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Sample records for efficiently induces functional

  1. High efficient differentiation of functional hepatocytes from porcine induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Ao

    Full Text Available Hepatocyte transplantation is considered to be a promising therapy for patients with liver diseases. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs provide an unlimited source for the generation of functional hepatocytes. In this study, we generated iPSCs from porcine ear fibroblasts (PEFs by overexpressing Sox2, Klf4, Oct4, and c-Myc (SKOM, and developed a novel strategy for the efficient differentiation of hepatocyte-like cells from porcine iPSCs by following the processes of early liver development. The differentiated cells displayed the phenotypes of hepatocytes, exhibited classic hepatocyte-associated bio-functions, such as LDL uptake, glycogen storage and urea secretion, as well as possessed the metabolic activities of cytochrome P-450 (CYP 3A and 2C. Furthermore, we compared the hepatocyte differentiation efficacy of our protocol with another published method, and the results demonstrated that our differentiation strategy could significantly improve the generation of morphological and functional hepatocyte-like cells from porcine iPSCs. In conclusion, this study establishes an efficient method for in vitro generation of functional hepatocytes from porcine iPSCs, which could represent a promising cell source for preclinical testing of cell-based therapeutics for liver failure and for pharmacological applications.

  2. Efficient generation of functional pancreatic β-cells from human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabe, Shigeharu G; Fukuda, Satsuki; Takeda, Fujie; Nashiro, Kiyoko; Shimoda, Masayuki; Okochi, Hitoshi

    2017-02-01

    Insulin-secreting cells have been generated from human embryonic or induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) by mimicking developmental processes. However, these cells do not always secrete glucose-responsive insulin, one of the most important characteristics of pancreatic β-cells. We focused on the importance of endodermal differentiation from human iPSCs in order to obtain functional pancreatic β-cells. A six-stage protocol was established for the differentiation of human iPSCs to pancreatic β-cells using defined culture media without feeders or serum. The effects of CHIR99021, a selective glycogen synthase kinase-3β inhibitor, were examined in the presence of fibroblast growth factor 2, activin, and bone morphogenetic protein 4 (FAB) during definitive endodermal induction by immunostaining for SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 17 (SOX17) and Forkhead box protein A2 (FOXA2). Insulin secretion was compared between the last stage of monolayer culture and spheroid culture conditions. Cultured cells were transplanted under kidney capsules of streptozotocin-diabetic non-obese diabetic-severe combined immunodeficiency mice, and blood glucose levels were measured once a week. Immunohistochemical analyses were performed 4 and 12 weeks after transplantation. Addition of CHIR99021 (3 μmol/L) in the presence of FAB for 2 days improved endodermal cell viability, maintaining the high SOX17-positive rate. Spheroid formation after the endocrine progenitor stage showed more efficient insulin secretion than did monolayer culture. After cell transplantation, diabetic mice had lower blood glucose levels, and islet-like structures were detected in vivo. Functional pancreatic β-cells were generated from human iPSCs. Induction of definitive endoderm and spheroid formation may be key steps for producing these cells. © 2016 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  3. Efficient derivation of functional hepatocytes from mouse induced pluripotent stem cells by a combination of cytokines and sodium butyrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qi; YANG Yang; ZHANG Jian; WANG Guo-ying; LIU Wei; QIU Dong-bo; HEI Zi-qing; YING Qi-long; CHEN Gui-hua

    2011-01-01

    Background Hepatocyte transplantation has been proposed as an alternative to whole-organ transplantation to support many forms of hepatic insufficiency.Unfortunately,the lack of donor livers makes it difficult to obtain enough viable human hepatocytes for hepatocyte-based therapies.Therefore,it is urgent to find new ways to provide ample hepatocytes.Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells,a breakthrough in stem cell research,may terminate these hinders for cell transplantation.For the promise of iPS cells to be realized in liver diseases,it is necessary to determine if and how efficient they can be differentiated into functional hepatocytes.Methods In this study,we directly compared the hepatic-differentiation capacity of mouse iPS cells and embryonic stem (ES) cells with three different induction approaches:conditions via embryonic body (EB) formation plus cytokines,conditions by combination of dimethyl sulfoxide and sodium butyrate and chemically defined,serum free monolayer conditions.Among these three induction conditions,more homogenous populations can be promoted under chemically defined,serum free conditions.The cells generated under these conditions exhibited hepatic functions in vitro,including glycogen storage,indocynine green (ICG) uptake and release as well as urea secretion.Although efficient hepatocytes differentiation from mouse iPS cells were observed,mouse iPS cells showed relatively lower hepatic induction efficiency compared with mouse ES cells.Results Mouse iPS cells would be efficiently differentiated into functional hepatocytes in vitro,which may be helpful in facilitating the development of hepatocytes for transplantation and for research on drug discovery.Conclusion We demonstrate that mouse iPS cells retain full potential for fetal liver development and describe procedures that facilitates the efficient generation of highly differentiated human hepatocyte-like cells from iPS cells in vitro.

  4. Motor sequence learning-induced neural efficiency in functional brain connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Helmet T; Huppert, Theodore J; Erickson, Kirk I; Wollam, Mariegold E; Sparto, Patrick J; Sejdić, Ervin; VanSwearingen, Jessie M

    2017-02-15

    Previous studies have shown the functional neural circuitry differences before and after an explicitly learned motor sequence task, but have not assessed these changes during the process of motor skill learning. Functional magnetic resonance imaging activity was measured while participants (n=13) were asked to tap their fingers to visually presented sequences in blocks that were either the same sequence repeated (learning block) or random sequences (control block). Motor learning was associated with a decrease in brain activity during learning compared to control. Lower brain activation was noted in the posterior parietal association area and bilateral thalamus during the later periods of learning (not during the control). Compared to the control condition, we found the task-related motor learning was associated with decreased connectivity between the putamen and left inferior frontal gyrus and left middle cingulate brain regions. Motor learning was associated with changes in network activity, spatial extent, and connectivity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Efficient Generic Functional Programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alimarine, A.; Smetsers, J.E.W.

    2005-01-01

    Generic functions are defined by induction on the structural representation of types. As a consequence, by defining just a single generic operation, one acquires this operation over any particular data type. An instance on a specific type is generated by interpretation of the type's structure. A

  6. Whey Proteins Are More Efficient than Casein in the Recovery of Muscle Functional Properties following a Casting Induced Muscle Atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Vincent; Ratel, Sébastien; Siracusa, Julien; Le Ruyet, Pascale; Savary-Auzeloux, Isabelle; Combaret, Lydie; Guillet, Christelle; Dardevet, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of whey supplementation, as compared to the standard casein diet, on the recovery of muscle functional properties after a casting-induced immobilization period. After an initial (I0) evaluation of the contractile properties of the plantarflexors (isometric torque-frequency relationship, concentric power-velocity relationship and a fatigability test), the ankle of 20 male adult rats was immobilized by casting for 8 days. During this period, rats were fed a standard diet with 13% of casein (CAS). After cast removal, rats received either the same diet or a diet with 13% of whey proteins (WHEY). A control group (n = 10), non-immobilized but pair-fed to the two other experimental groups, was also studied and fed with the CAS diet. During the recovery period, contractile properties were evaluated 7 (R7), 21 (R21) and 42 days (R42) after cast removal. The immobilization procedure induced a homogeneous depression of average isometric force at R7 (CAS: − 19.0±8.2%; WHEY: − 21.7±8.4%; P<0.001) and concentric power (CAS: − 26.8±16.4%, P<0.001; WHEY: − 13.5±21.8%, P<0.05) as compared to I0. Conversely, no significant alteration of fatigability was observed. At R21, isometric force had fully recovered in WHEY, especially for frequencies above 50 Hz, whereas it was still significantly depressed in CAS, where complete recovery occurred only at R42. Similarly, recovery of concentric power was faster at R21 in the 500−700°/s range in the WHEY group. These results suggest that recovery kinetics varied between diets, the diet with the whey proteins promoting a faster recovery of isometric force and concentric power output as compared to the casein diet. These effects were more specifically observed at force level and movement velocities that are relevant for functional abilities, and thus natural locomotion. PMID:24069411

  7. Improved Efficiency and Stability of Perovskite Solar Cells Induced by CO Functionalized Hydrophobic Ammonium-Based Additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhifang; Raga, Sonia R; Juarez-Perez, Emilio J; Yao, Xuyang; Jiang, Yan; Ono, Luis K; Ning, Zhijun; Tian, He; Qi, Yabing

    2018-01-01

    Because of the rapid rise of the efficiency, perovskite solar cells are currently considered as the most promising next-generation photovoltaic technology. Much effort has been made to improve the efficiency and stability of perovskite solar cells. Here, it is demonstrated that the addition of a novel organic cation of 2-(6-bromo-1,3-dioxo-1H-benzo[de]isoquinolin-2(3H)-yl)ethan-1-ammonium iodide (2-NAM), which has strong Lewis acid and base interaction (between CO and Pb) with perovskite, can effectively increase crystalline grain size and reduce charge carrier recombination of the double cation FA 0.83 MA 0.17 PbI 2.51 Br 0.49 perovskite film, thus boosting the efficiency from 17.1 ± 0.8% to 18.6 ± 0.9% for the 0.1 cm 2 cell and from 15.5 ± 0.5% to 16.5 ± 0.6% for the 1.0 cm 2 cell. The champion cell shows efficiencies of 20.0% and 17.6% with active areas of 0.1 and 1.0 cm 2 , respectively. Moreover, the hysteresis behavior is suppressed and the stability is improved. The result provides a promising route to further elevate efficiency and stability of perovskite solar cells by the fine tuning of triple organic cations. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Efficient Generation of Functional Hepatocytes From Human Embryonic Stem Cells and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells by HNF4α Transduction

    OpenAIRE

    Takayama, Kazuo; Inamura, Mitsuru; Kawabata, Kenji; Katayama, Kazufumi; Higuchi, Maiko; Tashiro, Katsuhisa; Nonaka, Aki; Sakurai, Fuminori; Hayakawa, Takao; Kusuda Furue, Miho; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    Hepatocyte-like cells from human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are expected to be a useful source of cells drug discovery. Although we recently reported that hepatic commitment is promoted by transduction of SOX17 and HEX into human ESC- and iPSC-derived cells, these hepatocyte-like cells were not sufficiently mature for drug screening. To promote hepatic maturation, we utilized transduction of the hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α) gene, which is kn...

  9. Effect of Selective Prostaglandin E2 EP2 Receptor Agonist CP-533,536 on Voiding Efficiency in Rats with Midodrine-Induced Functional Urethral Obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurihara, Ryoko; Imazumi, Katsunori; Takamatsu, Hajime; Ishizu, Kenichiro; Yoshino, Taiji; Masuda, Noriyuki

    2016-05-01

    We investigated the effect of the selective prostaglandin E2 EP2 receptor agonist CP-533,536 on voiding efficiency in rats with midodrine-induced functional urethral obstruction. The effect of CP-533,536 (0.03-0.3 mg/kg, intravenous [i.v.]) on urethral perfusion pressure (UPP) was investigated in anesthetized rats pre-treated with midodrine (1 mg/kg, i.v.), which forms an active metabolite that acts as an α1 -adrenoceptor agonist. The effect of CP-533,536 (0.03-0.3 mg/kg, i.v.) on cystometric parameters was also investigated in anesthetized rats. In addition, the effect of CP-533,536 (0.03-0.3 mg/kg, i.v.) on residual urine volume (RV) and voiding efficiency (VE) was investigated in conscious rats treated with midodrine (1 mg/kg, i.v.). CP-533,536 dose-dependently decreased UPP elevated by midodrine in anesthetized rats. In contrast, CP-533,536 did not affect maximum voiding pressure, intercontraction interval, or intravesical threshold pressure. In conscious rats, midodrine (1 mg/kg, i.v.) markedly increased RV and reduced VE. CP-533,536 dose-dependently ameliorated increases in RV and decreases in VE induced by midodrine. These results suggest that a selective EP2 receptor agonist could ameliorate the elevation of RV and improve the reduction of VE in rats with functional urethral obstruction caused by stimulation of α1 -adrenoceptors. The mechanism of action might be not potentiation of bladder contraction but rather preferential relief of urethral constriction. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  10. Efficient functionalization of alginate biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalheim, Marianne Ø; Vanacker, Julie; Najmi, Maryam A; Aachmann, Finn L; Strand, Berit L; Christensen, Bjørn E

    2016-02-01

    Peptide coupled alginates obtained by chemical functionalization of alginates are commonly used as scaffold materials for cells in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. We here present an alternative to the commonly used carbodiimide chemistry, using partial periodate oxidation followed by reductive amination. High and precise degrees of substitution were obtained with high reproducibility, and without formation of by-products. A protocol was established using l-Tyrosine methyl ester as a model compound and the non-toxic pic-BH3 as the reducing agent. DOSY was used to indirectly verify covalent binding and the structure of the product was further elucidated using NMR spectroscopy. The coupling efficiency was to some extent dependent on alginate composition, being most efficient on mannuronan. Three different bioactive peptide sequences (GRGDYP, GRGDSP and KHIFSDDSSE) were coupled to 8% periodate oxidized alginate resulting in degrees of substitution between 3.9 and 6.9%. Cell adhesion studies of mouse myoblasts (C2C12) and human dental stem cells (RP89) to gels containing various amounts of GRGDSP coupled alginate demonstrated the bioactivity of the material where RP89 cells needed higher peptide concentrations to adhere. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. An efficient viral vector for functional genomic studies of Prunus fruit trees and its induced resistance to Plum pox virus via silencing of a host factor gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hongguang; Wang, Aiming

    2017-03-01

    RNA silencing is a powerful technology for molecular characterization of gene functions in plants. A commonly used approach to the induction of RNA silencing is through genetic transformation. A potent alternative is to use a modified viral vector for virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) to degrade RNA molecules sharing similar nucleotide sequence. Unfortunately, genomic studies in many allogamous woody perennials such as peach are severely hindered because they have a long juvenile period and are recalcitrant to genetic transformation. Here, we report the development of a viral vector derived from Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV), a widespread fruit tree virus that is endemic in all Prunus fruit production countries and regions in the world. We show that the modified PNRSV vector, harbouring the sense-orientated target gene sequence of 100-200 bp in length in genomic RNA3, could efficiently trigger the silencing of a transgene or an endogenous gene in the model plant Nicotiana benthamiana. We further demonstrate that the PNRSV-based vector could be manipulated to silence endogenous genes in peach such as eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E isoform (eIF(iso)4E), a host factor of many potyviruses including Plum pox virus (PPV). Moreover, the eIF(iso)4E-knocked down peach plants were resistant to PPV. This work opens a potential avenue for the control of virus diseases in perennial trees via viral vector-mediated silencing of host factors, and the PNRSV vector may serve as a powerful molecular tool for functional genomic studies of Prunus fruit trees. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Under a nonadherent state, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells can be efficiently induced into functional islet-like cell clusters to normalize hyperglycemia in mice: a control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yihua; Dou, Zhongying

    2014-05-08

    Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) possess low immunogenicity and immunosuppression as an allograft, can differentiate into insulin-producing cells (IPCs) by in vitro induction, and may be a valuable cell source to regenerate pancreatic islets. However, the very low differentiation efficiency of BMSCs towards IPCs under adherent induction has thus far hindered the clinical exploitation of these cells. The aim of this study is to explore a new way to efficiently induce BMSCs into IPCs and lay the groundwork for their clinical exploitation. In comparison with adherent induction, BMSCs of human first-trimester abortus (hfBMSCs) under a nonadherent state were induced towards IPCs in noncoated plastic dishes using a three-stage induction procedure developed by the authors. Induction effects were evaluated by statistics of the cell clustering rate of induced cells, and ultrastructural observation, dithizone staining, quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence assay, insulin and c-peptide release under glucose stimulus of cell clusters, as well as transplantation test of the cell clusters in diabetic model mice. With (6.175 ± 0.263) × 105 cells in 508.5 ± 24.5 cell clusters, (3.303 ± 0.331) × 105 single cells and (9.478 ± 0.208) × 105 total cell count on average, 65.08 ± 2.98% hfBMSCs differentiated into pancreatic islet-like cell clusters after nonadherent induction. With (3.993 ± 0.344) × 105 cells in 332.3 ± 41.6 cell clusters, (5.437 ± 0.434) × 105 single cells and (9.430 ± 0.340) × 105 total cell count on average, 42.37 ± 3.70% hfBMSCs differentiated into pancreatic islet-like cell clusters after adherent induction (P produced human insulin in recipients. Our studies demonstrate that nonadherent induction can greatly promote BMSCs to form pancreatic islet-like cell clusters, thereby improving the differentiation efficiency of BMSCs towards IPCs.

  13. The catalystic function of leadership in efficient group functioning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The more efficient group leaders were found to be more competent and revealed a greater task orientation. Compared to the less efficient groups, the better functioning groups were characterised by a higher degree of shared leadership. The bigger involvement in leadership functions seems to increase the competence ...

  14. Typology of efficiency of functioning of enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.I. Svitlyshyn

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Measuring and estimation of the efficiency of functioning of enterprises of agrarian sector traditionally performed by applying only some of its types, which focuses mainly on operating activity. Investment and financial activity, as inalienable constituent of economic process of enterprise, remain regardless thus. In addition, in scientific literature and practical activity to research of efficiency focuses on the stages «production-exchange». The stages of «distribution» and «consumption» at the level of enterprise are not examined. This distorts the results of measuring and estimation of efficiency and makes uneffective proposals for its growth. Coming from what, approach is worked out to determination and systematization of basic types of efficiency of functioning of enterprises of agrarian sector. Approach is based on the offered model, that system represents all stages and types of economic activity of the enterprise. The basic lines of efficiency are interpreted on every stage and in the cut of types of economic activity of enterprise. It allows to provide a complexity and system during its measuring and estimation.

  15. Nicotine increases brain functional network efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, Korey P; Rojas, Donald C; Tanabe, Jody; Martin, Laura F; Tregellas, Jason R

    2012-10-15

    Despite the use of cholinergic therapies in Alzheimer's disease and the development of cholinergic strategies for schizophrenia, relatively little is known about how the system modulates the connectivity and structure of large-scale brain networks. To better understand how nicotinic cholinergic systems alter these networks, this study examined the effects of nicotine on measures of whole-brain network communication efficiency. Resting state fMRI was acquired from fifteen healthy subjects before and after the application of nicotine or placebo transdermal patches in a single blind, crossover design. Data, which were previously examined for default network activity, were analyzed with network topology techniques to measure changes in the communication efficiency of whole-brain networks. Nicotine significantly increased local efficiency, a parameter that estimates the network's tolerance to local errors in communication. Nicotine also significantly enhanced the regional efficiency of limbic and paralimbic areas of the brain, areas which are especially altered in diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. These changes in network topology may be one mechanism by which cholinergic therapies improve brain function. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Functional materials for energy-efficient buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, H.-P.

    2015-08-01

    The substantial improving of the energy efficiency is essential to meet the ambitious energy goals of the EU. About 40% of the European energy consumption belongs to the building sector. Therefore the reduction of the energy demand of the existing building stock is one of the key measures to deliver a substantial contribution to reduce CO2-emissions of our society. Buildings of the future have to be efficient in respect to energy consumption for construction and operation. Current research activities are focused on the development of functional materials with outstanding thermal and optical properties to provide, for example, slim thermally superinsulated facades, highly integrated heat storage systems or adaptive building components. In this context it is important to consider buildings as entities which fulfill energy and comfort claims as well as aesthetic aspects of a sustainable architecture.

  17. Functional materials for energy-efficient buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebert H.-P

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The substantial improving of the energy efficiency is essential to meet the ambitious energy goals of the EU. About 40% of the European energy consumption belongs to the building sector. Therefore the reduction of the energy demand of the existing building stock is one of the key measures to deliver a substantial contribution to reduce CO2-emissions of our society. Buildings of the future have to be efficient in respect to energy consumption for construction and operation. Current research activities are focused on the development of functional materials with outstanding thermal and optical properties to provide, for example, slim thermally superinsulated facades, highly integrated heat storage systems or adaptive building components. In this context it is important to consider buildings as entities which fulfill energy and comfort claims as well as aesthetic aspects of a sustainable architecture.

  18. Efficient Bayesian hierarchical functional data analysis with basis function approximations using Gaussian-Wishart processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jingjing; Cox, Dennis D; Lee, Jong Soo; Ren, Peng; Choi, Taeryon

    2017-12-01

    Functional data are defined as realizations of random functions (mostly smooth functions) varying over a continuum, which are usually collected on discretized grids with measurement errors. In order to accurately smooth noisy functional observations and deal with the issue of high-dimensional observation grids, we propose a novel Bayesian method based on the Bayesian hierarchical model with a Gaussian-Wishart process prior and basis function representations. We first derive an induced model for the basis-function coefficients of the functional data, and then use this model to conduct posterior inference through Markov chain Monte Carlo methods. Compared to the standard Bayesian inference that suffers serious computational burden and instability in analyzing high-dimensional functional data, our method greatly improves the computational scalability and stability, while inheriting the advantage of simultaneously smoothing raw observations and estimating the mean-covariance functions in a nonparametric way. In addition, our method can naturally handle functional data observed on random or uncommon grids. Simulation and real studies demonstrate that our method produces similar results to those obtainable by the standard Bayesian inference with low-dimensional common grids, while efficiently smoothing and estimating functional data with random and high-dimensional observation grids when the standard Bayesian inference fails. In conclusion, our method can efficiently smooth and estimate high-dimensional functional data, providing one way to resolve the curse of dimensionality for Bayesian functional data analysis with Gaussian-Wishart processes. © 2017, The International Biometric Society.

  19. Gravity induced wave function collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasbarri, G.; Toroš, M.; Donadi, S.; Bassi, A.

    2017-11-01

    Starting from an idea of S. L. Adler [in Quantum Nonlocality and Reality: 50 Years of Bell's Theorem, edited by M. Bell and S. Gao (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England 2016)], we develop a novel model of gravity induced spontaneous wave function collapse. The collapse is driven by complex stochastic fluctuations of the spacetime metric. After deriving the fundamental equations, we prove the collapse and amplification mechanism, the two most important features of a consistent collapse model. Under reasonable simplifying assumptions, we constrain the strength ξ of the complex metric fluctuations with available experimental data. We show that ξ ≥10-26 in order for the model to guarantee classicality of macro-objects, and at the same time ξ ≤10-20 in order not to contradict experimental evidence. As a comparison, in the recent discovery of gravitational waves in the frequency range 35 to 250 Hz, the (real) metric fluctuations reach a peak of ξ ˜10-21.

  20. Efficient Estimating Functions for Stochastic Differential Equations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Nina Munkholt

    The overall topic of this thesis is approximate martingale estimating function-based estimationfor solutions of stochastic differential equations, sampled at high frequency. Focuslies on the asymptotic properties of the estimators. The first part of the thesis deals with diffusions observed over...

  1. Multi functional roof structures of the energy efficient buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić Aleksandra

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern architectural concepts, which are based on rational energy consumption of buildings and the use of solar energy as a renewable energy source, give the new and significant role to the roofs that become multifunctional structures. Various energy efficient roof structures and elements, beside the role of protection, provide thermal and electric energy supply, natural ventilation and cooling of a building, natural lighting of the indoor space sunbeam protection, water supply for technical use, thus according to the above mentioned functions, classification and analysis of such roof structures and elements are made in this paper. The search for new architectural values and optimization in total energy balance of a building or the likewise for the urban complex, gave to roofs the role of "climatic membranes". Contemporary roof forms and materials clearly exemplify their multifunctional features. There are numerous possibilities to achieve the new and attractive roof design which broadens to the whole construction. With such inducement, this paper principally analyze the configuration characteristics of the energy efficient roof structures and elements, as well as the visual effects that may be achieved by their application.

  2. Efficient Estimating Functions for Stochastic Differential Equations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Nina Munkholt

    The overall topic of this thesis is approximate martingale estimating function-based estimationfor solutions of stochastic differential equations, sampled at high frequency. Focuslies on the asymptotic properties of the estimators. The first part of the thesis deals with diffusions observed over...... a fixed time interval. Rate optimal and effcient estimators areobtained for a one-dimensional diffusion parameter. Stable convergence in distribution isused to achieve a practically applicable Gaussian limit distribution for suitably normalisedestimators. In a simulation example, the limit distributions...... multidimensional parameter. Conditions for rate optimality and effciency of estimatorsof drift-jump and diffusion parameters are given in some special cases. Theseconditions are found to extend the pre-existing conditions applicable to continuous diffusions,and impose much stronger requirements on the estimating...

  3. Efficiency analysis of Chinese industry: A directional distance function approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Michio; Tanaka, Katsuya

    2007-01-01

    Two efficiency measures of Chinese industry were estimated at the provincial level from 1994 to 2002, using a directional output distance function. One is a traditional efficiency measure that considers only desirable output, while the other considers both desirable and undesirable outputs simultaneously. A comparison of the two measures revealed that efficiency levels are biased only if desirable output is considered. Five coastal provinces/municipalities that have attracted a large amount of foreign direct investment are found to be the most efficient when only desirable output is considered, and also when both desirable and undesirable outputs are considered. However, omitting undesirable output tends to lead to an overestimate of industrial efficiency levels in Shandong, Sichuan, and Hebei provinces. We also found that a province's industrial structure has significant effects on its efficiency levels

  4. Positive Wigner functions render classical simulation of quantum computation efficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mari, A; Eisert, J

    2012-12-07

    We show that quantum circuits where the initial state and all the following quantum operations can be represented by positive Wigner functions can be classically efficiently simulated. This is true both for continuous-variable as well as discrete variable systems in odd prime dimensions, two cases which will be treated on entirely the same footing. Noting the fact that Clifford and Gaussian operations preserve the positivity of the Wigner function, our result generalizes the Gottesman-Knill theorem. Our algorithm provides a way of sampling from the output distribution of a computation or a simulation, including the efficient sampling from an approximate output distribution in the case of sampling imperfections for initial states, gates, or measurements. In this sense, this work highlights the role of the positive Wigner function as separating classically efficiently simulable systems from those that are potentially universal for quantum computing and simulation, and it emphasizes the role of negativity of the Wigner function as a computational resource.

  5. Highly Efficient Coherent Optical Memory Based on Electromagnetically Induced Transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Ya-Fen; Tsai, Pin-Ju; Chen, Hung-Shiue; Lin, Sheng-Xiang; Hung, Chih-Chiao; Lee, Chih-Hsi; Chen, Yi-Hsin; Chen, Yong-Fan; Yu, Ite A.; Chen, Ying-Cheng

    2018-05-01

    Quantum memory is an important component in the long-distance quantum communication based on the quantum repeater protocol. To outperform the direct transmission of photons with quantum repeaters, it is crucial to develop quantum memories with high fidelity, high efficiency and a long storage time. Here, we achieve a storage efficiency of 92.0 (1.5)% for a coherent optical memory based on the electromagnetically induced transparency scheme in optically dense cold atomic media. We also obtain a useful time-bandwidth product of 1200, considering only storage where the retrieval efficiency remains above 50%. Both are the best record to date in all kinds of schemes for the realization of optical memory. Our work significantly advances the pursuit of a high-performance optical memory and should have important applications in quantum information science.

  6. The Efficiency of a Small-World Functional Brain Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Qing-Bai; ZHANG Xiao-Fei; SUI Dan-Ni; ZHOU Zhi-Jin; CHEN Qi-Cai; TANG Yi-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    We investigate whether the small-world topology of a functional brain network means high information processing efficiency by calculating the correlation between the small-world measures of a functional brain network and behavioral reaction during an imagery task.Functional brain networks are constructed by multichannel eventrelated potential data,in which the electrodes are the nodes and the functional connectivities between them are the edges.The results show that the correlation between small-world measures and reaction time is task-specific,such that in global imagery,there is a positive correlation between the clustering coefficient and reaction time,while in local imagery the average path length is positively correlated with the reaction time.This suggests that the efficiency of a functional brain network is task-dependent.%We investigate whether the small-world topology of a functional brain network means high information processing efficiency by calculating the correlation between the small-world measures of a functional brain network and behavioral reaction during an imagery task. Functional brain networks are constructed by multichannel event-related potential data, in which the electrodes are the nodes and the functional connectivities between them are the edges. The results show that the correlation between small-world measures and reaction time is task-specific, such that in global imagery, there is a positive correlation between the clustering coefficient and reaction time, while in local imagery the average path length is positively correlated with the reaction time. This suggests that the efficiency of a functional brain network is task-dependent.

