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Sample records for efficiently reduce alfa-tocopherol

  1. Fungal interactions reduce carbon use efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maynard, Daniel S.; Crowther, Thomas W.; Bradford, Mark A.

    2017-01-01

    The efficiency by which fungi decompose organic matter contributes to the amount of carbon that is retained in biomass vs. lost to the atmosphere as respiration. This carbon use efficiency (CUE) is affected by various abiotic conditions, including temperature and nutrient availability.

  2. Biotic interactions reduce microbial carbon use efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, M.; Maynard, D. S.

    2017-12-01

    The efficiency by which microbes decompose organic matter governs the amount of carbon that is retained in microbial biomass versus lost to the atmosphere as respiration. This carbon use efficiency (CUE) is affected by various abiotic conditions, such as temperature and nutrient availability. In biogeochemical model simulations, CUE is a key variable regulating how much soil carbon is stored or lost from ecosystems under simulated global changes, such as climate warming. Theoretically, the physiological costs of biotic interactions such as competition should likewise alter CUE, yet the direction and magnitude of these costs are untested. Here we conduct a microcosm experiment to quantify how competitive interactions among saprotrophic fungi alter growth, respiration, and CUE. Free-living decomposer fungi representing a broad range of traits and phylogenies were grown alone, in pairwise competition, and in multi-species (up to 15) communities. By combing culturing and stable carbon isotope approaches, we could resolve the amount of carbon substrate allocated to fungal biomass versus respiration, and so estimate CUE. By then comparing individual performance to community-level outcomes, we show that species interactions induce consistent declines in CUE, regardless of abiotic conditions. Pairwise competition lowers CUE by as much as 25%, with the magnitude of these costs equal to or greater than the observed variation across abiotic conditions. However, depending on the competitive network structure, increasing species richness led to consistent gains or declines in CUE. Our results suggest that the extent to which microbial-mediated carbon fluxes respond to environmental change may be influenced strongly by competitive interactions. As such, knowledge of abiotic conditions and community composition is necessary to confidently project CUE and hence ecosystem carbon dynamics.

  3. Increasing induction motors efficiency by reducing electromagnetic loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivian Chiver

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of any device is a major problem today. The design and construction of high efficiency motors is strongly required from the viewpoint of reducing energy consumption and protecting the environment. This paper deal with the problem of improving efficiency by reducing electrical and magnetic loads of these motors. Using the finite elements method (FEM, the authors will study the influence of these changes on the parameters and characteristics of the initial motor.

  4. Absorption-reduced waveguide structure for efficient terahertz generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pálfalvi, L., E-mail: palfalvi@fizika.ttk.pte.hu [Institute of Physics, University of Pécs, Ifjúság ú. 6, 7624 Pécs (Hungary); Fülöp, J. A. [MTA-PTE High-Field Terahertz Research Group, Ifjúság ú. 6, 7624 Pécs (Hungary); Szentágothai Research Centre, University of Pécs, Ifjúság ú. 20, 7624 Pécs (Hungary); Hebling, J. [Institute of Physics, University of Pécs, Ifjúság ú. 6, 7624 Pécs (Hungary); MTA-PTE High-Field Terahertz Research Group, Ifjúság ú. 6, 7624 Pécs (Hungary); Szentágothai Research Centre, University of Pécs, Ifjúság ú. 20, 7624 Pécs (Hungary)

    2015-12-07

    An absorption-reduced planar waveguide structure is proposed for increasing the efficiency of terahertz (THz) pulse generation by optical rectification of femtosecond laser pulses with tilted-pulse-front in highly nonlinear materials with large absorption coefficient. The structure functions as waveguide both for the optical pump and the generated THz radiation. Most of the THz power propagates inside the cladding with low THz absorption, thereby reducing losses and leading to the enhancement of the THz generation efficiency by up to more than one order of magnitude, as compared with a bulk medium. Such a source can be suitable for highly efficient THz pulse generation pumped by low-energy (nJ-μJ) pulses at high (MHz) repetition rates delivered by compact fiber lasers.

  5. Semiconductor technology for reducing emissions and increasing efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffin, B.; Frank, R. [Motorola Semiconductor Products Sector, Phoenix, AZ (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The cooperation and support of all industries are required to significantly impact a worldwide reduction in gaseous emissions that may contribute to climate change. Each industry also is striving to more efficiently utilize the resources that it consumes since this is both conservation for good citizenship and an intelligent approach to business. The semiconductor industry is also extremely concerned with these issues. However, semiconductor manufacturer`s products provide solutions for reduced emissions and increased efficiency in their industry, other industries and areas that can realize significant improvements through control technology. This paper will focus on semiconductor technologies of digital control, power switching and sensing to improve efficiency and reduce emissions in automotive, industrial, and office/home applications. 10 refs., 13 figs.

  6. Bystander cells enhance NK cytotoxic efficiency by reducing search time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao; Zhao, Renping; Schwarz, Karsten; Mangeat, Matthieu; Schwarz, Eva C; Hamed, Mohamed; Bogeski, Ivan; Helms, Volkhard; Rieger, Heiko; Qu, Bin

    2017-03-13

    Natural killer (NK) cells play a central role during innate immune responses by eliminating pathogen-infected or tumorigenic cells. In the microenvironment, NK cells encounter not only target cells but also other cell types including non-target bystander cells. The impact of bystander cells on NK killing efficiency is, however, still elusive. In this study we show that the presence of bystander cells, such as P815, monocytes or HUVEC, enhances NK killing efficiency. With bystander cells present, the velocity and persistence of NK cells were increased, whereas the degranulation of lytic granules remained unchanged. Bystander cell-derived H 2 O 2 was found to mediate the acceleration of NK cell migration. Using mathematical diffusion models, we confirm that local acceleration of NK cells in the vicinity of bystander cells reduces their search time to locate target cells. In addition, we found that integrin β chains (β1, β2 and β7) on NK cells are required for bystander-enhanced NK migration persistence. In conclusion, we show that acceleration of NK cell migration in the vicinity of H 2 O 2 -producing bystander cells reduces target cell search time and enhances NK killing efficiency.

  7. Alfa-tocopherol and beta-carotene in roughages and milk in organic dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Lisbeth; Kristensen, Troels; Søegaard, Karen

    2012-01-01

    as stored silage. As an average of several sampling times, roughage α-tocopherol and β-carotene contents (mg per kg DM) during the period when the roughage was fed were, respectively, 30 and 21 in grass–clover silage, 13 and 8 in maize wholecrop silage and 28 and 9 in cereal wholecrop silage. Daily intake...... of α-tocopherol was 876 mg per cow–431 mg from roughages, 89 mg from concentrates and 356 mg from a vitamin supplement. Milk yield was 25.9 kg energy-corrected milk (ECM) per cow per day with α-tocopherol and β-carotene contents (μg/ml) of 0.82 and 0.17. The study additionally showed the following...

  8. Elytra boost lift, but reduce aerodynamic efficiency in flying beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, L Christoffer; Engel, Sophia; Baird, Emily; Dacke, Marie; Muijres, Florian T; Hedenström, Anders

    2012-10-07

    Flying insects typically possess two pairs of wings. In beetles, the front pair has evolved into short, hardened structures, the elytra, which protect the second pair of wings and the abdomen. This allows beetles to exploit habitats that would otherwise cause damage to the wings and body. Many beetles fly with the elytra extended, suggesting that they influence aerodynamic performance, but little is known about their role in flight. Using quantitative measurements of the beetle's wake, we show that the presence of the elytra increases vertical force production by approximately 40 per cent, indicating that they contribute to weight support. The wing-elytra combination creates a complex wake compared with previously studied animal wakes. At mid-downstroke, multiple vortices are visible behind each wing. These include a wingtip and an elytron vortex with the same sense of rotation, a body vortex and an additional vortex of the opposite sense of rotation. This latter vortex reflects a negative interaction between the wing and the elytron, resulting in a single wing span efficiency of approximately 0.77 at mid downstroke. This is lower than that found in birds and bats, suggesting that the extra weight support of the elytra comes at the price of reduced efficiency.

  9. Indirect risk effects reduce feeding efficiency of ducks during spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behney, Adam C; O'Shaughnessy, Ryan; Eichholz, Michael W; Stafford, Joshua D

    2018-01-01

    Indirect risk effects of predators on prey behavior can have more of an impact on prey populations than direct consumptive effects. Predation risk can elicit more vigilance behavior in prey, reducing the amount of time available for other activities, such as foraging, which could potentially reduce foraging efficiency. Understanding the conditions associated with predation risk and the specific effects predation risk have on prey behavior is important because it has direct influences on the profitability of food items found under various conditions and states of the forager. The goals of this study were to assess how ducks perceived predation risk in various habitat types and how strongly perceived risk versus energetic demand affected foraging behavior. We manipulated food abundance in different wetland types in Illinois, USA to reduce confounding between food abundance and vegetation structure. We conducted focal-animal behavioral samples on five duck species in treatment and control plots and used generalized linear mixed-effects models to compare the effects of vegetation structure versus other factors on the intensity with which ducks fed and the duration of feeding stints. Mallards fed more intensively and, along with blue-winged teal, used longer feeding stints in open habitats, consistent with the hypothesis that limited visibility was perceived to have a greater predation risk than unlimited visibility. The species temporally nearest to nesting, wood ducks, were willing to take more risks for a greater food reward, consistent with an increase in a marginal value of energy as they approached nesting. Our results indicate that some duck species value energy differently based on the surrounding vegetation structure and density. Furthermore, increases in the marginal value of energy can be more influential than perceived risk in shaping foraging behavior patterns. Based on these findings, we conclude that the value of various food items is not solely

  10. Improving efficiency and reducing administrative burden through electronic communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Katlyn E; Ludens, Gail M; Ghosh, Amit K; Mundell, William C; Fleming, Kevin C; Majka, Andrew J

    2013-01-01

    The InBox messaging system is an internal, electronic program used at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, to facilitate the sending, receiving, and answering of patient-specific messages and alerts. A standardized InBox was implemented in the Division of General Internal Medicine to decrease the time physicians, physician assistants, and nurse practitioners (clinicians) spend on administrative tasks and to increase efficiency. Clinicians completed surveys and a preintervention InBox pilot test to determine inefficiencies related to administrative burdens and defects (message entry errors). Results were analyzed using Pareto diagrams, value stream mapping, and root cause analysis to prioritize administrative-burden inefficiencies to develop a new, standardized InBox. Clinicians and allied health staff were the target of this intervention and received standardized InBox training followed by a postintervention pilot test for clinicians. Sixteen of 28 individuals (57%) completed the preintervention survey. Twenty-eight clinicians participated in 2 separate 8-day pilot tests (before and after intervention) for the standardized InBox. The number of InBox defects was substantially reduced from 37 (Pilot 1) to 7 (Pilot 2). Frequent InBox defects decreased from 25% to 10%. More than half of clinicians believed the standardized InBox positively affected their work, and 100% of clinicians reported no negative affect on their work. This project demonstrated the successful implementation of the standardized InBox messaging system. Initial assessments show substantial reduction of InBox entry defects and administrative tasks completed by clinicians. The findings of this project suggest increased clinician and allied health staff efficiency, satisfaction, improved clinician work-life balance, and decreased clinician burden caused by administrative tasks.

  11. Reduced Syntactic Processing Efficiency in Older Adults During Sentence Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zude Zhu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have frequently reported an age-related decline in semantic processing during sentence comprehension. However, it remains unclear whether syntactic processing also declines or whether it remains constant as people age. In the present study, 26 younger adults and 20 older adults were recruited and matched in terms of working memory, general intelligence, verbal intelligence and fluency. They were then asked to make semantic acceptability judgments while completing a Chinese sentence reading task. The behavioral results revealed that the older adults had significantly lower accuracy on measures of semantic and syntactic processing compared to younger adults. Event-related potential (ERP results showed that during semantic processing, older adults had a significantly reduced amplitude and delayed peak latency of the N400 compared to the younger adults. During syntactic processing, older adults also showed delayed peak latency of the P600 relative to younger adults. Moreover, while P600 amplitude was comparable between the two age groups, larger P600 amplitude was associated with worse performance only in the older adults. Together, the behavioral and ERP data suggest that there is an age-related decline in both semantic and syntactic processing, with a trend toward lower efficiency in syntactic ability.

  12. An efficient method of reducing glass dispersion tolerance sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrold, Scott W.; Shepard, R. Hamilton

    2014-12-01

    Constraining the Seidel aberrations of optical surfaces is a common technique for relaxing tolerance sensitivities in the optimization process. We offer an observation that a lens's Abbe number tolerance is directly related to the magnitude by which its longitudinal and transverse color are permitted to vary in production. Based on this observation, we propose a computationally efficient and easy-to-use merit function constraint for relaxing dispersion tolerance sensitivity. Using the relationship between an element's chromatic aberration and dispersion sensitivity, we derive a fundamental limit for lens scale and power that is capable of achieving high production yield for a given performance specification, which provides insight on the point at which lens splitting or melt fitting becomes necessary. The theory is validated by comparing its predictions to a formal tolerance analysis of a Cooke Triplet, and then applied to the design of a 1.5x visible linescan lens to illustrate optimization for reduced dispersion sensitivity. A selection of lenses in high volume production is then used to corroborate the proposed method of dispersion tolerance allocation.

  13. Improved production efficiency in cattle to reduce their carbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    Keywords: Methane, global warming, greenhouse gas, crossbreeding, residual feed intake, feed efficiency. #Corresponding ... improved production per constant unit, crossbreeding and selection for residual feed intake. ... convert such a measure into kg calf produced per kg CO2 equivalent (CH4 can be converted to a CO2.

  14. High-efficiency pumps drastically reduce energy consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2002-05-01

    Wilo's Stratos pumps for air conditioning and other domestic heating applications combine the advantages of wet runner technology with an innovative electronic commutator motor. The energy consumption of these high-efficiency pumps is halved compared with similar wet runner designs. With vast numbers of pumps used in buildings across Europe alone, the adoption of this technology potentially offers significant energy sayings. (Author)

  15. Work management practices that reduce dose and improve efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.W.; Hulin, M.

    1998-01-01

    Work management practices at nuclear power plants can dramatically affect the outcome of annual site dose goals and outage costs. This presentation discusses global work management practices that contribute to dose reduction including work philosophy, work selection, work planning, work scheduling, worker training, work implementation and worker feedback. The presentation is based on a two-year international effort (sponsored by NEA/IAEA ISOE) to study effective work practices that reduce dose. Experts in this area believe that effective work selection and planning practices can substantially reduce occupational dose during refueling outages. For example, some plants represented in the expert group complete refueling outages in 12-18 days (Finland) with doses below 0,90 person-Sv. Other plants typically have 50-75 day outages with substantially higher site doses. The fundamental reasons for longer outages and higher occupational doses are examined. Good work management principles that have a proven track record of reducing occupational dose are summarized. Practical methods to reduce work duration and dose are explained. For example, scheduling at nuclear power plants can be improved by not only sequencing jobs on a time line but also including zone and resource-based considerations to avoid zone congestion and manpower delays. An ongoing, global, benchmarking effort is described which provides current duration and dose information for repetitive jobs to participating utilities world-wide. (author)

  16. Polyaniline-grafted reduced graphene oxide for efficient electrochemical supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Nanjundan Ashok; Choi, Hyun-Jung; Shin, Yeon Ran; Chang, Dong Wook; Dai, Liming; Baek, Jong-Beom

    2012-02-28

    An alternative and effective route to prepare conducting polyaniline-grafted reduced graphene oxide (PANi-g-rGO) composite with highly enhanced properties is reported. In order to prepare PANi-g-rGO, amine-protected 4-aminophenol was initially grafted to graphite oxide (GO) via acyl chemistry where a concomitant partial reduction of GO occurred due to the refluxing and exposure of GO to thionyl chloride vapors and heating. Following the deprotection of amine groups, an in situ chemical oxidative grafting of aniline in the presence of an oxidizing agent was carried out to yield highly conducting PANi-g-rGO. Electron microscopic studies demonstrated that the resultant composite has fibrillar morphology with a room-temperature electrical conductivity as high as 8.66 S/cm and capacitance of 250 F/g with good cycling stability.

  17. Efficiency of brainwave entrainment by binaural beats in reducing anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Alipoor

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anxiety is a fundamental phenomenon that is a common symptom in all mental disorders. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of brainwave entrainment on anxiety reduction using binaural beats. Methods: In this experimental double-blind study, 30 employees were selected from an engineering research firm through random sampling and replacement and divided into two groups: control group and experimental group. All participants completed the Spielberger’s State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI. Then, the experimental group listened to binaural beats which was recorded on a non-vocal piece of music for 4 weeks, 3 sessions each week. Each session lasted about 20 minutes. At the same time, the control group listened to the background music without any entrainment sound. At the end, both groups completed the anxiety questionnaire and the anxiety scores of both groups obtained before and after intervention were analyzed by ANCOVA. Results: The findings showed that the brainwave entrainment using binaural beats led to the significant reduction of state anxiety (P<0.001 and trait anxiety (P<0.018. Conclusion: Brainwave entrainment using binaural beats is an effective factor in decreasing state and trait anxiety; so, it can be used to reduce anxiety in mental health centers.

  18. Photosynthesis, light use efficiency, and yield of reduced-chlorophyll soybean mutants in field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reducing chlorophyll (chl) content may improve the conversion efficiency of absorbed radiation into biomass (ec) and therefore yield in dense monoculture crops by improving light penetration and distribution within the canopy. Modeling suggests that reducing chl content may also reduce leaf temperat...

  19. Energy-efficient induction motors designing with application of a modified criterion of reduced costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.S. Petrushin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper introduces a modified criterion of reduced costs that employs coefficients of operation significance and priority of ohmic loss accounting to allow matching maximum efficiency with minimum reduced costs. Impact of the inflation factor on the criterion of reduced costs is analyzed.

  20. Highly Efficient TADF Polymer Electroluminescence with Reduced Efficiency Roll-off via Interfacial Exciplex Host Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xingdong; Zhu, Yunhui; Zhang, Baohua; Zhao, Xiaofei; Yao, Bing; Cheng, Yanxiang; Li, Zhanguo; Qu, Yi; Xie, Zhiyuan

    2018-01-10

    Solution-processed organic light-emitting diodes (s-OLED) consisting of TAPC/TmPyPB interfacial exciplex host and polymer PAPTC TADF emitter are prepared, simultaneously displaying ultralow voltages (2.50/2.91/3.51/4.91 V at luminance of 1/100/1000/1000 cd m -2 ), high efficiencies (14.9%, 50.1 lm W -1 ), and extremely low roll-off rates (J 50 of 63.16 mA cm -2 , L 50 of ca. 15000 cd m -2 ). Such performance is distinctly higher than that of pure-PAPTC s-OLED. Compared to pure-PAPTC, the advanced emissive layer structure of TAPC:PAPTC/TmPyPB is unique in much higher PL quantum yield (79.5 vs 36.3%) and nearly 4-fold enhancement in k RISC of the PAPTC emitter to 1.48 × 10 7 s -1 .

  1. Impaired thromboxane receptor dimerization reduces signaling efficiency: A potential mechanism for reduced platelet function in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capra, Valérie; Mauri, Mario; Guzzi, Francesca; Busnelli, Marta; Accomazzo, Maria Rosa; Gaussem, Pascale; Nisar, Shaista P; Mundell, Stuart J; Parenti, Marco; Rovati, G Enrico

    2017-01-15

    Thromboxane A 2 is a potent mediator of inflammation and platelet aggregation exerting its effects through the activation of a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), termed TP. Although the existence of dimers/oligomers in Class A GPCRs is widely accepted, their functional significance still remains controversial. Recently, we have shown that TPα and TPβ homo-/hetero-dimers interact through an interface of residues in transmembrane domain 1 (TM1) whose disruption impairs dimer formation. Here, biochemical and pharmacological characterization of this dimer deficient mutant (DDM) in living cells indicates a significant impairment in its response to agonists. Interestingly, two single loss-of-function TPα variants, namely W29C and N42S recently identified in two heterozygous patients affected by bleeding disorders, match some of the residues mutated in our DDM. These two naturally occurring variants display a reduced potency to TP agonists and are characterized by impaired dimer formation in transfected HEK-293T cells. These findings provide proofs that lack of homo-dimer formation is a crucial process for reduced TPα function in vivo, and might represent one molecular mechanism through which platelet TPα receptor dysfunction affects the patient(s) carrying these mutations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Strategies to increase nitrogen use efficiency and reduce nitrate leaching in vegetable production in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijter, de F.J.; Berge, ten H.F.M.; Smit, A.L.

    2010-01-01

    Environmental concern and legislation of fertilization requires strategies to increase nitrogen use efficiency and reduce nitrate leaching. Strategies can be fertilizer choice, timing of N availability and fertilizer placement. Rainfall in the experimental year 2007 was moderate and different

  3. Motor Challenge: Improving Efficiency of Tube Drawing Bench Reduces Energy Use by 34%

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erika Ericksen

    1999-01-01

    The case study reveals how a manufacturer of high-precision, small-diameter steel tubing has reduced energy consumption and realized considerable electrical, labor, and materials cost savings with a more energy-efficient motor

  4. The efficiency of asset management strategies to reduce urban flood risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Veldhuis, J A E; Clemens, F H L R

    2011-01-01

    In this study, three asset management strategies were compared with respect to their efficiency to reduce flood risk. Data from call centres at two municipalities were used to quantify urban flood risks associated with three causes of urban flooding: gully pot blockage, sewer pipe blockage and sewer overloading. The efficiency of three flood reduction strategies was assessed based on their effect on the causes contributing to flood risk. The sensitivity of the results to uncertainty in the data source, citizens' calls, was analysed through incorporation of uncertainty ranges taken from customer complaint literature. Based on the available data it could be shown that increasing gully pot blockage is the most efficient action to reduce flood risk, given data uncertainty. If differences between cause incidences are large, as in the presented case study, call data are sufficient to decide how flood risk can be most efficiently reduced. According to the results of this analysis, enlargement of sewer pipes is not an efficient strategy to reduce flood risk, because flood risk associated with sewer overloading is small compared to other failure mechanisms.

  5. Sorbitol as an efficient reducing agent for laser-induced copper deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochemirovsky, V. A.; Logunov, L. S.; Safonov, S. V.; Tumkin, I. I.; Tver'yanovich, Yu. S.; Menchikov, L. G.

    2012-10-01

    We have pioneered in revealing the fact that sorbitol may be used as an efficient reducing agent in the process of laser-induced copper deposition from solutions; in this case, it is possible to obtain copper lines much higher quality than by using conventional formalin.

  6. Pulmonary arterial hypertension reduces energy efficiency of right, but not left, rat ventricular trabeculae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Toan; Nisbet, Linley; Taberner, Andrew; Loiselle, Denis; Han, June-Chiew

    2018-04-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) triggers right ventricle (RV) hypertrophy and left ventricle (LV) atrophy, which progressively leads to heart failure. We designed experiments under conditions mimicking those encountered by the heart in vivo that allowed us to investigate whether consequent structural and functional remodelling of the ventricles affects their respective energy efficiencies. We found that peak work output was lower in RV trabeculae from PAH rats due to reduced extent and velocity of shortening. However, their suprabasal enthalpy was unaffected due to increased activation heat, resulting in reduced suprabasal efficiency. There was no effect of PAH on LV suprabasal efficiency. We conclude that the mechanism underlying the reduced energy efficiency of hypertrophied RV tissues is attributable to the increased energy cost of Ca 2+ cycling, whereas atrophied LV tissues still maintain normal mechano-energetic performance. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) greatly increases the afterload on the right ventricle (RV), triggering RV hypertrophy, which progressively leads to RV failure. In contrast, the disease reduces the passive filling pressure of the left ventricle (LV), resulting in LV atrophy. We investigated whether these distinct structural and functional consequences to the ventricles affect their respective energy efficiencies. We studied trabeculae isolated from both ventricles of Wistar rats with monocrotaline-induced PAH and their respective Control groups. Trabeculae were mounted in a calorimeter at 37°C. While contracting at 5 Hz, they were subjected to stress-length work-loops over a wide range of afterloads. They were subsequently required to undergo a series of isometric contractions at various muscle lengths. In both protocols, stress production, length change and suprabasal heat output were simultaneously measured. We found that RV trabeculae from PAH rats generated higher activation heat, but developed normal active stress. Their

  7. Potential and economic efficiency of using reduced tillage to mitigate climate effects in Danish agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne; Jørgensen, Sisse Liv; Nainggolan, Doan

    2016-01-01

    , research also suggests that soil carbon stocks are declining. The scope of Payment for Ecosystem Service (PES) approaches to effectively and efficiently address climate regulation will depend on the spatial distribution of the carbon assimilation capacity, current land use, the value of avoided emissions...... and compare these to the marginal abatement costs curve used in Danish climate policy. The cost effectiveness of reduced tillage as a climate mitigation PES scheme critically depends on the current debate on the net effects of carbon sequestration in reduced tillage practices. Based on existing IPCC...

  8. Efficient technologies or user behaviour, which is the more important when reducing households' energy consumption?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gram-Hanssen, K. [Danish Building Research Institute, Aalborg University, A.C. Meyers Vaenge 15, 2450 Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2013-08-15

    Much policy effort focuses on energy efficiency of technology, though not only efficiency but also user behaviour is an important factor influencing the amount of consumed energy. This paper explores to what extent energy efficiency of appliances and houses or user behaviour is the more important, both for understanding why some households consume much more energy than others, and when looking for relevant approaches to a future low-carbon society. The paper uses several sources to explore this question, most of them from a Danish context, including results from the researcher's own projects and Danish national statistics. These Danish data are discussed together with international studies. Through the presentation of these different projects and examples, it is shown how user behaviour is at least as important as the efficiency of technology when explaining households' energy consumption in Denmark. In the conclusion, these results are discussed in a broader international perspective and it is concluded that more research in this field is necessary. In relation to energy policy, it is argued that it is not a question of technology efficiency or behaviour, as both have to be included in future policy if energy demand is actually to be reduced. Furthermore, it is also argued that not only individual behaviour is relevant, but also a broader perspective on collectively shared low-carbon practices has to be promoted.

  9. Steam Pressure-Reducing Station Safety and Energy Efficiency Improvement Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lower, Mark D [ORNL; Christopher, Timothy W [ORNL; Oland, C Barry [ORNL

    2011-06-01

    The Facilities and Operations (F&O) Directorate is sponsoring a continuous process improvement (CPI) program. Its purpose is to stimulate, promote, and sustain a culture of improvement throughout all levels of the organization. The CPI program ensures that a scientific and repeatable process exists for improving the delivery of F&O products and services in support of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Management Systems. Strategic objectives of the CPI program include achieving excellence in laboratory operations in the areas of safety, health, and the environment. Identifying and promoting opportunities for achieving the following critical outcomes are important business goals of the CPI program: improved safety performance; process focused on consumer needs; modern and secure campus; flexibility to respond to changing laboratory needs; bench strength for the future; and elimination of legacy issues. The Steam Pressure-Reducing Station (SPRS) Safety and Energy Efficiency Improvement Project, which is under the CPI program, focuses on maintaining and upgrading SPRSs that are part of the ORNL steam distribution network. This steam pipe network transports steam produced at the ORNL steam plant to many buildings in the main campus site. The SPRS Safety and Energy Efficiency Improvement Project promotes excellence in laboratory operations by (1) improving personnel safety, (2) decreasing fuel consumption through improved steam system energy efficiency, and (3) achieving compliance with applicable worker health and safety requirements. The SPRS Safety and Energy Efficiency Improvement Project being performed by F&O is helping ORNL improve both energy efficiency and worker safety by modifying, maintaining, and repairing SPRSs. Since work began in 2006, numerous energy-wasting steam leaks have been eliminated, heat losses from uninsulated steam pipe surfaces have been reduced, and deficient pressure retaining components have been replaced. These improvements helped ORNL

  10. Design of PEI-conjugated bio-reducible polymer for efficient gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Joung-Pyo; Kim, Soyoung; Kim, Sung Wan

    2018-07-10

    The poly(cystaminebis(acrylamide)-diaminohexane) (poly(CBA-DAH)) was designed previously as a bio-reducible efficient gene delivery carrier. However, the high weight ratio required to form the polyplexes between poly(CBA-DAH) with pDNA is still a problem that needs to be addressed. To solve this problem and increase the transfection efficiency, poly(ethylenimine) (PEI, 1.8 kDa) was conjugated to poly(CBA-DAH) via disulfide bond. The PEI conjugated poly(CBA-DAH) (PCDP) can bind with pDNA at a very low weight ratio of 0.5 and above, like PEI 25 kDa, and form the polyplexes with nano-size (102-128 nm) and positive surface charge (27-34 mV). PCDP and PCDP polyplexes had negligible cytotoxicity and indicated similar or better cellular uptake than the comparison groups such as PEI 25 kDa and Lipofectamine® polyplexes. To confirm the transfection efficiency, the plasmid DNA (pDNA) encoded with the luciferase reporter gene (gWiz-Luc) and green fluorescent protein reporter gene (GFP) were used and treated with PCDP into the A549, Huh-7, and Mia PaCa-2 cells. PCDP/pDNA polyplexes showed highest transfection efficiency in all tested cell lines. In the luciferase assay, PCDP polyplexes showed 10.2 times higher gene transfection efficiency than Lipofectamine® polyplexes in mimic in vivo conditions (30% FBS, A549 cells). The VEGF siRNA expressing plasmid (pshVEGF), which is constructed as a therapeutic gene by our previous work, was delivered by PCDP into the cancer cells. The VEGF gene expression of PCDP/pshVEGF polyplexes was dramatically lower than control and the VEGF gene silencing efficiencies of PCDP/pshVEGF (w/w; 10/1) polyplexes were 54% (A549 cells), 77% (Huh-7 cells), and 66% (Mia PaCa-2 cells). In addition, PCDP/pshVEGF had reduced cell viability rates of about 31% (A549 cells), 39% (Huh-7 cells), and 42% (Mia PaCa-2 cells) and showed better results than all comparison groups. In the transfection efficiency and VEGF silencing assay, PCDP polyplexes showed

  11. A simple approach for producing highly efficient DNA carriers with reduced toxicity based on modified polyallylamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oskuee, Reza Kazemi [Neurogenic Inflammation Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Medical Biotechnology, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dosti, Fatemeh [School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gholami, Leila [Targeted Drug Delivery Research Center, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Malaekeh-Nikouei, Bizhan, E-mail: malaekehb@mums.ac.ir [Nanotechnology Research Center, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-04-01

    Nowadays gene delivery is a topic in many research studies. Non-viral vectors have many advantages over viral vectors in terms of safety, immunogenicity and gene carrying capacity but they suffer from low transfection efficiency and high toxicity. In this study, polyallylamine (PAA), the cationic polymer, has been modified with hydrophobic branches to increase the transfection efficiency of the polymer. Polyallylamine with molecular weights of 15 and 65 kDa was selected and grafted with butyl, hexyl and decyl acrylate at percentages of 10, 30 and 50. The ability of the modified polymer to condense DNA was examined by ethidium bromide test. The complex of modified polymer and DNA (polyplex) was characterized for size, zeta potential, transfection efficiency and cytotoxicity in Neuro2A cell lines. The results of ethidium bromide test showed that grafting of PAA decreased its ability for DNA condensation but vectors could still condense DNA at moderate and high carrier to DNA ratios. Most of polyplexes had particle size between 150 and 250 nm. The prepared vectors mainly showed positive zeta potential but carriers composed of PAA with high percentage of grafting had negative zeta potential. The best transfection activity was observed in vectors with hexyl acrylate chain. Grafting of polymer reduced its cytotoxicity especially at percentages of 30 and 50. The vectors based of PAA 15 kDa had better transfection efficiency than the vectors made of PAA 65 kDa. In conclusion, results of the present study indicated that grafting PAA 15 kDa with high percentages of hexyl acrylate can help to prepare vectors with better transfection efficiency and less cytotoxicity. - Highlights: • The modified polyallylamine was synthesized as a gene carrier. • Modification of polyallylamine (15 kDa) with high percentages of hexyl acrylate improved transfection activity remarkably. • Grafting of polymer with acrylate derivatives reduced polymer cytotoxicity especially at percentages of

  12. Albumin-derived peptides efficiently reduce renal uptake of radiolabelled peptides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vegt, Erik; Eek, Annemarie; Oyen, Wim J.G.; Gotthardt, Martin; Boerman, Otto C.; Jong, Marion de

    2010-01-01

    In peptide-receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT), the maximum activity dose that can safely be administered is limited by high renal uptake and retention of radiolabelled peptides. The kidney radiation dose can be reduced by coinfusion of agents that competitively inhibit the reabsorption of radiolabelled peptides, such as positively charged amino acids, Gelofusine, or trypsinised albumin. The aim of this study was to identify more specific and potent inhibitors of the kidney reabsorption of radiolabelled peptides, based on albumin. Albumin was fragmented using cyanogen bromide and six albumin-derived peptides with different numbers of electric charges were selected and synthesised. The effect of albumin fragments (FRALB-C) and selected albumin-derived peptides on the internalisation of 111 In-albumin, 111 In-minigastrin, 111 In-exendin and 111 In-octreotide by megalin-expressing cells was assessed. In rats, the effect of Gelofusine and albumin-derived peptides on the renal uptake and biodistribution of 111 In-minigastrin, 111 In-exendin and 111 In-octreotide was determined. FRALB-C significantly reduced the uptake of all radiolabelled peptides in vitro. The albumin-derived peptides showed different potencies in reducing the uptake of 111 In-albumin, 111 In-exendin and 111 In-minigastrin in vitro. The most efficient albumin-derived peptide (peptide 6), was selected for in vivo testing. In rats, 5 mg of peptide 6 very efficiently inhibited the renal uptake of 111 In-minigastrin, by 88%. Uptake of 111 In-exendin and 111 In-octreotide was reduced by 26 and 33%, respectively. The albumin-derived peptide 6 efficiently inhibited the renal reabsorption of 111 In-minigastrin, 111 In-exendin and 111 In-octreotide and is a promising candidate for kidney protection in PRRT. (orig.)

  13. Structural mediation on polycation nanoparticles by sulfadiazine to enhance DNA transfection efficiency and reduce toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Xingwen; Zhang, Zhihui; Han, Shangcong; Tang, Minjie; Zhou, Junhui; Zhang, Jianhua; Xue, Zhenyi; Li, Yan; Zhang, Rongxin; Deng, Liandong; Dong, Anjie

    2015-04-15

    Reducing the toxicity while maintaining high transfection efficiency is an important issue for cationic polymers as gene carriers in clinical application. In this paper, a new zwitterionic copolymer, polycaprolactone-g-poly(dimethylaminoethyl methyacrylate-co-sulfadiazine methacrylate) (PC-SDZ) with unique pH-sensitivity, was designed and prepared. The incorporation of sulfadiazine into poly(dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) chains successfully mediates the surface properties including compacter shell structure, lower density of positive charges, stronger proton buffer capability, and enhanced hydrophobicity, which lead to reduction in toxicity and enhancements in stability, cellular uptake, endosome escape, and transfection efficiency for the PC-SDZ2 nanoparticles (NPs)/DNA complexes. Excellent transfection efficiency at the optimal N/P ratio of 10 was observed for PC-SDZ2 NPs/DNA complexes, which was higher than that of the commercial reagent-branched polyethylenimine (PEI). The cytotoxicity was evaluated by CCK8 measurement, and the results showed significant reduction in cytotoxicity even at high concentration of complexes after sulfadiazine modification. Therefore, this work may demonstrate a new way of structural mediation of cationic polymer carriers for gene delivery with high efficiency and low toxicity.

  14. High efficiency processing for reduced amplitude zones detection in the HRECG signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugarte, N.; Álvarez, A.; Balacco, J.; Mercado, G.; Gonzalez, A.; Dugarte, E.; Olivares, A.

    2016-04-01

    Summary - This article presents part of a more detailed research proposed in the medium to long term, with the intention of establishing a new philosophy of electrocardiogram surface analysis. This research aims to find indicators of cardiovascular disease in its early stage that may go unnoticed with conventional electrocardiography. This paper reports the development of a software processing which collect some existing techniques and incorporates novel methods for detection of reduced amplitude zones (RAZ) in high resolution electrocardiographic signal (HRECG).The algorithm consists of three stages, an efficient processing for QRS detection, averaging filter using correlation techniques and a step for RAZ detecting. Preliminary results show the efficiency of system and point to incorporation of techniques new using signal analysis with involving 12 leads.

  15. Efficient degradation of trichloroethylene in water using persulfate activated by reduced graphene oxide-iron nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Ayyaz; Gu, Xiaogang; Li, Li; Lv, Shuguang; Xu, Yisheng; Guo, Xuhong

    2015-11-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) and nano-sized zero-valent iron-reduced graphene oxide (nZVI-rGO) composite were prepared. The GO and nZVI-rGO composite were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and Raman spectroscopy. The size of nZVI was about 6 nm as observed by TEM. The system of nZVI-rGO and persulfate (PS) was used for the degradation of trichloroethylene (TCE) in water, and showed 26.5% more efficiency as compared to nZVI/PS system. The different parameters were studied to determine the efficiency of nZVI-rGO to activate the PS system for the TCE degradation. By increasing the PS amount, TCE removal was also improved while no obvious effect was observed by varying the catalyst loading. Degradation was decreased as the TCE initial concentration was increased from 20 to 100 mg/L. Moreover, when initial solution pH was increased, efficiency deteriorated to 80%. Bicarbonate showed more negative effect on TCE removal among the solution matrix. To better understand the effects of radical species in the system, the scavenger tests were performed. The •SO4(-) and •O2(-) were predominant species responsible for TCE removal. The nZVI-rGO-activated PS process shows potential applications in remediation of highly toxic organic contaminants such as TCE present in the groundwater. Graphical abstract Persulfate activated by reduced graphene oxide and nano-sized zero-valent iron composite can be used for efficient degradation of trichloroethylene (TCE) in water.

  16. Recombination region improvement for reduced efficiency roll-off in phosphorescent OLEDs with dual emissive layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Zhu; Zhou, Shunliang [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China (UESTC), Chengdu 610054 (China); Hu, Song [Chengdu Institute of Optics and Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610209 (China); Yu, Junsheng, E-mail: jsyu@uestc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China (UESTC), Chengdu 610054 (China)

    2014-10-15

    High-performance phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PhOLEDs) by using dual-emissive-layer (DEL) structure to reduce efficiency roll-off were fabricated. The DEL was comprised of a hole-transport-type host of N, N′-bis(naphthalen-1-yl)-N, N′-bis(phenyl)-benzidine (NPB) and a bipolar host of 4,4′-bis(carbazol-9-yl)biphenyl (CBP), which were both doped with an orange phosphorescent dopant of bis[2-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-benzothiazolato-N,C2′]iridium (acetylacetonate) [(t-bt){sub 2}Ir(acac)]. After the optimization of doping concentration of the first emissive layer (FEL), the device with DEL exhibited 11% lower roll-off power efficiency than single emissive layer devices (SED) when the luminance increased from 1000 cd/m{sup 2} to 10,000 cd/m{sup 2}. The hole–electron recombination zone in DEL was illuminated by inserting an ultrathin fluorescent probe of 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-tert-butyl-6 (1,1,7,7-tetramethyljulolidin-4-yl-vinyl)-4H-pyran (DCJTB) in different emissive regions. The performance improvement was attributed to the optimization of energy barrier and the expansion of exciton formation zone within the DEL. - Highlights: • PhOLEDs by using a dual-emissive-layer structure to reduce efficiency roll-off were fabricated. • The DED exhibited 11% lower efficiency roll-off, 57% lower turn-on voltage, and 174% higher brightness than SED. • A DCJTB fluorescent probe was inserted at different positions of DED to investigate the expansion of exciton formation zone.

  17. Dynamic energy conservation model REDUCE. Extension with experience curves, energy efficiency indicators and user's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uyterlinde, M.A.; Rijkers, F.A.M.

    1999-12-01

    The main objective of the energy conservation model REDUCE (Reduction of Energy Demand by Utilization of Conservation of Energy) is the evaluation of the effectiveness of economical, financial, institutional, and regulatory measures for improving the rational use of energy in end-use sectors. This report presents the results of additional model development activities, partly based on the first experiences in a previous project. Energy efficiency indicators have been added as an extra tool for output analysis in REDUCE. The methodology is described and some examples are given. The model has been extended with a method for modelling the effects of technical development on production costs, by means of an experience curve. Finally, the report provides a 'users guide', by describing in more detail the input data specification as well as all menus and buttons. 19 refs

  18. Equity and efficiency in policies to reduce carbon emissions in the domestic sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, T.; Johnstone, N.

    1993-01-01

    It is frequently asserted that the distribution effects of a carbon/energy tax - such as that proposed by the Commission of the European Communities - will be largely regressive: that the burden of the tax will fall disproportionately on lower income households. Such an assertion, although valid within the confines of the respective analyses, is based upon an unduly limited treatment of the fiscal implications of such a tax as well as a simplification of the demand for energy services in the domestic sector. It will be argued that such analyses, by implicitly assuming that efficiency objectives (reducing carbon emissions at lowest cost) and equity objectives (ensuring that lower-income households do not suffer welfare losses) are to be separately achieved, overstate the cost of reducing emissions in terms of both objectives. (Author)

  19. Increasing coal-fired power generation efficiency to reduce electric cost and environmental emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torrens, I.M.; Stenzel, W.C.

    1997-01-01

    New generating capacity required globally between 1993 and 2010 is estimated to be around 1500 GW, of which some two-thirds will be outside the OECD, and some 40 % in the Asian non-OECD countries. Coal is likely to account for a substantial fraction of this new generation. Today's state-of-the-art supercritical coal-fired power plant has a conversion efficiency of some 42-45 %. The capital cost increase associated with the supercritical or ultra-supercritical pulverized coal power plant compared to a conventional subcritical plant is small to negligible. The increased efficiency associated with the supercritical plant leads to an actual reduction in the total cost of electricity generated in cents/kWh, relative to a conventional plant. Despite this, the power sector continues to build subcritical plants and has no near term plans to increase the efficiency of power plants in the projects it is developing. Advanced clean coal technologies such as integrated gasification combined cycle and pressurized fluidized bed combustion will be selected for independent power projects only in very specific circumstances. Advanced clean coal plants can be operated reliably and with superior performance, and specifically that their present estimated capital costs can be reduced substantially to a point where they are competitive with state-of-the-art pulverized coal technologies. (R.P.)

  20. Induction-heating MOCVD reactor with significantly improved heating efficiency and reduced harmful magnetic coupling

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Kuang-Hui; Alotaibi, Hamad S.; Sun, Haiding; Lin, Ronghui; Guo, Wenzhe; Torres-Castanedo, Carlos G.; Liu, Kaikai; Galan, Sergio V.; Li, Xiaohang

    2018-01-01

    In a conventional induction-heating III-nitride metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) reactor, the induction coil is outside the chamber. Therefore, the magnetic field does not couple with the susceptor well, leading to compromised heating efficiency and harmful coupling with the gas inlet and thus possible overheating. Hence, the gas inlet has to be at a minimum distance away from the susceptor. Because of the elongated flow path, premature reactions can be more severe, particularly between Al- and B-containing precursors and NH3. Here, we propose a structure that can significantly improve the heating efficiency and allow the gas inlet to be closer to the susceptor. Specifically, the induction coil is designed to surround the vertical cylinder of a T-shaped susceptor comprising the cylinder and a top horizontal plate holding the wafer substrate within the reactor. Therefore, the cylinder coupled most magnetic field to serve as the thermal source for the plate. Furthermore, the plate can block and thus significantly reduce the uncoupled magnetic field above the susceptor, thereby allowing the gas inlet to be closer. The results show approximately 140% and 2.6 times increase in the heating and susceptor coupling efficiencies, respectively, as well as a 90% reduction in the harmful magnetic flux on the gas inlet.

  1. An Efficient Estimation Method for Reducing the Axial Intensity Drop in Circular Cone-Beam CT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Reconstruction algorithms for circular cone-beam (CB scans have been extensively studied in the literature. Since insufficient data are measured, an exact reconstruction is impossible for such a geometry. If the reconstruction algorithm assumes zeros for the missing data, such as the standard FDK algorithm, a major type of resulting CB artifacts is the intensity drop along the axial direction. Many algorithms have been proposed to improve image quality when faced with this problem of data missing; however, development of an effective and computationally efficient algorithm remains a major challenge. In this work, we propose a novel method for estimating the unmeasured data and reducing the intensity drop artifacts. Each CB projection is analyzed in the Radon space via Grangeat's first derivative. Assuming the CB projection is taken from a parallel beam geometry, we extract those data that reside in the unmeasured region of the Radon space. These data are then used as in a parallel beam geometry to calculate a correction term, which is added together with Hu’s correction term to the FDK result to form a final reconstruction. More approximations are then made on the calculation of the additional term, and the final formula is implemented very efficiently. The algorithm performance is evaluated using computer simulations on analytical phantoms. The reconstruction comparison with results using other existing algorithms shows that the proposed algorithm achieves a superior performance on the reduction of axial intensity drop artifacts with a high computation efficiency.

  2. Elite suppressor-derived HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins exhibit reduced entry efficiency and kinetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kara G Lassen

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Elite suppressors (ES are a rare subset of HIV-1-infected individuals who are able to maintain HIV-1 viral loads below the limit of detection by ultra-sensitive clinical assays in the absence of antiretroviral therapy. Mechanism(s responsible for this elite control are poorly understood but likely involve both host and viral factors. This study assesses ES plasma-derived envelope glycoprotein (env fitness as a function of entry efficiency as a possible contributor to viral suppression. Fitness of virus entry was first evaluated using a novel inducible cell line with controlled surface expression levels of CD4 (receptor and CCR5 (co-receptor. In the context of physiologic CCR5 and CD4 surface densities, ES envs exhibited significantly decreased entry efficiency relative to chronically infected viremic progressors. ES envs also demonstrated slow entry kinetics indicating the presence of virus with reduced entry fitness. Overall, ES env clones were less efficient at mediating entry than chronic progressor envs. Interestingly, acute infection envs exhibited an intermediate phenotypic pattern not distinctly different from ES or chronic progressor envs. These results imply that lower env fitness may be established early and may directly contribute to viral suppression in ES individuals.

  3. Induction-heating MOCVD reactor with significantly improved heating efficiency and reduced harmful magnetic coupling

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Kuang-Hui

    2018-02-23

    In a conventional induction-heating III-nitride metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) reactor, the induction coil is outside the chamber. Therefore, the magnetic field does not couple with the susceptor well, leading to compromised heating efficiency and harmful coupling with the gas inlet and thus possible overheating. Hence, the gas inlet has to be at a minimum distance away from the susceptor. Because of the elongated flow path, premature reactions can be more severe, particularly between Al- and B-containing precursors and NH3. Here, we propose a structure that can significantly improve the heating efficiency and allow the gas inlet to be closer to the susceptor. Specifically, the induction coil is designed to surround the vertical cylinder of a T-shaped susceptor comprising the cylinder and a top horizontal plate holding the wafer substrate within the reactor. Therefore, the cylinder coupled most magnetic field to serve as the thermal source for the plate. Furthermore, the plate can block and thus significantly reduce the uncoupled magnetic field above the susceptor, thereby allowing the gas inlet to be closer. The results show approximately 140% and 2.6 times increase in the heating and susceptor coupling efficiencies, respectively, as well as a 90% reduction in the harmful magnetic flux on the gas inlet.

  4. Reducing carbon emissions through improved household energy efficiency in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekins, P.; Hargreaves, C.

    2002-01-01

    A number of schemes to increase household energy efficiency have operated in the UK over the last 5-10 years. This paper evaluates their effectiveness in terms of reducing household energy use, carbon emissions and fuel poverty. It then draws on the quantitative results of these schemes, and published plans for their continuation, to model an extended and expanded Household Energy Efficiency Scenario to 2020, using an integrated economy-energy-environment model of the UK. The results suggest that while such schemes can play a significant role in reducing carbon emissions from households, much more ambitious schemes than those currently implemented will be necessary to offset the underlying growth in these emissions. Finally, the results are compared with the UK government's own estimates, in its Climate Change Programme, of carbon emission reductions from such schemes to 2010. The paper concludes that the government's estimates are somewhat optimistic, and that it will need substantial new policy measures beyond those already announced if its carbon reduction targets in this area are to be met. (author)

  5. A Low Resistance Calcium/Reduced Titania Passivated Contact for High Efficiency Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Allen, Thomas G.

    2017-02-04

    Recent advances in the efficiency of crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cells have come through the implementation of passivated contacts that simultaneously reduce recombination and resistive losses within the contact structure. In this contribution, low resistivity passivated contacts are demonstrated based on reduced titania (TiOx) contacted with the low work function metal, calcium (Ca). By using Ca as the overlying metal in the contact structure we are able to achieve a reduction in the contact resistivity of TiOx passivated contacts of up to two orders of magnitude compared to previously reported data on Al/TiOx contacts, allowing for the application of the Ca/TiOx contact to n-type c-Si solar cells with partial rear contacts. Implementing this contact structure on the cell level results in a power conversion efficiency of 21.8% where the Ca/TiOx contact comprises only ≈6% of the rear surface of the solar cell, an increase of 1.5% absolute compared to a similar device fabricated without the TiOx interlayer.

  6. New mechanism for enhancing ash removal efficiency and reducing tritium inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chengyue; Deng Baiquan; Yan Jiancheng

    2007-01-01

    A new mechanism is suggested to suppress ash particle back streams in the divertor region of our fusion experimental breeder (FEB) reactor for enhancing the ash removal efficiency and reducing the tritium inventory by applications of the nonlinear effect of high power rf ponderomotive force potential which reflects the plate-released and re-ionized He + back to the plate. Meanwhile, the potential does not hinder α particles, which are coming from scraping of the layer, flowing to the target plate. However, it does stop tritium ions flowing to the target. Based on the FEB design parameters, our calculations have shown that the ash removal efficiency can be improved by as much as 40% if the parallel component of rf field 150-200 V/cm is applied to the location at a perpendicular distance L=20 cm apart from the plate and the plate-recycling neutral helium atom energy is about 0.75 eV, at the same time, the tritium inventory can be reduced to some extent. (authors)

  7. A Low Resistance Calcium/Reduced Titania Passivated Contact for High Efficiency Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Allen, Thomas G.; Bullock, James; Jeangros, Quentin; Samundsett, Christian; Wan, Yimao; Cui, Jie; Hessler-Wyser, Aï cha; De Wolf, Stefaan; Javey, Ali; Cuevas, Andres

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in the efficiency of crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cells have come through the implementation of passivated contacts that simultaneously reduce recombination and resistive losses within the contact structure. In this contribution, low resistivity passivated contacts are demonstrated based on reduced titania (TiOx) contacted with the low work function metal, calcium (Ca). By using Ca as the overlying metal in the contact structure we are able to achieve a reduction in the contact resistivity of TiOx passivated contacts of up to two orders of magnitude compared to previously reported data on Al/TiOx contacts, allowing for the application of the Ca/TiOx contact to n-type c-Si solar cells with partial rear contacts. Implementing this contact structure on the cell level results in a power conversion efficiency of 21.8% where the Ca/TiOx contact comprises only ≈6% of the rear surface of the solar cell, an increase of 1.5% absolute compared to a similar device fabricated without the TiOx interlayer.

  8. Enhanced charge efficiency and reduced energy use in capacitive deionization by increasing the discharge voltage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, T; Dykstra, J E; Porada, S; van der Wal, A; Yoon, J; Biesheuvel, P M

    2015-05-15

    Capacitive deionization (CDI) is an electrochemical method for water desalination using porous carbon electrodes. A key parameter in CDI is the charge efficiency, Λ, which is the ratio of salt adsorption over charge in a CDI-cycle. Values for Λ in CDI are typically around 0.5-0.8, significantly less than the theoretical maximum of unity, due to the fact that not only counterions are adsorbed into the pores of the carbon electrodes, but at the same time coions are released. To enhance Λ, ion-exchange membranes (IEMs) can be implemented. With membranes, Λ can be close to unity because the membranes only allow passage for the counterions. Enhancing the value of Λ is advantageous as this implies a lower electrical current and (at a fixed charging voltage) a reduced energy use. We demonstrate how, without the need to include IEMs, the charge efficiency can be increased to values close to the theoretical maximum of unity, by increasing the cell voltage during discharge, with only a small loss of salt adsorption capacity per cycle. In separate constant-current CDI experiments, where after some time the effluent salt concentration reaches a stable value, this value is reached earlier with increased discharge voltage. We compare the experimental results with predictions of porous electrode theory which includes an equilibrium Donnan electrical double layer model for salt adsorption in carbon micropores. Our results highlight the potential of modified operational schemes in CDI to increase charge efficiency and reduce energy use of water desalination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Efficient Use of Behavioral Tools to Reduce Electricity Demand of Domestic Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elbaz Shimon

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The present study investigated the main literature on the subject of methods and policies for reducing the electricity demand of domestic consumers, in order to identify the place of behavioral tools. Methodology: We used secondary sources, performing a literature review, together with analysis and synthesis. Findings: Policy makers prefer to use tools offered by neoclassical economics, such as various forms of taxation, fines and financial incentives in order to make domestic electricity consumers save electricity, on the assumption that consumers will make rational decisions while maximizing their personal benefit. However, studies conducted in recent years in the field of behavioral economics, which are based on the assumption that consumers’ decisions are not rational and are affected by cognitive biases, showed that the use of behavioral tools, such as detailed online information (feedback,social comparison information, information on varying rates (dynamic pricing and general information (advertising campaign, are tools that are not less appropriate than the ones the neoclassical economics offers, mainly because electricity is an invisible product and consumers are unable to assess it by normal cognitive measures. Using an interdisciplinary combination of behavioral tools that come from a variety of approaches taken from a wide variety of different academic fields, it is possible to receive efficient results in the endeavor of reducing electricity demand. Implications: Although the neoclassical economics still remains the fundamental theory used by policymakers, it is recommended to consider behavioral economics as a complementary approach to the neoclassical economics, and combine behavioral tools in the policymakers’ toolbox, especially when those tools do not require a significant financial investment, thus efficiently maximizing the reduction of electricity demand among domestic consumers. These theoretical results will be

  10. In vivo dendritic cell depletion reduces breeding efficiency, affecting implantation and early placental development in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krey, Gesa; Frank, Pierre; Shaikly, Valerie; Barrientos, Gabriela; Cordo-Russo, Rosalia; Ringel, Frauke; Moschansky, Petra; Chernukhin, Igor V; Metodiev, Metodi; Fernández, Nelson; Klapp, Burghard F; Arck, Petra C; Blois, Sandra M

    2008-09-01

    Implantation of mammalian embryos into their mother's uterus ensures optimal nourishment and protection throughout development. Complex molecular interactions characterize the implantation process, and an optimal synchronization of the components of this embryo-maternal dialogue is crucial for a successful reproductive outcome. In the present study, we investigated the role of dendritic cells (DC) during implantation process using a transgenic mouse system (DTRtg) that allows transient depletion of CD11c+ cells in vivo through administration of diphtheria toxin. We observed that DC depletion impairs the implantation process, resulting in a reduced breeding efficiency. Furthermore, the maturity of uterine natural killer cells at dendritic cell knockout (DCKO) implantation sites was affected as well; as demonstrated by decreased perforin expression and reduced numbers of periodic-acid-Schiff (PAS)-positive cells. This was accompanied by disarrangements in decidual vascular development. In the present study, we were also able to identify a novel DC-dependent protein, phosphatidylinositol transfer protein beta (PITPbeta), involved in implantation and trophoblast development using a proteomic approach. Indeed, DCKO mice exhibited substantial anomalies in placental development, including hypocellularity of the spongiotrophoblast and labyrinthine layers and reduced numbers of trophoblast giant cells. Giant cells also down-regulated their expression of two characteristic markers of trophoblast differentiation, placental lactogen 1 and proliferin. In view of these findings, dendritic cells emerge as possible modulators in the orchestration of events leading to the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy.

  11. Advances in Thermal Insulation. Vacuum Insulation Panels and Thermal Efficiency to Reduce Energy Usage in Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorsell, Thomas

    2012-07-01

    procedure incorporates specific steps exposing the wall to different climate conditions, ranging from cold and dry to hot and humid, with and without a pressure gradient. This study showed that air infiltration alone might decrease the thermal resistance of a residential wall by 15 %, more for industrial walls. Results from the research underpin a discussion concerning the importance of a holistic approach to building design if we are to meet the challenge of energy savings and sustainability. Thermal insulation efficiency is a main concept used throughout, and since it measures utilization it is a partial measure of sustainability. It is therefore proposed as a necessary design parameter in addition to a performance indicator when designing building envelopes. The thermal insulation efficiency ranges from below 50 % for a wood stud wall poorly designed with incorporated VIP, while an optimized design with VIP placed in an uninterrupted external layer shows an efficiency of 99 %, almost perfect. Thermal insulation efficiency reflects the measured wall performance full scale test, thus indicating efficiency under varied environmental loads: heat, moisture and pressure. The building design must be as a system, integrating all the subsystems together to function in concert. New design methodologies must be created along with new, more reliable and comprehensive measuring, testing and integrating procedures. New super insulators are capable of reducing energy usage below zero energy in buildings. It would be a shame to waste them by not taking care of the rest of the system. This thesis details the steps that went into this study and shows how this can be done Key words: Vacuum insulation panels, VIP, serpentine edge, thermal bridge, composite film, gas diffusion, defect dominated, holistic approach, building enclosure, integrated testing and modeling, energy equivalent, field performance, air flow, thermal insulation efficiency.

  12. Overexpression of protein kinase A - RIalpha reduces lipofection efficiency of cisplatin-resistant human tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, K K; Rosenblatt, J

    2001-04-10

    Cisplatin-resistant variant A2780CP/vector cells were 4.0-5.3-fold more transfectable and 7.6-fold more resistant to cisplatin than their parent cisplatin-sensitive human ovarian carcinoma A2780/vector cells. Overexpression of cAMP-dependent protein kinase Type I regulatory alpha subunit (PKA-RIalpha) gene in A2780CP cells significantly reduced (maximum 47.0%) the transfection activity, with a slight reduction (maximum 27.3%) of cisplatin resistance, of A2780CP cells. However, RIalpha-overexpressing A2780CP (A2780CP/RIalpha) cells were still 2.5-to 3.0-fold more transfectable and 5.5-fold more resistant to cisplatin than A2780 cells. This results suggest that gene transfer efficiency is associated with cisplatin resistance, in part, through the PKA-mediated cAMP signal transduction pathway.

  13. Efficient control of ultrafast optical nonlinearity of reduced graphene oxide by infrared reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattachraya, S.; Maiti, R.; Das, A. C.; Saha, S.; Mondal, S.; Ray, S. K.; Bhaktha, S. N. B.; Datta, P. K., E-mail: pkdatta.iitkgp@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721302 (India)

    2016-07-07

    Simultaneous occurrence of saturable absorption nonlinearity and two-photon absorption nonlinearity in the same medium is well sought for the devices like optical limiter and laser mode-locker. Pristine graphene sheet consisting entirely of sp{sup 2}-hybridized carbon atoms has already been identified having large optical nonlinearity. However, graphene oxide (GO), a precursor of graphene having both sp{sup 2} and sp{sup 3}-hybridized carbon atom, is increasingly attracting cross-discipline researchers for its controllable properties by reduction of oxygen containing groups. In this work, GO has been prepared by modified Hummers method, and it has been further reduced by infrared (IR) radiation. Characterization of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) by means of Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and UV-Visible absorption measurements confirms an efficient reduction with infrared radiation. Here, we report precise control of non-linear optical properties of RGO in femtosecond regime with increased degrees of IR reduction measured by open aperture z-scan technique. Depending on the intensity, both saturable absorption and two-photon absorption effects are found to contribute to the non-linearity of all the samples. Saturation dominates at low intensity (∼127 GW/cm{sup 2}) while two-photon absorption becomes prominent at higher intensities (from 217 GW/cm{sup 2} to 302 GW/cm{sup 2}). The values of two-photon absorption co-efficient (∼0.0022–0.0037 cm/GW for GO, and ∼0.0128–0.0143 cm/GW for RGO) and the saturation intensity (∼57 GW/cm{sup 2} for GO, and ∼194 GW/cm{sup 2} for RGO) increase with increasing reduction, indicating GO and RGO as novel tunable photonic devices. We have also explained the reason of tunable nonlinear optical properties by using amorphous carbon model.

  14. Efficient control of ultrafast optical nonlinearity of reduced graphene oxide by infrared reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattachraya, S.; Maiti, R.; Das, A. C.; Saha, S.; Mondal, S.; Ray, S. K.; Bhaktha, S. N. B.; Datta, P. K.

    2016-01-01

    Simultaneous occurrence of saturable absorption nonlinearity and two-photon absorption nonlinearity in the same medium is well sought for the devices like optical limiter and laser mode-locker. Pristine graphene sheet consisting entirely of sp"2-hybridized carbon atoms has already been identified having large optical nonlinearity. However, graphene oxide (GO), a precursor of graphene having both sp"2 and sp"3-hybridized carbon atom, is increasingly attracting cross-discipline researchers for its controllable properties by reduction of oxygen containing groups. In this work, GO has been prepared by modified Hummers method, and it has been further reduced by infrared (IR) radiation. Characterization of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) by means of Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and UV-Visible absorption measurements confirms an efficient reduction with infrared radiation. Here, we report precise control of non-linear optical properties of RGO in femtosecond regime with increased degrees of IR reduction measured by open aperture z-scan technique. Depending on the intensity, both saturable absorption and two-photon absorption effects are found to contribute to the non-linearity of all the samples. Saturation dominates at low intensity (∼127 GW/cm"2) while two-photon absorption becomes prominent at higher intensities (from 217 GW/cm"2 to 302 GW/cm"2). The values of two-photon absorption co-efficient (∼0.0022–0.0037 cm/GW for GO, and ∼0.0128–0.0143 cm/GW for RGO) and the saturation intensity (∼57 GW/cm"2 for GO, and ∼194 GW/cm"2 for RGO) increase with increasing reduction, indicating GO and RGO as novel tunable photonic devices. We have also explained the reason of tunable nonlinear optical properties by using amorphous carbon model.

  15. Apobec 3G efficiently reduces infectivity of the human exogenous gammaretrovirus XMRV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieler, Kristin; Fischer, Nicole

    2010-07-23

    The human exogenous gammaretrovirus XMRV is thought to be implicated in prostate cancer and chronic fatigue syndrome. Besides pressing epidemiologic questions, the elucidation of the tissue and cell tropism of the virus, as well as its sensitivity to retroviral restriction factors is of fundamental importance. The Apobec3 (A3) proteins, a family of cytidine deaminases, are one important group of host proteins that control primary infection and efficient viral spread. Here we demonstrate that XMRV is resistant to human Apobec 3B, 3C and 3F, while being highly susceptible to the human A3G protein, a factor which is known to confer antiviral activity against most retroviruses. We show that XMRV as well as MoMLV virions package Apobec proteins independent of their specific restriction activity. hA3G was found to be a potent inhibitor of XMRV as well as of MoMLV infectivity. In contrast to MoMLV, XMRV infection can also be partially reduced by low concentrations of mA3. Interestingly, established prostate cancer cell lines, which are highly susceptible to XMRV infection, do not or only weakly express hA3G. Our findings confirm and extend recently published data that show restriction of XMRV infection by hA3G. The results will be of value to explore which cells are infected with XMRV and efficiently support viral spread in vivo. Furthermore, the observation that XMRV infection can be reduced by mA3 is of interest with regard to the current natural reservoir of XMRV infection.

  16. Fiber-Based, Double-Sided, Reduced Graphene Oxide Films for Efficient Solar Vapor Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ankang; Ming, Xin; Fu, Yang; Wang, Gang; Wang, Xianbao

    2017-09-06

    Solar vapor generation is a promising and whole new branch of photothermal conversion for harvesting solar energy. Various materials and devices for solar thermal conversion were successively produced and reported for higher solar energy utilization in the past few years. Herein, a compact device of reduced graphene oxides (rGO) and paper fibers was designed and assembled for efficient solar steam generation under light illumination, and it consists of water supply pipelines (WSP), a thermal insulator (TI) and a double-sided absorbing film (DSF). Heat localization is enabled by the black DSF due to its broad absorption of sunlight. More importantly, the heat transfer, from the hot DSF to the cold base fluid (water), was suppressed by TI with a low thermal conductivity. Meanwhile, bulk water was continuously transported to the DSF by WSP through TI, which was driven by the surface energy and surface tension based on the capillary effect. The effects of reduction degrees of rGO on the photothermal conversion were explored, and the evaporation efficiency reached 89.2% under one sun with 60 mg rGO. This new microdevice provided a basic technical support for distillation, desalination, sewage treatment, and related technologies.

  17. An Efficient MapReduce-Based Parallel Clustering Algorithm for Distributed Traffic Subarea Division

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawen Xia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic subarea division is vital for traffic system management and traffic network analysis in intelligent transportation systems (ITSs. Since existing methods may not be suitable for big traffic data processing, this paper presents a MapReduce-based Parallel Three-Phase K-Means (Par3PKM algorithm for solving traffic subarea division problem on a widely adopted Hadoop distributed computing platform. Specifically, we first modify the distance metric and initialization strategy of K-Means and then employ a MapReduce paradigm to redesign the optimized K-Means algorithm for parallel clustering of large-scale taxi trajectories. Moreover, we propose a boundary identifying method to connect the borders of clustering results for each cluster. Finally, we divide traffic subarea of Beijing based on real-world trajectory data sets generated by 12,000 taxis in a period of one month using the proposed approach. Experimental evaluation results indicate that when compared with K-Means, Par2PK-Means, and ParCLARA, Par3PKM achieves higher efficiency, more accuracy, and better scalability and can effectively divide traffic subarea with big taxi trajectory data.

  18. Reduced nighttime transpiration is a relevant breeding target for high water-use efficiency in grapevine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coupel-Ledru, Aude; Lebon, Eric; Christophe, Angélique; Gallo, Agustina; Gago, Pilar; Pantin, Florent; Doligez, Agnès; Simonneau, Thierry

    2016-08-09

    Increasing water scarcity challenges crop sustainability in many regions. As a consequence, the enhancement of transpiration efficiency (TE)-that is, the biomass produced per unit of water transpired-has become crucial in breeding programs. This could be achieved by reducing plant transpiration through a better closure of the stomatal pores at the leaf surface. However, this strategy generally also lowers growth, as stomatal opening is necessary for the capture of atmospheric CO2 that feeds daytime photosynthesis. Here, we considered the reduction in transpiration rate at night (En) as a possible strategy to limit water use without altering growth. For this purpose, we carried out a genetic analysis for En and TE in grapevine, a major crop in drought-prone areas. Using recently developed phenotyping facilities, potted plants of a cross between Syrah and Grenache cultivars were screened for 2 y under well-watered and moderate soil water deficit scenarios. High genetic variability was found for En under both scenarios and was primarily associated with residual diffusion through the stomata. Five quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were detected that underlay genetic variability in En Interestingly, four of them colocalized with QTLs for TE. Moreover, genotypes with favorable alleles on these common QTLs exhibited reduced En without altered growth. These results demonstrate the interest of breeding grapevine for lower water loss at night and pave the way to breeding other crops with this underexploited trait for higher TE.

