavior of a K East Basin floor and Weasel Pit sludge composite, referred to as K East area sludge composite, in nitric acid at the following concentrations: 2 M, 4 M, 6 M and 7.8 M. With the exception of one high solids loading test the nitric acid was added at 4X the stoichiometric requirement (assuming 100% of the sludge was uranium metal). The dissolution tests were conducted at boiling temperatures for 24 hours. Most of the tests were conducted with approximately2.5 g of sludge (dry basis). The high solids loading test was conducted with approximately7 g of sludge. A large-scale dissolution test was conducted with 26.5 g of sludge and 620 mL of 6 M nitric acid. The objectives of this test were to (1) generate a sufficient quantity of acid-insoluble residual solids for use in leaching studies, and (2) examine the dissolution behavior of the sludge composite at a larger scale

  17. Accelerated Degradation Test and Predictive Failure Analysis of B10 Copper-Nickel Alloy under Marine Environmental Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bo; Ye, Tianyuan; Feng, Qiang; Yao, Jinghua; Wei, Mumeng

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the corrosion behavior of B10 copper-nickel alloy in marine environment. Accelerated degradation test under marine environmental conditions was designed and performed based on the accelerated testing principle and the corrosion degradation mechanism. With the prolongation of marine corrosion time, the thickness of Cu2O film increased gradually. Its corrosion product was Cu2(OH)3Cl, which increased in quantity over time. Cl− was the major factor responsible for the marine corrosion of copper and copper alloy. Through the nonlinear fitting of corrosion rate and corrosion quantity (corrosion weight loss), degradation data of different corrosion cycles, the quantitative effects of two major factors, i.e., dissolved oxygen (DO) and corrosion medium temperature, on corrosion behavior of copper alloy were analyzed. The corrosion failure prediction models under different ambient conditions were built. One-day corrosion weight loss under oxygenated stirring conditions was equivalent to 1.31-day weight loss under stationary conditions, and the corrosion rate under oxygenated conditions was 1.31 times higher than that under stationary conditions. In addition, corrosion medium temperature had a significant effect on the corrosion of B10 copper sheet. PMID:28793549

  18. Accelerated Degradation Test and Predictive Failure Analysis of B10 Copper-Nickel Alloy under Marine Environmental Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bo; Ye, Tianyuan; Feng, Qiang; Yao, Jinghua; Wei, Mumeng

    2015-09-10

    This paper studies the corrosion behavior of B10 copper-nickel alloy in marine environment. Accelerated degradation test under marine environmental conditions was designed and performed based on the accelerated testing principle and the corrosion degradation mechanism. With the prolongation of marine corrosion time, the thickness of Cu₂O film increased gradually. Its corrosion product was Cu₂(OH)₃Cl, which increased in quantity over time. Cl - was the major factor responsible for the marine corrosion of copper and copper alloy. Through the nonlinear fitting of corrosion rate and corrosion quantity (corrosion weight loss), degradation data of different corrosion cycles, the quantitative effects of two major factors, i.e. , dissolved oxygen (DO) and corrosion medium temperature, on corrosion behavior of copper alloy were analyzed. The corrosion failure prediction models under different ambient conditions were built. One-day corrosion weight loss under oxygenated stirring conditions was equivalent to 1.31-day weight loss under stationary conditions, and the corrosion rate under oxygenated conditions was 1.31 times higher than that under stationary conditions. In addition, corrosion medium temperature had a significant effect on the corrosion of B10 copper sheet.

  19. Accelerated Degradation Test and Predictive Failure Analysis of B10 Copper-Nickel Alloy under Marine Environmental Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Sun

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the corrosion behavior of B10 copper-nickel alloy in marine environment. Accelerated degradation test under marine environmental conditions was designed and performed based on the accelerated testing principle and the corrosion degradation mechanism. With the prolongation of marine corrosion time, the thickness of Cu2O film increased gradually. Its corrosion product was Cu2(OH3Cl, which increased in quantity over time. Cl− was the major factor responsible for the marine corrosion of copper and copper alloy. Through the nonlinear fitting of corrosion rate and corrosion quantity (corrosion weight loss, degradation data of different corrosion cycles, the quantitative effects of two major factors, i.e., dissolved oxygen (DO and corrosion medium temperature, on corrosion behavior of copper alloy were analyzed. The corrosion failure prediction models under different ambient conditions were built. One-day corrosion weight loss under oxygenated stirring conditions was equivalent to 1.31-day weight loss under stationary conditions, and the corrosion rate under oxygenated conditions was 1.31 times higher than that under stationary conditions. In addition, corrosion medium temperature had a significant effect on the corrosion of B10 copper sheet.

  20. Towards eliminating systematic errors caused by the experimental conditions in Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strömberg, Sten; Nistor, Mihaela; Liu, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The evaluated factors introduce significant systematic errors (10–38%) in BMP tests. • Ambient temperature (T) has the most substantial impact (∼10%) at low altitude. • Ambient pressure (p) has the most substantial impact (∼68%) at high altitude. • Continuous monitoring of T and p is not necessary for kinetic calculations. - Abstract: The Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) test is increasingly recognised as a tool for selecting and pricing biomass material for production of biogas. However, the results for the same substrate often differ between laboratories and much work to standardise such tests is still needed. In the current study, the effects from four environmental factors (i.e. ambient temperature and pressure, water vapour content and initial gas composition of the reactor headspace) on the degradation kinetics and the determined methane potential were evaluated with a 2 4 full factorial design. Four substrates, with different biodegradation profiles, were investigated and the ambient temperature was found to be the most significant contributor to errors in the methane potential. Concerning the kinetics of the process, the environmental factors’ impact on the calculated rate constants was negligible. The impact of the environmental factors on the kinetic parameters and methane potential from performing a BMP test at different geographical locations around the world was simulated by adjusting the data according to the ambient temperature and pressure of some chosen model sites. The largest effect on the methane potential was registered from tests performed at high altitudes due to a low ambient pressure. The results from this study illustrate the importance of considering the environmental factors’ influence on volumetric gas measurement in BMP tests. This is essential to achieve trustworthy and standardised results that can be used by researchers and end users from all over the world

  1. Towards eliminating systematic errors caused by the experimental conditions in Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strömberg, Sten, E-mail: sten.stromberg@biotek.lu.se [Department of Biotechnology, Lund University, Getingevägen 60, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Nistor, Mihaela, E-mail: mn@bioprocesscontrol.com [Bioprocess Control, Scheelevägen 22, 223 63 Lund (Sweden); Liu, Jing, E-mail: jing.liu@biotek.lu.se [Department of Biotechnology, Lund University, Getingevägen 60, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Bioprocess Control, Scheelevägen 22, 223 63 Lund (Sweden)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • The evaluated factors introduce significant systematic errors (10–38%) in BMP tests. • Ambient temperature (T) has the most substantial impact (∼10%) at low altitude. • Ambient pressure (p) has the most substantial impact (∼68%) at high altitude. • Continuous monitoring of T and p is not necessary for kinetic calculations. - Abstract: The Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) test is increasingly recognised as a tool for selecting and pricing biomass material for production of biogas. However, the results for the same substrate often differ between laboratories and much work to standardise such tests is still needed. In the current study, the effects from four environmental factors (i.e. ambient temperature and pressure, water vapour content and initial gas composition of the reactor headspace) on the degradation kinetics and the determined methane potential were evaluated with a 2{sup 4} full factorial design. Four substrates, with different biodegradation profiles, were investigated and the ambient temperature was found to be the most significant contributor to errors in the methane potential. Concerning the kinetics of the process, the environmental factors’ impact on the calculated rate constants was negligible. The impact of the environmental factors on the kinetic parameters and methane potential from performing a BMP test at different geographical locations around the world was simulated by adjusting the data according to the ambient temperature and pressure of some chosen model sites. The largest effect on the methane potential was registered from tests performed at high altitudes due to a low ambient pressure. The results from this study illustrate the importance of considering the environmental factors’ influence on volumetric gas measurement in BMP tests. This is essential to achieve trustworthy and standardised results that can be used by researchers and end users from all over the world.

  2. Reliability data collection on IC and VLSI devices tested under accelerated life conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barry, D.M.; Meniconi, M.

    1986-01-01

    As part of a more general investigation into the reliability and failure causes of semiconductor devices, statistical samples of integrated circuit devices (LM741C) and dynamic random access memory devices (TMS4116) were tested destructively to failure using elevated temperature as the accelerating stress. The devices were operated during the life test and the failure data generated were collected automatically using a multiple question-and-answer program and a process control computer. The failure data were modelled from the lognormal, inverse Gaussian and Weibull distribution using an Arrhenius reaction rate model. The failed devices were later decapsulated for failure cause determination. (orig./DG)

  3. Generalization of learning from picture books to novel test conditions by 18- and 24-month-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simcock, Gabrielle; Dooley, Megan

    2007-11-01

    Researchers know little about whether very young children can recognize objects originally introduced to them in a picture book when they encounter similar looking objects in various real-world contexts. The present studies used an imitation procedure to explore young children's ability to generalize a novel action sequence from a picture book to novel test conditions. The authors found that 18-month-olds imitated the action sequence from a book only when the conditions at testing matched those at encoding; altering the test stimuli or context disrupted imitation (Experiment 1A). In contrast, the 24-month-olds imitated the action sequence with changes to both the test context and stimuli (Experiment 1B). Moreover, although the 24-month-olds exhibited deferred imitation with no changes to the test conditions, they did not defer imitation with changes to the context and stimuli (Experiment 2). Two factors may account for the pattern of results: age-related changes in children's ability to utilize novel retrieval cues as well as their emerging ability to understand the representational nature of pictures. (c) 2007 APA.

  4. In-Pile Tests for IASCC Growth Behavior of Irradiated 316L Stainless Steel under Simulated BWR Condition in JMTR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimi, Yasuhiro; Kasahara, Shigeki; Ise, Hideo; Kawaguchi, Yoshihiko; Nakano, Junichi; Nishiyama, Yutaka

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has an in-pile irradiation test plan to evaluate in-situ effects of neutron/γ-ray irradiation on stress corrosion crack (SCC) growth of irradiated stainless steels using the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR). SCC growth rate and its dependence on electrochemical corrosion potential (ECP) are different between in-pile test and post irradiation examination (PIE). These differences are not fully understood because of a lack of in-pile data. This paper presents a systematic review on SCC growth data of irradiated stainless steels, an in-pile test plan for crack growth of irradiated SUS316L stainless steel under simulated BWR conditions in the JMTR, and the development of the in-pile test techniques.

  5. Conditional Tests of Factor Augmented Asset Pricing Models with Human Capital and Housing: Some New Results

    OpenAIRE

    Olga Klinkowska

    2009-01-01

    In this paper I develop the asset pricing model in which the wealth portfolio is enriched with human capital and housing capital. These two types of capital account for a significant portion of the total wealth. Additionally I introduce dynamics into the model and represent conditioning information by common factors estimated with dynamic factor methodology. In this way I can use more accurate representative of the unobservable information set of the investors. Obtained results prove that ind...

  6. Bio-predictive tablet disintegration: effect of water diffusivity, fluid flow, food composition and test conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radwan, Asma; Wagner, Manfred; Amidon, Gordon L; Langguth, Peter

    2014-06-16

    Food intake may delay tablet disintegration. Current in vitro methods have little predictive potential to account for such effects. The effect of a variety of factors on the disintegration of immediate release tablets in the gastrointestinal tract has been identified. They include viscosity of the media, precipitation of food constituents on the surface of the tablet and reduction of water diffusivity in the media as well as changes in the hydrodynamics in the surrounding media of the solid dosage form. In order to improve the predictability of food affecting the disintegration of a dosage form, tablet disintegration in various types of a liquefied meal has been studied under static vs. dynamic (agitative) conditions. Viscosity, water diffusivity, osmolality and Reynolds numbers for the different media were characterized. A quantitative model is introduced which predicts the influence of the Reynolds number in the tablet disintegration apparatus on the disintegration time. Viscosity, water diffusivity and media flow velocity are shown to be important factors affecting dosage form disintegration. The results suggest the necessity of considering these parameters when designing a predictive model for simulating the in vivo conditions. Based on these experiments and knowledge on in vivo hydrodynamics in the GI tract, it is concluded that the disintegration tester under current pharmacopoeial conditions is operated in an unphysiological mode and no bioprediction may be derived. Recommendations regarding alternative mode of operation are made. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A test facility for heat transfer, pressure drop and stability studies under supercritical conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Manish; Pilkhwal, D.S.; Jana, S.S.; Vijayan, P.K.

    2013-02-01

    Supercritical water (SCW) exhibits excellent heat transfer characteristics and high volumetric expansion coefficient (hence high mass flow rates in natural circulation systems) near pseudo-critical temperature. SCW is being considered as a coolant in some advanced nuclear reactor designs on account of its potential to offer high thermal efficiency, compact size, elimination of steam generator, separator and dryer, making it economically competitive. The elimination of phase change results in elimination of the Critical Heat Flux (CHF) phenomenon. Cooling a reactor at full power with natural instead of forced circulation is generally considered as enhancement of passive safety. In view of this, it is essential to study natural circulation, heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of supercritical fluids. Carbon-dioxide can be considered to be a good simulant of water for natural circulation at supercritical conditions since the density and viscosity variation of carbon-dioxide follows a parallel curve as that of water at supercritical conditions. Hence, a supercritical pressure natural circulation loop (SPNCL) has been set up in Hall-7, BARC to investigate the heat transfer, pressure drop and stability characteristics of supercritical carbon-dioxide under natural circulation conditions. The details of the experimental facility are presented in this report. (author)

  8. Development status of the experimental and numerical load analysis of package units CASTOR registered under drop test conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voelzer, Walter; Schaefer, Marc; Rumanus, Erkan; Liedtke, Ralph; Brehmer, Frank

    2012-01-01

    The mechanical integrity of package units CASTOR registered for a 9-m drop test under accident conditions has to be demonstrated according the requirements of IAEA among others. For reduction of the loads the containers have to be equipped with shock absorbers on the bottom and top sides. The determination of loads under drop test conditions can be performed with experimental or numerical methods. Due to the complexity of the load state and the verification of results both methods are usually used for integrity demonstration. The numerical codes have to model the short-term dynamic behavior of the whole container for different drop orientations and temperatures, local stress states have to be quantifiable for assessment. One of the problems is the modeling of the material behavior of wood that is used in the shock absorbers. The so far used energetic calculation approach will be replaced by a dynamic approach, the numerical models will have to be verified by experimental drop tests.

  9. Interpretation of Cone Penetration Testing in Silty Soils Conducted under Partially Drained Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmsgaard, Rikke; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2016-01-01

    The standard penetration rate used in cone penetration tests (CPTs) is 20 mm=s, regardless of soil type, which yields fully drained penetration in sand and fully undrained penetration in clay. However, for silty soils that represent an intermediate grain size composition and unique characteristic...

  10. Problem-Solving Test: Conditional Gene Targeting Using the Cre/loxP Recombination System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeberényi, József

    2013-01-01

    Terms to be familiar with before you start to solve the test: gene targeting, knock-out mutation, bacteriophage, complementary base-pairing, homologous recombination, deletion, transgenic organisms, promoter, polyadenylation element, transgene, DNA replication, RNA polymerase, Shine-Dalgarno sequence, restriction endonuclease, polymerase chain…

  11. Testing of ceramic gas turbine components under service-like conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siebmanns, W [Motoren- und Turbinen-Union G.m.b.H., Muenchen (Germany, F.R.)

    1978-08-01

    If all gas turbine components which are in contact with hot gas are manufactured from special ceramics (silicon nitride, silicon carbide), cycle and component temperatures can be increased up to 1600/sup 0/K. MTU is developing various components, such as combustor and turbine wheel, step by step until they are ready for service. At present, combustors are surviving comprehensive service-like cyclic tests in hot gas at atmospheric pressure (1000 h, 1000 starts per component) without damage. Tests above atmospheric pressure (5 bar) are underway. At MTU, a rotor wheel variant consisting of a metallic hub with inserted single blades is being constructed. The step to aerodynamically contoured airfoils will follow, as soon as the stress problems encountered in connection with the blade root are fully under control. The program will be completed in 1980 with a test run of a prototype turbine made from ceramic components developed by various companies under the leadership of the DFVLR (Aerospace Research and Testing Institute).

  12. Pre-Analytical Conditions in Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing of Cell-Free Fetal RHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Frederik Banch; Jakobsen, Tanja Roien; Rieneck, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    D positive fetus. Prophylaxis reduces the risk of immunization that may lead to hemolytic disease of the fetus and the newborn. The reliability of predicting the fetal RhD type depends on pre-analytical factors and assay sensitivity. We evaluated the testing setup in the Capital Region of Denmark, based...

  13. Performance testing of elastomeric seal materials under low and high temperature conditions: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BRONOWSKI,DAVID R.

    2000-06-01

    The US Department of Energy Offices of Defense Programs and Civilian Radioactive Waste Management jointly sponsored a program to evaluate elastomeric O-ring seal materials for radioactive material shipping containers. The report presents the results of low- and high-temperature tests conducted on 27 common elastomeric compounds.

  14. Field Measurements of Perceived Air Quality in the Test-Bed for Innovative Climate Conditioning Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolarik, Jakub; Toftum, Jørn; Kabrhel, Michal

    the potential influence of aforementioned technologies on the perceived air quality. Additionally, the effect of Demand Controlled Ventilation (DCV) on the perceived air quality was tested. Measurements comprised of the assessments of perceived air quality and objective measurements of operative temperature...

  15. 40 CFR 86.165-12 - Air conditioning idle test procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... If engine stalling occurs during cycle operation, follow the provisions of § 86.136-90 to restart the... minimum of 30 second intervals. (d) Test sequence. (1) Connect the vehicle exhaust system to the raw..., close the vehicle's hood, fully close all the vehicle's windows, ensure that all the vehicle's air...

  16. Beryllium mock-ups development and ultrasonic testing for ITER divertor conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barabash, V.R.; Bykov, V.A.; Giniyatulin, R.N.; Gervash, A.A.; Gurieva, T.M.; Egorov, K.E.; Komarov, V.L.; Korolkov, M.D.; Mazul, I.V.; Gitarsky, L.S.; Strulia, I.L.; Sizenev, V.S.; Pronyakin, V.T.

    1995-01-01

    At the present time beryllium is considered as the most suitable armour material for the ITER divertor application. Different types of Be-divertor mock-up construction are compared in the report. Two different technologies of beryllium tiles joining to a heat sink body are analysed: high temperature brazing and thermodiffusion bonding. The comparative analysis of different constructions has been performed on the basis of 2-D finite element calculation for temperatures and stresses. The main parameters and diagnostic capabilities of electron beam facility for HHF testing of beryllium mock-ups are described. The first results of HHF tests of ''beryllium-copper saddle-MAGT tube'' and ''beryllium-copper plate-SS body'' mock-ups are presented. The reasons of the damages during the HHF are analysed. The technique of ultrasonic testing of the thermodifussion bonding and brazing quality for beryllium-copper joints is presented. The recorded results are prepared in the form of ultrasound grams. The testing results are compared with the metallographic analysis. (orig.)

  17. Structural performance of an IP2 package in free drop test conditions: Numerical and experimental evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo Frano, Rosa; Pugliese, Giovanni; Nasta, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Vertical free drop test. • Qualification of an IP2 type Italian packaging. • Numerical and experimental investigation of the package integrity. • Demonstration the Italian packaging meets safety requirements. - Abstract: The casks or packaging systems used for the transportation of nuclear materials, especially spent fuel elements, have to be designed according to rigorous acceptance requirements, like the IAEA ones, in order to provide protection to human beings and environment against radiation exposure and contamination. This study deals with the free drop test of an Italian design packaging system to be used for the transportation of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes. Impact drop experiments were performed in the Lab. Scalbatraio of the DICI – University of Pisa. Dynamic analyses too have been carried out, by refined models of both the cask and target surface to predict the effects of the impact shock (vertical drop) on the package. The experimental tests and numerical analyses are thoroughly compared, presented and discussed. The numerical approach shows to be suitable to reproduce with good reliability the test situations and results

  18. Investigation of Spiral Bevel Gear Condition Indicator Validation Via AC-29-2C Using Damage Progression Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Paula J.

    2014-01-01

    This report documents the results of spiral bevel gear rig tests performed under a NASA Space Act Agreement with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to support validation and demonstration of rotorcraft Health and Usage Monitoring Systems (HUMS) for maintenance credits via FAA Advisory Circular (AC) 29-2C, Section MG-15, Airworthiness Approval of Rotorcraft (HUMS) (Ref. 1). The overarching goal of this work was to determine a method to validate condition indicators in the lab that better represent their response to faults in the field. Using existing in-service helicopter HUMS flight data from faulted spiral bevel gears as a "Case Study," to better understand the differences between both systems, and the availability of the NASA Glenn Spiral Bevel Gear Fatigue Rig, a plan was put in place to design, fabricate and test comparable gear sets with comparable failure modes within the constraints of the test rig. The research objectives of the rig tests were to evaluate the capability of detecting gear surface pitting fatigue and other generated failure modes on spiral bevel gear teeth using gear condition indicators currently used in fielded HUMS. Nineteen final design gear sets were tested. Tables were generated for each test, summarizing the failure modes observed on the gear teeth for each test during each inspection interval and color coded based on damage mode per inspection photos. Gear condition indicators (CI) Figure of Merit 4 (FM4), Root Mean Square (RMS), +/- 1 Sideband Index (SI1) and +/- 3 Sideband Index (SI3) were plotted along with rig operational parameters. Statistical tables of the means and standard deviations were calculated within inspection intervals for each CI. As testing progressed, it became clear that certain condition indicators were more sensitive to a specific component and failure mode. These tests were clustered together for further analysis. Maintenance actions during testing were also documented. Correlation coefficients were

  19. Analysis, testing and verification of the behavior of composite pavements under Florida conditions using a heavy vehicle simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia Gutierrez, Patricio Enrique

    Whitetopping (WT) is a rehabilitation method to resurface deteriorated asphalt pavements. While some of these composite pavements have performed very well carrying heavy load, other have shown poor performance with early cracking. With the objective of analyzing the applicability of WT pavements under Florida conditions, a total of nine full-scale WT test sections were constructed and tested using a Heavy Vehicle Simulator (HVS) in the APT facility at the FDOT Material Research Park. The test sections were instrumented to monitor both strain and temperature. A 3-D finite element model was developed to analyze the WT test sections. The model was calibrated and verified using measured FWD deflections and HVS load-induced strains from the test sections. The model was then used to evaluate the potential performance of these test sections under critical temperature-load condition in Florida. Six of the WT pavement test sections had a bonded concrete-asphalt interface by milling, cleaning and spraying with water the asphalt surface. This method produced excellent bonding at the interface, with shear strength of 195 to 220 psi. Three of the test sections were intended to have an unbonded concrete-asphalt interface by applying a debonding agent in the asphalt surface. However, shear strengths between 119 and 135 psi and a careful analysis of the strain and the temperature data indicated a partial bond condition. The computer model was able to satisfactorily model the behavior of the composite pavement by mainly considering material properties from standard laboratory tests and calibrating the spring elements used to model the interface. Reasonable matches between the measured and the calculated strains were achieved when a temperature-dependent AC elastic modulus was included in the analytical model. The expected numbers of repetitions of the 24-kip single axle loads at critical thermal condition were computed for the nine test sections based on maximum tensile stresses

  20. Orthogonal Test Analysis on Conditions Affecting Electricity Generation Performance of an Enhanced Geothermal System at Yangbajing Geothermal Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuchao Zeng

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The main conditions affecting electricity generation performance of an enhanced geothermal system (EGS include reservoir porosity, reservoir permeability, rock heat conductivity, water production rate and injection temperature. Presently there is lack of systematic research the relative importance of the five aforementioned conditions. The orthogonal test method is a statistical approach to analyze multi-factor and multi-level influence on system performance. In this work, based on the geological data at Yangbajing geothermal field, we analyzed the five conditions affecting the electricity generation performance of EGS, and ranked the relative importance of the five factors. The results show that the order of the relative importance of the conditions on electric power is water production rate > injection temperature > reservoir porosity > rock heat conductivity > reservoir permeability; the order of the relative importance of the conditions on reservoir impedance is reservoir permeability > injection temperature > water production rate > reservoir porosity > rock heat conductivity; the order of the relative importance of the conditions on pump power is water production rate > reservoir permeability > injection temperature > reservoir porosity > rock heat conductivity, and; the order of the relative importance of the conditions on energy efficiency is water production rate > reservoir permeability > reservoir porosity > injection temperature > rock heat conductivity. The construction of an EGS reservoir should be located at a formation with higher reservoir porosity or rock heat conductivity, while the determination of reservoir permeability, water production rate and injection temperature should be based on the comprehensive target.

  1. Failure analysis of radioisotopic heat source capsules tested under multi-axial conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zielinski, R.E.; Stacy, E.; Burgan, C.E.

    In order to qualify small radioisotopic heat sources for a 25-yr design life, multi-axial mechanical tests were performed on the structural components of the heat source. The results of these tests indicated that failure predominantly occurred in the middle of the weld ramp-down zone. Examination of the failure zone by standard metallographic techniques failed to indicate the true cause of failure. A modified technique utilizing chemical etching, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive x-ray analysis was employed and dramatically indicated the true cause of failure, impurity concentration in the ramp-down zone. As a result of the initial investigation, weld parameters for the heat sources were altered. Example welds made with a pulse arc technique did not have this impurity buildup in the ramp-down zone

  2. Behavior of a VVER fuel element tested under severe accident conditions in the CORA facility. Test results of experiment CORA-W1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagen, S.; Hofmann, P.; Noack, V.; Schanz, G.; Schumacher, G.; Sepold, L.

    1994-01-01

    Test bundle CORA-W1 was without absorber material. As in the earlier CORA tests the test bundles were subjected to temperature transients of a slow heatup rate in a steam environment. The transient phases of the test were initiated with a temperature ramp rate of 1 K/s. With these conditions a so-called small-break LOCA was simulated. The temperature escalation due to the exothermal zirconium/niobium-steam reaction started at about 1200 C, leading the bundle to a maximum temperature of approximately 1900 C. With the movement of the melt also heat is transported to the lower region. Below 300 mm elevation the test bundle remained intact due to the axial temeprature distribution. W2 ist characterized by a strong oxidation above 300 mm elevation. Besides the severe oxidation the test bundle resulted in considerable fuel dissolution by ZrNb1/UO 2 interaction in the upper part, complete spacer destruction at 600 mm due to chemical interactions between steel and the ZSrNb1 cladding. Despite some specific features the material behavior of the VVER-1000 bundle is comparable to that observed in the PWR and BWR test using fuel elements typical for Western countries. (orig./HP) [de

  3. Failure conditions from push out tests of a steel-concrete joint: fracture mechanics approach

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klusák, Jan; Seitl, Stanislav; De Corte, W.; Helincks, P.; Boel, V.; De Schutter, G.

    488-489, - (2012), s. 710-713 ISSN 1013-9826. [International Conference on Fracture and Damage Mechanics - FDM 2011 /10./. Dubrovník, 19.09.2011-21.09.2011] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/10/2049 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : Push out test * generalized linear elastic fracture mechanics * bi-material notch Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics

  4. Performance Analysis of Retrofitted Tribo-Corrosion Test Rig for Monitoring In Situ Oil Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpith Siddaiah

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Oils and lubricants, once extracted after use from a mechanical system, can hardly be reused, and should be refurbished or replaced in most applications. New methods of in situ oil and lubricant efficiency monitoring systems have been introduced for a wide variety of mechanical systems, such as automobiles, aerospace aircrafts, ships, offshore wind turbines, and deep sea oil drilling rigs. These methods utilize electronic sensors to monitor the “byproduct effects” in a mechanical system that are not indicative of the actual remaining lifecycle and reliability of the oils. A reliable oil monitoring system should be able to monitor the wear rate and the corrosion rate of the tribo-pairs due to the inclusion of contaminants. The current study addresses this technological gap, and presents a novel design of a tribo-corrosion test rig for oils used in a dynamic system. A pin-on-disk tribometer test rig retrofitted with a three electrode-potentiostat corrosion monitoring system was used to analyze the corrosion and wear rate of a steel tribo-pair in industrial grade transmission oil. The effectiveness of the retrofitted test rig was analyzed by introducing various concentrations of contaminants in an oil medium that usually leads to a corrosive working environment. The results indicate that the retrofitted test rig can effectively monitor the in situ tribological performance of the oil in a controlled dynamic corrosive environment. It is a useful method to understand the wear–corrosion synergies for further experimental work, and to develop accurate predictive lifecycle assessment and prognostic models. The application of this system is expected to have economic benefits and help reduce the ecological oil waste footprint.