  7. Functionalized Graphene Enables Highly Efficient Solar Thermal Steam Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Junlong; Pang, Yunsong; Huang, Weixin; Shaw, Scott K; Schiffbauer, Jarrod; Pillers, Michelle Anne; Mu, Xin; Luo, Shirui; Zhang, Teng; Huang, Yajiang; Li, Guangxian; Ptasinska, Sylwia; Lieberman, Marya; Luo, Tengfei

    2017-06-27

    The ability to efficiently utilize solar thermal energy to enable liquid-to-vapor phase transition has great technological implications for a wide variety of applications, such as water treatment and chemical fractionation. Here, we demonstrate that functionalizing graphene using hydrophilic groups can greatly enhance the solar thermal steam generation efficiency. Our results show that specially functionalized graphene can improve the overall solar-to-vapor efficiency from 38% to 48% at one sun conditions compared to chemically reduced graphene oxide. Our experiments show that such an improvement is a surface effect mainly attributed to the more hydrophilic feature of functionalized graphene, which influences the water meniscus profile at the vapor-liquid interface due to capillary effect. This will lead to thinner water films close to the three-phase contact line, where the water surface temperature is higher since the resistance of thinner water film is smaller, leading to more efficient evaporation. This strategy of functionalizing graphene to make it more hydrophilic can be potentially integrated with the existing macroscopic heat isolation strategies to further improve the overall solar-to-vapor conversion efficiency.

  8. Thymus function in drug-induced lupus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, R L; Salomon, D R; Guerrero, R S

    2001-01-01

    Autoimmunity develops when a lupus-inducing drug is introduced into the thymus of normal mice, but the relevance of this model to the human disorder is unclear in part because it is widely assumed that the thymus is non-functional in the adult. We compared thymus function in 10 patients with symptomatic procainamide-induced lupus to that in 13 asymptomatic patients who only developed drug-induced autoantibodies. T cell output from the thymus was quantified using a competitive polymerase chain reaction that detects T cell receptor DNA excision circles in peripheral blood lymphocytes. Despite the advanced age of the patient population under study, newly generated T cells were detected in all subjects. Although there was no overall quantitative difference between the symptomatic and asymptomatic patients, we found a positive correlation between the level of T cell receptor excision circles in peripheral lymphocytes and serum IgG anti-chromatin antibody activity in patients with drug-induced lupus. The association between autoantibodies and nascent peripheral T cells supports the requirement for T cells in autoantibody production. Our observations are consistent with findings in mice in which autoreactive T cells derived from drug-induced abnormalities in T cell development in the thymus.

  9. ERK mediated upregulation of death receptor 5 overcomes the lack of p53 functionality in the diaminothiazole DAT1 induced apoptosis in colon cancer models: efficiency of DAT1 in Ras-Raf mutated cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamkachy, Reshma; Kumar, Rohith; Rajasekharan, K N; Sengupta, Suparna

    2016-03-08

    p53 is a tumour suppressor protein that plays a key role in many steps of apoptosis, and malfunctioning of this transcription factor leads to tumorigenesis. Prognosis of many tumours also depends upon the p53 status. Most of the clinically used anticancer compounds activate p53 dependent pathway of apoptosis and hence require p53 for their mechanism of action. Further, Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK axis is an important signaling pathway activated in many cancers. Dependence of diaminothiazoles, compounds that have gained importance recently due to their anticancer and anti angiogenic activities, were tested in cancer models with varying p53 or Ras/Raf mutational status. In this study we have used p53 mutated and knock out colon cancer cells and xenograft tumours to study the role of p53 in apoptosis mediated by diaminothiazoles. Colon cancer cell lines with varying mutational status for Ras or Raf were also used. We have also examined the toxicity and in vivo efficacy of a lead diaminothiazole 4-Amino-5-benzoyl-2-(4-methoxy phenylamino)thiazole (DAT1) in colon cancer xenografts. We have found that DAT1 is active in both in vitro and in vivo models with nonfunctional p53. Earlier studies have shown that extrinsic pathway plays major role in DAT1 mediated apoptosis. In this study, we have found that DAT1 is causing p53 independent upregulation of the death receptor 5 by activating the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK signaling pathway both in wild type and p53 suppressed colon cancer cells. These findings are also confirmed by the in vivo results. Further, DAT1 is more efficient to induce apoptosis in colon cancer cells with mutated Ras or Raf. Minimal toxicity in both acute and subacute studies along with the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of DAT1 in cancers with both wild type and nonfunctional p53 place it as a highly beneficial candidate for cancer chemotherapy. Besides, efficiency in cancer cells with mutations in the Ras oncoprotein or its downstream kinase Raf raise interest in

  10. Interference of functional monomers with polymerization efficiency of adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanabusa, Masao; Yoshihara, Kumiko; Yoshida, Yasuhiro; Okihara, Takumi; Yamamoto, Takatsugu; Momoi, Yasuko; Van Meerbeek, Bart

    2016-04-01

    The degree of conversion (DC) of camphorquinone/amine-based adhesives is affected by acidic functional monomers as a result of inactivation of the amine co-initiator through an acid-base reaction. During bonding, functional monomers of self-etch adhesives chemically interact with hydroxyapatite (HAp). Here, we tested in how far the latter interaction of functional monomers with HAp counteracts the expected reduction in DC of camphorquinone/amine-based adhesives. The DC of three experimental adhesive formulations, containing either of the two functional monomers [10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate (10-MDP) or 4-methacryloxyethyl trimellitic acid anhydride (4-META)] or no functional monomer (no-FM; control), was measured with and without HAp powder added to the adhesive formulations. Both the variables 'functional monomer' and 'HAp' were found to be significant, with the functional monomer reducing the DC and HAp counteracting this effect. It is concluded that the functional monomers 10-MDP and 4-META interfere with the polymerization efficiency of adhesives. This interference is less prominent in the presence of HAp, which would clinically correspond to when these two functional monomers of the adhesive simultaneously interact with HAp in tooth tissue. © 2016 Eur J Oral Sci.

  11. Efficient quantum algorithm for computing n-time correlation functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedernales, J S; Di Candia, R; Egusquiza, I L; Casanova, J; Solano, E

    2014-07-11

    We propose a method for computing n-time correlation functions of arbitrary spinorial, fermionic, and bosonic operators, consisting of an efficient quantum algorithm that encodes these correlations in an initially added ancillary qubit for probe and control tasks. For spinorial and fermionic systems, the reconstruction of arbitrary n-time correlation functions requires the measurement of two ancilla observables, while for bosonic variables time derivatives of the same observables are needed. Finally, we provide examples applicable to different quantum platforms in the frame of the linear response theory.

  12. Efficient modified Jacobi relaxation for minimizing the energy functional

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, C.H.; Lee, I.; Chang, K.J.

    1993-01-01

    We present an efficient scheme of diagonalizing large Hamiltonian matrices in a self-consistent manner. In the framework of the preconditioned conjugate gradient minimization of the energy functional, we replace the modified Jacobi relaxation for preconditioning and use for band-by-band minimization the restricted-block Davidson algorithm, in which only the previous wave functions and the relaxation vectors are included additionally for subspace diagonalization. Our scheme is found to be comparable with the preconditioned conjugate gradient method for both large ordered and disordered Si systems, while it is more rapidly converged for systems with transition-metal elements

  13. Functionalization of graphene for efficient energy conversion and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Liming

    2013-01-15

    As global energy consumption accelerates at an alarming rate, the development of clean and renewable energy conversion and storage systems has become more important than ever. Although the efficiency of energy conversion and storage devices depends on a variety of factors, their overall performance strongly relies on the structure and properties of the component materials. Nanotechnology has opened up new frontiers in materials science and engineering to meet this challenge by creating new materials, particularly carbon nanomaterials, for efficient energy conversion and storage. As a building block for carbon materials of all other dimensionalities (such as 0D buckyball, 1D nanotube, 3D graphite), the two-dimensional (2D) single atomic carbon sheet of graphene has emerged as an attractive candidate for energy applications due to its unique structure and properties. Like other materials, however, a graphene-based material that possesses desirable bulk properties rarely features the surface characteristics required for certain specific applications. Therefore, surface functionalization is essential, and researchers have devised various covalent and noncovalent chemistries for making graphene materials with the bulk and surface properties needed for efficient energy conversion and storage. In this Account, I summarize some of our new ideas and strategies for the controlled functionalization of graphene for the development of efficient energy conversion and storage devices, such as solar cells, fuel cells, supercapacitors, and batteries. The dangling bonds at the edge of graphene can be used for the covalent attachment of various chemical moieties while the graphene basal plane can be modified via either covalent or noncovalent functionalization. The asymmetric functionalization of the two opposite surfaces of individual graphene sheets with different moieties can lead to the self-assembly of graphene sheets into hierarchically structured materials. Judicious

  14. Strategies for Improving siRNA-Induced Gene Silencing Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Fatemeh; Rahmani Barouji, Solmaz; Tamaddon, Ali Mohammad

    2017-12-01

    Purpose: Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) plays a crucial role in tumorigenesis and progression of cancers. Gene silencing of hTERT by short interfering RNA (siRNA) is considered as a promising strategy for cancer gene therapy. Various algorithms have been devised for designing a high efficient siRNA which is a significant issue in the clinical usage. Thereby, in the present study, the relation of siRNA designing criteria and the gene silencing efficiency was evaluated. Methods: The siRNA sequences were designed and characterized by using on line soft wares. Cationic co-polymer (polyethylene glycol-g-polyethylene imine (PEG-g-PEI)) was used for the construction of polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs) containing siRNAs. The cellular uptake of the PECs was evaluated. The gene silencing efficiency of different siRNA sequences was investigated and the effect of observing the rational designing on the functionality of siRNAs was assessed. Results: The size of PEG-g-PEI siRNA with N/P (Nitrogen/Phosphate) ratio of 2.5 was 114 ± 0.645 nm. The transfection efficiency of PECs was desirable (95.5% ± 2.4%.). The results of Real-Time PCR showed that main sequence (MS) reduced the hTERT expression up to 90% and control positive sequence (CPS) up to 63%. These findings demonstrated that the accessibility to the target site has priority than the other criteria such as sequence preferences and thermodynamic features. Conclusion: siRNA opens a hopeful window in cancer therapy which provides a convenient and tolerable therapeutic approach. Thereby, using the set of criteria and rational algorithms in the designing of siRNA remarkably affect the gene silencing efficiency.

  15. The Efficiency of Non-Flammable Functional Underwear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glombikova Viera

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the efficiency of non-flammable functional underwear used as a secondary heat barrier in extreme conditions. Five groups of knitted fabrics were analysed for flame resistance and selected physiological properties (water vapour permeability, air permeability, thermal resistance and liquid moisture transport by moisture management transport. The results indicated similar levels of flame resistance for the materials tested but show important differences in terms of physiological characteristics, namely liquid moisture transport, which influences the safety and comfort of protective clothing.

  16. Electron Beam Induced Functionalization of Fluoropolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lappan, U.

    2006-01-01

    Ionizing radiation affects the properties of polymers by chain scission and cross-linking reactions. One process will usually predominate, depending on the chemical structure of the polymer and the irradiation conditions such as temperature and atmosphere. Poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) and the perfluorinated copolymers poly(tetrafluoroethylene-co-hexafluoropropylene) (FEP) and poly(tetrafluoroethylene-co-perfluoropropylvinyl ether) (PFA) undergo predominantly chain scission, if the irradiation is performed at room temperature. This shortcoming is exploited by converting PTFE into low molecular weight micropowders. The irradiation of PTFE in the presence of air results in micropowders functionalized with oxygen-containing groups. The concentration of end groups was investigated by FTIR and 19F solid-state NMR. The data were used to calculate number-average molecular weights. It was demonstrated that PTFE can be cross-linked by irradiation above its crystalline melting temperature in an oxygen-free atmosphere. Evidence for cross-links in PTFE was derived directly from structural information using 19 F solid-state NMR. FEP is understood to undergo cross-linking by irradiation above the glass transition temperature. It was found that also PFA can be branched and cross-linked by irradiation under special conditions. Radiation-induced grafting of styrene into fluoropolymer films and subsequent sulfonation offers an attractive way to prepare proton exchange membranes. Recently, radiation-induced grafting into cross-linked PTFE was reported. Modified FEP, PFA and ETFE films have been used as base material in this study. The modified films have been prepared by irradiation in nitrogen atmosphere at different temperatures up to temperatures above the melting temperature of the fluoropolymer

  17. Memory-efficient analysis of dense functional connectomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Loewe

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The functioning of the human brain relies on the interplay and integration of numerous individual units within a complex network. To identify network configurations characteristic of specific cognitive tasks or mental illnesses, functional connectomes can be constructed based on the assessment of synchronous fMRI activity at separate brain sites, and then analyzed using graph-theoretical concepts. In most previous studies, relatively coarse parcellations of the brain were used to define regions as graphical nodes. Such parcellated connectomes are highly dependent on parcellation quality because regional and functional boundaries need to be relatively consistent for the results to be interpretable. In contrast, dense connectomes are not subject to this limitation, since the parcellation inherent to the data is used to define graphical nodes, also allowing for a more detailed spatial mapping of connectivity patterns. However, dense connectomes are associated with considerable computational demands in terms of both time and memory requirements. The memory required to explicitly store dense connectomes in main memory can render their analysis infeasible, especially when considering high-resolution data or analyses across multiple subjects or conditions. Here, we present an object-based matrix representation that achieves a very low memory footprint by computing matrix elements on demand instead of explicitly storing them. In doing so, memory required for a dense connectome is reduced to the amount needed to store the underlying time series data. Based on theoretical considerations and benchmarks, different matrix object implementations and additional programs (based on available Matlab functions and Matlab-based third-party software are compared with regard to their computational efficiency in terms of memory requirements and computation time. The matrix implementation based on on-demand computations has very low memory requirements thus enabling

  18. Memory-Efficient Analysis of Dense Functional Connectomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewe, Kristian; Donohue, Sarah E; Schoenfeld, Mircea A; Kruse, Rudolf; Borgelt, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The functioning of the human brain relies on the interplay and integration of numerous individual units within a complex network. To identify network configurations characteristic of specific cognitive tasks or mental illnesses, functional connectomes can be constructed based on the assessment of synchronous fMRI activity at separate brain sites, and then analyzed using graph-theoretical concepts. In most previous studies, relatively coarse parcellations of the brain were used to define regions as graphical nodes. Such parcellated connectomes are highly dependent on parcellation quality because regional and functional boundaries need to be relatively consistent for the results to be interpretable. In contrast, dense connectomes are not subject to this limitation, since the parcellation inherent to the data is used to define graphical nodes, also allowing for a more detailed spatial mapping of connectivity patterns. However, dense connectomes are associated with considerable computational demands in terms of both time and memory requirements. The memory required to explicitly store dense connectomes in main memory can render their analysis infeasible, especially when considering high-resolution data or analyses across multiple subjects or conditions. Here, we present an object-based matrix representation that achieves a very low memory footprint by computing matrix elements on demand instead of explicitly storing them. In doing so, memory required for a dense connectome is reduced to the amount needed to store the underlying time series data. Based on theoretical considerations and benchmarks, different matrix object implementations and additional programs (based on available Matlab functions and Matlab-based third-party software) are compared with regard to their computational efficiency. The matrix implementation based on on-demand computations has very low memory requirements, thus enabling analyses that would be otherwise infeasible to conduct due to

  19. Polymer density functional approach to efficient evaluation of path integrals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brukhno, Andrey; Vorontsov-Velyaminov, Pavel N.; Bohr, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    A polymer density functional theory (P-DFT) has been extended to the case of quantum statistics within the framework of Feynman path integrals. We start with the exact P-DFT formalism for an ideal open chain and adapt its efficient numerical solution to the case of a ring. We show that, similarly......, the path integral problem can, in principle, be solved exactly by making use of the two-particle pair correlation function (2p-PCF) for the ends of an open polymer, half of the original. This way the exact data for one-dimensional quantum harmonic oscillator are reproduced in a wide range of temperatures....... The exact solution is not, though, reachable in three dimensions (3D) because of a vast amount of storage required for 2p-PCF. In order to treat closed paths in 3D, we introduce a so-called "open ring" approximation which proves to be rather accurate in the limit of long chains. We also employ a simple self...

  20. Generation of functional podocytes from human induced pluripotent stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osele Ciampi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Generating human podocytes in vitro could offer a unique opportunity to study human diseases. Here, we describe a simple and efficient protocol for obtaining functional podocytes in vitro from human induced pluripotent stem cells. Cells were exposed to a three-step protocol, which induced their differentiation into intermediate mesoderm, then into nephron progenitors and, finally, into mature podocytes. After differentiation, cells expressed the main podocyte markers, such as synaptopodin, WT1, α-Actinin-4, P-cadherin and nephrin at the protein and mRNA level, and showed the low proliferation rate typical of mature podocytes. Exposure to Angiotensin II significantly decreased the expression of podocyte genes and cells underwent cytoskeleton rearrangement. Cells were able to internalize albumin and self-assembled into chimeric 3D structures in combination with dissociated embryonic mouse kidney cells. Overall, these findings demonstrate the establishment of a robust protocol that, mimicking developmental stages, makes it possible to derive functional podocytes in vitro.

  1. Multifunctional Efficiency: Extending the Concept of Atom Economy to Functional Nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Ralph; Lächelt, Ulrich; Gruber, Tobias; Rühle, Bastian; Wuttke, Stefan

    2018-03-27

    Green chemistry, in particular, the principle of atom economy, has defined new criteria for the efficient and sustainable production of synthetic compounds. In complex nanomaterials, the number of embedded functional entities and the energy expenditure of the assembly process represent additional compound-associated parameters that can be evaluated from an economic viewpoint. In this Perspective, we extend the principle of atom economy to the study and characterization of multifunctionality in nanocarriers, which we define as "multifunctional efficiency". This concept focuses on the design of highly active nanomaterials by maximizing integrated functional building units while minimizing inactive components. Furthermore, synthetic strategies aim to minimize the number of steps and unique reagents required to make multifunctional nanocarriers. The ultimate goal is to synthesize a nanocarrier that is highly specialized but practical and simple to make. Owing to straightforward crystal engineering, metal-organic framework (MOF) nanoparticles are an excellent example to illustrate the idea behind this concept and have the potential to emerge as next-generation drug delivery systems. Here, we highlight examples showing how the combination of the properties of MOFs ( e.g., their organic-inorganic hybrid nature, high surface area, and biodegradability) and induced systematic modifications and functionalizations of the MOF's scaffold itself lead to a nanocarrier with high multifunctional efficiency.

  2. On the functional form of an efficiency index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Keiding, Hans

    1998-01-01

    An input efficiency index gives a numeric assessment of the degree to which a given input combination falls short of being efficient in producing a fixed amount of output. This paper presents a system of axioms which characterise a certain family of efficiency indices containing the well-known Fa...

  3. A hypercrosslinking-induced self-assembly strategy for preparation of advanced hierarchical porous polymers with customizable functional components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hongji; Wu, Jinlun; Zheng, Bingna; Mai, Weicong; Xu, Fei; Chen, Luyi; Liu, Hao; Fu, Ruowen; Wu, Dingcai; Matyjaszewski, Krzysztof

    2017-05-09

    The fabrication of advanced hierarchical porous polymers with a unique 3D nanonetwork structure composed of functional core-microporous shell nanoparticles was reported based on the development of a simple and efficient hypercrosslinking-induced self-assembly strategy.

  4. Water use efficiency and functional traits of a semiarid shrubland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Priego, Oscar; Lopez-Ballesteros, Ana; Sánchez-Cañete, Enrique P.; Serrano-Ortiz, Penélope; Carrara, Arnaud; Palomares-Palacio, Agustí; Oyonarte, Cecilio; Domingo, Francisco; Kowalski, Andrew S.

    2013-04-01

    In semiarid climates, water is the fundamental factor determining ecosystem productivity and thereby the capacity for carbon sequestration. Increased water use efficiency (WUE), the ratio of carbon dioxide assimilation (canopy photosynthesis, Pc) to water transpired (canopy evaporation, Ec), is assumed to be an adaptive strategy for sclerophyll shrublands to improve productivity and stress resistance in water-limited environments. However, the real complexity of WUE lies in its dependence on both plant physiological traits (e.g. stomatal resistance, photosynthetic capacity, leaf chemical composition, structure) and on environmental conditions (e.g. atmospheric CO2 concentration, vapour pressure deficit, temperature, light, soil water availability). We used a transient-state closed canopy-chamber to characterise CO2 and water vapour exchanges at the whole plant scale under different environmental conditions and phenological stages. Diurnal and seasonal variations in Pc, Ec and WUE were explained by both physiological and environmental variables. All species showed symmetric patterns in both Pc and Ec when not water limited, but asymmetry during summer drought when leaf water potential was low. During drought, grasses (Festuca sp.) showed a marked decline in functioning (Pc and Ec), whereas shrubs (Genista sp., Hormathophylla sp.) maintained spring-like assimilation rates all morning until stomatal controls shut down gas exchanges. While grasses showed the highest WUE when not water limited, their near senescence during summer drought yielded the lowest WUE. Shrubs showed reduced WUE under moderate drought stress, in contradiction to the assumptions made in global ecosystem models. The importance of the appropriate time-scale for calculating WUE (daily versus hourly), together with water use strategies and ecological functions of individual species, will be further discussed.

  5. Chronic antiepileptic drug use and functional network efficiency: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Veenendaal, Tamar M; IJff, Dominique M; Aldenkamp, Albert P; Lazeron, Richard H C; Hofman, Paul A M; de Louw, Anton J A; Backes, Walter H; Jansen, Jacobus F A

    2017-06-28

    To increase our insight in the neuronal mechanisms underlying cognitive side-effects of antiepileptic drug (AED) treatment. The relation between functional magnetic resonance-acquired brain network measures, AED use, and cognitive function was investigated. Three groups of patients with epilepsy with a different risk profile for developing cognitive side effects were included: A "low risk" category (lamotrigine or levetiracetam, n = 16), an "intermediate risk" category (carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, phenytoin, or valproate, n = 34) and a "high risk" category (topiramate, n = 5). Brain connectivity was assessed using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging and graph theoretical network analysis. The Computerized Visual Searching Task was used to measure central information processing speed, a common cognitive side effect of AED treatment. Central information processing speed was lower in patients taking AEDs from the intermediate and high risk categories, compared with patients from the low risk category. The effect of risk category on global efficiency was significant ( P effect on the clustering coefficient (ANCOVA, P > 0.2). Also no significant associations between information processing speed and global efficiency or the clustering coefficient (linear regression analysis, P > 0.15) were observed. Only the four patients taking topiramate show aberrant network measures, suggesting that alterations in functional brain network organization may be only subtle and measureable in patients with more severe cognitive side effects.

  6. Efficient generation of rat induced pluripotent stem cells using a non-viral inducible vector.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Merkl

    Full Text Available Current methods of generating rat induced pluripotent stem cells are based on viral transduction of pluripotency inducing genes (Oct4, Sox2, c-myc and Klf4 into somatic cells. These activate endogenous pluripotency genes and reprogram the identity of the cell to an undifferentiated state. Epigenetic silencing of exogenous genes has to occur to allow normal iPS cell differentiation. To gain more control over the expression of exogenous reprogramming factors, we used a novel doxycycline-inducible plasmid vector encoding Oct4, Sox2, c-Myc and Klf4. To ensure efficient and controlled generation of iPS cells by plasmid transfection we equipped the reprogramming vector with a bacteriophage φC31 attB site and used a φC31 integrase expression vector to enhance vector integration. A series of doxycycline-independent rat iPS cell lines were established. These were characterized by immunocytochemical detection of Oct4, SSEA1 and SSEA4, alkaline phosphatase staining, methylation analysis of the endogenous Oct4 promoter and RT-PCR analysis of endogenous rat pluripotency genes. We also determined the number of vector integrations and the extent to which reprogramming factor gene expression was controlled. Protocols were developed to generate embryoid bodies and rat iPS cells demonstrated as pluripotent by generating derivatives of all three embryonic germ layers in vitro, and teratoma formation in vivo. All data suggest that our rat iPS cells, generated by plasmid based reprogramming, are similar to rat ES cells. Methods of DNA transfection, protein transduction and feeder-free monolayer culture of rat iPS cells were established to enable future applications.

  7. Evaluation of the cardiac efficiency by means of functional radiocardiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheibe, J; Stoll, W [Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet, Jena (German Democratic Republic). Bereich Medizin

    1982-01-01

    A new method of evaluating the cardiac efficiency by means of radiocardiography performed on exertion with /sup 113m/InCl is reported. Analysis of stroke volume, end diastolic volume and of the quotient of cardiac output to end diastolic volume on exertion enables an adequate evaluation of the actual myocardial efficiency.

  8. Mismatched single stranded antisense oligonucleotides can induce efficient dystrophin splice switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kole Ryszard

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antisense oligomer induced exon skipping aims to reduce the severity of Duchenne muscular dystrophy by redirecting splicing during pre-RNA processing such that the causative mutation is by-passed and a shorter but partially functional Becker muscular dystrophy-like dystrophin isoform is produced. Normal exons are generally targeted to restore the dystrophin reading frame however, an appreciable subset of dystrophin mutations are intra-exonic and therefore have the potential to compromise oligomer efficiency, necessitating personalised oligomer design for some patients. Although antisense oligomers are easily personalised, it remains unclear whether all patient polymorphisms within antisense oligomer target sequences will require the costly process of producing and validating patient specific compounds. Methods Here we report preclinical testing of a panel of splice switching antisense oligomers, designed to excise exon 25 from the dystrophin transcript, in normal and dystrophic patient cells. These patient cells harbour a single base insertion in exon 25 that lies within the target sequence of an oligomer shown to be effective at removing exon 25. Results It was anticipated that such a mutation would compromise oligomer binding and efficiency. However, we show that, despite the mismatch an oligomer, designed and optimised to excise exon 25 from the normal dystrophin mRNA, removes the mutated exon 25 more efficiently than the mutation-specific oligomer. Conclusion This raises the possibility that mismatched AOs could still be therapeutically applicable in some cases, negating the necessity to produce patient-specific compounds.

  9. Blazed Grating Resonance Conditions and Diffraction Efficiency Optical Transfer Function

    KAUST Repository

    Stegenburgs, Edgars

    2017-01-08

    We introduce a general approach to study diffraction harmonics or resonances and resonance conditions for blazed reflecting gratings providing knowledge of fundamental diffraction pattern and qualitative understanding of predicting parameters for the most efficient diffraction.

  10. Blazed Grating Resonance Conditions and Diffraction Efficiency Optical Transfer Function

    KAUST Repository

    Stegenburgs, Edgars; Alias, Mohd Sharizal B.; Ng, Tien Khee; Ooi, Boon S.

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a general approach to study diffraction harmonics or resonances and resonance conditions for blazed reflecting gratings providing knowledge of fundamental diffraction pattern and qualitative understanding of predicting parameters for the most efficient diffraction.

  11. Load Carriage Induced Alterations of Pulmonary Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    pulmonar , function reductions are directh’ related to the backpack load carried due to the mechanical constraint it imposes on the thoracic cage.2 To...and Fish- man. A.P.. 1965. The regulation of venttlation in diffuse Agostor. E.. D’Angelc, E. and Piolini, M., 1978. Breathing pulmonary fibrosis . J

  12. Accurate and efficient computation of synchrotron radiation functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLeod, Allan J.

    2000-01-01

    We consider the computation of three functions which appear in the theory of synchrotron radiation. These are F(x)=x∫x∞K 5/3 (y) dy))F p (x)=xK 2/3 (x) and G p (x)=x 1/3 K 1/3 (x), where K ν denotes a modified Bessel function. Chebyshev series coefficients are given which enable the functions to be computed with an accuracy of up to 15 sig. figures

  13. Extended passaging increases the efficiency of neural differentiation from induced pluripotent stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koehler Karl R

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs for the functional replacement of damaged neurons and in vitro disease modeling is of great clinical relevance. Unfortunately, the capacity of iPSC lines to differentiate into neurons is highly variable, prompting the need for a reliable means of assessing the differentiation capacity of newly derived iPSC cell lines. Extended passaging is emerging as a method of ensuring faithful reprogramming. We adapted an established and efficient embryonic stem cell (ESC neural induction protocol to test whether iPSCs (1 have the competence to give rise to functional neurons with similar efficiency as ESCs and (2 whether the extent of neural differentiation could be altered or enhanced by increased passaging. Results Our gene expression and morphological analyses revealed that neural conversion was temporally delayed in iPSC lines and some iPSC lines did not properly form embryoid bodies during the first stage of differentiation. Notably, these deficits were corrected by continual passaging in an iPSC clone. iPSCs with greater than 20 passages (late-passage iPSCs expressed higher expression levels of pluripotency markers and formed larger embryoid bodies than iPSCs with fewer than 10 passages (early-passage iPSCs. Moreover, late-passage iPSCs started to express neural marker genes sooner than early-passage iPSCs after the initiation of neural induction. Furthermore, late-passage iPSC-derived neurons exhibited notably greater excitability and larger voltage-gated currents than early-passage iPSC-derived neurons, although these cells were morphologically indistinguishable. Conclusions These findings strongly suggest that the efficiency neuronal conversion depends on the complete reprogramming of iPSCs via extensive passaging.