  19. Solid Fuel - Oxygen Fired Combustion for Production of Nodular Reduced Iron to Reduce CO2 Emissions and Improve Energy Efficiencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald R. Fosnacht; Richard F. Kiesel; David W. Hendrickson; David J. Englund; Iwao Iwasaki; Rodney L. Bleifuss; Mathew A. Mlinar

    2011-12-22

    The current trend in the steel industry is an increase in iron and steel produced in electric arc furnaces (EAF) and a gradual decline in conventional steelmaking from taconite pellets in blast furnaces. In order to expand the opportunities for the existing iron ore mines beyond their blast furnace customer base, a new material is needed to satisfy the market demands of the emerging steel industry while utilizing the existing infrastructure and materials handling capabilities. This demand creates opportunity to convert iron ore or other iron bearing materials to Nodular Reduced Iron (NRI) in a recently designed Linear Hearth Furnace (LHF). NRI is a metallized iron product containing 98.5 to 96.0% iron and 2.5 to 4% C. It is essentially a scrap substitute with little impurity that can be utilized in a variety of steelmaking processes, especially the electric arc furnace. The objective of this project was to focus on reducing the greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) through reducing the energy intensity using specialized combustion systems, increasing production and the use of biomass derived carbon sources in this process. This research examined the use of a solid fuel-oxygen fired combustion system and compared the results from this system with both oxygen-fuel and air-fuel combustion systems. The solid pulverized fuels tested included various coals and a bio-coal produced from woody biomass in a specially constructed pilot scale torrefaction reactor at the Coleraine Minerals Research Laboratory (CMRL). In addition to combustion, the application of bio-coal was also tested as a means to produce a reducing atmosphere during key points in the fusion process, and as a reducing agent for ore conversion to metallic iron to capture the advantage of its inherent reduced carbon footprint. The results from this study indicate that the approaches taken can reduce both greenhouse gas emissions and the associated energy intensity with the Linear Hearth Furnace process for converting

  20. An Efficient Reduced-Order Model for the Nonlinear Dynamics of Carbon Nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Tiantian

    2014-08-17

    Because of the inherent nonlinearities involving the behavior of CNTs when excited by electrostatic forces, modeling and simulating their behavior is challenging. The complicated form of the electrostatic force describing the interaction of their cylindrical shape, forming upper electrodes, to lower electrodes poises serious computational challenges. This presents an obstacle against applying and using several nonlinear dynamics tools that typically used to analyze the behavior of complicated nonlinear systems, such as shooting, continuation, and integrity analysis techniques. This works presents an attempt to resolve this issue. We present an investigation of the nonlinear dynamics of carbon nanotubes when actuated by large electrostatic forces. We study expanding the complicated form of the electrostatic force into enough number of terms of the Taylor series. We plot and compare the expanded form of the electrostatic force to the exact form and found that at least twenty terms are needed to capture accurately the strong nonlinear form of the force over the full range of motion. Then, we utilize this form along with an Euler–Bernoulli beam model to study the static and dynamic behavior of CNTs. The geometric nonlinearity and the nonlinear electrostatic force are considered. An efficient reduced-order model (ROM) based on the Galerkin method is developed and utilized to simulate the static and dynamic responses of the CNTs. We found that the use of the new expanded form of the electrostatic force enables avoiding the cumbersome evaluation of the spatial integrals involving the electrostatic force during the modal projection procedure in the Galerkin method, which needs to be done at every time step. Hence, the new method proves to be much more efficient computationally.

  1. Conditional Stochastic Models in Reduced Space: Towards Efficient Simulation of Tropical Cyclone Precipitation Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodov, B.

    2017-12-01

    Stochastic simulation of realistic and statistically robust patterns of Tropical Cyclone (TC) induced precipitation is a challenging task. It is even more challenging in a catastrophe modeling context, where tens of thousands of typhoon seasons need to be simulated in order to provide a complete view of flood risk. Ultimately, one could run a coupled global climate model and regional Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) model, but this approach is not feasible in the catastrophe modeling context and, most importantly, may not provide TC track patterns consistent with observations. Rather, we propose to leverage NWP output for the observed TC precipitation patterns (in terms of downscaled reanalysis 1979-2015) collected on a Lagrangian frame along the historical TC tracks and reduced to the leading spatial principal components of the data. The reduced data from all TCs is then grouped according to timing, storm evolution stage (developing, mature, dissipating, ETC transitioning) and central pressure and used to build a dictionary of stationary (within a group) and non-stationary (for transitions between groups) covariance models. Provided that the stochastic storm tracks with all the parameters describing the TC evolution are already simulated, a sequence of conditional samples from the covariance models chosen according to the TC characteristics at a given moment in time are concatenated, producing a continuous non-stationary precipitation pattern in a Lagrangian framework. The simulated precipitation for each event is finally distributed along the stochastic TC track and blended with a non-TC background precipitation using a data assimilation technique. The proposed framework provides means of efficient simulation (10000 seasons simulated in a couple of days) and robust typhoon precipitation patterns consistent with observed regional climate and visually undistinguishable from high resolution NWP output. The framework is used to simulate a catalog of 10000 typhoon

  2. Expression of a bacterial 3-dehydroshikimate dehydratase reduces lignin content and improves biomass saccharification efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eudes, Aymerick; Sathitsuksanoh, Noppadon; Baidoo, Edward E K; George, Anthe; Liang, Yan; Yang, Fan; Singh, Seema; Keasling, Jay D; Simmons, Blake A; Loqué, Dominique

    2015-12-01

    Lignin confers recalcitrance to plant biomass used as feedstocks in agro-processing industries or as source of renewable sugars for the production of bioproducts. The metabolic steps for the synthesis of lignin building blocks belong to the shikimate and phenylpropanoid pathways. Genetic engineering efforts to reduce lignin content typically employ gene knockout or gene silencing techniques to constitutively repress one of these metabolic pathways. Recently, new strategies have emerged offering better spatiotemporal control of lignin deposition, including the expression of enzymes that interfere with the normal process for cell wall lignification. In this study, we report that expression of a 3-dehydroshikimate dehydratase (QsuB from Corynebacterium glutamicum) reduces lignin deposition in Arabidopsis cell walls. QsuB was targeted to the plastids to convert 3-dehydroshikimate - an intermediate of the shikimate pathway - into protocatechuate. Compared to wild-type plants, lines expressing QsuB contain higher amounts of protocatechuate, p-coumarate, p-coumaraldehyde and p-coumaryl alcohol, and lower amounts of coniferaldehyde, coniferyl alcohol, sinapaldehyde and sinapyl alcohol. 2D-NMR spectroscopy and pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (pyro-GC/MS) reveal an increase of p-hydroxyphenyl units and a reduction of guaiacyl units in the lignin of QsuB lines. Size-exclusion chromatography indicates a lower degree of lignin polymerization in the transgenic lines. Therefore, our data show that the expression of QsuB primarily affects the lignin biosynthetic pathway. Finally, biomass from these lines exhibits more than a twofold improvement in saccharification efficiency. We conclude that the expression of QsuB in plants, in combination with specific promoters, is a promising gain-of-function strategy for spatiotemporal reduction of lignin in plant biomass. © 2015 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The

  3. Reducing externalisation: The impact of technical progress and of improved energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cueille, Jean-Philippe; Jourdain, Estelle [Instutute Francais Du Petrole, Ecole Nacionale Superieure du Petrole et des Monteurs Centre Economie et Gestion (France)

    1997-07-01

    The need for mobility of both people and goods is increasing with economic development and the satisfaction of this need is of vital importance to people in many countries. The amounts of pollutants originated for man, such as CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub 2} and unburned hydrocarbons, generally account for a large proportion of total emissions with local, regional and global consequences. This paper gives some ideas about the technological prospects for energy efficiency and reducing pollutant emissions in Europe. [Spanish] La necesidad para la movilidad tanto de la gente como de bienes esta aumentando con el desarrollo economico y la satisfaccion de esta necesidad es de vital importancia para le gente en muchos paises. La cantidad de contaminantes originados por el hombre tales como el CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub 2} e hidrocarburos sin quemar, generalmente es la responsable en una gran proporcion del total de las emisiones con consecuencias locales, regionales y globales. Este articulo da algunas ideas acerca de los prospectos tecnologicos para la eficiencia de la energia y la reduccion de las emisiones contaminantes en Europa.

  4. [The correlations between aging of the human body, oxidative stress and reduced efficiency of repair systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalak, Aleksandra; Krzeszowiak, Jakub; Markiewicz-Górka, Iwona

    2014-12-15

    The article presents an current knowledge overview about the importance of oxidative stress and reduced efficiency of repair processes during the aging process of the human body. Oxidative damage to cellular macromolecules (proteins, lipids, nucleic acids), are formed under the influence of reactive oxygen species (ROS). They are the part of important mechanism which is responsible for the process of aging and the development of many diseases. The most important effects result from DNA damage, due to the mutations formation, which can lead to the development of tumors. However, a well-functioning repair systems (i.a. homologous recombination) remove the damage and prevent harmful changes in the cells. Lipid peroxidation products also cause oxidative modification of nucleic acids (and proteins). Proteins and fats also have repair systems, but much simpler than those responsible for the repair of nucleic acids. Unfortunately, with increasing age, they are more weakened, which contributes to increase numbers of cell damage, and consequently development of diseases specific to old age: cancer, neurodegenerative diseases or atherosclerosis.

  5. In situ fabrication of green reduced graphene-based biocompatible anode for efficient energy recycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ying; Mallavarapu, Megharaj; Naidu, Ravi; Chen, Zuliang

    2018-02-01

    Improving the anode configuration to enhance biocompatibility and accelerate electron shuttling is critical for efficient energy recovery in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). In this paper, green reduced graphene nanocomposite was successfully coated using layer-by-layer assembly technique onto carbon brush anode. The modified anode achieved a 3.2-fold higher power density of 33.7 W m -3 at a current density of 69.4 A m -3 with a 75% shorter start period. As revealed in the characterization, the green synthesized nanocomposite film affords larger surface roughness for microbial colonization. Besides, gold nanoparticles, which anchored on graphene sheets, promise the relatively high electroactive sites and facilitate electron transfer from electricigens to the anode. The reduction-oxidation peaks in cyclic voltammograms indicated the mechanism of surface cytochromes facilitated current generation while the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy confirmed the enhanced electron transfer from surface cytochrome to electrode. The green synthesis process has the potential to generate a high performing anode in further applications of MFCs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Applying data envelopment analysis approach to improve energy efficiency and reduce GHG (greenhouse gas) emission of wheat production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoshnevisan, Benyamin; Rafiee, Shahin; Omid, Mahmoud; Mousazadeh, Hossein

    2013-01-01

    In this study, DEA (data envelopment analysis) was applied to analyze the energy efficiency of wheat farms in order to separate efficient and inefficient growers and to calculate the wasteful uses of energy. Additionally, the degrees of TE (technical efficiency), PTE (pure technical efficiency) and SE (scale efficiency) were determined. Furthermore, the effect of energy optimization on GHG (greenhouse gas) emission was investigated and the total amount of GHG emission of efficient farms was compared with inefficient ones. Based on the results it was revealed that 18% of producers were technically efficient and the average of TE was calculated as 0.82. Based on the BCC (Banker–Charnes–Cooper) model 154 growers (59%) were identified efficient and the mean PTE of these farmers was found to be 0.99. Also, it was concluded that 2075.8 MJ ha −1 of energy inputs can be saved if the performance of inefficient farms rises to a high level. Additionally, it was observed that the total GHG emission from efficient and inefficient producers was 2713.3 and 2740.8 kg CO 2eq . ha −1 , respectively. By energy optimization the total GHG emission can be reduced to the value of 2684.29 kg CO 2eq . ha −1 . - Highlights: • 18% of producers were technically efficient and the average of TE was 0.82. • An average 2075.8 MJ ha −1 from energy input could be saved without reducing the yield. • GHG emission of efficient and inefficient producers was 2713.3 and 2740.8 kg CO 2eq. ha −1 . • Total GHG emission can be reduced to the value of 2684.29 kg CO 2eq. ha −1

  7. Reduced prefrontal efficiency for visuospatial working memory in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bédard, Anne-Claude V; Newcorn, Jeffrey H; Clerkin, Suzanne M; Krone, Beth; Fan, Jin; Halperin, Jeffrey M; Schulz, Kurt P

    2014-09-01

    Visuospatial working memory impairments have been implicated in the pathophysiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, most ADHD research has focused on the neural correlates of nonspatial mnemonic processes. This study examined brain activation and functional connectivity for visuospatial working memory in youth with and without ADHD. Twenty-four youth with ADHD and 21 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing an N-back test of working memory for spatial position. Block-design analyses contrasted activation and functional connectivity separately for high (2-back) and low (1-back) working memory load conditions versus the control condition (0-back). The effect of working memory load was modeled with linear contrasts. The 2 groups performed comparably on the task and demonstrated similar patterns of frontoparietal activation, with no differences in linear gains in activation as working memory load increased. However, youth with ADHD showed greater activation in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and left posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), greater functional connectivity between the left DLPFC and left intraparietal sulcus, and reduced left DLPFC connectivity with left midcingulate cortex and PCC for the high load contrast compared to controls (p 100 voxels). Reanalysis using a more conservative statistical approach (p 100 voxels) yielded group differences in PCC activation and DLPFC-midcingulate connectivity. Youth with ADHD show decreased efficiency of DLPFC for high-load visuospatial working memory and greater reliance on posterior spatial attention circuits to store and update spatial position than healthy control youth. Findings should be replicated in larger samples. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Increasing electric vehicle policy efficiency and effectiveness by reducing mainstream market bias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Erin H.; Skerlos, Steven J.; Winebrake, James J.

    2014-01-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) provide an opportunity for reducing energy use and emissions in the transportation sector. Currently, a number of federal policies are in place to incentivize deployment of PEVs to mainstream consumers with demographics and vehicle attribute preferences most common to today's new vehicle purchasers. This article argues that policies intending to give PEVs a foothold in the market should not focus on mainstream consumers and should instead focus on niche markets—specifically carsharing and postal fleets—and early adopters including green consumers. Two arguments can be made in support of eliminating the mainstream market bias of current policies toward a policy of cultivating niche markets. The first is efficiency: so far PEV policies featuring a mainstream market bias have proven to be inefficient and costly. The second is effectiveness: it is becoming increasingly evident that PEV policies would be more effective in achieving potential societal benefits if they focused on early adopters and niche markets using such approaches as strategic niche management, accessible loans and financing, and appropriately targeted incentives. PEV policies focused on early adopters and niche markets would create complementary system effects that will lead to increased PEV market penetration and realization of intended societal benefits. - Highlights: • We argue that U.S. electric vehicle policies are inefficient and ineffective. • We introduce “mainstream consumer bias” as an explanation for policy deficiencies. • We propose an alternative policy agenda to address some of these policy problems. • Proposed policy options include strategic niche management, targeted R and D and incentives, and loans

  9. Intervention to reduce heat stress and improve efficiency among sugarcane workers in El Salvador: Phase 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodin, T; García-Trabanino, R; Weiss, I; Jarquín, E; Glaser, J; Jakobsson, K; Lucas, R A I; Wesseling, C; Hogstedt, C; Wegman, D H

    2016-06-01

    Chronic heat stress and dehydration from strenuous work in hot environments is considered an essential component of the epidemic of chronic kidney disease in Central America. (1) To assess feasibility of providing an intervention modelled on OSHA's Water.Rest.Shade programme (WRS) during sugarcane cutting and (2) to prevent heat stress and dehydration without decreasing productivity. Midway through the 6-month harvest, the intervention introduced WRS practices. A 60-person cutting group was provided water supplied in individual backpacks, mobile shaded rest areas and scheduled rest periods. Ergonomically improved machetes and efficiency strategies were also implemented. Health data (anthropometric, blood, urine, questionnaires) were collected preharvest, preintervention, mid-intervention and at the end of harvest. A subsample participated in focus group discussions. Daily wet bulb globe temperatures (WBGT) were recorded. The employer provided individual production records. Over the harvest WBGT was >26°C from 9:00 onwards reaching average maximum of 29.3±1.7°C, around 13:00. Postintervention self-reported water consumption increased 25%. Symptoms associated with heat stress and with dehydration decreased. Individual daily production increased from 5.1 to a high of 7.3 tons/person/day postintervention. This increase was greater than in other cutting groups at the company. Focus groups reported a positive perception of components of the WRS, and the new machete and cutting programmes. A WRS intervention is feasible in sugarcane fields, and appears to markedly reduce the impact of the heat stress conditions for the workforce. With proper attention to work practices, production can be maintained with less impact on worker health. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  10. Efficient technologies or user behaviour, which is the more important when reducing households' energy consumption?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    Much policy effort focuses on energy efficiency of technology, though not only efficiency but also user behaviour is an important factor influencing the amount of consumed energy. This paper explores to what extent energy efficiency of appliances and houses or user behaviour is the more important...... and Danish national statistics. These Danish data are discussed together with international studies. Through the presentation of these different projects and examples, it is shown how user behaviour is at least as important as the efficiency of technology when explaining households' energy consumption...

  11. Routes to increasing efficiency and reducing the cost of thin-film solar panels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deelen, J. van; Barink, M.; Klerk, L.; Voorthuijzen, P.; Hovestad, A.

    2015-01-01

    Most development work in the laboratory is dedicated to efficiency enhancements at the cell level; improvements in efficiency can lead to higher cost-competitiveness of PV. However, the cost of panel manufacturing is an important aspect as well. For CIGS panels the deposition of the active layer is

  12. An effective method of handling PRN orders to reduce labor and improve efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollum, G K; Poe, W D

    1990-11-01

    Rex Hospital, Raleigh, NC, found its method of PRN (unit dose) medication delivery to be time consuming, labor intensive, and repetitive. Thus, it was decided to evaluate this system and to find a more efficient method of PRN delivery. A 24 hour supply of unit dose medication is delivered daily using a cart exchange system at this hospital. Three approaches were used to reduce the handling of PRN medications: (1) Removing all PRN orders of Milk of Magnesia, cascara, and mineral oil from the patient drawer. These three medications are now floor stock items at each nursing station; (2) Removing all PRN orders of 325 mg aspirin and acetaminophen tablets, 600 mg aspirin, and 650 mg acetaminophen suppositories. These items are now kept at the nurses station as a "no charge" floor stock item; and (3) Using zip-lock bags for all other non-controlled PRN medication orders. A 48 hour supply of medication is sent upon receipt of the original order, and not filled again until the empty bag is returned to the pharmacy. The plastic bag is identified by a computer generated label containing the patient's name, room number, and medication identification. The patient medication drawer is divided into two areas, one for storing standing medication orders and one for PRN orders. A time study showed a 40% improvement in cart filling time. The 48 hour supply of PRN medications rarely need refilling. Milk of Magnesia, cascara, and mineral oil PRN orders are often ordered, but seldom used. Thus, floor stocking these items has not been a problem. Floor stocking aspirin and acetaminophen as no charge items has been very successful. All medication orders, including aspirin, acetaminophen, Milk of Magnesia, and so forth are entered onto the patient's medication profile even though they are not sent from the pharmacy. Drug allergies or drug-drug interactions can be detected by reviewing the patient profile when the original order is entered onto the profile. Nursing is very pleased with the

  13. Cuprous oxide nanoparticles dispersed on reduced graphene oxide as an efficient electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiao-Yan; Tong, Xi-Li; Zhang, Yue-Fei; Han, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Ying-Yong; Jin, Guo-Qiang; Qin, Yong; Guo, Xiang-Yun

    2012-02-11

    Cuprous oxide (Cu(2)O) nanoparticles dispersed on reduced graphene oxide (RGO) were prepared by reducing copper acetate supported on graphite oxide using diethylene glycol as both solvent and reducing agent. The Cu(2)O/RGO composite exhibits excellent catalytic activity and remarkable tolerance to methanol and CO in the oxygen reduction reaction. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  14. Thermoelectric conversion efficiency in IV-VI semiconductors with reduced thermal conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiro Ishida

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Mid-temperature thermoelectric conversion efficiencies of the IV-VI materials were calculated under the Boltzmann transport theory of carriers, taking the Seebeck, Peltier, and Thomson effects into account. The conversion efficiency was discussed with respect to the lattice thermal conductivity, keeping other parameters such as Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity to the same values. If room temperature lattice thermal conductivity is decreased up to 0.5W/mK, the conversion efficiency of a PbS based material becomes as high as 15% with the temperature difference of 500K between 800K and 300K.

  15. Reducing Barriers To The Use of High-Efficiency Lighting Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Morante

    2005-12-31

    With funding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Lighting Research Center (LRC) at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute completed the four-year research project, Reducing Barriers to the Use of High-Efficiency Lighting Systems. The initial objectives were: (1) identifying barriers to widespread penetration of lighting controls in commercial/industrial (C/I) applications that employ fluorescent lamp technologies, and (2) making recommendations to overcome these barriers. The addition of a fourth year expanded the original project objectives to include an examination of the impact on fluorescent lamps from dimming utilizing different lamp electrode heating and dimming ratios. The scope of the project was narrowed to identify barriers to the penetration of lighting controls into commercial-industrial (C/I) applications that employ fluorescent lamp technologies, and to recommend means for overcoming these barriers. Working with lighting manufacturers, specifiers, and installers, the project identified technological and marketing barriers to the widespread use of lighting controls, specifically automatic-off controls, occupancy sensors, photosensors, dimming systems, communication protocols and load-shedding ballasts. The primary barriers identified include cost effectiveness of lighting controls to the building owner, lack of standard communication protocols to allow different part of the control system to communicate effectively, and installation and commissioning issues. Overcoming the identified barriers requires lighting control products on the market to achieve three main goals: (1) Achieve sufficient functionality to meet the key requirements of their main market. (2) Allow significant cost reduction compared to current market standard systems. Cost should consider: hardware capital cost including wiring, design time required by the specifier and the control system manufacturer, installation time required by the electrician, and commissioning time and

  16. A reduced complexity highly power/bandwidth efficient coded FQPSK system with iterative decoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, M. K.; Divsalar, D.

    2001-01-01

    Based on a representation of FQPSK as a trellis-coded modulation, this paper investigates the potential improvement in power efficiency obtained from the application of simple outer codes to form a concatenated coding arrangement with iterative decoding.

  17. Role of energy efficiency standards in reducing CO2 emissions in Germany: An assessment with TIMES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blesl, Markus; Das, Anjana; Fahl, Ulrich; Remme, Uwe

    2007-01-01

    Energy efficiency is widely viewed as an important element of energy and environmental policy. Applying the TIMES model, this paper examines the impacts of additional efficiency improvement measures (as prescribed by the ACROPOLIS project) over the baseline, at the level of individual sectors level as well as in a combined implementation, on the German energy system in terms of energy savings, technological development, emissions and costs. Implementing efficiency measures in all sectors together, CO 2 reduction is possible through substitution of conventional gas or oil boilers by condensing gas boilers especially in single family houses, shifting from petrol to diesel vehicles in private transport, increased use of electric vehicles, gas combined cycle power plants and CHP (combined heat and power production) etc. At a sectoral level, the residential sector offers double benefits of CO 2 reduction and cost savings. In the transport sector, on the other hand, CO 2 reduction is the most expensive, using bio-fuels and methanol to achieve the efficiency targets. An additional case is examined which assumes the CO 2 emissions in the combined efficiency measures case as the target. This case concludes that, with different options, the same amount of CO 2 reduction is possible together with cost reductions over the baseline, confirming that the specific sectoral efficiency targets prescribed by ACROPOLIS may not be the optimal one to mitigate CO 2 . It applies the same efficiency improvement targets in the residential and industrial sectors but scales down the target in the service sector and avoids any further efficiency improvement in the transport sector. It replaces electricity with heating fuel in final energy consumption, while further increasing the use of gas for power generation in 2030. In 2050, part of the electricity demand is met through the import of electricity from renewable sources

  18. Optimisation of a Swedish district heating system with reduced heat demand due to energy efficiency measures in residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Åberg, M.; Henning, D.

    2011-01-01

    The development towards more energy efficient buildings, as well as the expansion of district heating (DH) networks, is generally considered to reduce environmental impact. But the combined effect of these two progressions is more controversial. A reduced heat demand (HD) due to higher energy efficiency in buildings might hamper co-production of electricity and DH. In Sweden, co-produced electricity is normally considered to displace electricity from less efficient European condensing power plants. In this study, a potential HD reduction due to energy efficiency measures in the existing building stock in the Swedish city Linköping is calculated. The impact of HD reduction on heat and electricity production in the Linköping DH system is investigated by using the energy system optimisation model MODEST. Energy efficiency measures in buildings reduce seasonal HD variations. Model results show that HD reductions primarily decrease heat-only production. The electricity-to-heat output ratio for the system is increased for HD reductions up to 30%. Local and global CO 2 emissions are reduced. If co-produced electricity replaces electricity from coal-fired condensing power plants, a 20% HD reduction is optimal for decreasing global CO 2 emissions in the analysed DH system. - Highlights: ► A MODEST optimisation model of the Linköping district heating system is used. ► The impact of heat demand reduction on heat and electricity production is examined. ► Model results show that heat demand reductions decrease heat-only production. ► Local and global CO 2 emissions are reduced. ► The system electricity-to-heat output increases for reduced heat demand up to 30%.

  19. Maximizing Efficiency and Reducing Robotic Surgery Costs Using the NASA Task Load Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Carrie; Webb, Paula J

    2017-10-01

    Perioperative leaders at our facility were struggling to meet efficiency targets for robotic surgery procedures while also maintaining the satisfaction of the surgical team. We developed a human resources time and motion study tool and used it in conjunction with the NASA Task Load Index to observe and analyze the required workload of personnel assigned to 25 robotic surgery procedures. The time and motion study identified opportunities to enlist the help of nonlicensed support personnel to ensure safe patient care and improve OR efficiency. Using the NASA Task Load Index demonstrated that high temporal, effort, and physical demands existed for personnel assisting with and performing robotic surgery. We believe that this process could be used to develop cost-effective staffing models, resulting in safe and efficient care for all surgical patients. Copyright © 2017 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Improved Magnetron Stability and Reduced Noise in Efficient Transmitters for Superconducting Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazakevich, G. [MUONS Inc., Batavia; Johnson, R. [MUONS Inc., Batavia; Lebedev, V. [Fermilab; Yakovlev, V. [Fermilab

    2018-04-01

    State of the art high-current superconducting accelerators require efficient RF sources with a fast dynamic phase and power control. This allows for compensation of the phase and amplitude deviations of the accelerating voltage in the Superconducting RF (SRF) cavities caused by microphonics, etc. Efficient magnetron transmitters with fast phase and power control are attractive RF sources for this application. They are more cost effective than traditional RF sources such as klystrons, IOTs and solid-state amplifiers used with large scale accelerator projects. However, unlike traditional RF sources, controlled magnetrons operate as forced oscillators. Study of the impact of the controlling signal on magnetron stability, noise and efficiency is therefore important. This paper discusses experiments with 2.45 GHz, 1 kW tubes and verifies our analytical model which is based on the charge drift approximation.

  1. A generic interface to reduce the efficiency-stability-cost gap of perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yi; Du, Xiaoyan; Scheiner, Simon; McMeekin, David P.; Wang, Zhiping; Li, Ning; Killian, Manuela S.; Chen, Haiwei; Richter, Moses; Levchuk, Ievgen; Schrenker, Nadine; Spiecker, Erdmann; Stubhan, Tobias; Luechinger, Norman A.; Hirsch, Andreas; Schmuki, Patrik; Steinrück, Hans-Peter; Fink, Rainer H.; Halik, Marcus; Snaith, Henry J.; Brabec, Christoph J.

    2017-12-01

    A major bottleneck delaying the further commercialization of thin-film solar cells based on hybrid organohalide lead perovskites is interface loss in state-of-the-art devices. We present a generic interface architecture that combines solution-processed, reliable, and cost-efficient hole-transporting materials without compromising efficiency, stability, or scalability of perovskite solar cells. Tantalum-doped tungsten oxide (Ta-WOx)/conjugated polymer multilayers offer a surprisingly small interface barrier and form quasi-ohmic contacts universally with various scalable conjugated polymers. In a simple device with regular planar architecture and a self-assembled monolayer, Ta-WOx-doped interface-based perovskite solar cells achieve maximum efficiencies of 21.2% and offer more than 1000 hours of light stability. By eliminating additional ionic dopants, these findings open up the entire class of organics as scalable hole-transporting materials for perovskite solar cells.

  2. Efficiency of inhibitor for biocorrosion influenced by consortium sulfate reducing bacteria on carbon steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahat, Nur Akma; Othman, Norinsan Kamil [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Sahrani, Fathul Karim [School of Environment and Natural Resources Science, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-09-25

    The inhibition efficiency of benzalkonium chloride (BKC) in controlling biocorrosion on the carbon steel surfaces has been investigated. The carbon steel coupons were incubated in the presence of consortium SRB (C-SRB) with and without BKC for the difference medium concentration. The corrosion rate and inhibition efficiency have been evaluated by a weight loss method. The morphology of biofilm C-SRB on the steel surfaces were characterized with variable pressure scanning electron microscopy (VPSEM). The results revealed that BKC exhibits a low corrosion rate, minimizing the cell growth and biofilm development on the carbon steel surfaces.

  3. Increasing the efficiency of heating systems by reducing the flue gas temperature below the dew point

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kremer, H.

    1981-06-01

    This paper deals with the fundamentals and technical possibilities of increasing the combustion efficiency of gas-fired heating units for domestic heating by cooling the flue gases below their water vapor saturation temperature. The improvement of the efficiency can be more than 15% in comparison even to modern warm water heating boilers. Important however is the availability of cooling fluids of sufficiently low temperatures which could be recirculated heating water, freshwater and air. Different possible applications of this method are discussed in detail.

  4. Efficiency of inhibitor for biocorrosion influenced by consortium sulfate reducing bacteria on carbon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahat, Nur Akma; Othman, Norinsan Kamil; Sahrani, Fathul Karim

    2015-01-01

    The inhibition efficiency of benzalkonium chloride (BKC) in controlling biocorrosion on the carbon steel surfaces has been investigated. The carbon steel coupons were incubated in the presence of consortium SRB (C-SRB) with and without BKC for the difference medium concentration. The corrosion rate and inhibition efficiency have been evaluated by a weight loss method. The morphology of biofilm C-SRB on the steel surfaces were characterized with variable pressure scanning electron microscopy (VPSEM). The results revealed that BKC exhibits a low corrosion rate, minimizing the cell growth and biofilm development on the carbon steel surfaces

  5. Efficiency of inhibitor for biocorrosion influenced by consortium sulfate reducing bacteria on carbon steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahat, Nur Akma; Othman, Norinsan Kamil; Sahrani, Fathul Karim

    2015-09-01

    The inhibition efficiency of benzalkonium chloride (BKC) in controlling biocorrosion on the carbon steel surfaces has been investigated. The carbon steel coupons were incubated in the presence of consortium SRB (C-SRB) with and without BKC for the difference medium concentration. The corrosion rate and inhibition efficiency have been evaluated by a weight loss method. The morphology of biofilm C-SRB on the steel surfaces were characterized with variable pressure scanning electron microscopy (VPSEM). The results revealed that BKC exhibits a low corrosion rate, minimizing the cell growth and biofilm development on the carbon steel surfaces.

  6. Improved laser-to-proton conversion efficiency in isolated reduced mass targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morace, A. [Center for Energy Research, University of California, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Bellei, C.; Patel, P. K. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Bartal, T.; Kim, J.; Beg, F. N. [Center for Energy Research, University of California, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Willingale, L.; Maksimchuk, A.; Krushelnick, K. [University of Michigan, 2200 Bonisteel Blvd. Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Wei, M. S. [Center for Energy Research, University of California, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); General Atomics, 3550 General Atomics Court, San Diego, California 92121 (United States); Batani, D. [Univ. Bordeaux, CNRS, CEA, CELIA (Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications), UMR 5107, F-33405 Talence (France); Piovella, N. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Stephens, R. B. [General Atomics, 3550 General Atomics Court, San Diego, California 92121 (United States)

    2013-07-29

    We present experimental results of laser-to-proton conversion efficiency as a function of lateral confinement of the refluxing electrons. Experiments were carried out using the T-Cubed laser at the Center for Ultrafast Optical Science, University of Michigan. We demonstrate that the laser-to-proton conversion efficiency increases by 50% with increased confinement of the target from surroundings with respect to a flat target of the same thickness. Three-dimensional hybrid particle-in-cell simulations using LSP code agree with the experimental data. The adopted target design is suitable for high repetition rate operation as well as for Inertial Confinement Fusion applications.

  7. Rapid and efficient synthesis of soluble graphene nanosheets using N-methyl-p-aminophenol sulfate as a reducing agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xialie; Wen Xiaohong; Liu Zhanpeng; Tan Yi; Yuan Ye; Zhang Ping

    2012-01-01

    Mass production of soluble graphene still remains a challenge, although several methodologies have been proposed. Here we report a rapid and efficient method for the synthesis of soluble graphene nanosheets (GNSs) with long-term dispersion stability in both aqueous and common organic solvents. Within only 12 min at 95 °C, exfoliated graphite oxide in ammonia solution (pH 10) was reduced to soluble GNSs using N-methyl-p-aminophenol sulfate (metol) as a reducing agent without external stabilizers. The prepared GNSs were characterized by different techniques and a comparison of metol and hydrazine hydrate as reducing agents was made. The results indicated that, with the advantages of being rapid, efficient, inexpensive and relatively environmentally friendly, the reduction of graphite oxide into soluble GNSs by metol is a promising substitute for hydrazine hydrate in the mass production of soluble GNSs. (paper)

  8. Evolution of farm management, nitrogen efficiency and economic performance on Dutch dairy farms reducing external inputs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, J.C.J.; Rossing, W.A.H.; Lantinga, E.A.

    2006-01-01

    The implementation of the statutory Mineral Accounting System (MINAS) in the Netherlands in the period 1998¿2003 required large reductions in nutrient inputs of dairy farms. Patterns in farm management adjustments throughout 6 years and their effectiveness in terms of nitrogen use efficiency (NUE)

  9. Enhanced charge efficiency and reduced energy use in capacitive deionization by increasing the discharge voltage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, T.; Dykstra, J.E.; Porada, S.; Wal, van der A.; Yoon, J.; Biesheuvel, P.M.

    2015-01-01

    Capacitive deionization (CDI) is an electrochemical method for water desalination using porous carbon electrodes. A key parameter in CDI is the charge efficiency, ¿, which is the ratio of salt adsorption over charge in a CDI-cycle. Values for ¿ in CDI are typically around 0.5-0.8, significantly less

  10. Reduced voltage losses yield 10% efficient fullerene free organic solar cells with >1 V open circuit voltages

    KAUST Repository

    Baran, D.

    2016-11-09

    Optimization of the energy levels at the donor-acceptor interface of organic solar cells has driven their efficiencies to above 10%. However, further improvements towards efficiencies comparable with inorganic solar cells remain challenging because of high recombination losses, which empirically limit the open-circuit voltage (Voc) to typically less than 1 V. Here we show that this empirical limit can be overcome using non-fullerene acceptors blended with the low band gap polymer PffBT4T-2DT leading to efficiencies approaching 10% (9.95%). We achieve Voc up to 1.12 V, which corresponds to a loss of only Eg/q - Voc = 0.5 ± 0.01 V between the optical bandgap Eg of the polymer and Voc. This high Voc is shown to be associated with the achievement of remarkably low non-geminate and non-radiative recombination losses in these devices. Suppression of non-radiative recombination implies high external electroluminescence quantum efficiencies which are orders of magnitude higher than those of equivalent devices employing fullerene acceptors. Using the balance between reduced recombination losses and good photocurrent generation efficiencies achieved experimentally as a baseline for simulations of the efficiency potential of organic solar cells, we estimate that efficiencies of up to 20% are achievable if band gaps and fill factors are further optimized. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2016.

  11. Role of exergy in increasing efficiency and sustainability and reducing environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, Marc A.; Dincer, Ibrahim; Kanoglu, Mehmet

    2008-01-01

    The use of exergy is described as a measure for identifying and explaining the benefits of sustainable energy and technologies, so the benefits can be clearly understood and appreciated by experts and non-experts alike, and the utilization of sustainable energy and technologies can be increased. Exergy can be used to assess and improve energy systems, and can help better understand the benefits of utilizing green energy by providing more useful and meaningful information than energy provides. Exergy clearly identifies efficiency improvements and reductions in thermodynamic losses attributable to more sustainable technologies. A new sustainability index is developed as a measure of how exergy efficiency affects sustainable development. Exergy can also identify better than energy the environmental benefits and economics of energy technologies. The results suggest that exergy should be utilized by engineers and scientists, as well as decision and policy makers, involved in green energy and technologies in tandem with other objectives and constraints

  12. Reducing barriers to energy efficiency in the German higher education sector. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleich, J.; Boede, U.

    2000-12-01

    This report describes the empirical research into barriers to energy efficiency in the German higher education (HE) sector. It is one of nine such reports in the BARRIERS project. The report contains description and analysis of six case studies of energy management in German universities. The results are analysed using the theoretical framework developed for the BARRIERS project (Sorrell et al., 2000). The report also provides brief recommendations on how these barriers to the rational use of energy (RUE) may be overcome and how energy efficiency within the sector may be improved. The results of the study for the higher education sector in Germany are summarised in this executive summary under the following headings: - Characterising the higher education sector; - Case studies of energy management in the German higher education sector; - Evidence of barriers in the German higher education sector; - The role of energy service companies in the higher education sector; - Policy implications. (orig.)

  13. Reducing barriers to energy efficiency in the German higher education sector. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleich, J.; Boede, U.

    2000-12-01

    This report describes the empirical research into barriers to energy efficiency in the German higher education (HE) sector. It is one of nine such reports in the BARRIERS project. The report contains description and analysis of six case studies of energy management in German universities. The results are analysed using the theoretical framework developed for the BARRIERS project (Sorrell et al., 2000). The report also provides brief recommendations on how these barriers to the rational use of energy (RUE) may be overcome and how energy efficiency within the sector may be improved. The results of the study for the higher education sector in Germany are summarised in this executive summary under the following headings: - Characterising the higher education sector; - Case studies of energy management in the German higher education sector; - Evidence of barriers in the German higher education sector; - The role of energy service companies in the higher education sector; - Policy implications. (orig.)

  14. Enhanced transfection efficiency and reduced cytotoxicity of novel lipid-polymer hybrid nanoplexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, Sanyog; Kumar, Sandeep; Agrawal, Ashish Kumar

    2013-01-01

    The present study reports the development, characterization, and evaluation of novel polyelectrolytes stabilized lipoplexes as a nonviral vector for gene delivery. In order to achieve the advantage of both DOTAP (1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium propane) and PEI (high transfection efficiency...... uptake and nuclear colocalization in comparison with DOTAP/PC, DOTAP/DOPE lipoplexes, and PEI polyplexes. Nanoplexes also exhibited 50-80, 11-12, 6-7, and 5-6 fold higher transfection efficiency in comparison with DOTAP/PC-lipoplexes, DOTAP/DOPE-lipoplexes, PEI-polyplexes, and lipofectamine, respectively......, and significantly lower toxicity in comparison with DOTAP/PC, DOTAP/DOPE lipoplexes, PEI polyplexes, and commercial lipofectamine....

  15. Reducing barriers to energy efficiency in the German mechanical engineering sector. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleich, J.; Boede, U.

    2000-12-01

    This report describes the empirical research into barriers to energy efficiency in the German mechanical engineering (ME) sector. It is one of nine such reports in the BARRIERS project. The report contains description and analysis of four case studies of energy management in German companies in the ME sector. The results are analysed using the theoretical framework developed for the BARRIERS project. The report also provides brief recommendations on how these barriers to the rational use of energy (RUE) may be overcome and how energy efficiency within the ME sector may be improved. The results of the study for the ME sector in Germany are summarised in this executive summary under the following headings: - Characterising the mechanical engineering sector; - Case studies of energy management in the German mechanical engineering sector; - Evidence of barriers in the German mechanical engineering sector; - The role of energy service companies in the mechanical engineering sector; - Policy implications. (orig.)

  16. Reducing barriers to energy efficiency in the German brewing sector. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleich, J; Boede, U; Ostertag, K; Radgen, P

    2000-12-01

    This report describes the empirical research into barriers to energy efficiency in the German brewing sector. It is one of nine such reports in the BARRIERS project. The report contains description and analysis of five case studies of energy management in German breweries. The results are analysed using the theoretical framework developed for the BARRIERS project. The report also provides brief recommendations on how these barriers to the rational use of energy (RUE) may be overcome and how energy efficiency within the brewing sector may be improved. The results of the study for the brewing sector in Germany are summarised in this executive summary under the following headings: - Characterising the brewing sector - Case studies of energy management in the German brewing sector; - Evidence of barriers in the German brewing sector; - The role of energy service companies in the brewing sector; - Policy implications. (orig.)

  17. Energy efficiency to reduce residential electricity and natural gas use under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyna, Janet L; Chester, Mikhail V

    2017-05-15

    Climate change could significantly affect consumer demand for energy in buildings, as changing temperatures may alter heating and cooling loads. Warming climates could also lead to the increased adoption and use of cooling technologies in buildings. We assess residential electricity and natural gas demand in Los Angeles, California under multiple climate change projections and investigate the potential for energy efficiency to offset increased demand. We calibrate residential energy use against metered data, accounting for differences in building materials and appliances. Under temperature increases, we find that without policy intervention, residential electricity demand could increase by as much as 41-87% between 2020 and 2060. However, aggressive policies aimed at upgrading heating/cooling systems and appliances could result in electricity use increases as low as 28%, potentially avoiding the installation of new generation capacity. We therefore recommend aggressive energy efficiency, in combination with low-carbon generation sources, to offset projected increases in residential energy demand.

  18. Reducing barriers to energy efficiency in the German mechanical engineering sector. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleich, J.; Boede, U.

    2000-12-01

    This report describes the empirical research into barriers to energy efficiency in the German mechanical engineering (ME) sector. It is one of nine such reports in the BARRIERS project. The report contains description and analysis of four case studies of energy management in German companies in the ME sector. The results are analysed using the theoretical framework developed for the BARRIERS project. The report also provides brief recommendations on how these barriers to the rational use of energy (RUE) may be overcome and how energy efficiency within the ME sector may be improved. The results of the study for the ME sector in Germany are summarised in this executive summary under the following headings: - Characterising the mechanical engineering sector; - Case studies of energy management in the German mechanical engineering sector; - Evidence of barriers in the German mechanical engineering sector; - The role of energy service companies in the mechanical engineering sector; - Policy implications. (orig.)

  19. Reducing barriers to energy efficiency in the German brewing sector. Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleich, J.; Boede, U.; Ostertag, K.; Radgen, P.

    2000-12-01

    This report describes the empirical research into barriers to energy efficiency in the German brewing sector. It is one of nine such reports in the BARRIERS project. The report contains description and analysis of five case studies of energy management in German breweries. The results are analysed using the theoretical framework developed for the BARRIERS project. The report also provides brief recommendations on how these barriers to the rational use of energy (RUE) may be overcome and how energy efficiency within the brewing sector may be improved. The results of the study for the brewing sector in Germany are summarised in this executive summary under the following headings: - Characterising the brewing sector; - Case studies of energy management in the German brewing sector; - Evidence of barriers in the German brewing sector; - The role of energy service companies in the brewing sector; - Policy implications. (orig.)

  20. REDUCED EFFICIENCY AS A FACTOR MANIFESTING THE EMOTIONAL BURNOUT OF TEACHERS OF PRE-SCHOOL INSTITUTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Zhanna Viktorovna Vodenitskaya; Alexander Vitalyevich Gychev; Natalya Konstantinovna Grickevich

    2015-01-01

    The article highlights the working efficiency of teachers of pre-school educational institutions. Professional work of teachers is one of the most psychologically intense social activities. Lack of uniform requirements from the administration, complex relationships between colleagues, external restraint of emotions lead to increased emotional stress, which adversely affects the health. The traces of stressful experiences of teachers manifest themselves in teachers’ negative attitude to work, ...

  1. High Efficiency - Reduced Emissions Boiler Systems for Steam, Heat, and Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    enable energy saving necessary for obtaining Energy Star certification for the whole boiler system. Widespread boiler control updates could be possible...adaptability to different boiler and oil/gas burner configurations, and extensibility to operation with nonconventional fuels (e.g., biogas and syngas...typically operating below or slightly above 80%. Higher efficiency improvements can certainly be obtained via boiler replacement and adoption of

  2. Plasma-induced high efficient synthesis of boron doped reduced graphene oxide for supercapacitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Shaobo; Wang, Zhaofeng; Jiang, Hanmei

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we presented a novel route to synthesize boron doped reduced graphene oxide (rGO) by using the dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma technology under ambient conditions. The doping of boron (1.4 at%) led to a significant improvement in the capacitance of rGO and supercapacitors ...

  3. Efficiency of equipment to reduce the harmful effects of oil spills at sea - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeset, S.

    1993-08-01

    The annual discharge of petroleum hydrocarbons to the marine environment is about 3.2 million metric tonnes. About 15% of this discharge is caused by accidental spills at sea. The paper gives an overview of the commonly available oil spill response systems with emphasis on cold waters. In principle the oil spill combat systems at sea can be divided into mechanical containment and recovery, chemical dispersants and in-situ burning. The paper highlights the applicability and efficiency of these combat systems under various conditions (weathering state of the oil, sea state and wind, etc.). 25 refs., 10 figs

  4. Spatial analyses of cost efficient measures to reduce N-leaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.; Abildtrup, Jens; Ørum, Jens Erik

    (WFD). The analysis shows that the geographical position of the measures are very important in order to achieve the expected nutrient reduction. The current income varies a lot in the River basin and this might influence the choice of cost effective measures to reduce nutrient load. Furthermore a close......The Nitrate Directive has only been implemented satisfactorily in a few EU countries. The Commission have accepted the Danish implementation of the directive based on the Plan for the Aquatic Environment II. The costs of this plan has been calculated to 70 million € or 2,0 € per kg N in reduced...... leaching. The farmers have paid 60% of the costs. The paper then describes an example of a regional analysis covering the River Basin of Ringkøbing Fjord in Denmark, which indicates the type of calculations needed to find the measures and costs in order to comply with parts of the Water Framework Directive...

  5. Plasma-induced highly efficient synthesis of boron doped reduced graphene oxide for supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shaobo; Wang, Zhaofeng; Jiang, Hanmei; Zhang, Limei; Ren, Jingzheng; Zheng, Mingtao; Dong, Lichun; Sun, Luyi

    2016-09-21

    In this work, we presented a novel route to synthesize boron doped reduced graphene oxide (rGO) by using the dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma technology under ambient conditions. The doping of boron (1.4 at%) led to a significant improvement in the capacitance of rGO and supercapacitors based on the as-synthesized B-rGO exhibited an outstanding specific capacitance.

  6. Structural changes in Mcm5 protein bypass Cdc7-Dbf4 function and reduce replication origin efficiency in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Margaret L; Leon, Ronald P; Pessoa-Brandao, Luis; Hunt, Sonia; Raghuraman, M K; Fangman, Walton L; Brewer, Bonita J; Sclafani, Robert A

    2007-11-01

    Eukaryotic chromosomal replication is a complicated process with many origins firing at different efficiencies and times during S phase. Prereplication complexes are assembled on all origins in G(1) phase, and yet only a subset of complexes is activated during S phase by DDK (for Dbf4-dependent kinase) (Cdc7-Dbf4). The yeast mcm5-bob1 (P83L) mutation bypasses DDK but results in reduced intrinsic firing efficiency at 11 endogenous origins and at origins located on minichromosomes. Origin efficiency may result from Mcm5 protein assuming an altered conformation, as predicted from the atomic structure of an archaeal MCM (for minichromosome maintenance) homologue. Similarly, an intragenic mutation in a residue predicted to interact with P83L suppresses the mcm5-bob1 bypass phenotype. We propose DDK phosphorylation of the MCM complex normally results in a single, highly active conformation of Mcm5, whereas the mcm5-bob1 mutation produces a number of conformations, only one of which is permissive for origin activation. Random adoption of these alternate states by the mcm5-bob1 protein can explain both how origin firing occurs independently of DDK and why origin efficiency is reduced. Because similar mutations in mcm2 and mcm4 cannot bypass DDK, Mcm5 protein may be a unique Mcm protein that is the final target of DDK regulation.

  7. Pt nanocrystals electrodeposited on reduced graphene oxide/carbon fiber paper with efficient electrocatalytic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiling Chen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Carbon fiber paper (CFP wrapped with reduced graphene oxide (rGO film as the composite support (rGO/CFP of Pt catalysts was studied. It was found that rGO could affect the size and morphology of Pt nanocrystals (NCs. Concave nanocubes (CNC Pt NCs ~ 20 nm were uniformly electrodeposited on high reduced HrGO/CFP while irregular Pt NCs ~ 62 nm were loaded on low reduced LrGO. Compared with Pt-LrGO/CFP and Pt-MrGO/CFP, the CNC Pt-HrGO/CFP exhibited a higher electrochemically active surface area (121.7 m2 g−1, as well as enhanced electrooxidation activity of methanol (499 mA mg−1 and formic acid (950 mA mg−1. The results further demonstrated that the CNC Pt-HrGO/CFP could serve as the gas diffusion electrode in fuel cells and yielded a satisfactory performance (1855 mW mg−1. The work can provide an attractive perspective on the convenient preparation of the novel gas diffusion electrode for proton exchange membrane fuel cells.

  8. Optimizing nitrogen uptake efficiency by irrigated wheat to reduce environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arslan, A.; Kurdali, F.; Al-Shayeb, R.

    2000-01-01

    Two wheat cultivars (Sham 3 and Sham 6) were grown after fallow for two seasons and after wheat for another two seasons, with sprinkler irrigation. Four N-fertilizer rates (0, 50, 100, and 150% of the recommended dose) were used. A neutron moisture probe was used to determine the time and amount of irrigation. Nitrogen-15 was used to determine the fate of fertilizer N. Porous ceramic samplers were installed at different depths in micro-plots fertilized with 15 N to monitor its movement in the soil. Dry biomass and grain yield of wheat after fallow were much higher than those of wheat after wheat. The effects of increasing amounts of N fertilizer were significant during the four seasons, but were more pronounced in wheat after wheat. The appropriate timing and amount of irrigation water contributed to high fertilizer-N recovery (between 44 and 75%). Plants recovered N fertilizer applied at tillering more efficiently than when it was applied at germination. Labelled N analysis showed no deep percolation of N fertilizer with water during the same growing season. Water use efficiency of wheat after fallow was almost twice that of wheat after wheat, and N fertilization of wheat after wheat increased the water use efficiency two to three fold. Chlorophyll readings with all treatments were high during the first and second seasons, especially those fertilized with the recommended N rate or more. These results were in agreement with Ceres-Wheat model output, where it did not predict any N stress. Nitrogen deficit was observed by eye, and was indicated by the Ceres-Wheat model and chlorophyll-meter readings on plants fertilized with low rates of N during the last two seasons. Acceptable agreement was observed between model prediction of soil-water content and that determined using isotopic techniques, and between observed and predicted grain yields and biomass, N yields of grain and total N yields. However, predictions of the model for some variables were weak-, indicating a

  9. Reduced topological efficiency in cortical-basal Ganglia motor network of Parkinson's disease: a resting state fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Luqing; Zhang, Jiuquan; Long, Zhiliang; Wu, Guo-Rong; Hu, Xiaofei; Zhang, Yanling; Wang, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is mainly characterized by dopamine depletion of the cortico-basal ganglia (CBG) motor circuit. Given that dopamine dysfunction could affect functional brain network efficiency, the present study utilized resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) and graph theoretical approach to investigate the topological efficiency changes of the CBG motor network in patients with PD during a relatively hypodopaminergic state (12 hours after a last dose of dopamimetic treatment). We found that PD compared with controls had remarkable decreased efficiency in the CBG motor network, with the most pronounced changes observed in rostral supplementary motor area (pre-SMA), caudal SMA (SMA-proper), primary motor cortex (M1), primary somatosensory cortex (S1), thalamus (THA), globus pallidus (GP), and putamen (PUT). Furthermore, reduced efficiency in pre-SMA, M1, THA and GP was significantly correlated with Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) motor scores in PD patients. Together, our results demonstrate that individuals with PD appear to be less effective at information transfer within the CBG motor pathway, which provides a novel perspective on neurobiological explanation for the motor symptoms in patients. These findings are in line with the pathophysiology of PD, suggesting that network efficiency metrics may be used to identify and track the pathology of PD.

  10. Reducing conditions are the key for efficient production of active ribonuclease inhibitor in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neubauer Peter

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The eukaryotic RNase ribonuclease/angiogenin inhibitors (RI are a protein group distinguished by a unique structure - they are composed of hydrophobic leucine-rich repeat motifs (LRR and contain a high amount of reduced cysteine residues. The members of this group are difficult to produce in E. coli and other recombinant hosts due to their high aggregation tendency. Results In this work dithiothreitol (DTT was successfully applied for improving the yield of correctly folded ribonuclease/angiogenin inhibitor in E. coli K12 periplasmic and cytoplasmic compartments. The feasibility of the in vivo folding concepts for cytoplasmic and periplasmic production were demonstrated at batch and fed-batch cultivation modes in shake flasks and at the bioreactor scale. Firstly, the best secretion conditions of RI in the periplasmic space were evaluated by using a high throughput multifactorial screening approach of a vector library, directly with the Enbase fed-batch production mode in 96-well plates. Secondly, the effect of the redox environment was evaluated in isogenic dsbA+ and dsbA- strains at the various cultivation conditions with reducing agents in the cultivation medium. Despite the fusion to the signal peptide, highest activities were found in the cytoplasmic fraction. Thus by removing the signal peptide the positive effect of the reducing agent DTT was clearly proven also for the cytoplasmic compartment. Finally, optimal periplasmic and cytoplasmic RI fed-batch production processes involving externally added DTT were developed in shake flasks and scaled up to the bioreactor scale. Conclusions DTT highly improved both, periplasmic and cytoplasmic accumulation and activity of RI at low synthesis rate, i.e. in constructs harbouring weak recombinant synthesis rate stipulating genetic elements together with cultivation at low temperature. In a stirred bioreactor environment RI folding was strongly improved by repeated pulse addition

  11. Facial synthesis of carrageenan/reduced graphene oxide/Ag composite as efficient SERS platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Yuhong; Wang, Zhong; Fu, Li; Peng, Feng, E-mail: yuhongzhengcas@gmail.com [Institute of Botany, Jiangsu Province and Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing (China); Wang, Aiwu [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong (Hong Kong)

    2017-01-15

    In this paper, we reported the preparation of carrageenan/reduced graphene oxide/Ag composite (CA-RGO-Ag) by a wet chemical method at room temperature using carrageenan, graphene oxide and silver nitrate as starting materials. As-prepared composite was characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, FTIR, SEM, EDX and XRD. Results showed that the reduction of graphene oxide (GO) and silver nitrate was achieved simultaneously by addition of NaBH{sub 4} . Surface-enhanced Raman scattering study showed that the obtained composite give an intensive and enhanced Raman scattering when Rhodamine B was used as a probing molecule. (author)

  12. Efficient local behavioral-change strategies to reduce the spread of epidemics in networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Yilei; Gregory, Steve; Mills, Harriet L.

    2013-10-01

    It has recently become established that the spread of infectious diseases between humans is affected not only by the pathogen itself but also by changes in behavior as the population becomes aware of the epidemic, for example, social distancing. It is also well known that community structure (the existence of relatively densely connected groups of vertices) in contact networks influences the spread of disease. We propose a set of local strategies for social distancing, based on community structure, that can be employed in the event of an epidemic to reduce the epidemic size. Unlike most social distancing methods, ours do not require individuals to know the disease state (infected or susceptible, etc.) of others, and we do not make the unrealistic assumption that the structure of the entire contact network is known. Instead, the recommended behavior change is based only on an individual's local view of the network. Each individual avoids contact with a fraction of his/her contacts, using knowledge of his/her local network to decide which contacts should be avoided. If the behavior change occurs only when an individual becomes ill or aware of the disease, these strategies can substantially reduce epidemic size with a relatively small cost, measured by the number of contacts avoided.

  13. Evaluation of the efficiency of an experimental biocover to reduce BTEX emissions from landfill biogas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhouit, Abderrahim; Schirmer, Waldir N; Johnson, Terry R; Cabana, Hubert; Cabral, Alexandre R

    2014-02-01

    Landfill emissions include volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and, particularly, benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene and xylene isomers (collectively called BTEX). The latter are the most common VOCs found in landfill biogas. BTEX affect air quality and may be harmful to human health. In conjunction with a study aiming to evaluate the efficiency of passive methane oxidizing biocovers, a complementary project was developed with the specific goal of evaluating the reduction in VOC emissions due to the installation of a biocover. One of the biocovers constructed at the Saint-Nicéphore (Quebec, Canada) landfill site was instrumented for this purpose. The total BTEX concentration in the raw biogas ranged from 28.7 to 65.4ppmv, and the measured concentration of BTEX in biogas emitted through the biocover ranged from below the limit of detection (BLD) to 2.1ppmv. The other volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) concentration varied from 18.8 to 40.4ppmv and from 0.8 to 1.2ppmv in the raw biogas and in the emitted biogas, respectively. The results obtained showed that the biocover effectiveness ranged from 67% to 100% and from 96% to 97% for BTEX and OVOC, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Reduced energy offset via substitutional doping for efficient organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiao; Sun, Weifu; Zhang, Qin; Ruan, Kelian; Cheng, Yuanyuan; Xu, Haijiao; Xu, Zhongyuan; Li, Qinghua

    2015-06-01

    Charge carrier transport in bulk heterojunction that is central to the device performance of solar cells is sensitively dependent on the energy level alignment of acceptor and donor. However, the effect of energy level regulation induced by nickel ions on the primary photoexcited electron transfer and the performance of P3HT/TiO2 hybrid solar cells remains being poorly understood and rarely studied. Here we demonstrate that the introduction of the versatile nickel ions into TiO2 nanocrystals can significantly elevate the conduction and valence band energy levels of the acceptor, thus resulting in a remarkable reduction of energy level offset between the conduction band of acceptor and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of donor. By applying transient photoluminescence and femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopies, we demonstrate that the electron transfer becomes more competitive after incorporating nickel ions. In particular, the electron transfer life time is shortened from 30.2 to 16.7 ps, i.e., more than 44% faster than pure TiO2 acceptor, thus leading to a notable increase of power conversion efficiency in organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells. This work underscores the promising virtue of engineering the reduction of 'excess' energy offset to accelerate electron transport and demonstrates the potential of nickel ions in applications of solar energy conversion and photon detectors.

  15. New Energy Efficient Housing Has Reduced Carbon Footprints in Outer but Not in Inner Urban Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottelin, Juudit; Heinonen, Jukka; Junnila, Seppo

    2015-08-18

    Avoiding urban sprawl and increasing density are often considered as effective means to mitigate climate change through urban planning. However, there have been rapid technological changes in the fields of housing energy and private driving, and the development is continuing. In this study, we analyze the carbon footprints of the residents living in new housing in different urban forms in Finland. We compare the new housing to existing housing stock. In all areas, the emissions from housing energy were significantly lower in new buildings. However, in the inner urban areas the high level of consumption, mostly due to higher affluence, reverse the gains of energy efficient new housing. The smallest carbon footprints were found in newly built outer and peri-urban areas, also when income level differences were taken into account. Rather than strengthening the juxtaposition of urban and suburban areas, we suggest that it would be smarter to recognize the strengths and weaknesses of both modes of living and develop a more systemic strategy that would result in greater sustainability in both areas. Since such strategy does not exist yet, it should be researched and practically developed. It would be beneficial to focus on area specific mitigation measures.

  16. Factor-Reduced Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Efficiently Differentiate into Neurons Independent of the Number of Reprogramming Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Hermann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reprogramming of somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs by overexpression of the transcription factors OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and c-Myc holds great promise for the development of personalized cell replacement therapies. In an attempt to minimize the risk of chromosomal disruption and to simplify reprogramming, several studies demonstrated that a reduced set of reprogramming factors is sufficient to generate iPSC. We recently showed that a reduction of reprogramming factors in murine cells not only reduces reprogramming efficiency but also may worsen subsequent differentiation. To prove whether this is also true for human cells, we compared the efficiency of neuronal differentiation of iPSC generated from fetal human neural stem cells with either one (OCT4; hiPSC1F-NSC or two (OCT4, KLF4; hiPSC2F-NSC reprogramming factors with iPSC produced from human fibroblasts using three (hiPSC3F-FIB or four reprogramming factors (hiPSC4F-FIB. After four weeks of coculture with PA6 stromal cells, neuronal differentiation of hiPSC1F-NSC and hiPSC2F-NSC was as efficient as iPSC3F-FIB or iPSC4F-FIB. We conclude that a reduction of reprogramming factors in human cells does reduce reprogramming efficiency but does not alter subsequent differentiation into neural lineages. This is of importance for the development of future application of iPSC in cell replacement therapies.

  17. Increasing reticle inspection efficiency and reducing wafer print-checks using automated defect classification and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Sung Jae; Lim, Sung Taek; Vacca, Anthony; Fiekowsky, Peter; Fiekowsky, Dan

    2013-09-01

    IC fabs inspect critical masks on a regular basis to ensure high wafer yields. These requalification inspections are costly for many reasons including the capital equipment, system maintenance, and labor costs. In addition, masks typically remain in the "requal" phase for extended, non-productive periods of time. The overall "requal" cycle time in which reticles remain non-productive is challenging to control. Shipping schedules can slip when wafer lots are put on hold until the master critical layer reticle is returned to production. Unfortunately, substituting backup critical layer reticles can significantly reduce an otherwise tightly controlled process window adversely affecting wafer yields. One major requal cycle time component is the disposition process of mask inspections containing hundreds of defects. Not only is precious non-productive time extended by reviewing hundreds of potentially yield-limiting detections, each additional classification increases the risk of manual review techniques accidentally passing real yield limiting defects. Even assuming all defects of interest are flagged by operators, how can any person's judgment be confident regarding lithographic impact of such defects? The time reticles spend away from scanners combined with potential yield loss due to lithographic uncertainty presents significant cycle time loss and increased production costs. Fortunately, a software program has been developed which automates defect classification with simulated printability measurement greatly reducing requal cycle time and improving overall disposition accuracy. This product, called ADAS (Auto Defect Analysis System), has been tested in both engineering and high-volume production environments with very successful results. In this paper, data is presented supporting significant reduction for costly wafer print checks, improved inspection area productivity, and minimized risk of misclassified yield limiting defects.

  18. Economic feasibility of a novel energy efficient middle vessel batch distillation to reduce energy use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babu, G. Uday Bhaskar; Aditya, R.; Jana, Amiya K.

    2012-01-01

    It has long been recognized that the highly irreversible operation of batch distillation involves more wastage of energy compared to continuous flow distillation. For boosting its energy efficiency, the middle vessel batch distillation (MVBD) column has been invented. In this paper, a rigorous model for an MVBD process for the separation of a ternary hydrocarbon system is developed to simulate its transient behavior. In order to obtain the products at their maximum achievable purities, we device the two operating policies for the representative configuration. This contribution introduces a heat pumping system in the MVBD aiming to further improve its energetic and economic potentials. This novel heat integration technique is operated with a variable speed compressor for pressurizing the overhead vapor before thermally coupling it with the reboiler liquid. Interestingly, along with the compression ratio (CR), the other two manipulated variables are the inflow rate of overhead vapor to the compressor and that of an external medium (here, steam) that provides makeup heat to the reboiler. The operation of this adaptive heat pump assisted column originally involves the simultaneous adaptation of two variables throughout the entire batch processing. The simulation results show that a cost savings predicted in the heat integrated MVBD scheme can be achieved along with a substantial reduction in energy consumption. -- Highlights: ► The two operating policies have been derived for middle vessel batch distillation operation. ► This contribution introduces an adaptive heat pumping system for the middle vessel column. ► The heat integrated column shows better energetic and economic potentials over its conventional counterpart.

  19. TESTING OF THE EFFICIENCY OF SOME ENZYMATIC MIXTURES, CONCERNING THE CONVERSION OF SEVERAL LIGNOCELLULOSIC BIOMASS’ SOURSES, TO REDUCING SUGARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADIANA TAMBA-BEREHOIU

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Three lignocelluloses substrates have been used, as following: Mischantus, Maize stalk and Wheat bran, in order to obtain fermentescible sugars, which will be transformed into bioethanol. The substrates were hydrolysed using commercial enzymes: MethaPlus (b-glucanase, xylanase, cellulase, Veron 191 (xylanase, Hep C (cellulase. The hydrolysis was performed at 550 C, for 20 h, at pH = 5,5. The best results were obtained by using MethaPlus enzyme. The efficiency of hydrolysis was 110.80 % for Miscanthus, 126.15 % for maize stalk and 118.76 % for wheat bran, reported to the control. The most enhanced quantities of reducing sugars were obtained in maize stalk, namely: 126.15 % using MethaPlus, 112.07 % using Veron 191 and 113.52 % using Hep C. The wheat bran was hydrolysed with enzymatic mixtures, for emphasizing the reducing sugars’ grow, coming from residual starch’s content (flour. In comparison to the control, the efficiency of hydrolysis was of: 181.004 % for MethaPlus-Veron M4 mixture, 168.83 % for MethaPlus-Veron 393 mixture, 205.86 % for MethaPlus-BG a-malt mixture and of 176.57 % for MethaPlus-Veron MX mixture. The enzymatic mixture which contains BG a-malt was the most productive, the hydrolysis efficiency being superior to all other variants.