  5. Study of the upper die clamping conditions in the small punch test

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Andrés, D.; Dymáček, Petr

    86A, DEC (2016), s. 117-123 ISSN 0167-8442 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Small punch test * Finite element method * Parametric study * High temperature * Creep Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 2.659, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167844216301835

  6. Failure conditions from push-out tests of a steel-concrete joint: experimental results

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Helincks, P.; De Corte, W.; Klusák, Jan; Seitl, Stanislav; Boel, V.; De Schutter, G.

    488-489, - (2012), s. 714-717 ISSN 1013-9826. [International Conference on Fracture and Damage Mechanics - FDM 2011 /10./. Dubrovník, 19.09.2011-21.09.2011] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/10/2049 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : steel-concrete joint * push-out test * shear bond strength Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics

  7. Fracture assessment of shallow-flaw cruciform beams tested under uniaxial and biaxial loading conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, B.R.; McAfee, W.J.; Williams, P.T.; Pennell, W.E.

    1999-01-01

    A technology to determine shallow-flaw fracture toughness of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels is being developed for application to the safety assessment of RPVs containing postulated shallow surface flaws. Matrices of cruciform beam tests were developed to investigate and quantify the effects of temperature, biaxial loading, and specimen size on fracture initiation toughness of two-dimensional (constant depth), shallow, surface flaws. The cruciform beam specimens were developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to introduce a far-field, out-of-plane biaxial stress component in the test section that approximates the nonlinear stresses resulting from pressurized-thermal-shock or pressure-temperature loading of an RPV. Tests were conducted under biaxial load ratios ranging from uniaxial to equibiaxial. These tests demonstrated that biaxial loading can have a pronounced effect on shallow-flaw fracture toughness in the lower transition temperature region for an RPV material. The cruciform fracture toughness data were used to evaluate fracture methodologies for predicting the observed effects of biaxial loading on shallow-flaw fracture toughness. Initial emphasis was placed on assessment of stress-based methodologies, namely, the J-Q formulation, the Dodds-Anderson toughness scaling model, and the Weibull approach. Applications of these methodologies based on the hydrostatic stress fracture criterion indicated an effect of loading-biaxiality on fracture toughness; the conventional maximum principal stress criterion indicated no effect. A three-parameter Weibull model based on the hydrostatic stress criterion is shown to correlate with the experimentally observed biaxial effect on cleavage fracture toughness by providing a scaling mechanism between uniaxial and biaxial loading states. (orig.)

  8. Performance Analysis of Retrofitted Tribo-Corrosion Test Rig for Monitoring In Situ Oil Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddaiah, Arpith; Khan, Zulfiqar Ahmad; Ramachandran, Rahul; Menezes, Pradeep L

    2017-09-28

    Oils and lubricants, once extracted after use from a mechanical system, can hardly be reused, and should be refurbished or replaced in most applications. New methods of in situ oil and lubricant efficiency monitoring systems have been introduced for a wide variety of mechanical systems, such as automobiles, aerospace aircrafts, ships, offshore wind turbines, and deep sea oil drilling rigs. These methods utilize electronic sensors to monitor the "byproduct effects" in a mechanical system that are not indicative of the actual remaining lifecycle and reliability of the oils. A reliable oil monitoring system should be able to monitor the wear rate and the corrosion rate of the tribo-pairs due to the inclusion of contaminants. The current study addresses this technological gap, and presents a novel design of a tribo-corrosion test rig for oils used in a dynamic system. A pin-on-disk tribometer test rig retrofitted with a three electrode-potentiostat corrosion monitoring system was used to analyze the corrosion and wear rate of a steel tribo-pair in industrial grade transmission oil. The effectiveness of the retrofitted test rig was analyzed by introducing various concentrations of contaminants in an oil medium that usually leads to a corrosive working environment. The results indicate that the retrofitted test rig can effectively monitor the in situ tribological performance of the oil in a controlled dynamic corrosive environment. It is a useful method to understand the wear-corrosion synergies for further experimental work, and to develop accurate predictive lifecycle assessment and prognostic models. The application of this system is expected to have economic benefits and help reduce the ecological oil waste footprint.

  9. Evaluation of the rapid plasma reagin "teardrop" card test for screening of syphilis in field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyck, E; Van de Velden, L; Ndoye, I; Piot, P; Meheus, A

    1993-01-01

    The availability of simple diagnostic methods may contribute to more efficient control of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in developing countries. For the detection of syphilis, a simple rapid plasma reagin (RPR) "teardrop" assay for finger-prick blood samples was developed in 1962. The reliability of this test is compared with RPR, Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay (TPHA), and fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption (FTA-Abs) assays performed on venous blood samples. To evaluate the potential usefulness of the finger-stick RPR teardrop assay for diagnosis of syphilis in settings with poor medical resources. Pregnant women evaluated at two health centers in Pikine, Senegal were tested for STDs. The RPR teardrop assay was performed on plasma from blood samples obtained by finger prick, and standard RPR, TPHA, and FTA-Abs procedures were performed on serum obtained by vein puncture. The sensitivity and specificity of the finger-prick RPR teardrop assay were 69.7% and 96.5%, respectively, and its reactivity was correlated with RPR serum antibody titer. The finger-prick RPR teardrop assay is not a reliable alternative to the classic serum RPR test.

  10. Testing the disgust conditioning theory of food-avoidance in adolescents with recent onset anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Tom; Grotzinger, Andrew; Reddan, Marianne; Greif, Rebecca; Levy, Ifat; Goodman, Wayne; Schiller, Daniela

    2015-08-01

    Anorexia nervosa is characterized by chronic food avoidance that is resistant to change. Disgust conditioning offers one potential unexplored mechanism for explaining this behavioral disturbance because of its specific role in facilitating food avoidance in adaptive situations. A food based reversal learning paradigm was used to study response flexibility in 14 adolescent females with restricting subtype anorexia nervosa (AN-R) and 15 healthy control (HC) participants. Expectancy ratings were coded as a behavioral measure of flexibility and electromyography recordings from the levator labii (disgust), zygomaticus major (pleasure), and corrugator (general negative affect) provided psychophysiological measures of emotion. Response inflexibility was higher for participants with AN-R, as evidenced by lower extinction and updated expectancy ratings during reversal. EMG responses to food stimuli were predictive of both extinction and new learning. Among AN-R patients, disgust specific responses to food were associated with impaired extinction, as were elevated pleasure responses to the cued absence of food. Disgust conditioning appears to influence food learning in acutely ill patients with AN-R and may be maintained by counter-regulatory acquisition of a pleasure response to food avoidance and an aversive response to food presence. Developing strategies to target disgust may improve existing interventions for patients with AN. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Model aerodynamic test results for two variable cycle engine coannular exhaust systems at simulated takeoff and cruise conditions. [Lewis 8 by 6-foot supersonic wind tunnel tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, D. P.

    1980-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests were conducted to evaluate the aerodynamic performance of a coannular exhaust nozzle for a proposed variable stream control supersonic propulsion system. Tests were conducted with two simulated configurations differing primarily in the fan duct flowpaths: a short flap mechanism for fan stream control with an isentropic contoured flow splitter, and an iris fan nozzle with a conical flow splitter. Both designs feature a translating primary plug and an auxiliary inlet ejector. Tests were conducted at takeoff and simulated cruise conditions. Data were acquired at Mach numbers of 0, 0.36, 0.9, and 2.0 for a wide range of nozzle operating conditions. At simulated supersonic cruise, both configurations demonstrated good performance, comparable to levels assumed in earlier advanced supersonic propulsion studies. However, at subsonic cruise, both configurations exhibited performance that was 6 to 7.5 percent less than the study assumptions. At take off conditions, the iris configuration performance approached the assumed levels, while the short flap design was 4 to 6 percent less.

  12. Radioactive Waste Treatment and Conditioning Using Plasma Technology Pilot Plant: Testing and Commissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafizi Salihuddin; Rohyiza Baan; Norasalwa Zakaria

    2016-01-01

    Plasma pilot plant was commissioned for research and development program on radioactive waste treatment. The plant is equipped with a 50 kW direct current of non-transferred arc plasma torch which mounted vertically on top of the combustion chamber. The plant also consists of a dual function chamber, a water cooling system, a compress air supply system and a control system. This paper devoted the outcome after testing and commissioning of the plant. The problems arise was discussed in order to find the possible suggestion to overcome the issues. (author)

  13. Fatigue testing of weldable high strength steels under simulated service conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantbirojn, Natee

    There have been concerns over the effect of Cathodic Protection (CP) on weldable high strength steels employed in Jack-up production platform. The guidance provided by the Department of Energy HSE on higher strength steels, based on previous work, was to avoid overprotection as this could cause hydrogen embrittlement. However, the tests conducted so far at UCL for the SE702 type high strength steels (yields strength around 690 MPa) have shown that the effect of over protection on high strength steels may not be as severe as previously thought. For this thesis, SE702 high strength steels have been investigated in more detail. Thick (85mm) parent and ground welded plates were tested under constant amplitude in air and seawater with CP. Tests were also conducted on Thick (40mm) T-butt welded plates under variable amplitude loading in air and seawater with two CP levels (-800mV and -1050mV). Different backing materials (ceramic and metallic) for the welding process of the T-butt plates were also investigated. The variable amplitude sequences employed were generated using the Jack-up Offshore Standard load History (JOSH). The fatigue results are presented as crack growth and S/N curves. They were compared to the conventional offshore steel (BS 4360 50D). The results suggested that the fatigue life of the high strength steels was comparable to the BS 4360 50D steels. The effect of increasing the CP was found to be detrimental to the fatigue life but the effect was not large. The effect of CP was less noticeable in T-butt welded plates. However, in general, the effect of overprotection is not as detrimental to the Jack-up steels as previously thought. The load histories generated by JOSH were found to have some unfavourable characteristics. The framework is based on Markov Chain method and pseudo-random number generator for selecting sea-states. A study was carried out on the sequence generated by JOSH. The generated sequences were analysed for their validity for fatigue

  14. Influence of testing conditions on the performance and durability of polymer stabilisers in thermal oxidation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pospíšil, Jan; Horák, Zdeněk; Pilař, Jan; Billingham, N. C.; Zweifel, H.; Nešpůrek, Stanislav

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 2 (2003), s. 145-162 ISSN 0141-3910. [International conference on Polymer Modification, Degradation and Stabilisation. Budapest, 30.06.2002-04.07.2002] R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 543; GA MŠk ME 558; GA ČR GA203/02/1243; GA AV ČR IBS4050009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4050913 Keywords : accelerated tests * long-term heat ageing * oven ageing Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.405, year: 2003

  15. Fuel Tests on an I-16 Jet-Propulsion Engine at Static Sea-Level Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1947-04-29

    All fuel lines and manometer leads were Joined to tbs engine by r.;bber-hoee con::&-:tions to prov-.de flexi- bility. The test cell Itself wa3 a...The air leakage into t:.e cell was measured i:id laolntefl’ In the calculations of the air flow to the er.jine. Figure 1 also shirks tbfl...t t - ’ > / J / i / 4» / / / >•• —* / - - iw r—’ 860 <•— 4 f < Hot-« el4 oct.nt t> Unil rucl . - -Theoretical lln«i / 0 ; I T

  16. Fission products and nuclear fuel behaviour under severe accident conditions part 1: Main lessons learnt from the first VERDON test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontillon, Y.; Geiger, E.; Le Gall, C.; Bernard, S.; Gallais-During, A.; Malgouyres, P. P.; Hanus, E.; Ducros, G.

    2017-11-01

    This paper describes the first VERDON test performed at the end of September 2011 with special emphasis on the behaviour of fission products (FP) and actinides during the accidental sequence itself. Two other papers discuss in detail the post-test examination results (SEM, EPMA and SIMS) of the VERDON-1 sample. The first VERDON test was devoted to studying UO2 fuel behaviour and fission product releases under reducing conditions at very high temperature (∼2883 K), which was able to confirm the very good performance of the VERDON loop. The fuel sample did not lose its integrity during this test. According to the FP behaviour measured by the online gamma station (fuel sight), the general classification of the FP in relation to their released fraction is very accurate, and the burn-up effect on the release rate is clearly highlighted.

  17. Application of signature analysis for determining the operational readiness of motor-operated valves under blowdown test conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haynes, H.D.

    1990-01-01

    In support of the NRC-funded Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has carried out a comprehensive aging assessment of motor-operated valves (MOVs). As part of this work, ORNL participated in the gate valve flow interrruption blowdown (GVFIB) tests carried out in Huntsville, Alabama. The tests provided an excellent opportunity to evaluate signature analysis methods for determining the operability of MOVs under accident conditions. ORNL acquired motor current and torque switch shaft angular position signatures on two test MOVs during several GVFIB tests. The reduction in operating ''margin'' of both MOVs due to the presence of additional valve running loads imposed by high flow was clearly observed in motor current and torque switch angular position signatures. In addition, the effects of differential pressure, fluid temperature, and line voltage on MOV operations were observed and more clearly understood as a result of utilizing the signature analysis techniques. (orig.)

  18. Tests of operating conditions for metrological application of HTS Josephson arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosso, A; Lacquaniti, V; Andreone, D; Cerri, R; Klushin, A M

    2006-01-01

    We report on an experimental study of metrological properties of High Temperature Superconductor arrays, made of shunted bicrystal YBCO Josephson junctions, to assess their accuracy. A detailed analysis of measurement errors is presented, mainly based on a direct comparison of an HTS array against a low temperature array. Owing to the high sensitivity of the comparison, we were able to measure the changes in the HTS array voltage on a step at nanovolt level. A precise estimate of the dependence of the HTS array step width on operating conditions was obtained. Differences were observed with respect to the results provided by the usual, low sensitivity, techniques, confirming that the method we adopted is necessary in the study of HTS arrays for metrology. The high sensitivity analysis was applied in the derivation of the temperature dependence of the critical current as well, providing some insights on the behaviour of the HTS array

  19. Numerical simulation of air distribution in a room with a sidewall jet under benchmark test conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zasimova, Marina; Ivanov, Nikolay

    2018-05-01

    The goal of the study is to validate Large Eddy Simulation (LES) data on mixing ventilation in an isothermal room at conditions of benchmark experiments by Hurnik et al. (2015). The focus is on the accuracy of the mean and rms velocity fields prediction in the quasi-free jet zone of the room with 3D jet supplied from a sidewall rectangular diffuser. Calculations were carried out using the ANSYS Fluent 16.2 software with an algebraic wall-modeled LES subgrid-scale model. CFD results on the mean velocity vector are compared with the Laser Doppler Anemometry data. The difference between the mean velocity vector and the mean air speed in the jet zone, both LES-computed, is presented and discussed.

  20. Test results for the evaluation of a glucometer for use under hyperbaric conditions: Technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsouras, Theo

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate a recently developed equipment test method by assessing the safe and accurate functioning of the Abbott Optium FreeStyle H portable blood glucose monitor for use in the Alfred Hospital's hyperbaric chamber. The results of this study indicate that the test method can be used successfully to evaluate instruments and/or devices for use in the hyperbaric environment. The evaluation initially found that this particular glucose monitor contained a lithium battery which can be hazardous when used in the hyperbaric environment. However, upon further inspection it was determined the battery posed minimal risk for fire and explosion due to its small capacity and design application. The results indicate that the Abbott Optium FreeStyle H blood glucose monitor operated normally when used in the hyperbaric chamber. This glucometer was found to perform within the calibration specification requirements for accuracy at all stages of a typical hyperbaric treatment and as such the Abbott Optium FreeStyle H blood glucose monitor was deemed safe for use in the hyperbaric chamber at the Alfred Hospital. Copyright© Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society.

  1. Application of signature analysis for determining the operational readiness of motor-operated valves under blowdown test conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haynes, H.D.

    1988-01-01

    In support of the NRC-funded Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has carried out a comprehensive aging assessment of Motor-Operated Valves (MOVs). As part of this work, ORNL participated in the Gate Valve Flow Interruption Blowdown (GVFIB) tests carried out in Huntsville, Alabama. The GVFIB tests were intended primarily to determine the behavior of motor-operated gate valves under the temperature, pressure, and flow conditions expected to be experienced by isolation valves in Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) during a high energy line break (blowdown) outside of containment. In addition, the tests provided an excellent opportunity to evaluate signature analysis methods for determining the operational readiness of the MOVs under those accident conditions. ORNL acquired motor current and torque switch shaft angular position data on two test MOVs during various times of the GVFIB tests. The reduction in operating ''margin'' of both MOVs due to the presence of additional valve running loads imposed by high flow was clearly observed in motor current and torque switch angular position signatures. In addition, the effects of differential pressure, fluid temperature, and line voltage on MOV operations were observed and more clearly understood as a result of utilizing signature analysis techniques. 1 ref.; 16 figs

  2. Fuel behaviour and fission product release under realistic hydrogen conditions comparisons between HEVA 06 test results and Vulcain computations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumas, J.M.; Lhiaubet, G.

    1989-07-01

    The HEVA 06 test was designed to simulate the conditions existing at the time when fission products are released from irradiated fuel under hydrogen conditions occurring in a PWR core at low pressure. The test conditions were defined from results provided by the core degradation module of the ESCADRE system (1): VULCAIN. This computer code has been recently used to analyse the early core degradation of a 900 MWe PWR in the AF accident sequence (as defined in WASH - 1400, USNRC - 1975). In this scenario, the core would begin to uncover about one day after scram with the system pressure at about 0.4 MPa. The fission product release starts 70 minutes after core dewatering. The F.P. are transferred to the core outlet in an increasingly hydrogen-rich steam atmosphere. The carrier gas is nearly pure hydrogen in the time period 100 - 130 minutes after core uncovering. A large release of F.P. is predicted in the upper part of the core when the steam starvation occurs. At that time, two thirds of the cladding have been oxidised on an average. Before each HEVA test a fuel sample with a burn-up of 36 GWd/tU is reirradiated in order to observe the release of short-lived fission products. A pre-oxidation was primarely conducted in the HEVA 06 test at a temperature of 1300 0 C and controlled to reach a 2/3 cladding oxidation state. Then the steam was progressively replaced by hydrogen and a heat-up rate of 1.5 0 C/s was induced to reach a temperature of 2100 0 C. The fuel was maintained at this temperature for half an hour in hydrogen. The volatile F.P. release kinetics were observed by on-line gamma spectrometry. Pre test calculations of F.P. release kinetics performed with the EMIS module based on the CORSOR models (3) are compared with the test results. Measured releases of cesium and iodine are really lower than those predicted. Axial and radial F.P. distributions in the fuel pellets are available from gamma tomography measurements performed after the test. Tellurium seems

  3. Pre-analytical conditions in non-invasive prenatal testing of cell-free fetal RHD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederik Banch Clausen

    Full Text Available Non-invasive prenatal testing of cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA in maternal plasma can predict the fetal RhD type in D negative pregnant women. In Denmark, routine antenatal screening for the fetal RhD gene (RHD directs the administration of antenatal anti-D prophylaxis only to women who carry an RhD positive fetus. Prophylaxis reduces the risk of immunization that may lead to hemolytic disease of the fetus and the newborn. The reliability of predicting the fetal RhD type depends on pre-analytical factors and assay sensitivity. We evaluated the testing setup in the Capital Region of Denmark, based on data from routine antenatal RHD screening.Blood samples were drawn at gestational age 25 weeks. DNA extracted from 1 mL of plasma was analyzed for fetal RHD using a duplex method for exon 7/10. We investigated the effect of blood sample transportation time (n = 110 and ambient outdoor temperatures (n = 1539 on the levels of cffDNA and total DNA. We compared two different quantification methods, the delta Ct method and a universal standard curve. PCR pipetting was compared on two systems (n = 104.The cffDNA level was unaffected by blood sample transportation for up to 9 days and by ambient outdoor temperatures ranging from -10 °C to 28 °C during transport. The universal standard curve was applicable for cffDNA quantification. Identical levels of cffDNA were observed using the two automated PCR pipetting systems. We detected a mean of 100 fetal DNA copies/mL at a median gestational age of 25 weeks (range 10-39, n = 1317.The setup for real-time PCR-based, non-invasive prenatal testing of cffDNA in the Capital Region of Denmark is very robust. Our findings regarding the transportation of blood samples demonstrate the high stability of cffDNA. The applicability of a universal standard curve facilitates easy cffDNA quantification.

  4. Microstructural Evolution in Chroming Coatings Friction Pairs under Dry Sliding Test Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The microstructures of subsurface layers of 20CrMnTi steel pins against chroming and nonchroming T10 under dry sliding tests were studied by means of OM (optical microscopy, XRD (X-ray diffraction, and SEM (scanning electron microscopy. Results showed that the chroming coating strengthened the disc surface and significantly affected microstructural evolution. Three layers—the matrix, deformation layer (DL, and surface layer (SL—formed in 20CrMnTi for the chroming T10. The matrix and deformation layer (DL formed in 20CrMnTi for the nonchroming T10. The formation of the microstructure was considered as a result of the shear deformation.

  5. A novel test method for measuring the thermal properties of clothing ensembles under dynamic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, X; Fan, J

    2008-01-01

    The dynamic thermal properties of clothing ensembles are important to thermal transient comfort, but have so far not been properly quantified. In this paper, a novel test procedure and new index based on measurements on the sweating fabric manikin-Walter are proposed to quantify and measure the dynamic thermal properties of clothing ensembles. Experiments showed that the new index is correlated to the changing rate of the body temperature of the wearer, which is an important indicator of thermal transient comfort. Clothing ensembles having higher values of the index means the wearer will have a faster changing rate of body temperature and shorter duration before approaching a dangerous thermo-physiological state, when he changes from 'resting' to 'exercising' mode. Clothing should therefore be designed to reduce the value of the index

  6. In-pile testing of ITER first wall mock-ups at relevant thermal loading conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litunovsky, N.; Gervash, A.; Lorenzetto, P.; Mazul, I.; Melder, R.

    2009-04-01

    The paper describes the experimental technique and preliminary results of thermal fatigue testing of ITER first wall (FW) water-cooled mock-ups inside the core of the RBT-6 experimental fission reactor (RIAR, Dimitrovgrad, Russia). This experiment has provided simultaneous effect of neutron fluence and thermal cycling damages on the mock-ups. A PC-controlled high-temperature graphite ohmic heater was applied to provide cyclic thermal load onto the mock-ups surface. This experiment lasted for 309 effective irradiation days with a final damage level (CuCrZr) of 1 dpa in the mock-ups. About 3700 thermal cycles with a heat flux of 0.4-0.5 MW/m 2 onto the mock-ups were realized before the heater fails. Then, irradiation was continued in a non-cycling mode.

  7. Power conditioning accessories. Construction of a delayed drop-out relay and test of constant voltage transformers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keroe, E.; Kaufmann, H.; Koeck, J.; Scarpatetti, R.; Vuister, P.

    1983-10-01

    A delayed drop-out relay aimed to protect electronic measuring equipment during voltage fluctuations and power failures and transients is described. The results of a test on the performance of three resonant voltage transformers (GOULD GT 3000, CVT Isoreg 15-025 and Philips 1412/00) coupled with this relay, are presented. It is found that with this set-up, instrument malfunction and breakdown can be effectively prevented under the normal power conditions met in European countries or the USA. Under more severe conditions, usually met in the developing countries, a more careful selection has to be made; the test recommends the Philips transformer. It is also recommended that for best results the constant voltage transformers should be used at 75-80% of their rated power

  8. Fuel Performance Characterisation under Various PWR Conditions: Description of the Annealing Test Facilities available at the LECA-STAR laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pontillon, Y.; Cornu, B.; Clement, S.; Ferroud-Plattet, M.P.; Malgouyres, P.P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, CEA/DEN/DEC/SA3C - Centre d' Etudes de Cadarache, BP1, 13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France)

    2008-07-01

    The aim to improve LWR fuel behaviour has led Cea to improve its post-irradiation examination capacities in term of test facilities and characterization techniques in the shielded hot cells of the LECA-STAR facility, located in Cadarache Cea center. as far as the annealing test facilities are concerned, fuel qualification and improvement of knowledge require a set of furnaces which are already used or will be used. The main characteristics of these furnaces strongly depend on the experimental objectives. The aim of this paper is to review the main aspects of these specific experiments concerning: (i) fission gas release from high burn up fuel, (ii) global fission product release in severe-accident conditions and (iii) fuel microstructural changes, potential cladding failure, radionuclide source terms... under conditions representative of long term dry storage and geological disposal. (authors)

  9. Testing a new multigroup inference approach to reconstructing past environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria RIERADEVALL

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A new, quantitative, inference model for environmental reconstruction (transfer function, based for the first time on the simultaneous analysis of multigroup species, has been developed. Quantitative reconstructions based on palaeoecological transfer functions provide a powerful tool for addressing questions of environmental change in a wide range of environments, from oceans to mountain lakes, and over a range of timescales, from decades to millions of years. Much progress has been made in the development of inferences based on multiple proxies but usually these have been considered separately, and the different numeric reconstructions compared and reconciled post-hoc. This paper presents a new method to combine information from multiple biological groups at the reconstruction stage. The aim of the multigroup work was to test the potential of the new approach to making improved inferences of past environmental change by improving upon current reconstruction methodologies. The taxonomic groups analysed include diatoms, chironomids and chrysophyte cysts. We test the new methodology using two cold-environment training-sets, namely mountain lakes from the Pyrenees and the Alps. The use of multiple groups, as opposed to single groupings, was only found to increase the reconstruction skill slightly, as measured by the root mean square error of prediction (leave-one-out cross-validation, in the case of alkalinity, dissolved inorganic carbon and altitude (a surrogate for air-temperature, but not for pH or dissolved CO2. Reasons why the improvement was less than might have been anticipated are discussed. These can include the different life-forms, environmental responses and reaction times of the groups under study.