  14. Improving pancreatic islet in vitro functionality and transplantation efficiency by using heparin mimetic peptide nanofiber gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzunalli, Gozde; Tumtas, Yasin; Delibasi, Tuncay; Yasa, Oncay; Mercan, Sercan; Guler, Mustafa O; Tekinay, Ayse B

    2015-08-01

    Pancreatic islet transplantation is a promising treatment for type 1 diabetes. However, viability and functionality of the islets after transplantation are limited due to loss of integrity and destruction of blood vessel networks. Thus, it is important to provide a proper mechanically and biologically supportive environment for enhancing both in vitro islet culture and transplantation efficiency. Here, we demonstrate that heparin mimetic peptide amphiphile (HM-PA) nanofibrous network is a promising platform for these purposes. The islets cultured with peptide nanofiber gel containing growth factors exhibited a similar glucose stimulation index as that of the freshly isolated islets even after 7 days. After transplantation of islets to STZ-induced diabetic rats, 28 day-long monitoring displayed that islets that were transplanted in HM-PA nanofiber gels maintained better blood glucose levels at normal levels compared to the only islet transplantation group. In addition, intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test revealed that animals that were transplanted with islets within peptide gels showed a similar pattern with the healthy control group. Histological assessment showed that islets transplanted within peptide nanofiber gels demonstrated better islet integrity due to increased blood vessel density. This work demonstrates that using the HM-PA nanofiber gel platform enhances the islets function and islet transplantation efficiency both in vitro and in vivo. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Radioadaptive response. Efficient repair of radiation-induced DNA damage in adapted cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikushima, Takaji; Aritomi, Hisako; Morisita, Jun

    1996-01-01

    To verify the hypothesis that the induction of a novel, efficient repair mechanism for chromosomal DNA breaks may be involved in the radioadaptive response, the repair kinetics of DNA damage has been studied in cultured Chinese hamster V79 cells with single-cell gel electrophoresis. The cells were adapted by priming exposure with 5 cGy of γ-rays and 4-h incubation at 37C. There were no indication of any difference in the initial yields of DNA double-strand breaks induced by challenging doses from non-adapted cells and from adapted cells. The rejoining of DNA double-strand breaks was monitored over 120 min after the adapted cells were challenged with 5 or 1.5 Gy, doses at the same level to those used in the cytogenetical adaptive response. The rate of DNA damage repair in adapted cells was higher than that in non-adapted cells, and the residual damage was less in adapted cells than in non-adapted cells. These results indicate that the radioadaptive response may result from the induction of a novel, efficient DNA repair mechanism which leads to less residual damage, but not from the induction of protective functions that reduce the initial DNA damage

  16. Radiations - induced disorders in ovarian function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, S.; Roushdy, H.M.; Abdel-Aziz, M.T.; Eldenshary, A.E.; Abdel-Khalek, A.; Ramadan, L.A.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of whole body gamma radiation exposure (7.5 and 6.5 Gy) on the secretory activity and the structure of the ovaries was investigated. The parameters studied were serum levels of oestrogen, progesterone, Lh and FSH, beside histopathological studies of the ovaries of femaler rats. These were measured on the next day after radiation exposure and then after one two oestrus cycles. Whole body gamma - irradiation of females rats at two levels of exposure progressively decreased the level of oestrogen and progesterone while increased the level of LH and FSH as compared with the control. moreover, the changes in the ovaries were demonstrated in the histopathological investigation. Keywords: Radiation exposure - ovarian function - hormone radioimmunoassay - oestrogen - progesterone - LH - FSH

  17. Performance of SEM scintillation detector evaluated by modulation transfer function and detective quantum efficiency function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bok, Jan; Schauer, Petr

    2014-01-01

    In the paper, the SEM detector is evaluated by the modulation transfer function (MTF) which expresses the detector's influence on the SEM image contrast. This is a novel approach, since the MTF was used previously to describe only the area imaging detectors, or whole imaging systems. The measurement technique and calculation of the MTF for the SEM detector are presented. In addition, the measurement and calculation of the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) as a function of the spatial frequency for the SEM detector are described. In this technique, the time modulated e-beam is used in order to create well-defined input signal for the detector. The MTF and DQE measurements are demonstrated on the Everhart-Thornley scintillation detector. This detector was alternated using the YAG:Ce, YAP:Ce, and CRY18 single-crystal scintillators. The presented MTF and DQE characteristics show good imaging properties of the detectors with the YAP:Ce or CRY18 scintillator, especially for a specific type of the e-beam scan. The results demonstrate the great benefit of the description of SEM detectors using the MTF and DQE. In addition, point-by-point and continual-sweep e-beam scans in SEM were discussed and their influence on the image quality was revealed using the MTF. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Efficient approximation of black-box functions and Pareto sets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rennen, G.

    2009-01-01

    In the case of time-consuming simulation models or other so-called black-box functions, we determine a metamodel which approximates the relation between the input- and output-variables of the simulation model. To solve multi-objective optimization problems, we approximate the Pareto set, i.e. the

  19. Effective and efficient FPGA synthesis through general functional decomposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jozwiak, L.; Slusarczyk, A.S.; Chojnacki, A.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, a new information-driven circuit synthesis method is discussed that targets LUT-based FPGAs and FPGA-based reconfigurable system-on-a-chip platforms. The method is based on the bottom–up general functional decomposition and theory of information relationship measures that we

  20. Metal-functionalized silicene for efficient hydrogen storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Tanveer; Chakraborty, Sudip; Ahuja, Rajeev

    2013-10-21

    First-principles calculations based on density functional theory are used to investigate the electronic structure along with the stability, bonding mechanism, band gap, and charge transfer of metal-functionalized silicene to envisage its hydrogen-storage capacity. Various metal atoms including Li, Na, K, Be, Mg, and Ca are doped into the most stable configuration of silicene. The corresponding binding energies and charge-transfer mechanisms are discussed from the perspective of hydrogen-storage compatibility. The Li and Na metal dopants are found to be ideally suitable, not only for strong metal-to-substrate binding and uniform distribution over the substrate, but also for the high-capacity storage of hydrogen. The stabilities of both Li- and Na-functionalized silicene are also confirmed through molecular dynamics simulations. It is found that both of the alkali metals, Li(+) and Na(+), can adsorb five hydrogen molecules, attaining reasonably high storage capacities of 7.75 and 6.9 wt %, respectively, with average adsorption energies within the range suitable for practical hydrogen-storage applications. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Efficient molecular density functional theory using generalized spherical harmonics expansions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Lu; Levesque, Maximilien; Borgis, Daniel; Belloni, Luc

    2017-09-07

    We show that generalized spherical harmonics are well suited for representing the space and orientation molecular density in the resolution of the molecular density functional theory. We consider the common system made of a rigid solute of arbitrary complexity immersed in a molecular solvent, both represented by molecules with interacting atomic sites and classical force fields. The molecular solvent density ρ(r,Ω) around the solute is a function of the position r≡(x,y,z) and of the three Euler angles Ω≡(θ,ϕ,ψ) describing the solvent orientation. The standard density functional, equivalent to the hypernetted-chain closure for the solute-solvent correlations in the liquid theory, is minimized with respect to ρ(r,Ω). The up-to-now very expensive angular convolution products are advantageously replaced by simple products between projections onto generalized spherical harmonics. The dramatic gain in speed of resolution enables to explore in a systematic way molecular solutes of up to nanometric sizes in arbitrary solvents and to calculate their solvation free energy and associated microscopic solvent structure in at most a few minutes. We finally illustrate the formalism by tackling the solvation of molecules of various complexities in water.

  2. Light-induced lattice expansion leads to high-efficiency perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hsinhan; Asadpour, Reza; Blancon, Jean-Christophe; Stoumpos, Constantinos C.; Durand, Olivier; Strzalka, Joseph W.; Chen, Bo; Verduzco, Rafael; Ajayan, Pulickel M.; Tretiak, Sergei; Even, Jacky; Alam, Muhammad Ashraf; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.; Nie, Wanyi; Mohite, Aditya D.

    2018-04-01

    Light-induced structural dynamics plays a vital role in the physical properties, device performance, and stability of hybrid perovskite–based optoelectronic devices. We report that continuous light illumination leads to a uniform lattice expansion in hybrid perovskite thin films, which is critical for obtaining high-efficiency photovoltaic devices. Correlated, in situ structural and device characterizations reveal that light-induced lattice expansion benefits the performances of a mixed-cation pure-halide planar device, boosting the power conversion efficiency from 18.5 to 20.5%. The lattice expansion leads to the relaxation of local lattice strain, which lowers the energetic barriers at the perovskite-contact interfaces, thus improving the open circuit voltage and fill factor. The light-induced lattice expansion did not compromise the stability of these high-efficiency photovoltaic devices under continuous operation at full-spectrum 1-sun (100 milliwatts per square centimeter) illumination for more than 1500 hours.

  3. Efficient SO2 capture by amine functionalized PEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dezhong; Hou, Minqiang; Ning, Hui; Zhang, Jianling; Ma, Jun; Han, Buxing

    2013-11-07

    Polyethylene glycols (PEGs) are a class of non-toxic, non-volatile, biocompatible, and widely available polymers. In this work, we synthesized N-ethyl-N-(2-(2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethoxy)ethyl)-2-aminoethanol (EE3AE) that combines the properties of PEG and amines, and N-decyl-N-ethyl-2-aminoethanol (DEAE). Their performances to capture SO2 were studied at different temperatures, pressures, and absorption times. The interaction between the absorbents and SO2 were characterized by NMR and FTIR techniques. It was demonstrated that both EE3AE and DEAE could absorb SO2 efficiently, and there existed chemical and physical interactions between the absorbents and SO2. In particular, the absorption capacity of EE3AE could be as high as 1.09 g SO2 per g EE3AE at 1 atm. The absorption capacity of EE3AE was much larger than that of DEAE because the ether group in the EE3AE interacted with SO2 more strongly than the alkyl group in the DEAE. The SO2 absorbed by EE3AE could be stripped out by bubbling N2 or by applying a vacuum and the EE3AE could be reused. Moreover, both absorbents exhibited a high SO2-CO2 selectivity.

  4. Area-efficient physically unclonable function circuit architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurrieri, Thomas; Hamlet, Jason; Bauer, Todd; Helinski, Ryan; Pierson, Lyndon G

    2015-04-28

    Generating a physically a physically unclonable function ("PUF") circuit value includes comparing each of first identification components in a first bank to each of second identification components in a second bank. A given first identification component in the first bank is not compared to another first identification component in the first bank and a given second identification component in the second bank is not compared to another second identification component in the second bank. A digital bit value is generated for each comparison made while comparing each of the first identification components to each of the second identification components. A PUF circuit value is generated from the digital bit values from each comparison made.

  5. Natural RNA circles function as efficient microRNA sponges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Birkballe; Jensen, Trine I; Clausen, Bettina Hjelm

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression that act by direct base pairing to target sites within untranslated regions of messenger RNAs. Recently, miRNA activity has been shown to be affected by the presence of miRNA sponge transcripts, the so-called comp......MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression that act by direct base pairing to target sites within untranslated regions of messenger RNAs. Recently, miRNA activity has been shown to be affected by the presence of miRNA sponge transcripts, the so......-called competing endogenous RNA in humans and target mimicry in plants. We previously identified a highly expressed circular RNA (circRNA) in human and mouse brain. Here we show that this circRNA acts as a miR-7 sponge; we term this circular transcript ciRS-7 (circular RNA sponge for miR-7). ciRS-7 contains more...... sponge, suggesting that miRNA sponge effects achieved by circRNA formation are a general phenomenon. This study serves as the first, to our knowledge, functional analysis of a naturally expressed circRNA....

  6. Highly efficient transduction of human plasmacytoid dendritic cells without phenotypic and functional maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plumas Joel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene modified dendritic cells (DC are able to modulate DC functions and induce therapeutic immunity or tolerance in an antigen-specific manner. Among the different DC subsets, plasmacytoid DC (pDC are well known for their ability to recognize and respond to a variety of viruses by secreting high levels of type I interferon. Methods We analyzed here, the transduction efficiency of a pDC cell line, GEN2.2, and of pDC derived from CD34+ progenitors, using lentiviral vectors (LV pseudotyped with different envelope glycoproteins such as the vesicular stomatitis virus envelope (VSVG, the gibbon ape leukaemia virus envelope (GaLV or the feline endogenous virus envelope (RD114. At the same time, we evaluated transgene expression (E-GFP reporter gene under the control of different promoters. Results We found that efficient gene transfer into pDC can be achieved with VSVG-pseudotyped lentiviral vectors (LV under the control of phoshoglycerate kinase (PGK and elongation factor-1 (EF1α promoters (28% to 90% of E-GFP+ cells, respectively in the absence of phenotypic and functional maturation. Surprisingly, promoters (desmin or synthetic C5–12 described as muscle-specific and which drive gene expression in single strand AAV vectors in gene therapy protocols were very highly active in pDC using VSVG-LV. Conclusion Taken together, our results indicate that LV vectors can serve to design pDC-based vaccines in humans, and they are also useful in vitro to evaluate the immunogenicity of the vector preparations, and the specificity and safety of given promoters used in gene therapy protocols.

  7. Functionalized nanoparticles for AMF-induced gene and drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Souvik

    The properties and broad applications of nano-magnetic colloids have generated much interest in recent years. Specially, Fe3O4 nanoparticles have attracted a great deal of attention since their magnetic properties can be used for hyperthermia treatment or drug targeting. For example, enhanced levels of intracellular gene delivery can be achieved using Fe3O4 nano-vectors in the presence of an external magnetic field, a process known as 'magnetofection'. The low cytotoxicity, tunable particle size, ease of surface functionalization, and ability to generate thermal energy using an external alternating magnetic field (AMF) are properties have propelled Fe3O4 research to the forefront of nanoparticle research. The strategy of nanoparticle-mediated, AMF-induced heat generation has been used to effect intracellular hyperthermia. One application of this 'magnetic hyperthermia' is heat activated local delivery of a therapeutic effector (e.g.; drug or polynucleotide). This thesis describes the development of a magnetic nano-vector for AMF-induced, heat-activated pDNA and small molecule delivery. The use of heat-inducible vectors, such as heat shock protein ( hsp) genes, is a promising mode of gene therapy that would restrict gene expression to a local region by focusing a heat stimulus only at a target region. We thus aimed to design an Fe3O4 nanoparticle-mediated gene transfer vehicle for AMF-induced localized gene expression. We opted to use 'click' oximation techniques to assemble the magnetic gene transfer vector. Chapter 2 describes the synthesis, characterization, and transfection studies of the oxime ether lipid-based nano-magnetic vectors MLP and dMLP. The synthesis and characterization of a novel series of quaternary ammonium aminooxy reagents (2.1--2.4) is described. These cationic aminooxy compounds were loaded onto nanoparticles for ligation with carbonyl groups and also to impart a net positive charge on the nanoparticle surface. Our studies indicated that the

  8. Design of super-efficient mixer based on induced charge electroosmotic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Kai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The super-efficient sample mixing induced by the induced-charge electrokinetic flow around conducting/Janus cylinder was numerically studied in a confined |U-shaped microchannel with suddenly applied DC weak electric filed. It’s found that there are four large circulations around the conducting cylinder and two smaller circulations around the Janus cylinder. The results show that samples can still be well mixed with high flux due to the induced electroosmosis. It is demonstrated that the local flow circulations provide effective means to enhance the flow mixing between different solutions. The dependence of the degree of mixing enhancement on the electric field is also predicted.

  9. Mechanochemistry Induced Using Force Exerted by a Functionalized Microscope Tip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yajie; Wang, Yongfeng; Lü, Jing-Tao

    2017-01-01

    Atomic-scale mechanochemistry is realized from force exerted by a C60 -functionalized scanning tunneling microscope tip. Two conformers of tin phthalocyanine can be prepared on coinage-metal surfaces. A transition between these conformers is induced on Cu(111) and Ag(100). Density...

  10. Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells with high efficiency from human embryonic renal cortical cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Ling; Chen, Ruifang; Wang, Pu; Zhang, Qi; Tang, Hailiang; Sun, Huaping

    2016-01-01

    Reprogramming of somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) emerges as a prospective therapeutic angle in regenerative medicine and a tool for drug screening. Although increasing numbers of iPSCs from different sources have been generated, there has been limited progress in yield of iPSC. Here, we show that four Yamanaka factors Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc can convert human embryonic renal cortical cells (hERCCs) to pluripotent stem cells with a roughly 40-fold higher reprogramming efficiency compared with that of adult human dermal fibroblasts. These iPSCs show pluripotency in vitro and in vivo, as evidenced by expression of pluripotency associated genes, differentiation into three embryonic germ layers by teratoma tests, as well as neuronal fate specification by embryoid body formation. Moreover, the four exogenous genes are effectively silenced in these iPSCs. This study highlights the use of hERCCs to generate highly functional human iPSCs which may aid the study of genetic kidney diseases and accelerate the development of cell-based regenerative therapy.

  11. Decomposing productivity growth allowing efficiency gains and price-induced technical progress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Silva, E.; Stefanou, S.

    2000-01-01

    Time- and firm-specific output technical efficiency measures are generated within a price-induced technological change framework. The firm-specific production frontier incorporates past prices as an argument encouraging innovation and a time trend to account for exogenous technical change. The

  12. Sorbitol as an efficient reducing agent for laser-induced copper deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochemirovsky, V. A.; Logunov, L. S.; Safonov, S. V.; Tumkin, I. I.; Tver'yanovich, Yu. S.; Menchikov, L. G.

    2012-10-01

    We have pioneered in revealing the fact that sorbitol may be used as an efficient reducing agent in the process of laser-induced copper deposition from solutions; in this case, it is possible to obtain copper lines much higher quality than by using conventional formalin.

  13. The Approach to an Estimation of a Local Area Network Functioning Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Taraskin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article authors call attention to a choice of system of metrics, which permits to take a qualitative assessment of local area network functioning efficiency in condition of computer attacks.

  14. Tropolonate vs oxine 111-Indium platelet labeling: Comparison of efficiency, ultrastructure and function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spicer, K.M.; Lowe, L.; Gordon, L.

    1984-01-01

    Indium (I) labeled cells have proven valuable as a diagnostic tool. Recent reports indicate that Tropolonate (T) is superior to Oxine (0) as a chelator for Indium, due to its increased lipid solubility precluding cell exposure to injurious solvents. The authors examined in vivo biologic behavior of rabbit platelets (P) labeled by either IT or IO. Labeling efficiency for IT-P averaged 61% and for IO-P averaged 88%. The arachidonate induced aggregation of P labeled by both IT and 10 were normal; not significantly different from each other. Pulmonary clearance of labeled cells was determined by imaging with gamma camera and computer (256 byte, 500K count images). Average counts per pixel (ACP) wee determined at 15-minute intervals for lung (L) and blood pool (H) for 4 hours and at 24 hours. While ACP from both L and H decreased with time, in both the T and O labeled animals, the ratio of L to H (L/H) in the T rabbits was significantly lower than for O rabbits and remained so for 24 hours. At 24 hours, 0.15mg/kg oleic acid (OA) was infused via ear vein over 20 minutes. Images every 10 minutes for 2 hours were analyzed and ACP for L and H determined. The L/H for T rabbits rose 120% in an average of 46 minutes post OA insult. L/H rose an average of 44% in the O rabbits, and took longer to peak (81 min). Electron micrography revealed IO-P to have slightly more degranulation and vacuolization (thromborhexis) than the IT-P. The author conclude that while IT-P are labeled with less efficiency than the IO-P, adequate activity levels are obtained for diagnostic purposes, and ultrastructural and functional capabilities are better preserved with tropolonate labeling

  15. An efficient route towards the covalent functionalization of single walled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakade, Bhalchandra A.; Pillai, Vijayamohanan K.

    2008-01-01

    A simple and efficient method of chemical functionalization of both single and multiwalled carbon nanotubes has been discussed to give enhanced water solubility by rapidly and efficiently generating an appreciable amount of hydrophilic functional groups using microwave radiation. Surface functionalization containing more than 30 wt% of oxygen has been achieved, resulting into solubility of 2-5 mg/mL. Further covalent functionalization of such soluble SWNTs provides a remarkable degree of aniline functionalization through amidation, where the formation of polyaniline has been avoided. Functionalization of SWNTs is confirmed by techniques like electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetry, Raman spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy. Electrochemical analysis suggests an enhanced double layer capacitance (∼110 F/g) of nanotubes after microwave treatment. Aniline functionalization of SWNTs shows possible variations on the nanotube topography with concomitant formation of a dynamic polymer layer on the nanotube surface

  16. Relationship between thrombolysis efficiency induced by pulsed focused ultrasound and cavitation bubble size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, S; Liu, X; Wang, S; Wan, M

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the relationship between the efficiency of pulsed focused ultrasound (FUS)-induced thrombolysis and the size distribution of cavitation bubbles has been studied. Firstly, the thrombolysis efficiency, evaluated by degree of mechanical fragmentation was investigated with varying duty cycle. Secondly, the size distribution of cavitation bubbles after the 1st, 10 3 th and 10 5 th pulse during experiments for various duty cycles was studied. It was revealed that the thrombolysis efficiency was highest when the cavitation bubble size distribution was centred around linear resonance radius of the emission frequency of the FUS transducer. Therefore, in cavitation enhanced therapeutic applications, the essential of using a pulsed FUS may be controlling the size distribution of cavitation nuclei within an active size range so as to increase the treatment efficiency. (paper)

  17. Light-induced lattice expansion leads to high-efficiency perovskite solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Hsinhan; Asadpour, Reza; Blancon, Jean-Christophe; Stoumpos, Constantinos C.; Durand, Olivier; Strzalka, Joseph W.; Chen, Bo; Verduzco, Rafael; Ajayan, Pulickel M.; Tretiak, Sergei; Even, Jacky; Alam, Muhammad Ashraf; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.; Nie, Wanyi; Mohite, Aditya D.

    2018-04-05

    Hybrid-perovskite based high-performance optoelectronic devices and clues from their operation has led to the realization that light-induced structural dynamics play a vital role on their physical properties, device performance and stability. Here, we report that continuous light illumination leads to a uniform lattice expansion in hybrid perovskite thin-films, which is critical for obtaining high-efficiency photovoltaic devices. Correlated, in-situ structural and device characterizations reveal that light-induced lattice expansion significantly benefits the performances of a mixed-cation pure-halide planar device, boosting the power conversion efficiency from 18.5% to 20.5%. This is a direct consequence of the relaxation of local lattice strains during lattice expansion, which results in the reduction of the energetic barriers at the perovskite/contact interfaces in devices, thus improving the open circuit voltage and fill factor. The light-induced lattice expansion stabilizes these high-efficiency photovoltaic devices under continuous operation of full-spectrum 1-Sun illumination for over 1500 hours. One Sentence Summary: Light-induced lattice expansion improves crystallinity, relaxes lattice strain, which enhances photovoltaic performance in hybrid perovskite device.

  18. Heavy component of spent nuclear fuel: Efficiency of model-substance ionization by electron-induced discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonov, N. N., E-mail: antonovnickola@gmail.com; Gavrikov, A. V.; Samokhin, A. A.; Smirnov, V. P. [Russian Academy of Sciences, High Energy Density Research Center, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    The method of plasma separation of spent nuclear fuel can be tested with a model substance which has to be transformed from the condensed to plasma state. For this purpose, electron-induced discharge in lead vapor injected into the interelectrode gap is simulated using the kinetic approach. The ionization efficiency, the electrostatic-potential distribution, and those of the ion and electron densities in the discharge gap are derived as functions of the discharge-current density and concentration of the vapor of the model substance. Given a discharge-current density of 3.5 A/cm{sup 2} and a lead-vapor concentration of 2 × 10{sup 12} cm{sup –3}, the simulated ionization efficiency proves to be nearly 60%. The discharge in lead vapor is also investigated experimentally.

  19. Extracellular Enzyme Composition and Functional Characteristics of Aspergillus niger An-76 Induced by Food Processing Byproducts and Based on Integrated Functional Omics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lin; Gong, Weili; Sun, Xiaomeng; Chen, Guanjun; Wang, Lushan

    2018-02-07

    Byproducts of food processing can be utilized for the production of high-value-added enzyme cocktails. In this study, we utilized integrated functional omics technology to analyze composition and functional characteristics of extracellular enzymes produced by Aspergillus niger grown on food processing byproducts. The results showed that oligosaccharides constituted by arabinose, xylose, and glucose in wheat bran were able to efficiently induce the production of extracellular enzymes of A. niger. Compared with other substrates, wheat bran was more effective at inducing the secretion of β-glucosidases from GH1 and GH3 families, as well as >50% of proteases from A1-family aspartic proteases. Compared with proteins induced by single wheat bran or soybean dregs, the protein yield induced by their mixture was doubled, and the time required to reach peak enzyme activity was shortened by 25%. This study provided a technical platform for the complex formulation of various substrates and functional analysis of extracellular enzymes.

  20. Cryptanalysis of Lin et al.'s Efficient Block-Cipher-Based Hash Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Bozhong; Gong, Zheng; Chen, Xiaohong; Qiu, Weidong; Zheng, Dong

    2010-01-01

    Hash functions are widely used in authentication. In this paper, the security of Lin et al.'s efficient block-cipher-based hash function is reviewed. By using Joux's multicollisions and Kelsey et al.'s expandable message techniques, we find the scheme is vulnerable to collision, preimage and second

  1. Acquired phototrophy through retention of functional chloroplasts increases growth efficiency of the sea slug Elysia viridis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finn A Baumgartner

    Full Text Available Photosynthesis is a fundamental process sustaining heterotrophic organisms at all trophic levels. Some mixotrophs can retain functional chloroplasts from food (kleptoplasty, and it is hypothesized that carbon acquired through kleptoplasty may enhance trophic energy transfer through increased host growth efficiency. Sacoglossan sea slugs are the only known metazoans capable of kleptoplasty, but the relative fitness contributions of heterotrophy through grazing, and phototrophy via kleptoplasts, are not well understood. Fitness benefits (i.e. increased survival or growth of kleptoplasty in sacoglossans are commonly studied in ecologically unrealistic conditions under extended periods of complete darkness and/or starvation. We compared the growth efficiency of the sacoglossan Elysia viridis with access to algal diets providing kleptoplasts of differing functionality under ecologically relevant light conditions. Individuals fed Codium fragile, which provide highly functional kleptoplasts, nearly doubled their growth efficiency under high compared to low light. In contrast, individuals fed Cladophora rupestris, which provided kleptoplasts of limited functionality, showed no difference in growth efficiency between light treatments. Slugs feeding on Codium, but not on Cladophora, showed higher relative electron transport rates (rETR in high compared to low light. Furthermore, there were no differences in the consumption rates of the slugs between different light treatments, and only small differences in nutritional traits of algal diets, indicating that the increased growth efficiency of E. viridis feeding on Codium was due to retention of functional kleptoplasts. Our results show that functional kleptoplasts from Codium can provide sacoglossan sea slugs with fitness advantages through photosynthesis.

  2. Efficiency Of The Photodynamic Therapy Using Gold Nanoparticles (np-Au) And PpIX Induced And Not Induced

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maldonado-Alvarado, Elizabeth; Ramon-Gallegos, Eva; Arenas-Huertero, Francisco jesus; Reyes-Arellano, Alicia; Tanori-Cordova, Judith; Sanchez-Espindola, Maria Esther; Jimenez-Perez, Jose Luis; Cruz-Orea, Alfredo

    2008-01-01

    The use of gold nanoparticles (np-Au) to eliminate cancer has proved to be very effective due to the fact that cancerous cells accumulate it 600% more than healthy cells. In addition they have a high capacity of absorption and dispersion of light. Therefore, the effectiveness of photodynamic therapy (PDT) could be improved by the simultaneous use of np-Au and photosensitizes (Ps), emphasizing the high efficiency of the PDT to diagnose and to treat pre-malignant and malignant processes. The aim of this work was to determine the efficiency of PDT using np-Au and protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) induced and not induced by the δ-aminolevulinic acid (ALA). It were found the conditions of synthesis of hydrosoluble np-Au, and were characterized by transmission electronic microscopy (TEM) and UV-VIS spectroscopy. It was realized a kinetic by TEM to determine the cellular incorporation time of np-Au, the maximum incorporation of np-Au was of 16 h. PDT was applied using different doses of np-Au and photosensitizers. It was observed that the use of PDT simultaneously with np-Au did not increase the mortality of HeLa cells. In the case of C33, when PpIX not induced is used as photosensitizer simultaneously with np-Au, the mortality increased 20%

  3. How to improve the efficient use of functional vision of people with visual impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Mohorko, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Barraga was the first researcher to study the effects of a special program for developing visual efficiency which showed improvements in visual acuity and visual functioning in blind children with remaining vision. Her breakthrough findings helped develop new theories of visual functioning. These theories represent a foundation from which a professional can understand the visual functioning of an individual with low vision. Providing opportunities for individuals to learn how to use their vis...