  20. Origin of Reduced Open-Circuit Voltage in Highly Efficient Small-Molecule-Based Solar Cells upon Solvent Vapor Annealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wanyuan; Gao, Ke; Yan, Jun; Liang, Quanbin; Xie, Yuan; He, Zhicai; Wu, Hongbin; Peng, Xiaobin; Cao, Yong

    2018-03-07

    In this study, we demonstrate that remarkably reduced open-circuit voltage in highly efficient organic solar cells (OSCs) from a blend of phenyl-C 61 -butyric acid methyl ester and a recently developed conjugated small molecule (DPPEZnP-THD) upon solvent vapor annealing (SVA) is due to two independent sources: increased radiative recombination and increased nonradiative recombination. Through the measurements of electroluminescence due to the emission of the charge-transfer state and photovoltaic external quantum efficiency measurement, we can quantify that the open-circuit voltage losses in a device with SVA due to the radiative recombination and nonradiative recombination are 0.23 and 0.31 V, respectively, which are 0.04 and 0.07 V higher than those of the as-cast device. Despite of the reduced open-circuit voltage, the device with SVA exhibited enhanced dissociation of charge-transfer excitons, leading to an improved short-circuit current density and a remarkable power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 9.41%, one of the best for solution-processed OSCs based on small-molecule donor materials. Our study also clearly shows that removing the nonradiative recombination pathways and/or suppressing energetic disorder in the active layer would result in more long-lived charge carriers and enhanced open-circuit voltage, which are prerequisites for further improving the PCE.

  1. Efficiency of Worm Reactors in Reducing Sludge Volume in Activated Sludge Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Naderi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The activated sludge process is the most widely used on a global scale for the biological treatment of both domestic and industrial effluents. One problem associated with the process, however, is the high volume of sludge produced. Excess sludge treatment and disposal account for up to 60% of the total operating costs of urban wastewater treatment plants due to the stringent environmental regulations on excess sludge disposal. These strict requirements have encouraged a growing interest over the last few years in reducing sludge volumes produced at biological treatment plants and a number of physical, chemical, and mechanical methods have been accordingly developed for this purpose. The proposed methods are disadvantaged due to their rather high investment and operation costs. An alternative technology that avoids many of these limitations is the worm reactor. In this study, the characteristics of this technology are investigated while the related literature is reviewed to derive the optimal conditions for the operation of this process in different situations.

  2. Lean six sigma methodologies improve clinical laboratory efficiency and reduce turnaround times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inal, Tamer C; Goruroglu Ozturk, Ozlem; Kibar, Filiz; Cetiner, Salih; Matyar, Selcuk; Daglioglu, Gulcin; Yaman, Akgun

    2018-01-01

    Organizing work flow is a major task of laboratory management. Recently, clinical laboratories have started to adopt methodologies such as Lean Six Sigma and some successful implementations have been reported. This study used Lean Six Sigma to simplify the laboratory work process and decrease the turnaround time by eliminating non-value-adding steps. The five-stage Six Sigma system known as define, measure, analyze, improve, and control (DMAIC) is used to identify and solve problems. The laboratory turnaround time for individual tests, total delay time in the sample reception area, and percentage of steps involving risks of medical errors and biological hazards in the overall process are measured. The pre-analytical process in the reception area was improved by eliminating 3 h and 22.5 min of non-value-adding work. Turnaround time also improved for stat samples from 68 to 59 min after applying Lean. Steps prone to medical errors and posing potential biological hazards to receptionists were reduced from 30% to 3%. Successful implementation of Lean Six Sigma significantly improved all of the selected performance metrics. This quality-improvement methodology has the potential to significantly improve clinical laboratories. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Reduced Fracture Finite Element Model Analysis of an Efficient Two-Scale Hybrid Embedded Fracture Model

    KAUST Repository

    Amir, Sahar Z.

    2017-06-09

    A Hybrid Embedded Fracture (HEF) model was developed to reduce various computational costs while maintaining physical accuracy (Amir and Sun, 2016). HEF splits the computations into fine scale and coarse scale. Fine scale solves analytically for the matrix-fracture flux exchange parameter. Coarse scale solves for the properties of the entire system. In literature, fractures were assumed to be either vertical or horizontal for simplification (Warren and Root, 1963). Matrix-fracture flux exchange parameter was given few equations built on that assumption (Kazemi, 1968; Lemonnier and Bourbiaux, 2010). However, such simplified cases do not apply directly for actual random fracture shapes, directions, orientations …etc. This paper shows that the HEF fine scale analytic solution (Amir and Sun, 2016) generates the flux exchange parameter found in literature for vertical and horizontal fracture cases. For other fracture cases, the flux exchange parameter changes according to the angle, slop, direction, … etc. This conclusion rises from the analysis of both: the Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) and the HEF schemes. The behavior of both schemes is analyzed with exactly similar fracture conditions and the results are shown and discussed. Then, a generalization is illustrated for any slightly compressible single-phase fluid within fractured porous media and its results are discussed.

  4. Efficient electrocatalytic performance of thermally exfoliated reduced graphene oxide-Pt hybrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antony, Rajini P., E-mail: raji.anna@gmail.com; Preethi, L.K.; Gupta, Bhavana; Mathews, Tom, E-mail: tom@igcar.gov.in; Dash, S.; Tyagi, A.K.

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Synthesis of Pt–RGO nanohybrids of very high electrochemically active surface area. • Electrocatalytic activity-cum-stability: ∼10 times that of commercial Pt-C catalyst. • TEM confirms narrow size distribution and excellent dispersion of Pt nanoparticles. • SAED and XRD indicate (1 1 1) orientation of Pt nanoparticles. • Methanol oxidation EIS reveal decrease in charge transfer resistance with potential - Abstract: High quality thermally exfoliated reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanosheets decorated with platinum nanocrystals have been synthesized using a simple environmentally benign process. The electrocatalytic behaviour of the Pt–RGO nanohybrid for methanol oxidation was studied using cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. High resolution transmission electron microscopy shows uniform dispersion of Pt nanoparticles of ∼2–4 nm size. X-ray diffraction and selected area diffraction studies reveal (1 1 1) orientation of the platinum nanoparticles. The cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry results indicate higher catalytic activity and stability for Pt–RGO compared to commercial Pt-C. The electrochemical active surface area of Pt–RGO (52.16 m{sup 2}/g) is found to be 1.5 times that of commercial Pt-C. Impedance spectroscopy shows different impedance behaviour at different potential regions, indicating change in methanol oxidation reaction mechanism with potential. The reversal of impedance pattern to the second quadrant, at potentials higher than ∼0.40 V, indicates change in the rate determining reaction.

  5. Reduced Efficiency of Chlorine Disinfection of Naegleria fowleri in a Drinking Water Distribution Biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Haylea C; Wylie, Jason; Dejean, Guillaume; Kaksonen, Anna H; Sutton, David; Braun, Kalan; Puzon, Geoffrey J

    2015-09-15

    Naegleria fowleri associated with biofilm and biological demand water (organic matter suspended in water that consumes disinfectants) sourced from operational drinking water distribution systems (DWDSs) had significantly increased resistance to chlorine disinfection. N. fowleri survived intermittent chlorine dosing of 0.6 mg/L for 7 days in a mixed biofilm from field and laboratory-cultured Escherichia coli strains. However, N. fowleri associated with an attached drinking water distribution biofilm survived more than 30 times (20 mg/L for 3 h) the recommended concentration of chlorine for drinking water. N. fowleri showed considerably more resistance to chlorine when associated with a real field biofilm compared to the mixed laboratory biofilm. This increased resistance is likely due to not only the consumption of disinfectants by the biofilm and the reduced disinfectant penetration into the biofilm but also the composition and microbial community of the biofilm itself. The increased diversity of the field biofilm community likely increased N. fowleri's resistance to chlorine disinfection compared to that of the laboratory-cultured biofilm. Previous research has been conducted in only laboratory scale models of DWDSs and laboratory-cultured biofilms. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating how N. fowleri can persist in a field drinking water distribution biofilm despite chlorination.

  6. RMP: Reduced-set matching pursuit approach for efficient compressed sensing signal reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael M. Abdel-Sayed

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Compressed sensing enables the acquisition of sparse signals at a rate that is much lower than the Nyquist rate. Compressed sensing initially adopted ℓ1 minimization for signal reconstruction which is computationally expensive. Several greedy recovery algorithms have been recently proposed for signal reconstruction at a lower computational complexity compared to the optimal ℓ1 minimization, while maintaining a good reconstruction accuracy. In this paper, the Reduced-set Matching Pursuit (RMP greedy recovery algorithm is proposed for compressed sensing. Unlike existing approaches which either select too many or too few values per iteration, RMP aims at selecting the most sufficient number of correlation values per iteration, which improves both the reconstruction time and error. Furthermore, RMP prunes the estimated signal, and hence, excludes the incorrectly selected values. The RMP algorithm achieves a higher reconstruction accuracy at a significantly low computational complexity compared to existing greedy recovery algorithms. It is even superior to ℓ1 minimization in terms of the normalized time-error product, a new metric introduced to measure the trade-off between the reconstruction time and error. RMP superior performance is illustrated with both noiseless and noisy samples.

  7. RMP: Reduced-set matching pursuit approach for efficient compressed sensing signal reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Sayed, Michael M; Khattab, Ahmed; Abu-Elyazeed, Mohamed F

    2016-11-01

    Compressed sensing enables the acquisition of sparse signals at a rate that is much lower than the Nyquist rate. Compressed sensing initially adopted [Formula: see text] minimization for signal reconstruction which is computationally expensive. Several greedy recovery algorithms have been recently proposed for signal reconstruction at a lower computational complexity compared to the optimal [Formula: see text] minimization, while maintaining a good reconstruction accuracy. In this paper, the Reduced-set Matching Pursuit (RMP) greedy recovery algorithm is proposed for compressed sensing. Unlike existing approaches which either select too many or too few values per iteration, RMP aims at selecting the most sufficient number of correlation values per iteration, which improves both the reconstruction time and error. Furthermore, RMP prunes the estimated signal, and hence, excludes the incorrectly selected values. The RMP algorithm achieves a higher reconstruction accuracy at a significantly low computational complexity compared to existing greedy recovery algorithms. It is even superior to [Formula: see text] minimization in terms of the normalized time-error product, a new metric introduced to measure the trade-off between the reconstruction time and error. RMP superior performance is illustrated with both noiseless and noisy samples.

  8. Reduced Fracture Finite Element Model Analysis of an Efficient Two-Scale Hybrid Embedded Fracture Model

    KAUST Repository

    Amir, Sahar Z.; Chen, Huangxin; Sun, Shuyu

    2017-01-01

    A Hybrid Embedded Fracture (HEF) model was developed to reduce various computational costs while maintaining physical accuracy (Amir and Sun, 2016). HEF splits the computations into fine scale and coarse scale. Fine scale solves analytically for the matrix-fracture flux exchange parameter. Coarse scale solves for the properties of the entire system. In literature, fractures were assumed to be either vertical or horizontal for simplification (Warren and Root, 1963). Matrix-fracture flux exchange parameter was given few equations built on that assumption (Kazemi, 1968; Lemonnier and Bourbiaux, 2010). However, such simplified cases do not apply directly for actual random fracture shapes, directions, orientations …etc. This paper shows that the HEF fine scale analytic solution (Amir and Sun, 2016) generates the flux exchange parameter found in literature for vertical and horizontal fracture cases. For other fracture cases, the flux exchange parameter changes according to the angle, slop, direction, … etc. This conclusion rises from the analysis of both: the Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) and the HEF schemes. The behavior of both schemes is analyzed with exactly similar fracture conditions and the results are shown and discussed. Then, a generalization is illustrated for any slightly compressible single-phase fluid within fractured porous media and its results are discussed.

  9. Performance of the latest MPPCs with reduced dark counts and improved photon detection efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujikawa, T.; Funamoto, H.; Kataoka, J.; Fujita, T.; Nishiyama, T.; Kurei, Y.; Sato, K.; Yamamura, K.; Nakamura, S.

    2014-01-01

    We have tested the performance of two types of the latest Multi-Pixel Photon Counters (MPPCs; measuring 3×3 mm 2 in size) developed by Hamamatsu Photonics K.K. The new S12572-050C is a successor to the S10362-33-050C (i.e., conventional 3×3-mm 2 pixel MPPC of 50 μm pitch), comprises 3600 Geiger mode avalanche photodiodes (APDs), and also features high gain (up to 1.25×10 6 ), a low dark count (up to 10 6 cps), and improved photon detection efficiency (PDE) by up to 30%. The S12572-015C is a new type of fine-pitch (15 μm) MPPC featuring a wide dynamic range and fast timing response. This paper first presents the detailed performance of these latest MPPCs as photon counting devices. It then describes our fabrication of a prototype detector consisting of a MPPC optically coupled with a Ce:GAGG scintillator. We obtained average FWHM energy resolutions of 7.3% (15 μm) and 6.7% (new-50 μm), as compared to 6.9% (old-50 μm) for 662-keV gamma rays from the 137 Cs source, as measured at 20 °C. Moreover, the number of fired pixels for 662-keV gamma rays increased by 30% for the new-50 μm (as compared to the old-50 μm). We confirmed that the low energy threshold improved from 10 keV to 4 keV, when using the latest MPPC device (new-50 μm). We also confirmed that the timing resolution of the new MPPC is 50 ps or even better, as compared to 89 ps of the old MPPC. The results thus confirm that these new types of MPPCs are promising for various applications as scintillation detectors. - Highlights: • We tested the performance of the latest MPPC. • We confirmed that the new MPPC is superior to the old MPPC. • We plan to apply the new MPPC for a next-generation PET and a handy Compton camera

  10. Performance of the latest MPPCs with reduced dark counts and improved photon detection efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsujikawa, T., E-mail: takayuki-t.w@asagi.waseda.jp [Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1, Ohkubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo (Japan); Funamoto, H.; Kataoka, J.; Fujita, T.; Nishiyama, T.; Kurei, Y. [Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1, Ohkubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo (Japan); Sato, K.; Yamamura, K.; Nakamura, S. [Solid State Division, Hamamatsu Photonics K. K., 1126-1, Ichino-cho, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka (Japan)

    2014-11-21

    We have tested the performance of two types of the latest Multi-Pixel Photon Counters (MPPCs; measuring 3×3 mm{sup 2} in size) developed by Hamamatsu Photonics K.K. The new S12572-050C is a successor to the S10362-33-050C (i.e., conventional 3×3-mm{sup 2} pixel MPPC of 50 μm pitch), comprises 3600 Geiger mode avalanche photodiodes (APDs), and also features high gain (up to 1.25×10{sup 6}), a low dark count (up to 10{sup 6} cps), and improved photon detection efficiency (PDE) by up to 30%. The S12572-015C is a new type of fine-pitch (15 μm) MPPC featuring a wide dynamic range and fast timing response. This paper first presents the detailed performance of these latest MPPCs as photon counting devices. It then describes our fabrication of a prototype detector consisting of a MPPC optically coupled with a Ce:GAGG scintillator. We obtained average FWHM energy resolutions of 7.3% (15 μm) and 6.7% (new-50 μm), as compared to 6.9% (old-50 μm) for 662-keV gamma rays from the {sup 137}Cs source, as measured at 20 °C. Moreover, the number of fired pixels for 662-keV gamma rays increased by 30% for the new-50 μm (as compared to the old-50 μm). We confirmed that the low energy threshold improved from 10 keV to 4 keV, when using the latest MPPC device (new-50 μm). We also confirmed that the timing resolution of the new MPPC is 50 ps or even better, as compared to 89 ps of the old MPPC. The results thus confirm that these new types of MPPCs are promising for various applications as scintillation detectors. - Highlights: • We tested the performance of the latest MPPC. • We confirmed that the new MPPC is superior to the old MPPC. • We plan to apply the new MPPC for a next-generation PET and a handy Compton camera.

  11. Enhanced carrier collection efficiency and reduced quantum state absorption by electron doping in self-assembled quantum dot solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Tian, E-mail: tianlee@umd.edu, E-mail: dage@ece.umd.edu; Dagenais, Mario, E-mail: tianlee@umd.edu, E-mail: dage@ece.umd.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Lu, Haofeng; Fu, Lan; Tan, Hark Hoe; Jagadish, Chennupati [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2015-02-02

    Reduced quantum dot (QD) absorption due to state filling effects and enhanced electron transport in doped QDs are demonstrated to play a key role in solar energy conversion. Reduced QD state absorption with increased n-doping is observed in the self-assembled In{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 0.5}As/GaAs QDs from high resolution below-bandgap external quantum efficiency (EQE) measurement, which is a direct consequence of the Pauli exclusion principle. We also show that besides partial filling of the quantum states, electron-doping produces negatively charged QDs that exert a repulsive Coulomb force on the mobile electrons, thus altering the electron trajectory and reducing the probability of electron capture, leading to an improved collection efficiency of photo-generated carriers, as indicated by an absolute above-bandgap EQE measurement. The resulting redistribution of the mobile electron in the planar direction is further validated by the observed photoluminescence intensity dependence on doping.

  12. How to characterize the efficiency of policies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions? A method of analysis in an uncertain universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amant, Stephane

    2011-01-01

    For ADEME (the French Agence de l'Environnement et de la Maitrise de l'Energie), Carbone 4, a consulting firm, has developed several tools that apply a methodology for assessing the efficiency of policies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. This methodology is based on two criteria: the 'full cost per ton of avoided CO 2 equivalent' and the 'potential of avoided emissions'. It is original in that it compares measurements in quite different socioeconomic contexts and thus yields elements that are useful for making choices in an uncertain universe, as shall be increasingly necessary. This methodology brings to light the key factors determining a measure's efficiency and thus identifies the conditions for its success or failure. It is a precious tool for decision-making

  13. High efficiency cabin air filter in vehicles reduces drivers' roadway particulate matter exposures and associated lipid peroxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Nu; Shu, Shi; Lin, Yan; She, Jianwen; Ip, Ho Sai Simon; Qiu, Xinghua; Zhu, Yifang

    2017-01-01

    Commuters who spend long hours on roads are exposed to high levels of traffic related air pollutants (TRAPs). Despite some well-known multiple adverse effects of TRAPs on human health, limited studies have focused on mitigation strategies to reduce these effects. In this study, we measured fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ultrafine particle (UFP) concentrations inside and outside 17 taxis simultaneously while they were driven on roadways. The drivers' urinary monohydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs) and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations just before and right after the driving tests were also determined. Data were collected under three driving conditions (i.e. no mitigation (NM), window closed (WC), and window closed plus using high efficiency cabin air filters (WC+HECA)) for each taxi and driver. The results show that, compared to NM, the WC+HECA reduced in-cabin PM2.5 and UFP concentrations, by 37% and 47% respectively (p health.

  14. Template-Directed Instrumentation Reduces Cost and Improves Efficiency for Total Knee Arthroplasty: An Economic Decision Analysis and Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLawhorn, Alexander S; Carroll, Kaitlin M; Blevins, Jason L; DeNegre, Scott T; Mayman, David J; Jerabek, Seth A

    2015-10-01

    Template-directed instrumentation (TDI) for total knee arthroplasty (TKA) may streamline operating room (OR) workflow and reduce costs by preselecting implants and minimizing instrument tray burden. A decision model simulated the economics of TDI. Sensitivity analyses determined thresholds for model variables to ensure TDI success. A clinical pilot was reviewed. The accuracy of preoperative templates was validated, and 20 consecutive primary TKAs were performed using TDI. The model determined that preoperative component size estimation should be accurate to ±1 implant size for 50% of TKAs to implement TDI. The pilot showed that preoperative template accuracy exceeded 97%. There were statistically significant improvements in OR turnover time and in-room time for TDI compared to an historical cohort of TKAs. TDI reduces costs and improves OR efficiency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A facile route to porous beta-gallium oxide nanowires-reduced graphene oxide hybrids with enhanced photocatalytic efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, X. [State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); School of Science, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); Lei, M., E-mail: minglei@bupt.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); School of Science, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); Huang, K.; Liang, C.; Xu, J.C.; Shangguan, Z.C. [School of Science, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); Yuan, Q.X. [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Zhengzhou Institute of Aeronautical Industry Management, Zhengzhou 450015 (China); Ma, L.H. [School of Science, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); Du, Y.X., E-mail: duyinxiao@zzia.edu.cn [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Zhengzhou Institute of Aeronautical Industry Management, Zhengzhou 450015 (China); Fan, D.Y.; Yang, H.J.; Wang, Y.G.; Tang, W.H. [School of Science, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China)

    2015-02-25

    Highlights: • A facile route was developed to fabricate porous β-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} NWs-rGO hybrids. • Supercritical water can act as an efficient reductant to situ-reduce GO into RGO. • The Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} NWs attach on the surface of RGO through a strong coupling forces. • The photocatalytic performance of the hybrids can be obviously improved. - Abstract: A facile route was developed to fabricate porous beta-gallium oxide nanowires (β-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} NWs)-reduced graphene oxide (rGO) hybrids using β-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} NWs and graphene oxide (GO) as raw materials. The characterization results indicate that supercritical water can act as an efficient reductant to situ-reduce GO into rGO, and porous β-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} NWs can further attach on the surface of as-reduced rGO through a strong coupling forces between the β-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} NWs and rGO. The photocatalytic performance of the hybrids can be obviously improved (about 74%) for the decomposition of methylene blue (MB) solution after coupling with 1 wt% rGO compared with the pure β-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} NWs. The enhanced photocatalytic activity can be attributed to the synergistic effect of extended optical absorption band, the enrichment of MB molecular on the rGO and the valid inhibition of recombination of photo-generated electron–hole pairs induced by the strong coupling interaction between rGO nanosheets and porous β-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} NWs.

  16. A facile route to porous beta-gallium oxide nanowires-reduced graphene oxide hybrids with enhanced photocatalytic efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, X.; Lei, M.; Huang, K.; Liang, C.; Xu, J.C.; Shangguan, Z.C.; Yuan, Q.X.; Ma, L.H.; Du, Y.X.; Fan, D.Y.; Yang, H.J.; Wang, Y.G.; Tang, W.H.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A facile route was developed to fabricate porous β-Ga 2 O 3 NWs-rGO hybrids. • Supercritical water can act as an efficient reductant to situ-reduce GO into RGO. • The Ga 2 O 3 NWs attach on the surface of RGO through a strong coupling forces. • The photocatalytic performance of the hybrids can be obviously improved. - Abstract: A facile route was developed to fabricate porous beta-gallium oxide nanowires (β-Ga 2 O 3 NWs)-reduced graphene oxide (rGO) hybrids using β-Ga 2 O 3 NWs and graphene oxide (GO) as raw materials. The characterization results indicate that supercritical water can act as an efficient reductant to situ-reduce GO into rGO, and porous β-Ga 2 O 3 NWs can further attach on the surface of as-reduced rGO through a strong coupling forces between the β-Ga 2 O 3 NWs and rGO. The photocatalytic performance of the hybrids can be obviously improved (about 74%) for the decomposition of methylene blue (MB) solution after coupling with 1 wt% rGO compared with the pure β-Ga 2 O 3 NWs. The enhanced photocatalytic activity can be attributed to the synergistic effect of extended optical absorption band, the enrichment of MB molecular on the rGO and the valid inhibition of recombination of photo-generated electron–hole pairs induced by the strong coupling interaction between rGO nanosheets and porous β-Ga 2 O 3 NWs

  17. Removal efficiency of radioactive cesium and iodine ions by a flow-type apparatus designed for electrochemically reduced water production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeki Hamasaki

    Full Text Available The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident on March 11, 2011 attracted people's attention, with anxiety over possible radiation hazards. Immediate and long-term concerns are around protection from external and internal exposure by the liberated radionuclides. In particular, residents living in the affected regions are most concerned about ingesting contaminated foodstuffs, including drinking water. Efficient removal of radionuclides from rainwater and drinking water has been reported using several pot-type filtration devices. A currently used flow-type test apparatus is expected to simultaneously provide radionuclide elimination prior to ingestion and protection from internal exposure by accidental ingestion of radionuclides through the use of a micro-carbon carboxymethyl cartridge unit and an electrochemically reduced water production unit, respectively. However, the removability of radionuclides from contaminated tap water has not been tested to date. Thus, the current research was undertaken to assess the capability of the apparatus to remove radionuclides from artificially contaminated tap water. The results presented here demonstrate that the apparatus can reduce radioactivity levels to below the detection limit in applied tap water containing either 300 Bq/kg of 137Cs or 150 Bq/kg of 125I. The apparatus had a removal efficiency of over 90% for all concentration ranges of radio-cesium and -iodine tested. The results showing efficient radionuclide removability, together with previous studies on molecular hydrogen and platinum nanoparticles as reactive oxygen species scavengers, strongly suggest that the test apparatus has the potential to offer maximum safety against radionuclide-contaminated foodstuffs, including drinking water.

  18. A Spatiotemporal Indexing Approach for Efficient Processing of Big Array-Based Climate Data with MapReduce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenlong; Hu, Fei; Schnase, John L.; Duffy, Daniel Q.; Lee, Tsengdar; Bowen, Michael K.; Yang, Chaowei

    2016-01-01

    Climate observations and model simulations are producing vast amounts of array-based spatiotemporal data. Efficient processing of these data is essential for assessing global challenges such as climate change, natural disasters, and diseases. This is challenging not only because of the large data volume, but also because of the intrinsic high-dimensional nature of geoscience data. To tackle this challenge, we propose a spatiotemporal indexing approach to efficiently manage and process big climate data with MapReduce in a highly scalable environment. Using this approach, big climate data are directly stored in a Hadoop Distributed File System in its original, native file format. A spatiotemporal index is built to bridge the logical array-based data model and the physical data layout, which enables fast data retrieval when performing spatiotemporal queries. Based on the index, a data-partitioning algorithm is applied to enable MapReduce to achieve high data locality, as well as balancing the workload. The proposed indexing approach is evaluated using the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) climate reanalysis dataset. The experimental results show that the index can significantly accelerate querying and processing (10 speedup compared to the baseline test using the same computing cluster), while keeping the index-to-data ratio small (0.0328). The applicability of the indexing approach is demonstrated by a climate anomaly detection deployed on a NASA Hadoop cluster. This approach is also able to support efficient processing of general array-based spatiotemporal data in various geoscience domains without special configuration on a Hadoop cluster.

  19. Human endogenous retrovirus K Gag coassembles with HIV-1 Gag and reduces the release efficiency and infectivity of HIV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monde, Kazuaki; Contreras-Galindo, Rafael; Kaplan, Mark H; Markovitz, David M; Ono, Akira

    2012-10-01

    Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs), which are remnants of ancestral retroviruses integrated into the human genome, are defective in viral replication. Because activation of HERV-K and coexpression of this virus with HIV-1 have been observed during HIV-1 infection, it is conceivable that HERV-K could affect HIV-1 replication, either by competition or by cooperation, in cells expressing both viruses. In this study, we found that the release efficiency of HIV-1 Gag was 3-fold reduced upon overexpression of HERV-K(CON) Gag. In addition, we observed that in cells expressing Gag proteins of both viruses, HERV-K(CON) Gag colocalized with HIV-1 Gag at the plasma membrane. Furthermore, HERV-K(CON) Gag was found to coassemble with HIV-1 Gag, as demonstrated by (i) processing of HERV-K(CON) Gag by HIV-1 protease in virions, (ii) coimmunoprecipitation of virion-associated HERV-K(CON) Gag with HIV-1 Gag, and (iii) rescue of a late-domain-defective HERV-K(CON) Gag by wild-type (WT) HIV-1 Gag. Myristylation-deficient HERV-K(CON) Gag localized to nuclei, suggesting cryptic nuclear trafficking of HERV-K Gag. Notably, unlike WT HERV-K(CON) Gag, HIV-1 Gag failed to rescue myristylation-deficient HERV-K(CON) Gag to the plasma membrane. Efficient colocalization and coassembly of HIV-1 Gag and HERV-K Gag also required nucleocapsid (NC). These results provide evidence that HIV-1 Gag heteromultimerizes with HERV-K Gag at the plasma membrane, presumably through NC-RNA interaction. Intriguingly, HERV-K Gag overexpression reduced not only HIV-1 release efficiency but also HIV-1 infectivity in a myristylation- and NC-dependent manner. Altogether, these results indicate that Gag proteins of endogenous retroviruses can coassemble with HIV-1 Gag and modulate the late phase of HIV-1 replication.

  20. Energy-efficient pulse-coupled synchronization strategy design for wireless sensor networks through reduced idle listening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongqiang; Núñez, Felipe; Doyle, Francis J.

    2013-01-01

    Synchronization is crucial to wireless sensor networks due to their decentralized structure. We propose an energy-efficient pulse-coupled synchronization strategy to achieve this goal. The basic idea is to reduce idle listening by intentionally introducing a large refractory period in the sensors’ cooperation. The large refractory period greatly reduces idle listening in each oscillation period, and is analytically proven to have no influence on the time to synchronization. Hence, it significantly reduces the total energy consumption in a synchronization process. A topology control approach tailored for pulse-coupled synchronization is given to guarantee a k-edge strongly connected interaction topology, which is tolerant to communication-link failures. The topology control approach is totally decentralized and needs no information exchange among sensors, and it is applicable to dynamic network topologies as well. This facilitates a completely decentralized implementation of the synchronization strategy. The strategy is applicable to mobile sensor networks, too. QualNet case studies confirm the effectiveness of the synchronization strategy. PMID:24307831

  1. Andrographolide attenuates skeletal muscle dystrophy in mdx mice and increases efficiency of cell therapy by reducing fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Daniel; Gutiérrez, Jaime; Cabello-Verrugio, Claudio; Morales, Maria Gabriela; Mezzano, Sergio; Fadic, Ricardo; Casar, Juan Carlos; Hancke, Juan L; Brandan, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is characterized by the absence of the cytoskeletal protein dystrophin, muscle wasting, increased transforming growth factor type beta (TGF-β) signaling, and fibrosis. At the present time, the only clinically validated treatments for DMD are glucocorticoids. These drugs prolong muscle strength and ambulation of patients for a short term only and have severe adverse effects. Andrographolide, a bicyclic diterpenoid lactone, has traditionally been used for the treatment of colds, fever, laryngitis, and other infections with no or minimal side effects. We determined whether andrographolide treatment of mdx mice, an animal model for DMD, affects muscle damage, physiology, fibrosis, and efficiency of cell therapy. mdx mice were treated with andrographolide for three months and skeletal muscle histology, creatine kinase activity, and permeability of muscle fibers were evaluated. Fibrosis and TGF-β signaling were evaluated by indirect immunofluorescence and Western blot analyses. Muscle strength was determined in isolated skeletal muscles and by a running test. Efficiency of cell therapy was determined by grafting isolated skeletal muscle satellite cells onto the tibialis anterior of mdx mice. mdx mice treated with andrographolide exhibited less severe muscular dystrophy than untreated dystrophic mice. They performed better in an exercise endurance test and had improved muscle strength in isolated muscles, reduced skeletal muscle impairment, diminished fibrosis and a significant reduction in TGF-β signaling. Moreover, andrographolide treatment of mdx mice improved grafting efficiency upon intramuscular injection of dystrophin-positive satellite cells. These results suggest that andrographolide could be used to improve quality of life in individuals with DMD.

  2. Disruption of reducing pathways is not essential for efficient disulfide bond formation in the cytoplasm of E. coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatahet Feras

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The formation of native disulfide bonds is a complex and essential post-translational modification for many proteins. The large scale production of these proteins can be difficult and depends on targeting the protein to a compartment in which disulfide bond formation naturally occurs, usually the endoplasmic reticulum of eukaryotes or the periplasm of prokaryotes. It is currently thought to be impossible to produce large amounts of disulfide bond containing protein in the cytoplasm of wild-type bacteria such as E. coli due to the presence of multiple pathways for their reduction. Results Here we show that the introduction of Erv1p, a sulfhydryl oxidase and FAD-dependent catalyst of disulfide bond formation found in the inter membrane space of mitochondria, allows the efficient formation of native disulfide bonds in heterologously expressed proteins in the cytoplasm of E. coli even without the disruption of genes involved in disulfide bond reduction, for example trxB and/or gor. Indeed yields of active disulfide bonded proteins were higher in BL21 (DE3 pLysSRARE, an E. coli strain with the reducing pathways intact, than in the commercial Δgor ΔtrxB strain rosetta-gami upon co-expression of Erv1p. Conclusions Our results refute the current paradigm in the field that disruption of at least one of the reducing pathways is essential for the efficient production of disulfide bond containing proteins in the cytoplasm of E. coli and open up new possibilities for the use of E. coli as a microbial cell factory.

  3. Reducing the negative sensory impact of volatile phenols in red wine with different chitosans: Effect of structure on efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipe-Ribeiro, Luís; Cosme, Fernanda; Nunes, Fernando M

    2018-03-01

    "Brett character" is a negative sensory attribute acquired by red wines when contaminating Dekkera/Brettanomyces yeasts produce 4-ethylphenol and 4-ethylguaiacol, known as volatile phenols (VPs), from cinnamic acid precursors. In this study, chitins and chitosans with different structural features, namely deacetylation degree (5-91%) and molecular weight (24-466kDa) were used for the reduction of this sensory defect. Chitins and chitosans decreased 7-26% of the headspace abundance of VPs without changing their amounts in wines. The efficiency of reduction increased with the deacetylation degree and applied dose. Reduction of headspace abundance of VPs by chitosans enabled significant decreases in the negative phenolic and bitterness attributes and increased positive fruity and floral attributes. Results show that chitosan with high deacetylation degrees, including fungal chitosan, which is already approved for use in wines, is an efficient approach for reducing the negative sensory impact of VPs in red wines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Reduced Graphene Oxide-Immobilized Tris(bipyridine)ruthenium(II) Complex for Efficient Visible-Light-Driven Reductive Dehalogenation Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyan; Hao, Zhongkai; Zhang, Fang; Li, Hexing

    2016-05-18

    A sodium benzenesulfonate (PhSO3Na)-functionalized reduced graphene oxide was synthesized via a two-step aryl diazonium coupling and subsequent NaCl ion-exchange procedure, which was used as a support to immobilize tris(bipyridine)ruthenium(II) complex (Ru(bpy)3Cl2) by coordination reaction. This elaborated Ru(bpy)3-rGO catalyst exhibited excellent catalytic efficiency in visible-light-driven reductive dehalogenation reactions under mild conditions, even for ary chloride. Meanwhile, it showed the comparable reactivity with the corresponding homogeneous Ru(bpy)3Cl2 catalyst. This high catalytic performance could be attributed to the unique two-dimensional sheet-like structure of Ru(bpy)3-rGO, which efficiently diminished diffusion resistance of the reactants. Meanwhile, the nonconjugated PhSO3Na-linkage between Ru(II) complex and the support and the very low electrical conductivity of the catalyst inhibited energy/electron transfer from Ru(II) complex to rGO support, resulting in the decreased support-induced quenching effect. Furthermore, it could be easily recycled at least five times without significant loss of catalytic reactivity.

  5. Easing the natural gas crisis: Reducing natural gas prices through increased deployment of renewable energy and energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark; St. Clair, Matt

    2004-12-21

    Heightened natural gas prices have emerged as a key energy-policy challenge for at least the early part of the 21st century. With the recent run-up in gas prices and the expected continuation of volatile and high prices in the near future, a growing number of voices are calling for increased diversification of energy supplies. Proponents of renewable energy and energy efficiency identify these clean energy sources as an important part of the solution. Increased deployment of renewable energy (RE) and energy efficiency (EE) can hedge natural gas price risk in more than one way, but this paper touches on just one potential benefit: displacement of gas-fired electricity generation, which reduces natural gas demand and thus puts downward pressure on gas prices. Many recent modeling studies of increased RE and EE deployment have demonstrated that this ''secondary'' effect of lowering natural gas prices could be significant; as a result, this effect is increasingly cited as justification for policies promoting RE and EE. This paper summarizes recent studies that have evaluated the gas-price-reduction effect of RE and EE deployment, analyzes the results of these studies in light of economic theory and other research, reviews the reasonableness of the effect as portrayed in modeling studies, and develops a simple tool that can be used to evaluate the impact of RE and EE on gas prices without relying on a complex national energy model. Key findings are summarized.

  6. Determining the efficiency of a commercial belly board device in reducing small bowel volume in rectal cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukarski, Dusko; Petkovska, Sonja; Angelovska, Natalija; Grozdanovska, Biljana; Mitrevski, Nenad

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this treatment planning study was to evaluate the efficiency of a commercial belly board device in reducing the irradiated volume of the small bowel. In this study 10 patients with rectal carcinoma receiving postoperative radiotherapy were included. For each of them we made two computer tomography series in prone position. In the first one the patients were lying on the flat table top, and in the second one they were lying on the belly board device which is under investigation. On both series we calculated and optimized plans according to the standing protocol of our department. From the dose-volume histograms of these plans we compared the volumes of the small bowel irradiated to three dose levels 15, 30 and 45 Gy. The results showed that the absolute irradiated volumes were significantly smaller in the plans with the belly board device. Based on these results we believe that the employment of this belly board device will reduce the acute and late small bowel toxicity. This should be verified with a clinical study.(Author)

  7. Determining the efficiency of a commercial belly board device in reducing small bowel volume in rectal cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukarski, Dusko; Petkovska, Sonja; Angelovska, Natalija; Grozdanovska, Biljana; Mitrevski, Nenad [University Clinic of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Skopje(Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of)

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this treatment planning study was to evaluate the efficiency of a commercial belly board device in reducing the irradiated volume of the small bowel. In this study 10 patients with rectal carcinoma receiving postoperative radiotherapy were included. For each of them we made two computer tomography series in prone position. In the first one the patients were lying on the flat table top, and in the second one they were lying on the belly board device which is under investigation. On both series we calculated and optimized plans according to the standing protocol of our department. From the dose-volume histograms of these plans we compared the volumes of the small bowel irradiated to three dose levels 15, 30 and 45 Gy. The results showed that the absolute irradiated volumes were significantly smaller in the plans with the belly board device. Based on these results we believe that the employment of this belly board device will reduce the acute and late small bowel toxicity. This should be verified with a clinical study.(Author)

  8. Facile synthesis of nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide as an efficient counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Liguo; Wang, Ping; Yang, Yulin; Luo, Ruidong; Li, Jinqi; Gu, Xiaohu; Zhan, Zhaoshun; Dong, Yongli; Song, Weina; Fan, Ruiqing

    2018-04-01

    A nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (N-RGO) nanosheet was synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method and characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electrode microscopy. After being deposited as counter electrode film for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), it is found that the synthesized N-RGO nanosheet has smaller charge-transfer resistance and better electrocatalytic activity towards reduction of triiodide than the reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanosheet. Consequently, the DSSCs based on the N-RGO counter electrode achieve an energy conversion efficiency of 4.26%, which is higher than that of the RGO counter electrode (2.85%) prepared under the same conditions, and comparable to the value (5.21%) obtained with the Pt counter electrode as a reference. This N-RGO counter electrode offers the advantages of not only saving the cost of Pt itself but also simplifying the process of counter electrode preparation. Therefore, an inexpensive N-RGO nanosheet is a promising counter electrode material to replace noble metal Pt. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  9. Achieving Lower Nitrogen Balance and Higher Nitrogen Recovery Efficiency Reduces Nitrous Oxide Emissions in North America's Maize Cropping Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rex A. Omonode

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have assessed the common, yet unproven, hypothesis that an increase of plant nitrogen (N uptake and/or recovery efficiency (NRE will reduce nitrous oxide (N2O emission during crop production. Understanding the relationships between N2O emissions and crop N uptake and use efficiency parameters can help inform crop N management recommendations for both efficiency and environmental goals. Analyses were conducted to determine which of several commonly used crop N uptake-derived parameters related most strongly to growing season N2O emissions under varying N management practices in North American maize systems. Nitrogen uptake-derived variables included total aboveground N uptake (TNU, grain N uptake (GNU, N recovery efficiency (NRE, net N balance (NNB in relation to GNU [NNB(GNU] and TNU [NNB(TNU], and surplus N (SN. The relationship between N2O and N application rate was sigmoidal with relatively small emissions for N rates <130 kg ha−1, and a sharp increase for N rates from 130 to 220 kg ha−1; on average, N2O increased linearly by about 5 g N per kg of N applied for rates up to 220 kg ha−1. Fairly strong and significant negative relationships existed between N2O and NRE when management focused on N application rate (r2 = 0.52 or rate and timing combinations (r2 = 0.65. For every percentage point increase, N2O decreased by 13 g N ha−1 in response to N rates, and by 20 g N ha−1 for NRE changes in response to rate-by-timing treatments. However, more consistent positive relationships (R2 = 0.73–0.77 existed between N2O and NNB(TNU, NNB(GNU, and SN, regardless of rate and timing of N application; on average N2O emission increased by about 5, 7, and 8 g N, respectively, per kg increase of NNB(GNU, NNB(TNU, and SN. Neither N source nor placement influenced the relationship between N2O and NRE. Overall, our analysis indicated that a careful selection of appropriate N rate applied at the right time can both increase NRE and reduce N

  10. Farming for a Better Climate by Improving Nitrogen Use Efficiency and Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions (FarmClim)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amon, Barbara; Winiwarter, Wilfried; Schröck, Andrea; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie; Kasper, Martina; Sigmund, Elisabeth; Schaller, Lena; Moser, Tobias; Baumgarten, Andreas; Dersch, Georg; Zethner, Gerhard; Anderl, Michael; Kitzler, Barbara

    2014-05-01

    The project FarmClim (Farming for a better climate) assesses impacts of agriculture on N and GHG fluxes in Austria and proposes measures for improving N efficiency and mitigating emissions, including their economic assessment. This paper focuses on animal husbandry and crop production measures, and on N2O emissions from soils. FarmClim applies national inventory reporting methods to assess Austrian NH3 and GHG fluxes in order to develop flux estimates with implementation of mitigation measures. Based on scientific literature and on the outcome of the Austrian working group agriculture and climate protection a list of potential mitigation measures has been produced: phase feeding, dairy cattle diet, biogas production. Data cover resulting production levels as well as GHG mitigation. In crop production, an optimisation potential remains with respect to N fertilization and nutrient uptake efficiency. Projected regional yield data and information on the N content of arable crops have been delivered from field experiments. These data complement official statistics and allow assessing the effect of increasing proportions of legume crops in crop rotations and reducing fertilizer input on a regional scale. Economic efficiency of measures is a crucial factor for their future implementation on commercial farms. The economic model evaluates investment costs as well as changes in direct costs, labour costs and economic yield. Biophysical modelling with Landscape DNDC allows establishing a framework to move from the current approach of applying the IPCC default emission factor for N2O emissions from soils. We select two Austrian model regions to calculate N fluxes taking into account region and management practices. Hot spots and hot moments as well as mitigation strategies are identified. Two test regions have been identified for soil emission modelling. The Marchfeld is an intensively used agricultural area in North-East Austria with very fertile soils and dry climate. The

  11. Visible light responsive Cu2MoS4 nanosheets incorporated reduced graphene oxide for efficient degradation of organic pollutant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rameshbabu, R.; Vinoth, R.; Navaneethan, M.; Harish, S.; Hayakawa, Y.; Neppolian, B.

    2017-10-01

    Visible light active copper molybdenum sulfide (Cu2MoS4) nanosheets were successfully anchored on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) using facile hydrothermal method. During the hydrothermal reaction, reduction of graphene oxide into rGO and the formation of Cu2MoS4 nanosheets were successfully obtained. The charge transfer interaction between the rGO sheets and Cu2MoS4 nanosheets extended the absorption to visible region in comparison with bare Cu2MoS4 nanosheets i.e without rGO sheets. Furthermore, the notable photoluminescence quenching observed for Cu2MoS4/rGO nanocomposite revealed the effective role of rGO towards the significant inhibition of electron-hole pair recombination. The photocatalytic efficiencies of bare Cu2MoS4 and Cu2MoS4/rGO nanocomposite was evaluated for the degradation of methyl orange dye under visible irradiation (λ > 420 nm). A maximum photodegradation efficiency of 99% was achieved for Cu2MoS4/rGO nanocomposite, while only 64% photodegradation was noted for bare Cu2MoS4. The enhanced optical absorption in visible region, high surface area, and low charge carrier recombination in the presence of rGO sheets were the main reasons for the enhancement in photodegardation of MO dye. In addition, the resultant Cu2MoS4/rGO nanocomposite was found to be reusable for five successive cycles without significant loss in its photocatalytic performance.

  12. Development of Production PVD-AIN Buffer Layer System and Processes to Reduce Epitaxy Costs and Increase LED Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerio, Frank

    2013-09-14

    The DOE has set aggressive goals for solid state lighting (SSL) adoption, which require manufacturing and quality improvements for virtually all process steps leading to an LED luminaire product. The goals pertinent to this proposed project are to reduce the cost and improve the quality of the epitaxial growth processes used to build LED structures. The objectives outlined in this proposal focus on achieving cost reduction and performance improvements over state-of-the-art, using technologies that are low in cost and amenable to high efficiency manufacturing. The objectives of the outlined proposal focus on cost reductions in epitaxial growth by reducing epitaxy layer thickness and hetero-epitaxial strain, and by enabling the use of larger, less expensive silicon substrates and would be accomplished through the introduction of a high productivity reactive sputtering system and an effective sputtered aluminum-nitride (AlN) buffer/nucleation layer process. Success of the proposed project could enable efficient adoption of GaN on-silicon (GaN/Si) epitaxial technology on 150mm silicon substrates. The reduction in epitaxy cost per cm{sup 2} using 150mm GaN-on-Si technology derives from (1) a reduction in cost of ownership and increase in throughput for the buffer deposition process via the elimination of MOCVD buffer layers and other throughput and CoO enhancements, (2) improvement in brightness through reductions in defect density, (3) reduction in substrate cost through the replacement of sapphire with silicon, and (4) reduction in non-ESD yield loss through reductions in wafer bow and temperature variation. The adoption of 150mm GaN/Si processing will also facilitate significant cost reductions in subsequent wafer fabrication manufacturing costs. There were three phases to this project. These three phases overlap in order to aggressively facilitate a commercially available production GaN/Si capability. In Phase I of the project, the repeatability of the performance

  13. Morphological plasticity of root growth under mild water stress increases water use efficiency without reducing yield in maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qian; Zhang, Yulong; Sun, Zhanxiang; Zheng, Jiaming; Bai, Wei; Zhang, Yue; Liu, Yang; Feng, Liangshan; Feng, Chen; Zhang, Zhe; Yang, Ning; Evers, Jochem B.; Zhang, Lizhen

    2017-08-01

    A large yield gap exists in rain-fed maize (Zea mays L.) production in semi-arid regions, mainly caused by frequent droughts halfway through the crop-growing period due to uneven distribution of rainfall. It is questionable whether irrigation systems are economically required in such a region since the total amount of rainfall does generally meet crop requirements. This study aimed to quantitatively determine the effects of water stress from jointing to grain filling on root and shoot growth and the consequences for maize grain yield, above- and below-ground dry matter, water uptake (WU) and water use efficiency (WUE). Pot experiments were conducted in 2014 and 2015 with a mobile rain shelter to achieve conditions of no, mild or severe water stress. Maize yield was not affected by mild water stress over 2 years, while severe stress reduced yield by 56 %. Both water stress levels decreased root biomass slightly but shoot biomass substantially. Mild water stress decreased root length but increased root diameter, resulting in no effect on root surface area. Due to the morphological plasticity in root growth and the increase in root / shoot ratio, WU under water stress was decreased, and overall WUE for both above-ground dry matter and grain yield increased. Our results demonstrate that an irrigation system might be not economically and ecologically necessary because the frequently occurring mild water stress did not reduce crop yield much. The study helps us to understand crop responses to water stress during a critical water-sensitive period (middle of the crop-growing season) and to mitigate drought risk in dry-land agriculture.

  14. Morphological plasticity of root growth under mild water stress increases water use efficiency without reducing yield in maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Cai

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A large yield gap exists in rain-fed maize (Zea mays L. production in semi-arid regions, mainly caused by frequent droughts halfway through the crop-growing period due to uneven distribution of rainfall. It is questionable whether irrigation systems are economically required in such a region since the total amount of rainfall does generally meet crop requirements. This study aimed to quantitatively determine the effects of water stress from jointing to grain filling on root and shoot growth and the consequences for maize grain yield, above- and below-ground dry matter, water uptake (WU and water use efficiency (WUE. Pot experiments were conducted in 2014 and 2015 with a mobile rain shelter to achieve conditions of no, mild or severe water stress. Maize yield was not affected by mild water stress over 2 years, while severe stress reduced yield by 56 %. Both water stress levels decreased root biomass slightly but shoot biomass substantially. Mild water stress decreased root length but increased root diameter, resulting in no effect on root surface area. Due to the morphological plasticity in root growth and the increase in root ∕ shoot ratio, WU under water stress was decreased, and overall WUE for both above-ground dry matter and grain yield increased. Our results demonstrate that an irrigation system might be not economically and ecologically necessary because the frequently occurring mild water stress did not reduce crop yield much. The study helps us to understand crop responses to water stress during a critical water-sensitive period (middle of the crop-growing season and to mitigate drought risk in dry-land agriculture.

  15. Zero-valent iron nanoparticles embedded into reduced graphene oxide-alginate beads for efficient chromium (VI) removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xiaoshu; Zhang, Yuling; Fu, Wenyang; Cao, Jiazhen; Zhang, Jiao; Ma, Hanbo; Jiang, Guangming

    2017-11-15

    Zero-valent iron nanoparticles (Fe 0 NPs) technologies are often challenged by poor dispersibility, chemical instability to oxidation, and mobility during processing, storage and use. This work reports a facile approach to synthesize Fe 0 NPs embedded reduced graphene oxide-alginate beads (Fe@GA beads) via the immobilization of pre-synthesized Fe 0 NPs into graphene oxide modified alginate gel followed by a modelling and in-situ reduction process. The structure/composition characterization of the beads finds that the graphene sheets and the Fe 0 NPs (a shape of ellipsoid and a size of beads. We demonstrate that these Fe@GA beads show a robust performance in aqueous Cr(VI) removal. With a optimized Fe and alginate content, Fe@GA bead can achieve a high Cr(VI) removal efficiency and an excellent mechanical strength. The initial Cr(VI) concentration, ionic strength, temperature and especially solution pH are all critical factors to control the Fe@GA beads performance in Cr(VI) removal. Fitness of the pseudo second-order adsorption model with data suggests adsorption is the rate-controlling step, and both Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm are suitable to describe the removal behavior. The possible Cr(VI) removal path by Fe@GA beads is put forward, and the synergistic effect in this ternary system implies the potentials of Fe@GA beads in pollutant removal from water body. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Efficiently reducing transition curvature in heat-assisted magnetic recording with state-of-the-art write heads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogler, Christoph; Abert, Claas; Bruckner, Florian; Suess, Dieter

    2017-05-01

    Curvatures of bit transitions on granular media are a serious problem for the read-back process. We address this fundamental issue and propose a possibility to efficiently reduce transition curvatures with state-of-the-art heat-assisted magnetic recording heads. We compare footprints of conventional with those of the proposed head design on different media, consisting of exchange coupled and single phase grains. Additionally, we investigate the impact of various recording parameters, such as the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the applied heat pulse and the coercivity gradient near the write temperature of the recording grains. The footprints are calculated with a coarse grained model, based on the Landau-Lifshitz-Bloch equation. The presented simulations show a transition curvature reduction of up to 40%, in the case of a medium with exchange coupled grains and a heat pulse with a FWHM of 40 nm. We further give the reason for the straightening of the bit transitions, by means of basic considerations with regard to the effective recording time window of the write process. Besides the transition curvature reduction, the proposed head design yields an improvement of the transition jitter in both down-track and off-track directions.

  17. Controllable Electrochemical Synthesis of Reduced Graphene Oxide Thin-Film Constructed as Efficient Photoanode in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soon Weng Chong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A controllable electrochemical synthesis to convert reduced graphene oxide (rGO from graphite flakes was introduced and investigated in detail. Electrochemical reduction was used to prepare rGO because of its cost effectiveness, environmental friendliness, and ability to produce rGO thin films in industrial scale. This study aimed to determine the optimum applied potential for the electrochemical reduction. An applied voltage of 15 V successfully formed a uniformly coated rGO thin film, which significantly promoted effective electron transfer within dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. Thus, DSSC performance improved. However, rGO thin films formed in voltages below or exceeding 15 V resulted in poor DSSC performance. This behavior was due to poor electron transfer within the rGO thin films caused by poor uniformity. These results revealed that DSSC constructed using 15 V rGO thin film exhibited high efficiency (η = 1.5211% attributed to its higher surface uniformity than other samples. The addition of natural lemon juice (pH ~ 2.3 to the electrolyte accelerated the deposition and strengthened the adhesion of rGO thin film onto fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO glasses.

  18. Reduced irrigation increases the water use efficiency and productivity of winter wheat-summer maize rotation on the North China Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunqi; Zhang, Yinghua; Zhang, Rui; Li, Jinpeng; Zhang, Meng; Zhou, Shunli; Wang, Zhimin

    2018-03-15

    The groundwater table has fallen sharply over the last 30years on the North China Plain, resulting in a shortage of water for winter wheat irrigation. Reducing irrigation may be an important strategy to maintain agricultural sustainability in the region; however, few studies have evaluated the transition from conventional irrigation management practices to reduced irrigation management practices in the winter wheat-summer maize rotation system. Here, we compare the yield, water consumption, and water use efficiency of winter wheat-summer maize rotation under conventional irrigation and reduced irrigation on the North China Plain from 2012 to 2015. Reducing irrigation decreased the yield but increased the water use efficiency and significantly advanced the harvest date of winter wheat. As a result, the summer maize sowing date advanced significantly, and the flowering date subsequently advanced 2-8days, thus extending the summer maize grain-filling stage. Therefore, the yield and water use efficiency of summer maize were higher under reduced irrigation than conventional irrigation, which compensated for the winter wheat yield loss under reduced irrigation. In addition, under reduced irrigation from 2012 to 2015, the yield and water use efficiency advantage of the winter wheat-summer maize rotation ranged from 0.0 to 9.7% and from 4.1 to 14.7%, respectively, and water consumption and irrigated water decreased by 20-61mm and 150mm, respectively, compared to conventional irrigation. Overall, the reduced irrigation management practice involving no irrigation after sowing winter wheat, and sowing summer maize on June 7 produced the most favorable grain yield with superb water use efficiency in the winter wheat-summer maize rotation. This study indicates that reducing irrigation could be an efficient means to cope with water resource shortages while maintaining crop production sustainability on the North China Plain. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Cloning of transgenic tobacco BY-2 cells; an efficient method to analyse and reduce high natural heterogeneity of transgene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocarova, Eva; Fischer, Lukas

    2009-04-22

    Phenotypic characterization of transgenic cell lines, frequently used in plant biology studies, is complicated because transgene expression in individual cells is often heterogeneous and unstable. To identify the sources and to reduce this heterogeneity, we transformed tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) BY-2 cells with a gene encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) using Agrobacterium tumefaciens, and then introduced a simple cloning procedure to generate cell lines derived from the individual transformed cells. Expression of the transgene was monitored by analysing GFP fluorescence in the cloned lines and also in lines obtained directly after transformation. The majority ( approximately 90%) of suspension culture lines derived from calli that were obtained directly from transformation consisted of cells with various levels of GFP fluorescence. In contrast, nearly 50% of lines generated by cloning cells from the primary heterogeneous suspensions consisted of cells with homogenous GFP fluorescence. The rest of the lines exhibited "permanent heterogeneity" that could not be resolved by cloning. The extent of fluorescence heterogeneity often varied, even among genetically identical clones derived from the primary transformed lines. In contrast, the offspring of subsequent cloning of the cloned lines was uniform, showing GFP fluorescence intensity and heterogeneity that corresponded to the original clone. The results demonstrate that, besides genetic heterogeneity detected in some lines, the primary lines often contained a mixture of epigenetically different cells that could be separated by cloning. This indicates that a single integration event frequently results in various heritable expression patterns, which are probably accidental and become stabilized in the offspring of the primary transformed cells early after the integration event. Because heterogeneity in transgene expression has proven to be a serious problem, it is highly advisable to use transgenes tagged with

  20. Large-scale Manufacturing of Nanoparticulate-based Lubrication Additives for Improved Energy Efficiency and Reduced Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdemir, Ali [Argonne National Laboratory

    2013-09-26

    This project was funded under the Department of Energy (DOE) Lab Call on Nanomanufacturing for Energy Efficiency and was directed toward the development of novel boron-based nanocolloidal lubrication additives for improving the friction and wear performance of machine components in a wide range of industrial and transportation applications. Argonne's research team concentrated on the scientific and technical aspects of the project, using a range of state-of-the art analytical and tribological test facilities. Argonne has extensive past experience and expertise in working with boron-based solid and liquid lubrication additives, and has intellectual property ownership of several. There were two industrial collaborators in this project: Ashland Oil (represented by its Valvoline subsidiary) and Primet Precision Materials, Inc. (a leading nanomaterials company). There was also a sub-contract with the University of Arkansas. The major objectives of the project were to develop novel boron-based nanocolloidal lubrication additives and to optimize and verify their performance under boundary-lubricated sliding conditions. The project also tackled problems related to colloidal dispersion, larger-scale manufacturing and blending of nano-additives with base carrier oils. Other important issues dealt with in the project were determination of the optimum size and concentration of the particles and compatibility with various base fluids and/or additives. Boron-based particulate additives considered in this project included boric acid (H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}), hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), boron oxide, and borax. As part of this project, we also explored a hybrid MoS{sub 2} + boric acid formulation approach for more effective lubrication and reported the results. The major motivation behind this work was to reduce energy losses related to friction and wear in a wide spectrum of mechanical systems and thereby reduce our dependence on imported oil. Growing concern over greenhouse

  1. Effects of species-specific leaf characteristics and reduced water availability on fine particle capture efficiency of trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Räsänen, Janne V.; Holopainen, Toini; Joutsensaari, Jorma; Ndam, Collins; Pasanen, Pertti; Rinnan, Åsmund; Kivimäenpää, Minna

    2013-01-01

    Trees can improve air quality by capturing particles in their foliage. We determined the particle capture efficiencies of coniferous Pinus sylvestris and three broadleaved species: Betula pendula, Betula pubescens and Tilia vulgaris in a wind tunnel using NaCl particles. The importance of leaf surface structure, physiology and moderate soil drought on the particle capture efficiencies of the trees were determined. The results confirm earlier findings of more efficient particle capture by conifers compared to broadleaved plants. The particle capture efficiency of P. sylvestris (0.21%) was significantly higher than those of B. pubescens, T. vulgaris and B. pendula (0.083%, 0.047%, 0.043%, respectively). The small leaf size of P. sylvestris was the major characteristic that increased particle capture. Among the broadleaved species, low leaf wettability, low stomatal density and leaf hairiness increased particle capture. Moderate soil drought tended to increase particle capture efficiency of P. sylvestris. -- Highlights: • Coniferous Scots pine was the most efficient particle collector. • Decreasing single leaf size increases particle deposition of the total leaf area. • Hairiness of the leaf increases particle deposition. -- Trees can improve air quality by removing PM 2.5 pollutants carried on the wind at a velocity of 3 m s −1 , the efficiency of which depends on species leaf characteristics and physical factors

  2. Transient overexpression of DNA adenine methylase enables efficient and mobile genome engineering with reduced off-target effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lennen, Rebecca; Nilsson Wallin, Annika; Pedersen, Margit

    2016-01-01

    Homologous recombination of single-stranded oligonucleotides is a highly efficient process for introducing precise mutations into the genome of E. coli and other organisms when mismatch repair (MMR) is disabled. This can result in the rapid accumulation of off-target mutations that can mask desir...

  3. Efficiencies of forestry best management practices for reducing sediment and nutrient losses in the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamela Edwards; Karl W.J. Williard

    2010-01-01

    Quantifying the effects of forestry best management practices (BMPs) on sediment and nutrient loads is a critical need. Through an exhaustive literature search, three paired forested watershed studies in the eastern United States were found that permitted the calculation of BMP efficiencies--the percent reduction in sediment or nutrients achieved by BMPs. For sediment...

  4. Red organic light emitting devices with reduced efficiency roll-off behavior by using hybrid fluorescent/phosphorescent emission structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng Tianhang; Choy, Wallace C.H., E-mail: chchoy@eee.hku.h

    2010-11-01

    Organic light emitting device (OLED) with a fluorescence-interlayer-phosphorescence emissive structure (FIP EML) is proposed to solve efficiency roll-off issue effectively. By doping fluorescent emitter of 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-t-butyl-6-(1,1,7,7-tetramethyljulolidyl-9-enyl) -4H-pyran (DCJTB) and phosphorescent emitter of tris(1-phenylisoquinolinolato-C2,N)iridium(III) (Ir(piq){sub 3}) into the different regions of emission zone to form FIP EML in red OLED, an improvement of more than 20% in luminance efficiency roll-off compared with that of typical phosphorescent OLED with single EML in 10-500 mA/cm{sup 2} range has been obtained. Detailed mechanisms have been studied. Such improvement should be attributed to the distinct roles of the two emitters, where DCJTB mainly used to influence the carrier transport leading to an improved balance of charge carriers while Ir(piq){sub 3} functions as the radiative decay sites for most generated excitons. Meanwhile, with the help of the formation of FIP EML, the redistribution of excitons in recombination zone, the suppression of non-radiative exciton quenching processes and the elimination of energy transfer loss also contribute to the enhancement of efficiency roll-off. The method proposed here may provide a route to develop efficient OLED for high luminance applications.

  5. Highly Efficient Adsorption of Copper Ions by a PVP-Reduced Graphene Oxide Based On a New Adsorptions Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongji Zhang; HuiJuan Chi; WenHui Zhang; Youyi Sun; Qing Liang; Yu Gu; Riya Jing

    2014-01-01

    Polyvinylpyrrolidone-reduced graphene oxide was prepared by modified hummers method and was used as adsorbent for removing Cu ions from wastewater. The effects of contact time and ions concentration on adsorption capacity were examined. The maximum adsorption capacity of 1689 mg/g was observed at an initial p H value of 3.5 after agitating for 10 min. It was demonstrated that polyvinylpyrrolidone-reduced graphene oxide had a huge adsorption capacity for Cu ions, which was 10 times higher than maximal value reported in previous works. The adsorption mechanism was also discussed by density functional theory. It demonstrates that Cu ions are attracted to surface of reduced graphene oxide by C atoms in reduced graphene oxide modified by polyvinylpyrrolidone through physisorption processes, which may be responsible for the higher adsorption capacity. Our results suggest that polyvinylpyrrolidone-reduced graphene oxide is an effective adsorbent for removing Cu ions in wastewater. It also provides a new way to improve the adsorption capacity of reduced graphene oxide for dealing with the heavy metal ion in wastewater.

  6. Reducing Transaction Costs for Energy Efficiency Investments and Analysis of Economic Risk Associated With Building Performance Uncertainties: Small Buildings and Small Portfolios Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langner, R.; Hendron, B.; Bonnema, E.

    2014-08-01

    The small buildings and small portfolios (SBSP) sector face a number of barriers that inhibit SBSP owners from adopting energy efficiency solutions. This pilot project focused on overcoming two of the largest barriers to financing energy efficiency in small buildings: disproportionately high transaction costs and unknown or unacceptable risk. Solutions to these barriers can often be at odds, because inexpensive turnkey solutions are often not sufficiently tailored to the unique circumstances of each building, reducing confidence that the expected energy savings will be achieved. To address these barriers, NREL worked with two innovative, forward-thinking lead partners, Michigan Saves and Energi, to develop technical solutions that provide a quick and easy process to encourage energy efficiency investments while managing risk. The pilot project was broken into two stages: the first stage focused on reducing transaction costs, and the second stage focused on reducing performance risk. In the first stage, NREL worked with the non-profit organization, Michigan Saves, to analyze the effects of 8 energy efficiency measures (EEMs) on 81 different baseline small office building models in Holland, Michigan (climate zone 5A). The results of this analysis (totaling over 30,000 cases) are summarized in a simple spreadsheet tool that enables users to easily sort through the results and find appropriate small office EEM packages that meet a particular energy savings threshold and are likely to be cost-effective.

  7. A high efficient nanostructured filter based on functionalized carbon nanotube to reduce the tobacco-specific nitrosamines, NNK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoosefian, Mehdi

    2018-03-01

    Filtration efficiency of Pd and Ni loaded single-walled carbon nanotubes via the applicability of the adsorption process for the removal NNK, the tobacco-specific nitrosamines, from tobacco smoke were investigated using first-principles calculations. The thermal and mechanical stability of designed nanostructured filter could allow them to compete with typical commercially used. It is expected that the removal efficiency of the proposed nanostructured filter could also provide a promising adsorbent candidate in removing the environmental pollutant. The suggested separation mechanism in this study was discussed with frontier molecular orbital theory, natural bond orbital (NBO) analyses and the density of states in the density functional theory framework. Finally, by the Bader theory of atoms in molecules (AIM), the topological properties of the electron density contributions for intermolecular and intramolecular interactions has been analyzed. Calculations show that the transition metal-loaded SWCNT exhibit strong affinity toward the NNK molecules.

  8. Drycon dry ash conveyor: dry bottom ash handling system with reduced operating costs and improved plant efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The Drycon dry bottom ash extraction system is designed to remove bottom ash beneath the furnace, cooling it without any need of water. Fresh air in countercurrent flow to the ash is used for the ash cooling. Data presented show how savings of time and costs can be achieved with this system and how a boiler efficiency can be increased using this technology. Considerable advantages in the reliability of operation with new improvements of the design are described. 7 figs.

  9. Inertia may limit efficiency of slow flapping flight, but mayflies show a strategy for reducing the power requirements of loiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usherwood, James R

    2009-01-01

    Predictions from aerodynamic theory often match biological observations very poorly. Many insects and several bird species habitually hover, frequently flying at low advance ratios. Taking helicopter-based aerodynamic theory, wings functioning predominantly for hovering, even for quite small insects, should operate at low angles of attack. However, insect wings operate at very high angles of attack during hovering; reduction in angle of attack should result in considerable energetic savings. Here, I consider the possibility that selection of kinematics is constrained from being aerodynamically optimal due to the inertial power requirements of flapping. Potential increases in aerodynamic efficiency with lower angles of attack during hovering may be outweighed by increases in inertial power due to the associated increases in flapping frequency. For simple hovering, traditional rotary-winged helicopter-like micro air vehicles would be more efficient than their flapping biomimetic counterparts. However, flapping may confer advantages in terms of top speed and manoeuvrability. If flapping-winged micro air vehicles are required to hover or loiter more efficiently, dragonflies and mayflies suggest biomimetic solutions

  10. IMPROVING ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND REDUCING COSTS IN THE DRINKING WATER SUPPLY INDUSTRY: An ENERGY STAR Resource Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melody, Moya; Dunham Whitehead, Camilla; Brown, Richard

    2010-09-30

    As American drinking water agencies face higher production costs, demand, and energy prices, they seek opportunities to reduce costs without negatively affecting the quality of the water they deliver. This guide describes resources for cost-effectively improving the energy efficiency of U.S. public drinking water facilities. The guide (1) describes areas of opportunity for improving energy efficiency in drinking water facilities; (2) provides detailed descriptions of resources to consult for each area of opportunity; (3) offers supplementary suggestions and information for the area; and (4) presents illustrative case studies, including analysis of cost-effectiveness.