  10. The Hydrogen Pickup Behavior for Zirconium-based Alloys in Various Out-of-pile Corrosion Test Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aomi, M.; Etoh, Y.; Ishimoto, S.; Une, K. [Nippon Nuclear Fuel Development, Co., Ltd., 2163 Narita-cho, Oarai-machi, Ibaraki-ken, 311-1313 (Japan); Ito, K. [Global Nuclear Fuel Japan Co., Ltd., 3-1 Uchikawa 2-chome, Yokosuka-shi, Kanagawa-ken, 239-0836 (Japan)

    2009-06-15

    An acceleration of hydrogen absorption in zirconium alloy claddings at high burnups is one of the most important issues limiting the fuel performance from the viewpoint of cladding integrity. In this context, advanced cladding materials with higher corrosion resistant and lower hydrogen absorption properties have been widely searched in various organizations. In this study, four kinds of zirconium-based alloys, whose in-pile data had been acquired [1,2] were subjected to comprehensive out-of-pile corrosion tests with various temperature and atmosphere conditions in order to investigate the correlation between in-pile and out-of-pile corrosion and hydrogen pick-up behavior, i.e. Zry-2, GNF-Ziron (Zry-2-based alloy with {approx}0.25 wt % of Fe), Hi-FeNi Zircaloy (Zry-2-based alloy with {approx}0.25 wt % of Fe and {approx}0.1 wt% Ni), and VB (Zr-based alloy containing Sn, Cr, and {approx}0.5 wt % of Fe). All the alloys were annealed in RXA condition. The out-of-pile corrosion tests were carried out in three different conditions of 400 deg. C steam, 475 deg. C supercritical water, and 290 deg. C LiOH aqueous solution. In addition to these alloys, several Zry-2-based alloys with various iron contents were tested in 290 deg. C LiOH aqueous solution. Among the four corrosion conditions, the 290 deg. C LiOH aqueous solution test well screened the hydrogen pick-up behavior of the alloys. The hydrogen absorption decreased with higher iron contents in the alloys in both the out-of-pile and in-pile conditions. Especially, the distinct suppression of hydrogen absorption was observed for VB with the highest iron content. The similar dependence of iron content on the hydrogen pick-up fraction was also obtained for the Zry-2-based alloys with different iron contents, which were corroded in the 290 deg. C LiOH aqueous solution condition. As for the corrosion behavior in the 290 deg. C LiOH aqueous solution condition, the weight gains of Zry-2, GNF-Ziron and VB followed the 1

  11. Microscale 3D Liver Bioreactor for In Vitro Hepatotoxicity Testing under Perfusion Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Freyer

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The accurate prediction of hepatotoxicity demands validated human in vitro models that can close the gap between preclinical animal studies and clinical trials. In this study we investigated the response of primary human liver cells to toxic drug exposure in a perfused microscale 3D liver bioreactor. The cellularized bioreactors were treated with 5, 10, or 30 mM acetaminophen (APAP used as a reference substance. Lactate production significantly decreased upon treatment with 30 mM APAP (p < 0.05 and ammonia release significantly increased in bioreactors treated with 10 or 30 mM APAP (p < 0.0001, indicating APAP-induced dose-dependent toxicity. The release of prostaglandin E2 showed a significant increase at 30 mM APAP (p < 0.05, suggesting an inflammatory reaction towards enhanced cellular stress. The expression of genes involved in drug metabolism, antioxidant reactions, urea synthesis, and apoptosis was differentially influenced by APAP exposure. Histological examinations revealed that primary human liver cells in untreated control bioreactors were reorganized in tissue-like cell aggregates. These aggregates were partly disintegrated upon APAP treatment, lacking expression of hepatocyte-specific proteins and transporters. In conclusion, our results validate the suitability of the microscale 3D liver bioreactor to detect hepatotoxic effects of drugs in vitro under perfusion conditions.

  12. Migration of 99Tc in unsaturated Chinese loess under artificial rainfall condition: an in situ test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, C.L.; Wang, X.Y.; Wang, H.F.; Li, R.J.; Tang, L.T.

    2001-01-01

    The migration of 99 Tc in unsaturated Chinese loess under artificial rainfall condition was investigated in situ. Water suckers were buried at different depths under the bottom of an experimental pit of 2 m x 2 m x 1 m (deep). Quartz containing 3 H and 99 Tc was introduced into the experimental pit to an area of 40 cm x 40 cm and the pit was backfilled to a thickness of 30 cm. An artificial rainfall of 5 mm/h was applied to the experimental pit 4 h a day for 3 months. Moisture water samples were sucked with the help of a vacuum pumping system and the activity of 3 H and 99 Tc in the samples was determined. Breakthrough curves of 3 H and 99 Tc indicated that 99 Tc was slightly retarded. The calculated average apparent distribution coefficient of 99 Tc in the medium was (1.98 ± 0.42) x 10 -2 ml/g. (orig.)

  13. Magnetic nanoparticles of NiCuZn tested in different conditions in catalysis for biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dantas, J.; Silva, F.N.; Silva, A.S.; Pereira, K.R.O.; Costa, A.C.F.M.

    2014-01-01

    In this work it was used magnetic nanoparticles Ni_0_,_2Cu_0_,_3Zn_0_,_5Fe_2O_4, chemical and thermally stable, under different conditions in catalysis for biodiesel. The magnetic characteristic of such material allows the catalyst recovery after the reactions by applying a permanent magnet. It was proposed to evaluate the performance of the nanomagnetic catalyst Ni_0_,_2Cu_0_,_3Zn_0_,_5Fe_2O_4 in the transesterification, modifying the processing variables (temperature, time, molar ratio of oil:alcohol and catalyst amount). The nanoparticles were synthesized by combustion reaction and characterized by XRD, TG, BET, magnetic measurements and gas chromatography. The results revealed the formation of inverse spinel phase, type B(AB)_2O_4, presenting isotherm profile classified as type V, with hysteresis loop of type 3 (H3). The magnetic hysteresis curve showed a characteristic behavior of soft magnetic material. GC analysis confirmed that nanoparticles were catalytically active, since they were superior to the reaction conducted without the catalyst presence. Besides, the reactions suffered considerable influence due to the changes of the independent variables. (author)

  14. Microscale 3D Liver Bioreactor for In Vitro Hepatotoxicity Testing under Perfusion Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyer, Nora; Greuel, Selina; Knöspel, Fanny; Gerstmann, Florian; Storch, Lisa; Damm, Georg; Seehofer, Daniel; Foster Harris, Jennifer; Iyer, Rashi; Schubert, Frank; Zeilinger, Katrin

    2018-03-15

    The accurate prediction of hepatotoxicity demands validated human in vitro models that can close the gap between preclinical animal studies and clinical trials. In this study we investigated the response of primary human liver cells to toxic drug exposure in a perfused microscale 3D liver bioreactor. The cellularized bioreactors were treated with 5, 10, or 30 mM acetaminophen (APAP) used as a reference substance. Lactate production significantly decreased upon treatment with 30 mM APAP ( p < 0.05) and ammonia release significantly increased in bioreactors treated with 10 or 30 mM APAP ( p < 0.0001), indicating APAP-induced dose-dependent toxicity. The release of prostaglandin E2 showed a significant increase at 30 mM APAP ( p < 0.05), suggesting an inflammatory reaction towards enhanced cellular stress. The expression of genes involved in drug metabolism, antioxidant reactions, urea synthesis, and apoptosis was differentially influenced by APAP exposure. Histological examinations revealed that primary human liver cells in untreated control bioreactors were reorganized in tissue-like cell aggregates. These aggregates were partly disintegrated upon APAP treatment, lacking expression of hepatocyte-specific proteins and transporters. In conclusion, our results validate the suitability of the microscale 3D liver bioreactor to detect hepatotoxic effects of drugs in vitro under perfusion conditions.

  15. Field Performance versus Standard Test Condition Efficiency of Tandem Solar Cells and the Specific Case of Perovskites/Silicon Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Dupre, Olivier

    2018-01-05

    Multijunction cells may offer a cost-effective route to boost the efficiency of industrial photovoltaics. For any technology to be deployed in the field, its performance under actual operating conditions is extremely important. In this perspective, we evaluate the impact of spectrum, light intensity, and module temperature variations on the efficiency of tandem devices with crystalline silicon bottom cells with a particular focus on perovskite top cells. We consider devices with different efficiencies and calculate their energy yields using field data from Denver. We find that annual losses due to differences between operating conditions and standard test conditions are similar for single-junction and four-terminal tandem devices. The additional loss for the two-terminal tandem configuration caused by current mismatch reduces its performance ratio by only 1.7% when an optimal top cell bandgap is used. Additionally, the unusual bandgap temperature dependence of perovskites is shown to have a positive, compensating effect on current mismatch.

  16. Aging, condition monitoring, and loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) tests of class 1E electrical cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobus, M.J.

    1992-11-01

    This report describes the results of aging, condition monitoring, and accident testing of miscellaneous cable types. Three sets of cables were aged for up to 9 months under simultaneous thermal (≅100 degrees C) and radiation (≅0.10 kGy/hr) conditions. A sequential accident consisting of high dose rate irradiation (≅6 kGy/hr) and high temperature steam followed the aging. Also exposed to the accident conditions was a fourth set of cables, which were unaged. The test results indicate that, properly installed, most of the various miscellaneous cable products tested should be able to survive an accident after 60 years for total aging doses of at least 150 kGy or higher (depending on the material) and for moderate ambient temperatures on the order of 45--55 degrees C (potentially higher or lower, depending on material specific activtion energies and total radiation doses). Mechanical measurements (primarily elongation, modulus, and density) were more effective than electrical measurements for monitoring age-related degradation

  17. Analysis of fingerprint samples, testing various conditions, for forensic DNA identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostojic, Lana; Wurmbach, Elisa

    2017-01-01

    Fingerprints can be of tremendous value for forensic biology, since they can be collected from a wide variety of evident types, such as handles of weapons, tools collected in criminal cases, and objects with no apparent staining. DNA obtained from fingerprints varies greatly in quality and quantity, which ultimately affects the quality of the resulting STR profiles. Additional difficulties can arise when fingerprint samples show mixed STR profiles due to the handling of multiple persons. After applying a tested protocol for sample collection (swabbing with 5% Triton X-100), DNA extraction (using an enzyme that works at elevated temperatures), and PCR amplification (AmpFlSTR® Identifiler® using 31cycles) extensive analysis was performed to better understand the challenges inherent to fingerprint samples, with the ultimate goal of developing valuable profiles (≥50% complete). The impact of time on deposited fingerprints was investigated, revealing that while the quality of profiles deteriorated, full STR profiles could still be obtained from samples after 40days of storage at room temperature. By comparing the STR profiles from fingerprints of the dominant versus the non-dominant hand, we found a slightly better quality from the non-dominant hand, which was not always significant. Substrates seem to have greater effects on fingerprints. Tests on glass, plastic, paper and metal (US Quarter dollar, made of Cu and Ni), common substrates in offices and homes, showed best results for glass, followed by plastic and paper, while almost no profiles were obtained from a Quarter dollar. Important for forensic casework, we also assessed three-person mixtures of touched fingerprint samples. Unlike routinely used approaches for sampling evidence, the surface of an object (bottle) was sectioned into six equal parts and separate samples were taken from each section. The samples were processed separately for DNA extraction and STR amplification. The results included a few single

  18. Do European Standard Disinfectant tests truly simulate in-use microbial and organic soiling conditions on food preparation surfaces?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, B; Morin, V N; Rödger, H-J; Holah, J; Bird, C

    2010-04-01

    The results from European standard disinfectant tests are used as one basis to approve the use of disinfectants in Europe. The design of these laboratory-based tests should thus simulate as closely as possible the practical conditions and challenges that the disinfectants would encounter in use. No evidence is available that the organic and microbial loading in these tests simulates actual levels in the food service sector. Total organic carbon (TOC) and total viable count (TVC) were determined on 17 visibly clean and 45 visibly dirty surfaces in two restaurants and the food preparation surfaces of a large retail store. These values were compared to reference values recovered from surfaces soiled with the organic and microbial loading, following the standard conditions of the European Surface Test for bactericidal efficacy, EN 13697. The TOC reference values for clean and dirty conditions were higher than the data from practice, but cannot be regarded as statistical outliers. This was considered as a conservative assessment; however, as additional nine TOC samples from visibly dirty surfaces were discarded from the analysis, as their loading made them impossible to process. Similarly, the recovery of test organisms from surfaces contaminated according to EN 13697 was higher than the TVC from visibly dirty surfaces in practice; though they could not be regarded as statistical outliers of the whole data field. No correlation was found between TVC and TOC in the sampled data, which re-emphasizes the potential presence of micro-organisms on visibly clean surfaces and thus the need for the same degree of disinfection as visibly dirty surfaces. The organic soil and the microbial burden used in EN disinfectant standards represent a realistic worst-case scenario for disinfectants used in the food service and food-processing areas.

  19. Monitoring of Wind Turbine Gearbox Condition through Oil and Wear Debris Analysis: A Full-Scale Testing Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, Shuangwen

    2016-10-01

    Despite the wind industry's dramatic development during the past decade, it is still challenged by premature turbine subsystem/component failures, especially for turbines rated above 1 MW. Because a crane is needed for each replacement, gearboxes have been a focal point for improvement in reliability and availability. Condition monitoring (CM) is a technique that can help improve these factors, leading to reduced turbine operation and maintenance costs and, subsequently, lower cost of energy for wind power. Although technical benefits of CM for the wind industry are normally recognized, there is a lack of published information on the advantages and limitations of each CM technique confirmed by objective data from full-scale tests. This article presents first-hand oil and wear debris analysis results obtained through tests that were based on full-scale wind turbine gearboxes rated at 750 kW. The tests were conducted at the 2.5-MW dynamometer test facility at the National Wind Technology Center at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The gearboxes were tested in three conditions: run-in, healthy, and damaged. The investigated CM techniques include real-time oil condition and wear debris monitoring, both inline and online sensors, and offline oil sample and wear debris analysis, both onsite and offsite laboratories. The reported results and observations help increase wind industry awareness of the benefits and limitations of oil and debris analysis technologies and highlight the challenges in these technologies and other tribological fields for the Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers and other organizations to help address, leading to extended gearbox service life.

  20. Standard test method for determination of resistance to stable crack extension under low-constraint conditions

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01

    1.1 This standard covers the determination of the resistance to stable crack extension in metallic materials in terms of the critical crack-tip-opening angle (CTOAc), ψc and/or the crack-opening displacement (COD), δ5 resistance curve (1). This method applies specifically to fatigue pre-cracked specimens that exhibit low constraint (crack-length-to-thickness and un-cracked ligament-to-thickness ratios greater than or equal to 4) and that are tested under slowly increasing remote applied displacement. The recommended specimens are the compact-tension, C(T), and middle-crack-tension, M(T), specimens. The fracture resistance determined in accordance with this standard is measured as ψc (critical CTOA value) and/or δ5 (critical COD resistance curve) as a function of crack extension. Both fracture resistance parameters are characterized using either a single-specimen or multiple-specimen procedures. These fracture quantities are determined under the opening mode (Mode I) of loading. Influences of environment a...

  1. Testing the stability of magnetic iron oxides/kaolinite nanocomposite under various pH conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokarčíková, Michaela; Tokarský, Jonáš; Kutláková, Kateřina Mamulová; Seidlerová, Jana

    2017-09-01

    Magnetically modified clays containing iron oxides nanoparticles (FexOy NPs) are low-cost and environmentally harmless materials suitable for sorption of pollutants from wastewaters. Stability of this smart material was evaluated both experimentally and theoretically using molecular modelling. Original kaolinite and prepared FexOy/kaolinite nanocomposite were characterized using X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy, and the stability was studied using leaching tests performed according to the European technical standard EN 12457-2 in deionized water and extraction agents with varying pH (2, 4, 9, and 11). The influence of pH on amount of FexOy NPs released from the composite and amount of the basic elements released from the kaolinite structure was studied using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. All experiments proved that the magnetic properties of the nanocomposite will not change even after leaching in extraction agents with various pH.

  2. Flexural Properties of PLA Components Under Various Test Condition Manufactured by 3D Printer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaya Christiyan, K. G.; Chandrasekhar, U.; Venkateswarlu, K.

    2018-06-01

    Rapid Prototyping (RP) technologies have emerged as a fabrication method to obtain engineering components in the resent past. Desktop 3D printing, also referred as an additive layer manufacturing technology is a powerful method of RP technique that can fabricate 3 dimensional engineering components. In this method, 3D digital data is converted into real product. In the present investigation, Polylactic Acid (PLA) was considered as a starting material. Flexural strength of PLA material was evaluated using 3-point bend test, as per ASTM D790 standard. Specimens with flat (0°) and vertical (90°) orientation were considered. Moreover, layer thicknesses of 0.2, 0.25, and 0.3 mm were considered. To fabricate these specimens, printing speed of 38 and 52 mm/s was maintained. Nozzle diameter of 0.4 mm with 40 % of infill density were used. Based on the experimental results, it was observed that 0° orientation, 38 mm/s printing speed, and 0.2 mm layer thickness resulted maximum flexural strength, as compared to all other specimens. The improved flexural strength was due to the lower layer thickness (0.2 mm) specimens, as compared with other specimens made of 0.25 and 0.30 mm layer thicknesses. It was concluded that flexural strength properties were greatly influenced by lower the layer thickness, printing speed, and orientation.

  3. Genotype x environment interaction for grain yield of wheat genotypes tested under water stress conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sail, M.A.; Dahot, M.U.; Mangrio, S.M.; Memon, S.

    2007-01-01

    Effect of water stress on grain yield in different wheat genotypes was studied under field conditions at various locations. Grain yield is a complex polygenic trait influenced by genotype, environment and genotype x environment (GxE) interaction. To understand the stability among genotypes for grain yield, twenty-one wheat genotypes developed Through hybridization and radiation-induced mutations at Nuclear Institute of Agriculture (NIA) TandoJam were evaluated with four local check varieties (Sarsabz, Thori, Margalla-99 and Chakwal-86) in multi-environmental trails (MET/sub s/). The experiments were conducted over 5 different water stress environments in Sindh. Data on grain yield were recorded from each site and statistically analyzed. Combined analysis of variance for all the environments indicated that the genotype, environment and genotype x environment (GxE) interaction were highly significant (P greater then 0.01) for grain yield. Genotypes differed in their response to various locations. The overall highest site mean yield (4031 kg/ha) recorded at Moro and the lowest (2326 kg/ha) at Thatta. Six genotypes produced significantly (P=0.01) the highest grain yield overall the environments. Stability analysis was applied to estimate stability parameters viz., regression coefficient (b), standard error of regression coefficient and variance due to deviation from regression (S/sub 2/d) genotypes 10/8, BWS-78 produced the highest mean yield over all the environments with low regression coefficient (b=0.68, 0.67 and 0.63 respectively and higher S/sup 2/ d value, showing specific adaptation to poor (un favorable) environments. Genotype 8/7 produced overall higher grain yield (3647 kg/ha) and ranked as third high yielding genotype had regression value close to unity (b=0.9) and low S/sup d/ value, indicating more stability and wide adaptation over the all environments. The knowledge of the presence and magnitude of genotype x environment (GE) interaction is important to

  4. Basic characteristic test of buffer/backfill material under Horonobe groundwater condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Hirohito; Tanai, Kenji

    2005-02-01

    By the second progress report (H12) on research and development for the geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in Japan, Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) extended the data base of basic properties of compacted bentonite which were mainly obtained by using distilled water as test fluid. This report presents influence of Horonobe groundwater on the basic properties of buffer and backfill material. The Horonobe groundwater is a type of saline groundwater. The groundwater was sampled at GL-300 m or deeper by using bore hole HDB-6 of the underground laboratory of Horonobe site. In addition, basic properties are also obtained by using distilled water, synthetic seawater, and NaCl solution. Experimental results are as follows; 1) Swelling characteristics, hydraulic characteristics and mechanical characteristics of the buffer material and backfill material decrease by the influence of saline water. The relationship between effective clay density and swelling stress is described by the following equation. σ = exp (2.5786ρ b 3 - 12.238ρ b 2 + 21.818ρ b - 14.035) where σ is swelling stress [MPa], ρ b is effective clay density [Mg/m 3 ]. The relationship between effective clay density and intrinsic permeability is described by the following equation. κ = exp (-41.466 + 4.316ρ b - 4.069ρ b 2 ) where κ is intrinsic permeability [m 2 ], ρ b is effective clay density [Mg/m 3 ]. The relationship between effective clay density and unconfined compressive strength is described by the following equation. qu = 1.4 x 10 -4 exp (5.637ρ b ) where qu is unconfined compressive strength [MPa], ρ b is effective clay density [Mg/m 3 ]. 2) Saline water doesn't influence the thermal characteristic of the buffer material. The thermal conductivity and specific heat are derived by using the relationship that was obtained so far. (author)

  5. Effect of tubing condensate on non-invasive positive pressure ventilators tested under simulated clinical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Diana Elizabeth; Forman, Mark; Veale, Andrew G

    2011-09-01

    Water condensate in the humidifier tubing can affect bi-level ventilation by narrowing tube diameter and increasing airflow resistance. We investigated room temperature and tubing type as ways to reduce condensate and its effect on bi-level triggering and pressure delivery. In this bench study, the aim was to test the hypothesis that a relationship exists between room temperature and tubing condensate. Using a patient simulator, a Res-med bi-level device was set to 18/8 cm H(2)O and run for 6 h at room temperatures of 16°C, 18°C and 20°C. The built-in humidifier was set to a low, medium or high setting while using unheated or insulated tubing or replaced with a humidifier using heated tubing. Humidifier output, condensate, mask pressure and triggering delay of the bi-level were measured at 1 and 6 h using an infrared hygrometer, metric weights, Honeywell pressure transducer and TSI pneumotach. When humidity output exceeded 17.5 mg H(2)O/L, inspiratory pressure fell by 2-15 cm H(2)O and triggering was delayed by 0.2-0.9 s. Heating the tubing avoided any such ventilatory effect whereas warmer room temperatures or insulating the tubing were of marginal benefit. Users of bi-level ventilators need to be aware of this problem and its solution. Bi-level humidifier tubing may need to be heated to ensure correct humidification, pressure delivery and triggering.

  6. Study of tensile test behavior of austenitic stainless steel type 347 seamless thin-walled tubes in cold worked condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terui, Clarice, E-mail: clarice.terui@marinha.mil.br [Centro Tecnológico da Marinha em São Paulo (CINA/CTMSP), Iperó, SP (Brazil). Centro Industrial Nuclear da Marinha; Lima, Nelson B. de, E-mail: nblima@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNE-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    These austenitic stainless steel type 347 seamless thin-walled tubes are potential candidates to be used in fuel elements of nuclear power plants (as PWR - Pressurized Water Reactor). So, their metallurgical condition and mechanical properties, as the tensile strength and yield strength, normally are very restrict in demanding project and design requirements. Several full size tensile tests at room temperature and high temperature (315 deg C) were performed in these seamless tubes in cold-worked condition. The results of specified tensile and yield strengths were achieved but the elongation of the tube, in the geometry of the component, could not be measured at high temperature due to unconventional mode of rupture (helical mode without separation of parts). The average value of elongation was obtained from stress-strain curves of hot tensile tests and was around 5%. The results obtained in this research show that this behavior of the full size tensile test samples of thin-walled tube (wall thickness less than 0.5 mm) in high temperature (315°C) is due to the combination of the manufacturing process, the material (crystallographic structure and chemical composition) and the final geometry of the component. In other words, the strong crystallographic texture of material induced by tube drawing process in addition with the geometry of the component are responsible for the behavior in hot uniaxial tensile tests. (author)

  7. Report of the actual conditions of the radiation exposed residents near the former Semipalatinsk nuclear test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, Noriyuki; Taooka, Yasuyuki; Hiraoka, Takashi; Hoshi, Masaharu; Shaimardanovich, Z.Z.

    2004-01-01

    Hiroshima Peace Science Consortium, established in 2002 as part of the local cooperation project of Hiroshima University for peace science, conducted a field research in Semipalatinsk and related areas in 2002 to collect and analyze data on health effects of radiation experiences of people exposed to nuclear test radiation. This book is a report of the research and contains Introductory remarks; 6 chapters of Overview of the study, Medical information analysis on the radiation exposed residents near the former Semipalatinsk nuclear test site using questionnaire, Content analysis of testimonies written by hibakusha near the nuclear test site of Semipalatinsk, Comments on the interview, Significance of collecting testimonies of those exposed to radiation in Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan/in comparison with those of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and Future tasks and prospective; Conclusion; and 2 Appendices of Research on the conditions of radiation exposure survey response sheet and Testimonies. (N.I.)

  8. K Basin Sludge Conditioning Process Testing Partitioning of PCBs in Dissolver Solution After Neutralization/Precipitation (Caustic Adjustment)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, A.J.; Thornton, B.M.; Hoppe, E.W.; Mong, G.M.; Silvers, K.L.; Slate, S.O.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the work described in this report was to gain a better understanding of how PCB congeners present in a simulated K Basin sludge dissolver solution will partition upon neutralization and precipitation (i.e., caustic adjustment). In a previous study (Mong et al. 1998),the entire series of sludge conditioning steps (acid dissolution, filtration, and caustic adjustment) were examined during integrated testing. In the work described here, the caustic adjustment step was isolated to examine the fate of PCBs in more detail within this processing step. For this testing, solutions of dissolver simulant (containing no solids) with a known initial concentration of PCB congeners were neutralized with caustic to generate a clarified supernatant and a settled sludge phase. PCBs were quantified in each phase (including the PCBs associated with the test vessel rinsates), and material balance information was collected

  9. Testing different decoupling coefficients with measurements and models of contrasting canopies and soil water conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Goldberg

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Four different approaches for the calculation of the well established decoupling coefficient Ω are compared using measurements at three experimental sites (Tharandt – spruce forest, Grillenburg and Melpitz – grass and simulations from the soil-vegetation boundary layer model HIRVAC. These investigations aimed to quantify differences between the calculation routines regarding their ability to describe the vegetation-atmosphere coupling of grass and forest with and without water stress.

    The model HIRVAC used is a vertically highly resolved atmospheric boundary layer model, which includes vegetation. It is coupled with a single-leaf gas exchange model to simulate physiologically based reactions of different vegetation types to changing atmospheric conditions. A multilayer soil water module and a functional parameterisation are the base in order to link the stomata reaction of the gas exchange model to the change of soil water.

    The omega factor was calculated for the basic formulation according to McNaughton and Jarvis (1983 and three modifications. To compare measurements and simulations for the above mentioned spruce and grass sites, the summer period 2007 as well as a dry period in June 2000 were used. Additionally a developing water stress situation for three forest canopies (spruce, pine and beech and for a grass site was simulated. The results showed large differences between the different omega approaches which depend on the vegetation type and the soil moisture.

    Between the omega values, which were calculated by the used approach, the ranking was always the same not only for the measurements but also for the adapted simulations. The lowest values came from the first modification including doubling factors and summands in all parts of omega equation in relation to the original approach. And the highest values were calculated with the second modification missing one doubling factor in the denominator of the

  10. Testing different decoupling coefficients with measurements and models of contrasting canopies and soil water conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Goldberg

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Four different approaches for the calculation of the well established decoupling coefficient Ω are compared using measurements at three experimental sites (Tharandt – spruce forest, Grillenburg and Melpitz – grass and simulations from the soil-vegetation boundary layer model HIRVAC. These investigations aimed to quantify differences between the calculation routines regarding their ability to describe the vegetation-atmosphere coupling of grass and forest with and without water stress. The model HIRVAC used is a vertically highly resolved atmospheric boundary layer model, which includes vegetation. It is coupled with a single-leaf gas exchange model to simulate physiologically based reactions of different vegetation types to changing atmospheric conditions. A multilayer soil water module and a functional parameterisation are the base in order to link the stomata reaction of the gas exchange model to the change of soil water. The omega factor was calculated for the basic formulation according to McNaughton and Jarvis (1983 and three modifications. To compare measurements and simulations for the above mentioned spruce and grass sites, the summer period 2007 as well as a dry period in June 2000 were used. Additionally a developing water stress situation for three forest canopies (spruce, pine and beech and for a grass site was simulated. The results showed large differences between the different omega approaches which depend on the vegetation type and the soil moisture. Between the omega values, which were calculated by the used approach, the ranking was always the same not only for the measurements but also for the adapted simulations. The lowest values came from the first modification including doubling factors and summands in all parts of omega equation in relation to the original approach. And the highest values were calculated with the second modification missing one doubling factor in the denominator of the omega equation. For example

  11. New wireless data transmission system based on high frequency radio communication: design, development and testing results under repository conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Sineriz, J.L.; Barcena, I.; Espada, F.; Rodriguez, A.; Mayor, J.C.; Barnichon, J.D.; Dick, P.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. According to the starting basis of the MoDeRn project (FP7 232598), the design and development of a system capable of transmitting the evolution of the physical parameters inside a repository will be a challenging task due to the harsh working conditions imposed by both the element itself to be monitored (for instance the canister enclosing radioactive waste), the engineered barriers into which they will be embedded and the host rock that contains everything. The measuring devices will work exposed to high pressures, high temperatures, high humidity degrees, presence of radiation, etc., during an expected lifetime of several decades without any possibility of either being powered from any external source or being replaced in case of malfunction, as the operating area will be sealed and inaccessible. Therefore, a main objective of AITEMIN and ENRESA contribution to MoDeRn was focused on the design, development and test under 'real conditions' of a new wireless system, based on high frequency radio transmission (HF), capable of monitoring the physical parameters inside a repository cell independently of the host rock type. In order to achieve the aforementioned objectives and to obtain a suitable monitoring system for the target application, the following key points have been addressed: 1. Data transmission technology (transmission media); 2. Communication protocols; 3. Available power sources; 4. Expected environmental conditions; 5. Suitable sensors. The activities carried out for the development of the HF wireless system were structured in three steps: 1. Laboratory work, to select the best solutions under controlled environment. 2. Field testing, to validate under more realistic conditions the solutions selected at lab. 3. Demonstration: long-term evaluation of the real performance of the solutions proved to be applicable during the field testing Obtained results were as follows: 1. A suitable radio communication

  12. The influence of simultaneous or sequential test conditions in the properties of industrial polymers, submitted to PWR accident simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlin, F.; Alba, C.; Chenion, J.; Gaussens, G.; Henry, J.Y.