  4. Disrupted Module Efficiency of Structural and Functional Brain Connectomes in Clinically Isolated Syndrome and Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaou Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have demonstrated disrupted topological organization of brain connectome in multiple sclerosis (MS. However, whether the communication efficiency between different functional systems is affected in the early stage of MS remained largely unknown. In this study, we constructed the structural connectivity (SC and functional connectivity (FC networks in 41 patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS, 32 MS patients and 35 healthy controls (HC based on diffusion and resting-state functional MRI. To quantify the communication efficiency within and between different functional systems, we proposed two measures called intra- and inter-module efficiency. Based on the module parcellation of functional backbone network, the intra- and inter-module efficiency of SC and FC networks was calculated for each participant. For the SC network, CIS showed decreased inter-module efficiency between the sensory-motor network (SMN, the visual network (VN, the default-mode network (DMN and the fronto-parietal network (FPN compared with HC, while MS showed more widespread decreased module efficiency both within and between modules relative to HC and CIS. For the FC network, no differences were found between CIS and HC, and a decreased inter-module efficiency between SMN and FPN and between VN and FPN was identified in MS, compared with HC and CIS. Moreover, both intra- and inter-module efficiency of SC network were correlated with the disability and cognitive scores in MS. Therefore, our results demonstrated early SC changes between modules in CIS, and more widespread SC alterations and inter-module FC changes were observed in MS, which were further associated with cognitive impairment and physical disability.

  5. An efficient cost function for the optimization of an n-layered isotropic cloaked cylinder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, Jason V; Collins, Peter J; Coutu, Ronald A Jr

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present an efficient cost function for optimizing n-layered isotropic cloaked cylinders. Cost function efficiency is achieved by extracting the expression for the angle independent scatterer contribution of an associated Green's function. Therefore, since this cost function is not a function of angle, accounting for every bistatic angle is not necessary and thus more efficient than other cost functions. With this general and efficient cost function, isotropic cloaked cylinders can be optimized for many layers and material parameters. To demonstrate this, optimized cloaked cylinders made of 10, 20 and 30 equal thickness layers are presented for TE and TM incidence. Furthermore, we study the effect layer thickness has on optimized cloaks by optimizing a 10 layer cloaked cylinder over the material parameters and individual layer thicknesses. The optimized material parameters in this effort do not exhibit the dual nature that is evident in the ideal transformation optics design. This indicates that the inevitable field penetration and subsequent PEC boundary condition at the cylinder must be taken into account for an optimal cloaked cylinder design. Furthermore, a more effective cloaked cylinder can be designed by optimizing both layer thickness and material parameters than by additional layers alone. (paper)

  6. Functional cerebral lateralization and dual-task efficiency-testing the function of human brain lateralization using fTCD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lust, J. M.; Geuze, R. H.; Groothuis, A. G. G.; Bouma, A.; Bouma, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that functional cerebral lateralization enhances cognitive performance. Evidence was found in birds and fish. Our study aimed to test this hypothesis by analyzing the relationship between cerebral lateralization and both single-task performance and dual-task efficiency in

  7. Chronic antiepileptic drug use and functional network efficiency : a functional magnetic resonance imaging study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veenendaal, T.M.; IJff, D.M.; Aldenkamp, A.P.; Lazeron, R.H.C.; Hofman, P.A.M.; de Louw, A.J.A.; Backes, W.H.; Jansen, J.F.A.

    2017-01-01

    AIM: To increase our insight in the neuronal mechanisms underlying cognitive side-effects of antiepileptic drug (AED) treatment. METHODS: The relation between functional magnetic resonance-acquired brain network measures, AED use, and cognitive function was investigated. Three groups of patients

  8. TECHNICAL EFFICIENCY AND TECHNICAL LEVEL INDICATORS APPLICATION FOR CIVIL AIRCRAFT FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim V. Efimov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional properties characterize the purpose of the aircraft and are described by its flight performance characteristics such as range and cruising speed, payload, runway characteristics, etc. Functional properties also characterize the aircraft efficiency that determines the objective need for their analysis by both aircraft designers and operators in conditions of permanent and systematic efficiency increase necessity. When choosing the aircraft, it is important for the operator to make sure that a selected aircraft type has a high level of functional properties, which will allow it to provide high operational efficiency without obsolescence in the long term. However, when choosing from several aircraft types the operator has to face the fact that some characteristics of considered aircraft variants are better and the others are worse that does not allow to definitely determine what aircraft type has a higher level of functional properties.The possibility of applying technical efficiency indicators and a generalized technical level indicator for analyzing the functional properties of civil aviation aircraft is explored in this article. Fuel, weight and target efficiency values as well as the previously improved technical level indicator value were calculated for the different generations and modifications of Boeing 737 and Airbus A320 families of medium-range airplanes, which was followed by the results interpretation within one airplane generation and when moving historically from one airplane generation to another. According to analysis results it is concluded that it is impossible to define the change of the aircraft functional properties level by the change in the values of separate technical efficiency indicators. Thus, it is proposed to use a generalized technical level indicator that determines the level of aircraft technical perfection for purpose and to use efficiency indicators to analyze the cost of providing this level of

  9. Efficient and Cost-Effective Generation of Mature Neurons From Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Badja , Cherif; Maleeva , Galyna; El-Yazidi , Claire; Barruet , Emilie; Lasserre , Manon; Tropel , Philippe; Binetruy , Bernard; Bregestovski , Piotr; Magdinier , Frédérique

    2014-01-01

    The authors describe a feeder-free method of generating induced pluripotent stem cells by relying on the use of a chemically defined medium that overcomes the need for embryoid body formation and neuronal rosette isolation for neuronal precursors and terminally differentiated neuron production. This specific and efficient single-step strategy allows the production of mature neurons in 20–40 days with multiple applications, especially for modeling human pathologies.

  10. An efficient method for hybrid density functional calculation with spin-orbit coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Maoyuan; Liu, Gui-Bin; Guo, Hong; Yao, Yugui

    2018-03-01

    In first-principles calculations, hybrid functional is often used to improve accuracy from local exchange correlation functionals. A drawback is that evaluating the hybrid functional needs significantly more computing effort. When spin-orbit coupling (SOC) is taken into account, the non-collinear spin structure increases computing effort by at least eight times. As a result, hybrid functional calculations with SOC are intractable in most cases. In this paper, we present an approximate solution to this problem by developing an efficient method based on a mixed linear combination of atomic orbital (LCAO) scheme. We demonstrate the power of this method using several examples and we show that the results compare very well with those of direct hybrid functional calculations with SOC, yet the method only requires a computing effort similar to that without SOC. The presented technique provides a good balance between computing efficiency and accuracy, and it can be extended to magnetic materials.

  11. Efficient and Flexible Computation of Many-Electron Wave Function Overlaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plasser, Felix; Ruckenbauer, Matthias; Mai, Sebastian; Oppel, Markus; Marquetand, Philipp; González, Leticia

    2016-03-08

    A new algorithm for the computation of the overlap between many-electron wave functions is described. This algorithm allows for the extensive use of recurring intermediates and thus provides high computational efficiency. Because of the general formalism employed, overlaps can be computed for varying wave function types, molecular orbitals, basis sets, and molecular geometries. This paves the way for efficiently computing nonadiabatic interaction terms for dynamics simulations. In addition, other application areas can be envisaged, such as the comparison of wave functions constructed at different levels of theory. Aside from explaining the algorithm and evaluating the performance, a detailed analysis of the numerical stability of wave function overlaps is carried out, and strategies for overcoming potential severe pitfalls due to displaced atoms and truncated wave functions are presented.

  12. Fast-twitch glycolytic skeletal muscle is predisposed to age-induced impairments in mitochondrial function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobs, Robert A; Díaz, Víctor; Soldini, Lavinia

    2013-01-01

    The etiology of mammalian senescence is suggested to involve the progressive impairment of mitochondrial function; however, direct observations of age-induced alterations in actual respiratory chain function are lacking. Accordingly, we assessed mitochondrial function via high-resolution respirom......The etiology of mammalian senescence is suggested to involve the progressive impairment of mitochondrial function; however, direct observations of age-induced alterations in actual respiratory chain function are lacking. Accordingly, we assessed mitochondrial function via high......-resolution respirometry and mitochondrial protein expression in soleus, quadricep, and lateral gastrocnemius skeletal muscles, which represent type 1 slow-twitch oxidative muscle (soleus) and type 2 fast-twitch glycolytic muscle (quadricep and gastrocnemius), respectively, in young (10-12 weeks) and mature (74-76 weeks......) mice. Electron transport through mitochondrial complexes I and III increases with age in quadricep and gastrocnemius, which is not observed in soleus. Mitochondrial coupling efficiency during respiration through complex I also deteriorates with age in gastrocnemius and shows a tendency (p = .085...

  13. Streptavidin-functionalized capillary immune microreactor for highly efficient chemiluminescent immunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Zhanjun [State Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, Department of Chemistry, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); College of Chemistry and Engineering, Yangzhou University, 88 South University Avenue, Yangzhou 225002 (China); Zong Chen [State Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, Department of Chemistry, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Ju Huangxian, E-mail: hxju@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, Department of Chemistry, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Yan Feng, E-mail: yanfeng2007@sohu.com [Jiangsu Institute of Cancer Prevention and Cure, Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2011-11-07

    Highlights: {yields} A novel capillary immune microreactor was proposed for highly efficient flow-through chemiluminescent immunoassay. {yields} The microreactor was prepared by functionalizing capillary inner wall with streptavidin for capture of biotinylated antibody. {yields} The proposed immunoassay method showed wide dynamic range, good reproducibility, stability and practicality. {yields} The microreactor was low-cost and disposable, and possessed several advantages over the conventional immunoreactors. - Abstract: A streptavidin functionalized capillary immune microreactor was designed for highly efficient flow-through chemiluminescent (CL) immunoassay. The functionalized capillary could be used as both a support for highly efficient immobilization of antibody and a flow cell for flow-through immunoassay. The functionalized inner wall and the capture process were characterized using scanning electron microscopy. Compared to conventional packed tube or thin-layer cell immunoreactor, the proposed microreactor showed remarkable properties such as lower cost, simpler fabrication, better practicality and wider dynamic range for fast CL immunoassay with good reproducibility and stability. Using {alpha}-fetoprotein as model analyte, the highly efficient CL flow-through immunoassay system showed a linear range of 3 orders of magnitude from 0.5 to 200 ng mL{sup -1} and a low detection limit of 0.1 ng mL{sup -1}. The capillary immune microreactor could make up the shortcoming of conventional CL immunoreactors and provided a promising alternative for highly efficient flow-injection immunoassay.

  14. Rethinking platelet function: thrombocytopenia induced immunodeficiency in critical illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostrowski, Sisse R; Johansson, Per Ingemar

    2011-01-01

    Thrombocytopenia in critical illness predicts a poor clinical outcome. Apart from its role in microvascular thrombus formation, it is widely anticipated that this association is indirect rather than causal. Emerging evidence however indicates that platelets are also immune competent cells. Like...... per se results in immunodeficiency through loss of platelet-mediated immune functions, and propose that thrombocytopenia induced immunodeficiency in critical illness in part explain the negative predictive value of low or declining platelet count. We propose that rethinking the risks...... of thrombocytopenia to include not only bleeding but also immunodeficiency and immune dysregulation along with the conduct of studies investigating mechanisms contributing to thrombocytopenia induced poor non-hemorrhagic outcome in critical illness, may be means to improve outcome in these patients through...

  15. Functional Sites Induce Long-Range Evolutionary Constraints in Enzymes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin R Jack

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Functional residues in proteins tend to be highly conserved over evolutionary time. However, to what extent functional sites impose evolutionary constraints on nearby or even more distant residues is not known. Here, we report pervasive conservation gradients toward catalytic residues in a dataset of 524 distinct enzymes: evolutionary conservation decreases approximately linearly with increasing distance to the nearest catalytic residue in the protein structure. This trend encompasses, on average, 80% of the residues in any enzyme, and it is independent of known structural constraints on protein evolution such as residue packing or solvent accessibility. Further, the trend exists in both monomeric and multimeric enzymes and irrespective of enzyme size and/or location of the active site in the enzyme structure. By contrast, sites in protein-protein interfaces, unlike catalytic residues, are only weakly conserved and induce only minor rate gradients. In aggregate, these observations show that functional sites, and in particular catalytic residues, induce long-range evolutionary constraints in enzymes.

  16. Oxidative stress induced inflammation initiates functional decline of tear production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Uchino

    Full Text Available Oxidative damage and inflammation are proposed to be involved in an age-related functional decline of exocrine glands. However, the molecular mechanism of how oxidative stress affects the secretory function of exocrine glands is unclear. We developed a novel mev-1 conditional transgenic mouse model (Tet-mev-1 using a modified tetracycline system (Tet-On/Off system. This mouse model demonstrated decreased tear production with morphological changes including leukocytic infiltration and fibrosis. We found that the mev-1 gene encodes Cyt-1, which is the cytochrome b(560 large subunit of succinate-ubiquinone oxidoreductase in complex II of mitochondria (homologous to succinate dehydrogenase C subunit (SDHC in humans. The mev-1 gene induced excessive oxidative stress associated with ocular surface epithelial damage and a decrease in protein and aqueous secretory function. This new model provides evidence that mitochondrial oxidative damage in the lacrimal gland induces lacrimal dysfunction resulting in dry eye disease. Tear volume in Tet-mev-1 mice was lower than in wild type mice and histopathological analyses showed the hallmarks of lacrimal gland inflammation by intense mononuclear leukocytic infiltration and fibrosis in the lacrimal gland of Tet-mev-1 mice. These findings strongly suggest that oxidative stress can be a causative factor for the development of dry eye disease.

  17. Prevention of shockwave induced functional and morphological alterations: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarica, Kemal; Yencilek, Faruk

    2008-03-01

    Experimental as well as clinical findings reported in the literature suggest that treatment with shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) causes renal parenchymal damage mainly by generating free radicals through ischaemia/reperfusion injury mechanism. Although SWL-induced renal damage is well tolerated in the majority of healthy cases with no permanent functional and/or morphologic side effects, a subset of patients with certain risk factors requires close attention on this aspect among which the ones with pre-existing renal disorders, urinary tract infection, previous lithotripsy history and solitary kidneys could be mentioned. It is clear that in such patients lowering the number of shock waves (per session) could be beneficial and has been applied by the physicians as the first practical step of diminishing SWL induced parenchymal damage. On the other hand, taking the injurious effects of high energy shock wave (HESW) induced free radical formation on renal parenchyma and subsequent histopathologic alterations into account, physicians searched for some protective agents in an attempt to prevent or at least to limit the extent of the functional as well as the morphologic alterations. Among these agents calcium channel blocking agents (verapamil and nifedipine), antioxidant agents (allopurinol, vitamin E and selenium) and potassium citrate have been used to minimize these adverse effects. Additionally, therapeutic application of these agents on reducing stone recurrence particularly after SWL will gain more importance in the future in order to limit new stone formation in these cases. Lastly, as experimental and clinical studies have demonstrated, combination of anti-oxidants with free radical scavengers may provide superior renal protection against shock wave induced trauma. However, we believe that further investigations are certainly needed to determine the dose-response relationship between the damaging effects of SWL application and the protective role of these agents.

  18. Bobath Concept versus constraint-induced movement therapy to improve arm functional recovery in stroke patients: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huseyinsinoglu, Burcu Ersoz; Ozdincler, Arzu Razak; Krespi, Yakup

    2012-08-01

    To compare the effects of the Bobath Concept and constraint-induced movement therapy on arm functional recovery among stroke patients with a high level of function on the affected side. A single-blinded, randomized controlled trial. Outpatient physiotherapy department of a stroke unit. A total of 24 patients were randomized to constraint-induced movement therapy or Bobath Concept group. The Bobath Concept group was treated for 1 hour whereas the constraint-induced movement therapy group received training for 3 hours per day during 10 consecutive weekdays. Main measures were the Motor Activity Log-28, the Wolf Motor Function Test, the Motor Evaluation Scale for Arm in Stroke Patients and the Functional Independence Measure. The two groups were found to be homogeneous based on demographic variables and baseline measurements. Significant improvements were seen after treatment only in the 'Amount of use' and 'Quality of movement' subscales of the Motor Activity Log-28 in the constraint-induced movement therapy group over the the Bobath Concept group (P = 0.003; P = 0.01 respectively). There were no significant differences in Wolf Motor Function Test 'Functional ability' (P = 0.137) and 'Performance time' (P = 0.922), Motor Evaluation Scale for Arm in Stroke Patients (P = 0.947) and Functional Independence Measure scores (P = 0.259) between the two intervention groups. Constraint-induced movement therapy and the Bobath Concept have similar efficiencies in improving functional ability, speed and quality of movement in the paretic arm among stroke patients with a high level of function. Constraint-induced movement therapy seems to be slightly more efficient than the Bobath Concept in improving the amount and quality of affected arm use.

  19. Impaired quality and efficiency of sleep impairs cognitive functioning in Addison's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Michelle; Ross, Ian Louis; Wolf, Pedro Sofio Abril; Thomas, Kevin Garth Flusk

    2017-04-01

    Standard replacement therapy for Addison's disease (AD) does not restore a normal circadian rhythm. Periods of sub- and supra- physiological cortisol levels experienced by patients with AD likely induce disrupted sleep. Given that healthy sleep plays an important role in memory consolidation, the novelty of the current study was to characterise, using objective measures, the relationship between sleep and memory in patients with AD, and to examine the hypothesis that poor sleep is a biological mechanism underlying memory impairment in those patients. We used a within-subjects design. Ten patients with AD and 10 matched healthy controls completed standardised neuropsychological tests assessing declarative memory (Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test) and procedural memory (Finger Tapping Task) before and after a period of actigraphy-measured sleep, and before and after a period of waking. Relative to healthy controls, patients with AD experienced disrupted sleep characterised by poorer sleep efficiency and more time spent awake. Patients also showed impaired verbal learning and memory relative to healthy controls (p=0.007). Furthermore, whereas healthy controls' declarative memory performance benefited from a period of sleep compared to waking (p=0.032), patients with AD derived no such benefit from sleep (p=0.448). Regarding the procedural memory task, analyses detected no significant between-group differences (all p's<0.065), and neither group showed significant sleep-enhanced performance. We demonstrated, using actigraphy and standardized measures of memory performance, an association between sleep disturbances and cognitive deficits in patients with AD. These results suggest that, in patients with AD, the source of memory deficits is, at least to some extent, disrupted sleep patterns that interfere with optimal consolidation of previously-learned declarative information. Hence, treating the sleep disturbances that are frequently experienced by patients with AD may

  20. Diet-induced obesity: dopamine transporter function, impulsivity and motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanaswami, V; Thompson, A C; Cassis, L A; Bardo, M T; Dwoskin, L P

    2013-08-01

    A rat model of diet-induced obesity (DIO) was used to determine dopamine transporter (DAT) function, impulsivity and motivation as neurobehavioral outcomes and predictors of obesity. To evaluate neurobehavioral alterations following the development of DIO induced by an 8-week high-fat diet (HF) exposure, striatal D2-receptor density, DAT function and expression, extracellular dopamine concentrations, impulsivity, and motivation for high- and low-fat reinforcers were determined. To determine predictors of DIO, neurobehavioral antecedents including impulsivity, motivation for high-fat reinforcers, DAT function and extracellular dopamine were evaluated before the 8-week HF exposure. Striatal D2-receptor density was determined by in vitro kinetic analysis of [(3)H]raclopride binding. DAT function was determined using in vitro kinetic analysis of [(3)H]dopamine uptake, methamphetamine-evoked [(3)H]dopamine overflow and no-net flux in vivo microdialysis. DAT cell-surface expression was determined using biotinylation and western blotting. Impulsivity and food-motivated behavior were determined using a delay discounting task and progressive ratio schedule, respectively. Relative to obesity-resistant (OR) rats, obesity-prone (OP) rats exhibited 18% greater body weight following an 8-week HF-diet exposure, 42% lower striatal D2-receptor density, 30% lower total DAT expression, 40% lower in vitro and in vivo DAT function, 45% greater extracellular dopamine and twofold greater methamphetamine-evoked [(3)H]dopamine overflow. OP rats exhibited higher motivation for food, and surprisingly, were less impulsive relative to OR rats. Impulsivity, in vivo DAT function and extracellular dopamine concentration did not predict DIO. Importantly, motivation for high-fat reinforcers predicted the development of DIO. Human studies are limited by their ability to determine if impulsivity, motivation and DAT function are causes or consequences of DIO. The current animal model shows that

  1. An aptamer cocktail-functionalized photocatalyst with enhanced antibacterial efficiency towards target bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Min Young [Center for Environment, Health and Welfare Research, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 02792 (Korea, Republic of); Jurng, Jongsoo [Center for Environment, Health and Welfare Research, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 02792 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Energy and Environmental Engineering, University of Science and Technology (UST), Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 02792 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Young-Kwon [School of Environmental Engineering, University of Seoul, Seoulsiripdae-ro 163, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 02504 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Byoung Chan, E-mail: bchankim@kist.re.kr [Center for Environment, Health and Welfare Research, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 02792 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Energy and Environmental Engineering, University of Science and Technology (UST), Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 02792 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Aptamer-conjugated TiO{sub 2} was developed for target-specific bacterial inactivation. • TiO{sub 2}-aptamer cocktail can enhance inactivation of target bacteria faster than TiO{sub 2}. • TiO{sub 2}-aptamer cocktail can enhance inactivation of target bacteria in mixed culture. • Efficient ROS transfer to the bacteria is caused by close contact of TiO{sub 2}-aptamer. - Abstract: We developed TiO{sub 2} particles conjugated with an Escherichia coli surface-specific ssDNA aptamer cocktail (composed of three different aptamers isolated from E. coli) for targeted and enhanced disinfection of E. coli. We examined the target-specific and enhanced inactivation of this composite (TiO{sub 2}-Apc), which were compared to those of TiO{sub 2} conjugated with a single aptamer (one of the three different aptamers, TiO{sub 2}-Aps) and non-modified TiO{sub 2}. We found that TiO{sub 2}-Apc enhanced the inactivation of targeted E. coli under UV irradiation compared to both the non-modified TiO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2}-Aps. A higher number of TiO{sub 2}-Apc than TiO{sub 2}-Aps particles was observed on the surface of E. coli. The amount of TiO{sub 2}-Apc required to inactivate ∼99.9% of E. coli (10{sup 6} CFU/ml) was 10 times lower than that of non-modified TiO{sub 2}. The close proximity of functionalized particles with E. coli resulting from the interaction between the target surface and the aptamer induced the efficient and fast transfer of reactive oxygen species to the cells. In a mixed culture of different bacteria (E. coli and Staphylococcus epidermidis), TiO{sub 2}-Apc enhanced the inactivation of only E. coli. Taken together, these results support the use of aptamer cocktail-conjugated TiO{sub 2} for improvement of the target-specific inactivation of bacteria.

  2. EFFICIENCY EVALUATION OF USING DIFFERENT SPAWNING INDUCERS IN THE CONDITIONS OF ARTIFICIAL REPRODUCTION OF STЕRLET (ACIPENSER RUTHENUS L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kovalenko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To study the efficiency of replacing the preparation of sturgeon hypophyses, which is traditional for sturgeon culture but scarce and expensive, with its carp analogue as well as with preparations, which induce own gonadotrophic function of brood sterlet hypophysis when producing offspring in aquaculture conditions. Methodology. The research was performed in the framework of the NULES research theme for 2013–2015, in the conditions of the Fishery Academic, Research and Production Laboratory of the Aquaculture Department (hatching room and fish culture facility with closed water supply in Nemishaev, Borodianka district, Kyiv region. The control in the experiment on a comparative evaluation of the efficiency of different spawning inducers for artificially reproduced sterlet was Reproginol (powder of acetoned sturgeon hypophysis in 50 mg capsules. The experimental variant 1 included acetoned hypophyses of Prussian carp and common carp (no older than a year and half since their collection. The experimental variant 2 is experimental synthetic fish spawning inducer Vadilen-2 (the developer of the preparation is Kovalenko V. O., assistant professor of the Aquaculture Department of the NULES of Ukraine. Collection and processing of experiment data were performed using conventional aquaculture research methods. Findings. It was found that Vadilen-2 produced inducing effect on the gonadotrophic function of sterlet hypophysis and transition from the 4th to the 5th stage of maturation. The effective doses of Vadilen-2 with water temperature of 13–15°C for sterlet females and males were 0.8–1.0 and 0.5–0.6 mg per 1 kg of brood fish, respectively. We observed that sterlet females, which were kept in basins of the recirculated water facility, showed worse results during incubation period when they missed winter period compared to fish, which were kept in the water with natural temperature in the winter. The possibility of replacing the

  3. Enhanced efficiency of plasma acceleration in the laser-induced cavity pressure acceleration scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badziak, J; Rosiński, M; Jabłoński, S; Pisarczyk, T; Chodukowski, T; Parys, P; Rączka, P; Krousky, E; Ullschmied, J; Liska, R; Kucharik, M

    2015-01-01

    Among various methods for the acceleration of dense plasmas the mechanism called laser-induced cavity pressure acceleration (LICPA) is capable of achieving the highest energetic efficiency. In the LICPA scheme, a projectile placed in a cavity is accelerated along a guiding channel by the laser-induced thermal plasma pressure or by the radiation pressure of an intense laser radiation trapped in the cavity. This arrangement leads to a significant enhancement of the hydrodynamic or electromagnetic forces driving the projectile, relative to standard laser acceleration schemes. The aim of this paper is to review recent experimental and numerical works on LICPA with the emphasis on the acceleration of heavy plasma macroparticles and dense ion beams. The main experimental part concerns the research carried out at the kilojoule sub-nanosecond PALS laser facility in Prague. Our measurements performed at this facility, supported by advanced two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations, have demonstrated that the LICPA accelerator working in the long-pulse hydrodynamic regime can be a highly efficient tool for the acceleration of heavy plasma macroparticles to hyper-velocities and the generation of ultra-high-pressure (>100 Mbar) shocks through the collision of the macroparticle with a solid target. The energetic efficiency of the macroparticle acceleration and the shock generation has been found to be significantly higher than that for other laser-based methods used so far. Using particle-in-cell simulations it is shown that the LICPA scheme is highly efficient also in the short-pulse high-intensity regime and, in particular, may be used for production of intense ion beams of multi-MeV to GeV ion energies with the energetic efficiency of tens of per cent, much higher than for conventional laser acceleration schemes. (paper)

  4. Neurosteroid 3α-androstanediol efficiently counteracts paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy and painful symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Meyer

    Full Text Available Painful peripheral neuropathy belongs to major side-effects limiting cancer chemotherapy. Paclitaxel, widely used to treat several cancers, induces neurological symptoms including burning pain, allodynia, hyperalgesia and numbness. Therefore, identification of drugs that may effectively counteract paclitaxel-induced neuropathic symptoms is crucial. Here, we combined histopathological, neurochemical, behavioral and electrophysiological methods to investigate the natural neurosteroid 3α-androstanediol (3α-DIOL ability to counteract paclitaxel-evoked peripheral nerve tissue damages and neurological symptoms. Prophylactic or corrective 3α-DIOL treatment (4 mg/kg/2 days prevented or suppressed PAC-evoked heat-thermal hyperalgesia, cold-allodynia and mechanical allodynia/hyperalgesia, by reversing to normal, decreased thermal and mechanical pain thresholds of PAC-treated rats. Electrophysiological studies demonstrated that 3α-DIOL restored control values of nerve conduction velocity and action potential peak amplitude significantly altered by PAC-treatment. 3α-DIOL also repaired PAC-induced nerve damages by restoring normal neurofilament-200 level in peripheral axons and control amount of 2',3'-cyclic-nucleotide-3'-phosphodiesterase in myelin sheaths. Decreased density of intraepidermal nerve fibers evoked by PAC-therapy was also counteracted by 3α-DIOL treatment. More importantly, 3α-DIOL beneficial effects were not sedation-dependent but resulted from its neuroprotective ability, nerve tissue repairing capacity and long-term analgesic action. Altogether, our results showing that 3α-DIOL efficiently counteracted PAC-evoked painful symptoms, also offer interesting possibilities to develop neurosteroid-based strategies against chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. This article shows that the prophylactic or corrective treatment with 3α-androstanediol prevents or suppresses PAC-evoked painful symptoms and peripheral nerve dysfunctions in

  5. Enhanced Network Efficiency of Functional Brain Networks in Primary Insomnia Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofen Ma

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence from neuroimaging studies suggests that primary insomnia (PI affects interregional neural coordination of multiple interacting functional brain networks. However, a complete understanding of the whole-brain network organization from a system-level perspective in PI is still lacking. To this end, we investigated in topological organization changes in brain functional networks in PI. 36 PI patients and 38 age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy controls were recruited. All participants underwent a series of neuropsychological assessments and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans. Individual whole-brain functional network were constructed and analyzed using graph theory-based network approaches. There were no significant differences with respect to age, sex, or education between groups (P > 0.05. Graph-based analyses revealed that participants with PI had a significantly higher total number of edges (P = 0.022, global efficiency (P = 0.014, and normalized global efficiency (P = 0.002, and a significantly lower normalized local efficiency (P = 0.042 compared with controls. Locally, several prefrontal and parietal regions, the superior temporal gyrus, and the thalamus exhibited higher nodal efficiency in participants with PI (P < 0.05, false discovery rate corrected. In addition, most of these regions showed increased functional connectivity in PI patients (P < 0.05, corrected. Finally, altered network efficiency was correlated with neuropsychological variables of the Epworth Sleepiness Scale and Insomnia Severity Index in patients with PI. PI is associated with abnormal organization of large-scale functional brain networks, which may account for memory and emotional dysfunction in people with PI. These findings provide novel implications for neural substrates associated with PI.