  11. Achieving Extreme Utilization of Excitons by an Efficient Sandwich-Type Emissive Layer Architecture for Reduced Efficiency Roll-Off and Improved Operational Stability in Organic Light-Emitting Diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhongbin; Sun, Ning; Zhu, Liping; Sun, Hengda; Wang, Jiaxiu; Yang, Dezhi; Qiao, Xianfeng; Chen, Jiangshan; Alshehri, Saad M; Ahamad, Tansir; Ma, Dongge

    2016-02-10

    It has been demonstrated that the efficiency roll-off is generally caused by the accumulation of excitons or charge carriers, which is intimately related to the emissive layer (EML) architecture in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). In this article, an efficient sandwich-type EML structure with a mixed-host EML sandwiched between two single-host EMLs was designed to eliminate this accumulation, thus simultaneously achieving high efficiency, low efficiency roll-off and good operational stability in the resulting OLEDs. The devices show excellent electroluminescence performances, realizing a maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 24.6% with a maximum power efficiency of 105.6 lm W(-1) and a maximum current efficiency of 93.5 cd A(-1). At the high brightness of 5,000 cd m(-2), they still remain as high as 23.3%, 71.1 lm W(-1), and 88.3 cd A(-1), respectively. And, the device lifetime is up to 2000 h at initial luminance of 1000 cd m(-2), which is significantly higher than that of compared devices with conventional EML structures. The improvement mechanism is systematically studied by the dependence of the exciton distribution in EML and the exciton quenching processes. It can be seen that the utilization of the efficient sandwich-type EML broadens the recombination zone width, thus greatly reducing the exciton quenching and increasing the probability of the exciton recombination. It is believed that the design concept provides a new avenue for us to achieve high-performance OLEDs.

  12. Electrochemically reduced graphene-oxide supported bimetallic nanoparticles highly efficient for oxygen reduction reaction with excellent methanol tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasmin, Sabina; Cho, Sung; Jeon, Seungwon

    2018-03-01

    We report a simple and facile method for the fabrication of bimetallic nanoparticles on electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ErGO) for electrocatalytic oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in alkaline media. First, reduced graphene oxide supported palladium and manganese oxide nanoparticle (rGO/Pd-Mn2O3) catalyst was synthesized via a simple chemical method at room temperature; then, it was electrochemically reduced for oxidation reduction reaction (ORR) in alkaline media. The chemical composition and morphological properties of ErGO/Pd-Mn2O3 was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The TEM images reveals that, nano-sized Pd and Mn2O3 particles were disperse on the ErGO sheet without aggregation. The as-prepared ErGO/Pd-Mn2O3 was employed for ORR in alkaline media which shows higher ORR activity with more positive onset and half-wave potential, respectively. Remarkably, ErGO/Pd-Mn2O3 reduced oxygen via four-electron transfer pathway with negligible amount of intermediate peroxide species (HO2-). Furthermore, the higher stability and excellent methanol tolerance of the ErGO/Pd-Mn2O3 compared to commercial Pt/C (20 wt%) catalyst, indicating its suitability for fuel cells.

  13. Resource Efficiency in the US Army Corps of Engineers: Examination of Strategies to Reduce Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-15

    projects included three warehouses and one aircraft hanger facility. Table 5 lists project type categories and the Goal Subject energy consump- tion...0.4 3 2.8 33 48 Aerogel Insulation - Piping, Ducts, and Buildings Building Envelope 0.2 3 2.0 28 49 Smart Windows Building Envelope 0.6 2 1.8 25 50... aircraft fuel efficiency that would benefit USACE emissions reduction actions were not con- sidered because the target of 5% reduction was based on direct

  14. Efficiency of mitigation measures to reduce particulate air pollution--a case study during the Olympic Summer Games 2008 in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleicher, Nina; Norra, Stefan; Chen, Yizhen; Chai, Fahe; Wang, Shulan

    2012-06-15

    Atmospheric particles were studied before, during, and after the period of the Olympic Summer Games in Beijing, China, in August 2008 in order to investigate the efficiency of the mitigation measures implemented by the Chinese Government. Total suspended particles (TSP) and fine particles (PM(2.5) and PM(1)) were collected continuously from October 2007 to February 2009 and were analyzed in detail with regard to mass and element concentrations, water-soluble ions, and black carbon (BC). Mass as well as element concentrations during the Olympic air quality control period were lower than the respective concentrations during the time directly before and after the Olympic Games. The results showed that the applied aerosol source control measures, such as shutting down industries and reducing traffic, had a huge impact on the reduction of aerosol pollution in Beijing. However, the meteorological conditions, especially rainfall, certainly also contributed to the successful reduction of particulate air pollution. Coarse particles were reduced more efficiently than finer particles, which indicates that long-range transport of atmospheric particles is difficult to control and that presumably the established mitigation area was not large enough. The study further showed that elements from predominantly anthropogenic sources, such as S, Cu, As, Cd, and Pb, as well as BC, were reduced more efficiently during the Olympic Games than elements for which geogenic sources are more significant, such as Al, Fe, Rb or Sr. Furthermore, the mentioned anthropogenic element concentrations were reduced more in the finer PM(2.5) samples whereas geogenic ones were reduced stronger in TSP samples including the coarser fraction. Consequently, it can be assumed that the mitigation measures, as intended, were successful in reducing more toxic and health-relevant particles from anthropogenic sources. Firework displays, especially at the Opening Ceremony, could be identified as a special short

  15. Energy efficiency procedures for agricultural machinery used in onion cultivation (Allium fistulosum) as an alternative to reduce carbon emissions under the clean development mechanism at Aquitania (Colombia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, K.; Carrillo, S.; Gutierrez, L.

    2014-06-01

    Climate change has both causes and consequences over agriculture. This paper focuses on the first element and presents scenarios for ASOLAGO -an onion cropper's association in Colombia with 250 members- to reduce their carbon footprint. It evaluates a case study at "La Primavera" farm using a methodology approved by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Land preparation and crop irrigation were analyzed as stages in order to propose energy efficiency alternatives for both the farm and the association. They include field efficiency, fuel economy and energy efficiency from biofuels for the first stage as well as solar and wind energy supply for the second. A cost-benefit analysis to generate additional income selling additional power produced by the system to the National Grid was done.

  16. Energy efficiency procedures for agricultural machinery used in onion cultivation (Allium fistulosum) as an alternative to reduce carbon emissions under the clean development mechanism at Aquitania (Colombia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochoa, K; Carrillo, S; Gutierrez, L

    2014-01-01

    Climate change has both causes and consequences over agriculture. This paper focuses on the first element and presents scenarios for ASOLAGO -an onion cropper's association in Colombia with 250 members- to reduce their carbon footprint. It evaluates a case study at ''La Primavera'' farm using a methodology approved by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Land preparation and crop irrigation were analyzed as stages in order to propose energy efficiency alternatives for both the farm and the association. They include field efficiency, fuel economy and energy efficiency from biofuels for the first stage as well as solar and wind energy supply for the second. A cost-benefit analysis to generate additional income selling additional power produced by the system to the National Grid was done

  17. Sulfonated reduced graphene oxide as a highly efficient catalyst for direct amidation of carboxylic acids with amines using ultrasonic irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza-Aghayan, Maryam; Tavana, Mahdieh Molaee; Boukherroub, Rabah

    2016-03-01

    Sulfonated reduced graphene oxide nanosheets (rGO-SO3H) were prepared by grafting sulfonic acid-containing aryl radicals onto chemically reduced graphene oxide (rGO) under sonochemical conditions. rGO-SO3H catalyst was characterized by Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). rGO-SO3H catalyst was successfully applied as a reusable solid acid catalyst for the direct amidation of carboxylic acids with amines into the corresponding amides under ultrasonic irradiation. The direct sonochemical amidation of carboxylic acid takes place under mild conditions affording in good to high yields (56-95%) the corresponding amides in short reaction times. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. High efficiency cabin air filter in vehicles reduces drivers' roadway particulate matter exposures and associated lipid peroxidation

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Nu; Shu, Shi; Lin, Yan; She, Jianwen; Ip, Ho Sai Simon; Qiu, Xinghua; Zhu, Yifang

    2017-01-01

    Commuters who spend long hours on roads are exposed to high levels of traffic related air pollutants (TRAPs). Despite some well-known multiple adverse effects of TRAPs on human health, limited studies have focused on mitigation strategies to reduce these effects. In this study, we measured fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ultrafine particle (UFP) concentrations inside and outside 17 taxis simultaneously while they were driven on roadways. The drivers' urinary monohydroxylated polycyclic ar...

  19. An efficiency analysis of modern and perspective methods and facilities to reduce of the automobile transport exhaust gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Володимир Петрович Юдін

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the degree of atmosphere pollution with automobile transport exhaust gases, the evolution of their rating in the European Union, and the reasons why Ukrainian automobile transport exhaust gases lag behind in meeting emission standards. Constructive, organizational, and regulating techniques aimed at reducing the amount of exhaust gases are analyzed; non-standard propositions concerning cooperation of motor vehicle owners and regulatory authorities are offered; the examples of successful practices employed in Zaporizhia region are given

  20. Reducing Bottlenecks to Improve the Efficiency of the Lung Cancer Care Delivery Process: A Process Engineering Modeling Approach to Patient-Centered Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Feng; Lee, Hyo Kyung; Yu, Xinhua; Faris, Nicholas R; Rugless, Fedoria; Jiang, Shan; Li, Jingshan; Osarogiagbon, Raymond U

    2017-12-01

    The process of lung cancer care from initial lesion detection to treatment is complex, involving multiple steps, each introducing the potential for substantial delays. Identifying the steps with the greatest delays enables a focused effort to improve the timeliness of care-delivery, without sacrificing quality. We retrospectively reviewed clinical events from initial detection, through histologic diagnosis, radiologic and invasive staging, and medical clearance, to surgery for all patients who had an attempted resection of a suspected lung cancer in a community healthcare system. We used a computer process modeling approach to evaluate delays in care delivery, in order to identify potential 'bottlenecks' in waiting time, the reduction of which could produce greater care efficiency. We also conducted 'what-if' analyses to predict the relative impact of simulated changes in the care delivery process to determine the most efficient pathways to surgery. The waiting time between radiologic lesion detection and diagnostic biopsy, and the waiting time from radiologic staging to surgery were the two most critical bottlenecks impeding efficient care delivery (more than 3 times larger compared to reducing other waiting times). Additionally, instituting surgical consultation prior to cardiac consultation for medical clearance and decreasing the waiting time between CT scans and diagnostic biopsies, were potentially the most impactful measures to reduce care delays before surgery. Rigorous computer simulation modeling, using clinical data, can provide useful information to identify areas for improving the efficiency of care delivery by process engineering, for patients who receive surgery for lung cancer.

  1. Leakage Reduction in Water Distribution Systems with Efficient Placement and Control of Pressure Reducing Valves Using Soft Computing Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gupta

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Reduction of leakages in a water distribution system (WDS is one of the major concerns of water industries. Leakages depend on pressure, hence installing pressure reducing valves (PRVs in the water network is a successful techniques for reducing leakages. Determining the number of valves, their locations, and optimal control setting are the challenges faced. This paper presents a new algorithm-based rule for determining the location of valves in a WDS having a variable demand pattern, which results in more favorable optimization of PRV localization than that caused by previous techniques. A multiobjective genetic algorithm (NSGA-II was used to determine the optimized control value of PRVs and to minimize the leakage rate in the WDS. Minimum required pressure was maintained at all nodes to avoid pressure deficiency at any node. Proposed methodology is applied in a benchmark WDS and after using PRVs, the average leakage rate was reduced by 6.05 l/s (20.64%, which is more favorable than the rate obtained with the existing techniques used for leakage control in the WDS. Compared with earlier studies, a lower number of PRVs was required for optimization, thus the proposed algorithm tends to provide a more cost-effective solution. In conclusion, the proposed algorithm leads to more favorable optimized localization and control of PRV with improved leakage reduction rate.

  2. Renew, reduce or become more efficient? The climate contribution of biomass co-combustion in a coal-fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miedema, Jan H.; Benders, René M.J.; Moll, Henri C.; Pierie, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Coal mining is more energy and CO_2 efficient than biomass production. • Co-combustion of 60% biomass with coal doubles mass transport compared to 100% coal. • Low co-combustion levels reduce GHG emissions, but the margins are small. • Total supply chain efficiency is the highest for the coal reference at 41.2%. - Abstract: Within this paper, biomass supply chains, with different shares of biomass co-combustion in coal fired power plants, are analysed on energy efficiency, energy consumption, renewable energy production, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and compared with the performance of a 100% coal supply chain scenario, for a Dutch situation. The 60% biomass co-combustion supply chain scenarios show possibilities to reduce emissions up to 48%. The low co-combustion levels are effective to reduce GHG emissions, but the margins are small. Currently co-combustion of pellets is the norm. Co-combustion of combined torrefaction and pelleting (TOP) shows the best results, but is also the most speculative. The indicators from the renewable energy directive cannot be aligned. When biomass is regarded as scarce, co-combustion of small shares or no co-combustion is the best option from an energy perspective. When biomass is regarded as abundant, co-combustion of large shares is the best option from a GHG reduction perspective.

  3. A New Approach to Reducing Search Space and Increasing Efficiency in Simulation Optimization Problems via the Fuzzy-DEA-BCC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de Carvalho Miranda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of discrete-event simulation software was one of the most successful interfaces in operational research with computation. As a result, research has been focused on the development of new methods and algorithms with the purpose of increasing simulation optimization efficiency and reliability. This study aims to define optimum variation intervals for each decision variable through a proposed approach which combines the data envelopment analysis with the Fuzzy logic (Fuzzy-DEA-BCC, seeking to improve the decision-making units’ distinction in the face of uncertainty. In this study, Taguchi’s orthogonal arrays were used to generate the necessary quantity of DMUs, and the output variables were generated by the simulation. Two study objects were utilized as examples of mono- and multiobjective problems. Results confirmed the reliability and applicability of the proposed method, as it enabled a significant reduction in search space and computational demand when compared to conventional simulation optimization techniques.

  4. Determinants of efficiency in reducing child mortality in developing countries. The role of inequality and government effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Bienvenido; Sanjuán, Jesús; Casquero, Antonio

    2017-12-01

    The main aim of this article was to analyze the relationship of income inequality and government effectiveness with differences in efficiency in the use of health inputs to improve the under-five survival rate (U5SR) in developing countries. Robust Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and regression analysis were conducted using data for 47 developing countries for the periods 2000-2004, 2005-2009, and 2010-2012. The estimations show that countries with a more equal income distribution and better government effectiveness (i.e. a more competent bureaucracy and good quality public service delivery) may need fewer health inputs to achieve a specific level of the U5SR than other countries with higher inequality and worse government effectiveness.

  5. Formosa Plastics Corporation: Plant-Wide Assessment of Texas Plant Identifies Opportunities for Improving Process Efficiency and Reducing Energy Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-01-01

    At Formosa Plastics Corporation's plant in Point Comfort, Texas, a plant-wide assessment team analyzed process energy requirements, reviewed new technologies for applicability, and found ways to improve the plant's energy efficiency. The assessment team identified the energy requirements of each process and compared actual energy consumption with theoretical process requirements. The team estimated that total annual energy savings would be about 115,000 MBtu for natural gas and nearly 14 million kWh for electricity if the plant makes several improvements, which include upgrading the gas compressor impeller, improving the vent blower system, and recovering steam condensate for reuse. Total annual cost savings could be $1.5 million. The U.S. Department of Energy's Industrial Technologies Program cosponsored this assessment.

  6. Repetitive activation of the corticospinal tract by means of rTMS may reduce the efficiency of corticomotoneuronal synapses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taube, Wolfgang; Leukel, Christian; Schubert, Martin

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is extensively used to study cognitive and motor function in humans and might be of value in the treatment of various disorders. For a better understanding of the effects of rTMS and its more efficient application it is crucial to identify......-conditioning by testing interstimulus intervals (ISIs) from -9 to 0 ms (for instance “ISI -3 ms” indicated that the H-reflex was elicited 3 ms before the supraspinal stimulus). The amplitude of the short-latency facilitation was expressed as percentage of the unconditioned control H-reflex and compared before and after...... is the synapses of the corticomotoneuronal neurones on the spinal motoneurones. Perez et al. (2005). Exp Brain Res 162, 202-212. Speer et al. (2003). Biol Psychiatry 54, 818-825....

  7. On Security Management: Improving Energy Efficiency, Decreasing Negative Environmental Impact, and Reducing Financial Costs for Data Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Mazur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Security management is one of the most significant issues in nowadays data centers. Selection of appropriate security mechanisms and effective energy consumption management together with caring for the environment enforces a profound analysis of the considered system. In this paper, we propose a specialized decision support system with a multilevel, comprehensive analysis scheme. As a result of the extensive use of mathematical methods and statistics, guidelines and indicators returned by the proposed approach facilitate the decision-making process and conserve decision-maker’s time and attention. In the paper we utilized proposed multilevel analysis scheme to manage security-based data flow in the example data center. Determining the most secure, energy-efficient, environmental friendly security mechanisms, we implemented the role-based access control method in Quality of Protection Modeling Language (QoP-ML and evaluated its performance in terms of mentioned factors.

  8. Reducing the efficiency–stability–cost gap of organic photovoltaics with highly efficient and stable small molecule acceptor ternary solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Baran, Derya

    2016-11-21

    Technological deployment of organic photovoltaic modules requires improvements in device light-conversion efficiency and stability while keeping material costs low. Here we demonstrate highly efficient and stable solar cells using a ternary approach, wherein two non-fullerene acceptors are combined with both a scalable and affordable donor polymer, poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), and a high-efficiency, low-bandgap polymer in a single-layer bulk-heterojunction device. The addition of a strongly absorbing small molecule acceptor into a P3HT-based non-fullerene blend increases the device efficiency up to 7.7 ± 0.1% without any solvent additives. The improvement is assigned to changes in microstructure that reduce charge recombination and increase the photovoltage, and to improved light harvesting across the visible region. The stability of P3HT-based devices in ambient conditions is also significantly improved relative to polymer:fullerene devices. Combined with a low-bandgap donor polymer (PBDTTT-EFT, also known as PCE10), the two mixed acceptors also lead to solar cells with 11.0 ± 0.4% efficiency and a high open-circuit voltage of 1.03 ± 0.01 V.

  9. Reducing the efficiency–stability–cost gap of organic photovoltaics with highly efficient and stable small molecule acceptor ternary solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Baran, Derya; Ashraf, Raja; Hanifi, David A.; Abdelsamie, Maged; Gasparini, Nicola; Rö hr, Jason A.; Holliday, Sarah; Wadsworth, Andrew; Lockett, Sarah; Neophytou, Marios; Emmott, Christopher J. M.; Nelson, Jenny; Brabec, Christoph J.; Amassian, Aram; Salleo, Alberto; Kirchartz, Thomas; Durrant, James R.; McCulloch, Iain

    2016-01-01

    Technological deployment of organic photovoltaic modules requires improvements in device light-conversion efficiency and stability while keeping material costs low. Here we demonstrate highly efficient and stable solar cells using a ternary approach, wherein two non-fullerene acceptors are combined with both a scalable and affordable donor polymer, poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), and a high-efficiency, low-bandgap polymer in a single-layer bulk-heterojunction device. The addition of a strongly absorbing small molecule acceptor into a P3HT-based non-fullerene blend increases the device efficiency up to 7.7 ± 0.1% without any solvent additives. The improvement is assigned to changes in microstructure that reduce charge recombination and increase the photovoltage, and to improved light harvesting across the visible region. The stability of P3HT-based devices in ambient conditions is also significantly improved relative to polymer:fullerene devices. Combined with a low-bandgap donor polymer (PBDTTT-EFT, also known as PCE10), the two mixed acceptors also lead to solar cells with 11.0 ± 0.4% efficiency and a high open-circuit voltage of 1.03 ± 0.01 V.

  10. HLA-B*39:06 Efficiently Mediates Type 1 Diabetes in a Mouse Model Incorporating Reduced Thymic Insulin Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloss, Jennifer; Ali, Riyasat; Racine, Jeremy J; Chapman, Harold D; Serreze, David V; DiLorenzo, Teresa P

    2018-04-09

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is characterized by T cell-mediated destruction of the insulin-producing β cells of the pancreatic islets. Among the loci associated with T1D risk, those most predisposing are found in the MHC region. HLA-B*39:06 is the most predisposing class I MHC allele and is associated with an early age of onset. To establish an NOD mouse model for the study of HLA-B*39:06, we expressed it in the absence of murine class I MHC. HLA-B*39:06 was able to mediate the development of CD8 T cells, support lymphocytic infiltration of the islets, and confer T1D susceptibility. Because reduced thymic insulin expression is associated with impaired immunological tolerance to insulin and increased T1D risk in patients, we incorporated this in our model as well, finding that HLA-B*39:06-transgenic NOD mice with reduced thymic insulin expression have an earlier age of disease onset and a higher overall prevalence as compared with littermates with typical thymic insulin expression. This was despite virtually indistinguishable blood insulin levels, T cell subset percentages, and TCR Vβ family usage, confirming that reduced thymic insulin expression does not impact T cell development on a global scale. Rather, it will facilitate the thymic escape of insulin-reactive HLA-B*39:06-restricted T cells, which participate in β cell destruction. We also found that in mice expressing either HLA-B*39:06 or HLA-A*02:01 in the absence of murine class I MHC, HLA transgene identity alters TCR Vβ usage by CD8 T cells, demonstrating that some TCR Vβ families have a preference for particular class I MHC alleles. Copyright © 2018 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  11. Cationic lipid-coated PEI/DNA polyplexes with improved efficiency and reduced cytotoxicity for gene delivery into mesenchymal stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song HM

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Hongmei Song, Gang Wang, Bin He, Li Li, Caixia Li, Yusi Lai, Xianghui Xu, Zhongwei GuNational Engineering Research Center for Biomaterials, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, People's Republic of ChinaBackground: Effective gene transfection without serum deprivation is a prerequisite for successful stem cell-based gene therapy. Polyethylenimine (PEI is an efficient nonviral gene vector, but its application has been hindered by serum sensitivity and severe cytotoxicity.Methods: To solve this problem, a new family of lipopolyplexes was developed by coating PEI/DNA polyplexes with three serum-resistant cationic lipids, namely, lysinylated, histidylated, and arginylated cholesterol. The physical properties, transfection efficiency, cellular uptake, subcellular distribution, and cytotoxicity of the lipopolyplexes was investigated.Results: The outer coat composed of lysinylated or histidylated cholesterol remarkably improved the transfection efficiency of the polyplex with a low PEI/DNA ratio of 2 in the presence of serum. The resulting lysinylated and histidylated cholesterol lipopolyplexes were even more efficient than the best performing polyplex with a high PEI/DNA ratio of 10. Results from cellular uptake and subcellular distribution studies suggest that their higher transfection efficiency may result from accelerated DNA nuclear localization. The superiority of the lipopolyplexes over the best performing polyplex was also confirmed by delivering the therapeutic gene, hVEGF165. Equally importantly, the lipid coating removed the necessity of introducing excess free PEI chains into the transfection solution for higher efficiency, generating lipopolyplexes with no signs of cytotoxicity.Conclusion: Noncovalent modification of polyplexes with lysinylated and histidylated cholesterol lipids can simultaneously improve efficiency and reduce the toxicity of gene delivery under serum conditions, showing great promise for genetic modification of bone

  12. Assessing the efficiency of an unplanted horizontal flow constructed wetland to reduce some emerging organic micropollutants. Preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapias, Josefina C.; Vila, Marta; Himi, Mahjoub; Salvadó, Victoria; Casas, Albert; Hidalgo, Manuela

    2017-04-01

    The presence of emerging organic contaminants (EOC) such as pharmaceutical and personal care products, pesticides or antiseptics in wastewater is an increasing concern worldwide due to their potential toxicological effects for humans and other living organisms. Because of their low concentration and persistence their removal using conventional treatment technologies is often incomplete and for this reason there is a growing interest for assessing the efficiency of alternative wastewater treatment technologies such as constructed wetlands (CWs). CWs are engineered systems for wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) designed to take advantage of many of the same processes that occur in natural wetlands, but within a more controlled environment. CWs are a cost-effective alternative to conventional wastewater treatment plants especially in the context of small communities with less than 2000 people equivalent. Our study has been conducted at the Verdú WWTP (Lleida, Catalonia, NE Spain). This system has a primary treatment consisting on three septic tanks in parallel with a volume of 50 m3 and three chambers each one. The primary effluent is distributed to four parallel horizontal subsurface flow (HSSF) CWs. Originally the system was planted with common reed (Phragmites australis), but currently after twelve years of service the system show evidences of clogging and then gravel bed was replaced and plants removed. After the HSSF CWs, there are two wastewater stabilization ponds (WSPs) followed by two smaller polishing horizontal HSSF CWs. Excellent overall treatment performance was exhibited on the elimination of conventional water quality parameters (93-98% average removal efficiency for TSS, COD, BOD5 and NTK), and its final effluent proved to comply with existing Spanish guidelines. Sampling has been conducted along two years at different seasons and examined EOC substances included analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs (ibuprofen, diclofenac, and naproxene

  13. Using Chromatin Immunoprecipitation in Toxicology: A Step-by-Step Guide to Increasing Efficiency, Reducing Variability, and Expanding Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Shaun D; On, Doan M; Bowers, Emma C

    2017-05-02

    Histone modifications work in concert with DNA methylation to regulate cellular structure, function, and response to environmental stimuli. More than 130 unique histone modifications have been described to date, and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) allows for the exploration of their associations with the regulatory regions of target genes and other DNA/chromatin-associated proteins across the genome. Many variations of ChIP have been developed in the 30 years since its earliest version came into use, which makes it challenging for users to integrate the procedure into their research programs. Furthermore, the differences in ChIP protocols can confound efforts to increase reproducibility across studies. The streamlined ChIP procedure presented here can be readily applied to samples from a wide range of in vitro studies (cell lines and primary cells) and clinical samples (peripheral leukocytes) in toxicology. We also provide detailed guidance on the optimization of critical protocol parameters, such as chromatin fixation, fragmentation, and immunoprecipitation, to increase efficiency and improve reproducibility. Expanding toxicoepigenetic studies to more readily include histone modifications will facilitate a more comprehensive understanding of the role of the epigenome in environmental exposure effects and the integration of epigenetic data in mechanistic toxicology, adverse outcome pathways, and risk assessment. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  14. Industrial strategies for improving energy efficiency and reducing greenhouse gas emissions: Examples from the Climate Wise program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buhsmer, K.; Nelson, H.; Wayman, A.; Winkelman, S.; Milmoe, P.H.

    1997-01-01

    Climate Wise is a partnership initiative between the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the US Department of Energy (DOE), and industry designed to stimulate the voluntary reduction of greenhouse gas emissions among participating manufacturing companies. Climate Wise works with the manufacturing sector, which comprises 25 to 30 percent of the total US energy consumption, to promote the continued and increased implementation of energy efficiency and other pollution prevention measures. This paper reviews the energy use and CO 2 emissions profiles of the following three energy intensive industries: cement, petroleum, and iron and steel. The paper also identifies what a typical Action Plan for a company from each of these industries might look like and the types of savings (energy, CO 2 emissions, and energy costs) which might be achieved. The measures featured in these Action Plans are widely applicable and are likely to offer relatively short payback times. In addition, the paper describes other measures and existing or emerging technologies that may be available to these industries

  15. Opportunities to improve energy efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the U.S. pulp and paper industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Nathan; Anglani, N.; Einstein, D.; Khrushch, M.; Worrell, E.; Price, L.K.

    2000-07-01

    The pulp and paper industry accounts for over 12% of total manufacturing energy use in the U.S. (U.S. EIA 1997a), contributing 9% to total manufacturing carbon dioxide emissions. In the last twenty-five years primary energy intensity in the pulp and paper industry has declined by an average of 1% per year. However, opportunities still exist to reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions in the manufacture of paper in the U.S. This report analyzes the pulp and paper industry (Standard Industrial Code (SIC) 26) and includes a detailed description of the processes involved in the production of paper, providing typical energy use in each process step. We identify over 45 commercially available state-of-the-art technologies and measures to reduce energy use and calculate potential energy savings and carbon dioxide emissions reductions. Given the importance of paper recycling, our analysis examines two cases. Case A identifies potential primary energy savings without accounting for an increase in recycling, while Case B includes increasing paper recycling. In Case B the production volume of pulp is reduced to account for additional pulp recovered from recycling. We use a discount rate of 30% throughout our analysis to reflect the investment decisions taken in a business context. Our Case A results indicate that a total technical potential primary energy savings of 31% (1013 PJ) exists. For case A we identified a cost-effective savings potential of 16% (533 PJ). Carbon dioxide emission reductions from the energy savings in Case A are 25% (7.6 MtC) and 14% (4.4 MtC) for technical and cost-effective potential, respectively. When recycling is included in Case B, overall technical potential energy savings increase to 37% (1215 PJ) while cost-effective energy savings potential is 16%. Increasing paper recycling to high levels (Case B) is nearly cost-effective assuming a cut-off for cost-effectiveness of a simple payback period of 3 years. If this measure is included, then

  16. Opportunities to improve energy efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the US pulp and paper industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Nathan; Anglani, N.; Einstein, D.; Khrushch, M.; Worrell, E.; Price, L.K.

    2000-07-01

    The pulp and paper industry accounts for over 12% of total manufacturing energy use in the US (US EIA 1997a), contributing 9% to total manufacturing carbon dioxide emissions. In the last twenty-five years primary energy intensity in the pulp and paper industry has declined by an average of 1% per year. However, opportunities still exist to reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions in the manufacture of paper in the US This report analyzes the pulp and paper industry (Standard Industrial Code (SIC) 26) and includes a detailed description of the processes involved in the production of paper, providing typical energy use in each process step. We identify over 45 commercially available state-of-the-art technologies and measures to reduce energy use and calculate potential energy savings and carbon dioxide emissions reductions. Given the importance of paper recycling, our analysis examines two cases. Case A identifies potential primary energy savings without accounting for an increase in recycling, while Case B includes increasing paper recycling. In Case B the production volume of pulp is reduced to account for additional pulp recovered from recycling. We use a discount rate of 30% throughout our analysis to reflect the investment decisions taken in a business context. Our Case A results indicate that a total technical potential primary energy savings of 31% (1013 PJ) exists. For case A we identified a cost-effective savings potential of 16% (533 PJ). Carbon dioxide emission reductions from the energy savings in Case A are 25% (7.6 MtC) and 14% (4.4 MtC) for technical and cost-effective potential, respectively. When recycling is included in Case B, overall technical potential energy savings increase to 37% (1215 PJ) while cost-effective energy savings potential is 16%. Increasing paper recycling to high levels (Case B) is nearly cost-effective assuming a cut-off for cost-effectiveness of a simple payback period of 3 years. If this measure is included, then the

  17. Solid oxide fuel cell technology coupled with methane dry reforming: A viable option for high efficiency plant with reduced CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barelli, L.; Ottaviano, A.

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays the control of greenhouse gas is probably the most challenging environmental policy issue. Since CO 2 is considered the major greenhouse gas (GHG) that contributes to the global warming, enforcing technological strategies aiming to avoid or reuse CO 2 emissions becomes crucial, in order to mitigate GHG environmental impact. Currently, solutions conventionally adopted to this purpose are carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies. In this context, instead, the followed strategy aims to further improvements in energetic conversion efficiency with related reduced specific CO 2 emissions (per produced kWh e ). Therefore, with particular reference to the electric power generation, this paper proposes an innovative energy conversion system, based on solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), characterized by higher efficiency and reduced CO 2 emission factor respect to an analogous conventional energy plant. In particular, the innovative solution consists of combining SOFC to methane dry reforming technology, while the conventional system refers to steam methane reforming-SOFC coupling. The innovative system performance up to 65% electric efficiency as cited in the paper, was validated through simulations carried out in Aspen Plus environment. - Highlights: • An innovative high efficiency plant with low CO 2 emissions is presented. • The new solution combined SOFC to methane dry reforming technology (CDR–SOFC). • A comparison between CDR–SOFC and SMR–SOFC system was carried out in Aspen Plus. • CDR–SOFC efficiency is greater of 6.4% percentage points respect to SMR–SOFC. • A CO 2 emission factor reduction of about 10% was achieved by CDR–SOFC plant

  18. Efficiency of overhead ceiling lifts in reducing musculoskeletal injury among carers working in long-term care institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgir, Hasanat; Yu, Shicheng; Fast, Catherine; Hennessy, Stephanie; Kidd, Catherine; Yassi, Annalee

    2008-05-01

    A longitudinal study was conducted in three long-term care facilities to evaluate the effectiveness and cost benefit of overhead lifts in reducing the risk of musculoskeletal injury among healthcare workers. Analysis of injury trends spanning 6 years before intervention (1996-2001) and 4 years after intervention (2002-2005) found a significant and sustained decrease in workers' compensation claims per number of beds and in working days lost per bed. The payback period was estimated under various assumptions and varied from 6.3 to 6.2 years if only direct claim-cost savings were included, and from 2.06 to 3.20 years when indirect savings were added. The significant reductions in injury rates and compensation claims support intervention with overhead ceiling lifts. A more comprehensive evaluation of such programmes should incorporate in the analysis important variables such as staffing ratios, job stresses, injury reporting systems and compensation policies during the study period.

  19. Reduced graphene oxide wrapped Cu2O supported on C3N4: An efficient visible light responsive semiconductor photocatalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ganesh Babu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Herein, Cu2O spheres were prepared and encapsulated with reduced graphene oxide (rGO. The Cu2O–rGO–C3N4 composite covered the whole solar spectrum with significant absorption intensity. rGO wrapped Cu2O loading caused a red shift in the absorption with respect to considering the absorption of bare C3N4. The photoluminescence study confirms that rGO exploited as an electron transport layer at the interface of Cu2O and C3N4 heterojunction. Utmost, ∼2 fold synergistic effect was achieved with Cu2O–rGO–C3N4 for the photocatalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol in comparison with Cu2O–rGO and C3N4. The Cu2O–rGO–C3N4 photocatalyst was reused for four times without loss in its activity.

  20. Reduced graphene oxide wrapped Cu2O supported on C3N4: An efficient visible light responsive semiconductor photocatalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh Babu, S.; Vinoth, R.; Surya Narayana, P.; Bahnemann, Detlef; Neppolian, B.

    2015-10-01

    Herein, Cu2O spheres were prepared and encapsulated with reduced graphene oxide (rGO). The Cu2O-rGO-C3N4 composite covered the whole solar spectrum with significant absorption intensity. rGO wrapped Cu2O loading caused a red shift in the absorption with respect to considering the absorption of bare C3N4. The photoluminescence study confirms that rGO exploited as an electron transport layer at the interface of Cu2O and C3N4 heterojunction. Utmost, ˜2 fold synergistic effect was achieved with Cu2O-rGO-C3N4 for the photocatalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol in comparison with Cu2O-rGO and C3N4. The Cu2O-rGO-C3N4 photocatalyst was reused for four times without loss in its activity.

  1. Holey Reduced Graphene Oxide Coupled with an Mo2 N-Mo2 C Heterojunction for Efficient Hydrogen Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Haijing; Xie, Ying; Jiao, Yanqing; Wu, Aiping; Tian, Chungui; Zhang, Xiaomeng; Wang, Lei; Fu, Honggang

    2018-01-01

    An in situ catalytic etching strategy is developed to fabricate holey reduced graphene oxide along with simultaneous coupling with a small-sized Mo 2 N-Mo 2 C heterojunction (Mo 2 N-Mo 2 C/HGr). The method includes the first immobilization of H 3 PMo 12 O 40 (PMo 12 ) clusters on graphite oxide (GO), followed by calcination in air and NH 3 to form Mo 2 N-Mo 2 C/HGr. PMo 12 not only acts as the Mo heterojunction source, but also provides the Mo species that can in situ catalyze the decomposition of adjacent reduced GO to form HGr, while the released gas (CO) and introduced NH 3 simultaneously react with the Mo species to form an Mo 2 N-Mo 2 C heterojunction on HGr. The hybrid exhibits superior activity towards the hydrogen evolution reaction with low onset potentials of 11 mV (0.5 m H 2 SO 4 ) and 18 mV (1 m KOH) as well as remarkable stability. The activity in alkaline media is also superior to Pt/C at large current densities (>88 mA cm -2 ). The good activity of Mo 2 N-Mo 2 C/HGr is ascribed to its small size, the heterojunction of Mo 2 N-Mo 2 C, and the good charge/mass-transfer ability of HGr, as supported by a series of experiments and theoretical calculations. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Impact of reduced marker set estimation of genomic relationship matrices on genomic selection for feed efficiency in Angus cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Northcutt Sally L

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular estimates of breeding value are expected to increase selection response due to improvements in the accuracy of selection and a reduction in generation interval, particularly for traits that are difficult or expensive to record or are measured late in life. Several statistical methods for incorporating molecular data into breeding value estimation have been proposed, however, most studies have utilized simulated data in which the generated linkage disequilibrium may not represent the targeted livestock population. A genomic relationship matrix was developed for 698 Angus steers and 1,707 Angus sires using 41,028 single nucleotide polymorphisms and breeding values were estimated using feed efficiency phenotypes (average daily feed intake, residual feed intake, and average daily gain recorded on the steers. The number of SNPs needed to accurately estimate a genomic relationship matrix was evaluated in this population. Results Results were compared to estimates produced from pedigree-based mixed model analysis of 862 Angus steers with 34,864 identified paternal relatives but no female ancestors. Estimates of additive genetic variance and breeding value accuracies were similar for AFI and RFI using the numerator and genomic relationship matrices despite fewer animals in the genomic analysis. Bootstrap analyses indicated that 2,500-10,000 markers are required for robust estimation of genomic relationship matrices in cattle. Conclusions This research shows that breeding values and their accuracies may be estimated for commercially important sires for traits recorded in experimental populations without the need for pedigree data to establish identity by descent between members of the commercial and experimental populations when at least 2,500 SNPs are available for the generation of a genomic relationship matrix.

  3. A novel and efficient gene transfer strategy reduces glial reactivity and improves neuronal survival and axonal growth in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Desclaux

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The lack of axonal regeneration in the central nervous system is attributed among other factors to the formation of a glial scar. This cellular structure is mainly composed of reactive astrocytes that overexpress two intermediate filament proteins, the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP and vimentin. Indeed, in vitro, astrocytes lacking GFAP or both GFAP and vimentin were shown to be the substrate for increased neuronal plasticity. Moreover, double knockout mice lacking both GFAP and vimentin presented lower levels of glial reactivity in vivo, significant axonal regrowth and improved functional recovery in comparison with wild-type mice after spinal cord hemisection. From these results, our objective was to develop a novel therapeutic strategy for axonal regeneration, based on the targeted suppression of astroglial reactivity and scarring by lentiviral-mediated RNA-interference (RNAi. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In this study, we constructed two lentiviral vectors, Lv-shGFAP and Lv-shVIM, which allow efficient and stable RNAi-mediated silencing of endogenous GFAP or vimentin in vitro. In cultured cortical and spinal reactive astrocytes, the use of these vectors resulted in a specific, stable and highly significant decrease in the corresponding protein levels. In a second model -- scratched primary cultured astrocytes -- Lv-shGFAP, alone or associated with Lv-shVIM, decreased astrocytic reactivity and glial scarring. Finally, in a heterotopic coculture model, cortical neurons displayed higher survival rates and increased neurite growth when cultured with astrocytes in which GFAP and vimentin had been invalidated by lentiviral-mediated RNAi. CONCLUSIONS: Lentiviral-mediated knockdown of GFAP and vimentin in astrocytes show that GFAP is a key target for modulating reactive gliosis and monitoring neuron/glia interactions. Thus, manipulation of reactive astrocytes with the Lv-shGFAP vector constitutes a promising therapeutic strategy for

  4. A novel and efficient gene transfer strategy reduces glial reactivity and improves neuronal survival and axonal growth in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desclaux, Mathieu; Teigell, Marisa; Amar, Lahouari; Vogel, Roland; Gimenez Y Ribotta, Minerva; Privat, Alain; Mallet, Jacques

    2009-07-14

    The lack of axonal regeneration in the central nervous system is attributed among other factors to the formation of a glial scar. This cellular structure is mainly composed of reactive astrocytes that overexpress two intermediate filament proteins, the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and vimentin. Indeed, in vitro, astrocytes lacking GFAP or both GFAP and vimentin were shown to be the substrate for increased neuronal plasticity. Moreover, double knockout mice lacking both GFAP and vimentin presented lower levels of glial reactivity in vivo, significant axonal regrowth and improved functional recovery in comparison with wild-type mice after spinal cord hemisection. From these results, our objective was to develop a novel therapeutic strategy for axonal regeneration, based on the targeted suppression of astroglial reactivity and scarring by lentiviral-mediated RNA-interference (RNAi). In this study, we constructed two lentiviral vectors, Lv-shGFAP and Lv-shVIM, which allow efficient and stable RNAi-mediated silencing of endogenous GFAP or vimentin in vitro. In cultured cortical and spinal reactive astrocytes, the use of these vectors resulted in a specific, stable and highly significant decrease in the corresponding protein levels. In a second model -- scratched primary cultured astrocytes -- Lv-shGFAP, alone or associated with Lv-shVIM, decreased astrocytic reactivity and glial scarring. Finally, in a heterotopic coculture model, cortical neurons displayed higher survival rates and increased neurite growth when cultured with astrocytes in which GFAP and vimentin had been invalidated by lentiviral-mediated RNAi. Lentiviral-mediated knockdown of GFAP and vimentin in astrocytes show that GFAP is a key target for modulating reactive gliosis and monitoring neuron/glia interactions. Thus, manipulation of reactive astrocytes with the Lv-shGFAP vector constitutes a promising therapeutic strategy for increasing glial permissiveness and permitting axonal regeneration

  5. Can storage reduce electricity consumption? A general equation for the grid-wide efficiency impact of using cooling thermal energy storage for load shifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deetjen, Thomas A.; Reimers, Andrew S.; Webber, Michael E.

    2018-02-01

    This study estimates changes in grid-wide, energy consumption caused by load shifting via cooling thermal energy storage (CTES) in the building sector. It develops a general equation for relating generator fleet fuel consumption to building cooling demand as a function of ambient temperature, relative humidity, transmission and distribution current, and baseline power plant efficiency. The results present a graphical sensitivity analysis that can be used to estimate how shifting load from cooling demand to cooling storage could affect overall, grid-wide, energy consumption. In particular, because power plants, air conditioners and transmission systems all have higher efficiencies at cooler ambient temperatures, it is possible to identify operating conditions such that CTES increases system efficiency rather than decreasing it as is typical for conventional storage approaches. A case study of the Dallas-Fort Worth metro area in Texas, USA shows that using CTES to shift daytime cooling load to nighttime cooling storage can reduce annual, system-wide, primary fuel consumption by 17.6 MWh for each MWh of installed CTES capacity. The study concludes that, under the right circumstances, cooling thermal energy storage can reduce grid-wide energy consumption, challenging the perception of energy storage as a net energy consumer.

  6. Conductive polymer/reduced graphene oxide/Au nano particles as efficient composite materials in electrochemical supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabani Shayeh, J.; Ehsani, A.; Ganjali, M. R.; Norouzi, P.; Jaleh, B.

    2015-10-01

    Polyaniline/reduced graphene oxide/Au nano particles (PANI/rGO/AuNPs) as a hybrid supercapacitor were deposited on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) by cyclic voltammetry (CV) method as ternary composites and their electrochemical performance was evaluated in acidic medium. Scanning electron micrographs clearly revealed the formation of nanocomposites on the surface of the working electrode. Scanning electron micrographs (SEM) clearly revealed the formation of nanocomposites on the surface of working electrode. Different electrochemical methods including galvanostatic charge-discharge (CD) experiments, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were carried out in order to investigate the applicability of the system as a supercapacitor. Based on the cyclic voltammogram results obtained, PANI/rGO/AuNPs gave higher specific capacitance, power and energy values than PANI at a current density of 1 mA cm-2. Specific capacitance (SC) of PANI and PANI/rGO/AuNPs electrodes calculated using CV method are 190 and 303 F g-1, respectively. The present study introduces new nanocomposite materials for electrochemical redox capacitors with advantages including long life cycle and stability due to synergistic effects of each component.

  7. Conductive polymer/reduced graphene oxide/Au nano particles as efficient composite materials in electrochemical supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shabani Shayeh, J. [Center of Excellence in Electrochemistry, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ehsani, A., E-mail: a.ehsani@qom.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Qom, P.O. Box 37185-359, Qom (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ganjali, M.R.; Norouzi, P. [Center of Excellence in Electrochemistry, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Endocrinology & Metabolism Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jaleh, B. [Physics Department, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan 65174 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-10-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • PANI/rGO/AuNPs as a ternary composite synthesized by electrodeposition. • Presence of rGO/AuNPs caused increasing the stability of electrodes. • Composite represented high specific capacitance, specific power and specific energy values than PANI. - Abstract: Polyaniline/reduced graphene oxide/Au nano particles (PANI/rGO/AuNPs) as a hybrid supercapacitor were deposited on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) by cyclic voltammetry (CV) method as ternary composites and their electrochemical performance was evaluated in acidic medium. Scanning electron micrographs clearly revealed the formation of nanocomposites on the surface of the working electrode. Scanning electron micrographs (SEM) clearly revealed the formation of nanocomposites on the surface of working electrode. Different electrochemical methods including galvanostatic charge–discharge (CD) experiments, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were carried out in order to investigate the applicability of the system as a supercapacitor. Based on the cyclic voltammogram results obtained, PANI/rGO/AuNPs gave higher specific capacitance, power and energy values than PANI at a current density of 1 mA cm{sup −2}. Specific capacitance (SC) of PANI and PANI/rGO/AuNPs electrodes calculated using CV method are 190 and 303 F g{sup −1}, respectively. The present study introduces new nanocomposite materials for electrochemical redox capacitors with advantages including long life cycle and stability due to synergistic effects of each component.

  8. Porous three-dimensional reduced graphene oxide merged with WO3 for efficient removal of radioactive strontium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Wanjun; Yu, Qianghong; Hu, rui; Li, Xingliang; Wei, Hongyuan; Jian, Yuan

    2017-11-01

    A simple hydrothermal method was used to prepare 3D nanostructured composite adsorbents of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and WO3 (RGO/WO3). The analysis results suggest that it possesses a mesoporous 3D structure, in which WO3 nanorods are uniformly loaded on the surface of the RGO. Combining the benefits of GO and WO3, the composites exhibit a higher adsorption capacity for removing Sr2+ from aqueous solutions over a wide pH range (4-11). Adsorption isotherms show that the data fit the Langmuir isotherms well (R > 0.99), and the maximum adsorption capacity of 149.56 mg g-1 was achieved, much higher than that for GO, WO3 and other similar adsorbents. Sr2+ adsorption on RGO/WO3 reached equilibrium within 200 min. The fast adsorption and high adsorption rate of RGO/WO3 are mostly attributable to the plentiful adsorption sites provided by the dispersed WO3 nanoparticles on the RGO surface. Furthermore, the existence of Na+ ions has no obvious effect on the removal of Sr2+ ions by RGO/WO3, and RGO/WO3 adsorbent can be repeated at least 5 times without significant loss of adsorption capacity by adsorption-desorption experiment. Thus, RGO/WO3 shows the potential ability for removal of 90Sr from radioactive wastewater.

  9. Ag2O/sodium alginate-reduced graphene oxide aerogel beads for efficient visible light driven photocatalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuhua; Wang, Jiajia; Xu, Shimei; Feng, Shun; Wang, Jide

    2018-02-01

    In this work, one facile and green method was developed to resolve the instinct defects of pure Ag2O and increase visible-light photocatalytic activity of Ag2O-based catalyst. In which, Ag2O was immobilized in sodium alginate-reduced graphene oxide (ALG-rGO) aerogel beads. The as-prepared aerogel beads showed a well-defined interconnected three-dimensional porous network and displayed the highest photocatalytic activity with a mass ratio of 40:1 (ALG:rGO). For the degradation of cationic Rhodamine B (RhB) and anionic dye Orange II (OII) dyes, rate constants were 1.95 × 10-2 min-1 and 4.13 × 10-2 min-1, which were 2.4 and 3.1 times higher than those of Ag2O/ALG aerogel beads, respectively. The further studies demonstrated that presence of rGO can effectively decrease the size of Ag2O, extend photoresponding range (UV to near-infrared light spectrum), speed-up separate photogenerated electrons and holes, retard charge recombination, and prolong electron lifetime and effective carrier diffusion length. The potential mechanism for RhB and OII degrading was expounded, and main active species in the degradation reactions of dyes were investigated by a series of trapping experiments. It offered a promising photocatalyst to purify the wastewater, and provided a sophisticated understanding of the pivotal role rGO acting in photocatalysis.

  10. Conductive polymer/reduced graphene oxide/Au nano particles as efficient composite materials in electrochemical supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabani Shayeh, J.; Ehsani, A.; Ganjali, M.R.; Norouzi, P.; Jaleh, B.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • PANI/rGO/AuNPs as a ternary composite synthesized by electrodeposition. • Presence of rGO/AuNPs caused increasing the stability of electrodes. • Composite represented high specific capacitance, specific power and specific energy values than PANI. - Abstract: Polyaniline/reduced graphene oxide/Au nano particles (PANI/rGO/AuNPs) as a hybrid supercapacitor were deposited on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) by cyclic voltammetry (CV) method as ternary composites and their electrochemical performance was evaluated in acidic medium. Scanning electron micrographs clearly revealed the formation of nanocomposites on the surface of the working electrode. Scanning electron micrographs (SEM) clearly revealed the formation of nanocomposites on the surface of working electrode. Different electrochemical methods including galvanostatic charge–discharge (CD) experiments, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were carried out in order to investigate the applicability of the system as a supercapacitor. Based on the cyclic voltammogram results obtained, PANI/rGO/AuNPs gave higher specific capacitance, power and energy values than PANI at a current density of 1 mA cm"−"2. Specific capacitance (SC) of PANI and PANI/rGO/AuNPs electrodes calculated using CV method are 190 and 303 F g"−"1, respectively. The present study introduces new nanocomposite materials for electrochemical redox capacitors with advantages including long life cycle and stability due to synergistic effects of each component.

  11. Efficiency of source control systems for reducing runoff pollutant loads: feedback on experimental catchments within Paris conurbation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressy, Adèle; Gromaire, Marie-Christine; Lorgeoux, Catherine; Saad, Mohamed; Leroy, Florent; Chebbo, Ghassan

    2014-06-15

    Three catchments, equipped with sustainable urban drainage systems (SUDS: vegetated roof, underground pipeline or tank, swale, grassed detention pond) for peak flow mitigation, have been compared to a reference catchment drained by a conventional separate sewer system in terms of hydraulic behaviour and discharged contaminant fluxes (organic matter, organic micropollutants, metals). A runoff and contaminant emission model has been developed in order to overcome land use differences. It has been demonstrated that the presence of peak flow control systems induces flow attenuation even for frequent rain events and reduces water discharges at a rate of about 50% depending on the site characteristics. This research has also demonstrated that this type of SUDS contributes to a significant reduction of runoff pollutant discharges, by 20%-80%. This level of reduction varies depending on the considered contaminant and on the design of the drainage system but is mostly correlated with the decrease in runoff volume. It could be improved if the design of these SUDS focused not only on the control of exceptional events but also targeted more explicitly the interception of frequent rain events. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Increasing reticle inspection efficiency and reducing wafer printchecks at 14nm using automated defect classification and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paracha, Shazad; Goodman, Eliot; Eynon, Benjamin G.; Noyes, Ben F.; Ha, Steven; Kim, Jong-Min; Lee, Dong-Seok; Lee, Dong-Heok; Cho, Sang-Soo; Ham, Young M.; Vacca, Anthony D.; Fiekowsky, Peter J.; Fiekowsky, Daniel I.

    2014-10-01

    IC fabs inspect critical masks on a regular basis to ensure high wafer yields. These requalification inspections are costly for many reasons including the capital equipment, system maintenance, and labor costs. In addition, masks typically remain in the "requal" phase for extended, non-productive periods of time. The overall "requal" cycle time in which reticles remain non-productive is challenging to control. Shipping schedules can slip when wafer lots are put on hold until the master critical layer reticle is returned to production. Unfortunately, substituting backup critical layer reticles can significantly reduce an otherwise tightly controlled process window adversely affecting wafer yields. One major requal cycle time component is the disposition process of mask inspections containing hundreds of defects. Not only is precious non-productive time extended by reviewing hundreds of potentially yield-limiting detections, each additional classification increases the risk of manual review techniques accidentally passing real yield limiting defects. Even assuming all defects of interest are flagged by operators, how can any person's judgment be confident regarding lithographic impact of such defects? The time reticles spend away from scanners combined with potential yield loss due to lithographic uncertainty presents significant cycle time loss and increased production costs An automatic defect analysis system (ADAS), which has been in fab production for numerous years, has been improved to handle the new challenges of 14nm node automate reticle defect classification by simulating each defect's printability under the intended illumination conditions. In this study, we have created programmed defects on a production 14nm node critical-layer reticle. These defects have been analyzed with lithographic simulation software and compared to the results of both AIMS optical simulation and to actual wafer prints.

  13. Hierarchically ordered macro-mesoporous ZnS microsphere with reduced graphene oxide supporter for a highly efficient photodegradation of methylene blue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sookhakian, M., E-mail: m.sokhakian@gmail.com [Department of Physics, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Amin, Y.M. [Department of Physics, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Basirun, W.J. [Department of Chemistry, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Centre of Research in Nanotechnology and Catalysis (NanoCat), Institute of Postgraduate Studies, University Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia)

    2013-10-15

    A facile one-pot method for the fabrication of high quality self-assembled hierarchically ordered macro-mesoporous ZnS microsphere–reduced graphene oxide (RGO) composite without the use of templates or surfactants is described. During the hydrothermal process, reduced graphene oxide (RGO) was loaded into the ZnS microsphere by in situ reduction of graphene oxide added in the self-assembly system. The morphology and structure of the as-prepared composites were confirmed by X-ray diffraction, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Incorporation of reduced graphene oxide as an excellent electron-transporting material effectively suppresses the charge recombination. Hence, a significant enhancement in the photocatalytic efficiency for the photodegradation of methylene blue was observed with the ZnS–RGO composite, compared to the pure ZnS. Overall, this research results may lay down new vistas for the in situ fabrication of the ZnS–RGO composite as a highly efficient photocatalysis under visible-light irradiation and their applications in environmental protection.

  14. Does a carbon tax make sense in countries with still a high potential for energy efficiency? Comparison between the reducing-emissions effects of carbon tax and energy efficiency measures in the Chilean case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vera, Sonia; Sauma, Enzo

    2015-01-01

    Many countries have not yet successfully decoupled their growth and their energy consumption. Moreover, power production frequently entails a number of negative externalities, like greenhouse gas emissions from thermo electrical units. This situation has highlighted the need for countries to move towards sustainable economic growth. Accordingly, many countries have proposed and established measures to decrease their carbon emissions. In this line, the Chilean government has just passed a carbon tax of $5/Ton CO 2 e. In this work, we compare the effects on reducing CO 2 emissions of this carbon tax and of some energy efficiency measures in the power sector. The results obtained indicate that the imposed carbon tax will produce an expected annual reduction in CO 2 emissions of 1% with respect to the estimated baseline during the 2014–2024 period. However, this reduction will be accompanied by an expected 3.4% increase in the marginal cost of power production on the main Chilean power system. In contrast, the introduction of some energy efficiency measures, aimed to reduce 2% of the power demand of the residential sector, could achieve larger reductions in CO 2 emissions, while simultaneously decreasing energy price. - Highlights: • We estimate CO 2 emission reductions due to a carbon tax and EE measures in Chile. • We simulate the main Chilean power system with diverse levels of carbon tax and EE. • Energy efficiency measures could achieve better results than carbon tax in Chile. • The carbon tax imposed in Chile reduces CO 2 emissions in 1% in the 2014–2024 period. • The carbon tax imposed in Chile increases system marginal cost in 3.4% in 2014–2024

  15. Beneficial effect of post-deposition treatment in high-efficiency Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} solar cells through reduced potential fluctuations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, S. A., E-mail: Soren.Jensen@nrel.gov, E-mail: Darius.Kuciauskas@nrel.gov; Glynn, S.; Kanevce, A.; Dippo, P.; Li, J. V.; Levi, D. H.; Kuciauskas, D., E-mail: Soren.Jensen@nrel.gov, E-mail: Darius.Kuciauskas@nrel.gov [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States)

    2016-08-14

    World-record power conversion efficiencies for Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) solar cells have been achieved via a post-deposition treatment with alkaline metals, which increases the open-circuit voltage and fill factor. We explore the role of the potassium fluoride (KF) post-deposition treatment in CIGS by employing energy- and time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy and electrical characterization combined with numerical modeling. The bulk carrier lifetime is found to increase with post-deposition treatment from 255 ns to 388 ns, which is the longest charge carrier lifetime reported for CIGS, and within ∼40% of the radiative limit. We find evidence that the post-deposition treatment causes a decrease in the electronic potential fluctuations. These potential fluctuations have previously been shown to reduce the open-circuit voltage and the device efficiency in CIGS. Additionally, numerical simulations based on the measured carrier lifetimes and mobilities show a diffusion length of ∼10 μm, which is ∼4 times larger than the film thickness. Thus, carrier collection in the bulk is not a limiting factor for device efficiency. By considering differences in doping, bandgap, and potential fluctuations, we present a possible explanation for the voltage difference between KF-treated and untreated samples.

  16. A ‘Carbon Saving Multiplier’ as an alternative to rebound in considering reduced energy supply chain requirements from energy efficiency?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, Karen; Katris, Antonios

    2017-01-01

    A growing area of research into rebound effects from increased energy efficiency involves application of demand-driven input-output models to consider indirect energy consumption effects associated with re-spending decisions by households with reduced energy spending requirements. However, there is often a lack of clarity in applied studies as to how indirect effects involving energy use and/or carbon emissions in supply chains of both energy and non-energy goods and services have been calculated. We propose that more transparency for policymakers may be introduced by replacing consideration of what are often referred to as ‘indirect rebound’ effects with a simple Carbon Saving Multiplier metric. We illustrate using results from a demand-driven input-output model that tracks supply chain activity at national and/or global level. We argue that this captures and conveys the same information on quantity adjustments in energy used in supply chain activity but does so in a manner that is more positive, transparent, understandable and useful for a policy audience. This is achieved by focusing (here via carbon emissions) on the net benefits of changes in different types of energy use at both household and supply chain levels when energy efficiency improves in households. - Highlights: • Considers energy supply adjustments when household energy efficiency improves. • Focuses on energy supply chain impacts that may offset direct rebound effects. • Carbon Saving Multiplier proposed as a useful indicator of net energy use benefits.

  17. Use of Fe-Impregnated Biochar To Efficiently Sorb Chlorpyrifos, Reduce Uptake by Allium fistulosum L., and Enhance Microbial Community Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiao-Yan; Huang, Wen-Da; Guo, Jing-Jing; Yang, Yang; Tao, Ran; Feng, Xu

    2017-07-05

    Fe-impregnated biochar was assessed as a method to remove the pesticide pollutant chlorpyrifos, utilizing biochar/FeO x composite synthesized via chemical coprecipitation of Fe 3+ /Fe 2+ onto Cyperus alternifolius biochar. Fe-impregnated biochar exhibited a higher sorption capacity than pristine biochar, resulting in more efficient removal of chlorpyrifos from water. Soil was dosed with pristine or Fe-impregnated biochar at 0.1 or 1.0% w/w, to evaluate chlorpyrifos uptake in Allium fistulosum L. (Welsh onion). The results showed that the average concentration of chlorpyrifos and its degradation product, 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP), decreased in A. fistulosum L. with increased levels of pristine biochar and Fe-biochar. Fe-biochar was found to be more effective in reducing the uptake of chlorpyrifos by improving the sorption ability and increasing plant root iron plaque. Bioavailability of chlorpyrifos is reduced with both biochar and Fe-biochar soil dosing; however, the greatest persistence of chlorpyrifos residues was observed with 1.0% pristine biochar. Microbial community analysis showed Fe-biochar to have a positive impact on the efficiency of chlorpyrifos degradation in soils, possibly by altering microbial communities.

  18. Reduced SnO2 Porous Nanowires with a High Density of Grain Boundaries as Catalysts for Efficient Electrochemical CO2 -into-HCOOH Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Bijandra; Atla, Veerendra; Brian, J Patrick; Kumari, Sudesh; Nguyen, Tu Quang; Sunkara, Mahendra; Spurgeon, Joshua M

    2017-03-20

    Electrochemical conversion of CO 2 into energy-dense liquids, such as formic acid, is desirable as a hydrogen carrier and a chemical feedstock. SnO x is one of the few catalysts that reduce CO 2 into formic acid with high selectivity but at high overpotential and low current density. We show that an electrochemically reduced SnO 2 porous nanowire catalyst (Sn-pNWs) with a high density of grain boundaries (GBs) exhibits an energy conversion efficiency of CO 2 -into-HCOOH higher than analogous catalysts. HCOOH formation begins at lower overpotential (350 mV) and reaches a steady Faradaic efficiency of ca. 80 % at only -0.8 V vs. RHE. A comparison with commercial SnO 2 nanoparticles confirms that the improved CO 2 reduction performance of Sn-pNWs is due to the density of GBs within the porous structure, which introduce new catalytically active sites. Produced with a scalable plasma synthesis technology, the catalysts have potential for application in the CO 2 conversion industry. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Reduced Fading | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  20. Reducing Condensation | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  1. Acetylsalicylic acid supplementation improves protein utilization efficiency while vitamin E supplementation reduces markers of the inflammatory response in weaned pigs challenged with enterotoxigenic E.coli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jae Cheol Kim; Bruce P.Mullan; John L.Black; Robert J.E.Hewitt; Robert J.van Barneveld; John R.Pluske

    2017-01-01

    Background:This experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that vitamin E (Vit E) and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA),a cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor,will additively reduce the production of the immunosuppressive molecule prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and hence reduce inflammatory responses in weaner pigs experimentally infected with an enterotoxigenic strain of E.coli.Methods:The experiment was conducted in a research facility with 192 individually-housed male weaner pigs (Landrace × Large White) weighing 6.6 ± 0.04 kg (mean ± SEM).The pigs were experimentally infected with an enterotoxigenic strain of E.coli and were allocated to a 2 × 3 factorial design with the respective factors being without and with 125 ppm ASA and three levels ofVit E supplementation (50,100 or 200 IU/kg diet,dl-α-tocopheryl acetate).Results:Acetylsalicylic acid supplementation improved average daily gain (P < 0.05) and tended to improve feed:gain ratio (P < 0.10) during the first 14 d after weaning.Acetylsalicylic acid supplementation also improved (P < 0.001) amino acid utilization efficiency (as assessed by plasma urea level) and tended to decrease (P < 0.10) PGE2 production in the liver without affecting small intestinal histology and tight junction protein mRNA expression in the jejunal epithelium.Vitamin E supplementation greater than 100 IU/kg diet sustained both the plasma Vit E concentration (P < 0.001) and plasma haptoglobin content (P < 0.001) after weaning.However,there was no additive effects of the combined supplementation of ASA and Vit E on performance,intestinal barrier function and inflammatory responses of weaned pigs.Conclusions:Although ASA and vitamin E improved amino acid utilization efficiency and reduced acute inflammatory responses,ASA and vitamin E did not additively reduce production of PGE2 and inflammatory responses in weaner pigs experimentally infected with an enterotoxigenic strain of E.coli.

  2. Highly efficient hydrogen evolution based on Ni3S4@MoS2 hybrids supported on N-doped reduced graphene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaobing; Zhong, Wei; Wu, Liqian; Sun, Yuan; Wang, Tingting; Wang, Yuanqi; Du, Youwei

    2018-01-01

    Hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) through water splitting at low overpotential is an appealing technology to produce renewable energy, wherein the design of stable electrocatalysts is very critical. To achieve optimal electrochemical performance, a highly efficient and stable noble-metal-free HER catalyst is synthesized by means of a facile hydrothermal co-synthesis. It consists of Ni3S4 nanosheets and MoS2 nanolayers supported on N-doped reduced graphene oxide (Ni3S4/MoS2@N-rGO). The optimized sample provides a large amount of active sites that benefit electron transfer in 3D conductive networks. Thanks to the strong synergistic effect in the catalyst network, we achieved a low overpotential of 94 mV, a small Tafel slope of 56 mV/dec and remarkable durability in an acidic medium.

  3. A green and efficient method to produce graphene for electrochemical capacitors from graphene oxide using sodium carbonate as a reducing agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yuhong; Huang, Shuo; Zhang, Mei; Jia, Mengqiu; Hu, Dong

    2013-03-01

    The green and efficient synthesis of graphene using sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) as a chemical reducing agent was studied. Extensive characterization confirmed the formation of graphene from graphene oxide using a Na2CO3 solution. The C/O atomic ratio of the as-prepared graphene has increased from 2.48 to 8.15 after reduction as determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The conductivity of as-prepared graphene sheets is as high as 10 S m-1. After electrochemical measurements, gravimetric capacitances of 228 and 166 F g-1 at current densities of 5 and 25 mA cm-2, respectively, were obtained with KOH electrolyte.

  4. Shape-controlled synthesis of Pd polyhedron supported on polyethyleneimine-reduced graphene oxide for enhancing the efficiency of hydrogen evolution reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Zhou, Panpan; Li, Feng; Ma, Jianxin; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Xueyao; Huo, Hongfei; Jin, Jun; Ma, Jiantai

    2016-01-01

    The catalytic activity of noble-metal nanoparticles (NPs) often has closely connection with their sizes and geometric shape. In the work, polyhedral NPs of palladium (Pd) with controlled sizes, shapes, and different proportions of {100} to {111} facets on the surface were prepared by a seed-mediated approach. Electrochemical experiment demonstrates that the catalytic performance of the Pd nanocubes (NCs) enclosed by {100} facets is more active than Pd octahedrons enclosed by {111} facets for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), which is consistent with density functional theory (DFT) calculation results. Meanwhile, with the assistance of a polyethyleneimine-reduced graphene oxide (PEI-rGO) support, the examined Pd cube/PEI-rGO50:1 (10 wt. %) electrocatalyst presents outstanding HER activity comparable with that of commercial Pt/C catalyst. This correlation between the HER catalytic activity and surface structure will contribute to the reasonable design of Pd catalysts for HER with high efficiency and low metal loading.