    1986-10-01

    The effect of PWR plant normal and accident operating conditions on polymers forms the basis of nuclear qualification of safety-related containment equipment. This study was carried out on the request of safety organizations. Its purpose was to check whether accident simulations carried out sequentially during equipment qualification tests would lead to the same deterioration as that caused by an accident involving simultaneous irradiation and thermodynamic effects. The IPSN, DAS and the United States NRC have collaborated in preparing this study. The work carried out by ORIS Company as well as the results obtained from measurement of the mechanical properties of 8 industrial polymers are described in this report. The results are given in the conclusion. They tend to show that, overall, the most suitable test cycle for simulating accident operating conditions would be one which included irradiation and consecutive thermodynamic shock. The results of this study and the results obtained in a previous study, which included the same test cycles, except for more severe thermo-ageing, have been compared. This comparison, which was made on three elastomers, shows that ageing after the accident has a different effect on each material [fr

  13. A Laboratory Test Setup for in Situ Measurements of the Dielectric Properties of Catalyst Powder Samples under Reaction Conditions by Microwave Cavity Perturbation: Set up and Initial Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Dietrich

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The catalytic behavior of zeolite catalysts for the ammonia-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR of nitrogen oxides (NOX depends strongly on the type of zeolite material. An essential precondition for SCR is a previous ammonia gas adsorption that occurs on acidic sites of the zeolite. In order to understand and develop SCR active materials, it is crucial to know the amount of sorbed ammonia under reaction conditions. To support classical temperature-programmed desorption (TPD experiments, a correlation of the dielectric properties with the catalytic properties and the ammonia sorption under reaction conditions appears promising. In this work, a laboratory test setup, which enables direct measurements of the dielectric properties of catalytic powder samples under a defined gas atmosphere and temperature by microwave cavity perturbation, has been developed. Based on previous investigations and computational simulations, a resonator cavity and a heating system were designed, installed and characterized. The resonator cavity is designed to operate in its TM010 mode at 1.2 GHz. The first measurement of the ammonia loading of an H-ZSM-5 zeolite confirmed the operating performance of the test setup at constant temperatures of up to 300 °C. It showed how both real and imaginary parts of the relative complex permittivity are strongly correlated with the mass of stored ammonia.

  14. A laboratory test setup for in situ measurements of the dielectric properties of catalyst powder samples under reaction conditions by microwave cavity perturbation: set up and initial tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Markus; Rauch, Dieter; Porch, Adrian; Moos, Ralf

    2014-09-10

    The catalytic behavior of zeolite catalysts for the ammonia-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitrogen oxides (NOX) depends strongly on the type of zeolite material. An essential precondition for SCR is a previous ammonia gas adsorption that occurs on acidic sites of the zeolite. In order to understand and develop SCR active materials, it is crucial to know the amount of sorbed ammonia under reaction conditions. To support classical temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) experiments, a correlation of the dielectric properties with the catalytic properties and the ammonia sorption under reaction conditions appears promising. In this work, a laboratory test setup, which enables direct measurements of the dielectric properties of catalytic powder samples under a defined gas atmosphere and temperature by microwave cavity perturbation, has been developed. Based on previous investigations and computational simulations, a resonator cavity and a heating system were designed, installed and characterized. The resonator cavity is designed to operate in its TM010 mode at 1.2 GHz. The first measurement of the ammonia loading of an H-ZSM-5 zeolite confirmed the operating performance of the test setup at constant temperatures of up to 300 °C. It showed how both real and imaginary parts of the relative complex permittivity are strongly correlated with the mass of stored ammonia.

  15. Behavior of pre-irradiated fuel under a simulated RIA condition. Results of NSRR Test JM-5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuketa, Toyoshi; Sasajima, Hideo; Mori, Yukihide; Tanzawa, Sadamitsu; Ishijima, Kiyomi; Kobayashi, Shinsho; Kamata, Hiroshi; Homma, Kozo; Sakai, Haruyuki.

    1995-11-01

    This report presents results from the power burst experiment with pre-irradiated fuel rod, Test JM-5, conducted in the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR). The data concerning test method, pre-irradiation, pre-pulse fuel examination, pulse irradiation, transient records and post-pulse fuel examination are described, and interpretations and discussions of the results are presented. Preceding to the pulse irradiation in the NSRR, test fuel rod was irradiated in the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR) up to a fuel burnup of 25.7 MWd/kgU with average linear heat rate of 33.4 kW/m. The fuel rod was subjected to the pulse irradiation resulting in a desposited energy of 223 ± 7 cal/g·fuel (0.93 ± 0.03 kJ/g·fuel) and a peak fuel enthalpy of 167 ± 5 cal/g·fuel (0.70 ± 0.02 kJ/g·fuel) under stagnant water cooling condition at atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature. Test fuel rod behavior was assessed from pre- and post-pulse fuel examinations and transient records during the pulse. The Test JM-5 resulted in cladding failure. More than twenty small cracks were found in the post-test cladding, and most of the defects located in pre-existing locally hydrided region. The result indicates an occurrence of fuel failure by PCMI (pellet/cladding mechanical interaction) in combination with decreased integrity of hydrided cladding. (author)

  16. Experimental data on load test and performance parameters of a LENZ type vertical axis wind turbine in open environment condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivamani, Seralathan; T, Micha Premkumar; Sohail, Mohammed; T, Mohan; V, Hariram

    2017-12-01

    Performance and load testing data of a three bladed two stage LENZ type vertical axis wind turbine from the experiments conducted in an open environment condition at Hindustan Institute of Technology and Science, Chennai (location 23.2167°N, 72.6833°E) are presented here. Low-wind velocity ranging from 2 to 11 m/s is available everywhere irrespective of climatic seasons and this data provides the support to the researchers using numerical tool to validate and develop an enhanced Lenz type design. Raw data obtained during the measurements are processed and presented in the form so as to compare with other typical outputs. The data is measured at different wind speeds prevalent in the open field condition ranging from 3 m/s to 9 m/s.

  17. Experimental data on load test and performance parameters of a LENZ type vertical axis wind turbine in open environment condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seralathan Sivamani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Performance and load testing data of a three bladed two stage LENZ type vertical axis wind turbine from the experiments conducted in an open environment condition at Hindustan Institute of Technology and Science, Chennai (location 23.2167°N, 72.6833°E are presented here. Low-wind velocity ranging from 2 to 11 m/s is available everywhere irrespective of climatic seasons and this data provides the support to the researchers using numerical tool to validate and develop an enhanced Lenz type design. Raw data obtained during the measurements are processed and presented in the form so as to compare with other typical outputs. The data is measured at different wind speeds prevalent in the open field condition ranging from 3 m/s to 9 m/s. Keywords: Vertical axis wind turbine, Lenz type, Performance, Two-stage, Open environment measurement

  18. Metallographic examination of (uth) O2 and UO2 fuel tested in power ramp conditions in triga reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioncescu, M.; Uta, O.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to determine the behavior of two fuel experimental elements (EC1 and EC2), by destructive post-irradiation examination. The fuel elements were mounted inside a pattern port, one in extension of the other and irradiated in power ramp conditions in order to check their behavior. Fuel element 1 (EC1) contains (UTh)O''2 pellet, and other one (EC2) UO''2 pellet. The results of destructive post-irradiation examination are evidenced by metallographic and ceramographic analyses. The data obtained from the post-irradiation examinations are used, first to confirm the security, reliability and nuclear fuel performance, and second, for the development of CANDU fuel. The results obtained by destructive examinations regarding the integrity, sheath hydrating and oxidation as well as the structural modifications are typical for fuel elements tested in power ramp conditions. (authors)

  19. Testing phenotypic trade-offs in the chemical defence strategy of Scots pine under growth-limiting field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villari, Caterina; Faccoli, Massimo; Battisti, Andrea; Bonello, Pierluigi; Marini, Lorenzo

    2014-09-01

    Plants protect themselves from pathogens and herbivores through fine-tuned resource allocation, including trade-offs among resource investments to support constitutive and inducible defences. However, empirical research, especially concerning conifers growing under natural conditions, is still scarce. We investigated the complexity of constitutive and induced defences in a natural Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand under growth-limiting conditions typical of alpine environments. Phenotypic trade-offs at three hierarchical levels were tested by investigating the behaviour of phenolic compounds and terpenoids of outer bark and phloem. We tested resource-derived phenotypic correlations between (i) constitutive and inducible defences vs tree ring growth, (ii) different constitutive defence metabolites and (iii) constitutive concentration and inducible variation of individual metabolites. Tree ring growth was positively correlated only with constitutive concentration of total terpenoids, and no overall phenotypic trade-offs between different constitutive defensive metabolites were found. At the lowest hierarchical level tested, i.e., at the level of relationship between constitutive and inducible variation of individual metabolites, we found that different compounds displayed different behaviours; we identified five different defensive metabolite response types, based on direction and strength of the response, regardless of tree age and growth rate. Therefore, under growth-limiting field conditions, Scots pine appears to utilize varied and complex outer bark and phloem defence chemistry, in which only part of the constitutive specialized metabolism is influenced by tree growth, and individual components do not appear to be expressed in a mutually exclusive manner in either constitutive or inducible metabolism. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Morphoagrobiological properties and productivity of new soft winter wheat varieties under the conditions of Kirovohrad variety testing station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. Л. Уліч

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To study morphoagrobiological and adaptive properties, level of yielding capacity of recently registered soft winter wheat varieties of various ecological groups under agroecological conditions of Kirovohrad variety testing station. Methods. Field study, laboratory test, analytical procedure and statistical evaluation. Results. It was established that the yield level of is a key composite indicator of genotype adaptation to agroecological growing conditions. Experimental data indicate significant deviations of yield depending on the genotype and the year of study. During three years of experiments, yield depending of the variety ranged from 4.26 to 9.71 t/ha, such varieties as ‘CN Kombin’, ‘Estivus’, ‘Tradytsiia odeska’, ‘Mudrist odeska’, ‘Lil’ and ‘Fabius’ had higher yields. In case of dry weather conditions and unfavorable agro-ecological factors, the following varieties as ‘Mudrist odeska’, ‘Veteran’, ‘Lil’, ‘Tsentylivka’, ‘Fabius’, ‘Patras’, ‘Montrei’ have demonstrated good adaptive properties. Their yield has decreased by 9,2–19,0%, while in the varieties ‘Mahistral’, ‘Poltavka’, ‘Harantiia odeska’ and ‘Pokrova’ – by 34.4, 42.4, 45.2 and 50.6% accordingly. Conclusions. Investigated soft winter wheat varieties differ in morphoagrobiological characteristics, productivity, height, maturation period, adaptability as well as economic and agronomic value. According to the complex of such indices as productivity, agronomic characters and properties as well as adaptability, in the microzone of Kirovohrad variety testing station it is advisable to grow varie­ties ‘CN Kombi’, ‘Pokrova’, ‘Mudrist odeska’, ‘Veteran’ and ‘Lil’.

  1. PWR-related integral safety experiments in the PKL 111 test facility SBLOCA under beyond-design-basis accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, P.; Umminger, K.J.; Schoen, B. [Siemens AG Power Generation Group (KWU), Erlangen (France)

    1995-09-01

    The thermal hydraulic behavior of a PWR during beyond-design-basis accident scenarios is of vital interest for the verification and optimization of accident management procedures. Within the scope of the German reactor safety research program experiments were performed in the volumetrically scaled PKL 111 test facility by Siemens/KWU. This highly instrumented test rig simulates a KWU-design PWR (1300 MWe). In particular, the latest tests performed related to a SBLOCA with additional system failures, e.g. nitrogen entering the primary system. In the case of a SBLOCA, it is the goal of the operator to put the plant in a condition where the decay heat can be removed first using the low pressure emergency core cooling system and then the residual heat removal system. The experimental investigation presented assumed the following beyond-design-basis accident conditions: 0.5% break in a cold leg, 2 of 4 steam generators (SGs) isolated on the secondary side (feedwater- and steam line-valves closed), filled with steam on the primary side, cooldown of the primary system using the remaining two steam generators, high pressure injection system only in the two loops with intact steam generators, if possible no operator actions to reach the conditions for residual heat removal system activation. Furthermore, it was postulated that 2 of the 4 hot leg accumulators had a reduced initial water inventory (increased nitrogen inventory), allowing nitrogen to enter the primary system at a pressure of 15 bar and nearly preventing the heat transfer in the SGs ({open_quotes}passivating{close_quotes} U-tubes). Due to this the heat transfer regime in the intact steam generators changed remarkably. The primary system showed self-regulating system effects and heat transfer improved again (reflux-condenser mode in the U-tube inlet region).

  2. Test reference years - meteorological bases for the technical simulation of heating systems and air-conditioning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perl, J.

    1991-01-01

    For the FRG (western part) for 12 regions with different climate test reference years (TRY) have been established. The TRYs are used for the simulation of the thermal behaviour of buildings, of the operation of heating and space avc systems, lighting control, solar plants as well as of comparable technical systems. A TRY is a collection of hourly data of important meterological parameters over a whole year. The TRYs include 14 meteorological parameters for temperature, humidity, wind, short- and long-wave radiation, atmospheric pressure, precipitation and description of the weather at that time. A TRY is to correspond to the characteristic weather conditions of the TRY region. (orig.) [de

  3. Determination of aerodynamic damping of twin cables in wet conditions through passive-dynamic wind tunnel tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Mads Beedholm; Mattiello, E.; Georgakis, Christos T.

    2013-01-01

    Moderate amplitude cable vibrations continue to be reported on the cable-stayed Øresund Bridge, despite the presence of helical fillets and dampers. The vibrations are particularly notable in wet conditions, which would suggest a form of rain-wind induced vibrations (RWIV). A statistical...... of the bridge cables. For the wet tests, the twin cable surfaces were treated in order to obtain uniform upper and lower water rivulets. The interaction between water rivulets, surface properties and the flow was found to govern the activation of the RWIV mechanism. The resulting aerodynamic damping from wet...

  4. Baseline growth and reproductive parameters in Lymnaea stagnalis for OECD test guideline development: optimization of diets and culturing conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbech, Henrik; Hutchinson, Tom

    laboratories in Denmark, Germany and the UK for the OECD pre-validation work to date. Laboratory cultures of L. stagnalis are traditionally fed fresh (preferably organic) lettuce; however, interrupted supplies of fresh lettuce in some countries in 2011 highlighted a potential problem for the draft OECD test...... of a mollusc reproduction test guideline. An ad hoc mollusc expert group has been formed in Europe to validate methods that can meet this need. Currently, a key species for use in this context is the freshwater gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis. An important aspect of this work is to first develop a specific...... pathogen free defined strain of L. stagnalis and second to establish a historical database of growth and reproductive rates under defined culturing conditions. A mass culture of the RENILYS® strain of L. stagnalis have been established at INRA (France) since 2002 and has been distributed to research...

  5. Viscoplastic-dynamic analyses of small-scale fracture tests to obtain crack arrest toughness values for PTS conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanninen, M.F.; Hudak, S.J. Jr; Dexter, R.J.; Couque, H.; O'Donoghue, P.E.; Polch, E.Z.

    1988-01-01

    Reliable predictions of crack arrest at the high upper shelf toughness conditions involved in postulated pressurized thermal shock (PTS) events require procedures beyond those utilized in conventional fracture mechanics treatments. To develop such a procedure, viscoplastic-dynamic fracture mechanics finite element analyses, viscoplastic material characterization testing, and small-scale crack propagation and arrest experimentation are being combines in this research. The approach couples SwRI's viscoplastic-dynamic fracture mechanics finite element code VISCRK with experiments using duplex 4340/A533B steel compact specimens. The experiments are simulated by VISCRK computations employing the Bodner-Partom viscoplastic constitutive relation and the nonlinear fracture mechanics parameter T. The goal is to develop temperature-dependent crack arrest toughness values for A533B steel. While only room temperature K Ia values have been obtained so far, these have been found to agree closely with those obtained from wide plate tests. (author)

  6. YUCCA Mountain Project - Argonne National Laboratory, Annual Progress Report, FY 1997 for activity WP 1221 unsaturated drip condition testing of spent fuel and unsaturated dissolution tests of glass.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, J. K.; Buck, E. C.; Emery, J. W.; Finch, R. J.; Finn, P. A.; Fortner, J.; Hoh, J. C.; Mertz, C.; Neimark, L. A.; Wolf, S. F.; Wronkiewicz, D. J.

    1998-09-18

    This document reports on the work done by the Nuclear Waste Management Section of the Chemical Technology Division of Argonne National Laboratory in the period of October 1996 through September 1997. Studies have been performed to evaluate the behavior of nuclear waste glass and spent fuel samples under the unsaturated conditions (low-volume water contact) that are likely to exist in the Yucca Mountain environment being considered as a potential site for a high-level waste repository. Tests with actinide-doped waste glasses, in progress for over 11 years, indicate that the transuranic element release is dominated by colloids that continuously form and span from the glass surface. The nature of the colloids that form in the glass and spent fuel testing programs is being investigated by dynamic light scattering to determine the size distribution, by autoradiography to determine the chemistry, and by zeta potential to measure the electrical properties of the colloids. Tests with UO{sub 2} have been ongoing for 12 years. They show that the oxidation of UO{sub 2} occurs rapidly, and the resulting paragenetic sequence of secondary phases forming on the sample surface is similar to that observed for uranium found in natural oxidizing environments. The reaction of spent fuel samples in conditions similar to those used with UO{sub 2} have been in progress for over six years, and the results suggest that spent fuel forms many of the same alteration products as UO{sub 2}. With spent fuel, the bulk of the reaction occurs via a through-grain reaction process, although grain boundary attack is sufficient to have reacted all of the grain boundary regions in the samples. New test methods are under development to evaluate the behavior of spent fuel samples with intact cladding: the rate at which alteration and radionuclide release occurs when water penetrates fuel sections and whether the reaction causes the cladding to split. Alteration phases have been formed on fine grains of UO

  7. YUCCA Mountain Project - Argonne National Laboratory, Annual Progress Report, FY 1997 for activity WP 1221 unsaturated drip condition testing of spent fuel and unsaturated dissolution tests of glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, J.K.; Buck, E.C.; Emery, J.W.; Finch, R.J.; Finn, P.A.; Fortner, J.; Hoh, J.C.; Mertz, C.; Neimark, L.A.; Wolf, S.F.; Wronkiewicz, D.J.

    1998-01-01

    This document reports on the work done by the Nuclear Waste Management Section of the Chemical Technology Division of Argonne National Laboratory in the period of October 1996 through September 1997. Studies have been performed to evaluate the behavior of nuclear waste glass and spent fuel samples under the unsaturated conditions (low-volume water contact) that are likely to exist in the Yucca Mountain environment being considered as a potential site for a high-level waste repository. Tests with actinide-doped waste glasses, in progress for over 11 years, indicate that the transuranic element release is dominated by colloids that continuously form and span from the glass surface. The nature of the colloids that form in the glass and spent fuel testing programs is being investigated by dynamic light scattering to determine the size distribution, by autoradiography to determine the chemistry, and by zeta potential to measure the electrical properties of the colloids. Tests with UO 2 have been ongoing for 12 years. They show that the oxidation of UO 2 occurs rapidly, and the resulting paragenetic sequence of secondary phases forming on the sample surface is similar to that observed for uranium found in natural oxidizing environments. The reaction of spent fuel samples in conditions similar to those used with UO 2 have been in progress for over six years, and the results suggest that spent fuel forms many of the same alteration products as UO 2 . With spent fuel, the bulk of the reaction occurs via a through-grain reaction process, although grain boundary attack is sufficient to have reacted all of the grain boundary regions in the samples. New test methods are under development to evaluate the behavior of spent fuel samples with intact cladding: the rate at which alteration and radionuclide release occurs when water penetrates fuel sections and whether the reaction causes the cladding to split. Alteration phases have been formed on fine grains of UO 2 in contact with

  8. Fuel fabrication processes, design and experimental conditions for the joint US-Swiss mixed carbide test in FFTF (AC-3 test)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stratton, R.W.; Ledergerber, G.; Ingold, F.; Latimer, T.W.; Chidester, K.M.

    1993-01-01

    The preparation of mixed carbide fuel for a joint (US-Swiss) irradiation test in the US Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) is described, together with the experiment design and the irradiation conditions. Two fabrication routes were compared. The US produced 66 fuel pins containing pellet fuel via the powder-pellet (dry) route, and the Swiss group produced 25 sphere pac pins of mixed carbide using the internal gelation (wet) route. Both sets of fuel met all t the requirements of the specifications concerning soichiometry, chemical composition and structure. The pin designs were as similar as possible. The test operated successfully in the FFTF for 620 effective full power days until October 1988 and reached over 8% burn up with peak powers of around 80 kW/m. The conclusions were that the choice of sphere pac or pellet fuel for reactor application is dependent on preferred differences in fabrication (e.g. economics and environmental factors) and not on differences in irradiation behaviour. (orig.)

  9. Fuel-coolant interaction visualization test for in-vessel corium retention external reactor vessel cooling (IVR-ERVC) condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Young Su; Hong, Seong Ho; Song, Jin Ho; Hong, Seong Wan [Severe Accident and PHWR Safety Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    A visualization test of the fuel-coolant interaction in the Test for Real cOrium Interaction with water (TROI) test facility was carried out. To experimentally simulate the In-Vessel corium Retention (IVR)- External Reactor Vessel Cooling (ERVC) conditions, prototypic corium was released directly into the coolant water without a free fall in a gas phase before making contact with the coolant. Corium (34.39 kg) consisting of uranium oxide and zirconium oxide with a weight ratio of 8:2 was superheated, and 22.54 kg of the 34.39 kg corium was passed through water contained in a transparent interaction vessel. An image of the corium jet behavior in the coolant was taken by a high-speed camera every millisecond. Thermocouple junctions installed in the vertical direction of the coolant were cut sequentially by the falling corium jet. It was clearly observed that the visualization image of the corium jet taken during the fuel-coolant interaction corresponded with the temperature variations in the direction of the falling melt. The corium penetrated through the coolant, and the jet leading edge velocity was 2.0 m/s. Debris smaller than 1 mm was 15% of the total weight of the debris collected after a fuel-coolant interaction test, and the mass median diameter was 2.9 mm.

  10. (Re)evaluating the Implications of the Autoregressive Latent Trajectory Model Through Likelihood Ratio Tests of Its Initial Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Lu; Chow, Sy-Miin; Ji, Linying; Molenaar, Peter C M

    2017-01-01

    The autoregressive latent trajectory (ALT) model synthesizes the autoregressive model and the latent growth curve model. The ALT model is flexible enough to produce a variety of discrepant model-implied change trajectories. While some researchers consider this a virtue, others have cautioned that this may confound interpretations of the model's parameters. In this article, we show that some-but not all-of these interpretational difficulties may be clarified mathematically and tested explicitly via likelihood ratio tests (LRTs) imposed on the initial conditions of the model. We show analytically the nested relations among three variants of the ALT model and the constraints needed to establish equivalences. A Monte Carlo simulation study indicated that LRTs, particularly when used in combination with information criterion measures, can allow researchers to test targeted hypotheses about the functional forms of the change process under study. We further demonstrate when and how such tests may justifiably be used to facilitate our understanding of the underlying process of change using a subsample (N = 3,995) of longitudinal family income data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth.

  11. Genotoxicity of drinking water treated with different disinfectants and effects of disinfection conditions detected by umu-test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Xuebiao; Liu, Wenjun; Zhang, Liping; Liu, Qing

    2017-06-01

    The genotoxicity of drinking water treated with 6 disinfection methods and the effects of disinfection conditions were investigated using the umu-test. The pretreatment procedure of samples for the umu-test was optimized for drinking water analysis. The results of the umu-test were in good correlation with those of the Ames-test. The genotoxicity and production of haloacetic acids (HAAs) were the highest for chlorinated samples. UV+chloramination is the safest disinfection method from the aspects of genotoxicity, HAA production and inactivation effects. For chloramination, the effects of the mass ratio of Cl 2 to N of chloramine on genotoxicity were also studied. The changes of genotoxicity were different from those of HAA production, which implied that HAA production cannot represent the genotoxic potential of water. The genotoxicity per chlorine decay of chlorination and chloramination had similar trends, indicating that the reaction of organic matters and chlorine made a great contribution to the genotoxicity. The results of this study are of engineering significance for optimizing the operation of waterworks. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Triaxial Wetting Test on Rockfill Materials under Stress Combination Conditions of Spherical Stress p and Deviatoric Stress q

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-yi Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A GCTS medium-sized triaxial apparatus is used to conduct a single-line method wetting test on three kinds of rockfill materials of different mother rocks such as mixture of sandstone and slate, and dolomite and granite, and the test stress conditions is the combination of spherical stress p and deviatoric stress q. The test results show that (1 for wetting shear strain, the effects of spherical stress p and deviatoric stress q are equivalent, and wetting shear strain and deviatoric stress q show the power function relationship preferably. (2 For wetting volumetric strain, the effect of deviatoric stress q can be neglected because it is extremely insignificant, and spherical stress p is the main influencing factor and shows the power function relationship preferably. (3 The wetting strains decrease significantly with the increase in initial water content and sample density generally, but the excessively high dry density will increase the wetting deformation. Also, the wetting strains will decrease with the increase in the saturated uniaxial compressive strength and average softening coefficient of the mother rock. Based on the test results, a wetting strain model is proposed for rockfill materials. The verification results indicate that the model satisfactorily reflects the development law of wetting deformation.

  13. Conditioning factors of test-taking engagement in PIAAC: an exploratory IRT modelling approach considering person and item characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Goldhammer

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A potential problem of low-stakes large-scale assessments such as the Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC is low test-taking engagement. The present study pursued two goals in order to better understand conditioning factors of test-taking disengagement: First, a model-based approach was used to investigate whether item indicators of disengagement constitute a continuous latent person variable by domain. Second, the effects of person and item characteristics were jointly tested using explanatory item response models. Methods Analyses were based on the Canadian sample of Round 1 of the PIAAC, with N = 26,683 participants completing test items in the domains of literacy, numeracy, and problem solving. Binary item disengagement indicators were created by means of item response time thresholds. Results The results showed that disengagement indicators define a latent dimension by domain. Disengagement increased with lower educational attainment, lower cognitive skills, and when the test language was not the participant’s native language. Gender did not exert any effect on disengagement, while age had a positive effect for problem solving only. An item’s location in the second of two assessment modules was positively related to disengagement, as was item difficulty. The latter effect was negatively moderated by cognitive skill, suggesting that poor test-takers are especially likely to disengage with more difficult items. Conclusions The negative effect of cognitive skill, the positive effect of item difficulty, and their negative interaction effect support the assumption that disengagement is the outcome of individual expectations about success (informed disengagement.