  6. Impaired small-world network efficiency and dynamic functional distribution in patients with cirrhosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tun-Wei Hsu

    Full Text Available Hepatic encephalopathy (HE is a complex neuropsychiatric syndrome and a major complication of liver cirrhosis. Dysmetabolism of the brain, related to elevated ammonia levels, interferes with intercortical connectivity and cognitive function. For evaluation of network efficiency, a 'small-world' network model can quantify the effectiveness of information transfer within brain networks. This study aimed to use small-world topology to investigate abnormalities of neuronal connectivity among widely distributed brain regions in patients with liver cirrhosis using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI. Seventeen cirrhotic patients without HE, 9 with minimal HE, 9 with overt HE, and 35 healthy controls were compared. The interregional correlation matrix was obtained by averaging the rs-fMRI time series over all voxels in each of the 90 regions using the automated anatomical labeling model. Cost and correlation threshold values were then applied to construct the functional brain network. The absolute and relative network efficiencies were calculated; quantifying distinct aspects of the local and global topological network organization. Correlations between network topology parameters, ammonia levels, and the severity of HE were determined using linear regression and ANOVA. The local and global topological efficiencies of the functional connectivity network were significantly disrupted in HE patients; showing abnormal small-world properties. Alterations in regional characteristics, including nodal efficiency and nodal strength, occurred predominantly in the association, primary, and limbic/paralimbic regions. The degree of network organization disruption depended on the severity of HE. Ammonia levels were also significantly associated with the alterations in local network properties. Results indicated that alterations in the rs-fMRI network topology of the brain were associated with HE grade; and that focal or diffuse lesions

  7. Induced motor vehicle travel from improved fuel efficiency and road expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su Qing, E-mail: suq1@nku.edu [Department of Marketing, Economics and Sports Business, Northern Kentucky University, AST Center, Office 338, Nunn Drive, Highland Heights, KY 41099 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    This paper investigates the impact of improved fuel efficiency and road network expansion on motor vehicle travel using a system dynamic panel data estimator and panel data at the state level for the 2001-2008 period. Our model accounts for endogenous changes in fuel efficiency, congestion, fuel cost per mile, and vehicle stock. Our regression results suggest that the short run rebound effect is 0.0276 while the long run rebound effect is 0.11. The short run effect of road capacity per capita is 0.066 while the long run effect is 0.26. - Highlights: > We estimate two effects: the rebound effect and induced travel effect at the state level. > System dynamic panel data approach is used to address endogeneity issue. > In the period of 2001-2008, the rebound effect is 0.0276 in the short run and 0.11 in the long run. > Increase in road capacity induces motor vehicle travel. > Induced travel effect is 0. 0.066 in the short run and 0.26 in the long run.

  8. Induced motor vehicle travel from improved fuel efficiency and road expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Qing

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of improved fuel efficiency and road network expansion on motor vehicle travel using a system dynamic panel data estimator and panel data at the state level for the 2001-2008 period. Our model accounts for endogenous changes in fuel efficiency, congestion, fuel cost per mile, and vehicle stock. Our regression results suggest that the short run rebound effect is 0.0276 while the long run rebound effect is 0.11. The short run effect of road capacity per capita is 0.066 while the long run effect is 0.26. - Highlights: → We estimate two effects: the rebound effect and induced travel effect at the state level. → System dynamic panel data approach is used to address endogeneity issue. → In the period of 2001-2008, the rebound effect is 0.0276 in the short run and 0.11 in the long run. → Increase in road capacity induces motor vehicle travel. → Induced travel effect is 0. 0.066 in the short run and 0.26 in the long run.

  9. Efficient analysis of three dimensional EUV mask induced imaging artifacts using the waveguide decomposition method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Feng; Evanschitzky, Peter; Fühner, Tim; Erdmann, Andreas

    2009-10-01

    This paper employs the Waveguide decomposition method as an efficient rigorous electromagnetic field (EMF) solver to investigate three dimensional mask-induced imaging artifacts in EUV lithography. The major mask diffraction induced imaging artifacts are first identified by applying the Zernike analysis of the mask nearfield spectrum of 2D lines/spaces. Three dimensional mask features like 22nm semidense/dense contacts/posts, isolated elbows and line-ends are then investigated in terms of lithographic results. After that, the 3D mask-induced imaging artifacts such as feature orientation dependent best focus shift, process window asymmetries, and other aberration-like phenomena are explored for the studied mask features. The simulation results can help lithographers to understand the reasons of EUV-specific imaging artifacts and to devise illumination and feature dependent strategies for their compensation in the optical proximity correction (OPC) for EUV masks. At last, an efficient approach using the Zernike analysis together with the Waveguide decomposition technique is proposed to characterize the impact of mask properties for the future OPC process.

  10. Expanded function allied dental personnel and dental practice productivity and efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beazoglou, Tryfon J; Chen, Lei; Lazar, Vickie F; Brown, L Jackson; Ray, Subhash C; Heffley, Dennis R; Berg, Rob; Bailit, Howard L

    2012-08-01

    This study examined the impact of expanded function allied dental personnel on the productivity and efficiency of general dental practices. Detailed practice financial and clinical data were obtained from a convenience sample of 154 general dental practices in Colorado. In this state, expanded function dental assistants can provide a wide range of reversible dental services/procedures, and dental hygienists can give local anesthesia. The survey identified practices that currently use expanded function allied dental personnel and the specific services/procedures delegated. Practice productivity was measured using patient visits, gross billings, and net income. Practice efficiency was assessed using a multivariate linear program, Data Envelopment Analysis. Sixty-four percent of the practices were found to use expanded function allied dental personnel, and on average they delegated 31.4 percent of delegatable services/procedures. Practices that used expanded function allied dental personnel treated more patients and had higher gross billings and net incomes than those practices that did not; the more services they delegated, the higher was the practice's productivity and efficiency. The effective use of expanded function allied dental personnel has the potential to substantially expand the capacity of general dental practices to treat more patients and to generate higher incomes for dental practices.

  11. Dexamethasone impairs hypoxia-inducible factor-1 function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, A.E.; Huck, G.; Stiehl, D.P.; Jelkmann, W.; Hellwig-Buergel, T.

    2008-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a heterodimeric transcription-factor composed of α- and β-subunits. HIF-1 is not only necessary for the cellular adaptation to hypoxia, but it is also involved in inflammatory processes and wound healing. Glucocorticoids (GC) are therapeutically used to suppress inflammatory responses. Herein, we investigated whether GC modulate HIF-1 function using GC receptor (GR) possessing (HepG2) and GR deficient (Hep3B) human hepatoma cell cultures as model systems. Dexamethasone (DEX) treatment increased HIF-1α levels in the cytosol of HepG2 cells, while nuclear HIF-1α levels and HIF-1 DNA-binding was reduced. In addition, DEX dose-dependently lowered the hypoxia-induced luciferase activity in a reporter gene system. DEX suppressed the hypoxic stimulation of the expression of the HIF-1 target gene VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) in HepG2 cultures. DEX did not reduce hypoxically induced luciferase activity in HRB5 cells, a Hep3B derivative lacking GR. Transient expression of the GR in HRB5 cells restored the susceptibility to DEX. Our study discloses the inhibitory action of GC on HIF-1 dependent gene expression, which may be important with respect to the impaired wound healing in DEX-treated patients

  12. Fitting of alpha-efficiency versus quenching parameter by exponential functions in liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosa, M.; Manjón, G.; Mantero, J.; García-Tenorio, R.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work is to propose an exponential fit for the low alpha-counting efficiency as a function of a sample quenching parameter using a Quantulus liquid scintillation counter. The sample quenching parameter in a Quantulus is the Spectral Quench Parameter of the External Standard (SQP(E)), which is defined as the number of channel under which lies the 99% of Compton spectrum generated by a gamma emitter ( 152 Eu). Although in the literature one usually finds a polynomial fitting of the alpha counting efficiency, it is shown here that an exponential function is a better description. - Highlights: • We have studied the quenching in alpha measurement by liquid scintillation counting. • We have reviewed typical fitting of alpha counting efficiency versus quenching parameter. • Exponential fitting of data is proposed as better fitting. • We consider exponential fitting has a physical basis

  13. Fitting of alpha-efficiency versus quenching parameter by exponential functions in liquid scintillation counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosa, M. [Departamento de Ingeniería Física, Campus León, Universidad de Guanajuato, 37150 León, Guanajuato (Mexico); Universidad de Sevilla, Departamento de Física Aplicada II, E.T.S. Arquitectura, Av. Reina Mercedes, 2, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Manjón, G., E-mail: manjon@us.es [Universidad de Sevilla, Departamento de Física Aplicada II, E.T.S. Arquitectura, Av. Reina Mercedes, 2, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Mantero, J.; García-Tenorio, R. [Universidad de Sevilla, Departamento de Física Aplicada II, E.T.S. Arquitectura, Av. Reina Mercedes, 2, 41012 Sevilla (Spain)

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this work is to propose an exponential fit for the low alpha-counting efficiency as a function of a sample quenching parameter using a Quantulus liquid scintillation counter. The sample quenching parameter in a Quantulus is the Spectral Quench Parameter of the External Standard (SQP(E)), which is defined as the number of channel under which lies the 99% of Compton spectrum generated by a gamma emitter ({sup 152}Eu). Although in the literature one usually finds a polynomial fitting of the alpha counting efficiency, it is shown here that an exponential function is a better description. - Highlights: • We have studied the quenching in alpha measurement by liquid scintillation counting. • We have reviewed typical fitting of alpha counting efficiency versus quenching parameter. • Exponential fitting of data is proposed as better fitting. • We consider exponential fitting has a physical basis.

  14. Fused Methoxynaphthyl Phenanthrimidazole Semiconductors as Functional Layer in High Efficient OLEDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayabharathi, Jayaraman; Ramanathan, Periyasamy; Karunakaran, Chockalingam; Thanikachalam, Venugopal

    2016-01-01

    Efficient hole transport materials based on novel fused methoxynaphthyl phenanthrimidazole core structure were synthesised and characterized. Their device performances in phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes were investigated. The high thermal stability in combination with the reversible oxidation process made promising candidates as hole-transporting materials for organic light-emitting devices. Highly efficient Alq3-based organic light emitting devices have been developed using phenanthrimidazoles as functional layers between NPB [4,4-bis(N-(1-naphthyl)-N-phenylamino)biphenyl] and Alq3 [tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminium] layers. Using the device of ITO/NPB/4/Alq3/LiF/Al, a maximum luminous efficiency of 5.99 cd A(-1) was obtained with a maximum brightness of 40,623 cd m(-2) and a power efficiency of 5.25 lm W(-1).

  15. Distinguishing patients with Parkinson's disease subtypes from normal controls based on functional network regional efficiencies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delong Zhang

    Full Text Available Many studies have demonstrated that the pathophysiology and clinical symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD are inhomogeneous. However, the symptom-specific intrinsic neural activities underlying the PD subtypes are still not well understood. Here, 15 tremor-dominant PD patients, 10 non-tremor-dominant PD patients, and 20 matched normal controls (NCs were recruited and underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Functional brain networks were constructed based on randomly generated anatomical templates with and without the cerebellum. The regional network efficiencies (i.e., the local and global efficiencies were further measured and used to distinguish subgroups of PD patients (i.e., with tremor-dominant PD and non-tremor-dominant PD from the NCs using linear discriminant analysis. The results demonstrate that the subtype-specific functional networks were small-world-organized and that the network regional efficiency could discriminate among the individual PD subgroups and the NCs. Brain regions involved in distinguishing between the study groups included the basal ganglia (i.e., the caudate and putamen, limbic regions (i.e., the hippocampus and thalamus, the cerebellum, and other cerebral regions (e.g., the insula, cingulum, and calcarine sulcus. In particular, the performances of the regional local efficiency in the functional network were better than those of the global efficiency, and the performances of global efficiency were dependent on the inclusion of the cerebellum in the analysis. These findings provide new evidence for the neurological basis of differences between PD subtypes and suggest that the cerebellum may play different roles in the pathologies of different PD subtypes. The present study demonstrated the power of the combination of graph-based network analysis and discrimination analysis in elucidating the neural basis of different PD subtypes.

  16. Efficient generation of induced pluripotent stem cells from human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulin, X; Lizhen, L; Lifei, Z; Shan, F; Ru, L; Kaimin, H; Huang, H

    2012-01-01

    Ectopic expression of defined sets of genetic factors can reprogramme somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) that closely resemble embryonic stem cells. However, the low reprogramming efficiency is a significant handicap for mechanistic studies and potential clinical application. In this study, we used human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMMSCs) as target cells for reprogramming and investigated efficient iPSC generation from hBMMSCs using the compounds of p53 siRNA, valproic acid (VPA) and vitamin C (Vc) with four transcription factors OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and c-MYC (compound induction system). The synergetic mechanism of the compounds was studied. Our results showed that the compound induction system could efficiently reprogramme hBMMSCs to iPSCs. hBMMSC-derived iPSC populations expressed pluripotent markers and had multi-potential to differentiate into three germ layer-derived cells. p53 siRNA, VPA and Vc had a synergetic effect on cell reprogramming and the combinatorial use of these substances greatly improved the efficiency of iPSC generation by suppressing the expression of p53, decreasing cell apoptosis, up-regulating the expression of the pluripotent gene OCT4 and modifying the cell cycle. Therefore, our study highlights a straightforward method for improving the speed and efficiency of iPSC generation and provides versatile tools for investigating early developmental processes such as haemopoiesis and relevant diseases. In addition, this study provides a paradigm for the combinatorial use of genetic factors and molecules to improve the efficiency of iPSC generation.

  17. Lactoferrin Efficiently Counteracts the Inflammation-Induced Changes of the Iron Homeostasis System in Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutone, Antimo; Rosa, Luigi; Lepanto, Maria Stefania; Scotti, Mellani Jinnett; Berlutti, Francesca; Bonaccorsi di Patti, Maria Carmela; Musci, Giovanni; Valenti, Piera

    2017-01-01

    Human lactoferrin (hLf), an 80-kDa multifunctional iron-binding cationic glycoprotein, is constitutively secreted by exocrine glands and by neutrophils during inflammation. hLf is recognized as a key element in the host immune defense system. The in vitro and in vivo experiments are carried out with bovine Lf (bLf), which shares high sequence homology and identical functions with hLf, including anti-inflammatory activity. Here, in "pure" M1 human macrophages, obtained by stimulation with a mixture of 10 pg/ml LPS and 20 ng/ml IFN-γ, as well as in a more heterogeneous macrophage population, challenged with high-dose of LPS (1 µg/ml), the effect of bLf on the expression of the main proteins involved in iron and inflammatory homeostasis, namely ferroportin (Fpn), membrane-bound ceruloplasmin (Cp), cytosolic ferritin (Ftn), transferrin receptor 1, and cytokines has been investigated. The increase of IL-6 and IL-1β cytokines, following the inflammatory treatments, is associated with both upregulation of cytosolic Ftn and downregulation of Fpn, membrane-bound Cp, and transferrin receptor 1. All these changes take part into intracellular iron overload, a very unsafe condition leading in vivo to higher host susceptibility to infections as well as iron deficiency in the blood and anemia of inflammation. It is, therefore, of utmost importance to counteract the persistence of the inflammatory status to rebalance iron levels between tissues/secretions and blood. Moreover, levels of the antiinflammatory cytokine IL-10 were increased in cells treated with high doses of LPS. Conversely, IL-10 decreased when the LPS/IFN-γ mix was used, suggesting that only the inflammation triggered by LPS high doses can switch on an anti-inflammatory response in our macrophagic model. Here, we demonstrate that bLf, when included in the culture medium, significantly reduced IL-6 and IL-1β production and efficiently prevented the changes of Fpn, membrane-bound Cp, cytosolic Ftn, and

  18. Lactoferrin Efficiently Counteracts the Inflammation-Induced Changes of the Iron Homeostasis System in Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antimo Cutone

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Human lactoferrin (hLf, an 80-kDa multifunctional iron-binding cationic glycoprotein, is constitutively secreted by exocrine glands and by neutrophils during inflammation. hLf is recognized as a key element in the host immune defense system. The in vitro and in vivo experiments are carried out with bovine Lf (bLf, which shares high sequence homology and identical functions with hLf, including anti-inflammatory activity. Here, in “pure” M1 human macrophages, obtained by stimulation with a mixture of 10 pg/ml LPS and 20 ng/ml IFN-γ, as well as in a more heterogeneous macrophage population, challenged with high-dose of LPS (1 µg/ml, the effect of bLf on the expression of the main proteins involved in iron and inflammatory homeostasis, namely ferroportin (Fpn, membrane-bound ceruloplasmin (Cp, cytosolic ferritin (Ftn, transferrin receptor 1, and cytokines has been investigated. The increase of IL-6 and IL-1β cytokines, following the inflammatory treatments, is associated with both upregulation of cytosolic Ftn and downregulation of Fpn, membrane-bound Cp, and transferrin receptor 1. All these changes take part into intracellular iron overload, a very unsafe condition leading in vivo to higher host susceptibility to infections as well as iron deficiency in the blood and anemia of inflammation. It is, therefore, of utmost importance to counteract the persistence of the inflammatory status to rebalance iron levels between tissues/secretions and blood. Moreover, levels of the antiinflammatory cytokine IL-10 were increased in cells treated with high doses of LPS. Conversely, IL-10 decreased when the LPS/IFN-γ mix was used, suggesting that only the inflammation triggered by LPS high doses can switch on an anti-inflammatory response in our macrophagic model. Here, we demonstrate that bLf, when included in the culture medium, significantly reduced IL-6 and IL-1β production and efficiently prevented the changes of Fpn, membrane-bound Cp

  19. Efficient Meshfree Large Deformation Simulation of Rainfall Induced Soil Slope Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongdong; Li, Ling

    2010-05-01

    An efficient Lagrangian Galerkin meshfree framework is presented for large deformation simulation of rainfall-induced soil slope failure. Detailed coupled soil-rainfall seepage equations are given for the proposed formulation. This nonlinear meshfree formulation is featured by the Lagrangian stabilized conforming nodal integration method where the low cost nature of nodal integration approach is kept and at the same time the numerical stability is maintained. The initiation and evolution of progressive failure in the soil slope is modeled by the coupled constitutive equations of isotropic damage and Drucker-Prager pressure-dependent plasticity. The gradient smoothing in the stabilized conforming integration also serves as a non-local regularization of material instability and consequently the present method is capable of effectively capture the shear band failure. The efficacy of the present method is demonstrated by simulating the rainfall-induced failure of two typical soil slopes.

  20. Charge collection efficiency degradation induced by MeV ions in semiconductor devices: Model and experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vittone, E., E-mail: ettore.vittone@unito.it [Department of Physics, NIS Research Centre and CNISM, University of Torino, via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Pastuovic, Z. [Centre for Accelerator Science (ANSTO), Locked bag 2001, Kirrawee DC, NSW 2234 (Australia); Breese, M.B.H. [Centre for Ion Beam Applications (CIBA), Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Garcia Lopez, J. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (CNA), Sevilla University, J. Andalucia, CSIC, Av. Thomas A. Edison 7, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Jaksic, M. [Department for Experimental Physics, Ruder Boškovic Institute (RBI), P.O. Box 180, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Raisanen, J. [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki 00014 (Finland); Siegele, R. [Centre for Accelerator Science (ANSTO), Locked bag 2001, Kirrawee DC, NSW 2234 (Australia); Simon, A. [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna International Centre, P.O. Box 100, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), Debrecen (Hungary); Vizkelethy, G. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), PO Box 5800, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Highlights: • We study the electronic degradation of semiconductors induced by ion irradiation. • The experimental protocol is based on MeV ion microbeam irradiation. • The radiation induced damage is measured by IBIC. • The general model fits the experimental data in the low level damage regime. • Key parameters relevant to the intrinsic radiation hardness are extracted. - Abstract: This paper investigates both theoretically and experimentally the charge collection efficiency (CCE) degradation in silicon diodes induced by energetic ions. Ion Beam Induced Charge (IBIC) measurements carried out on n- and p-type silicon diodes which were previously irradiated with MeV He ions show evidence that the CCE degradation does not only depend on the mass, energy and fluence of the damaging ion, but also depends on the ion probe species and on the polarization state of the device. A general one-dimensional model is derived, which accounts for the ion-induced defect distribution, the ionization profile of the probing ion and the charge induction mechanism. Using the ionizing and non-ionizing energy loss profiles resulting from simulations based on the binary collision approximation and on the electrostatic/transport parameters of the diode under study as input, the model is able to accurately reproduce the experimental CCE degradation curves without introducing any phenomenological additional term or formula. Although limited to low level of damage, the model is quite general, including the displacement damage approach as a special case and can be applied to any semiconductor device. It provides a method to measure the capture coefficients of the radiation induced recombination centres. They can be considered indexes, which can contribute to assessing the relative radiation hardness of semiconductor materials.

  1. Efficient Genome Editing in Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells with Engineered Nucleases In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Termglinchan, Vittavat; Seeger, Timon; Chen, Caressa; Wu, Joseph C; Karakikes, Ioannis

    2017-01-01

    Precision genome engineering is rapidly advancing the application of the induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) technology for in vitro disease modeling of cardiovascular diseases. Targeted genome editing using engineered nucleases is a powerful tool that allows for reverse genetics, genome engineering, and targeted transgene integration experiments to be performed in a precise and predictable manner. However, nuclease-mediated homologous recombination is an inefficient process. Herein, we describe the development of an optimized method combining site-specific nucleases and the piggyBac transposon system for "seamless" genome editing in pluripotent stem cells with high efficiency and fidelity in vitro.

  2. Factors influencing the efficiency of radiation-induced degradation of water pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Getoff, Nikola

    2002-01-01

    The efficiency of the radiation-induced degradation of water pollutants depends on several factors, such as kind and energy of radiation, absorbed dose, dose rate, pollutant concentration as well as synergistic effects of radiation and ozone or/and catalysts (e.g. TiO 2 ) and of the molecular structure of the pollutants. The role of the individual factors is illustrated by examples. The application of pulse radiolysis in addition to chemical analysis for elucidation of reaction mechanisms and optimization of the degradation treatment is also mentioned

  3. STUDY ON ALGORITHM OF SENSOR MANAGEMENT BASED ON FUNCTIONS OF EFFICIENCY AND WASTE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Sensor management plays an important role in data fusion system, and this paper presents an algorithm of sensor management that can be used in target detection, identification and tracking. First, the basic concept, rule, range and function of sensor management are introduced. Then, the quantifying problems of target priority and sensor (or combination)-target pairing in multisensor management are discussed and the efficiency and waste functions are established based on the functions of target priority and sensor-target pairing. On this basis, a distribution algorithm of multisensor resources is given, which is optimized by the principle of maximum synthesis efficiency in the multisensor system and constrained by sensor maximum tracking power and what target must be scanned. In addition, the waste measure of sensor resources is introduced to improve the algorithm. Finally, a tactical task that includes three sensors and ten targets is set, and the simulation results show that the algorithm is feasible and effective.

  4. TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle-induced ROS correlates with modulated immune cell function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurer-Jones, Melissa A.; Christenson, Jenna R.; Haynes, Christy L., E-mail: chaynes@umn.edu [University of Minnesota, Department of Chemistry (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Design of non-toxic nanoparticles will be greatly facilitated by understanding the nanoparticle-cell interaction mechanism on a cell function level. Mast cells are important cells for the immune system's first line of defense, and we can utilize their exocytotic behavior as a model cellular function as it is a conserved process across cell types and species. Perturbations in exocytosis can also have implications for whole organism health. One proposed mode of toxicity is nanoparticle-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS), particularly for titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanoparticles. Herein, we have correlated changes in ROS with the perturbation of the critical cell function of exocytosis, using UV light to induce greater levels of ROS in TiO{sub 2} exposed cells. The primary culture mouse peritoneal mast cells (MPMCs) were exposed to varying concentrations of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles for 24 h. ROS content was determined using 2,7-dihydrodichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFDA). Cellular viability was determined with the MTT and Trypan blue assays, and exocytosis was measured by the analytical electrochemistry technique of carbon-fiber microelectrode amperometry. MPMCs exposed to TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles experienced a dose-dependent increase in total ROS content. While there was minimal impact of ROS on cellular viability, there is a correlation between ROS amount and exocytosis perturbation. As nanoparticle-induced ROS increases, there is a significant decrease (45 %) in the number of serotonin molecules being released during exocytosis, increase (26 %) in the amount of time for each exocytotic granule to release, and decrease (28 %) in the efficiency of granule trafficking and docking. This is the first evidence that nanoparticle-induced ROS correlates with chemical messenger molecule secretion, possibly making a critical connection between functional impairment and mechanisms contributing to that impairment.

  5. (+-Rutamarin as a dual inducer of both GLUT4 translocation and expression efficiently ameliorates glucose homeostasis in insulin-resistant mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    Full Text Available Glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4 is a principal glucose transporter in response to insulin, and impaired translocation or decreased expression of GLUT4 is believed to be one of the major pathological features of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Therefore, induction of GLUT4 translocation or/and expression is a promising strategy for anti-T2DM drug discovery. Here we report that the natural product (+-Rutamarin (Rut functions as an efficient dual inducer on both insulin-induced GLUT4 translocation and expression. Rut-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes exhibit efficiently enhanced insulin-induced glucose uptake, while diet-induced obese (DIO mice based assays further confirm the Rut-induced improvement of glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in vivo. Subsequent investigation of Rut acting targets indicates that as a specific protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B inhibitor Rut induces basal GLUT4 translocation to some extent and largely enhances insulin-induced GLUT4 translocation through PI3 kinase-AKT/PKB pathway, while as an agonist of retinoid X receptor α (RXRα, Rut potently increases GLUT4 expression. Furthermore, by using molecular modeling and crystallographic approaches, the possible binding modes of Rut to these two targets have been also determined at atomic levels. All our results have thus highlighted the potential of Rut as both a valuable lead compound for anti-T2DM drug discovery and a promising chemical probe for GLUT4 associated pathways exploration.

  6. Characterization of Bovine Serum Albumin Blocking Efficiency on Epoxy-Functionalized Substrates for Microarray Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yung-Shin; Zhu, Xiangdong

    2016-10-01

    Microarrays provide a platform for high-throughput characterization of biomolecular interactions. To increase the sensitivity and specificity of microarrays, surface blocking is required to minimize the nonspecific interactions between analytes and unprinted yet functionalized surfaces. To block amine- or epoxy-functionalized substrates, bovine serum albumin (BSA) is one of the most commonly used blocking reagents because it is cheap and easy to use. Based on standard protocols from microarray manufactories, a BSA concentration of 1% (10 mg/mL or 200 μM) and reaction time of at least 30 min are required to efficiently block epoxy-coated slides. In this paper, we used both fluorescent and label-free methods to characterize the BSA blocking efficiency on epoxy-functionalized substrates. The blocking efficiency of BSA was characterized using a fluorescent scanner and a label-free oblique-incidence reflectivity difference (OI-RD) microscope. We found that (1) a BSA concentration of 0.05% (0.5 mg/mL or 10 μM) could give a blocking efficiency of 98%, and (2) the BSA blocking step took only about 5 min to be complete. Also, from real-time and in situ measurements, we were able to calculate the conformational properties (thickness, mass density, and number density) of BSA molecules deposited on the epoxy surface. © 2015 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  7. Dithiocarbamate Self-Assembled Monolayers as Efficient Surface Modifiers for Low Work Function Noble Metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Dominik; Schäfer, Tobias; Schulz, Philip; Jung, Sebastian; Rittich, Julia; Mokros, Daniel; Segger, Ingolf; Maercks, Franziska; Effertz, Christian; Mazzarello, Riccardo; Wuttig, Matthias

    2016-09-06

    Tuning the work function of the electrode is one of the crucial steps to improve charge extraction in organic electronic devices. Here, we show that N,N-dialkyl dithiocarbamates (DTC) can be effectively employed to produce low work function noble metal electrodes. Work functions between 3.1 and 3.5 eV are observed for all metals investigated (Cu, Ag, and Au). Ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS) reveals a maximum decrease in work function by 2.1 eV as compared to the bare metal surface. Electronic structure calculations elucidate how the complex interplay between intrinsic dipoles and dipoles induced by bond formation generates such large work function shifts. Subsequently, we quantify the improvement in contact resistance of organic thin film transistor devices with DTC coated source and drain electrodes. These findings demonstrate that DTC molecules can be employed as universal surface modifiers to produce stable electrodes for electron injection in high performance hybrid organic optoelectronics.

  8. Tow efficiency correction functions of source self-absorption of an HPGe detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Zheng; Ma Yusheng; Luo Jianghua; Chen Luning

    2007-01-01

    The efficiency correction function of source absorption of an HPGe γ detector is determined by experiment in energy range from 59.5 keV to 1408 keV and density range from 0.3 g/cm 3 to 2.0 g/cm 3 . Fit Polynomial and fit Sigmoidal are compared. The results show that fit Sigmoidal is better than fit polynomial, and the detection efficiency at any points of energy and density could be conveniently calculated with it in calibrated range. (authors)

  9. Energy-efficient specialization of functional units in a Coarse-Grained Reconfigurable Array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Essen, B.; Panda, R.; Wood, A.; Ebeling, C.; Hauck, S.