  5. Reducing energy consumption and CO2 emissions by energy efficiency measures and international trading: A bottom-up modeling for the U.S. iron and steel sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karali, Nihan; Xu, Tengfang; Sathaye, Jayant

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Use ISEEM to evaluate energy and emission reduction in U.S. Iron and Steel sector. • ISEEM is a new bottom-up optimization model for industry sector energy planning. • Energy and emission reduction includes efficiency measure and international trading. • International trading includes commodity and carbon among U.S., China and India. • Project annual energy use, CO 2 emissions, production, and costs from 2010 to 2050. - Abstract: Using the ISEEM modeling framework, we analyzed the roles of energy efficiency measures, steel commodity and international carbon trading in achieving specific CO 2 emission reduction targets in the U.S iron and steel sector from 2010 to 2050. We modeled how steel demand is balanced under three alternative emission reduction scenarios designed to include national energy efficiency measures, commodity trading, and international carbon trading as key instruments to meet a particular emission restriction target in the U.S. iron and steel sector; and how production, process structure, energy supply, and system costs change with those scenarios. The results advance our understanding of long-term impacts of different energy policy options designed to reduce energy consumption and CO 2 emissions for U.S. iron and steel sector, and generate insight of policy implications for the sector’s environmentally and economically sustainable development. The alternative scenarios associated with 20% emission-reduction target are projected to result in approximately 11–19% annual energy reduction in the medium term (i.e., 2030) and 9–20% annual energy reduction in the long term (i.e., 2050) compared to the Base scenario

  6. Facile synthesis of BiOF/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}/reduced graphene oxide photocatalyst with highly efficient and stable natural sunlight photocatalytic performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Limin; Dong, Shuying; Li, Qilu; Feng, Jinglan; Pi, Yunqing; Liu, Menglin [School of Environment, Henan Normal University, Key Laboratory for Yellow River and Huai River Water Environmental and Pollution Control, Ministry of Education, Henan Key Laboratory for Environmental Pollution Control, Xinxiang, Henan 453007 (China); Sun, Jingyu, E-mail: sunjy-cnc@pku.edu.cn [Center for Nanochemistry (CNC), College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Sun, Jianhui, E-mail: sunjh@htu.cn [School of Environment, Henan Normal University, Key Laboratory for Yellow River and Huai River Water Environmental and Pollution Control, Ministry of Education, Henan Key Laboratory for Environmental Pollution Control, Xinxiang, Henan 453007 (China)

    2015-06-05

    Highlights: • A dual Bi-based ball-shaped material BiOF/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} were facilely synthesized. • The composition effect of BiOF/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}/RGO hybrid were probed for the first time. • The photocatalytic performances were evaluated upon natural sunlight irradiation. • The composites showed a twofold augmentation in the degradation efficiency. • The hybrid photocatalyst can be easily recycled for three times. - Abstract: A facile and efficient route for the controllable synthesis of BiOF/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanostructures by hydrolysis method was reported, where the as-prepared BiOF/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} was subsequently incorporated with reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets to form BiOF/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}/RGO composites. The obtained BiOF/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} and BiOF/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}/RGO composites were well characterized with the aid of various techniques to probe their crystallographic, morphological, chemical and optical properties. Photocatalytic capacities of the pure BiOF/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} and BiOF/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}/RGO composites have been investigated by the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB)-contained wastewater under natural sunlight irradiation. A twofold augmentation of degradation efficiency was in turn observed for BiOF/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}/RGO composites compared with that of pure BiOF/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} under the natural sunlight irradiation. The optimum conditions, the effects of the active species and stabilities in photocatalytic performances of the BiOF/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}/RGO composites have also been probed.

  7. Enhanced basal contractility but reduced excitation-contraction coupling efficiency and beta-adrenergic reserve of hearts with increased Cav1.2 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Mingxin; Zhang, Xiaoying; Li, Yingxin; Guan, Yinzheng; Ai, Xiaojie; Szeto, Christopher; Nakayama, Hiroyuki; Zhang, Hongyu; Ge, Shuping; Molkentin, Jeffery D; Houser, Steven R; Chen, Xiongwen

    2010-08-01

    Cardiac remodeling during heart failure development induces a significant increase in the activity of the L-type Ca(2+) channel (Cav1.2). However, the effects of enhanced Cav1.2 activity on myocyte excitation-contraction (E-C) coupling, cardiac contractility, and its regulation by the beta-adrenergic system are not clear. To recapitulate the increased Cav1.2 activity, a double transgenic (DTG) mouse model overexpressing the Cavbeta2a subunit in a cardiac-specific and inducible manner was established. We studied cardiac (in vivo) and myocyte (in vitro) contractility at baseline and upon beta-adrenergic stimulation. E-C coupling efficiency was evaluated in isolated myocytes as well. The following results were found: 1) in DTG myocytes, L-type Ca(2+) current (I(Ca,L)) density, myocyte fractional shortening (FS), peak Ca(2+) transients, and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) content (caffeine-induced Ca(2+) transient peak) were significantly increased (by 100.8%, 48.8%, 49.8%, and 46.8%, respectively); and 2) cardiac contractility evaluated with echocardiography [ejection fraction (EF) and (FS)] and invasive intra-left ventricular pressure (maximum dP/dt and -dP/dt) measurements were significantly greater in DTG mice than in control mice. However, 1) the cardiac contractility (EF, FS, dP/dt, and -dP/dt)-enhancing effect of the beta-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol (2 microg/g body wt ip) was significantly reduced in DTG mice, which could be attributed to the loss of beta-adrenergic stimulation on contraction, Ca(2+) transients, I(Ca,L), and SR Ca(2+) content in DTG myocytes; and 2) E-C couplng efficiency was significantly lower in DTG myocytes. In conclusion, increasing Cav1.2 activity by promoting its high-activity mode enhances cardiac contractility but decreases E-C coupling efficiency and the adrenergic reserve of the heart.

  8. Segmentation editing improves efficiency while reducing inter-expert variation and maintaining accuracy for normal brain tissues in the presence of space-occupying lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deeley, M A; Chen, A; Cmelak, A; Malcolm, A; Jaboin, J; Niermann, K; Yang, Eddy S; Yu, David S; Datteri, R D; Noble, J; Dawant, B M; Donnelly, E; Moretti, L

    2013-01-01

    Image segmentation has become a vital and often rate-limiting step in modern radiotherapy treatment planning. In recent years, the pace and scope of algorithm development, and even introduction into the clinic, have far exceeded evaluative studies. In this work we build upon our previous evaluation of a registration driven segmentation algorithm in the context of 8 expert raters and 20 patients who underwent radiotherapy for large space-occupying tumours in the brain. In this work we tested four hypotheses concerning the impact of manual segmentation editing in a randomized single-blinded study. We tested these hypotheses on the normal structures of the brainstem, optic chiasm, eyes and optic nerves using the Dice similarity coefficient, volume, and signed Euclidean distance error to evaluate the impact of editing on inter-rater variance and accuracy. Accuracy analyses relied on two simulated ground truth estimation methods: simultaneous truth and performance level estimation and a novel implementation of probability maps. The experts were presented with automatic, their own, and their peers’ segmentations from our previous study to edit. We found, independent of source, editing reduced inter-rater variance while maintaining or improving accuracy and improving efficiency with at least 60% reduction in contouring time. In areas where raters performed poorly contouring from scratch, editing of the automatic segmentations reduced the prevalence of total anatomical miss from approximately 16% to 8% of the total slices contained within the ground truth estimations. These findings suggest that contour editing could be useful for consensus building such as in developing delineation standards, and that both automated methods and even perhaps less sophisticated atlases could improve efficiency, inter-rater variance, and accuracy. (paper)

  9. A facile approach to prepare crumpled CoTMPyP/electrochemically reduced graphene oxide nanohybrid as an efficient electrocatalyst for hydrogen evolution reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Juanjuan, E-mail: majj0518@hotmail.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, Huaihai Institute of Technology, Lianyungang 222005 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 639798, Singapore (Singapore); Liu, Lin; Chen, Qian; Yang, Min [Department of Chemical Engineering, Huaihai Institute of Technology, Lianyungang 222005 (China); Wang, Danping [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 639798, Singapore (Singapore); Tong, Zhiwei [Department of Chemical Engineering, Huaihai Institute of Technology, Lianyungang 222005 (China); Chen, Zhong, E-mail: aszchen@ntu.edu.sg [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 639798, Singapore (Singapore)

    2017-03-31

    Highlights: • Crumpled CoTMPyP/ERGO hybrid was successfully prepared by a facile two-step process. • CoTMPyP nanoaggregates are homogeneously distributed over the graphene surface. • CoTMPyP/ERGO hybrid film shows good electrocatalytic activity and stability for HER. - Abstract: Elaborate design and synthesis of efficient and stable non-Pt electrocatalysts for some renewable energy related conversion/storage processes are one of the major goals of sustainable chemistry. Herein, we report a facile method to fabricate Co porphyrin functionalized electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (CoTMPyP/ERGO) thin film by direct assembly of oppositely charged tetrakis(N-methylpyridyl) porphyrinato cobalt (CoTMPyP) and GO nanosheets under mild conditions followed by an electrochemical reduction procedure. STEM analysis confirms that CoTMPyP nanoaggregates are homogeneously distributed over the graphene surface. The electrochemical properties of CoTMPyP/ERGO were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, linear sweep voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results demonstrate that CoTMPyP/ERGO nanohybrid film can serve as excellent electrocatalyst for hydrogen evolution in alkaline solution with high activity and stability. The intimate contact and efficient electron transfer between CoTMPyP and ERGO, as well as the crumpled structure, contribute to the improvement of the electrocatalytic performance.

  10. Facile and efficient room temperature solid state reaction enabled synthesis of antimony nanoparticles embedded within reduced graphene oxide for enhanced sodium-ion storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiukui; Wu, Ping; Jiang, Li; Zhang, Xiaofang; Shi, Hongxia; Zhu, Xiaoshu; Wei, Shaohua; Zhou, Yiming

    2018-06-01

    Herein, a very simple and cost-effective solid state reaction method is employed to obtain, for the first time, the antimony nanoparticles embedded within reduced graphene oxide matrices (designated as Sb/rGO). By directly grinding antimony chloride and sodium hydroxide together at room temperature in the presence of graphene oxide (GO), Sb4O5Cl2 precursor was quickly obtained, which is evenly incorporated in the graphene oxide matrices. After subsequent chemical reduction by NaBH4, the Sb/rGO composite was successfully synthesized. The as-prepared Sb/rGO composite consists of uniform Sb nanoparticles of sub-20 nm, all of which have been wrapped in and protected by the rGO matrices. The Sb nanoparticles serve as a sufficient sodium ion reservoir while the rGO matrices provide highly efficient pathways for transport of sodium ions and electrons. Moreover, the volume expansion of Sb during sodiation can be buffered in the rGO matrices. As a result, the Sb/rGO composite exhibits excellent electrochemical performance in sodium-ion batteries (SIBs), including an enhanced cycling stability with a highly reversible charge capacity of 455 mA h g-1 after 45 cycles at 100 mA g-1, and a coulombic efficiency exceeding 98% during cycling. The findings in the present work pave the way to not only synthesize the designated promising electrode materials for high performance SIBs, but also thoroughly understand the solid-state reaction.

  11. Soil Management Practices to Improve Nutrient-use Efficiencies and Reduce Risk in Millet-based Cropping Systems in the Sahel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koala, S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Low soil fertility and moisture deficit are among the main constraints to sustainable crop yields in the Sahel. A study therefore, was conducted at the ICRISAT Sahelian Center, Sadore in Niger to test the hypothesis that integrated soil husbandry practices consisting of manure, fertilizer and crop residues in rotational cropping systems use organic and mineral fertilizes efficiently, thereby resulting in higher yields and reduced risk. Results from an analysis of variance showed that choice of cropping systems explained more than 50% of overall variability in millet and cowpea grain yields. Among the cropping systems, rotation gave higher yields than sole crop and intercropping systems and increased millet yield by 46% without fertilizer. Rainfall-use efficiency and partial factor productivity of fertilizer were similarly higher in rotations than in millet monoculture system. Returns from cowpea grown in cowpea-millet rotation without fertilizer and the medium rates of fertilizers (4 kg P.ha-1 + 15 kg N.ha-1 were found to be most profitable in terms of high returns and low risk, principally because of a higher price of cowpea than millet. The study recommends crop diversification, either in the form of rotations or relay intercropping systems for the Sahel as an insurance against total crop failure.

  12. Ag1 Pd1 Nanoparticles-Reduced Graphene Oxide as a Highly Efficient and Recyclable Catalyst for Direct Aryl C-H Olefination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qiyan; Liu, Xiaowang; Wang, Guoliang; Wang, Feifan; Li, Qian; Zhang, Wu

    2017-12-14

    The efficient and selective palladium-catalyzed activation of C-H bonds is of great importance for the construction of diverse bioactive molecules. Despite significant progress, the inability to recycle palladium catalysts and the need for additives impedes the practical applications of these reactions. Ag 1 Pd 1 nanoparticles-reduced graphene oxide (Ag 1 Pd 1 -rGO) was used as highly efficient and recyclable catalyst for the chelation-assisted ortho C-H bond olefination of amides with acrylates in good yields with a broad substrate scope. The catalyst can be recovered and reused at least 5 times without losing activity. A synergistic effect between the Ag and Pd atoms on the catalytic activity was found, and a plausible mechanism for the AgPd-rGO catalyzed C-H olefination is proposed. These findings suggest that the search for such Pd-based bimetallic alloy nanoparticles is a new method towards the development of superior recyclable catalysts for direct aryl C-H functionalization under mild conditions. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Preparation of MIL-53(Fe)-Reduced Graphene Oxide Nanocomposites by a Simple Self-Assembly Strategy for Increasing Interfacial Contact: Efficient Visible-Light Photocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ruowen; Shen, Lijuan; Jing, Fenfen; Qin, Na; Wu, Ling

    2015-05-13

    In this work, MIL-53(Fe)-reduced graphene oxide (M53-RGO) nanocomposites have been successfully fabricated by a facile and efficient electrostatic self-assembly strategy for improving the interfacial contact between RGO and the MIL-53(Fe). Compared with D-M53-RGO (direct synthesis of MIL-53(Fe)-reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites via one-pot solvothermal approach), M53-RGO nanocomposites exhibit improved photocatalytic activity compared with the D-M53-RGO under identical experimental conditions. After 80 min of visible light illumination (λ ≥ 420 nm), the reduction ratio of Cr(VI) is rapidly increased to 100%, which is also higher than that of reference sample (N-doped TiO2). More significantly, the M53-RGO nanocomposites are proven to perform as bifunctional photocatalysts with considerable activity in the mixed systems (Cr(VI)/dyes) under visible light, which made it a potential candidate for industrial wastewater treatment. Combining with photoelectrochemical analyses, it could be revealed that the introduction of RGO would minimize the recombination of photogenerated electron-hole pairs. Additionally, the effective interfacial contact between MIL-53(Fe) and RGO surface would further accelerate the transfer of photogenerated electrons, leading to the enhancement of photocatalytic activity of M53-RGO toward photocatalytic reactions. Finally, a possible photocatalytic reaction mechanism is also investigated in detail.

  14. Ceiling personalized ventilation combined with desk fans for reduced direct and indirect cross-contamination and efficient use of office space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habchi, Carine; Ghali, Kamel; Ghaddar, Nesreen; Chakroun, Walid; Alotaibi, Sorour

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Cross-infection occurs by direct inhalation and contact of contaminated surfaces. • Mixing ventilation performance is degraded at reduced distance between occupants. • Ceiling personalized ventilation reduces significantly cross-contamination. • The optimized system induces large energy savings compared to mixing ventilation. • The optimized system improves the occupation density from 12 to 8 m 2 per occupant. - Abstract: Crowded offices with short distances separating workers’ stations increase the probability of respiratory cross-infection via two different paths. One path is the contaminant transmission through air by direct inhalation and the other is through the body contact of contaminated surfaces and walls. Mixed ventilation principles used today reduces the probability of cross contamination by increasing the distance between the stations challenging the efficient use of the space or by supplying more fresh air in the space which is energy inefficient. In this work, new cooling and ventilation configuration is studied by modeling using computational fluid dynamics with consideration of space occupancy density while providing good indoor air quality. The configuration considers a ceiling personalized ventilation system equipped with desk fans. The ability of the computational fluid dynamics model in computing the thermal, velocity and concentration fields was validated by experiments and published data. The main objective of the performed experiments was to ensure that the developed computational fluid dynamics model can capture the effect of the desk fan flow rate on particle behavior. The studied system is found to provide acceptable indoor air quality at shorter distance between the occupants compared to the mixing system at considerable energy savings. By optimizing the design of the proposed personalized ventilation system, the occupancy density in an office is enhanced to 8 m 2 per occupant compared to 12 m 2 per occupant for

  15. The Role of Activator-Activator Interactions In Reducing in Low-Voltage-Cathodoluminescence Efficiency in Eu and Tb Doped Phosphors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SEAGER, CARLETON H.; TALLANT, DAVID R.

    1999-01-01

    High resolution measurements of spectrally resolved cathodoluminescence (CL) decay have been made in several commercial and experimental phosphors doped with Eu and Tb at beam energies ranging from 0.8 to 4 keV. CL emission from the lowest two excited states of both rare earth activators was compared to the decay of photoluminescence (PL) after pulsed laser excitation. We find that, at long times after the cessation of electron excitation, the CL decay rates are comparable to those measured in PL, at short times, the decay process is considerably faster and has a noticeable dependence on the energy of the electron beam. These beam energy effects are largest for the higher excited states and for phosphors with larger activator concentrations. Measurements of the experimental phosphors over a range of activator fractions from 0.1 to 0.002 show that the beam energy dependence of the steady-state CL efficiency is larger for higher excited states and weakens as the activator concentration is reduced. The latter effect is strongest for Y 2 SiO 5 :Tb, but also quite evident in Y 2 O 3 :Eu. We suggest that the electron beam dependence of both the decay lifetimes and the steady state CL efficiency may be due to interaction of nearby excited states which occurs as a result of the large energy deposition rate for low energy electrons. This picture-for non-radiative quenching of rare earth emission is an excited state analog of the well-known (ground state-excited state) concentration quenching mechanism

  16. Efficient reduced graphene oxide grafted porous Fe3O4 composite as a high performance anode material for Li-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuvaneswari, Subramani; Pratheeksha, Parakandy Muzhikara; Anandan, Srinivasan; Rangappa, Dinesh; Gopalan, Raghavan; Rao, Tata Narasinga

    2014-03-21

    Here, we report facile fabrication of Fe3O4-reduced graphene oxide (Fe3O4-RGO) composite by a novel approach, i.e., microwave assisted combustion synthesis of porous Fe3O4 particles followed by decoration of Fe3O4 by RGO. The characterization studies of Fe3O4-RGO composite demonstrate formation of face centered cubic hexagonal crystalline Fe3O4, and homogeneous grafting of Fe3O4 particles by RGO. The nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm shows presence of a porous structure with a surface area and a pore volume of 81.67 m(2) g(-1), and 0.106 cm(3) g(-1) respectively. Raman spectroscopic studies of Fe3O4-RGO composite confirm the existence of graphitic carbon. Electrochemical studies reveal that the composite exhibits high reversible Li-ion storage capacity with enhanced cycle life and high coulombic efficiency. The Fe3O4-RGO composite showed a reversible capacity ∼612, 543, and ∼446 mA h g(-1) at current rates of 1 C, 3 C and 5 C, respectively, with a coulombic efficiency of 98% after 50 cycles, which is higher than graphite, and Fe3O4-carbon composite. The cyclic voltammetry experiment reveals the irreversible and reversible Li-ion storage in Fe3O4-RGO composite during the starting and subsequent cycles. The results emphasize the importance of our strategy which exhibited promising electrochemical performance in terms of high capacity retention and good cycling stability. The synergistic properties, (i) improved ionic diffusion by porous Fe3O4 particles with a high surface area and pore volume, and (ii) increased electronic conductivity by RGO grafting attributed to the excellent electrochemical performance of Fe3O4, which make this material attractive to use as anode materials for lithium ion storage.

  17. The efficiency and safety of fibrin sealant for reducing blood loss in primary total hip arthroplasty: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiyuan; Xiao, Lin; Guo, Hao; Zhao, Guanghui; Ma, Jianbing

    2017-01-01

    Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is associated with substantial blood loss. The objective of present systematic review and meta-analysis is to provide evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the efficiency and safety of administration of fibrin sealant (FS) for reducing blood loss in patients undergoing primary THA. Potential relevant studies were identified from electronic databases including Medline, PubMed, Embase, ScienceDirect, web of science and Cochrane Library. Gray academic studies were also identified from the reference list of included studies. There was no language restriction. Pooling of data was carried out by using RevMan 5.1. Six randomized controlled trials (RCTs) met the inclusion criteria. Current meta-analysis indicated that there were significant differences in terms of total blood loss (MD = -153.77, 95% CI: -287.21 to -20.34, P = 0.02), postoperative hemoglobin level (MD = -0.25, 95% CI: -0.46 to -0.05, P = 0.02) and transfusion rate (RD = -0.12, 95% CI: -0.22 to -0.03, P = 0.01) between groups. No significant differences were found regarding the incidence of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) (RD = 0.00, 95% CI: -0.01to 0.01, P = 0.51) or other side effects. Administration of fibrin sealant in total hip arthroplasty may reduce total blood loss, postoperative hemoglobin decline and transfusion requirements. Moreover, no adverse effect was related to FS. Due to the limited quality of the evidence currently available, higher quality RCTs are required. Copyright © 2016 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Non–Symmetric s–Step Lanczos Algorithm: Derivation of Efficient Recurrences and Synchronization–Reducing Variants of BiCG and QMR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feuerriegel Stefan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Lanczos algorithm is among the most frequently used iterative techniques for computing a few dominant eigenvalues of a large sparse non-symmetric matrix. At the same time, it serves as a building block within biconjugate gradient (BiCG and quasi-minimal residual (QMR methods for solving large sparse non-symmetric systems of linear equations. It is well known that, when implemented on distributed-memory computers with a huge number of processes, the synchronization time spent on computing dot products increasingly limits the parallel scalability. Therefore, we propose synchronization-reducing variants of the Lanczos, as well as BiCG and QMR methods, in an attempt to mitigate these negative performance effects. These so-called s-step algorithms are based on grouping dot products for joint execution and replacing time-consuming matrix operations by efficient vector recurrences. The purpose of this paper is to provide a rigorous derivation of the recurrences for the s-step Lanczos algorithm, introduce s-step BiCG and QMR variants, and compare the parallel performance of these new s-step versions with previous algorithms.

  19. Development of an integrated energy concept: survey of the potential for reducing emissions of climate-influencing trace gases through efficient utilisation in the old Laender. Sector traffic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oppermann, F.

    1993-11-01

    If CO 2 emissions are to be reduced on account of their major contribution to the anthropogenic greenhouse effect, as planned, for example, by the Federal Government, then a key role will have to be assigned to the traffic sector because this is the only sector whose energy consumption and consequent CO 2 emissions is relentlessly increasing. This forms the background to the present study's intent of sketching out possible routes of development of the traffic system in the old Laender. Three scenarios having particular regard to traffic-related CO 2 emissions are presented. The study is based on the reference years 1987, 2005, and 2020; its scope is defined by the so-called inland concept. The scenario calculations are based on, firstly, a detailed quantitative survey of the West German traffic system in 1987 as the starting year and, secondly, a dp-supported traffic model that is capable of generating a scenario and describes traffic systems in terms of parameters such as traffic volume and CO 2 emissions taking interdependencies with other energy consuming sectors into account. Working from a general transsectoral scenario formulation, measures appropriate to the respective framework conditions governing the three scenarios 'Business as usual' (BAU), 'Efficiency', and 'Ecologically structured policy' are defined and the resulting effects on the individual elements of the traffic system are assessed. The results of the subsequently performed scenario calculations largely consist of detailed, absolute, traffic-volume-specific CO 2 emission values for each reference year. (orig.) [de

  20. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/reduced graphene oxide composites as counter electrodes for high efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jinfu; Yuan, Shenghua; Yang, Shaolin; Lu, Hui; Li, Yingtao

    2018-05-01

    A facile, low cost, easy-controllable method to prepare Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT)/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) composites by electrochemical deposition onto fluorinated tin oxide (FTO) as counter electrodes (CEs) in high performance dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) is reported. The electro-deposition process was accomplished by electro-polymerization of graphene oxide (GO)/PEDOT composites onto FTO substrates followed by electrochemical reduction of the GO component. Electrochemical measurements show that the I-/I3- catalytic activity of the as-prepared PEDOT/rGO CE is improved compared with that of the pure PEDOT and PEDOT/GO electrode. Through the analysis of photoelectric properties, the performance of the electrodes fabricated with different polymerization times are compared, and the optimal preparation condition is determined. The photoelectric conversion efficiency (PCE) of the DSSC assembled with PEDOT/rGO electrode reaches 7.79%, close to 8.33% of the cell with Platinum (Pt) electrode, and increases by 13.2% compared with 6.88% of the device with the PEDOT electrode.

  1. High-efficiency thin Si solar cells prepared at reduced temperatures. Final report; Herstellung von hocheffizienten, duennen Si-Solarzellen bei erniedrigten Prozesstemperaturen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruehler, W.

    1999-07-01

    Thin crystalline Si wafer solar cells were processed at reduced temperatures. In addition multicrystalline thin-film solar cells were fabricated on graphite substrates. Large area (175 cm{sup 2}) wafer solar cells made from mono- as well as from tricrystalline Si material were processed with reduced thicknesses down to 100 {mu}m. Conversion efficiencies were obtained in the range between 11.5 and 12.5% without antireflection coating. The reduction of the process temperatures had no positive impact on the expected cost reduction because of the degradation of the electrical cell data during processing. Tricrystalline Si wafers have shown to be mechanically stronger than monocrystalline Si material. Consequently, tri-Si ingots can be sawn in thinner wafers with higher yield. The concept of backside-contacted solar cell was realized by the preparation of thin slit solar cells (150 {mu}m thin, 43 cm{sup 2} in area) made from tri-Si. A conversion efficiency of 14,3% was reached. Amorphous Si layer deposited on graphite substrates were recrystallized by the electron beam recrystallization method developed by the Technical University in Hamburg-Harburg. The recrystallized Si layers showed large grains and were suitible as seed layers for the following gas phase epitaxy (CVD). With the CVD method 20 to 40 {mu}m thin Si absorber layers were deposited on the seed layers with the same excellent crystallographic properties. In contrast, their electrical properties were not sufficient for the preparation of solar cells having more than 3% efficiency. The study of the different concepts has shown, that the development of thin wafer solar cells made from tri-Si has the highest potential with respect to a further cost reduction. (orig.) [German] Es wurden sowohl duenne, kristalline Si-Wafer-Solarzellen bei erniedrigten Prozesstemperaturen als auch multikristalline Si-Duennschicht-Solarzellen auf Graphitsubstraten entwickelt und untersucht. Es konnten grossflaechige (175 cm{sup 2

  2. Highly efficient removal of Malachite green from water by a magnetic reduced graphene oxide/zeolitic imidazolate framework self-assembled nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Kun-Yi Andrew; Lee, Wei-Der

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • MRGO/ZIF nanocomposite was prepared via self-assembly and used for MG adsorption. • MRGO/ZIF can exhibit an ultra-high adsorption capacity for MG of ∼3000 mg g −1 . • Adsorption isotherm was properly fitted to the Langmuir–Freundlich isotherm model. • Effects of temperature, pH and co-existing compounds were investigated. • Recyclability of MRGO/ZIF for MG adsorption was highly efficient and stable. - Abstract: Compared to the relatively low adsorption capacities of conventional adsorbents for Malachite Green (MG) (i.e., ∼500 mg g −1 ), zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF) appears to be a promising adsorbent considering its significantly high adsorption capacity (i.e., >2000 mg g −1 ). Nevertheless, using such a nano-scale ZIF material for adsorption may lead to secondary contamination from the release of nanomaterials to the environment. Thus, ZIF has to be recovered conveniently to prevent the secondary contamination and facilitate the separation of adsorbent from water after adsorption. To this end, in this study ZIF nanocrystals were loaded on the sheet-like magnetic reduced graphene oxide (MRGO) to form a self-assembled MRGO/ZIF. The self-assembly of MRGO/ZIF was achieved possibly via the electrostatic attraction and the π–π stacking interaction between MRGO and ZIF. The resultant MRGO/ZIF exhibited an ultra-high adsorption capacity for MG (∼3000 mg g −1 ). The adsorption kinetics, isotherm, activation and thermodynamics were also determined. Other factors affecting the adsorption were examined including temperature, pH and co-existing ions/compound. To demonstrate that MRGO/ZIF can be recovered and reused, a multiple-cycle of MG adsorption using the regenerated MRGO/ZIF was revealed and the recyclability remained highly efficient and stable. The highly-effective, recoverable and re-usable features enable MRGO/ZIF a promising adsorbent to remove MG from water.

  3. Efficient Electron Transfer across a ZnO-MoS2 -Reduced Graphene Oxide Heterojunction for Enhanced Sunlight-Driven Photocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Suneel; Reddy, Nagappagari Lakshmana; Kushwaha, Himmat Singh; Kumar, Ashish; Shankar, Muthukonda Venkatakrishnan; Bhattacharyya, Kaustava; Halder, Aditi; Krishnan, Venkata

    2017-09-22

    The development of noble metal-free catalysts for hydrogen evolution is required for energy applications. In this regard, ternary heterojunction nanocomposites consisting of ZnO nanoparticles anchored on MoS 2 -RGO (RGO=reduced graphene oxide) nanosheets as heterogeneous catalysts show highly efficient photocatalytic H 2 evolution. In the photocatalytic process, the catalyst dispersed in an electrolytic solution (S 2- and SO 3 2- ions) exhibits an enhanced rate of H 2 evolution, and optimization experiments reveal that ZnO with 4.0 wt % of MoS 2 -RGO nanosheets gives the highest photocatalytic H 2 production of 28.616 mmol h -1  g cat -1 under sunlight irradiation; approximately 56 times higher than that on bare ZnO and several times higher than those of other ternary photocatalysts. The superior catalytic activity can be attributed to the in situ generation of ZnS, which leads to improved interfacial charge transfer to the MoS 2 cocatalyst and RGO, which has plenty of active sites available for photocatalytic reactions. Recycling experiments also proved the stability of the optimized photocatalyst. In addition, the ternary nanocomposite displayed multifunctional properties for hydrogen evolution activity under electrocatalytic and photoelectrocatalytic conditions owing to the high electrode-electrolyte contact area. Thus, the present work provides very useful insights for the development of inexpensive, multifunctional catalysts without noble metal loading to achieve a high rate of H 2 generation. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Dual functional reduced graphene oxide as photoanode and counter electrode in dye-sensitized solar cells and its exceptional efficiency enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumeri, F. A.; Lim, H. N.; Zainal, Z.; Huang, N. M.; Pandikumar, A.; Lim, S. P.

    2015-10-01

    The dual functionalities of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) as photoanode and counter electrode in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) is explored. A titanium dioxide (TiO2) film is deposited on an indium tin oxide (ITO) glass using an in-house aerosol-assisted chemical vapor deposition method. Graphene oxide (GO) is then introduced onto the TiO2-ITO substrate, and the GO layer is successively thermally treated to rGO. The TiO2-rGO film is used as a compact layer for the photoanode of the DSSC. A layer of zinc oxide-silver (ZnO-Ag) is introduced on top of the compact layer as an active material. Its highly porous flower-shaped morphology is advantageous for the adsorption of dye. The in-situ electrochemical polymerization method used for the fabrication of polypyrrole incorporated with rGO and p-toluenesulfonate (pTS) (Ppy-rGO-pTS) on an ITO glass is used as a counter electrode for the DSSC. The DSSC assembled with the Ppy-rGO-1.0pTS counter electrode exhibites an enhanced conversion efficiency of 1.99% under solar illumination, which is better than that using conventional Pt as a counter electrode (0.08%). This is attributed to the increased contact area between the Ppy-rGO-pTS counter electrode and electrolyte, which subsequently improves the conductivity and high electrocatalytic activities of the Ppy-rGO-pTS counter electrode.

  5. Effects of a Diet-Based Weight-Reducing Program with Probiotic Supplementation on Satiety Efficiency, Eating Behaviour Traits, and Psychosocial Behaviours in Obese Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Sanchez

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the impact of probiotic supplementation (Lactobacillus rhamnosus CGMCC1.3724 (LPR on appetite sensations and eating behaviors in the context of a weight-reducing program. Obese men (n = 45 and women (n = 60 participated in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial that included a 12-week weight loss period (Phase 1 based on moderate energy restriction, followed by 12 weeks of weight maintenance (Phase 2. During the two phases of the program, each subject consumed two capsules per day of either a placebo or a LPR formulation (10 mg of LPR equivalent to 1.6 108 CFU/capsule, 210 mg of oligofructose, and 90 mg of inulin. The LPR supplementation increased weight loss in women that was associated with a greater increase in the fasting desire to eat (p = 0.03. On the other hand, satiety efficiency (satiety quotient for desire to eat at lunch increased (p = 0.02, whereas disinhibition (p = 0.05 and hunger (p = 0.02 scores decreased more in the LPR-treated women, when compared with the female control group. Additionally, the LPR female group displayed a more pronounced decrease in food craving (p = 0.05, and a decrease in the Beck Depression Inventory score (p = 0.05 that was significantly different from the change noted in the placebo group (p = 0.02, as well as a higher score in the Body Esteem Scale questionnaire (p = 0.06. In men, significant benefits of LPR on fasting fullness and cognitive restraint were also observed. Taken together, these observations lend support to the hypothesis that the gut-brain axis may impact appetite control and related behaviors in obesity management.

  6. A World Wide Web-based antimicrobial stewardship program improves efficiency, communication, and user satisfaction and reduces cost in a tertiary care pediatric medical center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agwu, Allison L; Lee, Carlton K K; Jain, Sanjay K; Murray, Kara L; Topolski, Jason; Miller, Robert E; Townsend, Timothy; Lehmann, Christoph U

    2008-09-15

    Antimicrobial stewardship programs aim to reduce inappropriate hospital antimicrobial use. At the Johns Hopkins Children's Medical and Surgical Center (Baltimore, MD), we implemented a World Wide Web-based antimicrobial restriction program to address problems with the existing restriction program. A user survey identified opportunities for improvement of an existing antimicrobial restriction program and resulted in subsequent design, implementation, and evaluation of a World Wide Web-based antimicrobial restriction program at a 175-bed, tertiary care pediatric teaching hospital. The program provided automated clinical decision support, facilitated approval, and enhanced real-time communication among prescribers, pharmacists, and pediatric infectious diseases fellows. Approval status, duration, and rationale; missing request notifications; and expiring approvals were stored in a database that is accessible via a secure Intranet site. Before and after implementation of the program, user satisfaction, reports of missed and/or delayed doses, antimicrobial dispensing times, and cost were evaluated. After implementation of the program, there was a $370,069 reduction in projected annual cost associated with restricted antimicrobial use and an 11.6% reduction in the number of dispensed doses. User satisfaction increased from 22% to 68% and from 13% to 69% among prescribers and pharmacists, respectively. There were 21% and 32% reductions in the number of prescriber reports of missed and delayed doses, respectively, and there was a 37% reduction in the number of pharmacist reports of delayed approvals; measured dispensing times were unchanged (P = .24). In addition, 40% fewer restricted antimicrobial-related phone calls were noted by the pharmacy. The World Wide Web-based antimicrobial approval program led to improved communication, more-efficient antimicrobial administration, increased user satisfaction, and significant cost savings. Integrated tools, such as this World

  7. [Formaldehyde-reducing efficiency of a newly developed dissection-table-connected local ventilation system in the gross anatomy laboratory room].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinoda, Koh; Oba, Jun

    2010-03-01

    In compliance with health and safety management guidelines against harmful formaldehyde (FA) levels in the gross anatomy laboratory, we newly developed a dissection-table-connected local ventilation system in 2006. The system was composed of (1) a simple plenum-chambered dissection table with low-cost filters, (2) a transparent vinyl flexible duct for easy mounting and removal, which connects the table and the exhaust pipe laid above the ceiling, and (3) an intake creating a downward-flow of air, which was installed on the ceiling just above each table. The dissection table was also designed as a separate-component system, of which the upper plate and marginal suction inlets can be taken apart for cleaning after dissection, and equipped with opening/closing side-windows for picking up materials dropped during dissection and a container underneath the table to receive exudate from the cadaver through a waste-fluid pipe. The local ventilation system dramatically reduced FA levels to 0.01-0.03 ppm in the gross anatomy laboratory room, resulting in no discomforting FA smell and irritating sensation while preserving the student's view of room and line of flow as well as solving the problems of high maintenance cost, sanitation issues inside the table, and working-inconvenience during dissection practice. Switching ventilation methods or power-modes, the current local ventilation system was demonstrated to be more than ten times efficient in FA reduction compared to the whole-room ventilation system and suggested that 11 m3/min/table in exhaust volume should decrease FA levels in both A- and B-measurements to less than 0.1 ppm in 1000 m3 space containing thirty-one 3.5%-FA-fixed cadavers.

  8. What China can learn from international policy experiences to improve industrial energy efficiency and reduce CO2 emissions?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xu [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Shen, Bo [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Price, Lynn [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lu, Hongyou [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hasanbeigi, Ali [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-11-01

    China’s industrial sector dominates the country’s total energy consumption and energy efficiency in the industry sector is crucial to help China reach its energy and CO2 emissions reduction goals. There are many energy efficiency policies in China, but the motivation and willingness of enterprises to improve energy efficiency has weakened. This report first identifies barriers that enterprises face to be self-motivated to implement energy efficiency measures. Then, this report reviews international policies and programs to improve energy efficiency and evaluates how these policies helped to address the identified barriers. Lastly, this report draws conclusions and provides recommendations to China in developing policies and programs to motivate enterprises to improve energy efficiency.

  9. Treatment of municipal wastewater in full-scale on-site sand filter reduces BOD efficiently but does not reach requirements for nitrogen and phosphorus removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laaksonen, Petteri; Sinkkonen, Aki; Zaitsev, Gennadi; Mäkinen, Esa; Grönroos, Timo; Romantschuk, Martin

    2017-04-01

    A traditional sand filter for treatment of household wastewater was constructed in the fall of 2012 at Biolinja 12, Turku, Finland. Construction work was led and monitored by an authorized wastewater treatment consultant. The filter was placed on a field bordered by open ditches from all sides in order to collect excess rain and snowmelt waters. The filter was constructed and insulated from the environment so that all outflowing water was accounted for. Untreated, mainly municipal, wastewater from Varissuo suburb was pumped from a sewer separately via three septic tanks (volume = 1 m 3 each) into the filters. Normally, wastewater was distributed to ground filters automatically according to pre-programmed schedule. Initially, the daily flow was 1200 L day -1 to reflect the average organic load of a household of five persons (load: ca 237 g day -1 BOD; 73 g day -1 total N; and 10.4 g day -1 total P). Later in the test, the flow rate was decreased first to 900 and then to 600 L day -1 to better reflect the average volume produced by five persons. Volumes of inlet wastewater as well as treated water were monitored by magnetic flow meters. Samples were withdrawn from the inlet water, from the water entering the filters after the third septic tank, and from the outflowing water. After an initial adaption time, the reductions in BOD and chemical oxygen demand were constantly between 92 and 98%, showing that the biological degradation process in the filters functioned optimally and clearly comply with the national and EU standards. The reduction in total nitrogen and total phosphorus, however, reached required levels only during the first months of testing, apparently when buildup of microbial biomass was still ongoing. After this initial period of 3 months showing satisfactory reduction levels, the reduction of total nitrogen varied between 5 and 25% and total phosphorus mostly between 50 and 65%. Nitrification was efficient in the filter, but as indicated

  10. Efficiency of utilizing ileal digestible lysine and threonine for whole body protein deposition in growing pigs is reduced when dietary casein is replaced by wheat shorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libao-Mercado, A J; Leeson, S; Langer, S; Marty, B J; de Lange, C F M

    2006-06-01

    To determine the effect of dietary inclusion level of wheat shorts (WS; a high nonstarch poly-saccharide-containing feed ingredient) and casein (CS; a control) on the efficiency of utilizing ileal digestible Lys (kLys) and Thr (kThr) for whole body protein deposition (PD) in the growing pig, 2 separate N-balance studies were conducted with either Lys or Thr as first-limiting AA in cornstarch-based diets. For the Lys study, a basal diet (L-basal) was formulated to contain 0.24 g of standardized ileal digestible (SID) Lys per MJ of DE, to which 0.095 or 0.19 g of SID Lys per MJ of DE were added using either CS (L-CS2 or L-CS3, respectively) or WS (L-WS2 or L-WS3, respectively). A sixth diet was evaluated that was similar to L-CS3 but to which 6% pectin (L-pectin) was added as a source of soluble nonstarch polysaccharides. For the Thr study, the basal diet (T-basal) was formulated to contain 0.14 g of SID Thr per MJ of DE, to which 0.055 or 0.11 g of SID Thr per MJ of DE were added from CS (T-CS2 or T-CS3, respectively) or from WS (T-WS2 and T-WS3, respectively). A sixth diet was evaluated that was similar to T-CS3 but to which 6% pectin was added (T-pectin). Increasing SID Lys intake from CS did not influence kLys for PD (P > 0.10), whereas increasing SID Lys intake from WS reduced kLys for PD (P = 0.001; 89 vs. 79%). Inclusion of 6% pectin had no effect on kLys for PD (P > 0.10). Increasing SID Thr intake from CS also did not influence kThr for PD (P > 0.10), whereas kThr for PD was reduced at the greatest dietary inclusion level of WS (P 0.10). The inefficiency of utilizing ileal digestible Lys intake for PD may be attributed to nonreactive Lys in WS. The negative impact of including high levels of WS in the diet of pigs on kThr seems to be associated with fiber content of WS; it was not related to increased endogenous ileal AA losses at the distal ileum. The impact of dietary AA source on the use of ileal digestible Lys and Thr for PD, or other body functions, is

  11. High efficiency orange-red phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes based on a Pt(II)-pyridyltriazolate complex from a structure optimized for charge balance and reduced efficiency roll-off

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Minghang; Lin, Ming-Te; Shepherd, Nigel D. [Department of Material Science and Engineering, University of North Texas, Denton, Texas (United States); Chen, Wei-Hsuan; McDougald, Roy Jr.; Arvapally, Ravi; Omary, Mohammad [Department of Chemistry, University of North Texas, Denton, Texas (United States)

    2012-01-15

    We report a high power efficiency (PE) of 44.7 {+-} 0.5 lm/W, high external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 19.7 {+-} 0.1% at 500 Cd/m{sup 2}, and efficiency roll-off of only 4% of the peak value at a useful brightness of 1000 Cd/m{sup 2} from orange-red emitting, organic light emitting diodes featuring 1,1-bis[(di-4-tolylamino)phenyl]cyclohexane (TAPC) as the hole transport layer/electron blocking layer, an emissive layer consisting of 65% bis[3,5-bis(2-pyridyl)-1,2,4-triazolato]platinum(II) (Pt(ptp){sub 2}) doped into 4,4'-bis(carbazol-9-yl)triphenylamine (CBP), and 1,3,5-tris(phenyl-2-benzimidazolyl)-benzene (TPBI) as the electron transport layer (ETL). Based on a comparison of these structures with devices that did not incorporate an electron/exciton blocker and devices featuring N,N'-dicarbazolyl-3,5-benzene (mCP) as the electron/exciton blocking layer, we ascribe the high efficiency and low efficiency roll-off to better charge balance, and enhanced confinement of excitons and the recombination zone to the emissive layer. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Comparative study of the hydrodynamic drag reducer efficiency in petroleum samples; Estudo comparativo da eficiencia de redutores de atrito hidrodinamico comerciais em amostras de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabadini, Edvaldo; Silva, Marcelo Alves da [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil); Ziglio, Claudio Marcos; Carvalho, Carlos Henrique Monteiro de; Rocha, Nelson de Oliveira [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2008-07-01

    In this work the efficiency of five commercial additives which produce drag reduction in petroleum was determined and compared. The studies were carried out in a rheometer using samples of petroleum from Bacia de Campos diluted in 50% of toluene. For such purpose the rheometer acts as a 'torquemeter', in which the magnitude of the drag reduction promoted by the additive is directly proportional to the difference in torque applied to maintain the sample in a specific flow rate. The obtained results have shown excellent capability of the additives to promote drag reduction (up to 20%) and small difference of efficiency among the additives was detectable. (author)

  13. Impact of energy efficiency and replacement of diesel fuel with natural gas in public transport on reducing emissions of nitrogen oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimitrovski, Dame; Jovanovski, Antonio [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, ' Ss. Cyril and Methodius' University, Skopje (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    This paper analyzes the direct emissions of nitrogen oxides from the public transport (bus) in urban areas in the Republic of Macedonia. As influential factors on which to compare the quantity of these emissions are taken: Penetration of new (energy efficient) technologies in bus transport, the intensity of the bus fleet renewal for public transport and replacement of diesel with natural gas. (Author)

  14. SEE Action Guide for States: Energy Efficiency as a Least-Cost Strategy to Reduce Greenhouse Gases and Air Pollution and Meet Energy Needs in the Power Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, Lisa [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Leventis, Greg [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schiller, Steven R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fadrhonc, Emily Martin [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); shenot, John [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Colburn, Ken [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); James, Chris [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Zetterberg, Johanna [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Roy, Molly [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This guide is designed to provide information to state decision makers and staff on options to advance energy efficiency through strategies designed or implemented at the state and local levels of government and in the private sector.1 The information in this guide is intended to be useful to a wide variety of partners and stakeholders involved in energy-related discussions and decision-making at state and local levels. These energy efficiency options, or “pathways” as they are identified in this guide, can assist states in using energy efficiency to meet air pollution reduction and other policy objectives such as energy affordability and reliability. A pathway is a set of interdependent actions that results in measurable energy savings streams and associated avoided air emissions and other benefits over a period of time. These activities can include state, local, or private sector regulations, policies, programs and other activities. For each of five broad pathways that offer sizable cost-effective energy savings, the guide addresses likely questions policy makers and regulators face when screening for the best opportunities to advance energy efficiency in their state.

  15. Ultra High Power and Efficiency Space Traveling-Wave Tube Amplifier Power Combiner with Reduced Size and Mass for NASA Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Wintucky, Edwin G.; Wilson, Jeffrey D.; Force, Dale A.

    2009-01-01

    In the 2008 International Microwave Symposium (IMS) Digest version of our paper, recent advances in high power and efficiency space traveling-wave tube amplifiers (TWTAs) for NASA s space-to-Earth communications are presented. The RF power and efficiency of a new K-Band amplifier are 40 W and 50 percent and that of a new Ka-Band amplifier are 200 W and 60 percent. An important figure-of-merit, which is defined as the ratio of the RF power output to the mass (W/kg) of a TWT, has improved by a factor of ten over the previous generation Ka-Band devices. In this extended paper, a high power, high efficiency Ka-band combiner for multiple TWTs, based on a novel hybrid magic-T waveguide circuit design, is presented. The measured combiner efficiency is as high as 90 percent. In addition, at the design frequency of 32.05 GHz, error-free uncoded BPSK/QPSK data transmission at 8 megabits per second (Mbps), which is typical for deep space communications is demonstrated. Furthermore, QPSK data transmission at 622 Mbps is demonstrated with a low bit error rate of 2.4x10(exp -8), which exceeds the deep space state-of-the-art data rate transmission capability by more than two orders of magnitude. A potential application of the TWT combiner is in deep space communication systems for planetary exploration requiring transmitter power on the order of a kilowatt or higher.

  16. Renew, reduce or become more efficient? The climate contribution of biomass co-combustion in a coal-fired power plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miedema, Jan H.; Benders, Rene M. J.; Moll, Henri C.; Pierie, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Within this paper, biomass supply chains, with different shares of biomass co-combustion in coal fired power plants, are analysed on energy efficiency, energy consumption, renewable energy production, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and compared with the performance of a 100% coal supply chain

  17. Ultra Efficient CHHP Using a High Temperature Fuel Cell to Provide On-Site Process Reducing Gas, Clean Power, and Heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahnke, Fred C. [Fuelcell Energy, Inc., Danbury, CT (United States)

    2015-06-30

    FuelCell Energy and ACuPowder investigated and demonstrated the use of waste anode exhaust gas from a high temperature fuel cell for replacing the reducing gas in a metal processing furnace. Currently companies purchase high pressure or liquefied gases for the reducing gas which requires substantial energy in production, compression/liquefaction, and transportation, all of which is eliminated by on-site use of anode exhaust gas as reducing gas. We performed research on the impact of the gas composition on product quality and then demonstrated at FuelCell Energy’s manufacturing facility in Torrington, Connecticut. This demonstration project continues to operate even though the research program is completed as it provides substantial benefits to the manufacturing facility by supplying power, heat, and hydrogen.

  18. (Pyridine)(tetrahydroborato)zinc complex, (Zn(BH4)2(py)), as a new stable, efficient and chemoselective reducing agent for reduction of carbonyl compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeynizadeh, Behzad; Faraji, Fariba

    2003-01-01

    (Pyridine)(tetrahydroborato)zinc complex, (Zn(BH 4 ) 2 (py)), as a stable white solid, was prepared quantitatively by complexation of an equimolar amount of zinc tetrahydroborate and pyridine at room temperature. This reagent can easily reduce variety of carbonyl compounds such as aldehydes, ketones, acyloins, α-diketones and α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds to their corresponding alcohols in good to excellent yields. Reduction reactions were performed in ether or THF at room temperature or under reflux conditions. In addition, the chemoselective reduction of aldehydes over ketones was accomplished successfully with this reducing agent

  19. (Pyridine)(tetrahydroborato)zinc complex, (Zn(BH{sub 4}){sub 2}(py)), as a new stable, efficient and chemoselective reducing agent for reduction of carbonyl compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeynizadeh, Behzad; Faraji, Fariba [Urima Univ., Urima (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2003-04-01

    (Pyridine)(tetrahydroborato)zinc complex, (Zn(BH{sub 4}){sub 2}(py)), as a stable white solid, was prepared quantitatively by complexation of an equimolar amount of zinc tetrahydroborate and pyridine at room temperature. This reagent can easily reduce variety of carbonyl compounds such as aldehydes, ketones, acyloins, {alpha}-diketones and {alpha},{beta}-unsaturated carbonyl compounds to their corresponding alcohols in good to excellent yields. Reduction reactions were performed in ether or THF at room temperature or under reflux conditions. In addition, the chemoselective reduction of aldehydes over ketones was accomplished successfully with this reducing agent.

  20. Sudden Exposure to Solar UV-B Radiation Reduces Net CO2 Uptake and Photosystem I Efficiency in Shade-Acclimated Tropical Tree Seedlings1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, G. Heinrich; Grube, Esther; Virgo, Aurelio; Winter, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    Tree seedlings developing in the understory of the tropical forest have to endure short periods of high-light stress when tree-fall gaps are formed, and direct solar radiation, including substantial UV light, reaches the leaves. In experiments simulating the opening of a tree-fall gap, the response of photosynthesis in leaves of shade-acclimated seedlings (Anacardium excelsum, Virola surinamensis, and Calophyllum longifolium) to exposure to direct sunlight (for 20–50 min) was investigated in Panama (9°N). To assess the effects of solar UV-B radiation (280–320 nm), the sunlight was filtered through plastic films that selectively absorbed UV-B or transmitted the complete spectrum. The results document a strong inhibition of CO2 assimilation by sun exposure. Light-limited and light-saturated rates of photosynthetic CO2 uptake by the leaves were affected, which apparently occurred independently of a simultaneous inhibition of potential photosystem (PS) II efficiency. The ambient UV-B light substantially contributed to these effects. The photochemical capacity of PSI, measured as absorbance change at 810 nm in saturating far-red light, was not significantly affected by sun exposure of the seedlings. However, a decrease in the efficiency of P700 photooxidation by far-red light was observed, which was strongly promoted by solar UV-B radiation. The decrease in PSI efficiency may result from enhanced charge recombination in the reaction center, which might represent an incipient inactivation of PSI, but contributes to thermal dissipation of excessive light energy and thereby to photoprotection. PMID:12586898

  1. Reduce in Variation and Improve Efficiency of Target Volume Delineation by a Computer-Assisted System Using a Deformable Image Registration Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, K.S. Clifford; Bhide, Shreerang FRCR; Chen, Hansen; Asper, Joshua PAC; Bush, Steven; Franklin, Gregg; Kavadi, Vivek; Liengswangwong, Vichaivood; Gordon, William; Raben, Adam; Strasser, Jon; Koprowski, Christopher; Frank, Steven; Chronowski, Gregory; Ahamad, Anesa; Malyapa, Robert; Zhang Lifei; Dong Lei

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether a computer-assisted target volume delineation (CAT) system using a deformable image registration approach can reduce the variation of target delineation among physicians with different head and neck (HN) IMRT experiences and reduce the time spent on the contouring process. Materials and Methods: We developed a deformable image registration method for mapping contours from a template case to a patient case with a similar tumor manifestation but different body configuration. Eight radiation oncologists with varying levels of clinical experience in HN IMRT performed target delineation on two HN cases, one with base-of-tongue (BOT) cancer and another with nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC), by first contouring from scratch and then by modifying the contours deformed by the CAT system. The gross target volumes were provided. Regions of interest for comparison included the clinical target volumes (CTVs) and normal organs. The volumetric and geometric variation of these regions of interest and the time spent on contouring were analyzed. Results: We found that the variation in delineating CTVs from scratch among the physicians was significant, and that using the CAT system reduced volumetric variation and improved geometric consistency in both BOT and NPC cases. The average timesaving when using the CAT system was 26% to 29% for more experienced physicians and 38% to 47% for the less experienced ones. Conclusions: A computer-assisted target volume delineation approach, using a deformable image-registration method with template contours, was able to reduce the variation among physicians with different experiences in HN IMRT while saving contouring time

  2. One-step approach to prepare magnetic iron oxide/reduced graphene oxide nanohybrid for efficient organic and inorganic pollutants removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakur, Suman; Karak, Niranjan, E-mail: karakniranjan@yahoo.com

    2014-04-01

    An environmentally friendly effective technique was demonstrated to prepare iron oxide/reduced graphene oxide nanohybrid (IO/RGO) at room temperature by using banana peel ash aqueous extract as the base source and Colocasia esculenta leaves aqueous extract as the reducing agent. The nanohybrid was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry, transmission electron microscopy, vibrating sample magnetometry, Raman spectroscopy and thermal studies. The results indicated the decoration of superparamagnetic IO nanoparticles on the surface of the RGO. Both organic and inorganic pollutants were effectively removed from the contaminated water (for Pb{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+} within 10 min, whereas for tetrabromobisphenol A within 30 min) by IO/RGO. The study revealed that adsorption followed pseudo-second order kinetics and isotherms were well described by the Langmuir model in all the cases. The thermodynamics parameters (ΔG°, ΔS° and ΔH°) were calculated from the temperature dependent isotherms and indicated that the adsorptions were endothermic and spontaneous. - Highlights: • Eco-friendly one step preparation of iron oxide/reduced graphene oxide nanohybrid. • The nanohybrid has excellent pollutants removal capacity from contaminated water. • Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles help in easy recycle. • The adsorption processes of pollutants are endothermic and spontaneous.

  3. A paddy eco-ditch and wetland system to reduce non-point source pollution from rice-based production system while maintaining water use efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yujiang; Peng, Shizhang; Luo, Yufeng; Xu, Junzeng; Yang, Shihong

    2015-03-01

    Non-point source (NPS) pollution from agricultural drainage has aroused widespread concerns throughout the world due to its contribution to eutrophication of water bodies. To remove nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from agricultural drainage in situ, a Paddy Eco-ditch and Wetland System (PEDWS) was designed and built based on the characteristics of the irrigated rice district. A 2-year (2012-2013) field experiment was conducted to evaluate the performance of this system in Gaoyou Irrigation District in Eastern China. The results showed that the reduction in water input in paddy field of the PEDWS enabled the maintenance of high rice yield; it significantly increased irrigation water productivity (WPI), gross water productivity (WPG), and evapotranspiration water productivity (WPET) by 109.2, 67.1, and 17.6%, respectively. The PEDWS dramatically decreased N and P losses from paddy field. Compared with conventional irrigation and drainage system (CIDS), the amount of drainage water from PEDWS was significantly reduced by 56.2%, the total nitrogen (TN) concentration in drainage was reduced by 42.6%, and thus the TN and total phosphorus (TP) losses were reduced by 87.8 and 70.4%. PEDWS is technologically feasible and applicable to treat nutrient losses from paddy fields in situ and can be used in similar areas.

  4. One-step approach to prepare magnetic iron oxide/reduced graphene oxide nanohybrid for efficient organic and inorganic pollutants removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakur, Suman; Karak, Niranjan

    2014-01-01

    An environmentally friendly effective technique was demonstrated to prepare iron oxide/reduced graphene oxide nanohybrid (IO/RGO) at room temperature by using banana peel ash aqueous extract as the base source and Colocasia esculenta leaves aqueous extract as the reducing agent. The nanohybrid was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry, transmission electron microscopy, vibrating sample magnetometry, Raman spectroscopy and thermal studies. The results indicated the decoration of superparamagnetic IO nanoparticles on the surface of the RGO. Both organic and inorganic pollutants were effectively removed from the contaminated water (for Pb 2+ and Cd 2+ within 10 min, whereas for tetrabromobisphenol A within 30 min) by IO/RGO. The study revealed that adsorption followed pseudo-second order kinetics and isotherms were well described by the Langmuir model in all the cases. The thermodynamics parameters (ΔG°, ΔS° and ΔH°) were calculated from the temperature dependent isotherms and indicated that the adsorptions were endothermic and spontaneous. - Highlights: • Eco-friendly one step preparation of iron oxide/reduced graphene oxide nanohybrid. • The nanohybrid has excellent pollutants removal capacity from contaminated water. • Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles help in easy recycle. • The adsorption processes of pollutants are endothermic and spontaneous

  5. Enhancement in photo-electrochemical efficiency by reducing recombination rate in branched TiO2 nanotube array on functionalizing with ZnO micro crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boda, Muzaffar Ahmad; Ashraf Shah, Mohammad

    2018-06-01

    In this study, branched TiO2 nanotube array were fabricated through electrochemical anodization process at constant voltage using third generation electrolyte. On account of morphological advantage, these nanotubes shows significant enhancement in photo-electrochemical property than compact or conventional titania nanotube array. However, their photo-electrochemical efficiency intensifies on coating with ZnO micro-crystals. ZnO coated branched TiO2 nanotube array shows a photocurrent density of 27.8 mA cm‑2 which is 1.55 times the photocurrent density (17.2 mA cm‑2) shown by bare branched titania nanotubes. The significant enhancement in photocurrent density shown by the resulting ZnO/TiO2 hybrid structure is attributed to suppression in electron–hole recombination phenomenon by offering smooth pathway to photo generated excitons on account of staggered band edge positions in individual semiconductors.

  6. Ni-doped α-Fe 2 O 3 as electron transporting material for planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells with improved efficiency, reduced hysteresis and ultraviolet stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Ying; Liu, Tao; Wang, Ning; Luo, Qiang; Lin, Hong; Li, Jianbao; Jiang, Qinglong; Wu, Lili; Guo, Zhanhu

    2017-08-01

    We report on high-efficiency planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells (PSCs) employing Ni-doped alpha-Fe2O3 as electron-transporting layer (ETL). The suitable addition of nickel (Ni) dopant could enhance the electron conductivity as well as induce downward shift of the conduction band minimum for alpha-Fe2O3, which facilitate electrons injection and transfer from the conduction band of the perovskite. As a consequence, a substantial reduction in the charge accumulation at the perovskite/ETL interface makes the device much less sensitive to scanning rate and direction, i.e., lower hysteresis. With a reverse scan for the optimized PSC under standard AM-1.5 sunlight illumination, it generates a competitive power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 14.2% with a large short circuit current (J(sc)) of 22.35 mA/cm(2), an open circuit photovoltage (V-oc) of 0.92 V and a fill factor (FF) of 69.1%. Due to the small J-V hysteresis behavior, a higher stabilized PCE up to 11.6% near the maximum power point can be reached for the device fabricated with 4 mol% Ni-doped alpha-Fe2O3 ETL compared with the undoped alpha-Fe2O3 based cell (9.2%). Furthermore, a good stability of devices with exposure to ambient air and high levels of ultraviolet (UV)-light can be achieved. Overall, our results demonstrate that the simple solution-processed Ni-doped alpha-Fe2O3 can be a good candidate of the n-type collection layer for commercialization of PSCs.

  7. One-pot, green, rapid synthesis of flowerlike gold nanoparticles/reduced graphene oxide composite with regenerated silk fibroin as efficient oxygen reduction electrocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shengjie; Yong, Liu; Wu, Peiyi

    2013-02-01

    Flowerlike gold nanoparticles (Au NPs)/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) composites were fabricated by a facile, one-pot, environmentally friendly method in the presence of regenerated silk fibroin (RSF). The influences of reaction time, temperature, and HAuCl(4): RGO ratio on the morphology of Au NPs loaded on RGO sheets were discussed and a tentative mechanism for the formation of flowerlike Au NPs/RGO composite was proposed. In addition, the flowerlike Au NPs/RGO composite showed superior catalytic performance for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) to Au/RGO composites with other morphologies. Our work provides an alternative facile and green approach to synthesize functional metal/RGO composites.

  8. Metaldyne: Plant-Wide Assessment at Royal Oak Finds Opportunities to Improve Manufacturing Efficiency, Reduce Energy Use, and Achieve Significant Cost Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2005-05-01

    This case study prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy's Industrial Technologies Program describes a plant-wide energy assessment conducted at the Metaldyne, Inc., forging plant in Royal Oak, Michigan. The assessment focused on reducing the plant's operating costs, inventory, and energy use. If the company were to implement all the recommendations that came out of the assessment, its total annual energy savings for electricity would be about 11.5 million kWh and annual cost savings would be $12.6 million.

  9. Empty virions in AAV8 vector preparations reduce transduction efficiency and may cause total viral particle dose-limiting side effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Empty virions are inadvertent by-products of recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV packaging process, resulting in vector lots with mixtures of full and empty virions at variable ratios. Impact of empty virions on the efficiency and side effects of rAAV transduction has not been well characterized. Here, we generated partially and completely empty AAV8 virions, fully packaged rAAV8 lots, and mixtures of empty and fully packaged virions with variable ratios of empty virions. The aforementioned dosing formulations of rAAV8 expressing either cellular (EGFP (enhanced green fluorescent protein or nuclear-targeted (n LacZ or secreted (human α1-antitrypsin (hA1AT reporter genes were intravenously injected into two different mouse strains, followed by analyses of transgene expressions and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT levels at different time points. We found that addition of empty particles to the fixed doses of rAAV8 preparations repressed liver transduction up to 64% (serum hA1AT and 44% (nLacZ in C57BL/6 mice, respectively. The similar trend in inhibiting EGFP expression together with concurrent elevations of serum ALT levels were observed in the BALB/c mice, indicating that empty particles may also exacerbate side effects of rAAV8 EGFP transduction. Our results suggest that removal of empty particles from rAAV preparations may improve efficacy and safety of AAV in clinical applications.

  10. EMA-qPCR to monitor the efficiency of a closed-coupled solar pasteurization system in reducing Legionella contamination of roof-harvested rainwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyneke, B; Dobrowsky, P H; Ndlovu, T; Khan, S; Khan, W

    2016-05-15

    Solar pasteurization is effective in reducing the level of indicator organisms in stored rainwater to within drinking water standards. However, Legionella spp. were detected at temperatures exceeding the recommended pasteurization temperatures using polymerase chain reaction assays. The aim of the current study was thus to apply EMA quantitative polymerase chain reaction (EMA-qPCR) to determine whether the Legionella spp. detected were intact cells and therefore possibly viable at pasteurization temperatures >70°C. The BacTiter-Glo™ Microbial Cell Viability Assay was also used to detect the presence of ATP in the tested samples, as ATP indicates the presence of metabolically active cells. Chemical analysis also indicated that all anions and cations were within the respective drinking water guidelines, with the exception of iron (mean: 186.76 μg/L) and aluminium (mean: 188.13 μg/L), which were detected in the pasteurized tank water samples at levels exceeding recommended guidelines. The BacTiter-Glo™ Microbial Cell Viability Assay indicated the presence of viable cells for all pasteurized temperatures tested, with the percentage of ATP (in the form of relative light units) decreasing with increasing temperature [70-79°C (96.7%); 80- 89°C (99.2%); 90-95°C (99.7%)]. EMA-qPCR then indicated that while solar pasteurization significantly reduced (p0.05) in the mean copy numbers was detected with an increase in the pasteurization temperature, with 6 × 10(3) genomic copies/mL DNA sample obtained at 95°C. As intact Legionella cells were detected in the pasteurized tank water samples, quantitative microbial risk assessment studies need to be conducted to determine the potential health risk associated with using the water for domestic purposes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Three-Dimensional Reduced Graphene Oxide Coupled with Mn3O4 for Highly Efficient Removal of Sb(III) and Sb(V) from Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Jian-Ping; Liu, Hui-Long; Luo, Jinming; Xing, Qiu-Ju; Du, Hong-Mei; Jiang, Xun-Heng; Luo, Xu-Biao; Luo, Sheng-Lian; Suib, Steven L

    2016-07-20

    Highly porous, three-dimensional (3D) nanostructured composite adsorbents of reduced graphene oxides/Mn3O4 (RGO/Mn3O4) were fabricated by a facile method of a combination of reflux condensation and solvothermal reactions and systemically characterized. The as-prepared RGO/Mn3O4 possesses a mesoporous 3D structure, in which Mn3O4 nanoparticles are uniformly deposited on the surface of the reduced graphene oxide. The adsorption properties of RGO/Mn3O4 to antimonite (Sb(III)) and antimonate (Sb(V)) were investigated using batch experiments of adsorption isotherms and kinetics. Experimental results show that the RGO/Mn3O4 composite has fast liquid transport and superior adsorption capacity toward antimony (Sb) species in comparison to six recent adsorbents reported in the literature and summarized in a table in this paper. Theoretical maximum adsorption capacities of RGO/Mn3O4 toward Sb(III) and Sb(V) are 151.84 and 105.50 mg/g, respectively, modeled by Langmuir isotherms. The application of RGO/Mn3O4 was demonstrated by using drinking water spiked with Sb (320 μg/L). Fixed-bed column adsorption experiments indicate that the effective breakthrough volumes were 859 and 633 mL bed volumes (BVs) for the Sb(III) and Sb(V), respectively, until the maximum contaminant level of 5 ppb was reached, which is below the maximum limits allowed in drinking water according to the most stringent regulations. The advantages of being nontoxic, highly stable, and resistant to acid and alkali and having high adsorption capacity toward Sb(III) and Sb(V) confirm the great potential application of RGO/Mn3O4 in Sb-spiked water treatment.