  14. Calculated and experimental definition of neutron-physical and temperature conditions of material testing in the SM reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toporova, V.G.; Pimenov, V.V.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Reactor material science is one of the main scientific directions of the RIAR activities. Particularly, a wide range of materials and products testing under irradiation is performed in reactor facility SM (RF SM). To solve the tasks specified in the technical specification for an experiment, previously, the test conditions are chosen. At the minimum a space-energy distribution of neutrons and heating rate in the materials under test are important as well as temperature conditions of irradiation. The up-to-date software and libraries of nuclear data allow modeling of neutron-material interaction processes to a considerable degree of details and also obtaining a true neutron distribution by calculation methods. As a result of a great scope of work on verification, a calculation model, developed on the basis of a package of applied software MCU (option MCU-4/SM22) and analogue Monte-Carlo method, is widely used at RIAR. The MCU geometric module makes it possible to model the SM core and reflector in three-dimensional geometry with sufficient accuracy and to describe all elements of the channel structure and irradiation device with specimens. The calculation model of RF SM is tested using the results of activation experiments performed in its critical assembly, geometric parameters and structural materials of which correspond completely with the prototype. The difference in the calculated and experimental values is less than 2.5%. Possibilities of the calculated estimation of operating temperature conditions of absorbing elements under irradiation should be considered separately. As the conducted calculations and their analysis show, to define the fuel column temperature correctly, one needs reliable data on thermal-physical parameters of materials, especially ceramic ones, such as titanium, dysprosium or boron carbide. This is very important for boron carbide-absorbing elements for actually all their operation parameters (such as: gas release, swelling

  15. Design and testing of a chamber device to measure organic vapor fluxes from the unsaturated zone under natural conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tillman, F.D.; Choi, J-W.; Smith, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    As the difficulty and expense of achieving water quality standards at contaminated sites becomes more apparent, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is taking a closer look at natural attenuation processes for selected sites. To determine if a site has potential for natural attenuation, all natural processes affecting the fate and transport of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the subsurface must be identified and quantified. This research addresses the quantification of air-phase VOCs leaving the subsurface and entering the atmosphere, both through diffusion and soil-gas advection caused by barometric pumping. A simple, easy-to-use, and inexpensive device for measuring VOC flux under natural conditions was designed, constructed and tested both in a controlled laboratory environment and in a natural field setting. Design parameters for the chamber were selected using continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR)-equation based modeling under several flux inputs. The final chamber design performs at greater than 95% efficiency for the simulated cases. Laboratory testing of the flux chamber under both diffusion and advection transport conditions was performed in a device constructed to simulate the unsaturated zone. Results indicate an average flux measurement accuracy of 83% over 3 orders of magnitude for diffusion-only fluxes and 94% for combined advection-diffusion fluxes. A field test of the chamber was performed and results compared with predictions made by a 1-dimensional unsaturated zone flow and transport model whose calibration and parameters were obtained from data collected at the site. Fluxes measured directly by the chamber were generally in good agreement with the fluxes calculated from the calibrated flow-and-transport model. (author)

  16. Thermal fatigue testing of a diffusion-bonded beryllium divertor mock-up under ITER relevant conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youchison, D.L.; Guiniiatouline, R.; Watson, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    Thermal response and thermal fatigue tests of four 5 mm thick beryllium tiles on a Russian divertor mock-up were completed on the Electron Beam Test System at Sandia National Laboratories. The beryllium tiles were diffusion bonded onto an OFHC copper saddleblock and a DSCu (MAGT) tube containing a porous coating. Thermal response tests were performed on the tiles to an absorbed heat flux of 5 MW/m 2 and surface temperatures near 300 degrees C using 1.4 MPa water at 5.0 m/s flow velocity and an inlet temperature of 8-15 degrees C. One tile was exposed to incrementally increasing heat fluxes up to 9.5 MW/m 2 and surface temperatures up to 690 degrees C before debonding at 10 MW/m 2 . A third tile debonded after 9200 thermal fatigue cycles at 5 MW/m 2 , while another debonded after 6800 cycles. In all cases, fatigue failure occurred in the intermetallic layers between the beryllium and copper. No fatigue cracking of the bulk beryllium was observed. During thermal cycling, a gradual loss of porous coating produced increasing sample temperatures. These experiments indicate that diffusion-bonded beryllium tiles can survive several thousand thermal cycles under ITER relevant conditions without failure. However, the reliability of the diffusion bonded Joint remains a serious issue

  17. Defined culture medium for stem cell differentiation: applicability of serum-free conditions in the mouse embryonic stem cell test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riebeling, Christian; Schlechter, Katharina; Buesen, Roland; Spielmann, Horst; Luch, Andreas; Seiler, Andrea

    2011-06-01

    The embryonic stem cell test (EST) is a validated method to assess the developmental toxicity potency of chemicals. It was developed to reduce animal use and allow faster testing for hazard assessment. The cells used in this method are maintained and differentiated in media containing foetal calf serum. This animal product is of considerable variation in quality, and individual batches require extensive testing for their applicability in the EST. Moreover, its production involves a large number of foetuses and possible animal suffering. We demonstrate the serum-free medium and feeder cell-free maintenance of the mouse embryonic stem cell line D3 and investigate the use of specific growth factors for induction of cardiac differentiation. Using a combination of bone morphogenetic protein-2, bone morphogenetic protein-4, activin A and ascorbic acid, embryoid bodies efficiently differentiated into contracting myocardium. Additionally, examining levels of intracellular marker proteins by flow cytometry not only confirmed differentiation into cardiomyocytes, but demonstrated significant differentiation into neuronal cells in the same time frame. Thus, this approach might allow for simultaneous detection of developmental effects on both early mesodermal and neuroectodermal differentiation. The serum-free conditions for maintenance and differentiation of D3 cells described here enhance the transferability and standardisation and hence the performance of the EST. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Aircraft and ground vehicle friction correlation test results obtained under winter runway conditions during joint FAA/NASA Runway Friction Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Thomas J.; Vogler, William A.; Baldasare, Paul

    1988-01-01

    Aircraft and ground vehicle friction data collected during the Joint FAA/NASA Runway Friction Program under winter runway conditions are discussed and test results are summarized. The relationship between the different ground vehicle friction measurements obtained on compacted snow- and ice-covered conditions is defined together with the correlation to aircraft tire friction performance under similar runway conditions.

  19. The conditioned place preference test for assessing welfare consequences and potential refinements in a mouse bladder cancer model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John V Roughan

    Full Text Available Most pre-clinical analgesic efficacy assays still involve nociceptive testing in rodents. This is despite concerns as to the relevance of these tests for evaluating the pain-preventative properties of drugs. More appropriate methods would target pain rather than nociception, but these are currently not available, so it remains unknown whether animal pain equates to the negatively affective and subjective/emotional state it causes in humans. Mouse cancer models are common despite the likelihood of substantial pain. We used Conditioned Place Preference (CPP testing, assessments of thermal hyperalgesia and behaviour to determine the likelihood that MBT-2 bladder cancer impacts negatively on mouse welfare, such as by causing pain. There was no CPP to saline, but morphine preference in tumour bearing mice exceeded that seen in tumour-free controls. This occurred up to 10 days before the study end-point alongside reduced body weight, development of hyperalgesia and behaviour changes. These effects indicated mice experienced a negative welfare state caused by malaise (if not pain before euthanasia. Due to the complexity of the assessments needed to demonstrate this, it is unlikely that this approach could be used for routine welfare assessment on a study-by-study basis. However, our results show mice in sufficiently similar studies are likely to benefit from more intensive severity assessment and re-evaluation of end-points with a view to implementing appropriate refinements. In this particular case, a refinement would have been to have euthanased mice at least 7 days earlier or possibly by provision of end-stage pain relief. CPP testing was found to be a helpful method to investigate the responses of mice to analgesics, possibly on a subjective level. These findings and those of other recent studies show it could be a valuable method of screening candidate analgesics for efficacy against cancer pain and possibly other pain or disease models.

  20. Development and performance test of a system available for generating multiple extreme conditions for neutron scattering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, Shinji; Fukui, Susumu; Moriai, Atsushi; Ohtomo, Akitoshi; Ichimura, Shigeki; Onodera, Akifumi; Amita, F.; Katano, Susumu

    1998-01-01

    We have developed unique system available for controlling sample environment during the neutron scattering experiments. The system can simultaneously generate triple extreme conditions of low temperature, high magnetic field and high pressure. The system consists of: (i) a liquid-helium cryostat variable for sample temperature from 1.7 K to 200 K, (ii) a superconducting magnet providing a vertical field up to ±5 T with an antisymmetric split-coil geometry for polarized-beam experiments, and (iii) a non-magnetic piston-cylinder high-pressure cell designed with the aim of generating hydrostatic pressure up to 2.5 GPa. In the presentation, we will report the outline of the system and some results of performance tests at KURRI and JRR-3M of JAERI. (author)

  1. Standard practice for measurement of time-of-wetness on surfaces exposed to wetting conditions as in atmospheric corrosion testing

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1989-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers a technique for monitoring time-of-wetness (TOW) on surfaces exposed to cyclic atmospheric conditions which produce depositions of moisture. 1.2 The practice is also applicable for detecting and monitoring condensation within a wall or roof assembly and in test apparatus. 1.3 Exposure site calibration or characterization can be significantly enhanced if TOW is measured for comparison with other sites, particularly if this data is used in conjunction with other site-specific instrumentation techniques. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  2. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 481: Area 12 T-Tunnel Conditional Release Storage Yard, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 481 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as Area 12 T-Tunnel Conditional Release Storage Yard. CAU 481 is located in Area 12 of the Nevada Test Site, which is approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. This CAU consists of one Corrective Action Site (CAS), CAS 12-42-05, Housekeeping Waste. CAU 481 closure activities were conducted by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency from August 2007 through July 2008 according to the FFACO and Revision 3 of the Sectored Clean-up Work Plan for Housekeeping Category Waste Sites. Closure activities included removal and disposal of construction debris and low-level waste. Drained fluids, steel, and lead was recycled as appropriate. Waste generated during closure activities was appropriately managed and disposed.

  3. Compliance variations in the fatigue thresold regime of a low alloy ferritic steel under closure-free testing conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaidya, W.V.

    1991-01-01

    Compliance variations in the threshold regime of a high strength ferritic steel tested under closure-free conditions at room temperature and in air are reported. In contrast to the Paris regime, and irrespective of whether the data during load shedding, at threshold or after postthreshold load increase are considered, it is found that comparatively compliance varies inconsistently in the threshold regime. Therefore, a 1:1 correlation between the averaged optical crack length and that inferred from compliance was not observed. This discrepancy is analyzed. The variations in compliance are utilized to infer the crack front behavior, and the results are discussed in terms of the microstructural impedance. (orig.) With 22 figs., 2 appendices [de

  4. Heat transfer tests conducted on full-scale model, to investigate cooling conditions of EL.3 experimental reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raievski, R.; Bousquet, M.; Braudeau, M.; Milliat, M.

    1958-01-01

    For such high heat flux density as is released in the channels of EL3 reactor (2.10 6 kcal/m 2 h on the hottest point) cooling conditions have proved to be satisfactory, that is free from nucleate boiling. The arrangements provided for these tests and the technique used for measurements (of temperature particularly) are specified. Two fields have been investigated: in the former (forced convection without nucleate boiling) a good agreement is found with Colburn's formula. The influence of the ratio L/D is pointed out. The latter field is of forced convection with beginning of nucleate boiling; there the observed raise of the transfer coefficient has been shown occurring with some delay. (author) [fr

  5. Conditional estimation of local pooled dispersion parameter in small-sample RNA-Seq data improves differential expression test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gim, Jungsoo; Won, Sungho; Park, Taesung

    2016-10-01

    High throughput sequencing technology in transcriptomics studies contribute to the understanding of gene regulation mechanism and its cellular function, but also increases a need for accurate statistical methods to assess quantitative differences between experiments. Many methods have been developed to account for the specifics of count data: non-normality, a dependence of the variance on the mean, and small sample size. Among them, the small number of samples in typical experiments is still a challenge. Here we present a method for differential analysis of count data, using conditional estimation of local pooled dispersion parameters. A comprehensive evaluation of our proposed method in the aspect of differential gene expression analysis using both simulated and real data sets shows that the proposed method is more powerful than other existing methods while controlling the false discovery rates. By introducing conditional estimation of local pooled dispersion parameters, we successfully overcome the limitation of small power and enable a powerful quantitative analysis focused on differential expression test with the small number of samples.

  6. Is the conditioned pain modulation paradigm reliable? A test-retest assessment using the nociceptive withdrawal reflex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A Biurrun Manresa

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the reliability of the conditioned pain modulation (CPM paradigm assessed by an objective electrophysiological method, the nociceptive withdrawal reflex (NWR, and psychophysical measures, using hypothetical sample sizes for future studies as analytical goals. Thirty-four healthy volunteers participated in two identical experimental sessions, separated by 1 to 3 weeks. In each session, the cold pressor test (CPT was used to induce CPM, and the NWR thresholds, electrical pain detection thresholds and pain intensity ratings after suprathreshold electrical stimulation were assessed before and during CPT. CPM was consistently detected by all methods, and the electrophysiological measures did not introduce additional variation to the assessment. In particular, 99% of the trials resulted in higher NWR thresholds during CPT, with an average increase of 3.4 mA (p<0.001. Similarly, 96% of the trials resulted in higher electrical pain detection thresholds during CPT, with an average increase of 2.2 mA (p<0.001. Pain intensity ratings after suprathreshold electrical stimulation were reduced during CPT in 84% of the trials, displaying an average decrease of 1.5 points in a numeric rating scale (p<0.001. Under these experimental conditions, CPM reliability was acceptable for all assessment methods in terms of sample sizes for potential experiments. The presented results are encouraging with regards to the use of the CPM as an assessment tool in experimental and clinical pain. Trial registration: Clinical Trials.gov NCT01636440.

  7. Iterative Design and Usability Testing of the iMHere System for Managing Chronic Conditions and Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea D. Fairman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A novel mobile health platform, Interactive Mobile Health and Rehabilitation (iMHere, is being developed to support wellness and self-management among people with chronic disabilities. The iMHere system currently includes a smartphone app with six modules for use by persons with disabilities and a web portal for use by medical and rehabilitation professionals or other support personnel. Our initial clinical research applying use of this system provides insight into the feasibility of employing iMHere in the development of self-management skills in young adults (ages 18-40 years with spina bifida (Dicianno, Fairman, McCue, Parmanto, Yih, et al., 2015. This article is focused on describing the iterative design of the iMHere system including usability testing of both the app modules and clinician portal. Our pilot population of persons with spina bifida fostered the creation of a system appropriate for people with a wide variety of functional abilities and needs. As a result, the system is appropriate for use by persons with various disabilities and chronic conditions, not only spina bifida. In addition, the diversity of professionals and support personnel involved in the care of persons with spina bifida (SB also enabled the design and implementation of the iMHere system to meet the needs of an interdisciplinary team of providers who treat various conditions. The iMHere system has the potential to foster communication and collaboration among members of an interdisciplinary healthcare team, including individuals with chronic conditions and disabilities, for client-centered approach to support self-management skills.

  8. The impact of bodyweight and body condition on behavioral testing for painful diabetic neuropathy in the streptozotocin rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoybergs, Yves M J J; Biermans, Ria L V; Meert, Theo F

    2008-05-02

    The streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes model is widely used for the induction of neuropathy in the rat. In this model, diabetic animals often display chronic illness, which raises objections not only on ethical but also on scientific grounds. In this study, the investigators set out to determine the impact of bodyweight and body condition (BC) on behavioral testing in the rat. Animals were allocated to four different groups as a function of their bodyweight, in particular one control group and three experimental groups with different starting weights (low bodyweight [LBW], medium bodyweight [MBW] and high bodyweight [HBW]), the groups having been rendered diabetic with an intraperitoneal injection of STZ (65mg/kg). Bodyweight, blood glucose, body condition and thresholds for mechanical hyperalgesia and tactile allodynia were measured or evaluated over a 68-day period. Animals with a LBW at the start of the experiment showed a gradual increase in BW with a decrease in mechanical nociceptive thresholds, while MBW and HBW animals presented a decrease in both thresholds and BW. The body condition score (BCS) decreased in all STZ-treated groups over time. Since correlations between mechanical thresholds and BW were similar between the control group and the HBW and MBW groups, the loss in BW clearly contributed to the decrease in thresholds. In the LBW group, thresholds and BW correlated negatively, so that the decrease in thresholds was mainly caused by the development of a painful neuropathy. From an ethical and a scientific point of view, in the STZ-induced diabetic neuropathy model, animals should be chosen on the basis of bodyweight and it must also be ensured that STZ is correctly dosed.

  9. Development of corrosion testing equipment under heat transfer and irradiation conditions to evaluate corrosion resistance of materials used in acid recovery evaporator. Contract research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motooka, Takafumi; Numata, Masami; Kiuchi, Kiyoshi

    2002-01-01

    We have been evaluated the safety for corrosion of various metals applied to acid recovery evaporators by the mock-up tests using small scaled equipment and the reference tests in laboratories with small specimens. These tests have been conducted under-radioactive environment. The environment in practical reprocessing plants has many radioactive species. Therefore, the effect of irradiation on corrosion should be evaluated in detail. In this study, we have developed the corrosion testing equipment, which is employed to simulate environments in the acid recovery evaporators. This report describes the specification of corrosion testing equipment and the results of primary, reference and hot tests. Using the equipment, the corrosion test under heat transfer and irradiation conditions have been carried out for 930 hours in safety. It is expectable that useful corrosion test data in radioactive environment are accumulated with this equipment in future, and help the adequate choice of corrosion test condition in laboratories. (author)

  10. Testing the McSad depression specific classification system in patients with somatic conditions: validity and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, Katerina; Vermeulen, Karin M; Schroevers, Maya J; Buskens, Erik; Ranchor, Adelita V

    2013-07-26

    Valuations of depression are useful to evaluate depression interventions offered to patients with chronic somatic conditions. The only classification system to describe depression developed specifically for valuation purposes is the McSad, but it has not been used among somatic patients. The aim of this study was to test the construct validity of the McSad among diabetes and cancer patients and then to compare the McSad to the commonly used EuroQol - 5 Dimensions (EQ-5DTM) classification system. The comparison was expected to shed light on their capacity to reflect the range of depression states experienced by somatic patients. Cross-sectional data were collected online from 114 diabetes and 195 cancer patients; additionally, 241 cancer patients completed part of the survey on paper. Correlational analyses were performed to test the construct validity. Specifically, we hypothesized high correlations of the McSad domains with depression (Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9)). We also expected low/moderate correlations with self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale - RSE) and extraversion (Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Extraversion scale - EPQ-e). Multiple linear regression analyses were run so that the proportion of variance in depression scores (CES-D, PHQ-9) explained by the McSad could be compared to the proportion explained by the EQ-5D classification system. As expected, among all patients groups, we found moderate to high correlations for the McSad domains with the CES-D (.41 to .70) and the PHQ-9 (.52 to .76); we also found low to moderate correlations with the RSE (-.21 to .-48) and the EPQ-e (.18 to .31). Linear regression analyses showed that the McSad explained a greater proportion of variance in depression (CES-D, PHQ-9) (Diabetes: 73%, 82%; Cancer: 72%, 72%) than the EQ-5D classification system (Diabetes: 47%, 59%; Cancer: 51%, 47%). Findings support the construct validity of the Mc

  11. Flow Components in a NaK Test Loop Designed to Simulate Conditions in a Nuclear Surface Power Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Godfroy, Thomas J.

    2008-01-01

    A test loop using NaK as the working fluid is presently in use to study material compatibility effects on various components that comprise a possible nuclear reactor design for use on the lunar surface. A DC electromagnetic (EM) pump has been designed and implemented as a means of actively controlling the NaK flow rate through the system and an EM flow sensor is employed to monitor the developed flow rate. These components allow for the matching of the flow rate conditions in test loops with those that would be found in a full-scale surface-power reactor. The design and operating characteristics of the EM pump and flow sensor are presented. In the EM pump, current is applied to a set of electrodes to produce a Lorentz body force in the fluid. A measurement of the induced voltage (back-EMF) in the flow sensor provides the means of monitoring flow rate. Both components are compact, employing high magnetic field strength neodymium magnets thermally coupled to a water-cooled housing. A vacuum gap limits the heat transferred from the high temperature NaK tube to the magnets and a magnetically-permeable material completes the magnetic circuit. The pump is designed to produce a pressure rise of 5 psi, and the flow sensor's predicted output is roughly 20 mV at the loop's nominal flow rate of 0.5 GPM.

  12. Discussion and analytical test for inclusion of advanced field and boundary condition in theory of free electron lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niknejadi, Pardis; Madey, John M. J.

    2017-09-01

    By the covariant statement of the distance in space-time separating transmitter and receivers, the emission and absorption of the retarded and advanced waves are all simultaneous. In other words, for signals carried on electromagnetic waves (advanced or retarded) the invariant interval (cdt) 2 -dr2 between the emission of a wave and it's absorption at the non-reflecting boundary is always identically zero. Utilizing this principle, we have previously explained the advantages of including the coherent radiation reaction force as a part of the solution to the boundary value problem for FELs that radiate into "free space" (Self Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE) FELs) and discussed how the advanced field of the absorber can interact with the radiating particles at the time of emission. Here we present an analytical test which verifies that a multilayer mirror can act as a band pass filter and can contribute to microbunching in the electron beam. Here we will discuss motivation, conditions and requirements, and method for testing this effect.

  13. Results of VVER fuel rods tests in the MIR.M1 reactor under power cycling conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burukin, A.; Izhutov, A.; Ovchinnikov, V.; Kalygin, V.; Markov, D.; Pimenov, Y.; Novikov, V.; Medvedev, A.; Nesterov, B.

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents the main results of the 50 ... 60 MWd/kgU burnup VVER fuel rods tests performed in the MIR.M1 reactor loop facilities under power cycling. The non-destructive PIE results are presented as well. A series of experiments was performed, including overall measurement of fuel rod parameters test, in one of which 300 cycles were done. Irradiation under power cycling conditions and PIE of high-burnup VVER fuel rods showed the following: 1) all fuel rods claddings preserved their integrity under irradiation at linear heat rate (LHR) higher than the NPP operating one; 2) experimental data were obtained on the axial and radial cladding strain and fission gas release (FGR) from 50 ... 60 MWd/kgU burnup VVER-440 and VVER-1000 fuel rods as well as on the kinetics of the change in these parameters and fuel temperature under the power cycling; 3) non-destructive PIE results are in a satisfactory correlation with the data obtained by means of in-pile measurement gages during irradiation. (authors)

  14. The ACTH4–9 analog ORG 2766 ‘normalizes’ the changes in motor activities of rats elicited by housing and test conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolterink, G.; Ree, J.M. van

    1987-01-01

    Motor activities of rats were decreased by short-term (7 days) social isolation as well as by intense light test conditions. The ACTH4-9 analog ORG 2766, s.c. administered 50 min before testing, dose-dependently decreased the high motor activities of group-housed housed rats tested under low light

  15. ASME N511-19XX, Standard for periodic in-service testing of nuclear air treatment, heating, ventilating and air conditioning systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    A draft version of the Standard is presented in this document. The Standard covers the requirements for periodic in-service testing of nuclear safety-related air treatment, heating, ventilating, and air conditioning systems in nuclear facilities. The Standard provides a basis for the development of test programs and does not include acceptance criteria, except in cases where the results of one test influence the performance of other tests. The Standard covers general inspection and test requirements, reference values, inspection and test requirements, generic tests, acceptance criteria, in-service test requirements, testing following an abnormal incident, corrective action requirements, and quality assurance. Mandatory appendices provide a visual inspection checklist and four test procedures. Non-mandatory appendices provide additional information and guidance on mounting frame pressure leak test procedure, corrective action, challenge gas substitute selection criteria, and test program development. 8 refs., 10 tabs.

  16. ASME N511-19XX, Standard for periodic in-service testing of nuclear air treatment, heating, ventilating and air conditioning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    A draft version of the Standard is presented in this document. The Standard covers the requirements for periodic in-service testing of nuclear safety-related air treatment, heating, ventilating, and air conditioning systems in nuclear facilities. The Standard provides a basis for the development of test programs and does not include acceptance criteria, except in cases where the results of one test influence the performance of other tests. The Standard covers general inspection and test requirements, reference values, inspection and test requirements, generic tests, acceptance criteria, in-service test requirements, testing following an abnormal incident, corrective action requirements, and quality assurance. Mandatory appendices provide a visual inspection checklist and four test procedures. Non-mandatory appendices provide additional information and guidance on mounting frame pressure leak test procedure, corrective action, challenge gas substitute selection criteria, and test program development. 8 refs., 10 tabs

  17. Thermal and mechanical quantitative sensory testing in Chinese patients with burning mouth syndrome--a probable neuropathic pain condition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Xueyin; Zhang, Jinglu; Fan, Yuan; Svensson, Peter; Wang, Kelun

    2015-01-01

    To explore the hypothesis that burning mouth syndrome (BMS) probably is a neuropathic pain condition, thermal and mechanical sensory and pain thresholds were tested and compared with age- and gender-matched control participants using a standardized battery of psychophysical techniques. Twenty-five BMS patients (men: 8, women: 17, age: 49.5 ± 11.4 years) and 19 age- and gender-matched healthy control participants were included. The cold detection threshold (CDT), warm detection threshold (WDT), cold pain threshold (CPT), heat pain threshold (HPT), mechanical detection threshold (MDT) and mechanical pain threshold (MPT), in accordance with the German Network of Neuropathic Pain guidelines, were measured at the following four sites: the dorsum of the left hand (hand), the skin at the mental foramen (chin), on the tip of the tongue (tongue), and the mucosa of the lower lip (lip). Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA with repeated measures to compare the means within and between groups. Furthermore, Z-score profiles were generated, and exploratory correlation analyses between QST and clinical variables were performed. Two-tailed tests with a significance level of 5 % were used throughout. CDTs (P < 0.02) were significantly lower (less sensitivity) and HPTs (P < 0.001) were significantly higher (less sensitivity) at the tongue and lip in BMS patients compared to control participants. WDT (P = 0.007) was also significantly higher at the tongue in BMS patients compared to control subjects . There were no significant differences in MDT and MPT between the BMS patients and healthy subjects at any of the four test sites. Z-scores showed that significant loss of function can be identified for CDT (Z-scores = -0.9±1.1) and HPT (Z-scores = 1.5±0.4). There were no significant correlations between QST and clinical variables (pain intensity, duration, depressions scores). BMS patients had a significant loss of thermal function but not

  18. Iodine behaviour under LWR accident conditions: Lessons learnt from analyses of the first two Phebus FP tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girault, N.; Dickinson, S.; Funke, F.; Auvinen, A.; Herranz, L.; Krausmann, E.