    2010-01-01

    Functional units provide the backbone of any spatial accelerator by providing the computing resources. The desire for having rich and expensive functional units is in tension with producing a regular and energy-efficient computing fabric. This paper explores the design trade-off between complex, universal functional units and simpler, limited functional units. We show that a modest amount of specialization reduces the area-delay-energy product of an optimized architecture to 0.86x a baseline architecture. Furthermore, we provide a design guideline that allows an architect to customize the contents of the computing fabric just by examining the profile of benchmarks within the application domains. Functional units are the core of compute-intensive spatial accelerators. They perform the computation of interest with support from local storage and communication structures. Ideally, the functional units will provide rich functionality, supporting operations ranging from simple addition, to fused multiply-adds, to advanced transcendental functions and domain specific operations like add-compare-select. However, the total opportunity cost to support the more complex operations is a function of the cost of the hardware, the rate of occurrence of the operation in the application domain, and the inefficiency of emulating the operation with simpler operators. Examples of operations that are typically emulated in spatial accelerators are division and trigonometric functions, which can be solved using table-lookup based algorithms and the CORDIC algorithm. One reason to avoid having direct hardware support for complex operations in a tiled architecture like a Coarse-Grained Reconfigurable Array (CGRA) is that the expensive hardware will typically need to be replicated in some or all of the architecture's tiles. Tiled architecture are designed such that their tiles are either homogeneous or heterogeneous. Homogeneous architectures are simpler to design but heterogeneous

  10. Study of induced functions by UV in Staphylococcus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, B.S. da.

    1982-01-01

    SOS functions induced by ultraviolet (UV) radiation were studied using S. aureus and S. epidermidis. Comparing the results obtained from these two organisms with those described in the literature for E. coli allows us to conclude: the difference in UV sensibility between the lysogenic and non-lysogenic strains of Staphylococcus is extremely large; the dose of UV radiation which results in the maximum induction of the lysogenic strains lead to 99% inactivation of the lysogenic strains; the kinetics of prophage liberation in lysogenic cultures of Staphylococcus is more rapid than those described for E. coli; the dose of UV radiation is much lower than the dose described for E. coli; the maximum W-reactivatio and W-mutagenesis are obtained immediately after the irradiation or within the 15 minutes allowed for the phage adsorption. (author)

  11. A Highly Efficient Xylan-Utilization System in Aspergillus niger An76: A Functional-Proteomics Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weili Gong

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Xylan constituted with β-1,4-D-xylose linked backbone and diverse substituted side-chains is the most abundant hemicellulose component of biomass, which can be completely and rapidly degraded into fermentable sugars by Aspergillus niger. This is of great value for obtaining renewable biofuels and biochemicals. To clarify the underlying mechanisms associated with highly efficient xylan degradation, assimilation, and metabolism by A. niger, we utilized functional proteomics to analyze the secreted proteins, sugar transporters, and intracellular proteins of A. niger An76 grown on xylan-based substrates. Results demonstrated that the complete xylanolytic enzyme system required for xylan degradation and composed of diverse isozymes was secreted in a sequential order. Xylan-backbone-degrading enzymes were preferentially induced by xylose or other soluble sugars, which efficiently produced large amounts of xylooligosaccharides (XOS and xylose; however, XOS was more efficient than xylose in triggering the expression of the key transcription activator XlnR, resulting in higher xylanase activity and shortening xylanase-production time. Moreover, the substituted XOS was responsible for improving the abundance of side-chain-degrading enzymes, specific transporters, and key reductases and dehydrogenases in the pentose catabolic pathway. Our findings indicated that industries might be able to improve the species and concentrations of xylan-degrading enzymes and shorten fermentation time by adding abundant intermediate products of natural xylan (XOS to cultures of filamentous fungi.

  12. A Highly Efficient Xylan-Utilization System in Aspergillus niger An76: A Functional-Proteomics Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Weili; Dai, Lin; Zhang, Huaiqiang; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Lushan

    2018-01-01

    Xylan constituted with β-1,4-D-xylose linked backbone and diverse substituted side-chains is the most abundant hemicellulose component of biomass, which can be completely and rapidly degraded into fermentable sugars by Aspergillus niger. This is of great value for obtaining renewable biofuels and biochemicals. To clarify the underlying mechanisms associated with highly efficient xylan degradation, assimilation, and metabolism by A. niger, we utilized functional proteomics to analyze the secreted proteins, sugar transporters, and intracellular proteins of A. niger An76 grown on xylan-based substrates. Results demonstrated that the complete xylanolytic enzyme system required for xylan degradation and composed of diverse isozymes was secreted in a sequential order. Xylan-backbone-degrading enzymes were preferentially induced by xylose or other soluble sugars, which efficiently produced large amounts of xylooligosaccharides (XOS) and xylose; however, XOS was more efficient than xylose in triggering the expression of the key transcription activator XlnR, resulting in higher xylanase activity and shortening xylanase-production time. Moreover, the substituted XOS was responsible for improving the abundance of side-chain-degrading enzymes, specific transporters, and key reductases and dehydrogenases in the pentose catabolic pathway. Our findings indicated that industries might be able to improve the species and concentrations of xylan-degrading enzymes and shorten fermentation time by adding abundant intermediate products of natural xylan (XOS) to cultures of filamentous fungi. PMID:29623069

  13. A Highly Efficient Xylan-Utilization System in Aspergillus niger An76: A Functional-Proteomics Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Weili; Dai, Lin; Zhang, Huaiqiang; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Lushan

    2018-01-01

    Xylan constituted with β-1,4-D-xylose linked backbone and diverse substituted side-chains is the most abundant hemicellulose component of biomass, which can be completely and rapidly degraded into fermentable sugars by Aspergillus niger . This is of great value for obtaining renewable biofuels and biochemicals. To clarify the underlying mechanisms associated with highly efficient xylan degradation, assimilation, and metabolism by A. niger , we utilized functional proteomics to analyze the secreted proteins, sugar transporters, and intracellular proteins of A. niger An76 grown on xylan-based substrates. Results demonstrated that the complete xylanolytic enzyme system required for xylan degradation and composed of diverse isozymes was secreted in a sequential order. Xylan-backbone-degrading enzymes were preferentially induced by xylose or other soluble sugars, which efficiently produced large amounts of xylooligosaccharides (XOS) and xylose; however, XOS was more efficient than xylose in triggering the expression of the key transcription activator XlnR, resulting in higher xylanase activity and shortening xylanase-production time. Moreover, the substituted XOS was responsible for improving the abundance of side-chain-degrading enzymes, specific transporters, and key reductases and dehydrogenases in the pentose catabolic pathway. Our findings indicated that industries might be able to improve the species and concentrations of xylan-degrading enzymes and shorten fermentation time by adding abundant intermediate products of natural xylan (XOS) to cultures of filamentous fungi.

  14. Efficient and scalable purification of cardiomyocytes from human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells by VCAM1 surface expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Uosaki

    Full Text Available RATIONALE: Human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells (hESCs/hiPSCs are promising cell sources for cardiac regenerative medicine. To realize hESC/hiPSC-based cardiac cell therapy, efficient induction, purification, and transplantation methods for cardiomyocytes are required. Though marker gene transduction or fluorescent-based purification methods have been reported, fast, efficient and scalable purification methods with no genetic modification are essential for clinical purpose but have not yet been established. In this study, we attempted to identify cell surface markers for cardiomyocytes derived from hESC/hiPSCs. METHOD AND RESULT: We adopted a previously reported differentiation protocol for hESCs based on high density monolayer culture to hiPSCs with some modification. Cardiac troponin-T (TNNT2-positive cardiomyocytes appeared robustly with 30-70% efficiency. Using this differentiation method, we screened 242 antibodies for human cell surface molecules to isolate cardiomyocytes derived from hiPSCs and identified anti-VCAM1 (Vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 antibody specifically marked cardiomyocytes. TNNT2-positive cells were detected at day 7-8 after induction and 80% of them became VCAM1-positive by day 11. Approximately 95-98% of VCAM1-positive cells at day 11 were positive for TNNT2. VCAM1 was exclusive with CD144 (endothelium, CD140b (pericytes and TRA-1-60 (undifferentiated hESCs/hiPSCs. 95% of MACS-purified cells were positive for TNNT2. MACS purification yielded 5-10×10(5 VCAM1-positive cells from a single well of a six-well culture plate. Purified VCAM1-positive cells displayed molecular and functional features of cardiomyocytes. VCAM1 also specifically marked cardiomyocytes derived from other hESC or hiPSC lines. CONCLUSION: We succeeded in efficiently inducing cardiomyocytes from hESCs/hiPSCs and identifying VCAM1 as a potent cell surface marker for robust, efficient and scalable purification of cardiomyocytes from h

  15. A universal system for highly efficient cardiac differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells that eliminates interline variability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul W Burridge

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The production of cardiomyocytes from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC holds great promise for patient-specific cardiotoxicity drug testing, disease modeling, and cardiac regeneration. However, existing protocols for the differentiation of hiPSC to the cardiac lineage are inefficient and highly variable. We describe a highly efficient system for differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESC and hiPSC to the cardiac lineage. This system eliminated the variability in cardiac differentiation capacity of a variety of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC, including hiPSC generated from CD34(+ cord blood using non-viral, non-integrating methods.We systematically and rigorously optimized >45 experimental variables to develop a universal cardiac differentiation system that produced contracting human embryoid bodies (hEB with an improved efficiency of 94.7±2.4% in an accelerated nine days from four hESC and seven hiPSC lines tested, including hiPSC derived from neonatal CD34(+ cord blood and adult fibroblasts using non-integrating episomal plasmids. This cost-effective differentiation method employed forced aggregation hEB formation in a chemically defined medium, along with staged exposure to physiological (5% oxygen, and optimized concentrations of mesodermal morphogens BMP4 and FGF2, polyvinyl alcohol, serum, and insulin. The contracting hEB derived using these methods were composed of high percentages (64-89% of cardiac troponin I(+ cells that displayed ultrastructural properties of functional cardiomyocytes and uniform electrophysiological profiles responsive to cardioactive drugs.This efficient and cost-effective universal system for cardiac differentiation of hiPSC allows a potentially unlimited production of functional cardiomyocytes suitable for application to hPSC-based drug development, cardiac disease modeling, and the future generation of clinically-safe nonviral human cardiac cells for regenerative medicine.

  16. Impact of energy efficiency gains on output and energy use with Cobb-Douglas production function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Taoyuan

    2007-01-01

    A special issue of Energy Policy-28 (2000)-was devoted to a collection of papers, edited by Dr. Lee Schipper. The collection included a paper entitled 'A view from the macro side: rebound, backfire, and Khazzoom-Brookes' in which it was argued that the impact of fuel efficiency gains on output (roughly, GDP) is likely to be relatively small by Cobb-Douglas production function. However, an error in the analysis leads to under-estimation of the long-term impact. This paper first provides a partial equilibrium analysis by an alternative method for the same case and then proceeds to an analysis on the issue in a two-sector general equilibrium system. In the latter analysis, energy price is internalized. Both energy use efficiency and energy production efficiency are involved

  17. Efficient generation of lens progenitor cells from cataract patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodi Qiu

    Full Text Available The development of a technique to induce the transformation of somatic cells to a pluripotent state via the ectopic expression of defined transcription factors was a transformational event in the field of regenerative medicine. The development of this technique also impacted ophthalmology, as patient-specific induced pluripotent stemcells (iPSCs may be useful resources for some ophthalmological diseases. The lens is a key refractive element in the eye that focuses images of the visual world onto the retina. To establish a new model for drug screening to treat lens diseases and investigating lens aging and development, we examined whether human lens epithelial cells (HLECs could be induced into iPSCs and if lens-specific differentiation of these cells could be achieved under defined chemical conditions. We first efficiently reprogrammed HLECs from age-related cataract patients to iPSCs with OCT-4, SOX-2, and KLF-4. The resulting HLEC-derived iPS (HLE-iPS colonies were indistinguishable from human ES cells with respect to morphology, gene expression, pluripotent marker expression and their ability to generate all embryonic germ-cell layers. Next, we performed a 3-step induction procedure: HLE-iPS cells were differentiated into large numbers of lens progenitor-like cells with defined factors (Noggin, BMP and FGF2, and we determined that these cells expressed lens-specific markers (PAX6, SOX2, SIX3, CRYAB, CRYAA, BFSP1, and MIP. In addition, HLE-iPS-derived lens cells exhibited reduced expression of epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT markers compared with human embryonic stem cells (hESCs and fibroblast-derived iPSCs. Our study describes a highly efficient procedure for generating lens progenitor cells from cataract patient HLEC-derived iPSCs. These patient-derived pluripotent cells provide a valuable model for studying the developmental and molecular biological mechanisms that underlie cell determination in lens development and cataract

  18. Generation of Functional Cardiomyocytes from Efficiently Generated Human iPSCs and a Novel Method of Measuring Contractility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheeja Rajasingh

    Full Text Available Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs derived cardiomyocytes (iCMCs would provide an unlimited cell source for regenerative medicine and drug discoveries. The objective of our study is to generate functional cardiomyocytes from human iPSCs and to develop a novel method of measuring contractility of CMCs. In a series of experiments, adult human skin fibroblasts (HSF and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs were treated with a combination of pluripotent gene DNA and mRNA under specific conditions. The iPSC colonies were identified and differentiated into various cell lineages, including CMCs. The contractile activity of CMCs was measured by a novel method of frame-by-frame cross correlation (particle image velocimetry-PIV analysis. Our treatment regimen transformed 4% of HSFs into iPSC colonies at passage 0, a significantly improved efficiency compared with use of either DNA or mRNA alone. The iPSCs were capable of differentiating both in vitro and in vivo into endodermal, ectodermal and mesodermal cells, including CMCs with >88% of cells being positive for troponin T (CTT and Gata4 by flow cytometry. We report a highly efficient combination of DNA and mRNA to generate iPSCs and functional iCMCs from adult human cells. We also report a novel approach to measure contractility of iCMCs.

  19. Generation of Functional Cardiomyocytes from Efficiently Generated Human iPSCs and a Novel Method of Measuring Contractility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasingh, Sheeja; Thangavel, Jayakumar; Czirok, Andras; Samanta, Saheli; Roby, Katherine F; Dawn, Buddhadeb; Rajasingh, Johnson

    2015-01-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived cardiomyocytes (iCMCs) would provide an unlimited cell source for regenerative medicine and drug discoveries. The objective of our study is to generate functional cardiomyocytes from human iPSCs and to develop a novel method of measuring contractility of CMCs. In a series of experiments, adult human skin fibroblasts (HSF) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were treated with a combination of pluripotent gene DNA and mRNA under specific conditions. The iPSC colonies were identified and differentiated into various cell lineages, including CMCs. The contractile activity of CMCs was measured by a novel method of frame-by-frame cross correlation (particle image velocimetry-PIV) analysis. Our treatment regimen transformed 4% of HSFs into iPSC colonies at passage 0, a significantly improved efficiency compared with use of either DNA or mRNA alone. The iPSCs were capable of differentiating both in vitro and in vivo into endodermal, ectodermal and mesodermal cells, including CMCs with >88% of cells being positive for troponin T (CTT) and Gata4 by flow cytometry. We report a highly efficient combination of DNA and mRNA to generate iPSCs and functional iCMCs from adult human cells. We also report a novel approach to measure contractility of iCMCs.

  20. Efficient excitation of nonlinear phonons via chirped pulses: Induced structural phase transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itin, A. P.; Katsnelson, M. I.

    2018-05-01

    Nonlinear phononics play important role in strong laser-solid interactions. We discuss a dynamical protocol for efficient phonon excitation, considering recent inspiring proposals: inducing ferroelectricity in paraelectric perovskites, and inducing structural deformations in cuprates [Subedi et al., Phys. Rev. B 89, 220301(R) (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevB.89.220301; Phys. Rev. B 95, 134113 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevB.95.134113]. High-frequency phonon modes are driven by midinfrared pulses, and coupled to lower-frequency modes those indirect excitations cause structural deformations. We study in more detail the case of KTaO3 without strain, where it was not possible to excite the needed low-frequency phonon mode by resonant driving of the higher frequency one. Behavior of the system is explained using a reduced model of coupled driven nonlinear oscillators. We find a dynamical mechanism which prevents effective excitation at resonance driving. To induce ferroelectricity, we employ driving with sweeping frequency, realizing so-called capture into resonance. The method can be applied to many other related systems.

  1. Evaluation of cysteine ethyl ester as efficient inducer for glutathione overproduction in Saccharomyces spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Eric; Schmacht, Maximilian; Senz, Martin

    2016-11-01

    Economical yeast based glutathione (GSH) production is a process that is influenced by several factors like raw material and production costs, biomass production and efficient biotransformation of adequate precursors into the final product GSH. Nowadays the usage of cysteine for the microbial conversion into GSH is industrial state of practice. In the following study, the potential of different inducers to increase the GSH content was evaluated by means of design of experiments methodology. Investigations were executed in three natural Saccharomyces strains, S. cerevisiae, S. bayanus and S. boulardii, in a well suited 50ml shake tube system. Results of shake tube experiments were confirmed in traditional baffled shake flasks and finally via batch cultivation in lab-scale bioreactors under controlled conditions. Comprehensive studies showed that the usage of cysteine ethyl ester (CEE) for the batch-wise biotransformation into GSH led up to a more than 2.2 times higher yield compared to cysteine as inducer. Additionally, the intracellular GSH content could be significantly increased for all strains in terms of 2.29±0.29% for cysteine to 3.65±0.23% for CEE, respectively, in bioreactors. Thus, the usage of CEE provides a highly attractive inducing strategy for the GSH overproduction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Thin silicon foils produced by epoxy-induced spalling of silicon for high efficiency solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martini, R., E-mail: roberto.martini@imec.be [Department of Electrical Engineering, KU Leuven, Kasteelpark 10, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Kepa, J.; Stesmans, A. [Department of Physics, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200 D, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Debucquoy, M.; Depauw, V.; Gonzalez, M.; Gordon, I. [imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Poortmans, J. [Department of Electrical Engineering, KU Leuven, Kasteelpark 10, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Universiteit Hasselt, Martelarenlaan 42, B-3500 Hasselt (Belgium)

    2014-10-27

    We report on the drastic improvement of the quality of thin silicon foils produced by epoxy-induced spalling. In the past, researchers have proposed to fabricate silicon foils by spalling silicon substrates with different stress-inducing materials to manufacture thin silicon solar cells. However, the reported values of effective minority carrier lifetime of the fabricated foils remained always limited to ∼100 μs or below. In this work, we investigate epoxy-induced exfoliated foils by electron spin resonance to analyze the limiting factors of the minority carrier lifetime. These measurements highlight the presence of disordered dangling bonds and dislocation-like defects generated by the exfoliation process. A solution to remove these defects compatible with the process flow to fabricate solar cells is proposed. After etching off less than 1 μm of material, the lifetime of the foil increases by more than a factor of 4.5, reaching a value of 461 μs. This corresponds to a lower limit of the diffusion length of more than 7 times the foil thickness. Regions with different lifetime correlate well with the roughness of the crack surface which suggests that the lifetime is now limited by the quality of the passivation of rough surfaces. The reported values of the minority carrier lifetime show a potential for high efficiency (>22%) thin silicon solar cells.

  3. Thin silicon foils produced by epoxy-induced spalling of silicon for high efficiency solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martini, R.; Kepa, J.; Stesmans, A.; Debucquoy, M.; Depauw, V.; Gonzalez, M.; Gordon, I.; Poortmans, J.

    2014-01-01

    We report on the drastic improvement of the quality of thin silicon foils produced by epoxy-induced spalling. In the past, researchers have proposed to fabricate silicon foils by spalling silicon substrates with different stress-inducing materials to manufacture thin silicon solar cells. However, the reported values of effective minority carrier lifetime of the fabricated foils remained always limited to ∼100 μs or below. In this work, we investigate epoxy-induced exfoliated foils by electron spin resonance to analyze the limiting factors of the minority carrier lifetime. These measurements highlight the presence of disordered dangling bonds and dislocation-like defects generated by the exfoliation process. A solution to remove these defects compatible with the process flow to fabricate solar cells is proposed. After etching off less than 1 μm of material, the lifetime of the foil increases by more than a factor of 4.5, reaching a value of 461 μs. This corresponds to a lower limit of the diffusion length of more than 7 times the foil thickness. Regions with different lifetime correlate well with the roughness of the crack surface which suggests that the lifetime is now limited by the quality of the passivation of rough surfaces. The reported values of the minority carrier lifetime show a potential for high efficiency (>22%) thin silicon solar cells.

  4. Intermittent fasting induces hypothalamic modifications resulting in low feeding efficiency, low body mass and overeating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chausse, Bruno; Solon, Carina; Caldeira da Silva, Camille C; Masselli Dos Reis, Ivan G; Manchado-Gobatto, Fúlvia B; Gobatto, Claudio A; Velloso, Licio A; Kowaltowski, Alicia J

    2014-07-01

    Intermittent fasting (IF) is an often-used intervention to decrease body mass. In male Sprague-Dawley rats, 24 hour cycles of IF result in light caloric restriction, reduced body mass gain, and significant decreases in the efficiency of energy conversion. Here, we study the metabolic effects of IF in order to uncover mechanisms involved in this lower energy conversion efficiency. After 3 weeks, IF animals displayed overeating during fed periods and lower body mass, accompanied by alterations in energy-related tissue mass. The lower efficiency of energy use was not due to uncoupling of muscle mitochondria. Enhanced lipid oxidation was observed during fasting days, whereas fed days were accompanied by higher metabolic rates. Furthermore, an increased expression of orexigenic neurotransmitters AGRP and NPY in the hypothalamus of IF animals was found, even on feeding days, which could explain the overeating pattern. Together, these effects provide a mechanistic explanation for the lower efficiency of energy conversion observed. Overall, we find that IF promotes changes in hypothalamic function that explain differences in body mass and caloric intake.

  5. Linking plant functional trait plasticity and the large increase in forest water use efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrotheodoros, Theodoros; Pappas, Christoforos; Molnar, Peter; Burlando, Paolo; Keenan, Trevor F.; Gentine, Pierre; Gough, Christopher M.; Fatichi, Simone

    2017-09-01

    Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations are expected to enhance photosynthesis and reduce stomatal conductance, thus increasing plant water use efficiency. A recent study based on eddy covariance flux observations from Northern Hemisphere forests showed a large increase in inherent water use efficiency (IWUE). Here we used an updated version of the same data set and robust uncertainty quantification to revisit these contemporary IWUE trends. We tested the hypothesis that the observed IWUE increase could be attributed to interannual trends in plant functional traits, potentially triggered by environmental change. We found that IWUE increased by 1.3% yr-1, which is less than previously reported but still larger than theoretical expectations. Numerical simulations with the Tethys-Chloris ecosystem model using temporally static plant functional traits cannot explain this increase. Simulations with plant functional trait plasticity, i.e., temporal changes in model parameters such as specific leaf area and maximum Rubisco capacity, match the observed trends in IWUE. Our results show that trends in plant functional traits, equal to 1.0% yr-1, can explain the observed IWUE trends. Thus, at decadal or longer time scales, trait plasticity could potentially influence forest water, carbon, and energy fluxes with profound implications for both the monitoring of temporal changes in plant functional traits and their representation in Earth system models.

  6. Enhancing the efficiency of lithium intercalation in carbon nanotube bundles using surface functional groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Shiyan; Zhu, Hong; Wang, Lei; Chen, Liping; Liang, Haojun

    2014-08-14

    The effect of surface functionalization on the ability and kinetics of lithium intercalation in carbon nanotube (CNT) bundles has been studied by comparing the dynamical behaviors of lithium (Li) ions in pristine and -NH2 functionalized CNTs via ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. It was observed that lithium intercalation has been achieved quickly for both the pristine and surface functionalized CNT bundle. Our calculations demonstrated for the first time that CNT functionalization improved the efficiency of lithium intercalation significantly at both low and high Li ion density. Moreover, we found that keeping the nanotubes apart with an appropriate distance and charging the battery at a rational rate were beneficial to achieve a high rate of lithium intercalation. Besides, the calculated adsorption energy curves indicated that the potential wells in the system of -NH2 functionalized CNT were deeper than that of the pristine CNT bundle by 0.74 eV, and a third energy minimum with a value of 2.64 eV existed at the midpoint of the central axis of the nanotube. Thus, it would be more difficult to remove Li ions from the nanotube interior after surface functionalization. The barrier for lithium diffusion in the interior of the nanotube is greatly decreased because of the surface functional groups. Based on these results, we would suggest to "damage" the nanotube by introducing defects at its sidewall in order to improve not only the capacity of surface functionalized CNTs but also the efficiency of lithium intercalation and deintercalation processes. Our results presented here are helpful in understanding the mechanism of lithium intercalation into nanotube bundles, which may potentially be applied in the development of CNT based electrodes.

  7. Assessing eco-efficiency: A metafrontier directional distance function approach using life cycle analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltrán-Esteve, Mercedes; Reig-Martínez, Ernest; Estruch-Guitart, Vicent

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability analysis requires a joint assessment of environmental, social and economic aspects of production processes. Here we propose the use of Life Cycle Analysis (LCA), a metafrontier (MF) directional distance function (DDF) approach, and Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), to assess technological and managerial differences in eco-efficiency between production systems. We use LCA to compute six environmental and health impacts associated with the production processes of nearly 200 Spanish citrus farms belonging to organic and conventional farming systems. DEA is then employed to obtain joint economic-environmental farm's scores that we refer to as eco-efficiency. DDF allows us to determine farms' global eco-efficiency scores, as well as eco-efficiency scores with respect to specific environmental impacts. Furthermore, the use of an MF helps us to disentangle technological and managerial eco-inefficiencies by comparing the eco-efficiency of both farming systems with regards to a common benchmark. Our core results suggest that the shift from conventional to organic farming technology would allow a potential reduction in environmental impacts of 80% without resulting in any decline in economic performance. In contrast, as regards farmers' managerial capacities, both systems display quite similar mean scores.

  8. Assessing eco-efficiency: A metafrontier directional distance function approach using life cycle analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltrán-Esteve, Mercedes, E-mail: mercedes.beltran@uv.es [Department of Applied Economics II, University of Valencia (Spain); Reig-Martínez, Ernest [Department of Applied Economics II, University of Valencia, Ivie (Spain); Estruch-Guitart, Vicent [Department of Economy and Social Sciences, Polytechnic University of Valencia (Spain)

    2017-03-15

    Sustainability analysis requires a joint assessment of environmental, social and economic aspects of production processes. Here we propose the use of Life Cycle Analysis (LCA), a metafrontier (MF) directional distance function (DDF) approach, and Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), to assess technological and managerial differences in eco-efficiency between production systems. We use LCA to compute six environmental and health impacts associated with the production processes of nearly 200 Spanish citrus farms belonging to organic and conventional farming systems. DEA is then employed to obtain joint economic-environmental farm's scores that we refer to as eco-efficiency. DDF allows us to determine farms' global eco-efficiency scores, as well as eco-efficiency scores with respect to specific environmental impacts. Furthermore, the use of an MF helps us to disentangle technological and managerial eco-inefficiencies by comparing the eco-efficiency of both farming systems with regards to a common benchmark. Our core results suggest that the shift from conventional to organic farming technology would allow a potential reduction in environmental impacts of 80% without resulting in any decline in economic performance. In contrast, as regards farmers' managerial capacities, both systems display quite similar mean scores.

  9. Ginger extract inhibits LPS induced macrophage activation and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruch David

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Macrophages play a dual role in host defence. They act as the first line of defence by mounting an inflammatory response to antigen exposure and also act as antigen presenting cells and initiate the adaptive immune response. They are also the primary infiltrating cells at the site of inflammation. Inhibition of macrophage activation is one of the possible approaches towards modulating inflammation. Both conventional and alternative approaches are being studied in this regard. Ginger, an herbal product with broad anti inflammatory actions, is used as an alternative medicine in a number of inflammatory conditions like rheumatic disorders. In the present study we examined the effect of ginger extract on macrophage activation in the presence of LPS stimulation. Methods Murine peritoneal macrophages were stimulated by LPS in presence or absence of ginger extract and production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines were observed. We also studied the effect of ginger extract on the LPS induced expression of MHC II, B7.1, B7.2 and CD40 molecules. We also studied the antigen presenting function of ginger extract treated macrophages by primary mixed lymphocyte reaction. Results We observed that ginger extract inhibited IL-12, TNF-α, IL-1β (pro inflammatory cytokines and RANTES, MCP-1 (pro inflammatory chemokines production in LPS stimulated macrophages. Ginger extract also down regulated the expression of B7.1, B7.2 and MHC class II molecules. In addition ginger extract negatively affected the antigen presenting function of macrophages and we observed a significant reduction in T cell proliferation in response to allostimulation, when ginger extract treated macrophages were used as APCs. A significant decrease in IFN-γ and IL-2 production by T cells in response to allostimulation was also observed. Conclusion In conclusion ginger extract inhibits macrophage activation and APC function and indirectly inhibits T cell activation.