  12. Disruption of prefoldin-2 protein synthesis in root-knot nematodes via host-mediated gene silencing efficiently reduces nematode numbers and thus protects plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajjappala, Hemavathi; Chung, Ha Young; Sim, Joon-Soo; Choi, Inchan; Hahn, Bum-Soo

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of down-regulating endogeneous prefoldin-2 root-knot nematode transcripts by expressing dsRNA with sequence identity to the nematode gene in tobacco roots under the influence of strong Arabidopsis ubiquitin (UBQ1) promoter. Root-knot nematodes (RKNs) are sedentary endoparasites infecting a wide range of plant species. They parasitise the root system, thereby disrupting water and nutrient uptake and causing major reductions in crop yields. The most reliable means of controlling RKNs is via the use of soil fumigants such as methyl bromide. With the emergence of RNA interference (RNAi) technology, which permits host-mediated nematode gene silencing, a new strategy to control plant pathogens has become available. In the present study, we investigated host-induced RNAi gene silencing of prefoldin-2 in transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana. Reductions in prefoldin-2 mRNA transcript levels were observed when nematodes were soaked in a dsRNA solution in vitro. Furthermore, nematode reproduction was suppressed in RNAi transgenic lines, as evident by reductions in the numbers of root knots (by 34-60 % in independent RNAi lines) and egg masses (by 33-58 %). Endogenous expression of prefoldin-2, analysed via real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, revealed that the gene was strongly expressed in the pre-parasitic J2 stage. Our observations demonstrate the relevance and potential importance of targeting the prefoldin gene during the nematode life cycle. The work also suggests that further improvements in silencing efficiency in economically important crops can be accomplished using RNAi directed against plant-parasitic nematodes.

  13. Conversion of tropical lowland forest reduces nutrient return through litterfall, and alters nutrient use efficiency and seasonality of net primary production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotowska, Martyna M; Leuschner, Christoph; Triadiati, Triadiati; Hertel, Dietrich

    2016-02-01

    Tropical landscapes are not only rapidly transformed by ongoing land-use change, but are additionally confronted by increasing seasonal climate variation. There is an increasing demand for studies analyzing the effects and feedbacks on ecosystem functioning of large-scale conversions of tropical natural forest into intensively managed cash crop agriculture. We analyzed the seasonality of aboveground litterfall, fine root litter production, and aboveground woody biomass production (ANPP(woody)) in natural lowland forests, rubber agroforests under natural tree cover ("jungle rubber"), rubber and oil palm monocultures along a forest-to-agriculture transformation gradient in Sumatra. We hypothesized that the temporal fluctuation of litter production increases with increasing land-use intensity, while the associated nutrient fluxes and nutrient use efficiency (NUE) decrease. Indeed, the seasonal variation of aboveground litter production and ANPP(woody) increased from the natural forest to the plantations, while aboveground litterfall generally decreased. Nutrient return through aboveground litter was mostly highest in the natural forest; however, it was significantly lower only in rubber plantations. NUE of N, P and K was lowest in the oil palm plantations, with natural forest and the rubber systems showing comparably high values. Root litter production was generally lower than leaf litter production in all systems, while the root-to-leaf ratio of litter C flux increased along the land-use intensity gradient. Our results suggest that nutrient and C cycles are more directly affected by climate seasonality in species-poor agricultural systems than in species-rich forests, and therefore might be more susceptible to inter-annual climate fluctuation and climate change.

  14. Noble-metal-free NiO@Ni-ZnO/reduced graphene oxide/CdS heterostructure for efficient photocatalytic hydrogen generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fayun; Zhang, Laijun; Wang, Xuewen; Zhang, Rongbin

    2017-11-01

    Noble-metal-free semiconductor materials are widely used for photocatalytic hydrogen generation because of their low cost. ZnO-based heterostructures with synergistic effects exhibit an effective photocatalytic activity. In this work, NiO@Ni-ZnO/reduced graphene oxide (rGO)/CdS heterostructures are synthesized by a multi-step method. rGO nanosheets and CdS nanoparticles were introduced into the heterostructures via a redox reaction and light-assisted growth, respectively. A novel Ni-induced electrochemical growth method was developed to prepare ZnO rods from Zn powder. NiO@Ni-ZnO/rGO/CdS heterostructures with a wide visible-light absorption range exhibited highly photocatalytic hydrogen generation rates under UV-vis and visible light irradiation. The enhanced photocatalytic activity is attributed to the Ni nanoparticles that act as cocatalysts for capturing photoexcited electrons and the improved synergistic effect between ZnO and CdS due to the rGO nanosheets acting as photoexcited carrier transport channels.

  15. An efficient p-n heterojunction photocatalyst constructed from a coordination polymer nanoplate and a partically reduced graphene oxide for visible-light hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xinxin; Lu, Tingting; Liu, Xiaoxia; Wang, Xiuli

    2015-10-05

    A new p-n heterojunction photocatalyst has been synthesized successfully through chemical-bond-mediated combination of coordination polymer nanoplates (CPNPs) and partially reduced graphene oxide (PRGO) with a simple colloidal blending process. Photocatalytic H2 production by the p-n heterojunction photocatalyst PRGO/CPNP was investigated under visible-light irradiation, which illustrates that PRGO/CPNP exhibits a much higher photocatalytic H2 production rate than neat the CPNPs. The improvement of this photocatalytic property can be attributed to the inner electrical field formed in the p-n heterojunction, which impedes recombination of photogenerated electrons and holes. In PRGO/CPNP, the existence of the p-n heterojunction has been confirmed by electrochemical methods clearly. For PRGO/CPNP, the reductive degree of the PRGO has a great influence on the H2 production rate and an ideal condition to get a PRGO/CPNP photocatalyst with higher performance has been obtained. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Finely Tuned SnO2 Nanoparticles for Efficient Detection of Reducing and Oxidizing Gases: The Influence of Alkali Metal Cation on Gas-Sensing Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Szu-Hsuan; Galstyan, Vardan; Ponzoni, Andrea; Gonzalo-Juan, Isabel; Riedel, Ralf; Dourges, Marie-Anne; Nicolas, Yohann; Toupance, Thierry

    2018-03-28

    Tin dioxide (SnO 2 ) nanoparticles were straightforwardly synthesized using an easily scaled-up liquid route that involves the hydrothermal treatment, either under acidic or basic conditions, of a commercial tin dioxide particle suspension including potassium counterions. After further thermal post-treatment, the nanomaterials have been thoroughly characterized by Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and nitrogen sorption porosimetry. Varying pH conditions and temperature of the thermal treatment provided cassiterite SnO 2 nanoparticles with crystallite sizes ranging from 7.3 to 9.7 nm and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface areas ranging from 61 to 106 m 2 ·g -1 , acidic conditions favoring potassium cation removal. Upon exposure to a reducing gas (H 2 , CO, and volatile organic compounds such as ethanol and acetone) or oxidizing gas (NO 2 ), layers of these SnO 2 nanoparticles led to highly sensitive, reversible, and reproducible responses. The sensing results were discussed in regard to the crystallite size, specific area, valence band energy, Debye length, and chemical composition. Results highlight the impact of the counterion residuals, which affect the gas-sensing performance to an extent much higher than that of size and surface area effects. Tin dioxide nanoparticles prepared under acidic conditions and calcined in air showed the best sensing performances because of lower amount of potassium cations and higher crystallinity, despite the lower surface area.

  17. Pd-NiO decorated multiwalled carbon nanotubes supported on reduced graphene oxide as an efficient electrocatalyst for ethanol oxidation in alkaline medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajesh, Dhanushkotti; Indra Neel, Pulidindi; Pandurangan, Arumugam; Mahendiran, Chinnathambi

    2018-06-01

    The synthesis of Pd-NiO nanoparticles decorated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) for ethanol electrooxidation is reported. NiO nanoparticles (NPs) were deposited on functionalized MWCNTs by wet impregnation method. Pd nanoparticles were formed on NiO-MWCNTs by the addition of PdCl2 and its reduction using NaBH4. The Pd-NiO/MWCNTs nanocomposite then deposited on rGO support using ultrasound irradiation which led to the formation of the Pd-NiO/MWCNTs/rGO electrocatalyst. The prepared electrocatalysts were characterized by XRD, SEM, HR-TEM and XPS analysis. Electrochemical measurements demonstrate that as synthesized Pd-NiO/MWCNTs/rGO electrocatalyst exhibit higher catalytic activity (90.89 mA/cm2) than either Pd/MWCNTs/rGO (43.05 mA/cm2) or Pd/C (28.0 mA/cm2) commercial catalyst. Chronoamperometry study of Pd-NiO/MWCNTs/rGO electrocatalyst showed long-term electrochemical stability. The enhanced catalytic activity of Pd-NiO/MWCNTs/rGO electrocatalyst for electrooxidation of ethanol can be attributed to the synergistic effect between Pd & NiO active sites.

  18. Reduced Graphene Oxide-Hybridized Polymeric High-Internal Phase Emulsions for Highly Efficient Removal of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons from Water Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yipeng; Zhang, Wenjuan; Ruan, Guihua; Li, Xianxian; Cong, Yongzheng; Du, Fuyou; Li, Jianping

    2018-03-27

    Reduced graphene oxide (RGO)-hybridized polymeric high-internal phase emulsions (RGO/polyHIPEs) with an open-cell structure and hydrophobicity have been successfully prepared using 2-ethylhexyl acrylate and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the monomer and the cross-linker, respectively. The adsorption mechanism and performance of this RGO/polyHIPEs to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated. Adsorption isotherms of PAHs on RGO/polyHIPEs show that the saturated adsorption capacity is 47.5 mg/g and the equilibrium time is 8 h. Cycling tests show that the adsorption capacity of RGO/polyHIPEs remains stable in 10 adsorption-desorption cycles without observable structure change in RGO/polyHIPEs. Moreover, the PAH residues in water samples after being purified by RGO/polyHIPEs are lower than the limit values in drinking water set by the European Food Safety Authority. These results demonstrate that the RGO/polyHIPEs have great potentiality in PAH removal and water purification.

  19. Frozen-thawed rhesus sperm retain normal morphology and highly progressive motility but exhibit sharply reduced efficiency in penetrating cervical mucus and hyualuronic acid gel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollner, Theodore L.; Dong, Qiaoxiang; VandeVoort, Catherine A.

    2011-01-01

    The preservation of the genetic diversity of captive populations of rhesus monkeys is critical to the future of biomedical research. Cryopreservation of rhesus macaque sperm is relatively simple to perform, yields high post-thaw motility, and theoretically, provides via artificial insemination (AI) a way to easily transfer genetics among colonies of animals. In the interest of optimizing semen cryopreservation methods for use with vaginal AI, we evaluated the ability of frozen-thawed rhesus sperm to penetrate periovulatory cervical mucus (CM). Motile sperm concentration of pre–freeze (“fresh”) and post-thawed (“thawed”) samples from 5 different males were normalized for both computer assisted sperm motion analysis and CM penetration experiments. Sperm samples were deposited into slide chambers containing CM or gel composed of hyaluronic acid (HA) as a surrogate for CM and numbers of sperm were recorded as they entered a video field a preset distance from the sperm suspension-CM (or HA) interface. Fresh and thawed sperm were dried on glass slides, “Pap”-stained, and assessed for changes in head dimensions and head and flagellar shape. While retaining better than 80% of fresh sperm progressive motility, thawed sperm from the same ejaculate retained on average only 18.6% of the CM penetration ability. Experiments using HA gel yielded similar results only with reduced experimental error and thus improved detection of treatment differences. Neither the percentage of abnormal forms nor head dimensions differed between fresh and thawed sperm. While findings suggests that sperm-CM interaction is a prominent factor in previous failures of vaginal AI with cryopreserved macaque sperm, neither sperm motility nor morphology appears to account for changes in the ability of cryopreserved sperm to penetrate CM. Our data points to a previously unidentified manifestation of cryodamage which may have implications for assessment of sperm function beyond the cervix and

  20. How human brucellosis incidence in urban Kampala can be reduced most efficiently? A stochastic risk assessment of informally-marketed milk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Makita

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In Kampala, Uganda, studies have shown a significant incidence of human brucellosis. A stochastic risk assessment involving two field surveys (cattle farms and milk shops and a medical record survey was conducted to assess the risk of human brucellosis infection through consumption of informally marketed raw milk potentially infected with Brucella abortus in Kampala and to identify the best control options.In the cattle farm survey, sera of 425 cows in 177 herds in the Kampala economic zone were sampled and tested for brucellosis using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CELISA. Farmers were interviewed for dairy information. In the milk shop surveys, 135 milk sellers in the urban areas were interviewed and 117 milk samples were collected and tested using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IELISA. A medical record survey was conducted in Mulago National Referral Hospital for serological test results. A risk model was developed synthesizing data from these three surveys. Possible control options were prepared based on the model and the reduction of risk was simulated for each scenario. Overall, 12.6% (6.8-18.9: 90%CI of informally marketed milk in urban Kampala was contaminated with B.abortus at purchase and the annual incidence rate was estimated to be 5.8 (90% CI: 5.3-6.2 per 10,000 people. The best control option would be the construction of a milk boiling centre either in Mbarara, the largest source of milk, or in peri-urban Kampala and to ensure that milk traders always sell milk to the boiling centre; 90% success in enforcing these two options would reduce risk by 47.4% (21.6-70.1: 90%CI and 82.0% (71.0-89.0: 90%CI, respectively.This study quantifies the risk of human brucellosis infection through informally marketed milk and estimates the incidence rate in Kampala for the first time; risk-based mitigation strategies are outlined to assist in developing policy.

  1. Development of a Field Demonstration for Cost-Effective Low-Grade Heat Recovery and Use Technology Designed to Improve Efficiency and Reduce Water Usage Rates for a Coal-Fired Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noble, Russell [Southern Company Services, Incorporated, Birmingham, AL (United States); Dombrowski, K. [AECOM Technical Services, Austin, TX (United States); Bernau, M. [AECOM Technical Services, Austin, TX (United States); Morett, D. [AECOM Technical Services, Austin, TX (United States); Maxson, A. [EPRI, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Hume, S. [EPRI, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2016-06-30

    Coal-based power generation systems provide reliable, low-cost power to the domestic energy sector. These systems consume large amounts of fuel and water to produce electricity and are the target of pending regulations that may require reductions in water use and improvements in thermal efficiency. While efficiency of coal-based generation has improved over time, coal power plants often do not utilize the low-grade heat contained in the flue gas and require large volumes of water for the steam cycle make-up, environmental controls, and for process cooling and heating. Low-grade heat recovery is particularly challenging for coal-fired applications, due in large part to the condensation of acid as the flue gas cools and the resulting potential corrosion of the heat recovery materials. Such systems have also not been of significant interest as recent investments on coal power plants have primarily been for environmental controls due to more stringent regulations. Also, in many regions, fuel cost is still a pass-through to the consumer, reducing the motivation for efficiency improvements. Therefore, a commercial system combining low-grade heat-recovery technologies and associated end uses to cost effectively improve efficiency and/or reduce water consumption has not yet been widely applied. However, pressures from potential new regulations and from water shortages may drive new interest, particularly in the U.S. In an effort to address this issue, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has sought to identify and promote technologies to achieve this goal.

  2. Facile fabrication of hollow mesosphere of crystalline SnO2 nanoparticles and synthesis of SnO2@SWCNTs@Reduced Graphene Oxide nanocomposite as efficient Pt-Free counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Wasim; Yao, Jixin; Zhang, Kang; Zuo, Xueqin; Yang, Qun; Tang, Huaibao; Ur Rehman, Khalid Mehmood; Li, Guang; Wu, Mingzai; Zhu, Kerong; Zhang, Haijun

    2018-06-01

    In this research, SnO2@SWCNTs@Reduced Graphene Oxide based nanocomposite was synthesized by a one step hydrothermal method and reported new cost effective platinum-free counter-electrodes (CEs) in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The CEs were formed by using the nanocomposites with the help of a pipette using a doctor-blade technique. The efficiency of this nanocomposite revealed significant elctrocatalytic properties upon falling the triiodide, possessing to synergistic effect of SnO2 nano particles and improved conductivity when SWCNTs dispersed on graphene sheet. Therefore, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of prepared SnO2@SWCNTs@RGO nanocomposite CE attained of (6.1%) in DSSCs which is equivalent to the value (6.2%) which attained to the value (6.2%) with pure Pt CE as a reference. SnO2@SWCNTs@RGO nanocomposite CEs give more stable catalytic activities for triiodide reduction than SnO2 and SWCNTs CEs in the cyclic voltammetry (CV) analysis. Furthermore, to the subsistence of graphene oxide, the nanocomposite acquired both higher stability and efficiency in the nanocomposite.

  3. Reducing Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindell, Johanna

    care may influence decisions on antibiotic use. Based on video-and audio recordings of physician-patient consultations it is investigated how treatment recommendations are presented, can be changed, are forecast and explained, and finally, how they seemingly meet resistance and how this resistance......Antibiotic resistance is a growing public health problem both nationally and internationally, and efficient strategies are needed to reduce unnecessary use. This dissertation presents four research studies, which examine how communication between general practitioners and patients in Danish primary...... is responded to.The first study in the dissertation suggests that treatment recommendations on antibiotics are often done in a way that encourages patient acceptance. In extension of this, the second study of the dissertation examines a case, where acceptance of such a recommendation is changed into a shared...

  4. Efficient Photocatalytic Degradation of Malachite Green in Seawater by the Hybrid of Zinc-Oxide Nanorods Grown on Three-Dimensional (3D Reduced Graphene Oxide(RGO/Ni Foam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Wang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid of ZnO nanorods grown onto three-dimensional (3D reduced graphene oxide (RGO@Ni foam (ZnO/RGO@NF is synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method. The as-prepared hybrid material is physically characterized by SEM, XRD, Raman, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. When the as-prepared 3D hybrid is investigated as a photocatalyst, it demonstrates significant high photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methylene blue (MB, rhodamine (RhB, and mixed MB/RhB as organic dye pollutants. In addition, the practical application and the durability of the as-prepared catalyst to degradation of malachite green (MG in seawater are firstly assessed in a continuous flow system. The catalyst shows a high degradation efficiency and stable photocatalytic activity for 5 h continuous operation, which should be a promising catalyst for the degradation of organic dyes in seawater.

  5. Efficiency of a reduced herbicide rate for Brachiaria brizantha control in sugarcane Eficiência de subdoses de herbicidas no controle de Brachiaria brizantha em cana-de-açúcar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.P. Tironi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available At different growth stages, weeds present different sensitivities to herbicides. Thus, the registered herbicide rate may be reduced under specific conditions, while maintaining satisfactory weed control. This study evaluated the efficiency of reduced rates of the formulated herbicide mixture Velpar K WG® (hexazinone + diuron + Volcane® (MSMA for Brachiaria brizantha control at different growth stages. Optimum weed control efficiency was obtained when applying 50% of the recommended rate in younger plants (plants with one to four leaves. In late applications, it is necessary to increase the herbicide rates and, under these conditions, 90% of the recommended rate for (diuron + hexazinone + MSMA was estimated to be the most economical one.Em estádios diferentes de crescimento, as plantas daninhas apresentam sensibilidade diferenciada aos herbicidas. Desse modo, as doses registradas dos herbicidas podem ser reduzidas em condições específicas, mantendo-se o controle satisfatório das plantas daninhas. Neste trabalho, avaliou-se a eficiência de subdoses da mistura dos herbicidas formulados Velpar K WG® (hexazinone + diuron + Volcane® (MSMA no controle de Brachiaria brizantha em diferentes estádios de crescimento. Ótima eficiência de controle da espécie daninha foi obtida com aplicação de 50% da dose recomendada, quando os herbicidas foram aplicados em plantas mais jovens (plantas com uma a quatro folhas. Em aplicações tardias, comprovou-se a necessidade de aumentar a dose para obter controle eficiente; nessas condições, a dose econômica ótima estimada foi de 90% da dose recomendada da mistura dos herbicidas (diuron + hexazinone + MSMA.

  6. 新型高效抗磨减阻剂在东海油气田的应用%Application of a New Highly Efficient Anti-wear Friction Reducer in Donghai Oil and Gas Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄召; 何福耀; 雷磊; 丁建平; 严维锋; 谢中成

    2017-01-01

    近年来,东海油气田大位移井、大斜度井和水平分支井钻井作业越来越多,钻进过程中的高扭矩、钻杆和套管的磨损已经严重地影响了作业的安全和效率.在这些高难度井中引入了一种新型高效抗磨减阻剂ARDR LUBE-100.ARDR LUBE-100属于有机负离子和有机金属化合物类产品,其主要是以醇、脂等抗磨材料在高温下,通过酯化合成及缩合反应得到的产物,在中间体合成过程中产生了有机金属离子及添加了抗磨惰性离子,通过有机负离子吸附在套管及钻杆表面,可以在管体表面形成滚动摩擦,起到了很好的抗磨减阻作用.室内评价和现场应用表明,该抗磨减阻剂与钻井液配伍性良好,在钻井液中加入1%左右即可将钻井液的润滑系数降低60%,钻具与套管之间的磨损速率降低99.64%以上,抗磨减阻效果明显.%In Donghai Oil and Gas Field, more and more extended reach wells, high angle deviated wells and multilateral horizontal wells have been drilled in recent years. During the drilling operations, high torque and wear-and-tear experienced by the drill pipes and the casing strings have impacted on the safety and the efficiency of the drilling operations. A highly efficient anti-wear friction reducer, ARDR LUBE-100 was found, after extensive investigation and experiments, to be effective in dealing with the problems aforementioned. ARDR LUBE-100 is a compound of organic anions and organic metals, and is a product of anti-wear materials such as alcohols and esters through esterification reaction or condensation reaction at high temperatures. Organic metal ions are generated in intermediate synthesis reaction, and anti-wear inert ions are added into the reactants. ARDR LUBE-100 can be adsorbed onto the surface of a pipe, where rolling friction takes place between the ARDR LUBE-100 particles and the surface of the pipe, thereby effectively reducing wear-and-tear and friction. Laboratory evaluation

  7. Green synthesis of the reduced graphene oxide–CuI quasi-shell–core nanocomposite: A highly efficient and stable solar-light-induced catalyst for organic dye degradation in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jiha; Reddy, D. Amaranatha; Islam, M. Jahurul [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Institute for Functional Materials, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Bora [Department of Chemistry, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); Joo, Sang Hoon [Department of Chemistry, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); School of Energy and Chemical Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Kyu, E-mail: tkkim@pusan.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Institute for Functional Materials, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Green synthesis of RGO–CuI quasi-shell–core nanocomposites without any surfactant. • Promising candidates as solar light active photocatalyst for dye degradation. • Significant improvement of the photocatalytic activity in RGO wrapped composites. • The best photocatalytic activity to RhB has been attained for CuI–RGO (2 mg mL{sup −1}). - Abstract: Surfactant-free, reduced graphene oxide (RGO)–CuI quasi-shell−core nanocomposites were successfully synthesized using ultra-sonication assisted chemical method at room temperature. The morphologies, structures and optical properties of the CuI and CuI–RGO nanocomposites were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV–visible absorption spectroscopy, and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Morphological and structural analyses indicated that the CuI–RGO core–shell nanocomposites comprise single-crystalline face-centered cubic phase CuI nanostructures, coated with a thin RGO quasi-shell. Photocatalysis experiments revealed that the as-synthesized CuI–RGO nanocomposites exhibit remarkably enhanced photocatalytic activities and stabilities for photo degradation of Rhodamine-B (RhB) organic dye under simulated solar light irradiation. The photo degradation ability is strongly affected by the concentration of RGO in the nanocomposites; the highest photodegradation rate was obtained at a graphene loading content of 2 mg mL{sup −1} nanocomposite. The remarkable photocatalytic performance of the CuI–RGO nanocomposites mainly originates from their unique adsorption and electron-accepting and electron-transporting properties of RGO. The present work provides a novel green synthetic route to producing CuI–RGO nanocomposites without toxic solvents or reducing agents, thereby providing highly efficient and stable solar light

  8. Green synthesis of the reduced graphene oxide–CuI quasi-shell–core nanocomposite: A highly efficient and stable solar-light-induced catalyst for organic dye degradation in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jiha; Reddy, D. Amaranatha; Islam, M. Jahurul; Seo, Bora; Joo, Sang Hoon; Kim, Tae Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Green synthesis of RGO–CuI quasi-shell–core nanocomposites without any surfactant. • Promising candidates as solar light active photocatalyst for dye degradation. • Significant improvement of the photocatalytic activity in RGO wrapped composites. • The best photocatalytic activity to RhB has been attained for CuI–RGO (2 mg mL −1 ). - Abstract: Surfactant-free, reduced graphene oxide (RGO)–CuI quasi-shell−core nanocomposites were successfully synthesized using ultra-sonication assisted chemical method at room temperature. The morphologies, structures and optical properties of the CuI and CuI–RGO nanocomposites were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV–visible absorption spectroscopy, and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Morphological and structural analyses indicated that the CuI–RGO core–shell nanocomposites comprise single-crystalline face-centered cubic phase CuI nanostructures, coated with a thin RGO quasi-shell. Photocatalysis experiments revealed that the as-synthesized CuI–RGO nanocomposites exhibit remarkably enhanced photocatalytic activities and stabilities for photo degradation of Rhodamine-B (RhB) organic dye under simulated solar light irradiation. The photo degradation ability is strongly affected by the concentration of RGO in the nanocomposites; the highest photodegradation rate was obtained at a graphene loading content of 2 mg mL −1 nanocomposite. The remarkable photocatalytic performance of the CuI–RGO nanocomposites mainly originates from their unique adsorption and electron-accepting and electron-transporting properties of RGO. The present work provides a novel green synthetic route to producing CuI–RGO nanocomposites without toxic solvents or reducing agents, thereby providing highly efficient and stable solar light-induced RGO

  9. Energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    After a speech of the CEA's (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique) general administrator about energy efficiency as a first rank challenge for the planet and for France, this publications proposes several contributions: a discussion of the efficiency of nuclear energy, an economic analysis of R and D's value in the field of fourth generation fast reactors, discussions about biofuels and the relationship between energy efficiency and economic competitiveness, and a discussion about solar photovoltaic efficiency

  10. Is it efficient to co-compost and co-vermicompost green waste with biochar and/or clay to reduce CO2 emissions? A short-term laboratory experiment on (vermi)composts with additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthod, Justine; Rumpel, Cornélia; Paradelo, Remigio; Dignac, Marie-France

    2016-04-01

    Intensive farming practices can lead to a depletion of soil organic matter, negatively impacting important soil properties such as structural stability, fertility and C storage. The addition of organic amendments such as compost and vermicompost, rich in carbon, helps maintaining soil organic matter levels or restoring degraded soils. Composting and vermicomposting are based on stabilization of organic matter through the mineralization of easily decomposable organic matter compounds, therefore releasing greenhouse gases, including CO2. The aim of this study was to evaluate the global potential reduction of such emissions by the use of additives (2:1 clay and/or biochar): during (vermi)composting processes and after use of the final products as soil amendments. We hypothesized that the interactions between the additives and organic matter may lead to carbon stabilization and that such interactions may be enhanced by the presence of worms (Eisenia). We added in different proportions clay (25% or 50%), biochar (10%) and a mixture of biochar (10%) with clay (25%) to pre-composted green waste. The CO2 emissions of the composting and vermicomposting processes were measured during 21 days. After that, the amendments were added to a loamy cambisol soil and the CO2 emissions were monitored during 30 days of a laboratory experiment. The most efficient treatments in terms of reducing global CO2 emissions were the co-vermicomposting process with 25% clay followed by co-composting with 50% clay and with 10% biochar plus 25% clay. In this treatment (vermicompost with 25% clay), the carbon emissions were decreased by up to 44% compared to regular compost. Addition of biochar reduced CO2 emissions only during composting. Co-composting with biochar could be a promising avenue to limit global CO2 emissions whereas in presence of worms clay additions are better suited. These findings suggest that the presence of worms increased the formation of organo-mineral associations and thus C

  11. Sparse maps—A systematic infrastructure for reduced-scaling electronic structure methods. I. An efficient and simple linear scaling local MP2 method that uses an intermediate basis of pair natural orbitals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinski, Peter; Riplinger, Christoph; Neese, Frank, E-mail: evaleev@vt.edu, E-mail: frank.neese@cec.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Chemical Energy Conversion, Stiftstr. 34-36, D-45470 Mülheim an der Ruhr (Germany); Valeev, Edward F., E-mail: evaleev@vt.edu, E-mail: frank.neese@cec.mpg.de [Department of Chemistry, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States)

    2015-07-21

    In this work, a systematic infrastructure is described that formalizes concepts implicit in previous work and greatly simplifies computer implementation of reduced-scaling electronic structure methods. The key concept is sparse representation of tensors using chains of sparse maps between two index sets. Sparse map representation can be viewed as a generalization of compressed sparse row, a common representation of a sparse matrix, to tensor data. By combining few elementary operations on sparse maps (inversion, chaining, intersection, etc.), complex algorithms can be developed, illustrated here by a linear-scaling transformation of three-center Coulomb integrals based on our compact code library that implements sparse maps and operations on them. The sparsity of the three-center integrals arises from spatial locality of the basis functions and domain density fitting approximation. A novel feature of our approach is the use of differential overlap integrals computed in linear-scaling fashion for screening products of basis functions. Finally, a robust linear scaling domain based local pair natural orbital second-order Möller-Plesset (DLPNO-MP2) method is described based on the sparse map infrastructure that only depends on a minimal number of cutoff parameters that can be systematically tightened to approach 100% of the canonical MP2 correlation energy. With default truncation thresholds, DLPNO-MP2 recovers more than 99.9% of the canonical resolution of the identity MP2 (RI-MP2) energy while still showing a very early crossover with respect to the computational effort. Based on extensive benchmark calculations, relative energies are reproduced with an error of typically <0.2 kcal/mol. The efficiency of the local MP2 (LMP2) method can be drastically improved by carrying out the LMP2 iterations in a basis of pair natural orbitals. While the present work focuses on local electron correlation, it is of much broader applicability to computation with sparse tensors in

  12. Unusual attempt to direct the growth of bimetallic Ag@Pt nanorods on electrochemically reduced graphene oxide nanosheets by electroless exchange of Cu by Pt for an efficient alcohol oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeena, S. E.; Gnanaprakasam, P.; Selvaraju, T.

    2017-01-01

    A simple and an efficient tool for the direct growth of bimetallic Ag@Pt nanorods (NRDs) on electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGO) nanosheets was developed at glassy carbon electrode (GCE). Initially, Cu shell was grown on Ag core as Ag@Cu NRD by the seed-mediated growth method. Accordingly, Cu shell has been successfully replaced by Pt using the electroless galvanic replacement method with ease by effective functionalization of L-tryptophan on ERGO surface (L-ERGO), which eventually plays an important role in the direct growth of one-dimensional bimetallic NRDs. As a result, the synthesized Ag@Pt NRD-supported L-ERGO nanosheets (Ag@Pt NRDs/L-ERGO/GCE) were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) and Raman spectroscopy. Anodic stripping voltammetry was used to explore its electrochemical properties. Finally, the developed bimetallic Ag@Pt NRDs/L-ERGO/GCEs were studied as a better electrocatalyst compared to the commercial catalysts such as Pt40/C or Pt20/C-loaded electrode for the oxidation of ethanol or methanol with a high tolerance level and an enhanced current density. In addition, the long-term stability was studied using chronoamperometry for 1000 s at the bimetallic NRD electrode for alcohol oxidation which impedes the fouling properties. The unfavourable and favourable electrooxidation of ethanol at Ag@Cu NRDs/L-ERGO/GCE (a) and Ag@Pt NRDs/L-ERGO/GCE (b) is discussed. The synergistic effect of Ag core and catalytic properties of Pt shell at Ag@Pt NRDs/L-ERGO/GCE tend to strongly minimize the CO poisoning effect and enhanced ethanol electrooxidation.

  13. Unusual attempt to direct the growth of bimetallic Ag@Pt nanorods on electrochemically reduced graphene oxide nanosheets by electroless exchange of Cu by Pt for an efficient alcohol oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeena, S. E.; Gnanaprakasam, P.; Selvaraju, T.

    2017-01-01

    A simple and an efficient tool for the direct growth of bimetallic Ag@Pt nanorods (NRDs) on electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGO) nanosheets was developed at glassy carbon electrode (GCE). Initially, Cu shell was grown on Ag core as Ag@Cu NRD by the seed-mediated growth method. Accordingly, Cu shell has been successfully replaced by Pt using the electroless galvanic replacement method with ease by effective functionalization of L-tryptophan on ERGO surface (L-ERGO), which eventually plays an important role in the direct growth of one-dimensional bimetallic NRDs. As a result, the synthesized Ag@Pt NRD-supported L-ERGO nanosheets (Ag@Pt NRDs/L-ERGO/GCE) were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) and Raman spectroscopy. Anodic stripping voltammetry was used to explore its electrochemical properties. Finally, the developed bimetallic Ag@Pt NRDs/L-ERGO/GCEs were studied as a better electrocatalyst compared to the commercial catalysts such as Pt_4_0/C or Pt_2_0/C-loaded electrode for the oxidation of ethanol or methanol with a high tolerance level and an enhanced current density. In addition, the long-term stability was studied using chronoamperometry for 1000 s at the bimetallic NRD electrode for alcohol oxidation which impedes the fouling properties. The unfavourable and favourable electrooxidation of ethanol at Ag@Cu NRDs/L-ERGO/GCE (a) and Ag@Pt NRDs/L-ERGO/GCE (b) is discussed. The synergistic effect of Ag core and catalytic properties of Pt shell at Ag@Pt NRDs/L-ERGO/GCE tend to strongly minimize the CO poisoning effect and enhanced ethanol electrooxidation.

  14. Unusual attempt to direct the growth of bimetallic Ag@Pt nanorods on electrochemically reduced graphene oxide nanosheets by electroless exchange of Cu by Pt for an efficient alcohol oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeena, S. E.; Gnanaprakasam, P. [Karunya University, Department of Chemistry (India); Selvaraju, T., E-mail: veluselvaraju@gmail.com [Bharathiar University, Department of Chemistry (India)

    2017-01-15

    A simple and an efficient tool for the direct growth of bimetallic Ag@Pt nanorods (NRDs) on electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGO) nanosheets was developed at glassy carbon electrode (GCE). Initially, Cu shell was grown on Ag core as Ag@Cu NRD by the seed-mediated growth method. Accordingly, Cu shell has been successfully replaced by Pt using the electroless galvanic replacement method with ease by effective functionalization of L-tryptophan on ERGO surface (L-ERGO), which eventually plays an important role in the direct growth of one-dimensional bimetallic NRDs. As a result, the synthesized Ag@Pt NRD-supported L-ERGO nanosheets (Ag@Pt NRDs/L-ERGO/GCE) were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) and Raman spectroscopy. Anodic stripping voltammetry was used to explore its electrochemical properties. Finally, the developed bimetallic Ag@Pt NRDs/L-ERGO/GCEs were studied as a better electrocatalyst compared to the commercial catalysts such as Pt{sub 40}/C or Pt{sub 20}/C-loaded electrode for the oxidation of ethanol or methanol with a high tolerance level and an enhanced current density. In addition, the long-term stability was studied using chronoamperometry for 1000 s at the bimetallic NRD electrode for alcohol oxidation which impedes the fouling properties. The unfavourable and favourable electrooxidation of ethanol at Ag@Cu NRDs/L-ERGO/GCE (a) and Ag@Pt NRDs/L-ERGO/GCE (b) is discussed. The synergistic effect of Ag core and catalytic properties of Pt shell at Ag@Pt NRDs/L-ERGO/GCE tend to strongly minimize the CO poisoning effect and enhanced ethanol electrooxidation.

  15. Energy Efficient Mobile Operating Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Waseem

    2013-01-01

    Energy is an important resource in mobile computers now days. It is important to manage energy in efficient manner so that energy consumption will be reduced. Developers of operating system decided to increase the battery life time of mobile phones at operating system level. So, design of energy efficient mobile operating system is the best way to reduce the energy consumption in mobile devices. In this paper, currently used energy efficient mobile operating system is discussed and compared. ...

  16. Juggling Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rikke Sand; Vedsted, Peter

    2015-01-01

    on institutional logics, we illustrate how a logic of efficiency organise and give shape to healthcare seeking practices as they manifest in local clinical settings. Overall, patient concerns are reconfigured to fit the local clinical setting and healthcare professionals and patients are required to juggle...... efficiency in order to deal with uncertainties and meet more complex or unpredictable needs. Lastly, building on the empirical case of cancer diagnostics, we discuss the implications of the pervasiveness of the logic of efficiency in the clinical setting and argue that provision of medical care in today......'s primary care settings requires careful balancing of increasing demands of efficiency, greater complexity of biomedical knowledge and consideration for individual patient needs....

  17. Efficient Non Linear Loudspeakers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bo R.; Agerkvist, Finn T.

    2006-01-01

    Loudspeakers have traditionally been designed to be as linear as possible. However, as techniques for compensating non linearities are emerging, it becomes possible to use other design criteria. This paper present and examines a new idea for improving the efficiency of loudspeakers at high levels...... by changing the voice coil layout. This deliberate non-linear design has the benefit that a smaller amplifier can be used, which has the benefit of reducing system cost as well as reducing power consumption....

  18. Highly Simplified Reddish Orange Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Incorporating a Novel Carrier- and Exciton-Confining Spiro-Exciplex-Forming Host for Reduced Efficiency Roll-off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ting; Zhang, Ye-Xin; Wang, Bo; Huang, Chen-Chao; Murtaza, Imran; Meng, Hong; Liao, Liang-Sheng

    2017-01-25

    A novel exciplex-forming host is applied so as to design highly simplified reddish orange light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with low driving voltage, high efficiency, and an extraordinarily low efficiency roll-off, by combining N,N-10-triphenyl-10H-spiro [acridine-9,9'-fluoren]-3'-amine (SAFDPA) with 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (Bphen) doped with trivalent iridium complex bis(2-methyldibenzo[f,h]quinoxaline) (acetylacetonate)iridium(III) (Ir(MDQ) 2 (acac)). The reddish orange OLEDs achieve a strikingly high power efficiency (PE) of 31.80 lm/W with an ultralow threshold voltage of 2.24 V which is almost equal to the triplet energy level of the phosphorescent reddish orange emitting dopant. The power efficiency of the device with the exciplex-forming host is enhanced, achieving 36.2% mainly owing to the lower operating voltage by the novel exciplex forming cohost, compared with the reference device (23.54 lm/W). Moreover, the OLEDs show extraordinarily low current efficiency (CE) roll-off to 1.41% at the brightness from 500 to 5000 cd/m 2 with a maximal CE of 32.87 cd/A (EQE max = 11.01%). The devices display a good reddish orange color (CIE of (0.628, 0.372) at 500 cd/m 2 ) nearly without color shift with increasing brightness. Co-host architecture phosphorescent OLEDs show a simpler device structure, lower working voltage, and a better efficiency and stability than those of the reference devices without the cohost architecture, which helps to simplify the OLED structure, lower the cost, and popularize OLED technology.

  19. Batch efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwickerath, Ulrich; Silva, Ricardo; Uria, Christian, E-mail: Ulrich.Schwickerath@cern.c, E-mail: Ricardo.Silva@cern.c [CERN IT, 1211 Geneve 23 (Switzerland)

    2010-04-01

    A frequent source of concern for resource providers is the efficient use of computing resources in their centers. This has a direct impact on requests for new resources. There are two different but strongly correlated aspects to be considered: while users are mostly interested in a good turn-around time for their jobs, resource providers are mostly interested in a high and efficient usage of their available resources. Both things, the box usage and the efficiency of individual user jobs, need to be closely monitored so that the sources of the inefficiencies can be identified. At CERN, the Lemon monitoring system is used for both purposes. Examples of such sources are poorly written user code, inefficient access to mass storage systems, and dedication of resources to specific user groups. As a first step for improvements CERN has launched a project to develop a scheduler add-on that allows careful overloading of worker nodes that run idle jobs.

  20. Financing Energy Efficient Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Existing buildings require over 40% of the world's total final energy consumption, and account for 24% of world CO2 emissions (IEA, 2006). Much of this consumption could be avoided through improved efficiency of building energy systems (IEA, 2006) using current, commercially-viable technology. In most cases, these technologies make economic sense on a life-cycle cost analysis (IEA, 2006b). Moreover, to the extent that they reduce dependence on risk-prone fossil energy sources, energy efficient technologies also address concerns of energy security.

  1. Financing Energy Efficient Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Existing buildings require over 40% of the world's total final energy consumption, and account for 24% of world CO2 emissions (IEA, 2006). Much of this consumption could be avoided through improved efficiency of building energy systems (IEA, 2006) using current, commercially-viable technology. In most cases, these technologies make economic sense on a life-cycle cost analysis (IEA, 2006b). Moreover, to the extent that they reduce dependence on risk-prone fossil energy sources, energy efficient technologies also address concerns of energy security.

  2. The Energy Efficient Enterprise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Bashir

    2010-09-15

    Since rising energy costs have become a crucial factor for the economy of production processes, the optimization of energy efficiency is of essential importance for industrial enterprises. Enterprises establish energy saving programs, specific to their needs. The most important elements of these energy efficiency programs are energy savings, energy controlling, energy optimization, and energy management. This article highlights the industrial enterprise approach to establish sustainable energy management programs based on the above elements. Globally, if organizations follow this approach, they can significantly reduce the overall energy consumption and cost.

  3. Feedback and efficient behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Casal

    Full Text Available Feedback is an effective tool for promoting efficient behavior: it enhances individuals' awareness of choice consequences in complex settings. Our study aims to isolate the mechanisms underlying the effects of feedback on achieving efficient behavior in a controlled environment. We design a laboratory experiment in which individuals are not aware of the consequences of different alternatives and, thus, cannot easily identify the efficient ones. We introduce feedback as a mechanism to enhance the awareness of consequences and to stimulate exploration and search for efficient alternatives. We assess the efficacy of three different types of intervention: provision of social information, manipulation of the frequency, and framing of feedback. We find that feedback is most effective when it is framed in terms of losses, that it reduces efficiency when it includes information about inefficient peers' behavior, and that a lower frequency of feedback does not disrupt efficiency. By quantifying the effect of different types of feedback, our study suggests useful insights for policymakers.

  4. Development of high-efficiency solar cells and modules. Optimised production processes and more durable modules can reduce the costs for producing solar power by a third; Hocheffiziente Solarzellen und Module entwickeln. Optimierte Fertigungsablaeufe und langlebigere Module koennen die Erzeugung von Solarstrom um ein Drittel billiger machen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirn, Gerhard

    2013-09-01

    Research institutes, photovoltaic producers, system manufacturers and solar industry suppliers are working together to produce more powerful and durable modules in a more efficient manner. In the SONNE project, companies and researchers are optimising the output and production of modules made of crystalline silicon cells, whereby they are covering the entire production chain and are making the new developments ready for production in a short time. With their developments they want to reduce the costs of solar power by a third.

  5. Energy Efficiency in Swimming Facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Kampel, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    High and increasing energy use is a worldwide issue that has been reported and documented in the literature. Various studies have been performed on renewable energy and energy efficiency to counteract this trend. Although using renewable energy sources reduces pollution, improvements in energy efficiency reduce total energy use and protect the environment from further damage. In Europe, 40 % of the total energy use is linked to buildings, making them a main objective concerning...

  6. Energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marvillet, Ch.; Tochon, P.; Mercier, P.

    2004-01-01

    World energy demand is constantly rising. This is a legitimate trend, insofar as access to energy enables enhanced quality of life and sanitation levels for populations. On the other hand, such increased consumption generates effects that may be catastrophic for the future of the planet (climate change, environmental imbalance), should this growth conform to the patterns followed, up to recent times, by most industrialized countries. Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, development of new energy sources and energy efficiency are seen as the major challenges to be taken up for the world of tomorrow. In France, the National Energy Debate indeed emphasized, in 2003, the requirement to control both demand for, and offer of, energy, through a strategic orientation law for energy. The French position corresponds to a slightly singular situation - and a privileged one, compared to other countries - owing to massive use of nuclear power for electricity generation. This option allows France to be responsible for a mere 2% of worldwide greenhouse gas emissions. Real advances can nonetheless still be achieved as regards improved energy efficiency, particularly in the transportation and residential-tertiary sectors, following the lead, in this respect, shown by industry. These two sectors indeed account for over half of the country CO 2 emissions (26% and 25% respectively). With respect to transportation, the work carried out by CEA on the hydrogen pathway, energy converters, and electricity storage has been covered by the preceding chapters. As regards housing, a topic addressed by one of the papers in this chapter, investigations at CEA concern integration of the various devices enabling value-added use of renewable energies. At the same time, the organization is carrying through its activity in the extensive area of heat exchangers, allowing industry to benefit from improved understanding in the modeling of flows. An activity evidenced by advances in energy efficiency for

  7. Reducing crude protein and rumen degradable protein with a constant concentration of rumen undegradable protein in the diet of dairy cows: Production performance, nutrient digestibility, nitrogen efficiency, and blood metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami-Yekdangi, M; Ghorbani, G R; Khorvash, M; Khan, M A; Ghaffari, M H

    2016-02-01

    The goals of ruminant protein nutrition are to provide adequate amounts of RDP for optimal ruminal efficiency and to obtain the desired animal productivity with a minimum amount of dietary CP. The aim of the present study was to examine effects of decreasing dietary protein by decreasing RDP with the optimum concentration of RUP on production performance, nutrient digestibility, N retention, rumen fermentation parameters, and blood metabolites in high-producing Holstein cows in early lactation. Nine multiparous lactating cows (second parities, averaging 50 ± 12 d in milk and milk yield of 48 ± 5 kg/d) were used in a triplicate 3 × 3 Latin square design with 3 rations: 1) a total mixed ration (TMR) containing 16.4% CP (10.9% RDP based on DM), 2) a TMR containing 15.6% CP (10% RDP), and 3) a TMR containing 14.8% CP (9.3% RDP). The level of RUP was constant at 5.5% DM across the treatments. All diets were calculated to supply a postruminal lysine to methionine ratio of about 3:1. Dry matter intake, milk yield and composition, 4% fat-corrected milk, and energy-corrected milk were not significantly affected by decreasing dietary CP and RDP levels. Cows fed 16.4% CP diets had greater ( RUP and fecal N excretion (g/d) did not change. Apparent digestibility of nutrients, ruminal pH, and NH-N concentration were not affected with decreasing dietary CP and RDP levels. Apparent N efficiency increased, and RDP N intake and predicted urine N output decreased with decreased concentration of dietary CP and RDP in the diets ( RUP.

  8. Efficient convolutional sparse coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlberg, Brendt

    2017-06-20

    Computationally efficient algorithms may be applied for fast dictionary learning solving the convolutional sparse coding problem in the Fourier domain. More specifically, efficient convolutional sparse coding may be derived within an alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) framework that utilizes fast Fourier transforms (FFT) to solve the main linear system in the frequency domain. Such algorithms may enable a significant reduction in computational cost over conventional approaches by implementing a linear solver for the most critical and computationally expensive component of the conventional iterative algorithm. The theoretical computational cost of the algorithm may be reduced from O(M.sup.3N) to O(MN log N), where N is the dimensionality of the data and M is the number of elements in the dictionary. This significant improvement in efficiency may greatly increase the range of problems that can practically be addressed via convolutional sparse representations.

  9. Merging {DBMs} Efficiently

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Alexandre

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we present different algorithms to reduce the number of DBMs in federations by merging them. Federations are unions of DBMs and are used to represent non-convex zones. Inclusion checking between DBMs is a limited technique to reduce the size of federations and how to choose some DBMs...... to merge them into a larger one is a combi-natorial problem. We present a number of simple but efficient techniques to avoid searching the combinations while still being able to merge any number of DBMs...

  10. Offsetting efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, M.

    1995-01-01

    Whichever way the local distribution company (LDC) tries to convert residential customers to gas or expand their use of it, the process itself has become essential for the natural gas industry. The amount of gas used by each residential customer has been decreasing for 25 years -- since the energy crisis of the early 1970s. It's a direct result of better-insulated homes and more-efficient gas appliances, and that trend is continuing. So, LDCs have a choice of either finding new users and uses for gas, or recognizing that their throughput per customer is going to continue declining. The paper discusses strategies that several gas utilities are using to increase the number of gas appliances in the customer's homes. These and other strategies keep the gas industry optimistic about the future of the residential market: A.G.A. has projected that by 2010 demand will expand, from 1994's 5.1 quadrillion Btu (quads) to 5.7 quads, even with continued improvements in appliance efficiency. That estimate, however, will depend on the industry-s utilities and whether they keep converting, proselytizing, persuading and influencing customers to use more natural gas

  11. Comminution efficiency attracts attention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, M.J.; Lewis-Gray, E.

    2011-01-01

    The mining sector, both at a technical and board level is pursuing opportunities to achieve cost savings and reduce energy usage in their operations. Research and debate on step change efficiency benefits is particularly evident in the field of comminution (crushing and grinding) circuit design and operation. Published literature that quantifies mining related energy consumption in South Africa and Australia has been reviewed by the authors.

  12. Reducing the network load and optimization of the economic efficiency of CHP plants by forecast-guided control; Verringerung der Netzbelastung und Optimierung der Wirtschaftlichkeit von KWK-Anlagen durch prognosegefuehrte Steuerung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glaser, Daniel; Adelhardt, Stefan [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Sensorik; beECO GmbH, Erlangen (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Heat-guided combined heat and power (CHP) plants often cause large compensation energy amounts, additional costs to the operator respectively and another burden on the parent network. The balance energy is caused by errors in the production forecast whose quality heavily depends on the heat load performance. This paper identifies the forecasting problems with heat-guided CHP and reveals how the accompanying cost and the network burden can be reduced. This is achieved by an improvement of the forecast in conjunction with a forecast-guided control without affecting the heat supply. In addition, an outlook on further measures to the earnings with the system is presented. (orig.)

  13. Facile Assembly of 3D Porous Reduced Graphene Oxide/Ultrathin MnO2 Nanosheets-S Aerogels as Efficient Polysulfide Adsorption Sites for High-Performance Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaojun; Wang, Hui; Zhai, Gaohong; Wang, Gang

    2017-05-23

    Rechargeable lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries are receiving much attention due to their high specific capacity, low cost, and environmental friendliness. Nonetheless, fast capacity decay and low specific capacity still limit their practical implementation. Herein, we report a facile strategy to overcome these challenges by the design and fabrication of 3D porous reduced graphene oxide/ultrathin MnO 2 nanosheets-S aerogel (rGM-SA) composites for Li-S batteries. By a simple solvothermal reaction process, nanosized S atoms are homogeneously decorated into the 3D scaffold formed by reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and MnO 2 nanosheets, which can form the homogeneous rGM-SA composites. In this porous network architecture, rGO serves as an electron and ion transfer pathway, a physical adsorption site for polysulfides, and provides structural stability. The ultrathin MnO 2 nanosheets provide strong binding sites for trapping polysulfide intermediates. The 3D porous rGO/MnO 2 architecture enables rapid ion transport and buffers volume expansion of sulfur during discharge. The rGM-SA composites can be directly used as lithium-sulfur battery cathodes without using binder and conductive additive. As a result of this multifunctional arrangement, the rGM-SA composites exhibit high and stable-specific capacities over 200 cycles and excellent high-rate performances. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. The Potential of the Ni-Resistant TCE-Degrading Pseudomonas putida W619-TCE to Reduce Phytotoxicity and Improve Phytoremediation Efficiency of Poplar Cuttings on A Ni-TCE Co-Contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyens, Nele; Beckers, Bram; Schellingen, Kerim; Ceulemans, Reinhart; van der Lelie, Daniel; Newman, Lee; Taghavi, Safiyh; Carleer, Robert; Vangronsveld, Jaco

    2015-01-01

    To examine the potential of Pseudomonas putida W619-TCE to improve phytoremediation of Ni-TCE co-contamination, the effects of inoculation of a Ni-resistant, TCE-degrading root endophyte on Ni-TCE phytotoxicity, Ni uptake and trichloroethylene (TCE) degradation of Ni-TCE-exposed poplar cuttings are evaluated. After inoculation with P. putida W619-TCE, root weight of non-exposed poplar cuttings significantly increased. Further, inoculation induced a mitigation of the Ni-TCE phytotoxicity, which was illustrated by a diminished exposure-induced increase in activity of antioxidative enzymes. Considering phytoremediation efficiency, inoculation with P. putida W619-TCE resulted in a 45% increased Ni uptake in roots as well as a slightly significant reduction in TCE concentration in leaves and TCE evapotranspiration to the atmosphere. These results indicate that endophytes equipped with the appropriate characteristics can assist their host plant to deal with co-contamination of toxic metals and organic contaminants during phytoremediation. Furthermore, as poplar is an excellent plant for biomass production as well as for phytoremediation, the obtained results can be exploited to produce biomass for energy and industrial feedstock applications in a highly productive manner on contaminated land that is not suited for normal agriculture. Exploiting this land for biomass production could contribute to diminish the conflict between food and bioenergy production.

  15. Energy efficient design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Solar Applications and Energy Efficiency in Building Design and Town Planning (RER/87/006) is a United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) project of the Governments of Albania, Bulgaria, Cyprus, The Czech and Slovak Federal Republic, France, Hungary, Malta, Poland, Turkey, United Kingdom and Yugoslavia. The project began in 1988 and comes to a conclusion at the end of 1991. It is to enhance the professional skills of practicing architects, engineers and town planners in European countries to design energy efficient buildings which reduce energy consumption and make greater use of passive solar heating and natural cooling techniques. The United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (ECE) is the Executing Agency of the project which is implemented under the auspices of the Committee on Energy, General Energy Programme of Work for 1990-1994, sub-programme 5 Energy Conservation and Efficiency (ECE/ENERGY/15). The project has five main outputs or results: an international network of institutions for low energy building design; a state-of-the-art survey of energy use in the built environment of European IPF countries; a simple computer program for energy efficient building design; a design guide and computer program operators' manual; and a series of international training courses in participating European IPF countries. Energy Efficient Design is the fourth output of the project. It comprises the design guide for practicing architects and engineers, for use mainly in mid-career training courses, and the operators' manual for the project's computer program

  16. Energy Efficiency Center - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obryk, E.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: The Energy Efficiency Center (EEC) activities have been concentrated on Energy Efficiency Network (SEGE), education and training of energy auditors. EEC has started studies related to renewable fuels (bio fuel, wastes) and other topics related to environment protection. EEC has continued close collaboration with Institute for Energy Technology, Kjeller, Norway. It has been organized and conducted Seminar and Workshop on ''How to Reduce Energy and Water Cost in Higher Education Buildings'' for general and technical managers of the higher education institutions. This Seminar was proceeded by the working meeting on energy efficiency strategy in higher education at the Ministry of National Education. EEC has worked out proposal for activities of Cracow Regional Agency for Energy Efficiency and Environment and has made offer to provide services for this Agency in the field of training, education and consulting. The vast knowledge and experiences in the field of energy audits have been used by the members of EEC in lecturing at energy auditors courses authorized by the National Energy Efficiency Agency (KAPE). Altogether 20 lectures have been delivered. (author)

  17. Reducing costs by reducing size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayns, M.R.; Shepherd, J.

    1991-01-01

    The present paper discusses briefly the many factors, including capital cost, which have to be taken into account in determining whether a series of power stations based on a small nuclear plant can be competitive with a series based on traditional large unit sizes giving the guaranteed level of supply. The 320 MWe UK/US Safe Integral Reactor is described as a good example of how the factors discussed can be beneficially incorporated into a design using proven technology. Finally it goes on to illustrate how the overall costs of a generating system can indeed by reduced by use of the 320 MWe Safe Integral Reactor rather than conventional units of around 1200 MWe. (author). 9 figs

  18. Using energy efficiently

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nipkow, J.; Brunner, C. U.

    2005-01-01

    This comprehensive article discusses the perspectives for reducing electricity consumption in Switzerland. The increase in consumption is discussed that has occurred in spite of the efforts of the Swiss national energy programmes 'Energy 2000' and 'SwissEnergy'. The fact that energy consumption is still on the increase although efficient and economically-viable technology is available is commented on. The authors are of the opinion that the market alone cannot provide a complete solution and that national and international efforts are needed to remedy things. In particular, the external costs that are often not included when estimating costs are stressed. Several technical options available, such as the use of fluorescent lighting, LCD monitors and efficient electric motors, are looked at as are other technologies quoted as being a means of reducing power consumption. Ways of reducing stand-by losses and system optimisation are looked at as are various scenarios for further development and measures that can be implemented in order to reduce power consumption

  19. The efficiency of risedronate in reducing bone resorption after total hip arthroplasty: a meta-analysis of randomized control trials at a minimum of 6 months' follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liqing

    2018-04-17

    Recently risedronate is suggested to be effective for the prevention and treatment of for osteoporosis in total hip arthroplasty. This meta-analysis aimes to evaluate the efficacy of risedronate in reducing femoral periprosthetic bone mineral density loss in patients undergoing primary total hip arthroplasty. A systematic search was performed in Medline (1966-31 October 2017), PubMed (1966-31 October 2017), Embase (1980-31 October 2017), ScienceDirect (1985-31 October 2017) and the Cochrane Library. Only randomized controlled trial (RCT) were included. Fixed/random effect model was used according to the heterogeneity tested by I2 statistic. Meta-analysis was performed using Stata 11.0 software. The outcome measures included periprosthetic bone mineral density, length of stay and adverse effects. Four RCTs including 198 patients met the inclusion criteria. The present meta-analysis showed that there were significant differences between treatment groups in terms of periprosthetic bone mineral density in Gruen zones 1 (standard mean difference (SMD) = 0.758, 95% CI 0.469 to 1.047, P = 0.000), 2 (SMD = 0.814, 95% CI 0.523 to 1.106, P = 0.000), 3 (SMD = 0.340, 95% CI 0.059 to 0.622, P = 0.018), 6 (SMD = 2.400, 95% CI 2.029 to 2.771, P = 0.000), and 7 (SMD = 2.400, 95% CI 2.029 to 2.771, P = 0.000). Oral risedronate could significantly reduce periprosthetic bone resorption around an uncemented femoral stem (Gruen zones 1, 2, 3, 6, and 7) up to 6 months after THA. In addition, no severe adverse events were identified. Future trials of risedronate treatment after THA should focus on clinically relevant end points such as the risks of fracture and revision arthroplasty.

  20. Efficient STFT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aamir, K.M.; Maud, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    Small perturbations in signals (or any time series), at some particular instant, affect the whole frequency spectrum due to the global function e/sup j omega t/ in Fourier Transform formulation. However, the Fourier spectrum does not convey the time instant at which the perturbation occurred. Consequently the information on the particular time instance of occurrence of that perturbation is lost when spectrum is observed. Apparently Fourier analysis seems to be inadequate in such situations. This inadequacy is overcome by the use of Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT), which keeps track of time as well as frequency information. In STFT analysis, a fixed length window, say of length N, is moved sample by sample as the data arrives. The Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) of this fixed window of length N is calculated using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm. If the total number of points is M > N, the computational complexity of this scheme works out to be at least ((M-N) N log/sub 2/N). On the other hand, STFT is shown to be of computational complexity 6NM and 8NM in the literature. In this paper, two algorithms are presented which compute the same STFT more efficiently. The computational complexity of the proposed algorithms works out to be MN of one algorithm and even lesser in the other algorithm. This reduction in complexity becomes significant for large data sets. This algorithm also remains valid if a stationary part of signal is skipped. (author)

  1. Energy efficiency; Energieffektivisering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-06-15

    The Low Energy Panel will halve the consumption in buildings. The Panel has proposed a halving of consumption in the construction within 2040 and 20 percent reduction in the consumption in the industry within 2020. The Panel consider it as possible to gradually reduce consumption in buildings from the current level of 80 TWh with 10 TWh in 2020, 25 TWh in 2030 and 40 TWh in 2040. According the committee one such halving can be reached by significant efforts relating to energy efficiency, by greater rehabilitations, energy efficiency in consisting building stock and stricter requirements for new construction. For the industry field the Panel recommend a political goal to be set at least 20 percent reduction in specific energy consumption in the industry and primary industry beyond general technological development by the end of 2020. This is equivalent to approximately 17 TWh based on current level of activity. The Panel believes that a 5 percent reduction should be achieved by the end of 2012 by carrying out simple measures. The Low Energy Panel has since March 2009 considered possibilities to strengthen the authorities' work with energy efficiency in Norway. The wide complex panel adds up proposals for a comprehensive approach for increased energy efficiency in particular in the building- and industry field. The Panel has looked into the potential for energy efficiency, barriers for energy efficiency, assessment of strengths and weaknesses in the existing policy instruments and members of the Panel's recommendations. In addition the report contains a review of theoretical principles for effects of instruments together with an extensive background. One of the committee members have chosen to take special notes on the main recommendations in the report. (AG)

  2. Development of a simple and efficient method for assaying cytidine monophosphate sialic acid synthetase activity using an enzymatic reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide/oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide converting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Akiko; Sato, Chihiro; Münster-Kühnel, Anja-K; Gerardy-Schahn, Rita; Kitajima, Ken

    2005-02-01

    A new reliable method to assay the activity of cytidine monophosphate sialic acid (CMP-Sia) synthetase (CSS) has been developed. The activation of sialic acids (Sia) to CMP-Sia is a prerequisite for the de novo synthesis of sialoglycoconjugates. In vertebrates, CSS has been cloned from human, mouse, and rainbow trout, and the crystal structure has been resolved for the mouse enzyme. The mouse and rainbow trout enzyme have been compared with respect to substrate specificity, demonstrating that the mouse enzyme exhibits a pronounced specificity for N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac), while the rainbow trout CSS is equally active with either of three Sia species, Neu5Ac, N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc), and deaminoneuraminic acid (KDN). However, molecular details that explain the pronounced substrate specificities are unknown. Understanding the catalytic mechanisms of these enzymes is of major importance, since CSSs play crucial roles in cellular sialylation patterns and thus are potential drug targets in a number of pathophysiological situations. The availability of the cDNAs and the obtained structural data enable rational approaches; however, these efforts are limited by the lack of a reliable high-throughput assay system. Here we describe a new assay system that allows product quantification in a reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)-dependent color reaction. The activation reaction catalyzed by CSS, CTP+Sia-->CMP-Sia+pyrophosphate, was evaluated by a consumption of Sia, which corresponds to that of NADH on the following two successive reactions: (i) Sia-->pyruvate+ManNAc (or Man), catalyzed by a sialic acid lyase (SAL), and (ii) pyruvate+NADH-->lactate+oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+), catalyzed by a lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Consumption of NADH can be photometrically monitored on a microtiter plate reader for a number of test samples at the same time. Furthermore, based on the quantification of CSS used in the SAL/LDH assay

  3. Energy efficiency system development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leman, A. M.; Rahman, K. A.; Chong, Haw Jie; Salleh, Mohd Najib Mohd; Yusof, M. Z. M.

    2017-09-01

    By subjecting to the massive usage of electrical energy in Malaysia, energy efficiency is now one of the key areas of focus in climate change mitigation. This paper focuses on the development of an energy efficiency system of household electrical appliances for residential areas. Distribution of Questionnaires and pay a visit to few selected residential areas are conducted during the fulfilment of the project as well as some advice on how to save energy are shared with the participants. Based on the collected data, the system developed by the UTHM Energy Team is then evaluated from the aspect of the consumers' behaviour in using electrical appliances and the potential reduction targeted by the team. By the end of the project, 60% of the participants had successfully reduced the electrical power consumption set by the UTHM Energy Team. The reasons for whether the success and the failure is further analysed in this project.

  4. Late Washing efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrissey, M.F.

    1992-01-01

    Interim Waste Technology has demonstrated the Late Washing concept on the Experimental Laboratory Filter (ELF) at TNX. In two tests, washing reduced the [NO 2 - ] from 0.08 M to approximately 0.01 M on slurries with 2 year equivalent radiation exposures and 9.5 wt. % solids. For both washes, the [NO 2 - ] decreased at rates near theoretical for a constant volume stirred vessel, indicating approximately l00% washing efficiency. Permeate flux was greater than 0.05 gpm/ft 2 for both washes at a transmembrane pressure of 50 psi and flow velocity of 9 ft/sec

  5. Motor-operated gearbox efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeWall, K.G.; Watkins, J.C.; Bramwell, D. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Weidenhamer, G.H.

    1996-12-01

    Researchers at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory recently conducted tests investigating the operating efficiency of the power train (gearbox) in motor-operators typically used in nuclear power plants to power motor-operated valves. Actual efficiency ratios were determined from in-line measurements of electric motor torque (input to the operator gearbox) and valve stem torque (output from the gearbox) while the operators were subjected to gradually increasing loads until the electric motor stalled. The testing included parametric studies under reduced voltage and elevated temperature conditions. As part of the analysis of the results, the authors compared efficiency values determined from testing to the values published by the operator manufacturer and typically used by the industry in calculations for estimating motor-operator capabilities. The operators they tested under load ran at efficiencies lower than the running efficiency (typically 50%) published by the operator manufacturer.

  6. Motor-operated gearbox efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeWall, K.G.; Watkins, J.C.; Bramwell, D.; Weidenhamer, G.H.

    1996-01-01

    Researchers at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory recently conducted tests investigating the operating efficiency of the power train (gearbox) in motor-operators typically used in nuclear power plants to power motor-operated valves. Actual efficiency ratios were determined from in-line measurements of electric motor torque (input to the operator gearbox) and valve stem torque (output from the gearbox) while the operators were subjected to gradually increasing loads until the electric motor stalled. The testing included parametric studies under reduced voltage and elevated temperature conditions. As part of the analysis of the results, the authors compared efficiency values determined from testing to the values published by the operator manufacturer and typically used by the industry in calculations for estimating motor-operator capabilities. The operators they tested under load ran at efficiencies lower than the running efficiency (typically 50%) published by the operator manufacturer

  7. Motor-operator gearbox efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeWall, K.G.; Watkins, J.C.; Bramwell, D.

    1996-01-01

    Researchers at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory recently conducted tests investigating the operating efficiency of the power train (gearbox) in motor-operators typically used in nuclear power plants to power motor-operated valves. Actual efficiency ratios were determined from in-line measurements of electric motor torque (input to the operator gearbox) and valve stem torque (output from the gearbox) while the operators were subjected to gradually increasing loads until the electric motor stalled. The testing included parametric studies under reduced voltage and elevated temperature conditions. As part of the analysis of the results, we compared efficiency values determined from testing to the values published by the operator manufacturer and typically used by the industry in calculations for estimating motor-operator capabilities. The operators we tested under load ran at efficiencies lower than the running efficiency (typically 50%) published by the operator manufacturer

  8. Efficient clustering of massive data with MapReduce

    OpenAIRE

    Fries, Sergej

    2015-01-01

    Since several decades, after the Agrarian society and Machine Age, the mankind approached the Information Age. Information or even much more important knowledge became one of the most valuable resources. The usual way to generate knowledge is the analysis of observation, or of some raw data, and the more and interconnected data is available the more insights can be gained from it. Therefore, in the past decade the trend to gather all possible information in all areas of life, industry and sci...