    2006-01-01

    The International Phebus Fission Product programme, initiated in 1988 and performed by the French 'Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire' (IRSN), investigates through a series of in-pile integral experiments, key phenomena involved in light water reactor (LWR) severe accidents. The tests cover fuel rod degradation and the behaviour of fission products released via the primary coolant circuit into the containment building. The results of the first two tests, called FPT0 and Ftp, carried out under low pressure, in a steam rich atmosphere and using fresh fuel for Ftp and fuel burned in a reactor at 23 GWdt -1 for Ftp, were immensely challenging, especially with regard to the iodine radiochemistry. Some of the most important observed phenomena with regard to the chemistry of iodine were indeed neither predicted nor pre-calculated, which clearly shows the interest and the need for carrying out integral experiments to study the complex phenomena governing fission product behaviour in a PWR in accident conditions. The three most unexpected results in the iodine behaviour related to early detection during fuel degradation of a weak but significant fraction of volatile iodine in the containment, the key role played by silver rapidly binding iodine to form insoluble AgI in the containment sump and the importance of painted surfaces in the containment atmosphere for the formation of a large quantity of volatile organic iodides. To support the Phebus test interpretation small-scale analytical experiments and computer code analyses were carried out. The former, helping towards a better understanding of overall iodine behaviour, were used to develop or improve models while the latter mainly aimed at identifying relevant key phenomena and at modelling weaknesses. Specific efforts were devoted to exploring the potential origins of the early-detected volatile iodine in the containment building. If a clear explanation has not yet been found, the non-equilibrium chemical

  19. Online monitoring and conditional regression tree test: Useful tools for a better understanding of combined sewer network behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersinger, T; Bareille, G; Pigot, T; Bru, N; Le Hécho, I

    2018-06-01

    A good knowledge of the dynamic of pollutant concentration and flux in a combined sewer network is necessary when considering solutions to limit the pollutants discharged by combined sewer overflow (CSO) into receiving water during wet weather. Identification of the parameters that influence pollutant concentration and flux is important. Nevertheless, few studies have obtained satisfactory results for the identification of these parameters using statistical tools. Thus, this work uses a large database of rain events (116 over one year) obtained via continuous measurement of rainfall, discharge flow and chemical oxygen demand (COD) estimated using online turbidity for the identification of these parameters. We carried out a statistical study of the parameters influencing the maximum COD concentration, the discharge flow and the discharge COD flux. In this study a new test was used that has never been used in this field: the conditional regression tree test. We have demonstrated that the antecedent dry weather period, the rain event average intensity and the flow before the event are the three main factors influencing the maximum COD concentration during a rainfall event. Regarding the discharge flow, it is mainly influenced by the overall rainfall height but not by the maximum rainfall intensity. Finally, COD discharge flux is influenced by the discharge volume and the maximum COD concentration. Regression trees seem much more appropriate than common tests like PCA and PLS for this type of study as they take into account the thresholds and cumulative effects of various parameters as a function of the target variable. These results could help to improve sewer and CSO management in order to decrease the discharge of pollutants into receiving waters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Conditional non-independence of radiographic image features and the derivation of post-test probabilities – A mammography BI-RADS example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benndorf, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Bayes' theorem has proven to be one of the cornerstones in medical decision making. It allows for the derivation of post-test probabilities, which in case of a positive test result become positive predictive values. If several test results are observed successively Bayes' theorem may be used with assumed conditional independence of test results or with incorporated conditional dependencies. Herein it is examined whether radiographic image features should be considered conditionally independent diagnostic tests when post-test probabilities are to be derived. For this purpose the mammographic mass dataset from the UCI (University of California, Irvine) machine learning repository is analysed. It comprises the description of 961 (516 benign, 445 malignant) mammographic mass lesions according to the BI-RADS (Breast Imaging: Reporting and Data System) lexicon. Firstly, an exhaustive correlation matrix is presented for mammography BI-RADS features among benign and malignant lesions separately; correlation can be regarded as measure for conditional dependence. Secondly, it is shown that the derived positive predictive values for the conjunction of the two features “irregular shape” and “spiculated margin” differ significantly depending on whether conditional dependencies are incorporated into the decision process or not. It is concluded that radiographic image features should not generally be regarded as conditionally independent diagnostic tests.

  1. Assessment of the stability of DNA in specimens collected under conditions for drug testing-A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Robert M; Mitchell, John M; Hart, E Dale; Evans, Amy; Meaders, Meredith; Norsworthy, Sarah E; Hayes, Eugene D; Flegel, Ron; Maha, George C; Shaffer, Megan D; Hall, Erin M; Rogers, Kelley

    2018-02-01

    For forensic biological sample collections, the specimen donor is linked solidly to his or her specimen through a chain of custody (CoC) sometimes referenced as a chain of evidence. Rarely, a donor may deny that a urine or oral fluid (OF) specimen is his or her specimen even with a patent CoC. The goal of this pilot study was to determine the potential effects of short-term storage on the quality and quantity of DNA in both types of specimen under conditions that may be encountered with employment-related drug testing specimens. Fresh urine and freshly collected oral fluid all produced complete STR profiles. For the "pad" type OF collectors, acceptable DNA was extractable both from the buffer/preservative and the pad. Although fresh urine and OF produced complete STR profiles, partial profiles were obtained after storage for most samples. An exception was the DNA in the Quantisal OF collector, from which a complete profile was obtained for both freshly collected OF and stored OF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Studies and testing in water and steam of valves and fittings, and nuclear components. The result of 25 years of testing using a comprehensive range of test facilities under service conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berail, J.F.; Bruneau, S.; Crouzet, D.; Haas, J.L.; Zbinden, M.

    1998-05-01

    Electricite de France operates 58 PWR nuclear power stations, for which the behaviour of valves and fittings is of major importance for safety, for the availability of the plants, and for maintenance costs. Since the early 70's, EDF has developed a comprehensive range of facilities to test valves and fittings in PWR service and accident conditions. It has carried out studies, tests, development work, experimental and numerical research in collaboration with external organisations and manufacturers, to improve the technologies of these equipment as well as maintenance tools and methods. In the present paper, the authors quantify the importance of valves and fittings studies for EDF, which has led to the drawing up of a catalogue of approved equipment. They describe the principle test facilities, and the structure of the EDF 'valves and fittings tests results' data base. They show the importance of twenty-five years of testing experience for both the evolution of equipment and for the increase in French nuclear plants availability. (author)

  3. Supporting Accurate Interpretation of Self-Administered Medical Test Results for Mobile Health: Assessment of Design, Demographics, and Health Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenstein, Jess C; Baumer, Eric Ps; Reynolds, Lindsay; Murnane, Elizabeth L; O'Dell, Dakota; Lee, Seoho; Guha, Shion; Qi, Yu; Rieger, Erin; Gay, Geri

    2018-02-28

    Technological advances in personal informatics allow people to track their own health in a variety of ways, representing a dramatic change in individuals' control of their own wellness. However, research regarding patient interpretation of traditional medical tests highlights the risks in making complex medical data available to a general audience. This study aimed to explore how people interpret medical test results, examined in the context of a mobile blood testing system developed to enable self-care and health management. In a preliminary investigation and main study, we presented 27 and 303 adults, respectively, with hypothetical results from several blood tests via one of the several mobile interface designs: a number representing the raw measurement of the tested biomarker, natural language text indicating whether the biomarker's level was low or high, or a one-dimensional chart illustrating this level along a low-healthy axis. We measured respondents' correctness in evaluating these results and their confidence in their interpretations. Participants also told us about any follow-up actions they would take based on the result and how they envisioned, generally, using our proposed personal health system. We find that a majority of participants (242/328, 73.8%) were accurate in their interpretations of their diagnostic results. However, 135 of 328 participants (41.1%) expressed uncertainty and confusion about their ability to correctly interpret these results. We also find that demographics and interface design can impact interpretation accuracy, including false confidence, which we define as a respondent having above average confidence despite interpreting a result inaccurately. Specifically, participants who saw a natural language design were the least likely (421.47 times, P=.02) to exhibit false confidence, and women who saw a graph design were less likely (8.67 times, P=.04) to have false confidence. On the other hand, false confidence was more likely

  4. Boundary conditions on the Jointed Block Test: A two-dimensional and three-dimensional finite element analysis of stresses and temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, M.P.; Mitchell, S.J.

    1983-12-01

    This report presents the results from a numerical modeling study which was performed in support of the analysis of data from the Near-Surface Test Facility Block Test. The objective of the work was to investigate the potential for features of the test geometry and construction to influence the uniformity of the stress distribution across the test block and generate anomalous deformational response characteristics during loading. The analysis results indicated that the components of the test set-up can modify the imposed boundary conditions and affect the stress distribution in the block. However, the influence of these conditions was not sufficient to generate the anomalous conditions observed in actual field data. 5 refs

  5. 76 FR 65101 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A.; Model EMB 500; Single-Place Side Facing Seat Dynamic Test...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    ... therefore finds that good cause exists for making these special conditions effective upon issuance. Comments... documented in Special Conditions. The FAA decision to review compliance with these regulations stems from the... 65103

  6. Testing Projected Climate Change Conditions on the Endoconidiophora polonica / Norway spruce Pathosystem Shows Fungal Strain Specific Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riikka Linnakoski

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate changes, exemplified by increased temperatures and CO2 concentration, pose a global threat to forest health. Of particular concern are pests and pathogens, with a warming climate altering their distributions and evolutionary capacity, while impairing the ability of some plants to respond to infections. Progress in understanding and mitigating such effects is currently hindered by a lack of empirical research. Norway spruce (Picea abies is one of the most economically important tree species in northern Europe, and is considered highly vulnerable to changes in climate. It is commonly infected by the fungus Endoconidiophora polonica, and we hypothesized that damage caused to trees will increase under future climate change predictions. To test this hypothesis an in vivo greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of a changed growing environment on E. polonica infected Norway spruce seedlings, comparing ambient conditions to predicted temperatures and CO2 levels in Finland for the years 2030 and 2100. In total, 450 seedlings were randomized amongst the three treatments, with 25 seedlings from each allocated to inoculation with one of five different fungal strains or mock-inoculation. Seedlings were monitored throughout the thermal growing season for mortality, and lesion length and depth indices were measured at the experiment conclusion. Disease severity (mortality and lesions was consistently greater in fungal-inoculated than mock-inoculated seedlings. However, substantial differences were observed among fungal strains in response to climate scenarios. For example, although overall seedling mortality was highest under the most distant (and severe climate change expectations, of the two fungal strains with the highest mortality counts (referred to as F4 and F5, one produced greater mortality under the 2030 and 2100 scenarios than ambient conditions, whereas climate scenario had no effect on the other. This study contributes

  7. Sensitivity testing of the model set-up used for calculation of photochemical ozone creation potentials (POCP) under European conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altenstedt, J.; Pleijel, K.

    1998-02-01

    Photochemical Ozone Creation Potentials (POCP) is a method to rank VOC, relative to other VOC, according to their ability to produce ground level ozone. To obtain POCP values valid under European conditions, a critical analysis of the POCP concept has been performed using the IVL photochemical trajectory model. The critical analysis has concentrated on three VOC (ethene, n-butane and o-xylene) and has analysed the effect on their POCP values when different model parameters were varied. The three species were chosen because of their different degradation mechanisms in the atmosphere and thus their different abilities to produce ozone. The model parameters which have been tested include background emissions, initial concentrations, dry deposition velocities, the features of the added point source and meteorological parameters. The critical analysis shows that the background emissions of NO{sub x} and VOC have a critical impact on the POCP values. The hour of the day for the point source emission also shows a large influence on the POCP values. Other model parameters which have been studied have not shown such large influence on the POCP values. Based on the critical analysis a model set-up for calculation of POCP is defined. The variations in POCP values due to changes in the background emissions of NO{sub x} and VOC are so large that they can not be disregarded in the calculation of POCP. It is recommended to calculate POCP ranges based on the extremes in POCP values instead of calculating site specific POCP values. Four individual emission scenarios which produced the extremes in POCP values in the analysis have been selected for future calculation of POCP ranges. The scenarios are constructed based on the emissions in Europe and the resulting POCP ranges are thus intended to be applicable within Europe 67 refs, 61 figs, 16 tabs

  8. Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers.......Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers....

  9. 26 CFR 1.28-1 - Credit for clinical testing expenses for certain drugs for rare diseases or conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Definition of “carried out under” section 505(i). Human clinical testing is not carried out under section 505... disregarded. (B) In-house research expenses. If one member of a group conducts clinical testing on behalf of... expense. For purposes of determining whether the in-house research for that work is clinical testing, the...

  10. Comparison of different test methods to assess thermal stresses of metal oxide surge arresters under pollution conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bargigia, A.; de Nigris, M.; Pigini, A.; Sironi, A.

    1992-01-01

    The report deals with the research conducted by ENEL, the Italian Electricity Board, to assess the performance of zinc oxide surge arresters under pollution condition, with special reference to the consequent thermal stress on internal active parts which can affect the energy handling capabality of the arrester and may lead, in particular conditions, even to thermal runaway

  11. A system to test the ground surface conditions of construction sites--for safe and efficient work without physical strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koningsveld, Ernst; van der Grinten, Maarten; van der Molen, Henk; Krause, Frank

    2005-07-01

    Ground surface conditions on construction sites have an important influence on the health and safety of workers and their productivity. The development of an expert-based "working conditions evaluation" system is described, intended to assist site managers in recognising unsatisfactory ground conditions and remedying these. The system was evaluated in the period 2002-2003. The evaluation shows that companies recognize poor soil/ground conditions as problematic, but are not aware of the specific physical workload hazards. The developed methods allow assessment of the ground surface quality and selection of appropriate measures for improvement. However, barriers exist at present to wide implementation of the system across the industry. Most significant of these is that responsibility for a site's condition is not clearly located within contracting arrangements, nor is it a topic of serious negotiation.

  12. Postpartum body condition score and results from the first test day milk as predictors of disease, fertility, yield, and culling in commercial dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, C; Schukken, Y H; Dobbelaar, P

    1999-02-01

    The study used field data from a regular herd health service to investigate the relationships between body condition scores or first test day milk data and disease incidence, milk yield, fertility, and culling. Path model analysis with adjustment for time at risk was applied to delineate the time sequence of events. Milk fever occurred more often in fat cows, and endometritis occurred between calving and 20 d of lactation more often in thin cows. Fat cows were less likely to conceive at first service than were cows in normal condition. Fat body condition postpartum, higher first test day milk yield, and a fat to protein ratio of > 1.5 increased body condition loss. Fat or thin condition or condition loss was not related to other lactation diseases, fertility parameters, milk yield, or culling. First test day milk yield was 1.3 kg higher after milk fever and was 7.1 kg lower after displaced abomasum. Higher first test day milk yield directly increased the risk of ovarian cyst and lameness, increased 100-d milk yield, and reduced the risk of culling and indirectly decreased reproductive performance. Cows with a fat to protein ratio of > 1.5 had higher risks for ketosis, displaced abomasum, ovarian cyst, lameness, and mastitis. Those cows produced more milk but showed poor reproductive performance. Given this type of herd health data, we concluded that the first test day milk yield and the fat to protein ratio were more reliable indicators of disease, fertility, and milk yield than was body condition score or loss of body condition score.

  13. New Fiber Materials with Sorption Capacity at 5.0 g-U/kg Adsorbent under Marine Testing Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Tomonori [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brown, S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Das, Sadananda [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mayes, Richard T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Janke, Christopher James [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dai, Sheng [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kuo, Li-Jung [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Strivens, Jonathan E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Schlafer, Nicholas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wood, J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gill, G. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Flicker Byers, M. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Schneider, Eric [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2016-03-30

    capacities: RIGP adsorbent achieved 5.00 ± 0.15 g U/kg-ads., while ATRP adsorbent achieved 6.56 ± 0.33 g U/kg-ads., after 56 days of seawater exposure. These achieved values are the highest adsorption capacities ever reported for uranium extraction from seawater. The study successfully demonstrated new fiber materials with sorption capacity at 5.0 g-U/kg adsorbent under marine testing conditions. Further optimization, investigation of other new materials as well as deepening our understanding will develop adsorbents that have even higher uranium adsorption capacity, increased selectivity, and faster kinetics.

  14. Initial results from dissolution rate testing of N-Reactor spent fuel over a range of potential geologic repository aqueous conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, W.J.; Einziger, R.E.

    1998-04-01

    Hanford N-Reactor spent nuclear fuel (HSNF) may ultimately be placed in a geologic repository for permanent disposal. To determine whether the engineered barrier system that will be designed for emplacement of light-water-reactor (LWR) spent fuel will also suffice for HSNF, aqueous dissolution rate measurements were conducted on the HSNF. The purpose of these tests was to determine whether HSNF dissolves faster or slower than LWR spent fuel under some limited repository-relevant water chemistry conditions. The tests were conducted using a flowthrough method that allows the dissolution rate of the uranium matrix to be measured without interference by secondary precipitation reactions that would confuse interpretation of the results. Similar tests had been conducted earlier with LWR spent fuel, thereby allowing direct comparisons. Two distinct corrosion modes were observed during the course of these 12 tests. The first, Stage 1, involved no visible corrosion of the test specimen and produced no undissolved corrosion products. The second, Stage 2, resulted in both visible corrosion of the test specimen and left behind undissolved corrosion products. During Stage 1, the rate of dissolution could be readily determined because the dissolved uranium and associated fission products remained in solution where they could be quantitatively analyzed. The measured rates were much faster than has been observed for LWR spent fuel under all conditions tested to date when normalized to the exposed test specimen surface areas. Application of these results to repository conditions, however, requires some comparison of the physical conditions of the different fuels. The surface area of LWR fuel that could potentially be exposed to repository groundwater is estimated to be approximately 100 times greater than HSNF. Therefore, when compared on the basis of mass, which is more relevant to repository conditions, the HSNF and LWR spent fuel dissolve at similar rates

  15. [Testing of the effect of classic conditioning stimuli in human experiment by means of the transfer of control paradigm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolter, J

    1999-01-01

    Pavlovian conditioning in animals is often evaluated by means of transfer of control experiments. With human subjects, however, only very few studies have been conducted and the outcomes were often not in accordance with theoretical explanations based on studies with animals. A theoretical framework is presented that tries to integrate the results of the human conditioning paradigm and the animal conditioning paradigm as well, with reference to the well-known Yerkes-Dodson law. The experimental study with human subjects (N = 24) confirmed the predictions out of this framework, when a procedure similar to animal research is applied.

  16. International Energy Agency Building Energy Simulation Test and Diagnostic Method for Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Equipment Models (HVAC BESTEST); Volume 1: Cases E100-E200

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neymark, J.; Judkoff, R.

    2002-01-01

    This report describes the Building Energy Simulation Test for Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Equipment Models (HVAC BESTEST) project conducted by the Tool Evaluation and Improvement International Energy Agency (IEA) Experts Group. The group was composed of experts from the Solar Heating and Cooling (SHC) Programme, Task 22, Subtask A. The current test cases, E100-E200, represent the beginning of work on mechanical equipment test cases; additional cases that would expand the current test suite have been proposed for future development.

  17. Importance of the nature of comparison conditions for testing theory-based interventions: comment on Michie and Prestwich (2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David M

    2010-09-01

    Comments on the original article 'Are interventions theory-based? Development of a theory coding scheme' by Susan Michie and Andrew Prestwich (see record 2010-00152-001). In their admirable effort to develop a coding scheme for the theoretical contribution of intervention research, Michie and Prestwich rightly point out the importance of the presence of a comparison condition when examining the effect of an intervention on targeted theoretical variables and behavioral outcomes (Table 2, item 15). However, they fail to discuss the critical importance of the nature of the comparison condition. Weaker comparison conditions will yield stronger intervention effects; stronger comparison conditions will yield a stronger science of behavior change. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. The reliability of the quantitative timed up and go test (QTUG) measured over five consecutive days under single and dual-task conditions in community dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Erin; Walsh, Lorcan; Doyle, Julie; Greene, Barry; Blake, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The timed up and go (TUG) test is a commonly used assessment in older people with variations including the addition of a motor or cognitive dual-task, however in high functioning older adults it is more difficult to assess change. The quantified TUG (QTUG) uses inertial sensors to detect test and gait parameters during the test. If it is to be used in the longitudinal assessment of older adults, it is important that we know which parameters are reliable and under which conditions. This study aims to examine the relative reliability of the QTUG over five consecutive days under single, motor and cognitive dual-task conditions. Twelve community dwelling older adults (10 females, mean age 74.17 (3.88)) performed the QTUG under three conditions for five consecutive days. The relative reliability of each of the gait parameters was assessed using intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC 3,1) and standard error of measurement (SEM). Five of the measures demonstrated excellent reliability (ICC>0.70) under all three conditions (time to complete test, walk time, number of gait cycles, number of steps and return from turn time). Measures of variability and turn derived parameters demonstrated weak reliability under all three conditions (ICC=0.05-0.49). For the most reliable parameters under single-task conditions, the addition of a cognitive task resulted in a reduction in reliability suggesting caution when interpreting results under these conditions. Certain sensor derived parameters during the QTUG test may provide an additional resource in the longitudinal assessment of older people and earlier identification of falls risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. 29 CFR Appendix B to Subpart I of... - General Testing Conditions and Additional Guidelines for Personal Fall Protection Systems (Non...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., to its hanging location (6 feet (1.83 m) below the anchorage). The test weight should fall without... belts, the complete belt should withstand a drop test consisting of a 250 pound (113.4 kg) weight.... One belt terminal should be attached to a rigid anchor and the other terminal should hang free. The...

  20. Estimation of Sensitivity and Specificity of Three Conditionally Dependent Diagnostic Tests in the Absence of a Gold Standard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engel, B.; Swildens, B.; Stegeman, J.A.; Buist, W.G.; Jong, de M.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a model to evaluate the accuracy of diagnostic tests. Data from three tests for the detection of EF-positive Streptococcus suis serotype 2 strains in sows were analyzed. The data were collected in a field study in the absence of a gold standard, that is, the true disease status

  1. Implementation and Testing of Advanced Surface Boundary Conditions Over Complex Terrain in A Semi-idealized Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Epifanio, C.

    2017-12-01

    In numerical prediction models, the interaction between the Earth's surface and the atmosphere is typically accounted for in terms of surface layer parameterizations, whose main job is to specify turbulent fluxes of heat, moisture and momentum across the lower boundary of the model domain. In the case of a domain with complex geometry, implementing the flux conditions (particularly the tensor stress condition) at the boundary can be somewhat subtle, and there has been a notable history of confusion in the CFD community over how to formulate and impose such conditions generally. In the atmospheric case, modelers have largely been able to avoid these complications, at least until recently, by assuming that the terrain resolved at typical model resolutions is fairly gentle, in the sense of having relatively shallow slopes. This in turn allows the flux conditions to be imposed as if the lower boundary were essentially flat. Unfortunately, while this flat-boundary assumption is acceptable for coarse resolutions, as grids become more refined and the geometry of the resolved terrain becomes more complex, the appproach is less justified. With this in mind, the goal of our present study is to explore the implementation and usage of the full, unapproximated version of the turbulent flux/stress conditions in atmospheric models, thus taking full account of the complex geometry of the resolved terrain. We propose to implement the conditions using a semi-idealized model developed by Epifanio (2007), in which the discretized boundary conditions are reduced to a large, sparse-matrix problem. The emphasis will be on fluxes of momentum, as the tensor nature of this flux makes the associated stress condition more difficult to impose, although the flux conditions for heat and moisture will be considered as well. With the resulotion of 90 meters, some of the results show that the typical differences between flat-boundary cases and full/stress cases are on the order of 10%, with extreme

  2. Evolution of oxidation in soybean oil and its biodiesel under the conditions of the oxidation stability test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira, G. G.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to know the evolution of the oxidation of soybean oil and biodiesel under the conditions of the oxidation stability test (110 °C using the Rancimat apparatus. Samples were analyzed at different periods of time until the end of the induction period. The analytical determinations related to the changes in oxidation include peroxide value, anisidine value, natural tocopherols and polar compounds. Acid value, kinematic viscosity, polymers and ester content were also analyzed because of their relevance in the evaluation of biodiesel quality. Results showed that only peroxide value and the group of polar compounds including hydroperoxides, i.e. oxidized monomeric TAG in the oil and oxidized monomeric FAME in the biodiesel increased significantly during the early oxidation stage. The end of the induction period was marked by a rapid increase in polymerization compounds and the exhaustion of tocopherols. Significant changes in acid value, viscosity and ester content were only observed after the end of the induction period.El objetivo de este estudio fue conocer la evolución de la oxidación del aceite de soja y de su biodiesel a 110 °C en las condiciones del método estándar para la determinación de la estabilidad oxidativa, usando el aparato Rancimat. Las muestras se analizaron en diferentes períodos de tiempo hasta que el período de inducción fue sobrepasado. Se determinaron los índices de peróxidos y anisidina, los tocoferoles y los compuestos polares cuyos cambios están relacionados con el desarrollo de la alteración oxidativa. Además, fueron determinados el índice de acidez, la viscosidad y el contenido en ésteres, de interés en el análisis de la calidad del biodiesel. Los resultados indicaron que sólo el índice de peróxidos y el grupo de compuestos polares que incluye los hidroperóxidos (triglicéridos oxidados monómeros en el aceite y ésteres metílicos oxidados monómeros en el biodiesel

  3. High-Temperature Structural Analysis of a Small-Scale PHE Prototype under the Test Condition of a Small-Scale Gas Loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, K.; Hong, S.; Park, H.

    2012-01-01

    A process heat exchanger (PHE) is a key component for transferring the high-temperature heat generated from a very high-temperature reactor (VHTR) to a chemical reaction for the massive production of hydrogen. The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute has designed and assembled a small-scale nitrogen gas loop for a performance test on VHTR components and has manufactured a small-scale PHE prototype made of Hastelloy-X alloy. A performance test on the PHE prototype is underway in the gas loop, where different kinds of pipelines connecting to the PHE prototype are tested for reducing the thermal stress under the expansion of the PHE prototype. In this study, to evaluate the high-temperature structural integrity of the PHE prototype under the test condition of the gas loop, a realistic and effective boundary condition imposing the stiffness of the pipelines connected to the PHE prototype was suggested. An equivalent spring stiffness to reduce the thermal stress under the expansion of the PHE prototype was computed from the bending deformation and expansion of the pipelines connected to the PHE. A structural analysis on the PHE prototype was also carried out by imposing the suggested boundary condition. As a result of the analysis, the structural integrity of the PHE prototype seems to be maintained under the test condition of the gas loop.

  4. Flat friction tests applied to austenic stainless steels with several surface finish. Analysis of adhesion conditions in friction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coello, J.; Miguel, V.; Ferrer, C.; Calatatyd, A.; Martinez, A.

    2008-01-01

    The main purpose of this work is to evaluate the tribological behaviour of austenic stainless steels AISI 304 with bright surface finishing (B). The assays have been carried out in flat faced dies system with mineral oil of 200 cts viscosity, S 2 Mo grease and in dry conditions. The relationship between friction coefficient and pressure and velocity has been established for the mineral oil as lubricant. In these conditions, a strong adhesive tendency has been found in boundary lubrication regime. The results obtained here, show us that S 2 Mo grease leads to lowest values for the friction coefficient. A minor adhesive behaviour tendency for AISI 316 steel, harder than 304 grades, has been found. A relevant plowing phenomena has been observed for the more critical friction conditions tried out. A surface hardener is produced as a consequence of that. (Author) 19 refs

  5. Pre-Flight Ground Testing of the Full-Scale HIFiRE-1 at Fully Duplicated Flight Conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wadhams, Tim P; MacLean, Matthew G; Holden, Michael S; Mundy, Erik

    2008-01-01

    As part of an experimental study to obtain detailed heating and pressure data over the full-scale HIFiRE-1 flight geometry, CUBRC has completed a 30-run matrix of ground tests, sponsored by the AFOSR...

  6. Antifouling effect of hydrogen peroxide release from enzymatic marine coatings: Exposure testing under equatorial and Mediterranean conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, S.M.; Kristensen, J.B.; Laursen, B.S.

    2010-01-01

    Mediterranean and equatorial climatic conditions, is investigated. During seawater exposure of the coatings, starch is first converted to glucose by glucoamylase (rate-controlling step) and subsequently glucose is rapidly oxidised by hexose oxidase in a reaction producing hydrogen peroxide. The coatings...