  10. Highly efficient and selective pressure-assisted photon-induced polymerization of styrene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guan, Jiwen [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada); Song, Yang, E-mail: yang.song@uwo.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada); Department of Chemistry, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B7 (Canada)

    2016-06-07

    The polymerization process of condensed styrene to produce polystyrene as an industrially important polymeric material was investigated using a novel approach by combining external compression with ultraviolet radiation. The reaction evolution was monitored as a function of time and the reaction products were characterized by in situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. By optimizing the loading pressures, we observed highly efficient and selective production of polystyrene of different tacticities. Specifically, at relatively low loading pressures, infrared spectra suggest that styrene monomers transform to amorphous atactic polystyrene (APS) with minor crystalline isotactic polystyrene. In contrast, APS was found to be the sole product when polymerization occurs at relatively higher loading pressures. The time-dependent reaction profiles allow the examination of the polymerization kinetics by analyzing the rate constant and activation volume as a function of pressure. As a result, an optimized pressure condition, which allows a barrierless reaction to proceed, was identified and attributed to the very desirable reaction yield and kinetics. Finally, the photoinitiated reaction mechanism and the growth geometry of the polymer chains were investigated from the energy diagram of styrene and by the topology analysis of the crystal styrene. This study shows strong promise to produce functional polymeric materials in a highly efficient and controlled manner.

  11. Loss of cellular transformation efficiency induced by DNA irradiation with low-energy (10 eV) electrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouass Sahbani, Saloua; Sanche, Leon; Cloutier, Pierre; Bass, Andrew D; Hunting, Darel J

    2014-11-20

    Low energy electrons (LEEs) of energies less than 20 eV are generated in large quantities by ionizing radiation in biological matter. While LEEs are known to induce single (SSBs) and double strand breaks (DSBs) in DNA, their ability to inactivate cells by inducing nonreparable lethal damage has not yet been demonstrated. Here we observe the effect of LEEs on the functionality of DNA, by measuring the efficiency of transforming Escherichia coli with a [pGEM-3Zf (-)] plasmid irradiated with 10 eV electrons. Highly ordered DNA films were prepared on pyrolitic graphite by molecular self-assembly using 1,3-diaminopropane ions (Dap(2+)). The uniformity of these films permits the inactivation of approximately 50% of the plasmids compared to transforming cluster damage into DSBs by digestion with repair enzymes, also occurred relatively infrequently. The exact nature of the lethal damage remains unknown, but it is probably a form of compact cluster damage in which the lesions are too close to be revealed by purified repair enzymes. In addition, this damage is either not repaired or is misrepaired by E. coli, since it results in plasmid inactivation, when they contain an average of three lesions. Comparison with previous results from a similar experiment performed with γ-irradiated plasmids indicates that the type of clustered DNA lesions, created directly on cellular DNA by LEEs, may be more difficult to repair than those produced by other species from radiolysis.

  12. [TCD functional test for vertigo induced by ischemic cerebrovascular disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q; Zhong, N; Xue, X

    1999-04-01

    To diagnose differentially the vetigo induced by some ischemic cerebrovascular disorder. Patients with vertebrobasilar artery transient ischemic vertigo (group A), migraine (group B), hyperventilation syndrome (group C), hypertension (group D) are measured by using TCD functional examination which included blood peak velocity of systolic (Vs) and diastolic (Vd) end-period of vertibrobasilar artery of routine TCD (TCD-R), one minute hyperventilation TCD (TCD-HV) and one minute voluntary apnea TCD (TCD-B) respectively. It showed that the Vs, Vd are decreased under the three conditions in A, B and D groups. The most apparent decrease are obversed in D group. The values of the decrease are similar between group A and B. No changes are found in C group. The abnormal Vs incidences of TCD-B measurement in group A are higher than those in group B and C, but significant lower than those in group D; and in TCD-HV test lower than group D and C, higher than group B; in TCD-R test, lower than group D, and no difference with group B and C. The abnormal incidences of Vd in group A are lower than group D and higher than group B in TCD-B test. In TCD-HV test, the group A abnormol incidences are lower than group D but higher than group B and C. In TCD-R test, the abnormal incidences are lower than group D and no difference between group B and C. The TCD measuremen is useful for differential diagnosis of vertigo induced by ischemic cerebrovascular disorders.

  13. Music-induced changes in functional cerebral asymmetries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann, Markus; Hodgetts, Sophie; Eerola, Tuomas

    2016-04-01

    After decades of research, it remains unclear whether emotion lateralization occurs because one hemisphere is dominant for processing the emotional content of the stimuli, or whether emotional stimuli activate lateralised networks associated with the subjective emotional experience. By using emotion-induction procedures, we investigated the effect of listening to happy and sad music on three well-established lateralization tasks. In a prestudy, Mozart's piano sonata (K. 448) and Beethoven's Moonlight Sonata were rated as the most happy and sad excerpts, respectively. Participants listened to either one emotional excerpt, or sat in silence before completing an emotional chimeric faces task (Experiment 1), visual line bisection task (Experiment 2) and a dichotic listening task (Experiment 3 and 4). Listening to happy music resulted in a reduced right hemispheric bias in facial emotion recognition (Experiment 1) and visuospatial attention (Experiment 2) and increased left hemispheric bias in language lateralization (Experiments 3 and 4). Although Experiments 1-3 revealed an increased positive emotional state after listening to happy music, mediation analyses revealed that the effect on hemispheric asymmetries was not mediated by music-induced emotional changes. The direct effect of music listening on lateralization was investigated in Experiment 4 in which tempo of the happy excerpt was manipulated by controlling for other acoustic features. However, the results of Experiment 4 made it rather unlikely that tempo is the critical cue accounting for the effects. We conclude that listening to music can affect functional cerebral asymmetries in well-established emotional and cognitive laterality tasks, independent of music-induced changes in the emotion state. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. High-efficiency generation of induced pluripotent mesenchymal stem cells from human dermal fibroblasts using recombinant proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fanfan; Zhang, Guoqiang; Yu, Ling; Feng, Yanye; Li, Xianghui; Zhang, Zhijun; Wang, Yongting; Sun, Dapeng; Pradhan, Sriharsa

    2016-07-30

    Induced pluripotent mesenchymal stem cells (iPMSCs) are novel candidates for drug screening, regenerative medicine, and cell therapy. However, introduction of transcription factor encoding genes for induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) generation which could be used to generate mesenchymal stem cells is accompanied by the risk of insertional mutations in the target cell genome. We demonstrate a novel method using an inactivated viral particle to package and deliver four purified recombinant Yamanaka transcription factors (Sox2, Oct4, Klf4, and c-Myc) resulting in reprogramming of human primary fibroblasts. Whole genome bisulfite sequencing was used to analyze genome-wide CpG methylation of human iPMSCs. Western blot, quantitative PCR, immunofluorescence, and in-vitro differentiation were used to assess the pluripotency of iPMSCs. The resulting reprogrammed fibroblasts show high-level expression of stem cell markers. The human fibroblast-derived iPMSC genome showed gains in DNA methylation in low to medium methylated regions and concurrent loss of methylation in previously hypermethylated regions. Most of the differentially methylated regions are close to transcription start sites and many of these genes are pluripotent pathway associated. We found that DNA methylation of these genes is regulated by the four iPSC transcription factors, which functions as an epigenetic switch during somatic reprogramming as reported previously. These iPMSCs successfully differentiate into three embryonic germ layer cells, both in vitro and in vivo. Following multipotency induction in our study, the delivered transcription factors were degraded, leading to an improved efficiency of subsequent programmed differentiation. Recombinant transcription factor based reprogramming and derivatization of iPMSC offers a novel high-efficiency approach for regenerative medicine from patient-derived cells.

  15. On Measurement of Efficiency of Cobb-Douglas Production Function with Additive and Multiplicative Errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Moyazzem Hossain

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In developing counties, efficiency of economic development has determined by the analysis of industrial production. An examination of the characteristic of industrial sector is an essential aspect of growth studies. The most of the developed countries are highly industrialized as they brief “The more industrialization, the more development”. For proper industrialization and industrial development we have to study industrial input-output relationship that leads to production analysis. For a number of reasons econometrician’s belief that industrial production is the most important component of economic development because, if domestic industrial production increases, GDP will increase, if elasticity of labor is higher, implement rates will increase and investment will increase if elasticity of capital is higher. In this regard, this paper should be helpful in suggesting the most suitable Cobb-Douglas production function to forecast the production process for some selected manufacturing industries of developing countries like Bangladesh. This paper choose the appropriate Cobb-Douglas function which gives optimal combination of inputs, that is, the combination that enables it to produce the desired level of output with minimum cost and hence with maximum profitability for some selected manufacturing industries of Bangladesh over the period 1978-79 to 2011-2012. The estimated results shows that the estimates of both capital and labor elasticity of Cobb-Douglas production function with additive errors are more efficient than those estimates of Cobb-Douglas production function with multiplicative errors.

  16. The effects of working memory training on functional brain network efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Nicolas; von Bastian, Claudia C; Wirz, Helen; Oberauer, Klaus; Jäncke, Lutz

    2013-10-01

    The human brain is a highly interconnected network. Recent studies have shown that the functional and anatomical features of this network are organized in an efficient small-world manner that confers high efficiency of information processing at relatively low connection cost. However, it has been unclear how the architecture of functional brain networks is related to performance in working memory (WM) tasks and if these networks can be modified by WM training. Therefore, we conducted a double-blind training study enrolling 66 young adults. Half of the subjects practiced three WM tasks and were compared to an active control group practicing three tasks with low WM demand. High-density resting-state electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded before and after training to analyze graph-theoretical functional network characteristics at an intracortical level. WM performance was uniquely correlated with power in the theta frequency, and theta power was increased by WM training. Moreover, the better a person's WM performance, the more their network exhibited small-world topology. WM training shifted network characteristics in the direction of high performers, showing increased small-worldness within a distributed fronto-parietal network. Taken together, this is the first longitudinal study that provides evidence for the plasticity of the functional brain network underlying WM. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Vaccination with Necroptotic Cancer Cells Induces Efficient Anti-tumor Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Løve Aaes

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Successful immunogenic apoptosis in experimental cancer therapy depends on the induction of strong host anti-tumor responses. Given that tumors are often resistant to apoptosis, it is important to identify alternative molecular mechanisms that elicit immunogenic cell death. We have developed a genetic model in which direct dimerization of FADD combined with inducible expression of RIPK3 promotes necroptosis. We report that necroptotic cancer cells release damage-associated molecular patterns and promote maturation of dendritic cells, the cross-priming of cytotoxic T cells, and the production of IFN-γ in response to tumor antigen stimulation. Using both FADD-dependent and FADD-independent RIPK3 induction systems, we demonstrate the efficient vaccination potential of immunogenic necroptotic cells. Our study broadens the current concept of immunogenic cell death and opens doors for the development of new strategies in cancer therapy.

  18. Orientation of bluff body for designing efficient energy harvesters from vortex-induced vibrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, H. L.; Abdelkefi, A.; Yang, Y.; Wang, L.

    2016-01-01

    The characteristics and performances of four distinct vortex-induced vibrations (VIVs) piezoelectric energy harvesters are experimentally investigated and compared. The difference between these VIV energy harvesters is the installation of the cylindrical bluff body at the tip of cantilever beam with different orientations (bottom, top, horizontal, and vertical). Experiments show that the synchronization regions of the bottom, top, and horizontal configurations are almost the same at low wind speeds (around 1.5 m/s). The vertical configuration has the highest wind speed for synchronization (around 3.5 m/s) with the largest harvested power, which is explained by its highest natural frequency and the smallest coupled damping. The results lead to the conclusion that to design efficient VIV energy harvesters, the bluff body should be aligned with the beam for low wind speeds (<2 m/s) and perpendicular to the beam at high wind speeds (>2 m/s)

  19. Functionalized Surface Geometries Induce: “Bone: Formation by Autoinduction”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugo Ripamonti

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The induction of tissue formation, and the allied disciplines of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, have flooded the twenty-first century tissue biology scenario and morphed into high expectations of a fulfilling regenerative dream of molecularly generated tissues and organs in assembling human tissue factories. The grand conceptualization of deploying soluble molecular signals, first defined by Turing as forms generating substances, or morphogens, stemmed from classic last century studies that hypothesized the presence of morphogens in several mineralized and non-mineralized mammalian matrices. The realization of morphogens within mammalian matrices devised dissociative extractions and chromatographic procedures to isolate, purify, and finally reconstitute the cloned morphogens, found to be members of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β supergene family, with insoluble signals or substrata to induce de novo tissue induction and morphogenesis. Can we however construct macroporous bioreactors per se capable of inducing bone formation even without the exogenous applications of the osteogenic soluble molecular signals of the TGF-β supergene family? This review describes original research on coral-derived calcium phosphate-based macroporous constructs showing that the formation of bone is independent of the exogenous application of the osteogenic soluble signals of the TGF-β supergene family. Such signals are the molecular bases of the induction of bone formation. The aim of this review is to primarily describe today's hottest topic of biomaterials' science, i.e., to construct and define osteogenetic biomaterials' surfaces that per se, in its own right, do initiate the induction of bone formation. Biomaterials are often used to reconstruct osseous defects particularly in the craniofacial skeleton. Edentulism did spring titanium implants as tooth replacement strategies. No were else that titanium surfaces require functionalized

  20. Inducible indirect defence of plants : from mechanisms to ecological functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dicke, M.; Poecke, van R.M.P.; Boer, de J.G.

    2003-01-01

    Inducible defences allow plants to be phenotypically plastic. Inducible indirect defence of plants by attracting carnivorous enemies of herbivorous arthropods can vary with plant species and genotype, with herbivore species or instar and potentially with other environmental conditions. So far,

  1. Insulin acutely improves mitochondrial function of rat and human skeletal muscle by increasing coupling efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisr, Raid B; Affourtit, Charles

    2014-02-01

    Insulin is essential for the regulation of fuel metabolism and triggers the uptake of glucose by skeletal muscle. The imported glucose is either stored or broken down, as insulin stimulates glycogenesis and ATP synthesis. The mechanism by which ATP production is increased is incompletely understood at present and, generally, relatively little functional information is available on the effect of insulin on mitochondrial function. In this paper we have exploited extracellular flux technology to investigate insulin effects on the bioenergetics of rat (L6) and human skeletal muscle myoblasts and myotubes. We demonstrate that a 20-min insulin exposure significantly increases (i) the cell respiratory control ratio, (ii) the coupling efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation, and (iii) the glucose sensitivity of anaerobic glycolysis. The improvement of mitochondrial function is explained by an insulin-induced immediate decrease of mitochondrial proton leak. Palmitate exposure annuls the beneficial mitochondrial effects of insulin. Our data improve the mechanistic understanding of insulin-stimulated ATP synthesis, and reveal a hitherto undisclosed insulin sensitivity of cellular bioenergetics that suggests a novel way of detecting insulin responsiveness of cells. © 2013.

  2. Insulin acutely improves mitochondrial function of rat and human skeletal muscle by increasing coupling efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisr, Raid B.; Affourtit, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Insulin is essential for the regulation of fuel metabolism and triggers the uptake of glucose by skeletal muscle. The imported glucose is either stored or broken down, as insulin stimulates glycogenesis and ATP synthesis. The mechanism by which ATP production is increased is incompletely understood at present and, generally, relatively little functional information is available on the effect of insulin on mitochondrial function. In this paper we have exploited extracellular flux technology to investigate insulin effects on the bioenergetics of rat (L6) and human skeletal muscle myoblasts and myotubes. We demonstrate that a 20-min insulin exposure significantly increases (i) the cell respiratory control ratio, (ii) the coupling efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation, and (iii) the glucose sensitivity of anaerobic glycolysis. The improvement of mitochondrial function is explained by an insulin-induced immediate decrease of mitochondrial proton leak. Palmitate exposure annuls the beneficial mitochondrial effects of insulin. Our data improve the mechanistic understanding of insulin-stimulated ATP synthesis, and reveal a hitherto undisclosed insulin sensitivity of cellular bioenergetics that suggests a novel way of detecting insulin responsiveness of cells. PMID:24212054

  3. Dopamine precursor depletion impairs structure and efficiency of resting state brain functional networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonell, Felix; Nagano-Saito, Atsuko; Leyton, Marco; Cisek, Paul; Benkelfat, Chawki; He, Yong; Dagher, Alain

    2014-09-01

    Spatial patterns of functional connectivity derived from resting brain activity may be used to elucidate the topological properties of brain networks. Such networks are amenable to study using graph theory, which shows that they possess small world properties and can be used to differentiate healthy subjects and patient populations. Of particular interest is the possibility that some of these differences are related to alterations in the dopamine system. To investigate the role of dopamine in the topological organization of brain networks at rest, we tested the effects of reducing dopamine synthesis in 13 healthy subjects undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. All subjects were scanned twice, in a resting state, following ingestion of one of two amino acid drinks in a randomized, double-blind manner. One drink was a nutritionally balanced amino acid mixture, and the other was tyrosine and phenylalanine deficient. Functional connectivity between 90 cortical and subcortical regions was estimated for each individual subject under each dopaminergic condition. The lowered dopamine state caused the following network changes: reduced global and local efficiency of the whole brain network, reduced regional efficiency in limbic areas, reduced modularity of brain networks, and greater connection between the normally anti-correlated task-positive and default-mode networks. We conclude that dopamine plays a role in maintaining the efficient small-world properties and high modularity of functional brain networks, and in segregating the task-positive and default-mode networks. This article is part of the Special Issue Section entitled 'Neuroimaging in Neuropharmacology'. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Efficient approximation of the incomplete gamma function for use in cloud model applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Blahak

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an approximation to the lower incomplete gamma function γl(a,x which has been obtained by nonlinear curve fitting. It comprises a fixed number of terms and yields moderate accuracy (the absolute approximation error of the corresponding normalized incomplete gamma function P is smaller than 0.02 in the range 0.9 ≤ a ≤ 45 and x≥0. Monotonicity and asymptotic behaviour of the original incomplete gamma function is preserved.

    While providing a slight to moderate performance gain on scalar machines (depending on whether a stays the same for subsequent function evaluations or not compared to established and more accurate methods based on series- or continued fraction expansions with a variable number of terms, a big advantage over these more accurate methods is the applicability on vector CPUs. Here the fixed number of terms enables proper and efficient vectorization. The fixed number of terms might be also beneficial on massively parallel machines to avoid load imbalances, caused by a possibly vastly different number of terms in series expansions to reach convergence at different grid points. For many cloud microphysical applications, the provided moderate accuracy should be enough. However, on scalar machines and if a is the same for subsequent function evaluations, the most efficient method to evaluate incomplete gamma functions is perhaps interpolation of pre-computed regular lookup tables (most simple example: equidistant tables.

  5. Biological function of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritu Kumar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Activation-induced Cytidine Deaminase (AID is an essential regulator of B cell diversification, but its full range of action has until recently been an enigma. Based on homology, it was originally proposed to be an RNA-editing enzyme, but so far, no RNA substrates are known. Rather, it functions by deaminating cytidine, and in this manner, coupled with base-excision repair or mismatch repair machinery, it is a natural mutator. This allows it to play a central role in adaptive immunity, whereby it initiates the processes of class switch recombination and somatic hypermutation to help generate a diverse and high-affinity repertoire of immunoglobulin isotypes. More recently, it has been appreciated that methylated cytidine, already known as a key epigenetic mark on DNA controlling gene expression, can also be a target for AID modification. Coupled with repair machinery, this can facilitate the active removal of methylated DNA. This activity can impact the process of cellular reprogramming, including transition of a somatic cell to pluripotency, which requires major reshuffling of epigenetic memory. Thus, seemingly disparate roles for AID in controlling immune diversity and epigenetic memory have a common mechanistic basis. However, the very activity that is so useful for B cell diversity and cellular reprogramming is dangerous for the integrity of the genome. Thus, AID expression and activity is tightly regulated, and deregulation is associated with diseases including cancer. Here, we review the range of AID functions with a focus on its mechanisms of action and regulation. Major questions remain to be answered concerning how and when AID is targeted to specific loci and how this impacts development and disease.

  6. Efficient block preconditioned eigensolvers for linear response time-dependent density functional theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vecharynski, Eugene [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Computational Research Division; Brabec, Jiri [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Computational Research Division; Shao, Meiyue [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Computational Research Division; Govind, Niranjan [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Environmental Molecular Sciences Lab.; Yang, Chao [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Computational Research Division

    2017-12-01

    We present two efficient iterative algorithms for solving the linear response eigen- value problem arising from the time dependent density functional theory. Although the matrix to be diagonalized is nonsymmetric, it has a special structure that can be exploited to save both memory and floating point operations. In particular, the nonsymmetric eigenvalue problem can be transformed into a product eigenvalue problem that is self-adjoint with respect to a K-inner product. This product eigenvalue problem can be solved efficiently by a modified Davidson algorithm and a modified locally optimal block preconditioned conjugate gradient (LOBPCG) algorithm that make use of the K-inner product. The solution of the product eigenvalue problem yields one component of the eigenvector associated with the original eigenvalue problem. However, the other component of the eigenvector can be easily recovered in a postprocessing procedure. Therefore, the algorithms we present here are more efficient than existing algorithms that try to approximate both components of the eigenvectors simultaneously. The efficiency of the new algorithms is demonstrated by numerical examples.

  7. Oncogenic Herpesvirus Utilizes Stress-Induced Cell Cycle Checkpoints for Efficient Lytic Replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Balistreri

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV causes Kaposi's sarcoma and certain lymphoproliferative malignancies. Latent infection is established in the majority of tumor cells, whereas lytic replication is reactivated in a small fraction of cells, which is important for both virus spread and disease progression. A siRNA screen for novel regulators of KSHV reactivation identified the E3 ubiquitin ligase MDM2 as a negative regulator of viral reactivation. Depletion of MDM2, a repressor of p53, favored efficient activation of the viral lytic transcription program and viral reactivation. During lytic replication cells activated a p53 response, accumulated DNA damage and arrested at G2-phase. Depletion of p21, a p53 target gene, restored cell cycle progression and thereby impaired the virus reactivation cascade delaying the onset of virus replication induced cytopathic effect. Herpesviruses are known to reactivate in response to different kinds of stress, and our study now highlights the molecular events in the stressed host cell that KSHV has evolved to utilize to ensure efficient viral lytic replication.

  8. Establishment of a highly efficient virus-inducible CRISPR/Cas9 system in insect cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhan-Qi; Chen, Ting-Ting; Zhang, Jun; Hu, Nan; Cao, Ming-Ya; Dong, Fei-Fan; Jiang, Ya-Ming; Chen, Peng; Lu, Cheng; Pan, Min-Hui

    2016-06-01

    Although current antiviral strategies can inhibit baculovirus infection and decrease viral DNA replication to a certain extent, novel tools are required for specific and accurate elimination of baculovirus genomes from infected insects. Using the newly developed clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/associated protein 9 nuclease (CRISPR/Cas9) technology, we disrupted a viral genome in infected insect cells in vitro as a defense against viral infection. We optimized the CRISPR/Cas9 system to edit foreign and viral genome in insect cells. Using Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) as a model, we found that the CRISPR/Cas9 system was capable of cleaving the replication key factor ie-1 in BmNPV thus effectively inhibiting virus proliferation. Furthermore, we constructed a virus-inducible CRISPR/Cas9 editing system, which minimized the probability of off-target effects and was rapidly activated after viral infection. This is the first report describing the application of the CRISPR/Cas9 system in insect antiviral research. Establishment of a highly efficient virus-inducible CRISPR/Cas9 system in insect cells provides insights to produce virus-resistant transgenic strains for future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Kinetics and efficiency of the hydrated electron-induced dehalogenation by the sulfite/UV process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuchun; Fang, Jingyun; Liu, Guifang; Zhang, Shujuan; Pan, Bingcai; Ma, Jun

    2014-10-01

    Hydrated electron (e(aq)(-)), which is listed among the most reactive reducing species, has great potential for removal and detoxification of recalcitrant contaminants. Here we provided quantitative insight into the availability and conversion of e(aq)(-) in a newly developed sulfite/UV process. Using monochloroacetic acid as a simple e(aq)(-)-probe, the e(aq)(-)-induced dehalogenation kinetics in synthetic and surface water was well predicted by the developed models. The models interpreted the complex roles of pH and S(IV), and also revealed the positive effects of UV intensity and temperature quantitatively. Impacts of humic acid, ferrous ion, carbonate/bicarbonate, and surface water matrix were also examined. Despite the retardation of dehalogenation by electron scavengers, the process was effective even in surface water. Efficiency of the process was discussed, and the optimization approaches were proposed. This study is believed to better understand the e(aq)(-)-induced dehalogenation by the sulfite/UV process in a quantitative manner, which is very important for its potential application in water treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Nitrile-functionalized tertiary amines as highly efficient and reversible SO2 absorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Sung Yun; Kim, Heehwan; Kim, Young Jin; Jeong, Junkyo; Cheong, Minserk; Lee, Hyunjoo; Kim, Hoon Sik; Lee, Je Seung

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Nitrile-functionalized tertiary amines physically and reversibly absorb SO 2 . • Tertiary alkanolamines chemically and irreversibly absorb SO 2 through OH group. • SO 2 absorption modes were studied by spectroscopy and computational calculations. -- Abstract: Three different types of nitrile-functionalized amines, including 3-(N,N-diethylamino)propionitrile (DEAPN), 3-(N,N-dibutylamino)propionitrile (DBAPN), and N-methyl-N,N-dipropionitrile amine (MADPN) were synthesized, and their SO 2 absorption performances were evaluated and compared with those of hydroxy-functionalized amines such as N,N-diethyl-N-ethanol amine (DEEA), N,N-dibutyl-N-ethanol amine (DBEA), and N-methyl-N,N-diethanol amine (MDEA). Absorption–desorption cycle experiments clearly demonstrate that the nitrile-functionalized amines are more efficient than the hydroxy-functionalized amines in terms of absorption rate and regenerability. Computational calculations with DBEA and DBAPN revealed that DBEA bearing a hydroxyethyl group chemically interacts with SO 2 through oxygen atom, forming an ionic compound with a covalently bound -OSO 2 − group. On the contrary, DBAPN bearing a nitrile group physically interacts with SO 2 through the nitrogen and the hydrogen atoms of the two methylene groups adjacent to the amino and nitrile functionalities

  11. Nitrile-functionalized tertiary amines as highly efficient and reversible SO{sub 2} absorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sung Yun; Kim, Heehwan; Kim, Young Jin; Jeong, Junkyo; Cheong, Minserk [Department of Chemistry and Research Institute of Basic Sciences, Kyung Hee University, 1 Hoegi-dong, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyunjoo [Clean Energy Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hoon Sik, E-mail: khs2004@khu.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry and Research Institute of Basic Sciences, Kyung Hee University, 1 Hoegi-dong, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Je Seung, E-mail: leejs70@khu.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry and Research Institute of Basic Sciences, Kyung Hee University, 1 Hoegi-dong, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Nitrile-functionalized tertiary amines physically and reversibly absorb SO{sub 2}. • Tertiary alkanolamines chemically and irreversibly absorb SO{sub 2} through OH group. • SO{sub 2} absorption modes were studied by spectroscopy and computational calculations. -- Abstract: Three different types of nitrile-functionalized amines, including 3-(N,N-diethylamino)propionitrile (DEAPN), 3-(N,N-dibutylamino)propionitrile (DBAPN), and N-methyl-N,N-dipropionitrile amine (MADPN) were synthesized, and their SO{sub 2} absorption performances were evaluated and compared with those of hydroxy-functionalized amines such as N,N-diethyl-N-ethanol amine (DEEA), N,N-dibutyl-N-ethanol amine (DBEA), and N-methyl-N,N-diethanol amine (MDEA). Absorption–desorption cycle experiments clearly demonstrate that the nitrile-functionalized amines are more efficient than the hydroxy-functionalized amines in terms of absorption rate and regenerability. Computational calculations with DBEA and DBAPN revealed that DBEA bearing a hydroxyethyl group chemically interacts with SO{sub 2} through oxygen atom, forming an ionic compound with a covalently bound -OSO{sub 2}{sup −} group. On the contrary, DBAPN bearing a nitrile group physically interacts with SO{sub 2} through the nitrogen and the hydrogen atoms of the two methylene groups adjacent to the amino and nitrile functionalities.

  12. DART: A Functional-Level Reconfigurable Architecture for High Energy Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Raphaël

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Flexibility becomes a major concern for the development of multimedia and mobile communication systems, as well as classical high-performance and low-energy consumption constraints. The use of general-purpose processors solves flexibility problems but fails to cope with the increasing demand for energy efficiency. This paper presents the DART architecture based on the functional-level reconfiguration paradigm which allows a significant improvement in energy efficiency. DART is built around a hierarchical interconnection network allowing high flexibility while keeping the power overhead low. To enable specific optimizations, DART supports two modes of reconfiguration. The compilation framework is built using compilation and high-level synthesis techniques. A 3G mobile communication application has been implemented as a proof of concept. The energy distribution within the architecture and the physical implementation are also discussed. Finally, the VLSI design of a 0.13  m CMOS SoC implementing a specialized DART cluster is presented.