  9. Improved production efficiency in cattle to reduce their carbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... thereby creating the perception that livestock is a major cause of global warming. ... However, the net effect from livestock is only a 4.5% contribution to GHG. ... Keywords: Methane, global warming, greenhouse gas, crossbreeding, residual ...

  10. Improved production efficiency in cattle to reduce their carbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The FAO publication, Livestock's Long Shadow, indicated that livestock is responsible for 18% of the world's greenhouse gas production thereby creating the perception that livestock is a major cause of global warming. Methane (CH4) makes up 16% of total world gas emissions and is the second most important ...

  11. Reducing cement's CO2 footprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oss, Hendrik G.

    2011-01-01

    The manufacturing process for Portland cement causes high levels of greenhouse gas emissions. However, environmental impacts can be reduced by using more energy-efficient kilns and replacing fossil energy with alternative fuels. Although carbon capture and new cements with less CO2 emission are still in the experimental phase, all these innovations can help develop a cleaner cement industry.

  12. Frontiers in the economics of energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miguel, Carlos de; Labandeira, Xavier; Löschel, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Energy efficiency has become an essential instrument to obtain effective greenhouse gas mitigation and reduced energy dependence. This introductory article contextualizes the contributions of the supplemental issue by showing the new setting for energy efficiency economics and policy; discussing the role of price instruments to promote energy savings; presenting new approaches for energy efficiency policies; and placing energy efficiency within a wider energy and environmental framework.

  13. Carbon Efficient Building Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pellervo Matilainen

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, the Finnish legislation have focused on energy use and especially on energy used for heating space in buildings. However, in many cases this does not lead to the optimal concept in respect to minimizing green house gases. This paper studies how CO2 emission levels are affected by different measures to reduce energy use in buildings. This paper presents two real apartment buildings with different options of energy efficiency and power sources. The calculations clearly show that in the future electricity and domestic hot water use will have high importance in respect to energy efficiency, and therefore also CO2 equivalent (eq emissions. The importance increases when the energy efficiency of the building increases. There are big differences between average Finnish production and individual power plants; CO2 eq emissions might nearly double depending on the energy source and the power plant type. Both a building with an efficient district heating as a power source, and a building with ground heat in addition to nuclear power electricity as a complimentary electricity source performed very similarly to each other in respect to CO2 eq emissions. However, it is dangerous to conclude that it is not important which energy source is chosen. If hypothetically, the use of district heating would dramatically drop, the primary energy factor and CO2 eq emissions from electricity would rise, which in turn would lead to the increase of the ground heat systems emissions. A problem in the yearly calculations is that the fact that it is very important, sometimes even crucial, when energy is needed, is always excluded.

  14. Efficient Fingercode Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hong-Wei; Law, Kwok-Yan; Gollmann, Dieter; Chung, Siu-Leung; Li, Jian-Bin; Sun, Jia-Guang

    In this paper, we present an efficient fingerprint classification algorithm which is an essential component in many critical security application systems e. g. systems in the e-government and e-finance domains. Fingerprint identification is one of the most important security requirements in homeland security systems such as personnel screening and anti-money laundering. The problem of fingerprint identification involves searching (matching) the fingerprint of a person against each of the fingerprints of all registered persons. To enhance performance and reliability, a common approach is to reduce the search space by firstly classifying the fingerprints and then performing the search in the respective class. Jain et al. proposed a fingerprint classification algorithm based on a two-stage classifier, which uses a K-nearest neighbor classifier in its first stage. The fingerprint classification algorithm is based on the fingercode representation which is an encoding of fingerprints that has been demonstrated to be an effective fingerprint biometric scheme because of its ability to capture both local and global details in a fingerprint image. We enhance this approach by improving the efficiency of the K-nearest neighbor classifier for fingercode-based fingerprint classification. Our research firstly investigates the various fast search algorithms in vector quantization (VQ) and the potential application in fingerprint classification, and then proposes two efficient algorithms based on the pyramid-based search algorithms in VQ. Experimental results on DB1 of FVC 2004 demonstrate that our algorithms can outperform the full search algorithm and the original pyramid-based search algorithms in terms of computational efficiency without sacrificing accuracy.

  15. Energy Efficiency Project Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    IUEP

    2004-03-01

    The International Utility Efficiency Partnerships, Inc. (IUEP) has been a leader among the industry groups that have supported voluntary initiatives to promote international energy efficiency projects and address global climate change. The IUEP maintains its leadership by both supporting international greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction projects under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and by partnering with U.S. and international organizations to develop and implement strategies and specific energy efficiency projects. The goals of the IUEP program are to (1) provide a way for U.S. industry to maintain a leadership role in international energy efficiency infrastructure projects; (2) identify international energy project development opportunities to continue its leadership in supporting voluntary market-based mechanisms to reduce GHG emissions; and (3) demonstrate private sector commitment to voluntary approaches to global climate issues. The IUEP is dedicated to identifying, promoting, managing, and assisting in the registration of international energy efficiency projects that result in demonstrated voluntary reductions of GHG emissions. This Final Technical Report summarizes the IUEP's work in identifying, promoting, managing, and assisting in development of these projects and IUEP's effort in creating international cooperative partnerships to support project development activities that develop and deploy technologies that (1) increase efficiency in the production, delivery and use of energy; (2) increase the use of cleaner, low-carbon fuels in processing products; and (3) capture/sequester carbon gases from energy systems. Through international cooperative efforts, the IUEP intends to strengthen partnerships for energy technology innovation and demonstration projects capable of providing cleaner energy in a cost-effective manner. As detailed in this report, the IUEP met program objectives and goals during the reporting period January 1

  16. Declining Efficiency in the Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    1995-01-01

    with a high material standard of living. Examples are presented as are suggestions for how to improve the efficiency. These improvements, however, have a tendency to reduce the gross domestic product and hence are conflicting with the conventional political goals of growing GDP....

  17. Why reduce health inequalities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, A; Kawachi, I

    2000-12-01

    It is well known that social, cultural and economic factors cause substantial inequalities in health. Should we strive to achieve a more even share of good health, beyond improving the average health status of the population? We examine four arguments for the reduction of health inequalities.1 Inequalities are unfair. Inequalities in health are undesirable to the extent that they are unfair, or unjust. Distinguishing between health inequalities and health inequities can be contentious. Our view is that inequalities become "unfair" when poor health is itself the consequence of an unjust distribution of the underlying social determinants of health (for example, unequal opportunities in education or employment).2 Inequalities affect everyone. Conditions that lead to marked health disparities are detrimental to all members of society. Some types of health inequalities have obvious spillover effects on the rest of society, for example, the spread of infectious diseases, the consequences of alcohol and drug misuse, or the occurrence of violence and crime.3 Inequalities are avoidable. Disparities in health are avoidable to the extent that they stem from identifiable policy options exercised by governments, such as tax policy, regulation of business and labour, welfare benefits and health care funding. It follows that health inequalities are, in principle, amenable to policy interventions. A government that cares about improving the health of the population ought therefore to incorporate considerations of the health impact of alternative options in its policy setting process.3 Interventions to reduce health inequalities are cost effective. Public health programmes that reduce health inequalities can also be cost effective. The case can be made to give priority to such programmes (for example, improving access to cervical cancer screening in low income women) on efficiency grounds. On the other hand, few programmes designed to reduce health inequalities have been formally

  18. Efficiency improvements in transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, J. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Mechanical Engineering, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Christensen, Linda; Jensen, Thomas C. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Transport, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2012-11-15

    Transport of people, personal belongings and goods in private cars is fundamental to our modern welfare society and economic growth, and has grown steadily over many decades. Motor fuels have been based almost entirely on crude oil for the last century. During the last couple of decades engines built for traditional fuels have become more advanced and efficient; this has reduced fuel consumption by around 40% and emissions by more than 90%. Only in the same time span have we begun to look at alternatives to fossil fuels. Biofuels such as biodiesel, bioethanol, biomethanol and biogas can replace petrol and diesel, and in recent years algae have shown a new potential for diesel fuel. Natural gas is also becoming an interesting fuel due to its large resources worldwide. GTL, CTL and BTL are liquid fuels produced from solid or gaseous sources. GTL and CTL are expensive to produce and not very CO{sub 2}-friendly, but they are easily introduced and need little investment in infrastructure and vehicles. DME is an excellent fuel for diesel engines. Methanol and DME produced from biomass are among the most CO{sub 2}-reducing fuels and at the same time the most energy-efficient renewable fuels. Fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) are currently fuelled by hydrogen, but other fuels are also possible. There are, however, several barriers to the implementation of fuel cell vehicles. In particular, a hydrogen infrastructure needs to be developed. Electric vehicles (EVs) have the advantage that energy conversion is centralised at the power plant where it can be done at optimum efficiency and emissions. EVs have to be charged at home, and also away from home when travelling longer distances. With an acceptable fast charging infrastructure at least 85% of the one-car families in Denmark could be potential EV customers. Range improvements resulting from better batteries are expected to create a large increase in the number of EVs in Denmark between 2020 and 2030. The hybrid electric vehicle

  19. Is energy efficiency environmentally friendly?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herring, H. [Open University, Milton Keynes (United Kingdom). Energy and Environment Research Unit

    2000-07-01

    The paper challenges the view that improving the efficiency of energy use will lead to a reduction in national energy consumption, and hence is an effective policy for reducing CO{sub 2} emissions. It argues that improving energy efficiency lowers the implicit price of energy and hence makes its use more affordable, thus leading to greater use. The paper presents the views of economists, as well as green critics of 'efficiency' and the 'dematerialization' thesis. It argues that a more effective CO{sub 2} policy is to concentrate on shifting to non-fossil fuel, like renewables, subsidized through a carbon tax. Ultimately what is needed, to limit energy consumption is energy conservation not energy efficiency. 44 refs.

  20. Energy efficiency labelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-04-01

    This research assesses the likely effects on UK consumers of the proposed EEC energy-efficiency labeling scheme. Unless (or until) an energy-labeling scheme is introduced, it is impossible to do more than postulate its likely effects on consumer behavior. This report shows that there are indeed significant differences in energy consumption between different brands and models of the same appliance of which consumers are unaware. Further, the report suggests that, if a readily intelligible energy-labeling scheme were introduced, it would provide useful information that consumers currently lack; and that, if this information were successfully presented, it would be used and could have substantial effects in reducing domestic fuel consumption. Therefore, it is recommended that an energy labeling scheme be introduced.

  1. High-efficiency CARM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bratman, V.L.; Kol`chugin, B.D.; Samsonov, S.V.; Volkov, A.B. [Institute of Applied Physics, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    The Cyclotron Autoresonance Maser (CARM) is a well-known variety of FEMs. Unlike the ubitron in which electrons move in a periodical undulator field, in the CARM the particles move along helical trajectories in a uniform magnetic field. Since it is much simpler to generate strong homogeneous magnetic fields than periodical ones for a relatively low electron energy ({Brit_pounds}{le}1-3 MeV) the period of particles` trajectories in the CARM can be sufficiently smaller than in the undulator in which, moreover, the field decreases rapidly in the transverse direction. In spite of this evident advantage, the number of papers on CARM is an order less than on ubitron, which is apparently caused by the low (not more than 10 %) CARM efficiency in experiments. At the same time, ubitrons operating in two rather complicated regimes-trapping and adiabatic deceleration of particles and combined undulator and reversed guiding fields - yielded efficiencies of 34 % and 27 %, respectively. The aim of this work is to demonstrate that high efficiency can be reached even for a simplest version of the CARM. In order to reduce sensitivity to an axial velocity spread of particles, a short interaction length where electrons underwent only 4-5 cyclotron oscillations was used in this work. Like experiments, a narrow anode outlet of a field-emission electron gun cut out the {open_quotes}most rectilinear{close_quotes} near-axis part of the electron beam. Additionally, magnetic field of a small correcting coil compensated spurious electron oscillations pumped by the anode aperture. A kicker in the form of a sloping to the axis frame with current provided a control value of rotary velocity at a small additional velocity spread. A simple cavity consisting of a cylindrical waveguide section restricted by a cut-off waveguide on the cathode side and by a Bragg reflector on the collector side was used as the CARM-oscillator microwave system.

  2. ENERGY EFFICIENT DESALINATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Ismailov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of the research is to develop a thin-film semiconductor thermoelectric heat pump of cylindrical shape for the desalination of sea water.Methods. To improve the efficiency of the desalination device, a  special thin-film semiconductor thermoelectric heat pump of  cylindrical shape is developed. The construction of the thin-film  semiconductor thermoelectric heat pump allows the flow rates of  incoming sea water and outflowing fresh water and brine to be  equalised by changing the geometric dimensions of the desalinator.  The cross-sectional area of the pipeline for incoming sea water is equal to the total area of outflowing fresh water and brine.Results. The use of thin-film semiconductor p- and n-type branches  in a thermo-module reduces their electrical resistance virtually to  zero and completely eliminates Joule's parasitic heat release. The  Peltier thermoelectric effect on heating and cooling is completely  preserved, bringing the efficiency of the heat pump to almost 100%, improving the energy-saving characteristics of the  desalinator as a whole. To further increase the efficiency of the  proposed desalinator, thermoelectric modules with radiation can be  used as thermoelectric devices.Conclusion. As a consequence of the creation of conditions of high rarefaction under which water will be converted to steam, which, at  20° C, is cold (as is the condensed distilled water, energy costs can  be reduced. In this case, the energy for heating and cooling is not  wasted; moreover, sterilisation is also achieved using the ultraviolet  radiation used in the thermoelectric devices, which, on the one hand, generate electromagnetic ultraviolet radiation, and, on the other, cooling. Such devices operate in optimal mode without heat  release. The desalination device can be used to produce fresh water and concentrated solutions from any aqueous solutions, including wastewater from industrial

  3. Energy efficiency networks; Energieeffizienz-Netzwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruber, Anna [Forschungsgesellschaft fuer Energiewirtschaft mbH (FfE GmbH), Muenchen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Energy efficiency networks are an attractive method to increase the energy efficiency and to reduce the costs and CO{sub 2} emissions of the companies operating in this network. A special feature of the energy efficiency networks is the exchange of experiences and training of the energy managers. Energy efficiency networks consist of about ten to fifteen locally domiciled companies. During the project period of three to four years, there are two main phases. In the first phase, the initial consultation phase, the actual state of a company is captured, and measures to increase the efficiency and energy conservation are identified. Parallel to this, in the second phase every three months a meeting with the participating companies takes place. Experience exchange and implementation of energy efficiency measures are the focus of these meetings. Initial studies show that the increase of the energy efficiency during participating in the energy efficiency network almost can be doubled in comparison to the average of the industry.

  4. Heat Pipes Reduce Engine-Exhaust Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, D. F.

    1986-01-01

    Increased fuel vaporization raises engine efficiency. Heat-pipe technology increased efficiency of heat transfer beyond that obtained by metallic conduction. Resulted in both improved engine operation and reduction in fuel consumption. Raw material conservation through reduced dependence on strategic materials also benefit from this type of heat-pipe technology. Applications result in improved engine performance and cleaner environment.

  5. Information efficiency in visual communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter-Gartenberg, Rachel; Rahman, Zia-ur

    1993-08-01

    This paper evaluates the quantization process in the context of the end-to-end performance of the visual-communication channel. Results show that the trade-off between data transmission and visual quality revolves around the information in the acquired signal, not around its energy. Improved information efficiency is gained by frequency dependent quantization that maintains the information capacity of the channel and reduces the entropy of the encoded signal. Restorations with energy bit-allocation lose both in sharpness and clarity relative to restorations with information bit-allocation. Thus, quantization with information bit-allocation is preferred for high information efficiency and visual quality in optimized visual communication.

  6. Information efficiency in visual communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter-Gartenberg, Rachel; Rahman, Zia-Ur

    1993-01-01

    This paper evaluates the quantization process in the context of the end-to-end performance of the visual-communication channel. Results show that the trade-off between data transmission and visual quality revolves around the information in the acquired signal, not around its energy. Improved information efficiency is gained by frequency dependent quantization that maintains the information capacity of the channel and reduces the entropy of the encoded signal. Restorations with energy bit-allocation lose both in sharpness and clarity relative to restorations with information bit-allocation. Thus, quantization with information bit-allocation is preferred for high information efficiency and visual quality in optimized visual communication.

  7. Indicators for industrial energy efficiency in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gielen, Dolf; Taylor, Peter

    2009-01-01

    India accounts for 4.5% of industrial energy use worldwide. This share is projected to increase as the economy expands rapidly. The level of industrial energy efficiency in India varies widely. Certain sectors, such as cement, are relatively efficient, while others, such as pulp and paper, are relatively inefficient. Future energy efficiency efforts should focus on direct reduced iron, pulp and paper and small-scale cement kilns because the potentials for improvement are important in both percentage and absolute terms. Under business as usual, industrial energy use is projected to rise faster than total final energy use. A strong focus on energy efficiency can reduce this growth, but CO 2 emissions will still rise substantially. If more substantial CO 2 emissions reductions are to be achieved then energy efficiency will need to be combined with measures that reduce the carbon intensity of the industrial fuel mix.

  8. Health, Energy Efficiency and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change is becoming a driving force for improving energy efficiency because saving energy can help reduce the greenhouse gas emissions that contribute to climate change. However, it is important to balance energy saving measures with ventilation...

  9. Energy efficient idler for belt conveyor systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhopadhyay, A.K.; Chattopadhyay, A. [Indian School of Mines Univ., Dhanbad (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Mining; Soni, R.; Bhattnagar, M.

    2009-07-01

    In today's economic and legal environment, energy efficiency has become more important than ever. This paper proposes a new design of idler rollers for belt conveyors that could help to them even more efficient by reducing their energy consumption and also their CO{sub 2} footprint. (orig.)

  10. Energy efficiency through energy audit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esan, A. A.

    2000-08-01

    Energy is an essential factor to economic and social development and improved standards of living in developing countries. Nigeria in particular. There is a strong need for greater energy efficiency in every sector of economy in order to reduce costs. enhance competitiveness, conserve energy resources and reduce environmental impacts associated with production, distribution and use of energy. Energy auditing and monitoring has a significant role in any energy management and conservation project. Energy auditing as an important part of industrial energy management on plant level, represents a complex of activities aiming at the efficient use of energy. The activities are undertaken by a team of experts who use a set of measuring instruments to monitor and evaluate all the necessary data to elaborate a package of recommendations on improvements in the field of energy efficiency and possible product quality. The inefficient conversion and use of energy have been identified as a central problem for all developing countries, Nigeria inclusive, since they all consume significantly higher amounts of energy per unit of GDP than OECD countries. This aggravates energy-related environmental problems and is also a burden on domestic resources and foreign exchange. Energy prices have risen drastically in many developing countries, while energy intensities remain high. Price changes alone are not rapidly translating energy efficiency improvements. Identifying and removing the obstacles to greater energy efficiency should be priority for government in developing countries. This is why the Energy Commission, an apex organ of government on Energy matters in all its ramifications is out to encourage relatively low-cost energy audits for the Textile industries - such audits can identify ''good house-keeping's' measures, such as simply process improvements, that reduce energy consumption and operating costs. This will be followed by the training of plant workers/energy managers

  11. The Efficiency of Educational Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogetoft, Peter; Heinesen, Eskil; Tranæs, Torben

    is the most efficient Nordic country (often fully efficient), whereas Sweden and especially Norway and Denmark are clearly inefficient. However, using PISA test scores as indicators of student input quality in upper secondary education reduces the inefficiencies of these three countries. Also, when expected......Focusing in particular on upper secondary education, this paper examines whether the relatively high level of expenditure on education in the Nordic countries is matched by high output from the educational sector, both in terms of student enrolment and indicators of output quality in the form...... of graduation/completion rates and expected earnings after completed education. We use Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to compare (benchmark) the Nordic countries with a relevant group of rich OECD countries and calculate input efficiency scores for each country. We estimate a wide range of specifications...

  12. The Efficiency of Educational Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogetoft, Peter; Heinesen, Eskil; Tranæs, Torben

    2015-01-01

    is the most efficient Nordic country (often fully efficient), whereas Sweden and especially Norway and Denmark are clearly inefficient. However, using PISA test scores as indicators of student input quality in upper secondary education reduces the inefficiencies of these three countries. Also, when expected......Focusing in particular on upper secondary education, this paper examines whether the relatively high level of expenditure on education in the Nordic countries is matched by high output from the educational sector, both in terms of student enrolment and indicators of output quality in the form...... of graduation/completion rates and expected earnings after completed education. We use data envelopment analysis (DEA) to compare (benchmark) the Nordic countries with a relevant group of rich OECD countries and calculate input efficiency scores for each country. We estimate a wide range of specifications...

  13. Frontier technologies to improve efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalhammer, F.R.

    1992-01-01

    The author discusses conservation technology to improve the efficiency of energy production. Although coal is seen as the largest source of fuel for producing electricity until the year 2040, the heating value of coal is expected to be increased by using Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology. Use of fuel cells to produce electricity will be a viable option only if costs can be reduced to make the technology competitive. By coupling IGCC with fuel cells it may be possible to increase total conversion efficiency of coal to electricity at 50%. Photovoltaics technology is more likely to be used in developing countries. Electric utilities target power electronics, lighting fixtures, heat pumps, plasma processing, freeze concentration and application of superconductivity as electricity end use technologies that have the most potential for efficiency improvement. The impact of these technologies in coping with the greenhouse effect was not addressed

  14. Automotive fuel efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abelson, P.H.

    1992-01-01

    For at least the remainder of this century, the United States faces a growing dependence on imported oil. Costs are substantial, and they will mount. In June 1992, net imports provided nearly 50% of supplies, and their cost was $4.3 billion. Cost of net imports of motor vehicles and parts amounted to $3.0 billion. The two items combined totaled more than the negative trade balance of $6.6 billion. The light-duty highway fleet alone accounted for 38.2% of U.S. oil consumption in 1988. Correspondingly, the fleet was a substantial emitter of air pollutants - NO x , CO, and nonmethane hydrocarbons. In addition, it was a major source of CO 2 . The twin problems of oil imports and pollution would be ameliorated if the fuel economy if cars and trucks could be improved and their emissions were also reduced. In principle, the mileage of US automobiles could be substantially improved. But on purchasing a car, U.S. buyers rank fuel efficiency eight when making their choice. They are attracted to options that lower mileage. Consumers also tend to prefer large cars over small ones for reasons of safety. Increasingly, buyers are purchasing light trucks and vans that have inferior fuel efficiency. As a result of the above trends, the average mileage of the US automotive fleet has been diminishing. As long as fuel is available at comparatively low prices and there is no federal requirement for better mileage, improvement is unlikely. Moreover, even if improvements were mandated, change would be slow

  15. Efficiency of contactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orth, D.A.; Graham, F.R.; Holt, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    The Savannah River Plant has two separations plants that began Purex operations in 1954 and 1955 with pump-mix mixer-settlers as contactors to process nuclear fuels. The only changes to the extraction equipment were replacement of most of the mixer-settlers in one plant with larger units in 1959, and the further replacement of the large 1A bank with a bank of rapid-contact centrifugal contactors in 1966. Improved performance of the old units has become highly desirable, and an experimental program is underway. Good contact between the phases, and adequate settling without entrainment of the opposite phase are required for high efficiency operation of the mixer-settlers. Factors that determine efficiency are mixer design, drop size generated, and phase coalescence properties. The original development work and accumulated plant data confirm that the tip speed of a given impeller design determines the throughput capacity and extraction performance. An experimental unit with three full-scale stages has been constructed and is being utilized to test different impeller designs; reduced pumping and better mixing with lower speeds appear to be the key factors for improvement. Decontamination performance of the rapid-contact centrifugal contactors is limited by the number of scrub contacts and the time of contact because of slowly equilibrating fission product species. Where solvent degradation is not a factor, the longer scrub contact of mixer-settlers gives better decontamination than the centrifugals. This kinetic effect can be overcome with long scrub contacts that follow the initial short extraction and short scrub contacts in the centrifugal contactors. A hybrid experimental unit with both rapid contact sections and longer contact scrub sections is under development to establish the degree of improvement that might be attained

  16. Solar Cels With Reduced Contact Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daud, T.; Crotty, G. T.; Kachare, A. H.; Lewis, J. T.

    1987-01-01

    Efficiency of silicon solar cells increased about 20 percent using smaller metal-contact area on silicon at front and back of each cell. Reduction in contact area reduces surface recombination velocity under contact and thus reduces reverse saturation current and increases opencircuit voltage..

  17. Extending OFDM Symbols to Reduce Power Consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kokkeler, Andre B.J.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2012-01-01

    Existing communication standards have limited capabilities to adapt to low SNR environments or to exploit low data rate requirements in a power efficient way. Existing techniques like e.g. control coding do not reduce the computational load when reducing data rates. In this paper, we introduce

  18. China's energy efficiency target 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Ming

    2008-01-01

    The Chinese government has set an ambitious target: reducing China's energy intensity by 20%, or 4.36% each year between 2006 and 2010 on the 2005 level. Real data showed that China missed its target in 2006, having reduced its energy intensity only by 1.3%. The objective of this study is to evaluate the feasibility and potential of the Chinese to achieve the target. This paper presents issues of macro-economy, population migration, energy savings, and energy efficiency policy measures to achieve the target. A top-down approach was used to analyse the relationship between the Chinese economic development and energy demand cycles and to identify the potentials of energy savings in sub-sectors of the Chinese economy. A number of factors that contribute to China's energy intensity are identified in a number of energy-intensive sectors. This paper concludes that China needs to develop its economy at its potential GDP growth rate; strengthen energy efficiency auditing, monitoring and verification; change its national economy from a heavy-industry-dominated mode to a light industry or a commerce-dominated mode; phase out inefficient equipment in industrial sectors; develop mass and fast railway transportation; and promote energy-efficient technologies at the end use. This paper transfers key messages to policy makers for designing their policy to achieve China's energy efficiency target

  19. EPA’s Travel Efficiency Method (TEAM) AMPO Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presentation describes EPA’s Travel Efficiency Assessment Method (TEAM) assessing potential travel efficiency strategies for reducing travel activity and emissions, includes reduction estimates in Vehicle Miles Traveled in four different geographic areas.

  20. Report on technological achievements in fiscal 1999. Institutions for research and development of new environmental industry creating type technologies (Development of harmful substance reducing device for incineration furnaces using high-efficiency power pulse technology); 1999 nendo shinki kankyo sangyo soshutsugata kenkyu kaihatsu seido seika hokokusho. Kokoritsu pulse power gijutsu wo mochiita shokyakuroyo yugai busshitsu sakugen sochi no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Development has been proceeded on a harmful substance (SOx, NOx, Dioxine, etc.) reducing device for incineration furnaces that can be installed retroactively to existing incineration facilities, using high-efficiency power pulse technology of energy saving type, and discharge in honeycomb ceramics. The developmental activities were advanced by dividing them into researches on (1) research of gas decomposing devices, (2) research of pulse plasma electric power source, and (3) research of SI thyristor for pulse. In the research (1), a pulse plasma experiment and a gas decomposing experiment were performed. In the former experiment, discussions were given on effects of discharge electrode structure on discharge in the honeycomb ceramics, wherein it was made clear that employing the mesh-comb type electrode structure can realize discharge along the ceramics surface. In the latter experiment, it was revealed that the simulated gas (dibenzofuran) can be decomposed to 90% by using a coaxial cylindrical reaction device. In the research (2), studies were performed on increasing voltage and current in the device, as well as on semiconductor driving circuits. In the research (3), studies were made on the high-quality gate zone forming method and the quality conduction zone forming method. (NEDO)

  1. Efficiency of competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Naim, E.; Hengartner, N. W.

    2007-08-01

    League competition is investigated using random processes and scaling techniques. In our model, a weak team can upset a strong team with a fixed probability. Teams play an equal number of head-to-head matches and the team with the largest number of wins is declared to be the champion. The total number of games needed for the best team to win the championship with high certainty T grows as the cube of the number of teams N , i.e., Ttilde N3 . This number can be substantially reduced using preliminary rounds where teams play a small number of games and subsequently, only the top teams advance to the next round. When there are k rounds, the total number of games needed for the best team to emerge as champion, Tk , scales as follows, Tk˜Nγk with γk=[1-(2/3)k+1]-1 . For example, γk=9/5,27/19,81/65 for k=1,2,3 . These results suggest an algorithm for how to infer the best team using a schedule that is linear in N . We conclude that league format is an ineffective method of determining the best team, and that sequential elimination from the bottom up is fair and efficient.

  2. Energy efficient technologies for the mining industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, B.; Bamber, A.; Weatherwax, T.; Dozdiak, J.; Nadolski, S.; Roufail, R.; Parry, J.; Roufail, R.; Tong, L.; Hall, R. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Centre for Environmental Research in Minerals, Metals and Materials, Norman B. Keevil Inst. of Mining Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Mining in British Columbia is the second largest industrial electricity consumer. This presentation highlighted methods to help the mining industry reduce their energy requirements by limiting waste and improving efficiency. The measures are aimed at optimizing energy-use and efficiency in mining and processing and identifying opportunities and methods of improving this efficiency. Energy conservation in comminution and beneficiation is a primary focus of research activities at the University of British Columbia (UBC). The objective is to reduce energy usage in metal mines by 20 per cent overall. Open pit copper, gold and molybdenum mines are being targeted. Projects underway at UBC were outlined, with particular reference to energy usage, recovery and alternative energy sources; preconcentration; reducing energy usage from comminution in sorting, high pressure grinding rolls and high speed stirred mills; Hydromet; other energy efficient technologies such as control and flotation; and carbon dioxide sequestration. Studies were conducted at various mining facilities, including mines in Sudbury, Ontario. tabs., figs.

  3. Reconsidering energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldoni, Giovanni

    2007-01-01

    Energy and environmental policies are reconsidering energy efficiency. In a perfect market, rational and well informed consumers reach economic efficiency which, at the given prices of energy and capital, corresponds to physical efficiency. In the real world, market failures and cognitive frictions distort the consumers from perfectly rational and informed choices. Green incentive schemes aim at balancing market failures and directing consumers toward more efficient goods and services. The problem is to fine tune the incentive schemes [it

  4. Development of Energy Efficiency Indicators in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Russia is sometimes referred to as 'the Saudi Arabia of energy efficiency'; its vast potential to reduce energy consumption can be considered a significant 'energy reserve'. Russia, recognising the benefits of more efficient use of energy, is taking measures to exploit this potential. The president has set the goal to reduce energy intensity by 40% between 2007 and 2020. In the past few years, the IEA has worked closely with Russian authorities to support the development of energy efficiency indicators in Russia, critical to an effective implementation and monitoring of Russia's ambitious energy intensity and efficiency goals. The key findings of the IEA work with Russia on developing energy efficiency indicators form the core of this report.

  5. Energy efficiency; Efficacite energetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-06-15

    This road-map proposes by the Group Total aims to inform the public on the energy efficiency. It presents the energy efficiency and intensity around the world with a particular focus on Europe, the energy efficiency in industry and Total commitment. (A.L.B.)

  6. Reduced Rank Regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Søren

    2008-01-01

    The reduced rank regression model is a multivariate regression model with a coefficient matrix with reduced rank. The reduced rank regression algorithm is an estimation procedure, which estimates the reduced rank regression model. It is related to canonical correlations and involves calculating...

  7. Energy efficiency and renewables policies: Promoting efficiency or facilitating monopsony?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennan, Timothy J.

    2011-01-01

    The cliche in the electricity sector, the 'cheapest power plant is the one we don't build,' neglects the benefits of the energy that plant would generate. That economy-wide perspective need not apply in considering benefits to only consumers if not building that plant was the exercise of monopsony power. A regulator maximizing consumer welfare may need to avoid rationing demand at monopsony prices. Subsidizing energy efficiency to reduce electricity demand at the margin can solve that problem, if energy efficiency and electricity use are substitutes. Renewable energy subsidies, percentage use standards, or feed in tariffs may also serve monopsony as well with sufficient inelasticity in fossil fuel electricity supply. We may not observe these effects if the regulator can set price as well as quantity, lacks buyer-side market power, or is legally precluded from denying generators a reasonable return on capital. Nevertheless, the possibility of monopsony remains significant in light of the debate as to whether antitrust enforcement should maximize consumer welfare or total welfare. - Research Highlights: → Subsidizing energy efficiency can promote monopsony, if efficiency and use are substitutes. → Renewable energy subsidies, portfolio standards, or feed-in tariffs may also promote monopsony. → Effects require buyer-side market power and ability to deny generators a reasonable return. → Monopsony is significant in light of whether antitrust should maximize consumer or total welfare.

  8. USSR energy efficiency and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinyak, Y.

    1991-06-01

    The U.S.S.R. is the largest energy producer and the second largest energy consumer in the world. Its share of global energy use reached above 17% in 1988. The soviet energy system is characterized by low efficiency and high per capita energy consumption, although there are some reasons justifying the greater U.S.S.R. energy use per unit of product output than in other industrialized countries. The present energy-savings potential is approximately equal to one-half of the domestic energy consumption. Improvements in energy efficiency at all levels of the national economy are now considered to be the primary goal of national energy policy for the next couple of decades. Being endowed with abundant natural gas resources, the U.S.S.R. will count on this energy source in the future to improve its energy efficiency, reduce expenses and cope with air pollution. After 2005-2010, stabilized primary energy consumption may be reached or there may even be a decline of total energy use. The U.S.S.R. could reduce CO 2 emissions by 20% by 2030 but with substantial negative impacts on GNP growth. Required improvements in the Soviet energy system depend on changes in energy management, including reduction of the role of centralized planning, decentralization and privatization of energy-producing facilities, energy-price reforms, reshaping of investment patterns, reduction in military expenditures, etc. (author)

  9. Energy efficient solid state lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dam-Hansen, C.; Petersen, Poul Michael

    2012-11-15

    Even though vast improvements have been made on efficiency and light quality, SSL is still in its infancy. One of the barriers for a market introduction is the price, which still is around 5 times higher than traditional lighting technologies. In order to fulfil the potential of SSL, further research and development needs to increase the light extraction from semiconductor materials, provide better and cheaper production and packaging, and advanced optical systems for optimized light distribution and new thermal solutions for SSL lamps and luminaires. Nanotechnology and applied research at DTU Fotonik in close collaboration with industry are essential parts in the development of new enhanced LED optical systems and LEDs with higher light extraction efficiency. Photonic crystals can help to efficiently extract light from LEDs and to form a desired emission profile. Future directions are devoted to the next generation of LEDs, in which the spontaneous emission is photon enhanced. One realization of this idea is using LEDs with a layer of nanocrystals, which are coupled to the quantum well of the LED. Such R and D work is ongoing all over the world and DOE roadmaps foresee luminous efficiencies by 2020 that are close to 250 lm/W for both cold and warm white light from LEDs, and prices in the order of one dollar per kilolumen. Such figures will drastically reduce the energy consumption worldwide for lighting, and hence a marked reduction in carbon emissions. (Author)

  10. Encapsulation Efficiency, Oscillatory Rheometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Mohammad Hassani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoliposomes are one of the most important polar lipid-based nanocarriers which can be used for encapsulation of both hydrophilic and hydrophobic active compounds. In this research, nanoliposomes based on lecithin-polyethylene glycol-gamma oryzanol were prepared by using a modified thermal method. Only one melting peak in DSC curve of gamma oryzanol bearing liposomes was observed which could be attributed to co-crystallization of both compounds. The addition of gamma oryzanol, caused to reduce the melting point of 5% (w/v lecithin-based liposome from 207°C to 163.2°C. At high level of lecithin, increasing of liposome particle size (storage at 4°C for two months was more obvious and particle size increased from 61 and 113 to 283 and 384 nanometers, respectively. The encapsulation efficiency of gamma oryzanol increased from 60% to 84.3% with increasing lecithin content. The encapsulation stability of oryzanol in liposome was determined at different concentrations of lecithin 3, 5, 10, 20% (w/v and different storage times (1, 7, 30 and 60 days. In all concentrations, the encapsulation stability slightly decreased during 30 days storage. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM images showed relatively spherical to elliptic particles which indicated to low extent of particles coalescence. The oscillatory rheometry showed that the loss modulus of liposomes were higher than storage modulus and more liquid-like behavior than solid-like behavior. The samples storage at 25°C for one month, showed higher viscoelastic parameters than those having been stored at 4°C which were attributed to higher membrane fluidity at 25°C and their final coalescence.Nanoliposomes are one of the most important polar lipid based nanocarriers which can be used for encapsulation of both hydrophilic and hydrophobic active compounds. In this research, nanoliposomes based on lecithin-polyethylene glycol-gamma oryzanol were prepared by using modified thermal method. Only one

  11. Efficient boiler operations sourcebook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payne, F.W. (comp.)

    1985-01-01

    This book emphasizes the practical aspects of industrial and commercial boiler operations. It starts with a comprehensive review of general combustion and boiler fundamentals and then deals with specific efficiency improvement methods, and the cost savings which result. The book has the following chapter headings: boiler combustion fundamentals; boiler efficiency goals; major factors controlling boiler efficiency; boiler efficiency calculations; heat loss; graphical solutions; preparation for boiler testing; boiler test procedures; efficiency-related boiler maintenance procedures; boiler tune-up; boiler operational modifications; effect of water side and gas side scale deposits; load management; auxillary equipment to increase boiler efficiency; air preheaters and economizers; other types of auxillary equipment; combustion control systems and instrumentation; boiler O/sub 2/ trim controls; should you purchase a new boiler.; financial evaluation procedures; case studies. The last chapter includes a case study of a boiler burning pulverized coal and a case study of stoker-fired coal.

  12. An efficient nonlinear Feshbach engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Fogarty, Thomás; Campbell, Steve; Chen, Xi; Busch, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    We investigate a thermodynamic cycle using a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) with nonlinear interactions as the working medium. Exploiting Feshbach resonances to change the interaction strength of the BEC allows us to produce work by expanding and compressing the gas. To ensure a large power output from this engine these strokes must be performed on a short timescale, however such non-adiabatic strokes can create irreversible work which degrades the engine’s efficiency. To combat this, we design a shortcut to adiabaticity which can achieve an adiabatic-like evolution within a finite time, therefore significantly reducing the out-of-equilibrium excitations in the BEC. We investigate the effect of the shortcut to adiabaticity on the efficiency and power output of the engine and show that the tunable nonlinearity strength, modulated by Feshbach resonances, serves as a useful tool to enhance the system’s performance.

  13. Educated for Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amore, Mario Daniele; Bennedsen, Morten; Larsen, Birthe

    We study the effect of CEO education on a firm’s energy efficiency. Using a unique dataset of Danish firms, we document that firms led by more educated CEOs exhibit greater energy efficiency. We establish causality by employing exogenous CEO hospitalization episodes: the hospitalization of highly......-educated CEOs induces a drop in a firm’s energy efficiency, whereas the hospitalization of low-education CEOs does not have any significant effect. Disentangling the effect of educational length from that of the field of study, we find that the greater energy efficiency is mostly driven by the cumulated years...

  14. Energy efficiency opportunities in Hotels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Said

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the statistics in Egypt (2013, the number of hotels is 1193, about 407 of them have contracted power greater than 500 kW.Air conditioning, lighting, water heating and refrigeration represent the main activities demanding electrical energy in hotel business.The energy consumption per night spend changes a lot, depending on various factors; facilities provided, category of hotel, occupancy , geographical situation, weather conditions, nationality of clients, design and control of the installations.Energy benchmarking is an internal management tool designed to provide ongoing, reliable and verifiable tracking on the hotels performance. The most useful performance indicator (or Energy Efficiency Benchmarking of hotels are: Lighting Power Density (LPD in W (for lighting/m2, and energy intensity (kWh/m2/ y.There are multiple benefits for improving energy in hotel business; reduces the hotel's operating cost, reduces climate change risks and promotes green tourism.Energy efficiency opportunities are low-cost measures and cost- effective investments.   There are many energy saving opportunities for lighting in hotel's guest rooms as well as the more obvious savings in lobbies and exterior lighting areas. Behavior campaigns can yield substantial energy savings, both through the guests and housekeeper behavior. Encouraging housekeepers to use natural light during room cleaning is a simple first step to implement energy saving program.This paper presents the energy efficiency guidelines and energy benchmarking for hotels. Also a case study showing how the energy efficiency program implemented is presented. 

  15. Reduced abrasion drilling fluid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    A reduced abrasion drilling fluid system and method of drilling a borehole by circulating the reduced abrasion drilling fluid through the borehole is disclosed. The reduced abrasion drilling fluid comprises a drilling fluid, a first additive and a weighting agent, wherein the weighting agent has a

  16. Reduced abrasion drilling fluid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    A reduced abrasion drilling fluid system and method of drilling a borehole by circulating the reduced abrasion drilling fluid through the borehole is disclosed. The reduced abrasion drilling fluid comprises a drilling fluid, a first additive and a weighting agent, wherein the weighting agent has a

  17. Efficiency factors in Mie scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nussenzveig, H.M.

    1980-04-01

    Asymptotic approximation to the Mie efficiency factors for extinction, absorption and radiation pressure, derived from complex angular momentum theory and averaged over Δβ approximately π (β = size parameter), are given and compared with the exact results. For complex refractive indices N = n + i kappa with 1.1 -2 - 10 -3 % between β = 10 and β = 1000, and computing time is reduced by a factor of order β, so that the Mie formulae can advantageously by replaced by the asymptotic ones in most applications. (Author) [pt

  18. ICT applications enhancing energy efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Matani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Computers, laptops and mobile devices – information technology (IT accounts for 2% of human greenhouse gas emissions worldwide, as evidenced in a study by Global Action Plan, a UK based environmental organization. This figure can be reduced if the green segment, or Green IT, continues to grow. Energy can also be saved through cloud computing, namely the principle of outsourcing the programs and functions of one’s own computer to service providers over the internet. This also means sharing storage capacity with others. This paper highlights the impact of information technology applications towards enhancing energy efficiency of the systems.

  19. Energy efficiency of mobile soft robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shui, Langquan; Zhu, Liangliang; Yang, Zhe; Liu, Yilun; Chen, Xi

    2017-11-15

    The performance of mobile soft robots is usually characterized by their locomotion/velocity efficiency, whereas the energy efficiency is a more intrinsic and fundamental criterion for the performance evaluation of independent or integrated soft robots. In this work, a general framework is established to evaluate the energy efficiency of mobile soft robots by considering the efficiency of the energy source, actuator and locomotion, and some insights for improving the efficiency of soft robotic systems are presented. Proposed as the ratio of the desired locomotion kinetic energy to the input mechanical energy, the energy efficiency of locomotion is found to play a critical role in determining the overall energy efficiency of soft robots. Four key factors related to the locomotion energy efficiency are identified, that is, the locomotion modes, material properties, geometric sizes, and actuation states. It is found that the energy efficiency of most mobile soft robots reported in the literature is surprisingly low (mostly below 0.1%), due to the inefficient mechanical energy that essentially does not contribute to the desired locomotion. A comparison of the locomotion energy efficiency for several representative locomotion modes in the literature is presented, showing a descending ranking as: jumping ≫ fish-like swimming > snake-like slithering > rolling > rising/turning over > inchworm-like inching > quadruped gait > earthworm-like squirming. Besides, considering the same locomotion mode, soft robots with lower stiffness, higher density and larger size tend to have higher locomotion energy efficiency. Moreover, a periodic pulse actuation instead of a continuous actuation mode may significantly reduce the input mechanical energy, thus improving the locomotion energy efficiency, especially when the pulse actuation matches the resonant states of the soft robots. The results presented herein indicate a large and necessary space for improving the locomotion energy

  20. Institutions, Equilibria and Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Competition and efficiency is at the core of economic theory. This volume collects papers of leading scholars, which extend the conventional general equilibrium model in important ways. Efficiency and price regulation are studied when markets are incomplete and existence of equilibria in such set...... in OLG, learning in OLG and in games, optimal pricing of derivative securities, the impact of heterogeneity...

  1. Energy Efficiency Collaboratives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Michael [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Bryson, Joe [US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Collaboratives for energy efficiency have a long and successful history and are currently used, in some form, in more than half of the states. Historically, many state utility commissions have used some form of collaborative group process to resolve complex issues that emerge during a rate proceeding. Rather than debate the issues through the formality of a commission proceeding, disagreeing parties are sent to discuss issues in a less-formal setting and bring back resolutions to the commission. Energy efficiency collaboratives take this concept and apply it specifically to energy efficiency programs—often in anticipation of future issues as opposed to reacting to a present disagreement. Energy efficiency collaboratives can operate long term and can address the full suite of issues associated with designing, implementing, and improving energy efficiency programs. Collaboratives can be useful to gather stakeholder input on changing program budgets and program changes in response to performance or market shifts, as well as to provide continuity while regulators come and go, identify additional energy efficiency opportunities and innovations, assess the role of energy efficiency in new regulatory contexts, and draw on lessons learned and best practices from a diverse group. Details about specific collaboratives in the United States are in the appendix to this guide. Collectively, they demonstrate the value of collaborative stakeholder processes in producing successful energy efficiency programs.

  2. efficience technico-economique

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    ABSTRACT. TECHNICO-ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY : CASE OF THE PRODUCERS OF ONION AND POTATO IN KNOW IN MOROCCO. In the new context ... Key words : Technico-economic efficiency, stochastic frontier, potato production, onion production, Morocco ..... sont le labour, le cover-cropage et le traçage. 82 % des ...

  3. Nitrogen use efficiency (NUE)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oenema, O.

    2015-01-01

    There is a need for communications about resource use efficiency and for measures to increase the use efficiency of nutrients in relation to food production. This holds especially for nitrogen. Nitrogen (N) is essential for life and a main nutrient element. It is needed in relatively large

  4. Logistics, Management and Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Mircea UDRESCU; Sandu CUTURELA

    2014-01-01

    The problem related to the efficiency of the management for organization is general being the concern off all managers. In the present essay we consider that the efficacy of the organization begins from the structural systemization of the organizational management into general management, management of logistics and management of production which demands a new managerial process, more competitive based on economic efficiency.

  5. Review of energy-efficient train control and timetabling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheepmaker, G.M.; Goverde, R.M.P.; Kroon, LG

    2016-01-01

    The energy consumption of trains is highly efficient due to the low friction between steel wheels and rails, although the efficiency is also influenced largely by the driving strategy applied and the scheduled running times in the timetable. Optimal energy-efficient driving strategies can reduce

  6. Energy efficiency and behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Trine Agervig; Kunnasvirta, Annika; Kiviluoto, Katariina

    separate key aspects hinders strategic energy efficiency planning. For this reason, the PLEEC project – “Planning for Energy Efficient Cities” – funded by the EU Seventh Framework Programme uses an integrative approach to achieve the sus‐ tainable, energy– efficient, smart city. By coordinating strategies...... to conduct behavioural interventions, to be presented in Deliverable 5.5., the final report. This report will also provide valuable information for the WP6 general model for an Energy-Smart City. Altogether 38 behavioural interventions are analysed in this report. Each collected and analysed case study...... of the European Union’s 20‐20‐20 plan is to improve energy efficiency by 20% in 2020. However, holistic knowledge about energy efficiency potentials in cities is far from complete. Currently, a WP4 location in PLEEC project page 3 variety of individual strategies and approaches by different stakeholders tackling...

  7. Self-Selection and the Efficiency of Tournaments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor Viking; Teyssier, Sabrina; Villeval, Marie-Claire

    2009-01-01

    The literature has shown that the overall efficiency of exogenously imposed tournaments is reduced by a high variance in performance. This article reports results from an experiment analyzing whether allowing subjects to self-select into different payment schemes is reducing the variability...... is efficiency enhancing since it increases the homogeneity of the contestants....

  8. How to subsidize energy efficiency under duopoly efficiently?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie, Pu-yan; Yang, Yong-cong; Chen, You-hua; Wang, Zhao-hui

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • This article captures the effects of output subsidy. • Firms without subsidy are not willing to improve energy efficiency. • Subsidy stimulates the subsidized firms’ outputs and deters the others’ outputs. • The subsidy intensity depends on firms’ position. • Overdue subsidy cannot reach the environmental object. - Abstract: Establishing a game theory model, this paper captures the effects of output subsidy on energy efficiency under Cournot competition and Stackelberg competition. Three types of subsidies are considered in the model, namely without subsidy, unilateral subsidy and bilateral subsidy. The findings indicate that firms without subsidy are not willing to improve energy efficiency. Also, subsidy stimulates the subsidized firms’ outputs while deters the outputs of other firms. Meanwhile, the equilibrium subsidy intensity depends on firms’ position. Furthermore, the minimal subsidy budgets under different situations are presented. Especially, given the fixed subsidy budget, the output of the subsidized firm is the highest if this firm plays the leading position. In addition, certain subsidy can reduce the total emission, while overdue subsidy cannot reach the environmental object.

  9. State-Level Benefits of Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, Bruce Edward [ORNL

    2007-02-01

    This report describes benefits attributable to state-level energy efficiency programs. Nationwide, state-level energy efficiency programs have targeted all sectors of the economy and have employed a wide range of methods to promote energy efficiency. Standard residential and industrial programs typically identify between 20 to 30% energy savings in homes and plants, respectively. Over a 20 year period of time, an average state that aggressively pursues even a limited array of energy efficiency programs can potentially reduce total state energy use by as much as 20%. Benefit-cost ratios of effective energy efficiency programs typically exceed 3 to 1 and are much higher when non-energy and macroeconomic benefits are included. Indeed, energy efficiency and associated programs and investments can create significant numbers of new jobs and enhance state tax revenues. Several states have incorporated energy efficiency into their economic development programs. It should also be noted that increasing amounts of venture capital are being invested in the energy sector in general and in specific technologies like solar power in particular. Well-designed energy efficiency programs can be expected to help overcome numerous barriers to the market penetration of energy efficient technologies and accelerate the market penetration of the technologies.

  10. Market conditions affecting energy efficiency investments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seabright, J.

    1996-01-01

    The global energy efficiency market is growing, due in part to energy sector and macroeconomic reforms and increased awareness of the environmental benefits of energy efficiency. Many countries have promoted open, competitive markets, thereby stimulating economic growth. They have reduced or removed subsidies on energy prices, and governments have initiated energy conservation programs that have spurred the wider adoption of energy efficiency technologies. The market outlook for energy efficiency is quite positive. The global market for end-use energy efficiency in the industrial, residential and commercial sectors is now estimated to total more than $34 billion per year. There is still enormous technical potential to implement energy conservation measures and to upgrade to the best available technologies for new investments. For many technologies, energy-efficient designs now represent less than 10--20% of new product sales. Thus, creating favorable market conditions should be a priority. There are a number of actions that can be taken to create favorable market conditions for investing in energy efficiency. Fostering a market-oriented energy sector will lead to energy prices that reflect the true cost of supply. Policy initiatives should address known market failures and should support energy efficiency initiatives. And market transformation for energy efficiency products and services can be facilitated by creating an institutional and legal structure that favors commercially-oriented entities

  11. State-level benefits of energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonn, Bruce; Peretz, Jean H.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes benefits attributable to state-level energy efficiency programs. Nationwide, state-level energy efficiency programs have targeted all sectors of the economy and have employed a wide range of methods to promote energy efficiency. Standard residential and industrial programs typically identify between 20% and 30% energy savings in homes and plants, respectively. Over a 20-year period of time, an average state that aggressively pursues even a limited array of energy efficiency programs can potentially reduce total state energy use by as much as 20%. Well-designed energy efficiency programs can be expected to help overcome numerous barriers to the market penetration of energy efficient technologies and accelerate the market penetration of the technologies. Energy efficiency programs are cost-effective; typical benefit-cost ratios exceed 3:1 and are much higher when non-energy and macroeconomic benefits are included. Indeed, energy efficiency and associated programs and investments can create significant numbers of new jobs and enhance state tax revenues. Several states have incorporated energy efficiency into their economic development programs. It should also be noted that increasing amounts of venture capital are being invested in the energy sector in general and in specific technologies like solar power in particular. (author)

  12. Energy efficiency rating of districts, case Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedman, Åsa; Sepponen, Mari; Virtanen, Mikko

    2014-01-01

    There is an increasing political pressure on the city planning to create more energy efficient city plans. Not only do the city plans have to enable and promote energy efficient solutions, but it also needs to be clearly assessed how energy efficient the plans are. City planners often have no or poor know how about energy efficiency and building technologies which makes it difficult for them to answer to this need without new guidelines and tools. An easy to use tool for the assessment of the energy efficiency of detailed city plans was developed. The aim of the tool is for city planners to easily be able to assess the energy efficiency of the proposed detailed city plan and to be able to compare the impacts of changes in the plan. The tool is designed to be used with no in-depth knowledge about energy or building technology. With a wide use of the tool many missed opportunities for improving energy efficiency can be avoided. It will provide better opportunities for sustainable solutions leading to less harmful environmental impact and reduced emissions. - Highlights: • We have created a tool for assessing energy efficiency of detailed city plans. • The energy source is the most important factor for efficiency of districts in Finland. • Five case districts in Finland were analyzed. • In this paper one residential district has in-depth sensitivity analyses done

  13. Greater Sudbury fuel efficient driving handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-12-15

    Reducing the amount of fuel that people use for personal driving saves money, improves local air quality, and reduces personal contributions to climate change. This handbook was developed to be used as a tool for a fuel efficient driving pilot program in Greater Sudbury in 2009-2010. Specifically, the purpose of the handbook was to provide greater Sudbury drivers with information on how to drive and maintain their personal vehicles in order to maximize fuel efficiency. The handbook also provides tips for purchasing fuel efficient vehicles. It outlines the benefits of fuel maximization, with particular reference to reducing contributions to climate change; reducing emissions of air pollutants; safe driving; and money savings. Some tips for efficient driving are to avoid aggressive driving; use cruise control; plan trips; and remove excess weight. Tips for efficient winter driving are to avoid idling to warm up the engine; use a block heater; remove snow and ice; use snow tires; and check tire pressure. The importance of car maintenance and tire pressure was emphasized. The handbook also explains how fuel consumption ratings are developed by vehicle manufacturers. refs., figs.

  14. Energy Efficiency in Norway 1990-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, Eva

    2003-06-01

    This is the national report for Norway in the EU/SAVE project ''Indicators for Energy Efficiency Monitoring and Target setting (ODYSSEE)''. The report deals with energy use and energy efficiency in Norway 1990-2000 (2001 for overall energy use). Final energy use per Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was reduced by approximately 1.9% pr year in the period 1990 to 2001. The energy efficiency improvement has been calculated to 0.6% pr year, while the role of structural changes has been 1.3% pr year. A detailed sector analysis has been done, applying Laspeyres indices to attribute changes in energy use to activity, structure or intensity (efficiency). Aggregating sectors, we have found a total efficiency improvement of approximately 11 TWh from 1990 to 2000. (author)

  15. Investing in Energy Efficiency. Removing the Barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Investing in improving energy efficiency has the clear advantages of reducing energy costs, improving security of supply and mitigating the environmental impacts of energy use. And still, many viable opportunities for higher energy efficiency are not tapped because of the existence of numerous barriers to such investments. These lost opportunities imply costs to the individual energy consumers and to the society as a whole and they are particularly important in economies in transition. This report identifies various types of barriers for making energy efficiency investments (be they of legal, administrative, institutional or financial nature), mainly in buildings, district heating and efficient lighting. The role of various bodies and organisations for the facilitation of energy efficiency investments is analysed, from public authorities and regulators to banks and international financing institutions

  16. Energy Efficiency: Finding Leadership Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Rosehart

    2014-01-01

    buildings, and by issuing an annual “premier’s report card,” making public the progress on province-wide efficiency efforts. For a province that continues to enjoy growth in business and population, updated guidelines around new building codes have been proven to improve energy efficiency. And there remains a significant opportunity for Alberta to improve efficiency in its commercial and industrial sectors, the largest users of energy, by providing government incentives to replace ageing equipment with more efficient technology. Alberta is also well suited for a shift toward more combined heat and power generation plants, which can repurpose generated heat that is otherwise wasted, significantly reducing energy demand and costs. And in a province awash in natural gas, incentives to encourage travel using compressed or liquefied natural gas vehicles could serve to boost energy efficiency in the transportation sector as well. Alberta is fortunate in that it has abundant energy and prosperity, making improved energy efficiency a matter of choice, rather than — as in some jurisdictions — one of urgent necessity. It is, however, a choice that Alberta has enough reasons, and resources, to make. All it requires is the will.

  17. Industrial Energy Efficiency and Climate Change Mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, Ernst; Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Price, Lynn; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Harnisch, Jochen

    2009-02-02

    Industry contributes directly and indirectly (through consumed electricity) about 37% of the global greenhouse gas emissions, of which over 80% is from energy use. Total energy-related emissions, which were 9.9 GtCO2 in 2004, have grown by 65% since 1971. Even so, industry has almost continuously improved its energy efficiency over the past decades. In the near future, energy efficiency is potentially the most important and cost-effective means for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from industry. This paper discusses the potential contribution of industrial energy efficiency technologies and policies to reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions to 2030.

  18. Efficiency of emergency exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zander, N.; Sogalla, M.

    2011-01-01

    In order to cope with accidents beyond the design basis within German nuclear power plants which possibly lead to relevant radiological consequences, the utilities as well as the competent authorities exist emergency organisations. The efficiency, capacity for teamwork and preparedness of such organisations should be tested by regular, efficient exercise activities. Such activities can suitably be based on scenarios which provide challenging tasks for all units of the respective emergency organisation. Thus, the demonstration and further development of the efficiency of the respective organisational structures, including their ability to collaborate, is promoted. (orig.)

  19. Learning efficient correlated equilibria

    KAUST Repository

    Borowski, Holly P.; Marden, Jason R.; Shamma, Jeff S.

    2014-01-01

    The majority of distributed learning literature focuses on convergence to Nash equilibria. Correlated equilibria, on the other hand, can often characterize more efficient collective behavior than even the best Nash equilibrium. However, there are no existing distributed learning algorithms that converge to specific correlated equilibria. In this paper, we provide one such algorithm which guarantees that the agents' collective joint strategy will constitute an efficient correlated equilibrium with high probability. The key to attaining efficient correlated behavior through distributed learning involves incorporating a common random signal into the learning environment.

  20. Learning efficient correlated equilibria

    KAUST Repository

    Borowski, Holly P.

    2014-12-15

    The majority of distributed learning literature focuses on convergence to Nash equilibria. Correlated equilibria, on the other hand, can often characterize more efficient collective behavior than even the best Nash equilibrium. However, there are no existing distributed learning algorithms that converge to specific correlated equilibria. In this paper, we provide one such algorithm which guarantees that the agents\\' collective joint strategy will constitute an efficient correlated equilibrium with high probability. The key to attaining efficient correlated behavior through distributed learning involves incorporating a common random signal into the learning environment.

  1. Shrew trap efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gambalemoke, Mbalitini; Mukinzi, Itoka; Amundala, Drazo

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the efficiency of four trap types (pitfall, Sherman LFA, Victor snap and Museum Special snap traps) to capture shrews. This experiment was conducted in five inter-riverine forest blocks in the region of Kisangani. The total trapping effort was 6,300, 9,240, 5,280 and 5,460 trap......, our results indicate that pitfall traps are the most efficient for capturing shrews: not only do they have a higher efficiency (yield), but the taxonomic diversity of shrews is also higher when pitfall traps are used....

  2. The Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petermann, Nils

    2006-03-31

    The Efficient Windows Collaborative (EWC) is a coalition of manufacturers, component suppliers, government agencies, research institutions, and others who partner to expand the market for energy efficient window products. Funded through a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy, the EWC provides education, communication and outreach in order to transform the residential window market to 70% energy efficient products by 2005. Implementation of the EWC is managed by the Alliance to Save Energy, with support from the University of Minnesota and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

  3. Cash efficiency for bank branches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, Julia García

    2013-01-01

    Bank liquidity management has become a major issue during the financial crisis as liquidity shortages have intensified and have put pressure on banks to diversity and improve their liquidity sources. While a significant strand of the literature concentrates on wholesale liquidity generation and on the alternative to deposit funding, the management of an inventory of cash holdings within the banks' branches is also a relevant issue as any significant improvement in cash management at the bank distribution channels may have a positive effect in reducing liquidity tensions. In this paper, we propose a simple programme of cash efficiency for the banks' branches, very easy to implement, which conform to a set of instructions to be imposed from the bank to their branches. This model proves to significantly reduce cash holdings at branches thereby providing efficiency improvements in liquidity management. The methodology we propose is based on the definition of some stochastic processes combined with renewal processes, which capture the random elements of the cash flow, before applying suitable optimization programmes to all the costs involved in cash movements. The classical issue of the Transaction Demand for the Cash and some aspects of Inventory Theory are also present. Mathematics Subject Classification (2000) C02, C60, E50.

  4. Transport Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Transport is the sector with the highest final energy consumption and, without any significant policy changes, is forecast to remain so. In 2008, the IEA published 25 energy efficiency recommendations, among which four are for the transport sector. The recommendations focus on road transport and include policies on improving tyre energy efficiency, fuel economy standards for both light-duty vehicles and heavy-duty vehicles, and eco-driving. Implementation of the recommendations has been weaker in the transport sector than others. This paper updates the progress that has been made in implementing the transport energy efficiency recommendations in IEA countries since March 2009. Many countries have in the last year moved from 'planning to implement' to 'implementation underway', but none have fully implemented all transport energy efficiency recommendations. The IEA calls therefore for full and immediate implementation of the recommendations.

  5. Efficient incremental relaying

    KAUST Repository

    Fareed, Muhammad Mehboob; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2013-01-01

    We propose a novel relaying scheme which improves the spectral efficiency of cooperative diversity systems by utilizing limited feedback from destination. Our scheme capitalizes on the fact that relaying is only required when direct transmission

  6. Improving efficiency in stereology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Kresten Krarup; Andersen, Ina Trolle; Andersen, Johnnie Bremholm

    2013-01-01

    of the study was to investigate the time efficiency of the proportionator and the autodisector on virtual slides compared with traditional methods in a practical application, namely the estimation of osteoclast numbers in paws from mice with experimental arthritis and control mice. Tissue slides were scanned......, a proportionator sampling and a systematic, uniform random sampling were simulated. We found that the proportionator was 50% to 90% more time efficient than systematic, uniform random sampling. The time efficiency of the autodisector on virtual slides was 60% to 100% better than the disector on tissue slides. We...... conclude that both the proportionator and the autodisector on virtual slides may improve efficiency of cell counting in stereology....

  7. Energy Efficient Cryogenics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghelli, Barry J.; Notardonato, William; Fesmire, James E.

    2016-01-01

    The Cryogenics Test Laboratory, NASA Kennedy Space Center, works to provide practical solutions to low-temperature problems while focusing on long-term technology targets for the energy-efficient use of cryogenics on Earth and in space.

  8. Reducible oxide based catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Levi T.; Kim, Chang Hwan; Bej, Shyamal K.

    2010-04-06

    A catalyst is disclosed herein. The catalyst includes a reducible oxide support and at least one noble metal fixed on the reducible oxide support. The noble metal(s) is loaded on the support at a substantially constant temperature and pH.

  9. Increasing Efficiency by Maximizing Electrical Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    to electricity technology in a few limited areas, one being a geothermal flash plant at Naval Air Weapons Station China Lake. But, there are few...portable generators to reduce fuel needs. d) Bottom cycling on a geothermal flash plant like the one at Naval Air Weapons Station China Lake...generation c) Increasing the efficiency of portable generators to reduce fuel needs. d) Bottom cycling on a geothermal flash plant like the one at Naval

  10. Environmental efficiency among corn ethanol plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sesmero, Juan P.; Perrin, Richard K.; Fulginiti, Lilyan E.

    2012-01-01

    Economic viability of the US corn ethanol industry depends on prices, technical and economic efficiency of plants and the extent of policy support. Public policy support is tied to the environmental efficiency of plants measured as their impact on emissions of greenhouse gases. This study evaluates the environmental efficiency of seven recently constructed ethanol plants in the North Central region of the US, using nonparametric data envelopment analysis (DEA). The minimum feasible level of GHG emissions per unit of ethanol is calculated for each plant and this level is decomposed into its technical and allocative sources. Results show that, on average, plants in our sample may be able to reduce GHG emissions by a maximum of 6% or by 2.94 Gg per quarter. Input and output allocations that maximize returns over operating costs (ROOC) are also found based on observed prices. The environmentally efficient allocation, the ROOC-maximizing allocation, and the observed allocation for each plant are combined to calculate economic (shadow) cost of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. These shadow costs gauge the extent to which there is a trade off or a complementarity between environmental and economic targets. Results reveal that, at current activity levels, plants may have room for simultaneous improvement of environmental efficiency and economic profitability. -- Highlights: ► Environmental efficiency of ethanol plants in the North Central US is evaluated. ► Economic (shadow) cost of reducing greenhouse gas emissions is calculated. ► Feasible changes in the mix of inputs and byproducts can reduce GHG emissions. ► On average plants may be able to reduce GHG emissions by 2.94 Gg per quarter. ► GHG reductions may be achieved at a moderate or zero operating cost.

  11. Efficient incremental relaying

    KAUST Repository

    Fareed, Muhammad Mehboob

    2013-07-01

    We propose a novel relaying scheme which improves the spectral efficiency of cooperative diversity systems by utilizing limited feedback from destination. Our scheme capitalizes on the fact that relaying is only required when direct transmission suffers deep fading. We calculate the packet error rate for the proposed efficient incremental relaying scheme with both amplify and forward and decode and forward relaying. Numerical results are also presented to verify their analytical counterparts. © 2013 IEEE.

  12. More efficient together

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Tian

    2015-01-01

    The solar-to-biomass conversion efficiency of natural photosynthesis is between 2.9 and 4.3% for most crops (1, 2). Improving the efficiency of photosynthesis could help increase the appeal of biologically derived fuels and chemicals in comparison with traditional petrochemical processes. One app...... competition between biotechnology and the food industry and avoid the environmental perturbation caused by intensive agriculture (3)....

  13. Thermodynamically efficient solar concentrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Roland

    2012-10-01

    Non-imaging Optics is the theory of thermodynamically efficient optics and as such depends more on thermodynamics than on optics. Hence in this paper a condition for the "best" design is proposed based on purely thermodynamic arguments, which we believe has profound consequences for design of thermal and even photovoltaic systems. This new way of looking at the problem of efficient concentration depends on probabilities, the ingredients of entropy and information theory while "optics" in the conventional sense recedes into the background.