  7. Evaluative Conditioning Can Be Modulated by Memory of the CS-US Pairings at the Time of Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gast, Anne; De Houwer, Jan; De Schryver, Maarten

    2012-01-01

    Evaluative conditioning (EC) is the valence change of a (typically neutral) stimulus (CS) that is due to the previous pairing with another (typically valent) stimulus (US). It has been repeatedly shown that EC effects are stronger or existent only if participants know which US was paired with which CS. Knowledge of the CS-US pairings is usually…

  8. Effects of elevated CO2 and drought on wheat : testing crop simulation models for different experimental and climatic conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ewert, F.; Rodriguez, D.; Jamieson, P.; Semenov, M.A.; Mitchell, R.A.C.; Goudriaan, J.; Porter, J.R.; Kimball, B.A.; Pinter, P.J.; Manderscheid, R.; Weigel, H.J.; Fangmeier, A.; Fereres, E.; Villalobos, F.

    2002-01-01

    Effects of increasing carbon dioxide concentration [CO2] on wheat vary depending on water supply and climatic conditions, which are difficult to estimate. Crop simulation models are often used to predict the impact of global atmospheric changes on food production. However, models have rarely been

  9. Job insecurity and well-being in the temporary workforce : Testing volition and contract expectations as boundary conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernhard-Oettel, C.; Rigotti, T.; Clinton, M.; de Jong, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates whether temporary contract volition and workers' expectations for contract renewal are boundary conditions to explain differences in temporary workers' job insecurity feelings and well-being. It is hypothesized that (1) low volition through higher job insecurity indirectly

  10. Determination of particle-release conditions in microfiltration: A simple single-particle model tested on a model membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, S.; van Rijn, C.J.M.; Nijdam, W.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2000-01-01

    A simple single-particle model was developed for cross-flow microfiltration with microsieves. The model describes the cross-flow conditions required to release a trapped spherical particle from a circular pore. All equations are derived in a fully analytical way without any fitting parameters. For

  11. Fear-potentiation in the elevated plus-maze test depends on stressor controllability and fear conditioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korte, S M; Bohus, B; de Boer, Sietse

    The purpose of the study was to determine which stressor qualities (escapable vs. inescapable stress and unconditioned vs. conditioned stress) can potentiate fear in the elevated plus-maze. While inescapable stress potentiated fear, escapable stress did not, but escapable stress increased the

  12. Testing the McSad depression specific classification system in patients with somatic conditions : validity and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papageorgiou, Katerina; Vermeulen, Karin M.; Schroevers, Maya J.; Buskens, Erik; Ranchor, Adelita V.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Valuations of depression are useful to evaluate depression interventions offered to patients with chronic somatic conditions. The only classification system to describe depression developed specifically for valuation purposes is the McSad, but it has not been used among somatic patients.

  13. Diagnostics of Technical Condition of Gear Units of Belt Conveyors for the Aggregate of Methods of Nondestructive Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzin, Evgeny G.; Gerike, Boris L.; Drozdenko, Yuriy V.; Lupiy, Michael G.; Grigoryeva, Natalya V.

    2017-10-01

    The article reviews the issues of complex use of methods of technical diagnostics of gearboxes for belt conveyors, with the aim of creating an effective system of maintenance. The article is showing the results of the evaluation of the technical condition of the drives of belt conveyors based on vibration monitoring and thermal parameters, and analysis of lubricating oil.

  14. Supercritical Fluid Chromatography of Drugs: Parallel Factor Analysis for Column Testing in a Wide Range of Operational Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Degs, Yahya; Andri, Bertyl; Thiébaut, Didier; Vial, Jérôme

    2017-01-01

    Retention mechanisms involved in supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) are influenced by interdependent parameters (temperature, pressure, chemistry of the mobile phase, and nature of the stationary phase), a complexity which makes the selection of a proper stationary phase for a given separation a challenging step. For the first time in SFC studies, Parallel Factor Analysis (PARAFAC) was employed to evaluate the chromatographic behavior of eight different stationary phases in a wide range of chromatographic conditions (temperature, pressure, and gradient elution composition). Design of Experiment was used to optimize experiments involving 14 pharmaceutical compounds present in biological and/or environmental samples and with dissimilar physicochemical properties. The results showed the superiority of PARAFAC for the analysis of the three-way (column × drug × condition) data array over unfolding the multiway array to matrices and performing several classical principal component analyses. Thanks to the PARAFAC components, similarity in columns' function, chromatographic trend of drugs, and correlation between separation conditions could be simply depicted: columns were grouped according to their H-bonding forces, while gradient composition was dominating for condition classification. Also, the number of drugs could be efficiently reduced for columns classification as some of them exhibited a similar behavior, as shown by hierarchical clustering based on PARAFAC components. PMID:28695040

  15. Supercritical Fluid Chromatography of Drugs: Parallel Factor Analysis for Column Testing in a Wide Range of Operational Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramia Z. Al Bakain

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Retention mechanisms involved in supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC are influenced by interdependent parameters (temperature, pressure, chemistry of the mobile phase, and nature of the stationary phase, a complexity which makes the selection of a proper stationary phase for a given separation a challenging step. For the first time in SFC studies, Parallel Factor Analysis (PARAFAC was employed to evaluate the chromatographic behavior of eight different stationary phases in a wide range of chromatographic conditions (temperature, pressure, and gradient elution composition. Design of Experiment was used to optimize experiments involving 14 pharmaceutical compounds present in biological and/or environmental samples and with dissimilar physicochemical properties. The results showed the superiority of PARAFAC for the analysis of the three-way (column × drug × condition data array over unfolding the multiway array to matrices and performing several classical principal component analyses. Thanks to the PARAFAC components, similarity in columns’ function, chromatographic trend of drugs, and correlation between separation conditions could be simply depicted: columns were grouped according to their H-bonding forces, while gradient composition was dominating for condition classification. Also, the number of drugs could be efficiently reduced for columns classification as some of them exhibited a similar behavior, as shown by hierarchical clustering based on PARAFAC components.

  16. Liquid Methane Conditioning Capabilities Developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center's Small Multi- Purpose Research Facility (SMiRF) for Accelerated Lunar Surface Storage Thermal Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamberger, Helmut H.; Robinson, R. Craig; Jurns, John M.; Grasl, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    Glenn Research Center s Creek Road Cryogenic Complex, Small Multi-Purpose Research Facility (SMiRF) recently completed validation / checkout testing of a new liquid methane delivery system and liquid methane (LCH4) conditioning system. Facility checkout validation was conducted in preparation for a series of passive thermal control technology tests planned at SMiRF in FY10 using a flight-like propellant tank at simulated thermal environments from 140 to 350K. These tests will validate models and provide high quality data to support consideration of LCH4/LO2 propellant combination option for a lunar or planetary ascent stage.An infrastructure has been put in place which will support testing of large amounts of liquid methane at SMiRF. Extensive modifications were made to the test facility s existing liquid hydrogen system for compatibility with liquid methane. Also, a new liquid methane fluid conditioning system will enable liquid methane to be quickly densified (sub-cooled below normal boiling point) and to be quickly reheated to saturation conditions between 92 and 140 K. Fluid temperatures can be quickly adjusted to compress the overall test duration. A detailed trade study was conducted to determine an appropriate technique to liquid conditioning with regard to the SMiRF facility s existing infrastructure. In addition, a completely new roadable dewar has been procured for transportation and temporary storage of liquid methane. A new spherical, flight-representative tank has also been fabricated for integration into the vacuum chamber at SMiRF. The addition of this system to SMiRF marks the first time a large-scale liquid methane propellant test capability has been realized at Glenn.This work supports the Cryogenic Fluid Management Project being conducted under the auspices of the Exploration Technology Development Program, providing focused cryogenic fluid management technology efforts to support NASA s future robotic or human exploration missions.

  17. THE RESULTS OF USING OF INDICATORS OF THE HIGH-TEST CAST IRON OF TYPE ICH STRUCTURE IN CONDITIONS OF PRODUCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Majorov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of development of the indicator of highstrength pig-iron are submitted in the report. The indicator using allows to carry out the testing of the pig-iron structure in conditions of manufacture without additional preparation of the casting surface.

  18. Reactivity of various leishmanial antigens in a direct agglutination test and their value in differentiating post-kala azar dermal leishmaniasis from leprosy and other skin conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Harith, A.; Chowdhury, S.; Al-Masum, A.; Semião-Santos, S.; Das, P. K.; Akhter, S.; Vetter, J. C.; Haq, I.

    1996-01-01

    A direct agglutination test (DAT) for the detection of post-kala azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) was evaluated in conditions that simulate the disease clinically or immunologically. A reference strain of Leishmania donovani (LEM 1399), and antigen preparations from Leishmania isolates from

  19. Determination of aerodynamic damping and force coefficients of filleted twin cables in dry conditions through passive-dynamic wind tunnel tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattiello, E.; Eriksen, M. B.; Georgakis, Christos T.

    /FORCE Technology Climatic Wind Tunnel facility. The measured aerodynamic damping of the twin-cable arrangement in dry conditions was compared to the values obtained from full-scale monitoring and from an analytical model using static force coefficients. The comparison revealed broad agreement in the investigated...... Re range, as did the force coefficients obtained from dynamic and static tests....

  20. Evaluation of two transport aircraft and several ground test vehicle friction measurements obtained for various runway surface types and conditions. A summary of test results from joint FAA/NASA Runway Friction Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Thomas J.; Vogler, William A.; Baldasare, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Tests with specially instrumented NASA Boeing 737 and 727 aircraft together with several different ground friction measuring devices were conducted for a variety of runway surface types and conditions. These tests are part of joint FAA/NASA Aircraft/Ground Vehicle Runway Friction Program aimed at obtaining a better understanding of aircraft ground handling performance under adverse weather conditions and defining relationships between aircraft and ground vehicle tire friction measurements. Aircraft braking performance on dry, wet, snow and ice-covered runway conditions is discussed as well as ground vehicle friction data obtained under similar runway conditions. For a given contaminated runway surface condition, the correlation between ground vehicles and aircraft friction data is identified. The influence of major test parameters on friction measurements such as speed, test tire characteristics, type and amount of surface contaminant, and ambient temperature are discussed. The effect of surface type on wet friction levels is also evaluated from comparative data collected on grooved and ungrooved concrete and asphalt surfaces.

  1. Evaluating the biodegradability and effects of dispersed oil using Arctic test species and conditions: phase 2 activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacFarlin, Kelly M.; Perkins, Robert A. [University of Alaska Fairbanks (United States)], email: raperkins@alaska.edu; Gardiner, William W.; Word, Jack D. [NewFields NorthWest (United States)

    2011-07-01

    In the event of a marine oil spill, managers have to make correct and rapid decisions, weighing a number of possibilities, which include natural attenuation, mechanical recovery, in situ burning, and/or chemical dispersion. To do this, the relative toxicity of physically and chemically dispersed fresh oil and the rates of biodegradation for fresh and weathered oil need to be understood in advance. A joint industry program was established in 2008 to research and discuss these areas. Phase 1 activities included determining the species relevant to the Beaufort and Chukchi Sea ecosystems, creating and setting up a toxicity and biodegradation laboratory with a cold room in Barrow, Alaska, developing collection and culture methods for test organisms, and developing toxicity and biodegradation test protocols. The second phase of this now completed research is discussed in this paper. It consisted of toxicity testing of the local environmentally significant species, the copepod (C. glacialis), Arctic cod (B. saida), and larval sculpin (Myoxocephalus sp.).

  2. Testing and investigation of metal-coated concrete timbering conditions of L'vovsko-Volynskiy coal basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parchevskiy, L Ya; Kozhushko, Yu M; Lebedeva, G V; Turchanin, G I

    1981-01-01

    A combined metal-coated concrete timber has been tested in ''Velikomostovskaya'' well No. 10 at the Ukrzapadugol' production association: while advancing an AP arch made of SVP-27 was put in place and guyed with metal mesh filled with rubble; a sprayed concrete mixture of various compositions was then applied at distances of 30-50 meters. The increased monolithic strength of the sprayed concrete was determined, as well as the degree of penetration of the sprayed mixture and its strength. The basic parameters of the timbering provided sufficient stability over a period of four years of testing. An analysis is given for the tested reinforcement which confirms that its bearing capacity is sufficient.

  3. Dynamic-energetic balance of agricultural tractors: active systems for the measurement of the power requirements in static tests and under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Pochi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Modern tractors are characterized by the introduction of devices designed to increase the operative performances of the machines, such as systems for monitoring and controlling various functions (through a massive use of electronics and hydraulics, or deputed to improve the comfort of the driver (paying more attention to ergonomics, air-conditioning, noise and vibration. Such devices need energy to be operated, affecting the energetic balance of the tractor. In this context, the availability of suitable methodologies and instrumental systems could be useful to provide objective, accurate and reliable measurements of the performances of the tractors under different conditions, also considering the power requirements from ancillary services and/or simulating the coupling with operating machines. The tests on the performances of tractors are now made using different methods, including the trial codes issued by the OECD Codes. Beyond their undoubted validity, they fix standard test conditions that often do not adequately represent the operative reality, so that, much remains to investigate on the actual performances provided by the tractors. From this point of view and with reference to fixed point tests, a test bench was developed for the measurement of the power required by various devices, such as transmission and air conditioning. It was used in experimental tests on a tracked tractor and on a wheeled tractor, aimed at validating the test device, measuring the power absorption related to the rotational speed of the organs of propulsion and to the characteristics curves, in order to quantify the power drawn by the transmission and by the air conditioning and assess the residual power for other tractor functions. As to field conditions, a study is being conducted at CRA-ING, within the project PTO (Mi.P.A.A.F., to develop a mobile test bench aimed at evaluating the power required by different operations, such as self displacement, traction, use of

  4. Model aerodynamic test results for two variable cycle engine coannular exhaust systems at simulated takeoff and cruise conditions. Comprehensive data report. Volume 2: Tabulated aeroynamic data book 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, D. P.

    1981-01-01

    Tabulated data from wind tunnel tests conducted to evaluate the aerodynamic performance of an advanced coannular exhaust nozzle for a future supersonic propulsion system are presented. Tests were conducted with two test configurations: (1) a short flap mechanism for fan stream control with an isentropic contoured flow splitter, and (2) an iris fan nozzle with a conical flow splitter. Both designs feature a translating primary plug and an auxiliary inlet ejector. Tests were conducted at takeoff and simulated cruise conditions. Data were acquired at Mach numbers of 0, 0.36, 0.9, and 2.0 for a wide range of nozzle operating conditions. At simulated supersonic cruise, both configurations demonstrated good performance, comparable to levels assumed in earlier advanced supersonic propulsion studies. However, at subsonic cruise, both configurations exhibited performance that was 6 to 7.5 percent less than the study assumptions. At takeoff conditions, the iris configuration performance approached the assumed levels, while the short flap design was 4 to 6 percent less. Data are provided through test run 25.

  5. Medication Adherence in People Dually Treated for HIV Infection and Mental Health Conditions: Test of the Medications Beliefs Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Kalichman, Seth C.; Pellowski, Jennifer; Kegler, Christopher; Cherry, Chauncey; Kalichman, Moira O.

    2015-01-01

    Beliefs about medication necessity and concerns predict treatment adherence in people with a wide-array of medical conditions, including HIV infection. However, medication beliefs have not been examined in people dually treated with psychotropic medications and antiretroviral therapy. In the current study, we used a prospective design to investigate the factors associated with adherence to psychotropic medications and antiretrovirals among 123 dually treated persons living with HIV. We used u...

  6. Soil behavior under earthquake loading conditions. In situ impulse test for determination of shear modulus for seismic response analyses. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-06-01

    Progress is reported in the determination of the best methods of evaluation and prediction of soil behavior of potential nuclear power plant sites under seismic loading conditions. Results are reported of combined experimental and analytical studies undertaken to continue development of an in situ impulse test for determination of the soil shear modulus. Emphasis of the field work was directed toward making the field measurements at frequent depth intervals and at shear strains in the strong motion earthquake range. Emphasis of the analytical work was aimed toward supporting the field effort through processing and evaluation of the experimental test results combined with additional calculations required to gain insight into data interpretation and the in situ test setup itself. Continuing studies to evaluate free field soil behavior under earthquake loading conditions are discussed. (U.S.)

  7. Degradation tests for C 32/40 concrete used for perimetral wall, reactor base and components of Cernavoda NPP containment, under thermal stress conditions and liner degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlan, P.; Paraschiv, I.; Dinu, A.; Stanciulescu, M.; Olteanu, A. M.; Voica, I.; Stelian, R.; Buc, G.

    2016-01-01

    In order to evaluate the effect of thermal degradation on C 32/40 concrete used in nuclear constructions at Cernavoda NPP, continuous thermal stress tests were performed at 65, 80 and 100°C and cyclic thermal stress tests at 65°C in dry conditions. This paper presents the macroscopic properties of concrete, obtained after these treatments and also the microstructural changes that occur in the cement paste from the concrete composition, which has been tested in the same conditions as the concrete samples. Determinations performed for macroscopic properties of concrete included: compressive strength, loss of density, permeability and modulus of elasticity. Cement paste samples were analysed by XRD (for mineralogical composition) and SEM (for morphology). The obtained results shown an appropriate behaviour of the concrete used in this study; changes are insignificant and follow the normal evolution process of concrete, proving that concrete will preserve its safety functions, as part of the containment structure. (authors)

  8. Test report: Preliminary tests for the High Flux Reactor: Experimental determination of flow redistribution conditions at pressures between 4 and 5 kg/cm2 abs in a rectangular channel 2 mm thick and 60 cm long

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleisiek, K.; Dumaine, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    In the context of safety research for the OSIRIS reactor, tests have been performed on the Super BOB cell with a view to determining experimentally the internal characteristics (or ''S'' curves) of a channel with a rectangular heating cross-section 2 x 38 mm and 600 mm long. During these tests the maximum pressure at the channel exit was brought to 3 kg/cm 2 abs. The pressurization level in the High Flux Reactor will be higher. That is why tests have been carried out at maximum pressure of 5 kg/cm 2 abs allowable on the ''super BOB'' loop without modifying it. The first objective of this test series was to determine the ''S'' curves and the exchange coefficients experimentally. This document discusses the test conditions and test results

  9. The Effects of Different Training Structures in the Establishment of Conditional Discriminations and Subsequent Performance on Tests for Stimulus Equivalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arntzen, Erik; Grondahl, Terje; Eilifsen, Christoffer

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies comparing groups of subjects have indicated differential probabilities of stimulus equivalence outcome as a function of training structures. One-to-Many (OTM) and Many-to-One (MTO) training structures seem to produce positive outcomes on tests for stimulus equivalence more often than a Linear Series (LS) training structure does.…

  10. Evaluation of constraint methodologies applied to a shallow-flaw cruciform bend specimen tested under biaxial loading conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, B.R.; McAfee, W.J.; Williams, P.T.; Pennell, W.E.

    1998-01-01

    A technology to determine shallow-flaw fracture toughness of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels is being developed for application to the safety assessment of RPVs containing postulated shallow surface flaws. Matrices of cruciform beam tests were developed to investigate and quantify the effects of temperature, biaxial loading, and specimen size on fracture initiation toughness of two-dimensional (constant depth), shallow surface flaws. The cruciform beam specimens were developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to introduce a prototypic, far-field. out-of-plane biaxial stress component in the test section that approximates the nonlinear stresses resulting from pressurized-thermal-shock or pressure-temperature loading of an RPV. Tests were conducted under biaxial load ratios ranging from uniaxial to equibiaxial. These tests demonstrated that biaxial loading can have a pronounced effect on shallow-flaw fracture toughness in the lower transition temperature region for RPV materials. The cruciform fracture toughness data were used to evaluate fracture methodologies for predicting the observed effects of biaxial loading on shallow-flaw fracture toughness. Initial emphasis was placed on assessment of stress-based methodologies. namely, the J-Q formulation, the Dodds-Anderson toughness scaling model, and the Weibull approach. Applications of these methodologies based on the hydrostatic stress fracture criterion indicated an effect of loading-biaxiality on fracture toughness, the conventional maximum principal stress criterion indicated no effect

  11. Motion-Genetic Testing is Useful in the Diagnosis of Nonhereditary Pancreatic Conditions: Arguments for the Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C Whitcomb

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Mutations of three major genes are associated with an increased risk of acute and chronic pancreatitis: the cationic trypsinogen (PRSS1 gene, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR gene, and the pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor (PSTI or serine protease inhibitor, Kazal type 1 (SPINK1 gene. Some autosomal dominant forms of hereditary pancreatitis are associated with mutations of the PRSS1 gene, which can be readily identified by genetic testing. Mutations of the CFTR gene can lead either to cystic fibrosis or to idiopathic chronic pancreatitis, and to a variety of cystic fibrosis-associated disorders, including congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens and sinusitis. These mutations, as with those of the SPINK1 (or PSTI gene, are prevalent in North America; thus, the presence of such a mutation in an asymptomatic person does not confer a high risk of developing pancreatitis. Combinations of mutations of the PRSS1 and SPINK1 genes lead to more severe disease, as indicated by an earlier onset of symptoms, which suggests that SPINK1 is a disease modifier. The major fear expressed by potential candidates for genetic testing is that the results could lead to insurance discrimination. Studies of the positive predictive value of genetic tests are hampered by recruitment bias and lack of knowledge of family history of pancreatitis. Genetic testing is most useful for persons for whom family members have already been found to exhibit a particular pancreatitis-associated mutation. In the future, increased knowledge of the myriad genetic causes of pancreatitis, as well as advances in the diagnosis and treatment of early chronic pancreatitis, should enhance the utility of genetic testing.

  12. Testing the robustness of deterministic models of optimal dynamic pricing and lot-sizing for deteriorating items under stochastic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghoreishi, Maryam

    2018-01-01

    Many models within the field of optimal dynamic pricing and lot-sizing models for deteriorating items assume everything is deterministic and develop a differential equation as the core of analysis. Two prominent examples are the papers by Rajan et al. (Manag Sci 38:240–262, 1992) and Abad (Manag......, we will try to expose the model by Abad (1996) and Rajan et al. (1992) to stochastic inputs; however, designing these stochastic inputs such that they as closely as possible are aligned with the assumptions of those papers. We do our investigation through a numerical test where we test the robustness...... of the numerical results reported in Rajan et al. (1992) and Abad (1996) in a simulation model. Our numerical results seem to confirm that the results stated in these papers are indeed robust when being imposed to stochastic inputs....

  13. Wind power development field test project at Okkobe-cho. Close survey on wind conditions; Okkobecho ni okeru furyoku kaihatsu field test jigyo (fukyo seisa) hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    A survey was made on regional wind conditions on the assumption that a wind power generator was installed around Okkobe Rakuno-no-oka, Okkobe-cho, Monbetsu-gun, Hokkaido. The survey period was one year from Oct., 1998 to Sept., 1999. The observations were carried out on the average wind velocity, average wind direction, standard deviation of velocity, and the maximum instantaneous wind velocity. With a fixed point observation at 20 m above ground, and with the minimum observation time unit of 10 minutes, an average value during the 10 minutes was determined as the measurement of each category. However, the maximum instantaneous wind velocity was determined on the measurement with the minimum observation time unit of 2 seconds. The average wind velocity was 4.8 m/s, the maximum wind velocity during the period was 29.9 m/s, the prevailing wind direction was WSW (17.1%), the wind axis was WSW-ENE, and the total occurrence rate of wind direction was 51.1%. The intensity of turbulence was 0.19 at a wind velocity of 2.0 m/s or above and was 0.16 at 4.0 m/s or above. An estimated annual operation rate of a windmill was 59-77% using the rated value of a 150 kW, 300 kW and 750 kW class windmills. (NEDO)

  14. Wind power development field test project at Maruyama-machi. Close survey on wind conditions; Maruyamamachi ni okeru furyoku kaihatsu field test jigyo (fukyo seisa) hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    A survey was made on wind conditions in Maruyama-machi, Awa-gun, Chiba prefecture, on the assumption that a wind power generation system was installed therein. The survey period was one year from Oct., 1998 to Sept., 1999. The observations were carried out on the average wind velocity, average wind direction, standard deviation of velocity, and the maximum instantaneous wind velocity. With a fixed point observation at 20 m above ground, and with the minimum observation time unit of 10 minutes, an average value during the 10 minutes was determined as the measurement of each category. However, the maximum instantaneous wind velocity was determined on the measurement with the minimum observation time unit of 2 seconds. The average annual wind velocity was 3.5 m/s, the maximum wind velocity during the period was 27 m/s, and the wind axis was WSW-ENE, with the total occurrence rate of the wind direction 44.1%. The intensity of turbulence was 0.23 at a wind velocity of 2.0 m/s or above and was 0.22 at 4.0 m/s or above. An estimated annual operation rate of a windmill was 40-60% using the rated value of a 150 kW, 300 kW and 750 kW class windmills. (NEDO)

  15. Wind power development field test project at Kodomari-mura 'Marinetopia'. Close survey on wind conditions; Kodomarimura Marinetopia ni okeru furyoku kaihatsu field test jigyo (fukyo seisa) hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    A survey was made on wind conditions in Imabetsu-machi, Higashi Tsugaru-gun, Aomori prefecture, on the assumption that a wind power generation system was installed therein. The survey period was one year from Oct., 1998 to Sept., 1999. The observations were carried out on the average wind velocity, average wind direction, standard deviation of velocity, and the maximum instantaneous wind velocity. With a fixed point observation at 20 m above ground, and with the minimum observation time unit of 10 minutes, an average value during the 10 minutes was determined as the measurement of each category. However, the maximum instantaneous wind velocity was determined on the measurement with the minimum observation time unit of 2 seconds. The annual average wind velocity was 4.8 m/s, the maximum wind velocity during the period was 35 m/s, the prevailing wind direction was NW-WNW and ESE-SEW, and the occurrence rate of wind direction at the wind axis of NW-SE was 88.1%. The intensity of turbulence was 0.24 at a wind velocity of 2.0 m/s or above and was 0.20 at 4.0 m/s or above. An estimated annual operation rate of a windmill was 46-64% using the rated value of a 150 kW, 300 kW and 750 kW class windmills. (NEDO)

  16. The influence of the epoxy interlayer on the assessment of failure conditions of push-out test specimens

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klusák, Jan; Helincks, P.; Seitl, Stanislav; De Corte, W.; Boel, V.; De Schutter, G.

    525-526, č. 1 (2013), s. 61-64 ISSN 1013-9826 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/10/2049; GA ČR(CZ) GAP105/11/1551 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : push-out test * generalized fracture mechanics * failure initiation * steel-concrete joint * epoxy adhesive layer Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics

  17. Fracture assessment of HSST Plate 14 shallow-flaw cruciform bend specimens tested under biaxial loading conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bass, B.R.; McAfee, W.J.; Williams, P.T.; Pennell, W.E.

    1998-06-01

    A technology to determine shallow-flaw fracture toughness of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels is being developed for application to the safety assessment of RPVs containing postulated shallow surface flaws. Matrices of cruciform beam tests were developed to investigate and quantify the effects of temperature, biaxial loading, and specimen size on fracture initiation toughness of two-dimensional (constant depth), shallow, surface flaws. The cruciform beam specimens were developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to introduce a far-field, out-of-plane biaxial stress component in the test section that approximates the nonlinear stresses resulting from pressurized-thermal-shock or pressure-temperature loading of an RPV. Tests were conducted under biaxial load ratios ranging from uniaxial to equibiaxial. These tests demonstrated that biaxial loading can have a pronounced effect on shallow-flaw fracture toughness in the lower transition temperature region for an RPV material. The cruciform fracture toughness data were used to evaluate fracture methodologies for predicting the observed effects of biaxial loading on shallow-flaw fracture toughness. Initial emphasis was placed on assessment of stress-based methodologies, namely, the J-Q formulation, the Dodds-Anderson toughness scaling model, and the Weibull approach. Applications of these methodologies based on the hydrostatic stress fracture criterion indicated an effect of loading-biaxiality on fracture toughness; the conventional maximum principal stress criterion indicated no effect. A three-parameter Weibull model based on the hydrostatic stress criterion is shown to correlate the experimentally observed biaxial effect on cleavage fracture toughness by providing a scaling mechanism between uniaxial and biaxial loading states.

  18. Performance test of silver ion-exchanged zeolite for the removal of gaseous radioactive methyl iodide at high temperature condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byung-Seon Choi; Geun-Il Park; Jung-Won Lee; Ho-Yeon Yang; Seung-Kon Ryu

    2003-01-01

    Performance tests of silver ion-exchanged zeolite (AgX) adsorbent for the control of radioiodine gas generated from a high-temperature process were carried out using both non-radioactive and a radioactive methyl iodide tracers. From the identification of SEM-EDAX analysis, an experimental result of silver ion-exchanged ratio containing 10∼30 wt% of Ag was fit to that calculated by the weight increment, and it was confirmed that the silver was uniformly distributed inside the pores of the adsorbent. Demonstration test of AgX-10 adsorbent using radioactive methyl iodide tracer was performed. The removal efficiency of radioiodine with AgX-10 in the temperature ranges of 150 to 300 deg C was in the ranges of 99.9% to 99.99%, except for 300 deg C. The influence of the long-term weathering and the poisoning with NO 2 gas (200 ppm) on adsorption capacity of AgX-10 was also analyzed. The removal efficiency of radioactive methyl iodide by AgX-10 weathered for 14 weeks was 99.95%. Long-term poisoning test showed that the adsorption efficiency of methyl iodide started to decrease after 10 weeks, and the removal efficiency of radioiodine by AgX-10, poisoned for 16 weeks, was 99% (DF=100). (author)

  19. Preliminary results of the BTF-104 experiment: an in-reactor test of fuel behaviour and fission-product release and transport under LOCA/LOECC conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickson, L W; Elder, P H; Devaal, J W; Irish, J D; Yamazaki, A R [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    The BTF-104 experiment is one of a series of in-reactor tests being performed to measure fuel behaviour and fission-product release from nuclear fuel subjected to accident conditions. The primary objective of the BTF-104 experiment was to measure fission-product releases from a CANDU-sized fuel element under combined Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) and Loss-of-Emergency-Core-Cooling (LOECC) conditions at an average fuel temperature of about 1550 deg C. The preliminary results of the BTF-104 experiment are presented in this paper. (author). 6 refs., 12 figs.

  20. Developing and testing an instrument to measure the presence of conditions for successful implementation of quality improvement collaboratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dückers, Michel L A; Wagner, Cordula; Groenewegen, Peter P

    2008-08-11

    In quality improvement collaboratives (QICs) teams of practitioners from different health care organizations are brought together to systematically improve an aspect of patient care. Teams take part in a series of meetings to learn about relevant best practices, quality methods and change ideas, and share experiences in making changes in their own local setting. The purpose of this study was to develop an instrument for measuring team organization, external change agent support and support from the team's home institution in a Dutch national improvement and dissemination programme for hospitals based on several QICs. The exploratory methodological design included two phases: a) content development and assessment, resulting in an instrument with 15 items, and b) field testing (N = 165). Internal consistency reliability was tested via Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Principal component analyses were used to identify underlying constructs. Tests of scaling assumptions according to the multi trait/multi-item matrix, were used to confirm the component structure. Three components were revealed, explaining 65% of the variability. The components were labelled 'organizational support', 'team organization' and 'external change agent support'. One item not meeting item-scale criteria was removed. This resulted in a 14 item instrument. Scale reliability ranged from 0.77 to 0.91. Internal item consistency and divergent validity were satisfactory. On the whole, the instrument appears to be a promising tool for assessing team organization and internal and external support during QIC implementation. The psychometric properties were good and warrant application of the instrument for the evaluation of the national programme and similar improvement programmes.

  1. Developing and testing an instrument to measure the presence of conditions for successful implementation of quality improvement collaboratives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Cordula

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In quality improvement collaboratives (QICs teams of practitioners from different health care organizations are brought together to systematically improve an aspect of patient care. Teams take part in a series of meetings to learn about relevant best practices, quality methods and change ideas, and share experiences in making changes in their own local setting. The purpose of this study was to develop an instrument for measuring team organization, external change agent support and support from the team's home institution in a Dutch national improvement and dissemination programme for hospitals based on several QICs. Methods The exploratory methodological design included two phases: a content development and assessment, resulting in an instrument with 15 items, and b field testing (N = 165. Internal consistency reliability was tested via Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Principal component analyses were used to identify underlying constructs. Tests of scaling assumptions according to the multi trait/multi-item matrix, were used to confirm the component structure. Results Three components were revealed, explaining 65% of the variability. The components were labelled 'organizational support', 'team organization' and 'external change agent support'. One item not meeting item-scale criteria was removed. This resulted in a 14 item instrument. Scale reliability ranged from 0.77 to 0.91. Internal item consistency and divergent validity were satisfactory. Conclusion On the whole, the instrument appears to be a promising tool for assessing team organization and internal and external support during QIC implementation. The psychometric properties were good and warrant application of the instrument for the evaluation of the national programme and similar improvement programmes.

  2. Production controls (PC) and technical verification testing (TVT). A methodology for the control and tracking of LILW waste package conditioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, A.M.; Nieto, J.L.L.; Garrido, J.G.

    2003-01-01

    As part of its low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILW) characterisation and acceptance activities, ENRESA has set up a quality control programme that covers the different phases of radioactive waste package production and implies different levels of tracking in generation, assessment of activity and control of the documentation associated therewith. Furthermore, ENRESA has made available the mechanisms required for verification, depending on the results of periodic sampling, of the quality of the end product delivered by the waste producers. Both processes are included within the framework of two programmes of complementary activities: production controls (PC) and technical verification testing (TVT). (orig.)

  3. SEE locomotor behavior test discriminates C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mouse inbred strains across laboratories and protocol conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafkafi, Neri; Lipkind, Dina; Benjamini, Yoav; Mayo, Cheryl L; Elmer, Gregory I; Golani, Ilan

    2003-06-01

    Conventional tests of behavioral phenotyping frequently have difficulties differentiating certain genotypes and replicating these differences across laboratories and protocol conditions. This study explores the hypothesis that automated tests can be designed to quantify ethologically relevant behavior patterns that more readily characterize heritable and replicable phenotypes. It used SEE (Strategy for the Exploration of Exploration) to phenotype the locomotor behavior of the C57BL/6 and DBA/2 mouse inbred strains across 3 laboratories. The 2 genotypes differed in 15 different measures of behavior, none of which had a significant genotype-laboratory interaction. Within the same laboratory, most of these differences were replicated in additional experiments despite the test photoperiod phase being changed and saline being injected. Results suggest that well-designed tests may considerably enhance replicability across laboratories.

  4. DISAIN SISTEM KENDALI MESIN AIR LEAK TEST MENGGUNAKAN SISTEM KENDALI PLC OMRON CJ2M DI HVAC (HEATING, VENTILATING, AND AIR CONDITIONING LINE 6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syahril Ardi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pada proses produksi pembuatan komponen HVAC (Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning dari perusahaan manufaktur di Indonesia, memerlukan proses pengecekan kebocoran pada bagian HVAC. Proses pengecekan ini dilakukan untuk memastikan tidak ada komponen HVAC yang bocor sebelum dikirim ke pihak pelanggan. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk membuat system dan alat air leak test. Mesin air leak test ini menggunakan prinsip kerja differential pressure air leak test, yaitu metode yang membandingkan antara tekanan udara yang diberikan ke produk dan master produk. Pada penelitian ini, kami membuat disain mesin air leak test menggunakan sistem kendali berupa air leak tester, PLC, dan HMI. Berdasarkan kondisi dengan kapasitas produksi yang meningkat karena bertambahnya permintaan dari customer, dapat ditanggulangi dengan adanya share loading produksi dari HVAC line 4 ke line baru, yaitu HVAC line 6. Hasil yang didapat dari pengujian deteksi kebocoran produk,didapat nilai parameter kebocoran produk sebesar 2.23 ml/min.

  5. New measurement system for on line in core high-energy neutron flux monitoring in materials testing reactor conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geslot, B.; Vermeeren, L.; Filliatre, P.; Lopez, A. Legrand; Barbot, L.; Jammes, C.; Bréaud, S.; Oriol, L.; Villard, J.-F.

    2011-03-01

    Flux monitoring is of great interest for experimental studies in material testing reactors. Nowadays, only the thermal neutron flux can be monitored on line, e.g., using fission chambers or self-powered neutron detectors. In the framework of the Joint Instrumentation Laboratory between SCK-CEN and CEA, we have developed a fast neutron detector system (FNDS) capable of measuring on line the local high-energy neutron flux in fission reactor core and reflector locations. FNDS is based on fission chambers measurements in Campbelling mode. The system consists of two detectors, one detector being mainly sensitive to fast neutrons and the other one to thermal neutrons. On line data processing uses the CEA depletion code DARWIN in order to disentangle fast and thermal neutrons components, taking into account the isotopic evolution of the fissile deposit. The first results of FNDS experimental test in the BR2 reactor are presented in this paper. Several fission chambers have been irradiated up to a fluence of about 7 × 1020 n/cm2. A good agreement (less than 10% discrepancy) was observed between FNDS fast flux estimation and reference flux measurement.

  6. New measurement system for on line in core high-energy neutron flux monitoring in materials testing reactor conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geslot, B.; Filliatre, P.; Barbot, L.; Jammes, C.; Breaud, S.; Oriol, L.; Villard, J.-F. [CEA, DEN, Cadarache, SPEx/LDCI, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Vermeeren, L. [SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Lopez, A. Legrand [CEA, DEN, Saclay, SIREN/LECSI, F-91400 Saclay (France)

    2011-03-15

    Flux monitoring is of great interest for experimental studies in material testing reactors. Nowadays, only the thermal neutron flux can be monitored on line, e.g., using fission chambers or self-powered neutron detectors. In the framework of the Joint Instrumentation Laboratory between SCK-CEN and CEA, we have developed a fast neutron detector system (FNDS) capable of measuring on line the local high-energy neutron flux in fission reactor core and reflector locations. FNDS is based on fission chambers measurements in Campbelling mode. The system consists of two detectors, one detector being mainly sensitive to fast neutrons and the other one to thermal neutrons. On line data processing uses the CEA depletion code DARWIN in order to disentangle fast and thermal neutrons components, taking into account the isotopic evolution of the fissile deposit. The first results of FNDS experimental test in the BR2 reactor are presented in this paper. Several fission chambers have been irradiated up to a fluence of about 7 x 10{sup 20} n/cm{sup 2}. A good agreement (less than 10% discrepancy) was observed between FNDS fast flux estimation and reference flux measurement.

  7. New measurement system for on line in core high-energy neutron flux monitoring in materials testing reactor conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geslot, B.; Filliatre, P.; Barbot, L.; Jammes, C.; Breaud, S.; Oriol, L.; Villard, J.-F.; Vermeeren, L.; Lopez, A. Legrand

    2011-01-01

    Flux monitoring is of great interest for experimental studies in material testing reactors. Nowadays, only the thermal neutron flux can be monitored on line, e.g., using fission chambers or self-powered neutron detectors. In the framework of the Joint Instrumentation Laboratory between SCK-CEN and CEA, we have developed a fast neutron detector system (FNDS) capable of measuring on line the local high-energy neutron flux in fission reactor core and reflector locations. FNDS is based on fission chambers measurements in Campbelling mode. The system consists of two detectors, one detector being mainly sensitive to fast neutrons and the other one to thermal neutrons. On line data processing uses the CEA depletion code DARWIN in order to disentangle fast and thermal neutrons components, taking into account the isotopic evolution of the fissile deposit. The first results of FNDS experimental test in the BR2 reactor are presented in this paper. Several fission chambers have been irradiated up to a fluence of about 7 x 10 20 n/cm 2 . A good agreement (less than 10% discrepancy) was observed between FNDS fast flux estimation and reference flux measurement.

  8. Effects of environmental conditions on point-of-care cardiac biomarker test performance during a simulated rescue: implications for emergency and disaster response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, Richard F; Ferguson, William J; Curtis, Corbin M; Vy, John H; Tang, Chloe S; Kost, Gerald J

    2013-01-01

    To characterize the effects of environmental stress on point-of-care (POC) cardiac biomarker testing during a simulated rescue. Multiplex test cassettes for cardiac troponin I (cTnI), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), CK-MB, myoglobin, and D-dimer were exposed to environmental stresses simulating a 24-hour rescue from Hawaii to the Marshall Islands and back. We used Tenney environmental chambers (T2RC and BTRC) to simulate flight conditions (20°C, 10 percent relative humidity) and ground conditions (22.3-33.9°C, 73-77 percent). We obtained paired measurements using stressed versus control (room temperature) cassettes at seven time points (T1-7 with T1,2,6,7 during flight and T3-5 on ground). We analyzed paired differences (stressed minus control) with Wilcoxon signed rank test. We assessed the impact on decision-making at clinical thresholds. cTnI results from stressed test cassettes (n = 10) at T4 (p 100 ng/L. With sample median concentration of 108 pg/mL, BNP results from stressed test cassettes differed significantly from controls (p < 0.05). Despite modest, short-term temperature elevation, environmental stresses led to erroneous results. False negative cTnI and BNP results potentially could miss acute myocardial infarction and congestive heart failure, confounded treatment, and increased mortality and morbidity. Therefore, rescuers should protect POC reagents from temperature extremes.

  9. Comparison of the combustion engine operating parameters and the ecological indicators of an urban bus in dynamic type approval tests and in actual operating conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rymaniak Lukasz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the considerations regarding a city bus combustion engine performanceparameters in dynamic type approval tests and in real operating conditions when servicing an urban bus line. A comparison of the designated engine operating time shares with respect to load and crankshaft rotational speed was made. The analysis included the ETC and WHTC tests, which showed significant discrepancies in the work areas of internal combustion engines in these test when compared to actual driving conditions. The details of the type approval tests used and the method of their denormalization for the drive unit were presented. The vehicle used for this research was an eighteen meter city bus equipped with a CI engine with a displacement of 9.2 dm3. The latest PEMS mobile equipment technology was used to conduct the road measurements. This allowed the emission indicators for CO, HC, NOx and PM to be determined, including specific emissions. The obtained values were then compared with the Euro V limits.The analysis of the test results was supplemented with the calculation of fuel consumption using the carbonbalance method.

  10. Teste de porta-enxertos intergenéricos para marmeleiros em condições de viveiro Tests of intergeneric rootstocks for quinces in nursery conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Pio

    2009-04-01

    satisfactory but the lack of other options for more vigorous rootstocks for quince tree and the observations in the nursery and in the field of a higher vigor of the pear rootstocks 'Taiwan Nashi-C' (Pyrus calleryana Decne and 'Taiwan Mamenashi' (Pyrus betulifolia Bunge, led us to verify the performance of quince cultivars grafted on 'Japonês', 'Taiwan Nashi-C', and 'Taiwan Mamenashi' rootstocks, in nursery conditions. The 'Provence', 'Mendoza Inta-37', 'Portugal', 'Smyrna', and 'Japonês' quinces were grafted using the cleft grafting method onto the 'Japonês', 'Taiwan Nashi-C', and 'Taiwan Mamenashi' seedlings and maintained in plastic bags (3 L capacity of substrate in the dormant period. The scion sticks used had three buds each and were collected from mother plants at the Instituto Agronômico de Campinas (IAC. The experiment was accomplished at a nursery (50% light. The length and diameter of the grafts were measured at 60, 90, 120, and 150 days after the grafting and the percentage of sprouted grafts was evaluated after 150 days. The oriental rootstocks 'Taiwan Nashi-C' and 'Taiwan Mamenashi' presented good results at the nursery, with 'Taiwan Nashi-C' outstanding as rootstocks for 'Smyrna' and 'Mendoza Inta-37' quinces, whereas 'Taiwan Mamenashi' was the best rootstock for 'Smyrna' quince and 'Japonês' for 'Japonês' quince.

  11. Construction of computational program of aging in insulating materials for searching reversed sequential test conditions to give damage equivalent to simultaneous exposure of heat and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuse, Norikazu; Homma, Hiroya; Okamoto, Tatsuki

    2013-01-01

    Two consecutive numerical calculations on degradation of polymeric insulations under thermal and radiation environment are carried out to simulate so-called reversal sequential acceleration test. The aim of the calculation is to search testing conditions which provide material damage equivalent to the case of simultaneous exposure of heat and radiation. At least following four parameters are needed to be considered in the sequential method; dose rate and exposure time in radiation, as well as temperature and aging time in heating. The present paper discusses the handling of these parameters and shows some trial calculation results. (author)

  12. Testing insecticidal activity of novel chemically synthesized siRNA against Plutella xylostella under laboratory and field conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Gong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Over the last 60 years, synthetic chemical pesticides have served as a main tactic in the field of crop protection, but their availability is now declining as a result of the development of insect resistance. Therefore, alternative pest management agents are needed. However, the demonstration of RNAi gene silencing in insects and its successful usage in disrupting the expression of vital genes opened a door to the development of a variety of novel, environmentally sound approaches for insect pest management. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Six small interfering RNAs (siRNAs were chemically synthesized and modified according to the cDNA sequence of P. xylostella acetylcholine esterase genes AChE1 and AChE2. All of them were formulated and used in insecticide activity screening against P. xylostella. Bioassay data suggested that Si-ace1_003 and Si-ace2_001 at a concentration of 3 µg cm(-2 displayed the best insecticidal activity with 73.7% and 89.0%, mortality, respectively. Additional bioassays were used to obtain the acute lethal concentrations of LC50 and LC90 for Si-ace2_001, which were 53.66 µg/ml and 759.71 µg/ml, respectively. Quantitative Real-time PCR was used to confirm silencing and detected that the transcript levels of P. xylostella AChE2 (PxAChE2 were reduced by 5.7-fold compared to the control group. Consequently, AChE activity was also reduced by 1.7-fold. Finally, effects of the siRNAs on treated plants of Brassica oleracea and Brassica alboglabra were investigated with different siRNA doses. Our results showed that Si-ace2_001 had no negative effects on plant morphology, color and growth of vein under our experimental conditions. CONCLUSIONS: The most important finding of this study is the discovery that chemically synthesized and modified siRNA corresponding to P. xylostella AChE genes cause significant mortality of the insect both under laboratory and field conditions, which provides a novel strategy to control P

  13. Thermal hydraulic behavior of a PWR under beyond-design-basis accident conditions: Conclusions from an experimental program in a 4-loop test facility (PKL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umminger, K.J.; Kastner, W.; Mandl, R.M.; Weber, P.

    1993-01-01

    Within the scope of German reactor safety research, extensive experiments covering the behavior of nuclear power plants under accident conditions have been carried out in the PKL test facility which simulates a 4-loop, 1,300 MWe KWU-designed PWR. While the investigations dealing with design-basis accidents and with the efficiency of the emergency core cooling systems have been largely completed, the main interest nowadays concentrates on the investigation of beyond-design-basis accidents to demonstrate the safety margins of nuclear power plants and to investigate the contribution of the built-in safety features for a further reduction of the residual risk. The thermal hydraulic behavior of a PWR under these extreme accident conditions was experimentally investigated within the PKL III B test program. This paper presents the fundamental findings with some of the most important results being discussed in detail. Future plans are also outlined

  14. Benchmark Analysis for Condition Monitoring Test Techniques of Aged Low Voltage Cables in Nuclear Power Plants. Final Results of a Coordinated Research Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-10-01

    This publication provides information and guidelines on how to monitor the performance of insulation and jacket materials of existing cables and establish a programme of cable degradation monitoring and ageing management for operating reactors and the next generation of nuclear facilities. This research was done through a coordinated research project (CRP) with participants from 17 Member States. This group of experts compiled the current knowledge in a report together with areas of future research and development to cover aging mechanisms and means to identify and manage the consequences of aging. They established a benchmarking programme using cable samples aged under thermal and/or radiation conditions, and tested before and after ageing by various methods and organizations. In particular, 12 types of cable insulation or jacket material were tested, each using 14 different condition monitoring techniques. Condition monitoring techniques yield usable and traceable results. Techniques such as elongation at break, indenter modulus, oxidation induction time and oxidation induction temperature were found to work reasonably well for degradation trending of all materials. However, other condition monitoring techniques, such as insulation resistance, were only partially successful on some cables and other methods like ultrasonic or Tan δ were either unsuccessful or failed to provide reliable information to qualify the method for degradation trending or ageing assessment of cables. The electrical in situ tests did not show great promise for cable degradation trending or ageing assessment, although these methods are known to be very effective for finding and locating faults in cable insulation material. In particular, electrical methods such as insulation resistance and reflectometry techniques are known to be rather effective for locating insulation damage, hot spots or other faults in essentially all cable types. The advantage of electrical methods is that they can be

  15. Use of artificial sputum medium to test antibiotic efficacy against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in conditions more relevant to the cystic fibrosis lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, Sebastian; Fothergill, Joanne L; Wright, Elli A; James, Chloe E; Mowat, Eilidh; Winstanley, Craig

    2012-06-05

    There is growing concern about the relevance of in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility tests when applied to isolates of P. aeruginosa from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Existing methods rely on single or a few isolates grown aerobically and planktonically. Predetermined cut-offs are used to define whether the bacteria are sensitive or resistant to any given antibiotic. However, during chronic lung infections in CF, P. aeruginosa populations exist in biofilms and there is evidence that the environment is largely microaerophilic. The stark difference in conditions between bacteria in the lung and those during diagnostic testing has called into question the reliability and even relevance of these tests. Artificial sputum medium (ASM) is a culture medium containing the components of CF patient sputum, including amino acids, mucin and free DNA. P. aeruginosa growth in ASM mimics growth during CF infections, with the formation of self-aggregating biofilm structures and population divergence. The aim of this study was to develop a microtitre-plate assay to study antimicrobial susceptibility of P. aeruginosa based on growth in ASM, which is applicable to both microaerophilic and aerobic conditions. An ASM assay was developed in a microtitre plate format. P. aeruginosa biofilms were allowed to develop for 3 days prior to incubation with antimicrobial agents at different concentrations for 24 hours. After biofilm disruption, cell viability was measured by staining with resazurin. This assay was used to ascertain the sessile cell minimum inhibitory concentration (SMIC) of tobramycin for 15 different P. aeruginosa isolates under aerobic and microaerophilic conditions and SMIC values were compared to those obtained with standard broth growth. Whilst there was some evidence for increased MIC values for isolates grown in ASM when compared to their planktonic counterparts, the biggest differences were found with bacteria tested in microaerophilic conditions, which showed a much

  16. Quantum dots as chemiluminescence enhancers tested by sequential injection technique: Comparison of flow and flow-batch conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sklenářová, Hana, E-mail: sklenarova@faf.cuni.cz [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Hradec Králové (Czech Republic); Voráčová, Ivona [Institute of Analytical Chemistry of the CAS, v. v. i., Brno (Czech Republic); Chocholouš, Petr; Polášek, Miroslav [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Hradec Králové (Czech Republic)

    2017-04-15

    The effect of 0.01–100 µmol L{sup −1} Quantum Dots (QDs) with different emission wavelengths (520–640 nm) and different surface modifications (mercaptopropionic, mercaptoundecanoic, thioglycolic acids and mercaptoethylamine) on permanganate-induced and luminol–hydrogen peroxide chemiluminescence (CL) was studied in detail by a sequential injection technique using a spiral detection flow cell and a flow-batch detection cell operated in flow and stop-flow modes. In permanganate CL system no significant enhancement of the CL signal was observed while for the luminol–hydrogen peroxide CL substantial increase (>100% and >90% with the spiral detection cell in flow and stop-flow modes, respectively) was attained for CdTe QDs. Enhancement exceeding 120% was observed for QDs with emissions at 520, 575 and 603 nm (sizes of 2.8 nm, 3.3 nm and 3.6 nm) using the flow-batch detection cell in the stop-flow mode. Pronounced effect was noted for surface modifications while mercaptoethylamine was the most efficient in CL enhancement compared to mercaptopropionic acid the most commonly applied coating. Significant difference between results obtained in flow and flow-batch conditions based on the entire kinetics of the extremely fast CL reaction was discussed. The increase of the CL signal was always accompanied by reduced lifetime of the CL emission thus application of QDs in flow techniques should be always coupled with the study of the CL lifetime.

  17. New method of calculating the power at altitude of aircraft engines equipped with superchargers on the basis of tests made under sea-level conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarracino, Marcello

    1941-01-01

    The present article deals with what is considered to be a simpler and more accurate method of determining, from the results of bench tests under approved rating conditions, the power at altitude of a supercharged aircraft engine, without application of correction formulas. The method of calculating the characteristics at altitude, of supercharged engines, based on the consumption of air, is a more satisfactory and accurate procedure, especially at low boost pressures.

  18. Description of the blowdown test facility COG program on in-reactor fission product release, transport, and deposition under severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehrenbach, P.J.; Wood, J.C.

    1987-06-01

    Loss-of-coolant accidents with additional impairment of emergency cooling would probably result in high fuel temperatures leading to severe fuel damage (SFD) and significant fission product activity would then be transported along the PHTS to the break where a fraction of it would be released and transport under such conditions, there are many interacting and sometimes competing phenomena to consider. Laboratory simulations are being used to provide data on these individual phenomena, such as UO 2 oxidation and Zr-UO 2 interaction, from which mathematical models can be constructed. These are then combined into computer codes to include the interaction effects and assess the overall releases. In addition, in-reactor tests are the only source of data on release and transport of short-lived fission product nuclides, which are important in the consequence analysis of CANDU reactor accidents. Post-test decontamination of an in-reactor test facility also provides a unique opportunity to demonstrate techniques and obtain decontamination data relevant to post-accident rehabilitation of CANDU power reactors. Specialized facilities are required for in-reactor testing because of the extensive release of radioactive fission products and the high temperatures involved (up to 2500 degrees Celsius). To meet this need for the Canadian program, the Blowdown Test Facility (BTF) has been built in the NRU reactor at Chalk River. Between completion of construction in mid-1987 and the first Zircaloy-sheathed fuel test in fiscal year 1987/88, several commissioning tests are being performed. Similarly, extensive development work has been completed to permit application of instrumentation to irradiated fuel elements, and in support of post-test fuel assembly examination. A program of decontamination studies has also been developed to generate information relevant to post-accident decontamination of power reactors. The BTF shared cost test program funded by the COG High Temperature

  19. Measurement of impulse peak insertion loss from two acoustic test fixtures and four hearing protector conditions with an acoustic shock tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, William J.; Fackler, Cameron J.; Berger, Elliott H.; Shaw, Peter B.; Stergar, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Impulse peak insertion loss (IPIL) was studied with two acoustic test fixtures and four hearing protector conditions at the E-A-RCAL Laboratory. IPIL is the difference between the maximum estimated pressure for the open-ear condition and the maximum pressure measured when a hearing protector is placed on an acoustic test fixture (ATF). Two models of an ATF manufactured by the French-German Research Institute of Saint-Louis (ISL) were evaluated with high-level acoustic impulses created by an acoustic shock tube at levels of 134 decibels (dB), 150 dB, and 168 dB. The fixtures were identical except that the E-A-RCAL ISL fixture had ear canals that were 3 mm longer than the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) ISL fixture. Four hearing protection conditions were tested: Combat Arms earplug with the valve open, ETYPlugs® earplug, TacticalPro headset, and a dual-protector ETYPlugs earplug with TacticalPro earmuff. The IPILs measured for the E-A-RCAL fixture were 1.4 dB greater than the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) ISL ATF. For the E-A-RCAL ISL ATF, the left ear IPIL was 2.0 dB greater than the right ear IPIL. For the NIOSH ATF, the right ear IPIL was 0.3 dB greater than the left ear IPIL. PMID:26356380

  20. Conditions for the test emplacement of intermediate-level radioactive wastes in chamber 8a of the 511 m level of the Asse Salt Mine<