  14. Direct oxide reducing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokiwai, Moriyasu.

    1995-01-01

    Calcium oxides and magnetic oxides as wastes generated upon direct reduction are subjected to molten salt electrolysis, and reduced metallic calcium and magnesium are separated and recovered. Then calcium and magnesium are used recyclically as the reducing agent upon conducting direct oxide reduction. Even calcium oxides and magnesium oxides, which have high melting points and difficult to be melted usually, can be melted in molten salts of mixed fluorides or chlorides by molten-salt electrolysis. Oxides are decomposed by electrolysis, and oxygen is removed in the form of carbon monoxide, while the reduced metallic calcium and magnesium rise above the molten salts on the side of a cathode, and then separated. Since only carbon monoxide is generated as radioactive wastes upon molten salt electrolysis, the amount of radioactive wastes can be greatly reduced, and the amount of the reducing agent used can also be decreased remarkably. (N.H.)

  15. Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nils Petermann

    2010-02-28

    The project goals covered both the residential and commercial windows markets and involved a range of audiences such as window manufacturers, builders, homeowners, design professionals, utilities, and public agencies. Essential goals included: (1) Creation of 'Master Toolkits' of information that integrate diverse tools, rating systems, and incentive programs, customized for key audiences such as window manufacturers, design professionals, and utility programs. (2) Delivery of education and outreach programs to multiple audiences through conference presentations, publication of articles for builders and other industry professionals, and targeted dissemination of efficient window curricula to professionals and students. (3) Design and implementation of mechanisms to encourage and track sales of more efficient products through the existing Window Products Database as an incentive for manufacturers to improve products and participate in programs such as NFRC and ENERGY STAR. (4) Development of utility incentive programs to promote more efficient residential and commercial windows. Partnership with regional and local entities on the development of programs and customized information to move the market toward the highest performing products. An overarching project goal was to ensure that different audiences adopt and use the developed information, design and promotion tools and thus increase the market penetration of energy efficient fenestration products. In particular, a crucial success criterion was to move gas and electric utilities to increase the promotion of energy efficient windows through demand side management programs as an important step toward increasing the market share of energy efficient windows.

  16. Efficiency improvement for a sustainable agriculture : the integration of agronomic and farm economics approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Koeijer, de, T.J.

    2002-01-01

    Keywords: Sustainable farming systems, Agronomic efficiency, Economic efficiency, Environmental efficiency, Sustainability index, Interdisciplinary analysis.

    The objective of the research described in this thesis was to determine what role improved agronomic efficiency can play in the transition towards more sustainable production systems. Agronomic efficiency measures the technical performance. If it could be improved, environmental damage could be reduced while, at the sam...

  17. Sorting, Searching, and Simulation in the MapReduce Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goodrich, Michael T.; Sitchinava, Nodari; Zhang, Qin

    2011-01-01

    usefulness of our approach by designing and analyzing efficient MapReduce algorithms for fundamental sorting, searching, and simulation problems. This study is motivated by a goal of ultimately putting the MapReduce framework on an equal theoretical footing with the well-known PRAM and BSP parallel...... in parallel computational geometry for the MapReduce framework, which result in efficient MapReduce algorithms for sorting, 2- and 3-dimensional convex hulls, and fixed-dimensional linear programming. For the case when mappers and reducers have a memory/message-I/O size of M = (N), for a small constant > 0...

  18. Reconsidering rumen microbial consortia to enhance feed efficiency and reduce environmental impact of ruminant livestock production systems Consórcios microbianos no rúmen para melhorar a eficiência alimentar e reduzir o impacto ambiental dos sistemas de produção animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Lynn Firkins

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Because cultivation-based approaches to assess rumen microbiology assess only the minority of microbial groups and can miss opportunities to assess important functions, molecular-based approaches have flourished in microbial ecology and have been adapted to the rumen. Current approaches are described herein, specifically for a robust adaptation to nutrition studies or future opportunities. These included automated profiling techniques, density gradient gel electrophoresis, and future adaption of microarray or high-throughput sequencing technologies. Based on current knowledge, a more holistic approach is needed to describe various functional groups of microbes within the context of how they influence, and are influenced by, the whole consortium (combination of microbial groups. Such a perspective is applied to issues related to increasing fiber digestibility when feeding concentrate or unsaturated fats to high producing beef and dairy cattle. These same microbial populations should help to provide growth factors for fibrolytic bacteria while competing against the hyperammonia-producing bacteria such that there would be less need for excessive rumen-degraded protein as a safety factor. Moreover, these same dietary conditions influence the processes of biohydrogenation and methanogenesis. After accounting for population structures of bacteria, protozoa, methanogenic archaea, and even fungi, efforts to integrate molecular-based rumen microbial ecology with dietary conditions should allow us to better explain and therefore predict conditions that will improve feed efficiency and reduce environmental impact of ruminant production systems.Técnicas tradicionais de identificação de microorganismos ruminais utilizando metodologias de cultivo conseguem identificar um pequeno grupo de bactérias. Técnicas de identificação molecular têm sido amplamente utilizadas em ecossistemas microbiológicos e adaptadas em estudos com ruminantes. Fundamentado no

  19. Pipeline Drag Reducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marawan, H.

    2004-01-01

    Pipeline drag reducers have proven to be an extremely powerful tool in fluid transportation. High molecular weight polymers are used to reduce the frictional pressure loss ratio in crude oil pipelines, refined fuel and aqueous pipelines. Chemical structure of the main used pipeline drag reducers is one of the following polymers and copolymers classified according to the type of fluid to ; low density polyethylene, copolymer of I-hexane cross linked with divinyl benzene, polyacrylamide, polyalkylene oxide polymers and their copolymers, fluorocarbons, polyalkyl methacrylates and terpolymer of styrene, alkyl acrylate and acrylic acid. Drag reduction is the increase in pump ability of a fluid caused by the addition of small amounts of an additive to the fluid. The effectiveness of a drag reducer is normally expressed in terms of percent drag reduction. Frictional pressure loss in a pipeline system is a waste of energy and it costly. The drag reducing additive minimizes the flow turbulence, increases throughput and reduces the energy costs. The Flow can be increased by more than 80 % with existing assets. The effectiveness of the injected drag reducer in Mostorod to Tanta crude oil pipeline achieved 35.4 % drag reduction and 23.2 % flow increase of the actual performance The experimental application of DRA on Arab Petroleum Pipeline Company (Summed) achieved a flow increase ranging from 9-32 %

  20. Supernovae Discovery Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Colin

    2018-01-01

    Abstract:We present supernovae (SN) search efficiency measurements for recent Hubble Space Telescope (HST) surveys. Efficiency is a key component to any search, and is important parameter as a correction factor for SN rates. To achieve an accurate value for efficiency, many supernovae need to be discoverable in surveys. This cannot be achieved from real SN only, due to their scarcity, so fake SN are planted. These fake supernovae—with a goal of realism in mind—yield an understanding of efficiency based on position related to other celestial objects, and brightness. To improve realism, we built a more accurate model of supernovae using a point-spread function. The next improvement to realism is planting these objects close to galaxies and of various parameters of brightness, magnitude, local galactic brightness and redshift. Once these are planted, a very accurate SN is visible and discoverable by the searcher. It is very important to find factors that affect this discovery efficiency. Exploring the factors that effect detection yields a more accurate correction factor. Further inquires into efficiency give us a better understanding of image processing, searching techniques and survey strategies, and result in an overall higher likelihood to find these events in future surveys with Hubble, James Webb, and WFIRST telescopes. After efficiency is discovered and refined with many unique surveys, it factors into measurements of SN rates versus redshift. By comparing SN rates vs redshift against the star formation rate we can test models to determine how long star systems take from the point of inception to explosion (delay time distribution). This delay time distribution is compared to SN progenitors models to get an accurate idea of what these stars were like before their deaths.

  1. Operators tool to control fibre quality in the production of CTMP/TMP in an energy efficient way. New view shows a potential to reduce energy input; Operatoersverktyg foer styrning av fiberkvalitet vid tillverkning av CTMP/TMP paa ett energieffektivt saett. Ny syn visar paa potential foer energibesparing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferritsius, Olof; Johansson, Ola; Ferritsius, Rita

    2011-10-15

    The main objective of the project was to provide operators in the two factories the opportunity to more actively identify causes of variations in energy efficiency in the production of TMP and CTMP. To achieve this, it was done in collaboration with the Umeaa Inst. of Design at Umeaa Univ., new types of operator interfaces that clearly demonstrate when changes are about to occur in the process variables respectively quality variables. In addition, a method was developed to calculate the energy efficiency on-line with regard to quality.

  2. Efficient flapping flight of pterosaurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, Karl Axel

    In the late eighteenth century, humans discovered the first pterosaur fossil remains and have been fascinated by their existence ever since. Pterosaurs exploited their membrane wings in a sophisticated manner for flight control and propulsion, and were likely the most efficient and effective flyers ever to inhabit our planet. The flapping gait is a complex combination of motions that sustains and propels an animal in the air. Because pterosaurs were so large with wingspans up to eleven meters, if they could have sustained flapping flight, they would have had to achieve high propulsive efficiencies. Identifying the wing motions that contribute the most to propulsive efficiency is key to understanding pterosaur flight, and therefore to shedding light on flapping flight in general and the design of efficient ornithopters. This study is based on published results for a very well-preserved specimen of Coloborhynchus robustus, for which the joints are well-known and thoroughly described in the literature. Simplifying assumptions are made to estimate the characteristics that can not be inferred directly from the fossil remains. For a given animal, maximizing efficiency is equivalent to minimizing power at a given thrust and speed. We therefore aim at finding the flapping gait, that is the joint motions, that minimize the required flapping power. The power is computed from the aerodynamic forces created during a given wing motion. We develop an unsteady three-dimensional code based on the vortex-lattice method, which correlates well with published results for unsteady motions of rectangular wings. In the aerodynamic model, the rigid pterosaur wing is defined by the position of the bones. In the aeroelastic model, we add the flexibility of the bones and of the wing membrane. The nonlinear structural behavior of the membrane is reduced to a linear modal decomposition, assuming small deflections about the reference wing geometry. The reference wing geometry is computed for

  3. Hall devices improve electric motor efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeussermann, W.

    1979-01-01

    Efficiency of electric motors and generators is reduced by radial magnetic forces created by symmetric fields within device. Forces are sensed and counteracted by Hall devices on excitation or control windings. Hall generators directly measure and provide compensating control of anu asymmetry, eliminating additional measurements needed for calibration feedback control loop.

  4. Quantum entanglement helps in improving economic efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Jiangfeng; Ju Chenyong; Li Hui

    2005-01-01

    We propose an economic regulation approach based on quantum game theory for the government to reduce the abuses of oligopolistic competition. Theoretical analysis shows that this approach can help government improve the economic efficiency of the oligopolistic market, and help prevent monopoly due to incorrect information. These advantages are completely attributed to the quantum entanglement, a unique quantum mechanical character

  5. M4GB : Efficient Groebner Basis algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.H. Makarim (Rusydi); M.M.J. Stevens (Marc)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractWe introduce a new efficient algorithm for computing Groebner-bases named M4GB. Like Faugere's algorithm F4 it is an extension of Buchberger's algorithm that describes: how to store already computed (tail-)reduced multiples of basis polynomials to prevent redundant work in the reduction

  6. Fuel efficient stoves for the Third World

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watts, P [Intermediate Technology Group Ltd., Rugby (GB)

    1990-12-01

    In developing countries particularly in rural areas, the majority of households depend on biomass fuels such as wood, charcoal, or animal dung for their cooking and heating needs. Formerly free, these materials are acquiring a monetary value and improved combustion efficiency leads to better utilisation as well as reduced pollution. This article describes the latest development in this field. (author).

  7. Welfare financing : Grant allocation and efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toolsema-Veldman, Linda; Allers, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Welfare is often administered locally, but financed through grants from the central government. This raises the question how the central government can prevent local governments from spending more than necessary. Block grants are more efficient than matching grants, because the latter reduce the

  8. Saving energy via high-efficiency fans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Thomas Heine, sales and market manager for EC Upgrades, the retrofit arm of global provider of air movement solutions, ebm-papst A&NZ, discusses the retrofitting of high-efficiency fans to existing HVAC equipment to 'drastically reduce energy consumption'.

  9. Sustaining with efficiency the renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bano, L.; Lorenzoni, A.

    2008-01-01

    European energy policy requires actions, in favour of a more widespread diffusion of renewable energy sources. Is essential to have an efficient financial support to reduce costs. Are presented an estimated of electric power from renewable energy sources and some criticism. Is proposed a modification of green certificates market based on bilateral tradable agreements [it

  10. Quantum entanglement helps in improving economic efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jiangfeng; Ju, Chenyong; Li, Hui

    2005-02-01

    We propose an economic regulation approach based on quantum game theory for the government to reduce the abuses of oligopolistic competition. Theoretical analysis shows that this approach can help government improve the economic efficiency of the oligopolistic market, and help prevent monopoly due to incorrect information. These advantages are completely attributed to the quantum entanglement, a unique quantum mechanical character.

  11. Reducing Pesticide Drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provides information about pesticide spray drift, including problems associated with drift, managing risks from drift and the voluntary Drift Reduction Technology program that seeks to reduce spray drift through improved spray equipment design.

  12. Reducing Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Reducing Childhood Obesity Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents For ... Ga. were the first three We Can! cities. Obesity Research: A New Approach The percentage of children ...

  13. High Efficiency, Low Emission Refrigeration System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, Brian A [ORNL; Sharma, Vishaldeep [ORNL

    2016-08-01

    Supermarket refrigeration systems account for approximately 50% of supermarket energy use, placing this class of equipment among the highest energy consumers in the commercial building domain. In addition, the commonly used refrigeration system in supermarket applications is the multiplex direct expansion (DX) system, which is prone to refrigerant leaks due to its long lengths of refrigerant piping. This leakage reduces the efficiency of the system and increases the impact of the system on the environment. The high Global Warming Potential (GWP) of the hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants commonly used in these systems, coupled with the large refrigerant charge and the high refrigerant leakage rates leads to significant direct emissions of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Methods for reducing refrigerant leakage and energy consumption are available, but underutilized. Further work needs to be done to reduce costs of advanced system designs to improve market utilization. In addition, refrigeration system retrofits that result in reduced energy consumption are needed since the majority of applications address retrofits rather than new stores. The retrofit market is also of most concern since it involves large-volume refrigerant systems with high leak rates. Finally, alternative refrigerants for new and retrofit applications are needed to reduce emissions and reduce the impact on the environment. The objective of this Collaborative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Hill Phoenix is to develop a supermarket refrigeration system that reduces greenhouse gas emissions and has 25 to 30 percent lower energy consumption than existing systems. The outcomes of this project will include the design of a low emission, high efficiency commercial refrigeration system suitable for use in current U.S. supermarkets. In addition, a prototype low emission, high efficiency supermarket refrigeration system will be produced for

  14. Productivity and energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovins, H. [Rocky Mountain Inst., Snowmass, CO (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Energy efficient building and office design offers the possibility of significantly increased worker productivity. By improving lighting, heating and cooling, workers can be made more comfortable and productive. An increase of 1 percent in productivity can provide savings to a company that exceed its entire energy bill. Efficient design practices are cost effective just from their energy savings. The resulting productivity gains make them indispensable. This paper documents eight cases in which efficient lighting, heating, and cooling have measurably increased worker productivity, decreased absenteeism, and/or improved the quality of work performed. They also show that efficient lighting can measurably increase work quality by removing errors and manufacturing defects. The case studies presented include retrofit of existing buildings and the design of new facilities, and cover a variety of commercial and industrial settings. Each case study identifies the design changes that were most responsible for increased productivity. As the eight case studies illustrate, energy efficient design may be one of the least expensive ways for a business to improve the productivity of its workers and the quality of its product. (author). 15 refs.

  15. Energy efficiency in pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaya, Durmus; Yagmur, E. Alptekin [TUBITAK-MRC, P.O. Box 21, 41470 Gebze, Kocaeli (Turkey); Yigit, K. Suleyman; Eren, A. Salih; Celik, Cenk [Engineering Faculty, Kocaeli University, Kocaeli (Turkey); Kilic, Fatma Canka [Department of Air Conditioning and Refrigeration, Kocaeli University, Kullar, Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2008-06-15

    In this paper, ''energy efficiency'' studies, done in a big industrial facility's pumps, are reported. For this purpose; the flow rate, pressure and temperature have been measured for each pump in different operating conditions and at maximum load. In addition, the electrical power drawn by the electric motor has been measured. The efficiencies of the existing pumps and electric motor have been calculated by using the measured data. Potential energy saving opportunities have been studied by taking into account the results of the calculations for each pump and electric motor. As a conclusion, improvements should be made each system. The required investment costs for these improvements have been determined, and simple payback periods have been calculated. The main energy saving opportunities result from: replacements of the existing low efficiency pumps, maintenance of the pumps whose efficiencies start to decline at certain range, replacements of high power electric motors with electric motors that have suitable power, usage of high efficiency electric motors and elimination of cavitation problems. (author)

  16. Energy efficiency in pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaya, Durmus; Yagmur, E. Alptekin; Yigit, K. Suleyman; Kilic, Fatma Canka; Eren, A. Salih; Celik, Cenk

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, 'energy efficiency' studies, done in a big industrial facility's pumps, are reported. For this purpose; the flow rate, pressure and temperature have been measured for each pump in different operating conditions and at maximum load. In addition, the electrical power drawn by the electric motor has been measured. The efficiencies of the existing pumps and electric motor have been calculated by using the measured data. Potential energy saving opportunities have been studied by taking into account the results of the calculations for each pump and electric motor. As a conclusion, improvements should be made each system. The required investment costs for these improvements have been determined, and simple payback periods have been calculated. The main energy saving opportunities result from: replacements of the existing low efficiency pumps, maintenance of the pumps whose efficiencies start to decline at certain range, replacements of high power electric motors with electric motors that have suitable power, usage of high efficiency electric motors and elimination of cavitation problems

  17. Span efficiency in hawkmoths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henningsson, Per; Bomphrey, Richard J

    2013-07-06

    Flight in animals is the result of aerodynamic forces generated as flight muscles drive the wings through air. Aerial performance is therefore limited by the efficiency with which momentum is imparted to the air, a property that can be measured using modern techniques. We measured the induced flow fields around six hawkmoth species flying tethered in a wind tunnel to assess span efficiency, ei, and from these measurements, determined the morphological and kinematic characters that predict efficient flight. The species were selected to represent a range in wingspan from 40 to 110 mm (2.75 times) and in mass from 0.2 to 1.5 g (7.5 times) but they were similar in their overall shape and their ecology. From high spatio-temporal resolution quantitative wake images, we extracted time-resolved downwash distributions behind the hawkmoths, calculating instantaneous values of ei throughout the wingbeat cycle as well as multi-wingbeat averages. Span efficiency correlated positively with normalized lift and negatively with advance ratio. Average span efficiencies for the moths ranged from 0.31 to 0.60 showing that the standard generic value of 0.83 used in previous studies of animal flight is not a suitable approximation of aerodynamic performance in insects.

  18. National energy efficiency programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper focusses on energy conservation and specifically on energy efficiency which includes efficiency in the production, delivery and utilisation of energy as part of the total energy system of the economy. A National Energy Efficiency Programme is being launched in the Eighth Plan that will take into account both macro level and policy and planning considerations as well as micro level responses for different category of users in the industry, agriculture, transport and domestic sectors. The need for such a National Energy Efficiency Programme after making an assessment of existing energy conservation activities in the country is discussed. The broad framework and contents of the National Energy Efficiency Programme have been outlined and the Eighth Plan targets for energy conservation and their break-up have been given. These targets, as per the Eighth Plan document are 5000 MW in electricity installed capacity and 6 million tonnes of petroleum products by the terminal year of the Eighth Plan. The issues that need to be examined for each sector for achieving the above targets for energy conservation in the Eighth Plan are discussed briefly. They are: (a) policy and planning, (b) implementation arrangements which include the institutional setup and selective legislation, (c) technological requirements, and (d) resource requirements which include human resources and financial resources. (author)

  19. Reducing The Nuclear Danger

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-10-01

    off convention • Eliminate the civil use of HEU (includes RERTR ) • Reduce stockpiles of civil HEU and plutonium • Promote alternatives to the...these countries. ANL supports the Department’s Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor ( RERTR ) Program by providing the technical means to...scientists and engineers at 60 institutes in Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan and Belarus. The United States and Russia have agreed to pursue a joint RERTR

  20. Using reduce in supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, R.P. dos.

    1987-01-01

    A procedure which allows one to do Supersymmetry calculus in REDUCE is described. Using the concept of an eight-dimensional 'superspace' (spanned by four space-time and four anticommuting coordinates) and of 'superfields' (which represent an entire supermultiplet of particles that transform among themselves), covariant derivatives with respect to supersymmetry are defined. Then, combining the vector facility and LET statement in REDUCE, spinors are simulated in a way to control the algebraic manipulation. (G.D.F.) [pt

  1. Efficiency of scanning automatons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shkundenkov, V.N.

    1977-01-01

    Investigated are the methods for improving the efficiency of the picture processing system based on an automatic scanner. Discussed are two types of such a system. In the first case the system contains both automatic and semi-automatic scanners. In the second case the system includes only the automatic scanners with the man-to-computer dialog facilities. For analyzing the role of the automatic scanner and the role of the operator in the processing system use is made of the processing system balance equation. It is proved that the picture processing system should be designed in two steps. The first step should, by all means, insure high efficiency in processing but the high capacity is not obligatory. The second step is aimed at higher capacity along with high efficiency. So, such a two-step designing makes it possible to solve the problem of higher capacity and lesser cost of picture processing

  2. Efficiency in Microfinance Cooperatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HARTARSKA, Valentina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In recognition of cooperatives’ contribution to the socio-economic well-being of their participants, the United Nations has declared 2012 as the International Year of Cooperatives. Microfinance cooperatives make a large part of the microfinance industry. We study efficiency of microfinance cooperatives and provide estimates of the optimal size of such organizations. We employ the classical efficiency analysis consisting of estimating a system of equations and identify the optimal size of microfinance cooperatives in terms of their number of clients (outreach efficiency, as well as dollar value of lending and deposits (sustainability. We find that microfinance cooperatives have increasing returns to scale which means that the vast majority can lower cost if they become larger. We calculate that the optimal size is around $100 million in lending and half of that in deposits. We find less robust estimates in terms of reaching many clients with a range from 40,000 to 180,000 borrowers.

  3. Efficient Learning Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godsk, Mikkel

    This paper presents the current approach to implementing educational technology with learning design at the Faculty of Science and Technology, Aarhus University, by introducing the concept of ‘efficient learning design’. The underlying hypothesis is that implementing learning design is more than...... engaging educators in the design process and developing teaching and learning, it is a shift in educational practice that potentially requires a stakeholder analysis and ultimately a business model for the deployment. What is most important is to balance the institutional, educator, and student...... perspectives and to consider all these in conjunction in order to obtain a sustainable, efficient learning design. The approach to deploying learning design in terms of the concept of efficient learning design, the catalyst for educational development, i.e. the learning design model and how it is being used...

  4. Measuring efficiency in logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Milovan Andrejić

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic market and environmental changes greatly affect operating of logistics systems. Logistics systems have to realize their activities and processes in an efficient way. The main objective of this paper is to analyze different aspects of efficiency measurement in logistics and to propose appropriate models of measurement. Measuring efficiency in logistics is a complex process that requires consideration of all subsystems, processes and activities as well as the impact of various financial, operational, environmental, quality and other factors. The proposed models have a basis in the Data Envelopment Analysis method. They could help managers in decision making and corrective actions processes. The tests and results of the model show the importance of input and output variables selection.

  5. Bandwidth efficient coding

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, John B

    2017-01-01

    Bandwidth Efficient Coding addresses the major challenge in communication engineering today: how to communicate more bits of information in the same radio spectrum. Energy and bandwidth are needed to transmit bits, and bandwidth affects capacity the most. Methods have been developed that are ten times as energy efficient at a given bandwidth consumption as simple methods. These employ signals with very complex patterns and are called "coding" solutions. The book begins with classical theory before introducing new techniques that combine older methods of error correction coding and radio transmission in order to create narrowband methods that are as efficient in both spectrum and energy as nature allows. Other topics covered include modulation techniques such as CPM, coded QAM and pulse design.

  6. Dimensions of energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramani, K.V.

    1992-01-01

    In this address the author describes three dimensions of energy efficiency in order of increasing costs: conservation, resource and technology substitution, and changes in economic structure. He emphasizes the importance of economic rather than environmental rationales for energy efficiency improvements in developing countries. These countries do not place high priority on the problems of global climate change. Opportunities for new technologies may exist in resource transfer, new fuels and, possibly, small reactors. More research on economic and social impacts of technologies with greater sensitivity to user preferences is needed

  7. Efficient use of energy

    CERN Document Server

    Dryden, IGC

    2013-01-01

    The Efficient Use of Energy, Second Edition is a compendium of papers discussing the efficiency with which energy is used in industry. The collection covers relevant topics in energy handling and describes the more important features of plant and equipment. The book is organized into six parts. Part I presents the various methods of heat production. The second part discusses the use of heat in industry and includes topics in furnace design, industrial heating, boiler plants, and water treatment. Part III deals with the production of mechanical and electrical energy. It tackles the principles o

  8. Efficient computation of hashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, Raul H C; Franqueira, Virginia N L; Hobson, Peter R

    2014-01-01

    The sequential computation of hashes at the core of many distributed storage systems and found, for example, in grid services can hinder efficiency in service quality and even pose security challenges that can only be addressed by the use of parallel hash tree modes. The main contributions of this paper are, first, the identification of several efficiency and security challenges posed by the use of sequential hash computation based on the Merkle-Damgard engine. In addition, alternatives for the parallel computation of hash trees are discussed, and a prototype for a new parallel implementation of the Keccak function, the SHA-3 winner, is introduced.

  9. Energy efficiency and economic fallacies: a reply; and reply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookes, L.G.; Grubb, M.

    1992-01-01

    The claim that a programme of energy efficiency improvements has nothing to offer to the solution of any problem of global warming is discussed. Some very important points not previously conceded by supporters of energy efficiency solutions to economic and environmental problems are considered, namely: first that when energy supply/price is the constraint on the level of economic activity, using energy more efficiently does not help to reduce total energy demand; and, second, that it has in practice been true that when energy supply/price is not the macroeconomic constraint, once again demand for energy is not reduced by more efficient use. (author)

  10. Energy efficiency in buildings, industry and transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milovanovic, Dobrica; Babic, Milun; Jovicic, Nebojsa; Gordic, Dusan

    2012-11-01

    This paper reviews the literature concerning the energy saving and outlines the importance of energy efficiency, particularly in three the most important areas: buildings, industry and transportation. Improving energy efficiency plays a crucial role in minimizing the societal and environmental impacts of economic growth and offers a powerful tool for achieving sustainable development by reducing the need for investment in new infrastructure, by cutting fuel costs, and by increasing competitiveness for businesses and welfare for consumers. It creates environmental benefits through reduced emissions of greenhouse gases and local air pollutants. It can offer social benefits in the form of increased energy security (through reduced dependence on fossil fuels, particularly when imported) and better energy services.

  11. Efficiency trends in electric machines and drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mecrow, B.C.; Jack, A.G.

    2008-01-01

    Almost all electricity in the UK is generated by rotating electrical generators, and approximately half of it is used to drive electrical motors. This means that efficiency improvements to electrical machines can have a very large impact on energy consumption. The key challenges to increased efficiency in systems driven by electrical machines lie in three areas: to extend the application of variable-speed electric drives into new areas through reduction of power electronic and control costs; to integrate the drive and the driven load to maximise system efficiency; and to increase the efficiency of the electrical drive itself. In the short to medium term, efficiency gains within electrical machines will result from the development of new materials and construction techniques. Approximately a quarter of new electrical machines are driven by variable-speed drives. These are a less mature product than electrical machines and should see larger efficiency gains over the next 50 years. Advances will occur, with new types of power electronic devices that reduce switching and conduction loss. With variable-speed drives, there is complete freedom to vary the speed of the driven load. Replacing fixed-speed machines with variable-speed drives for a high proportion of industrial loads could mean a 15-30% energy saving. This could save the UK 15 billion kWh of electricity per year which, when combined with motor and drive efficiency gains, would amount to a total annual saving of 24 billion kWh

  12. Corporate efficiency in Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hanousek, Jan; Kočenda, E.; Shamshur, Anastasiya

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 32, June (2015), s. 24-40 ISSN 0929-1199 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-15927S Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : efficiency * ownership structure * firms Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.286, year: 2015

  13. Robust efficient video fingerprinting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Manika; Lubin, Jeffrey

    2009-02-01

    We have developed a video fingerprinting system with robustness and efficiency as the primary and secondary design criteria. In extensive testing, the system has shown robustness to cropping, letter-boxing, sub-titling, blur, drastic compression, frame rate changes, size changes and color changes, as well as to the geometric distortions often associated with camcorder capture in cinema settings. Efficiency is afforded by a novel two-stage detection process in which a fast matching process first computes a number of likely candidates, which are then passed to a second slower process that computes the overall best match with minimal false alarm probability. One key component of the algorithm is a maximally stable volume computation - a three-dimensional generalization of maximally stable extremal regions - that provides a content-centric coordinate system for subsequent hash function computation, independent of any affine transformation or extensive cropping. Other key features include an efficient bin-based polling strategy for initial candidate selection, and a final SIFT feature-based computation for final verification. We describe the algorithm and its performance, and then discuss additional modifications that can provide further improvement to efficiency and accuracy.

  14. Efficient Immutable Collections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steindorfer, M.J.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis proposes novel and efficient data structures, suitable for immutable collection libraries, that carefully balance memory footprint and runtime performance of operations, and are aware of constraints and platform co-design challenges on the Java Virtual Machine (JVM). Collection data

  15. Efficient XPath Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, B.; Feng, L.; Shen, Y.

    Inspired by the best querying performance of ViST among the rest of the approaches in the literature, and meanwhile to overcome its shortcomings, in this paper, we present another efficient and novel geometric sequence mechanism, which transforms XML documents and XPath queries into the

  16. ERP=Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violino, Bob

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the enterprise resource planning (ERP) system. Deploying an ERP system is one of the most extensive--and expensive--IT projects a college or university can undertake. The potential benefits of ERP are significant: a more smoothly running operation with efficiencies in virtually every area of administration, from automated…

  17. Microeconomics : Equilibrium and Efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Raa, T.

    2013-01-01

    Microeconomics: Equilibrium and Efficiency teaches how to apply microeconomic theory in an innovative, intuitive and concise way. Using real-world, empirical examples, this book not only covers the building blocks of the subject, but helps gain a broad understanding of microeconomic theory and

  18. Fuzzy efficiency without convexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Balezentis, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    approach builds directly upon the definition of Farrell's indexes of technical efficiency used in crisp FDH. Therefore we do not require the use of fuzzy programming techniques but only utilize ranking probabilities of intervals as well as a related definition of dominance between pairs of intervals. We...

  19. Institutions, Equilibria and Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Competition and efficiency is at the core of economic theory. This volume collects papers of leading scholars, which extend the conventional general equilibrium model in important ways. Efficiency and price regulation are studied when markets are incomplete and existence of equilibria in such set......Competition and efficiency is at the core of economic theory. This volume collects papers of leading scholars, which extend the conventional general equilibrium model in important ways. Efficiency and price regulation are studied when markets are incomplete and existence of equilibria...... in such settings is proven under very general preference assumptions. The model is extended to include geographical location choice, a commodity space incorporating manufacturing imprecision and preferences for club-membership, schools and firms. Inefficiencies arising from household externalities or group...... membership are evaluated. Core equivalence is shown for bargaining economies. The theory of risk aversion is extended and the relation between risk taking and wealth is experimentally investigated. Other topics include: determinacy in OLG with cash-in-advance constraints, income distribution and democracy...

  20. Web anonymization efficiency study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sochor, Tomas

    2017-11-01

    The analysis of TOR, JonDo and CyberGhost efficiency (measured the as latency increase and transmission speed decrease) is presented in the paper. Results showed that all tools have relatively favorable latency increase (no more than 60% RTT increase). The transmission speed increase was much more significant (more than 60%), and even more for JonDo (above 90%).

  1. Energy efficiency in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    In Finland a significant portion of energy originates from renewable sources and cogeneration, that is, combined production of electricity and heat. Combined heat and electricity production is typical in the Finnish industry and in the district heating sector. One third of all electricity and 15 % of district heating is produced by cogeneration. District heating schemes provide about 45 % of heat in buildings. Overall efficiency in industry exceeds 80 % and is even higher in the district heating sector. In 1996 25 % of Finland`s primary energy was produced from renewable energy sources which is a far higher proportion than the European Union average of 6 %. Finland is one of the leading users of bioenergy. Biomass including peat, provides approximately 50 % of fuel consumed by industry and is utilised in significant amounts in combined heat and electricity plants. For example, in the pulp and paper industry, by burning black liquor and bark during the production of chemical pulp, significant amounts of energy are generated and used in paper mills. Conservation and efficient use of energy are central to the Finnish Government`s Energy Strategy. The energy conservation programme aims to increase energy efficiency by 10-20 % by the year 2010. Energy saving technology plays a key role in making the production and use of energy more efficient. In 1996 of FIM 335 million (ECU 57 million) spent on funding research, FIM 120 million (ECU 20 million) was spent on research into energy conservation

  2. Cataloging Efficiency and Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCain, Cheryl; Shorten, Jay

    2002-01-01

    Reports on a survey of academic libraries that was conducted to supplement findings of cost studies by providing measures of efficiency and effectiveness for cataloging departments based on reported productivity, number of staff, task distribution, and quality measures including backlogs, authority control, and database maintenance. Identifies…

  3. Jet Inlet Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    AFRL-RW-EG-TR-2014-044 Jet Inlet Efficiency Nigel Plumb Taylor Sykes-Green Keith Williams John Wohleber Munitions Aerodynamics Sciences...CONTRACT NUMBER N/A 5b. GRANT NUMBER N/A 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER N/A 6. AUTHOR(S) Nigel Plumb Taylor Sykes-Green Keith Williams John

  4. An efficiency correction model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francke, M.K.; de Vos, A.F.

    2009-01-01

    We analyze a dataset containing costs and outputs of 67 American local exchange carriers in a period of 11 years. This data has been used to judge the efficiency of BT and KPN using static stochastic frontier models. We show that these models are dynamically misspecified. As an alternative we

  5. Higher Efficiency HVAC Motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flynn, Charles Joseph [QM Power, Inc., Kansas City, MO (United States)

    2018-02-13

    The objective of this project was to design and build a cost competitive, more efficient heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) motor than what is currently available on the market. Though different potential motor architectures among QMP’s primary technology platforms were investigated and evaluated, including through the building of numerous prototypes, the project ultimately focused on scaling up QM Power, Inc.’s (QMP) Q-Sync permanent magnet synchronous motors from available sub-fractional horsepower (HP) sizes for commercial refrigeration fan applications to larger fractional horsepower sizes appropriate for HVAC applications, and to add multi-speed functionality. The more specific goal became the research, design, development, and testing of a prototype 1/2 HP Q-Sync motor that has at least two operating speeds and 87% peak efficiency compared to incumbent electronically commutated motors (EC or ECM, also known as brushless direct current (DC) motors), the heretofore highest efficiency HVACR fan motor solution, at approximately 82% peak efficiency. The resulting motor prototype built achieved these goals, hitting 90% efficiency and .95 power factor at full load and speed, and 80% efficiency and .7 power factor at half speed. Q-Sync, developed in part through a DOE SBIR grant (Award # DE-SC0006311), is a novel, patented motor technology that improves on electronically commutated permanent magnet motors through an advanced electronic circuit technology. It allows a motor to “sync” with the alternating current (AC) power flow. It does so by eliminating the constant, wasteful power conversions from AC to DC and back to AC through the synthetic creation of a new AC wave on the primary circuit board (PCB) by a process called pulse width modulation (PWM; aka electronic commutation) that is incessantly required to sustain motor operation in an EC permanent magnet motor. The Q-Sync circuit improves the power factor of the motor by removing all

  6. Tank closure reducing grout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, T.B.

    1997-01-01

    A reducing grout has been developed for closing high level waste tanks at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. The grout has a low redox potential, which minimizes the mobility of Sr 90 , the radionuclide with the highest dose potential after closure. The grout also has a high pH which reduces the solubility of the plutonium isotopes. The grout has a high compressive strength and low permeability, which enhances its ability to limit the migration of contaminants after closure. The grout was designed and tested by Construction Technology Laboratories, Inc. Placement methods were developed by the Savannah River Site personnel

  7. Efficient functionalization of alginate biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalheim, Marianne Ø; Vanacker, Julie; Najmi, Maryam A; Aachmann, Finn L; Strand, Berit L; Christensen, Bjørn E

    2016-02-01

    Peptide coupled alginates obtained by chemical functionalization of alginates are commonly used as scaffold materials for cells in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. We here present an alternative to the commonly used carbodiimide chemistry, using partial periodate oxidation followed by reductive amination. High and precise degrees of substitution were obtained with high reproducibility, and without formation of by-products. A protocol was established using l-Tyrosine methyl ester as a model compound and the non-toxic pic-BH3 as the reducing agent. DOSY was used to indirectly verify covalent binding and the structure of the product was further elucidated using NMR spectroscopy. The coupling efficiency was to some extent dependent on alginate composition, being most efficient on mannuronan. Three different bioactive peptide sequences (GRGDYP, GRGDSP and KHIFSDDSSE) were coupled to 8% periodate oxidized alginate resulting in degrees of substitution between 3.9 and 6.9%. Cell adhesion studies of mouse myoblasts (C2C12) and human dental stem cells (RP89) to gels containing various amounts of GRGDSP coupled alginate demonstrated the bioactivity of the material where RP89 cells needed higher peptide concentrations to adhere. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Energy efficiency in Norway (1997). Cross Country Comparison on Energy Efficiency Indicators - Phase 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alm, Leif Kristian

    2000-02-01

    This is the national report for Norway in phase 5 of the SAVE project 'Cross country comparison of energy efficiency indicators'. The report deals with energy use and energy efficiency in Norway the last 20 years, with a special emphasis on the period after 1990. A detailed sector analysis has been done, applying Laspeyres indices to attribute changes in energy use to either activity, structure or intensity (efficiency). Aggregating sectors, we have found a total efficiency improvement of maximum 7-8 TWH from 1990 to 1997. This corresponds to a saving of 0.5% per year. In the same period, final energy use per Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was reduced by approx 2.4% per year. Thereby most of the reduction in final energy intensity can not be attributed to increased energy efficiency. Almost all data are taken from official Norwegian statistics (Statistics Norway). (author)

  9. Reduced Braginskii equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagi, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment; Horton, W. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Inst. for Fusion Studies

    1993-11-01

    A set of reduced Braginskii equations is derived without assuming flute ordering and the Boussinesq approximation. These model equations conserve the physical energy. It is crucial at finite {beta} that we solve the perpendicular component of Ohm`s law to conserve the physical energy while ensuring the relation {del} {center_dot} j = 0.

  10. Reduced Braginskii equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, M.; Horton, W.

    1993-11-01

    A set of reduced Braginskii equations is derived without assuming flute ordering and the Boussinesq approximation. These model equations conserve the physical energy. It is crucial at finite β that we solve the perpendicular component of Ohm's law to conserve the physical energy while ensuring the relation ∇ · j = 0

  11. Reuse, Reduce, Recycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briscoe, Georgia

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of recycling paper in law libraries is also applicable to other types of libraries. Results of surveys of law libraries that investigated recycling practices in 1987 and again in 1990 are reported, and suggestions for reducing the amount of paper used and reusing as much as possible are offered. (LRW)

  12. Reduced multiplication modules

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    if M is a von Neumann regular module (VNM); i.e., every principal submodule of M is a summand submodule. Also if M is an injective R-module, then M is a VNM. Keywords. Multiplication module; reduced module; minimal prime submodule;. Zariski topology; extremally disconnected. 1. Introduction. In this paper all rings are ...

  13. Reduced Braginskii equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, M.; Horton, W.

    1994-01-01

    A set of reduced Braginskii equations is derived without assuming flute ordering and the Boussinesq approximation. These model equations conserve the physical energy. It is crucial at finite β that the perpendicular component of Ohm's law be solved to ensure ∇·j=0 for energy conservation

  14. Patient experiences with interventions to reduce surgery cancellations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovlid, Einar; von Plessen, Christian; Haug, Kjell

    2013-01-01

    The cancellation of planned surgery harms patients, increases waiting times and wastes scarce health resources. Previous studies have evaluated interventions to reduce cancellations from medical and management perspectives; these have focused on cost, length of stay, improved efficiency......, and reduced post-operative complications. In our case a hospital had experienced high cancellation rates and therefore redesigned their pathway for elective surgery to reduce cancelations. We studied how patients experienced interventions to reduce cancellations....

  15. Materials Approach to Fuel Efficient Tires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Votruba-Drzal, Peter [PPG Industries, Monroeville, PA (United States); Kornish, Brian [PPG Industries, Monroeville, PA (United States)

    2015-06-30

    The objective of this project was to design, develop, and demonstrate fuel efficient and safety regulation compliant tire filler and barrier coating technologies that will improve overall fuel efficiency by at least 2%. The program developed and validated two complementary approaches to improving fuel efficiency through tire improvements. The first technology was a modified silica-based product that is 15% lower in cost and/or enables a 10% improvement in tread wear while maintaining the already demonstrated minimum of 2% improvement in average fuel efficiency. The second technology was a barrier coating with reduced oxygen transmission rate compared to the state-of-the-art halobutyl rubber inner liners that will provide extended placarded tire pressure retention at significantly reduced material usage. A lower-permeance, thinner inner liner coating which retains tire pressure was expected to deliver the additional 2% reduction in fleet fuel consumption. From the 2006 Transportation Research Board Report1, a 10 percent reduction in rolling resistance can reduce consumer fuel expenditures by 1 to 2 percent for typical vehicles. This savings is equivalent to 6 to 12 gallons per year. A 1 psi drop in inflation pressure increases the tire's rolling resistance by about 1.4 percent.

  16. High efficiency novel window air conditioner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bansal, Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Use of novel refrigerant mixture of R32/R125 (85/15% molar conc.) to reduce global warming and improve energy efficiency. • Use of novel features such as electronically commuted motor (ECM) fan motor, slinger and sub-merged sub-cooler. • Energy savings of up to 0.1 Quads per year in USA and much more in Asia/Middle East where WACs are used in large numbers. • Payback period of only 1.4 years of the novel efficient WAC. - Abstract: This paper presents the results of an experimental and analytical evaluation of measures to raise the efficiency of window air conditioners (WAC). In order to achieve a higher energy efficiency ratio (EER), the original capacity of a baseline R410A unit was reduced by replacing the original compressor with a lower capacity but higher EER compressor, while all heat exchangers and the chassis from the original unit were retained. Subsequent major modifications included – replacing the alternating current fan motor with a brushless high efficiency electronically commutated motor (ECM) motor, replacing the capillary tube with a needle valve to better control the refrigerant flow and refrigerant set points, and replacing R410A with a ‘drop-in’ lower global warming potential (GWP) binary mixture of R32/R125 (85/15% molar concentration). All these modifications resulted in significant enhancement in the EER of the baseline WAC. Further, an economic analysis of the new WAC revealed an encouraging payback period

  17. Energy efficiency in industry and transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruscoe, J.

    1990-01-01

    The discussion of energy issues has changed since the 1970s as improvements have been made in energy efficiency. The present capacity for surplus energy production in economically advanced countries reflects a decrease in energy requirements as well as new production sources. At the same time, the energy crisis can be seen as having discouraged improvements in energy efficiency because of its negative impact on growth. And the centrally planned economies remain highly inefficient energy users. Economic growth encourages the use of new technologies which are likely to be less energy-intensive than those they replace. Permanent gains in energy efficiency are derived from structural changes in the economy and from the introduction of energy-efficient technologies. This article addresses the prospect of increased energy conservation, particularly in industry (the end-use which consumes the most energy) and transportation. Although investments in projects to promote energy conservation are more cost-effective and environment-friendly than investments in energy supply, there is still widespread support for the latter. Developing countries naturally give preference to quantitative growth, with an increasing consumption of energy, but in these countries, too, more efficient use of energy could greatly reduce demand. The policies of international development agencies which still favour increasing energy supply over conservation need to change. Awareness of the need to reduce energy demand is, however, growing worldwide. (author)

  18. Reducing infant mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, T R

    1994-01-01

    Public health and social policies at the population level (e.g., oral rehydration therapy and immunization) are responsible for the major reduction in infant mortality worldwide. The gap in infant mortality rates between developing and developed regions is much less than that in maternal mortality rates. This indicates that maternal and child health (MCH) programs and women's health care should be combined. Since 1950, 66% of infant deaths occur in the 1st 28 days, indicating adverse prenatal and intrapartum events (e.g., congenital malformation and birth injuries). Infection, especially pneumonia and diarrhea, and low birth weight are the major causes of infant mortality worldwide. An estimated US$25 billion are needed to secure the resources to control major childhood diseases, reduce malnutrition 50%, reduce child deaths by 4 million/year, provide potable water and sanitation to all communities, provide basic education, and make family planning available to all. This cost for saving children's lives is lower than current expenditures for cigarettes (US$50 billion in Europe/year). Vitamin A supplementation, breast feeding, and prenatal diagnosis of congenital malformations are low-cost strategies that can significantly affect infant well-being and reduce child mortality in many developing countries. The US has a higher infant mortality rate than have other developed countries. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the US National Institutes of Health are focusing on prematurity, low birth weight, multiple pregnancy, violence, alcohol abuse, and poverty to reduce infant mortality. Obstetricians should be important members of MCH teams, which also include traditional birth attendants, community health workers, nurses, midwives, and medical officers. We have the financial resources to allocate resources to improve MCH care and to reduce infant mortality.

  19. Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, Charles; Reid, Michael; Levy, Roger; Silverstein, Alison

    2010-01-29

    This paper reviews the relationship between energy efficiency and demand response and discusses approaches and barriers to coordinating energy efficiency and demand response. The paper is intended to support the 10 implementation goals of the National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency's Vision to achieve all cost-effective energy efficiency by 2025. Improving energy efficiency in our homes, businesses, schools, governments, and industries - which consume more than 70 percent of the nation's natural gas and electricity - is one of the most constructive, cost-effective ways to address the challenges of high energy prices, energy security and independence, air pollution, and global climate change. While energy efficiency is an increasingly prominent component of efforts to supply affordable, reliable, secure, and clean electric power, demand response is becoming a valuable tool in utility and regional resource plans. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) estimated the contribution from existing U.S. demand response resources at about 41,000 megawatts (MW), about 5.8 percent of 2008 summer peak demand (FERC, 2008). Moreover, FERC recently estimated nationwide achievable demand response potential at 138,000 MW (14 percent of peak demand) by 2019 (FERC, 2009).2 A recent Electric Power Research Institute study estimates that 'the combination of demand response and energy efficiency programs has the potential to reduce non-coincident summer peak demand by 157 GW' by 2030, or 14-20 percent below projected levels (EPRI, 2009a). This paper supports the Action Plan's effort to coordinate energy efficiency and demand response programs to maximize value to customers. For information on the full suite of policy and programmatic options for removing barriers to energy efficiency, see the Vision for 2025 and the various other Action Plan papers and guides available at www.epa.gov/eeactionplan.

  20. Efficiency and Logistics

    CERN Document Server

    Hompel, Michael; Klumpp, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    The „EffizienzCluster LogistikRuhr“ was a winner in the Leading Edge Science Cluster competition run by the German federal Ministry of Education and Research. The mission and aim of the „EffizienzCluster LogistikRuhr“ is to facilitate tomorrow’s individuality – in the sense of individual goods supply, mobility, and production – using 75 percent of today’s resources. Efficiency – both in economical and ecological terms – is enabled by state-of-the-art and innovative logistical solutions including transportation, production and intralogistics. These proceedings “Efficiency and Logistics” give first answers from 27 research projects as an insight into the current state of research of Europe’s leading research and development cluster in logistics and as a contribution to the discussion on how logistics as a science can help to cope with foreseeable resource shortage and sustainability as global challenges.

  1. Danish Energy Efficiency Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Togeby, Mikael; Larsen, Anders; Dyhr-Mikkelsen, Kirsten

    2009-01-01

    Ten groups of policy instruments for promoting energy efficiency are actively used in Denmark. Among these are the EU instruments such as the CO2 emissions trading scheme and labelling of appliances, labelling of all buildings, combined with national instruments such as high taxes especially...... of the entire Danish energy efficiency policy portfolio must be carried out before end 2008 and put forward for discussion among governing parties no later than February 2009. A consortium comprising Ea Energy Analyses, Niras, the Department of Society and Globalisation (Roskilde University) and 4-Fact...... on households and the public sector, obligations for energy companies (electricity, natural gas, district heating, and oil) to deliver documented savings, strict building codes, special instructions for the public sector, and an Electricity Saving Trust. A political agreement from 2005 states that an evaluation...

  2. Negotiating Efficient PPP Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvarnø, Christina D.

    . An opportunity the member states should consider using when procuring a PPP. This paper looks at the negotiation and contracting of a PPP in an economic theoretical and EU public procurement perspective and discusses how to establish an efficient PPP contract under a strong public law doctrine. Governments......This paper concerns Public Private Partnership (PPP) contracts in concern to the coming new 2014/24IEU public procurement directive. The new EU public procurement directive gives the public authority the opportunity to negotiate PPPs much more when they are implemented in national law...... procurement law. Furthermore, the paper seeks to establish a connection between public law, private law and the efficient PPP contract by drawing upon economic theory and empirical contract data from UK, US and Danish partnering contracts from the construction industry and the aim of contracting joint utility...

  3. Radon and energy efficient homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkart, W.

    1981-09-01

    Radon and its daughters in indoor air are presently responsible for dose equivalents of about 31 mSv/year (3 rem/year) to parts of the respiratory tract. Linear extrapolation from the dose response values of uranium miners heavily exposed to radon and its decay products would suggest that almost all lung cancers in the non-smoking population are caused by environmental 222 Rn. Using epidemiological data on the types of lung cancer found in non-smokers of the general public as compared to the miners, a smaller effect of low level radon exposure is assumed, which would result in a lung cancer mortality rate due to radon of about 10 deaths per year and million or 25% of the non-smoker rate. Higher indoor radon concentrations in energy efficient homes mostly caused by reduced air exchange rates will lead to a several fold increase of the lung cancer incidence from radon. Based on the above assumption, about 100 additional lung cancer deaths/year-million will result both from an increase in radionuclide concentrations in indoor air and a concomitant rise in effectiveness of radiation to cause cancer with higher exposure levels. Possibilities to reduce indoor radon levels in existing buildings and costs involved are discussed. (Auth.)

  4. Energy - efficient buildings in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohail, M.; Qureshi, M.U.D.

    2011-01-01

    Pakistan is one of the countries with the highest energy consumption for domestic use. Annual energy consumption by the domestic sector is 45.9 % of the total, while the industrial sector, consumes about 27.5%. About half of the total energy consumed is used in buildings and/or heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) and lighting appliances. The energy consumed for the same purposes in China and UK is 25 to 30 % and 40 %, respectively, even in extreme weather conditions. Energy deficiency in Pakistan is approximately 5,000 MWe, which results in worst load-shedding in summers and, lately, even in winters. Building new energy sources like dams, coal power plants and renewable energy power projects are some possible solutions, but these are time taking and need at least 2 to 6 years to complete, depending upon the nature of the project. Fast development of energy-efficient buildings is, therefore, necessary to deal with exacerbating energy-crisis and related environmental impact in Pakistan. Innovations in the prevailing building-design will help the country in reducing the energy burden. These innovations may include improved architectural designs, energy-efficient building materials, electrical appliances and implementation of building energy-efficiency codes. In 1987, the National Energy Conservation Centre (ENERCON), was established under Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, with the aim to build awareness among the masses for energy conservation, and to make policies regarding energy-conservation structures in the country. But no policy regarding building energy codes has been introduced by ENERCON till now. In collaboration with Pakistan Engineering Council (PEC), ENERCON has recently finalized the Building Energy Code of Pakistan Energy Provisions 2011 for which statutory notification is under process for necessary amendment in the building by-laws. The implementation of this Energy Code will result in 25 to 30 % of energy savings in the

  5. Power-Efficient Design Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangrle, Barry

    Design teams find themselves facing decreasing power budgets while simultaneously the products that they design continue to require the integration of increasingly complex levels of functionality. The market place (driven by consumer preferences) and new regulations and guidelines on energy efficiency and environmental impact are the key drivers. This in turn has generated new approaches in all IC and electronic system design domains from the architecture to the physical layout of ICs, to design-for-test, as well as for design verification to insure that the design implementation actually meets the intended requirements and specifications. This chapter covers key aspects of these forces from a technological and market perspective that are driving designers to produce more energy-efficient products. Observations by significant industry leaders from AMD, ARM, IBM, Intel, nVidia and TSMC are cited, and the emerging techniques and technologies used to address these issues now and into the future are explored. Topic areas include: System level: Architectural analysis and transaction-level modeling. How architectural decisions can dramatically reduce the design power and the importance of modeling hardware and software together. IC (Chip) level: The impact of creating on-chip power domains for selectively turning power off and/or multi-voltage operation on: (1) chip verification, (2) multi-corner multi-mode analysis during placement and routing of logic cells and (3) changes to design-for-test, all in order to accommodate for power-gating and multi-voltage control logic, retention registers, isolation cells and level shifters needed to implement these power saving techniques. Process level: The disappearing impact of body-bias techniques on leakage control and why new approaches like High-K Metal Gate (HKMG) technology help but don't eliminate power issues. Power-efficient design is impacting the way chip designers work today, and this chapter focuses on where the most

  6. CEE Energy Efficiency Report - Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hecl, V.

    2005-01-01

    need to be increased significantly if the proposed targets are to be realised. This increase in budget allocation would enable the implementation of programmes to significantly reduce energy imports and therefore lead to an improvement in the balance of payments. The adoption of these instruments will be beneficial for the entire economy. The most obvious impact is related to the level of energy imports, and therefore the balance of payments. The reduction in energy imports is estimated between 8% (low targets) and 12% (high targets) for natural gas, and between 8% (low targets) and 14% (high targets) for petroleum products. Furthermore it is estimated that the implementation of the proposed energy efficiency could create approximately 10,000 new jobs. The annual reduction in CO2 emissions has been estimated between 9 million tonnes (low targets) and 16 million tonnes (high targets)

  7. Stirling Engine Cycle Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Naddaf, Nasrollah

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study strives to provide a clear explanation of the Stirling engine and its efficiency using new automation technology and the Lab View software. This heat engine was invented by Stirling, a Scottish in 1918. The engine’s working principles are based on the laws of thermodynamics and ability of volume expansion of ideal gases at different temperatures. Basically there are three types of Stirling engines: the gamma, beta and alpha models. The commissioner of the thesis ...

  8. HIGH EFFICIENCY TURBINE

    OpenAIRE

    VARMA, VIJAYA KRUSHNA

    2012-01-01

    Varma designed ultra modern and high efficiency turbines which can use gas, steam or fuels as feed to produce electricity or mechanical work for wide range of usages and applications in industries or at work sites. Varma turbine engines can be used in all types of vehicles. These turbines can also be used in aircraft, ships, battle tanks, dredgers, mining equipment, earth moving machines etc, Salient features of Varma Turbines. 1. Varma turbines are simple in design, easy to manufac...

  9. Efficient HVAC. New products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Jung is responding to the challenge of energy efficiency, ease of operation and economic profitability in all of its solutions for the tertiary sector, whether for newly constructed buildings or refurbishments, for full management of the electrical system or the partial control of lighting, HVAC, mood settings, access control, etc., for the bedrooms or specific areas of the building. In the specific case of hotels, Jung offers each a custom-made solution in line with its possibilities and objectives. (Author)

  10. Electrical energy efficiency technologies and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sumper, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The improvement of electrical energy efficiency is fast becoming one of the most essential areas of sustainability development, backed by political initiatives to control and reduce energy demand. Now a major topic in industry and the electrical engineering research community, engineers have started to focus on analysis, diagnosis and possible solutions. Owing to the complexity and cross-disciplinary nature of electrical energy efficiency issues, the optimal solution is often multi-faceted with a critical solutions evaluation component to ensure cost effectiveness. This single-source refer

  11. The energy efficiency of onboard hydrogen storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Oluf; Li, Qingfeng; Bjerrum, Niels

    2010-01-01

    Global warming resulting from the use of fossil fuels is threatening the environment and energy efficiency is one of the most important ways to reduce this threat. Industry, transport and buildings are all high energy-using sectors in the world and even in the most technologically optimistic...... perspectives energy use is projected to increase in the next 50 years. How and when energy is used determines society's ability to create long-term sustainable energy systems. This is why this book, focusing on energy efficiency in these sectors and from different perspectives, is sharp and also important...

  12. Efficient Technology and Appropriate Life-styles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    The paper suggests that the energy chain model of converting primary energy into energy services should be extended to include also the lifestyles. A pittfall from looking solely at the technical efficiency is revealed. Various examples indicates economic saturations among consumers in the most w...... in Europe by combining changes in technology with changes in lifestyles and economy are demonstrated with results from a Low Electricity Europe study....... wealthy countries. Similarly, examples of alternatives to Gross Domestic Product as an indicator of progress show steady declines in the countries with high GDP, which is suggesting a decline in the efficiencies in the economies and the lifestyles. The potentials for reducing electricity consumption...

  13. Efficient Synchronization Stability Metrics for Fault Clearing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backhaus, Scott N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bent, Russell Whitford [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bienstock, Daniel [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Krishnamurthy, Dvijotham [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2015-02-12

    Direct methods can provide rapid screening of the dynamical security of large numbers fault and contingency scenarios by avoiding extensive time simulation. We introduce a computationally-efficient direct method based on optimization that leverages efficient cutting plane techniques. The method considers both unstable equilibrium points and the effects of additional relay tripping on dynamical security[1]. Similar to other direct methods, our approach yields conservative results for dynamical security, however, the optimization formulation potentially lends itself to the inclusion of additional constraints to reduce this conservatism.

  14. LEAN and energy efficiency; Lean og energieffektivisering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jespersen, Per T; Vesterager Christensen, D; Andersen, Hans [Teknologisk Institut, Energi og Klima, Taastrup (Denmark); Dam Wied, M; Dam, M [NRGi Raadgivning, Aarhus (Denmark); Thorndahl, M [Horsens Kommune, Horsens (Denmark); Weldingh, P [Lokal Energi, Viby J. (Denmark); Maagoee, P; Kristensen, Kenneth T [Viegand og Maagoee, Copenhagen (Denmark); Kirketerp Friis, A [Novozymes, Bagsvaerd (Denmark)

    2010-03-15

    By means of theoretical reports and three specific cases, the project showed how Lean principles can improve energy consulting efficiency, thus making it easier for end-users and energy consultants to record and document energy savings achieved. The three cases documented various types of extra benefits of integrating energy efficiency improvement in Lean processes. As a result of process optimisation, one manufacturing company successfully reduced both staffing and energy consumption, thus making production in Denmark competitive with out-sourced production in Asia. (LN)

  15. Economics of appliance efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiedemann, K.H.

    2009-01-01

    Several significant developments occurred in 2001 that affect the impact of market transformation programs. This paper presented and applied an econometric approach to the identification and estimation of market models for refrigerators, clothes washers, dishwashers and room air conditioners. The purpose of the paper was to understand the impact of energy conservation policy developments on sales of energy efficient appliances. The paper discussed the approach with particular reference to building a database of sales and drivers of sales using publicly available information; estimation of the determinants of sales using econometric models; and estimation of the individual impacts of prices, gross domestic product (GDP) and energy conservation policies on sales using regression results. Market and policy developments were also presented, such as change a light, save the world promotion; the California energy crisis; and the Pacific Northwest drought induced hydro power shortage. It was concluded that an increase in GDP increased the sales of both more efficient and less efficient refrigerators, clothes washers, dishwashers, and room air conditioners. An increase in electricity price increased sales of Energy Star refrigerators, clothes washers, dishwashers, and room air conditioners. 4 refs., 8 tabs.

  16. Estimating the NIH efficient frontier.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Bisias

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The National Institutes of Health (NIH is among the world's largest investors in biomedical research, with a mandate to: "…lengthen life, and reduce the burdens of illness and disability." Its funding decisions have been criticized as insufficiently focused on disease burden. We hypothesize that modern portfolio theory can create a closer link between basic research and outcome, and offer insight into basic-science related improvements in public health. We propose portfolio theory as a systematic framework for making biomedical funding allocation decisions-one that is directly tied to the risk/reward trade-off of burden-of-disease outcomes. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using data from 1965 to 2007, we provide estimates of the NIH "efficient frontier", the set of funding allocations across 7 groups of disease-oriented NIH institutes that yield the greatest expected return on investment for a given level of risk, where return on investment is measured by subsequent impact on U.S. years of life lost (YLL. The results suggest that NIH may be actively managing its research risk, given that the volatility of its current allocation is 17% less than that of an equal-allocation portfolio with similar expected returns. The estimated efficient frontier suggests that further improvements in expected return (89% to 119% vs. current or reduction in risk (22% to 35% vs. current are available holding risk or expected return, respectively, constant, and that 28% to 89% greater decrease in average years-of-life-lost per unit risk may be achievable. However, these results also reflect the imprecision of YLL as a measure of disease burden, the noisy statistical link between basic research and YLL, and other known limitations of portfolio theory itself. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis is intended to serve as a proof-of-concept and starting point for applying quantitative methods to allocating biomedical research funding that are objective, systematic, transparent

  17. Estimating the NIH efficient frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisias, Dimitrios; Lo, Andrew W; Watkins, James F

    2012-01-01

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is among the world's largest investors in biomedical research, with a mandate to: "…lengthen life, and reduce the burdens of illness and disability." Its funding decisions have been criticized as insufficiently focused on disease burden. We hypothesize that modern portfolio theory can create a closer link between basic research and outcome, and offer insight into basic-science related improvements in public health. We propose portfolio theory as a systematic framework for making biomedical funding allocation decisions-one that is directly tied to the risk/reward trade-off of burden-of-disease outcomes. Using data from 1965 to 2007, we provide estimates of the NIH "efficient frontier", the set of funding allocations across 7 groups of disease-oriented NIH institutes that yield the greatest expected return on investment for a given level of risk, where return on investment is measured by subsequent impact on U.S. years of life lost (YLL). The results suggest that NIH may be actively managing its research risk, given that the volatility of its current allocation is 17% less than that of an equal-allocation portfolio with similar expected returns. The estimated efficient frontier suggests that further improvements in expected return (89% to 119% vs. current) or reduction in risk (22% to 35% vs. current) are available holding risk or expected return, respectively, constant, and that 28% to 89% greater decrease in average years-of-life-lost per unit risk may be achievable. However, these results also reflect the imprecision of YLL as a measure of disease burden, the noisy statistical link between basic research and YLL, and other known limitations of portfolio theory itself. Our analysis is intended to serve as a proof-of-concept and starting point for applying quantitative methods to allocating biomedical research funding that are objective, systematic, transparent, repeatable, and expressly designed to reduce the burden of

  18. Estimating the NIH Efficient Frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is among the world’s largest investors in biomedical research, with a mandate to: “…lengthen life, and reduce the burdens of illness and disability.” Its funding decisions have been criticized as insufficiently focused on disease burden. We hypothesize that modern portfolio theory can create a closer link between basic research and outcome, and offer insight into basic-science related improvements in public health. We propose portfolio theory as a systematic framework for making biomedical funding allocation decisions–one that is directly tied to the risk/reward trade-off of burden-of-disease outcomes. Methods and Findings Using data from 1965 to 2007, we provide estimates of the NIH “efficient frontier”, the set of funding allocations across 7 groups of disease-oriented NIH institutes that yield the greatest expected return on investment for a given level of risk, where return on investment is measured by subsequent impact on U.S. years of life lost (YLL). The results suggest that NIH may be actively managing its research risk, given that the volatility of its current allocation is 17% less than that of an equal-allocation portfolio with similar expected returns. The estimated efficient frontier suggests that further improvements in expected return (89% to 119% vs. current) or reduction in risk (22% to 35% vs. current) are available holding risk or expected return, respectively, constant, and that 28% to 89% greater decrease in average years-of-life-lost per unit risk may be achievable. However, these results also reflect the imprecision of YLL as a measure of disease burden, the noisy statistical link between basic research and YLL, and other known limitations of portfolio theory itself. Conclusions Our analysis is intended to serve as a proof-of-concept and starting point for applying quantitative methods to allocating biomedical research funding that are objective, systematic, transparent

  19. On nonlinear reduced order modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Khalik, Hany S.

    2011-01-01

    When applied to a model that receives n input parameters and predicts m output responses, a reduced order model estimates the variations in the m outputs of the original model resulting from variations in its n inputs. While direct execution of the forward model could provide these variations, reduced order modeling plays an indispensable role for most real-world complex models. This follows because the solutions of complex models are expensive in terms of required computational overhead, thus rendering their repeated execution computationally infeasible. To overcome this problem, reduced order modeling determines a relationship (often referred to as a surrogate model) between the input and output variations that is much cheaper to evaluate than the original model. While it is desirable to seek highly accurate surrogates, the computational overhead becomes quickly intractable especially for high dimensional model, n ≫ 10. In this manuscript, we demonstrate a novel reduced order modeling method for building a surrogate model that employs only 'local first-order' derivatives and a new tensor-free expansion to efficiently identify all the important features of the original model to reach a predetermined level of accuracy. This is achieved via a hybrid approach in which local first-order derivatives (i.e., gradient) of a pseudo response (a pseudo response represents a random linear combination of original model’s responses) are randomly sampled utilizing a tensor-free expansion around some reference point, with the resulting gradient information aggregated in a subspace (denoted by the active subspace) of dimension much less than the dimension of the input parameters space. The active subspace is then sampled employing the state-of-the-art techniques for global sampling methods. The proposed method hybridizes the use of global sampling methods for uncertainty quantification and local variational methods for sensitivity analysis. In a similar manner to

  20. Reducing rotor weight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheney, M.C. [PS Enterprises, Inc., Glastonbury, CT (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The cost of energy for renewables has gained greater significance in recent years due to the drop in price in some competing energy sources, particularly natural gas. In pursuit of lower manufacturing costs for wind turbine systems, work was conducted to explore an innovative rotor designed to reduce weight and cost over conventional rotor systems. Trade-off studies were conducted to measure the influence of number of blades, stiffness, and manufacturing method on COE. The study showed that increasing number of blades at constant solidity significantly reduced rotor weight and that manufacturing the blades using pultrusion technology produced the lowest cost per pound. Under contracts with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the California Energy Commission, a 400 kW (33m diameter) turbine was designed employing this technology. The project included tests of an 80 kW (15.5m diameter) dynamically scaled rotor which demonstrated the viability of the design.