  13. Efficient Multiple Genome Modifications Induced by the crRNAs, tracrRNA and Cas9 Protein Complex in Zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohga, Rie; Ota, Satoshi; Kawahara, Atsuo

    2015-01-01

    The type II clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) associated with Cas9 endonuclease (CRISPR/Cas9) has become a powerful genetic tool for understanding the function of a gene of interest. In zebrafish, the injection of Cas9 mRNA and guide-RNA (gRNA), which are prepared using an in vitro transcription system, efficiently induce DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) at the targeted genomic locus. Because gRNA was originally constructed by fusing two short RNAs CRISPR RNA (crRNA) and trans-activating crRNA (tracrRNA), we examined the effect of synthetic crRNAs and tracrRNA with Cas9 mRNA or Cas9 protein on the genome editing activity. We previously reported that the disruption of tyrosinase (tyr) by tyr-gRNA/Cas9 mRNA causes a retinal pigment defect, whereas the disruption of spns2 by spns2-gRNA1/Cas9 mRNA leads to a cardiac progenitor migration defect in zebrafish. Here, we found that the injection of spns2-crRNA1, tyr-crRNA and tracrRNA with Cas9 mRNA or Cas9 protein simultaneously caused a migration defect in cardiac progenitors and a pigment defect in retinal epithelial cells. A time course analysis demonstrated that the injection of crRNAs and tracrRNA with Cas9 protein rapidly induced genome modifications compared with the injection of crRNAs and tracrRNA with Cas9 mRNA. We further show that the crRNA-tracrRNA-Cas9 protein complex is functional for the visualization of endogenous gene expression; therefore, this is a very powerful, ready-to-use system in zebrafish. PMID:26010089

  14. Accurate first-principles structures and energies of diversely bonded systems from an efficient density functional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianwei; Remsing, Richard C; Zhang, Yubo; Sun, Zhaoru; Ruzsinszky, Adrienn; Peng, Haowei; Yang, Zenghui; Paul, Arpita; Waghmare, Umesh; Wu, Xifan; Klein, Michael L; Perdew, John P

    2016-09-01

    One atom or molecule binds to another through various types of bond, the strengths of which range from several meV to several eV. Although some computational methods can provide accurate descriptions of all bond types, those methods are not efficient enough for many studies (for example, large systems, ab initio molecular dynamics and high-throughput searches for functional materials). Here, we show that the recently developed non-empirical strongly constrained and appropriately normed (SCAN) meta-generalized gradient approximation (meta-GGA) within the density functional theory framework predicts accurate geometries and energies of diversely bonded molecules and materials (including covalent, metallic, ionic, hydrogen and van der Waals bonds). This represents a significant improvement at comparable efficiency over its predecessors, the GGAs that currently dominate materials computation. Often, SCAN matches or improves on the accuracy of a computationally expensive hybrid functional, at almost-GGA cost. SCAN is therefore expected to have a broad impact on chemistry and materials science.

  15. Rapid, Efficient and Versatile Strategies for Functionally Sophisticated Polymers and Nanoparticles: Degradable Polyphosphoesters and Anisotropic Distribution of Chemical Functionalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shiyi

    The overall emphasis of this dissertation research included two kinds of asymmetrically-functionalized nanoparticles with anisotropic distributions of chemical functionalities, three degradable polymers synthesized by organocatalyzed ring-opening polymerizations, and two polyphosphoester-based nanoparticle systems for various biomedical applications. Inspired by the many hierarchical assembly processes that afford complex materials in Nature, the construction of asymmetrically-functionalized nanoparticles with efficient surface chemistries and the directional organization of those building blocks into complex structures have attracted much attention. The first method generated a Janus-faced polymer nanoparticle that presented two orthogonally click-reactive surface chemistries, thiol and azido. This robust method involved reactive functional group transfer by templating against gold nanoparticle substrates. The second method produced nanoparticles with sandwich-like distribution of crown ether functionalities through a stepwise self-assembly process that utilized crown ether-ammonium supramolecular interactions to mediate inter-particle association and the local intra-particle phase separation of unlike hydrophobic polymers. With the goal to improve the efficiency of the production of degradable polymers with tunable chemical and physical properties, a new type of reactive polyphosphoester was synthesized bearing alkynyl groups by an organocatalyzed ring-opening polymerization, the chemical availability of the alkyne groups was investigated by employing "click" type azide-alkyne Huisgen cycloaddition and thiol-yne radical-mediated reactions. Based on this alkyne-functionalized polyphosphoester polymer and its two available "click" type reactions, two degradable nanoparticle systems were developed. To develop the first system, the well defined poly(ethylene oxide)-block-polyphosphester diblock copolymer was transformed into a multifunctional Paclitaxel drug

  16. Investigating the Neural Bases for Intra-Subject Cognitive Efficiency Using Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neena K. Rao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Several fMRI studies have examined brain regions mediating inter-subject variability in cognitive efficiency, but none have examined regions mediating intra-subject variability in efficiency. Thus, the present study was designed to identify brain regions involved in intra-subject variability in cognitive efficiency via participant-level correlations between trial-level reaction time (RT and trial-level fMRI BOLD percent signal change on a processing speed task. On each trial, participants indicated whether a digit-symbol probe-pair was present or absent in an array of nine digit-symbol probe-pairs while fMRI data were collected. Deconvolution analyses, using RT time-series models (derived from the proportional scaling of an event-related hemodynamic response function model by trial-level RT, were used to evaluate relationships between trial-level RTs and BOLD percent signal change. Although task-related patterns of activation and deactivation were observed in regions including bilateral occipital, bilateral parietal, portions of the medial wall such as the precuneus, default mode network regions including anterior cingulate, posterior cingulate, bilateral temporal, right cerebellum, and right cuneus, RT-BOLD correlations were observed in a more circumscribed set of regions. Positive RT-related patterns, or RT-BOLD correlations where fast RTs were associated with lower BOLD percent signal change, were observed in regions including bilateral occipital, bilateral parietal, and the precuneus. RT-BOLD correlations were not observed in the default mode network indicating a smaller set of regions associated with intra-subject variability in cognitive efficiency. The results are discussed in terms of a distributed area of regions that mediate variability in the cognitive efficiency that might underlie processing speed differences between individuals.

  17. Efficiency evaluation of treatment of atrial rhythm disorders on the left ventricular function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberini, J.L.; Mansour, H.; Victor, F.; De Place, C.; Carre, F.; Daubert, J.C.; Borguet, P.

    1997-01-01

    The goal of this prospective study was to evaluate the development and evolution of the LV function after treatment of atrial arrhythmias, evolving for at least three months, associated to an alteration of the LV function. Twelve patients (61.3 ± 13.9 years) were divided into two groups: Gr1 - treatment by cardio-version or radiofrequency; Gr2 - pharmacological treatment or ablation of atrial-ventricular junction and implantation of a cardiac pacemaker. An examination including ECG, Holter, test-to-effort, echocardiography, cavitary angio-scintigraphy was effectuated 48 h and 6 weeks after reduction. A net clinic amelioration was observed in the evolution, confirmed by results of the echocardiographic and angio-scintigraphic examinations (with a correlation coefficient of 0.87). In exchange, between the two examinations, there is no significant difference for the test-to-effort with medium or maximal cardiac frequencies and the diameters or tele-diastolic and tele-systolic volumes for echography. After the multi-variable analysis the initial angio-scintigraphic measurement of the LV function is a good predictive factor in ameliorating the LV function in patients maintained in sinusal rhythm. In conclusion, the angio-scintigraphy permits predicting the treatment efficiency of the atrial arrhythmias on the LV function

  18. Nitrile-functionalized tertiary amines as highly efficient and reversible SO2 absorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sung Yun; Kim, Heehwan; Kim, Young Jin; Jeong, Junkyo; Cheong, Minserk; Lee, Hyunjoo; Kim, Hoon Sik; Lee, Je Seung

    2014-01-15

    Three different types of nitrile-functionalized amines, including 3-(N,N-diethylamino)propionitrile (DEAPN), 3-(N,N-dibutylamino)propionitrile (DBAPN), and N-methyl-N,N-dipropionitrile amine (MADPN) were synthesized, and their SO2 absorption performances were evaluated and compared with those of hydroxy-functionalized amines such as N,N-diethyl-N-ethanol amine (DEEA), N,N-dibutyl-N-ethanol amine (DBEA), and N-methyl-N,N-diethanol amine (MDEA). Absorption-desorption cycle experiments clearly demonstrate that the nitrile-functionalized amines are more efficient than the hydroxy-functionalized amines in terms of absorption rate and regenerability. Computational calculations with DBEA and DBAPN revealed that DBEA bearing a hydroxyethyl group chemically interacts with SO2 through oxygen atom, forming an ionic compound with a covalently bound OSO2(-) group. On the contrary, DBAPN bearing a nitrile group physically interacts with SO2 through the nitrogen and the hydrogen atoms of the two methylene groups adjacent to the amino and nitrile functionalities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Self Organizing Maps to efficiently cluster and functionally interpret protein conformational ensembles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Stella

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available An approach that combines Self-Organizing maps, hierarchical clustering and network components is presented, aimed at comparing protein conformational ensembles obtained from multiple Molecular Dynamic simulations. As a first result the original ensembles can be summarized by using only the representative conformations of the clusters obtained. In addition the network components analysis allows to discover and interpret the dynamic behavior of the conformations won by each neuron. The results showed the ability of this approach to efficiently derive a functional interpretation of the protein dynamics described by the original conformational ensemble, highlighting its potential as a support for protein engineering.

  20. PreSMA stimulation changes task-free functional connectivity in the fronto-basal-ganglia that correlates with response inhibition efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Benjamin; Sandrini, Marco; Wang, Wen-Tung; Smith, Jason F; Sarlls, Joelle E; Awosika, Oluwole; Butman, John A; Horwitz, Barry; Cohen, Leonardo G

    2016-09-01

    Previous work using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) demonstrated that the right presupplementary motor area (preSMA), a node in the fronto-basal-ganglia network, is critical for response inhibition. However, TMS influences interconnected regions, raising the possibility of a link between the preSMA activity and the functional connectivity within the network. To understand this relationship, we applied single-pulse TMS to the right preSMA during functional magnetic resonance imaging when the subjects were at rest to examine changes in neural activity and functional connectivity within the network in relation to the efficiency of response inhibition evaluated with a stop-signal task. The results showed that preSMA-TMS increased activation in the right inferior-frontal cortex (rIFC) and basal ganglia and modulated their task-free functional connectivity. Both the TMS-induced changes in the basal-ganglia activation and the functional connectivity between rIFC and left striatum, and of the overall network correlated with the efficiency of response inhibition and with the white-matter microstructure along the preSMA-rIFC pathway. These results suggest that the task-free functional and structural connectivity between the rIFCop and basal ganglia are critical to the efficiency of response inhibition. Hum Brain Mapp 37:3236-3249, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Large thermoelectric efficiency of doped polythiophene junction: A density functional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golsanamlou, Zahra; Bagheri Tagani, Meysam; Rahimpour Soleimani, Hamid

    2018-06-01

    The thermoelectric properties of polythiophene (PT) coupled to the Au (111) electrodes are studied based on density functional theory with nonequilibrium Green function formalism. Specially, the effect of Li and Cl adsorbents on the thermoelectric efficiency of the PT junction is investigated in different concentrations of the dopants for two lengths of the PT. Results show that the presence of dopants can bring the structural changes in the oligomer and modify the arrangement of the molecular levels leading to the dramatic changes in the transmission spectra of the junction. Therefore, the large enhancement in thermopower and consequently figure of merit is obtained by dopants which makes the doped PT junction as a beneficial thermoelectric device.

  2. Optimizing cost-efficiency in mean exposure assessment--cost functions reconsidered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiassen, Svend Erik; Bolin, Kristian

    2011-05-21

    Reliable exposure data is a vital concern in medical epidemiology and intervention studies. The present study addresses the needs of the medical researcher to spend monetary resources devoted to exposure assessment with an optimal cost-efficiency, i.e. obtain the best possible statistical performance at a specified budget. A few previous studies have suggested mathematical optimization procedures based on very simple cost models; this study extends the methodology to cover even non-linear cost scenarios. Statistical performance, i.e. efficiency, was assessed in terms of the precision of an exposure mean value, as determined in a hierarchical, nested measurement model with three stages. Total costs were assessed using a corresponding three-stage cost model, allowing costs at each stage to vary non-linearly with the number of measurements according to a power function. Using these models, procedures for identifying the optimally cost-efficient allocation of measurements under a constrained budget were developed, and applied on 225 scenarios combining different sizes of unit costs, cost function exponents, and exposure variance components. Explicit mathematical rules for identifying optimal allocation could be developed when cost functions were linear, while non-linear cost functions implied that parts of or the entire optimization procedure had to be carried out using numerical methods.For many of the 225 scenarios, the optimal strategy consisted in measuring on only one occasion from each of as many subjects as allowed by the budget. Significant deviations from this principle occurred if costs for recruiting subjects were large compared to costs for setting up measurement occasions, and, at the same time, the between-subjects to within-subject variance ratio was small. In these cases, non-linearities had a profound influence on the optimal allocation and on the eventual size of the exposure data set. The analysis procedures developed in the present study can be used

  3. Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation of Arachis hypogaea: an efficient tool for functional study of genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a technique for efficient transformation of hairy roots of Arachis hypogaea L. using Agrobacterium rhizogenes K599, and have validated this approach for the investigation of gene function. As a model transgene, AhAREB1, a drought-resistance gene from peanut, was fused to green fluorescent protein, and four parameters that might influence the transformation efficiency were tested. The optimal procedure involved the use of petioles with four expanded leaves as explants, infection by K599 at optical density (OD600 of 0.6 for 15 min and co-cultivation for 2 d, giving transformation efficiencies of up to 91%. Hairy roots from transgenic peanut plants overexpressing AhAREB1 were unaffected by treatment with polyethylene glycol (PEG, demonstrating increased drought tolerance, whereas control roots showed clear signs of plasmolysis. Transgenic roots accumulated less superoxide anion (O2− than control roots under drought conditions. Additionally, transgenic roots displayed upregulation of four stress-response genes encoding WRKY transcription factor (WRKY33, MYB transcription factor (MYB92, abscisic acid receptor (PYL5 and dehydrin 2 (DHN2.

  4. Analiza efikasnosti funkcionalnih radio-komunikacionih centara / The efficiency analysis of functional radio communication centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša M. Devetak

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available U radu je prikazan jedan pristup u analizi efikasnosti radio-komunikacionih centara funkcionalnog telekomunikacionog sistema, kao što je vojni sistem veza. Radio-komunikacioni centar modelovan je kao sistem masovnog opsluživanja. Opisana su stanja sistema i parametri i izveden izraz za određivanje verovatnoće opsluživanja radio-komunikacionog centra, kao kriterijuma za ocenu efikasnosti. Predstavljen je, takođe, model, odnosno izrazi za kvantitativnu analizu efikasnosti radio- komunikacionih centara u uslovima elektronskih dejstava. / One approach in the analysis of efficiency of radio communication centers of functional telecommunication systems (for example Military Systems has been shown in this article. A radio communication centre has been presented as a model of mass service systems. The system states and its parameters have been described as well as the resulting formula for determining service probability as a criterion for efficiency evaluation. A model and the formulae for quantitative analysis of efficiency in electronic warfare have been presented as well.

  5. Insights into the Influence of Work Functions of Cathodes on Efficiencies of Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Shizhong; Lu, Shudi; Ren, Kuankuan; Liu, Kong; Azam, Muhammad; Cao, Dawei; Wang, Zhijie; Lei, Yong; Qu, Shengchun; Wang, Zhanguo

    2017-05-01

    Though various efforts on modification of electrodes are still undertaken to improve the efficiency of perovskite solar cells, attributing to the large scope of these methods, it is of significance to unveil the working principle systematically. Herein, inverted perovskite solar cells based on indium tin oxide (ITO)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS)/CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 /phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC 61 BM)/buffer metal/Al are constructed. Through the choice of different buffer metals to tune work function of the cathode, the contact nature of the active layer with the cathode could be manipulated well. In comparison with the device using Au/Al as the electrode that shows an unfavorable band bending for conducting the excited electrons to the cathode, the one with Ca/Al presents a dramatically improved efficiency over 17.1%, ascribed to the favorable band bending at the interface of the cathode with the active layer. Details for tuning the band bending and the corresponding charge transfer mechanism are given in a systematic manner. Thus, a general guideline for constructing perovskite photovoltaic devices efficiently is provided. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. An Optimized Protocol to Increase Virus-Induced Gene Silencing Efficiency and Minimize Viral Symptoms in Petunia

    OpenAIRE

    Broderick, Shaun R.; Jones, Michelle L.

    2013-01-01

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is used to down-regulate endogenous plant genes. VIGS efficiency depends on viral proliferation and systemic movement throughout the plant. Although tobacco rattle virus (TRV)-based VIGS has been successfully used in petunia (Petunia × hybrida), the protocol has not been thoroughly optimized for efficient and uniform gene down-regulation in this species. Therefore, we evaluated six parameters that improved VIGS in petunia. Inoculation of mechanically wounde...

  7. Human, donkey and cow milk differently affects energy efficiency and inflammatory state by modulating mitochondrial function and gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinchese, Giovanna; Cavaliere, Gina; Canani, Roberto Berni; Matamoros, Sebastien; Bergamo, Paolo; De Filippo, Chiara; Aceto, Serena; Gaita, Marcello; Cerino, Pellegrino; Negri, Rossella; Greco, Luigi; Cani, Patrice D; Mollica, Maria Pina

    2015-11-01

    Different nutritional components are able, by modulating mitochondrial function and gut microbiota composition, to influence body composition, metabolic homeostasis and inflammatory state. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects produced by the supplementation of different milks on energy balance, inflammatory state, oxidative stress and antioxidant/detoxifying enzyme activities and to investigate the role of the mitochondrial efficiency and the gut microbiota in the regulation of metabolic functions in an animal model. We compared the intake of human milk, gold standard for infant nutrition, with equicaloric supplementation of donkey milk, the best substitute for newborns due to its nutritional properties, and cow milk, the primary marketed product. The results showed a hypolipidemic effect produced by donkey and human milk intake in parallel with enhanced mitochondrial activity/proton leakage. Reduced mitochondrial energy efficiency and proinflammatory signals (tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-1 and lipopolysaccharide levels) were associated with a significant increase of antioxidants (total thiols) and detoxifying enzyme activities (glutathione-S-transferase, NADH quinone oxidoreductase) in donkey- and human milk-treated animals. The beneficial effects were attributable, at least in part, to the activation of the nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor-2 pathway. Moreover, the metabolic benefits induced by human and donkey milk may be related to the modulation of gut microbiota. In fact, milk treatments uniquely affected the proportions of bacterial phyla and genera, and we hypothesized that the increased concentration of fecal butyrate in human and donkey milk-treated rats was related to the improved lipid and glucose metabolism and detoxifying activities. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Fab is the most efficient format to express functional antibodies by yeast surface display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivelle, Coline; Sierocki, Raphaël; Ferreira-Pinto, Kelly; Simon, Stéphanie; Maillere, Bernard; Nozach, Hervé

    2018-04-30

    Multiple formats are available for engineering of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) by yeast surface display, but they do not all lead to efficient expression of functional molecules. We therefore expressed four anti-tumor necrosis factor and two anti-IpaD mAbs as single-chain variable fragment (scFv), antigen-binding fragment (Fab) or single-chain Fabs and compared their expression levels and antigen-binding efficiency. Although the scFv and scFab formats are widely used in the literature, 2 of 6 antibodies were either not or weakly expressed. In contrast, all 6 antibodies expressed as Fab revealed strong binding and high affinity, comparable to that of the soluble form. We also demonstrated that the variations in expression did not affect Fab functionality and were due to variations in light chain display and not to misfolded dimers. Our results suggest that Fab is the most versatile format for the engineering of mAbs.

  9. Ferrocene-Functionalized Graphene Oxide Nanosheets: Efficient Electronic Communication between Ferrocene Centers across Graphene Nanosheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Yizhong; Jiang, Yuanyuan; Wu, Haibin; Chen, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets functionalized with ferrocenyl moieties (GO-Fc) are fabricated. • GO-Fc shows efficient electronic communication between ferrocene centers. • GO-Fc exhibits two pairs of voltammetric peaks with a large potential spacing of 0.515 V. • GO-Fc shows a broad absorption peak in the near-infrared range (∼ 1428 nm) at mixed valence. - Abstract: Graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets functionalized with ferrocenyl moieties (GO-Fc) were fabricated through strong covalent C−C bonds. The resulting hybrid showed efficient electronic communication between ferrocene centers due to the strong electron delocalization facilitated by the large pi-pi conjugated structure of graphene sheets. The obtained hybrid exhibited two pairs of voltammetric peaks with a large potential spacing of 0.515 V and a broad absorption peak in the near-infrared range (∼ 1428 nm) at mixed valence. The electrochemical and near IR spectroscopic features suggested a Class II/III behavior of the intervalence charge transfer. This work indicates clearly that strong electronic coupling between ferrocene centers can be easily realized across graphene nanosheets with sp 2 -hybridized carbon

  10. Assessment of the efficiency of cognitive function of people over 65

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Tomaszewska

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Demographic estimates for Poland indicate that the average life expectancy of the population will increase further over the next decades. Weakness of memory is a physiological phenomenon affecting about 60% of people over 65, whereas the prevalence of dementia in the population is estimated at 10-11%. Identification of people at high risk of developing dementia is becoming a significant medical and social problem. Cognitive impairment is one of the first symptoms of dementia. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE is a screening method that allows initial assessment of cognitive performance. Correct diagnosis of symptoms, determining the health needs of seniors in all dimensions sets its further paths and optimal medical treatment. Aim of the paper: The aim of this paper is to assess the efficiency of cognitive function of people over 65. Material and methods: The analysis included 135 questionnaires of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE and respondents’ particulars. Additionally, the functional efficiency of the subjects was assessed using the Barthel scale. The research was conducted among people over 65 in the Podkarpackie Voivodeship in 2017. For the purpose of this work, especially for verification of hypotheses, the following tests were used for questions on nominal scales: V Kramer (2x3, 4x5 tables etc., Phi (2x2 tables. Tb-Kendall or Tc tests were used for questions on ordinal scales. The statistical analysis was carried out using the SPSS program and all relationships were statistically significant when p

  11. Functional Basis for Efficient Physical Layer Classical Control in Quantum Processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Harrison; Nguyen, Trung; Leong, Philip H. W.; Biercuk, Michael J.

    2016-12-01

    The rapid progress seen in the development of quantum-coherent devices for information processing has motivated serious consideration of quantum computer architecture and organization. One topic which remains open for investigation and optimization relates to the design of the classical-quantum interface, where control operations on individual qubits are applied according to higher-level algorithms; accommodating competing demands on performance and scalability remains a major outstanding challenge. In this work, we present a resource-efficient, scalable framework for the implementation of embedded physical layer classical controllers for quantum-information systems. Design drivers and key functionalities are introduced, leading to the selection of Walsh functions as an effective functional basis for both programing and controller hardware implementation. This approach leverages the simplicity of real-time Walsh-function generation in classical digital hardware, and the fact that a wide variety of physical layer controls, such as dynamic error suppression, are known to fall within the Walsh family. We experimentally implement a real-time field-programmable-gate-array-based Walsh controller producing Walsh timing signals and Walsh-synthesized analog waveforms appropriate for critical tasks in error-resistant quantum control and noise characterization. These demonstrations represent the first step towards a unified framework for the realization of physical layer controls compatible with large-scale quantum-information processing.

  12. Efficient Underwater RSS Value to Distance Inversion Using the Lambert Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Hosseini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many applications for using wireless sensor networks (WSN in ocean science; however, identifying the exact location of a sensor by itself (localization is still a challenging problem, where global positioning system (GPS devices are not applicable underwater. Precise distance measurement between two sensors is a tool of localization and received signal strength (RSS, reflecting transmission loss (TL phenomena, is widely used in terrestrial WSNs for that matter. Underwater acoustic sensor networks have not been used (UASN, due to the complexity of the TL function. In this paper, we addressed these problems by expressing underwater TL via the Lambert W function, for accurate distance inversion by the Halley method, and compared this to Newton-Raphson inversion. Mathematical proof, MATLAB simulation, and real device implementation demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed equation in distance calculation, with fewer iterations, computation stability for short and long distances, and remarkably short processing time. Then, the sensitivities of Lambert W function and Newton-Raphson inversion to alteration in TL were examined. The simulation results showed that Lambert W function is more stable to errors than Newton-Raphson inversion. Finally, with a likelihood method, it was shown that RSS is a practical tool for distance measurement in UASN.

  13. Efficient nonlinear registration of 3D images using high order co-ordinate transfer functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, D C

    1999-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in image registration for a variety of medical imaging applications. Image registration is achieved through the use of a co-ordinate transfer function (CTF) which maps voxels in one image to voxels in the other image, including in the general case changes in mapped voxel intensity. If images of the same subject are to be registered the co-ordinate transfer function needs to implement a spatial transformation consisting of a displacement and a rigid rotation. In order to achieve registration a common approach is to choose a suitable quality-of-registration measure and devise a method for the efficient generation of the parameters of the CTF which minimize this measure. For registration of images from different subjects more complex transforms are required. In general function minimization is too slow to allow the use of CTFs with more than a small number of parameters. However, provided the images are from the same modality and the CTF can be expanded in terms of an appropriate set of basis functions this paper will show how relatively complex CTFs can be used for registration. The use of increasingly complex CTFs to minimize the within group standard deviation of a set of normal single photon emission tomography brain images is used to demonstrate the improved registration of images from different subjects using CTFs of increasing complexity.

  14. Polyethylene glycol and octa-arginine dual-functionalized nanographene oxide: an optimization for efficient nucleic acid delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imani, Rana; Prakash, Satya; Vali, Hojatollah; Faghihi, Shahab

    2018-05-29

    The successful application of nucleic acid-based therapy for the treatment of various cancers is largely dependent on a safe and efficient delivery system. A dual-functionalized graphene oxide (GO)-based nanocarrier with the conjugation of aminated-polyethylene glycol (PEG-diamine) and octa-arginine (R8) for the intracellular delivery of nucleic acids is proposed. The functionalized sites are covalently co-conjugated and the PEG : R8 molar ratio is optimized at 10 : 1 to achieve a hydrocolloidally stable size of 252 ± 2.0 nm with an effective charge of +40.97 ± 1.05 and an amine-rich content of 10.87 ± 0.4 μmol g-1. The uptake of the nanocarrier in breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and MDA-MB 231, is investigated. The siRNA and pDNA condensation ability in the presence and absence of enzymes and the endosomal buffering capacity, as well as the intracellular localization of the gene/nanocarrier complex are also evaluated. Furthermore, the delivery of functional genes associated with the nanocarrier is assessed using c-Myc protein knockdown and EGFP gene expression. The effective uptake of the nanocarrier by the cells shows superior cytocompatibility, and protects the siRNA and pDNA against enzyme degradation while inhibiting their migration with N : P ratios of 10 and 5, respectively. The co-conjugation of PEG-diamine and the cationic cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) into the GO nanocarrier also provides a superior internalization efficacy of 85% in comparison with a commercially available transfection reagent. The c-Myc protein knockdown and EGFP expression, which are induced by the nanocarrier, confirm that the optimized PEG-diamine/R8-functionalized GO could effectively deliver pDNA and siRNA into the cells and interfere with gene expression.

  15. Efficiency of SPIONs functionalized with polyethylene glycol bis(amine) for heavy metal removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanna, Yongyuth, E-mail: yongyuth.wanna@gmail.com [College of KMITL Nanotechnology, King Mongkut' s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Chalongkrung Rd., Ladkrabang, Bangkok 10520 (Thailand); Nara Machinery Co., Ltd., 2-5-7, Jonan-Jima, Ohta-ku, Tokyo 143-0002 (Japan); Chindaduang, Anon; Tumcharern, Gamolwan [National Nanotechnology Center (NANOTEC), 111 Thailand Science Park, Pahol Yothin Rd, Klong Luang, Pathum Thani 12120 (Thailand); Phromyothin, Darinee [College of KMITL Nanotechnology, King Mongkut' s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Chalongkrung Rd., Ladkrabang, Bangkok 10520 (Thailand); Porntheerapat, Supanit [NECTEC, National Science and Technology Development Agency (NSTDA), 112 Thailand Science Park, Phahonyothin Rd., Khlong Nueng, Khlong Luang, Pathum Thani 12120 (Thailand); Nukeaw, Jiti [College of KMITL Nanotechnology, King Mongkut' s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Chalongkrung Rd., Ladkrabang, Bangkok 10520 (Thailand); Hofmann, Heirich [Laboratory of Powder Technology, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (Switzerland); Pratontep, Sirapat [College of KMITL Nanotechnology, King Mongkut' s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Chalongkrung Rd., Ladkrabang, Bangkok 10520 (Thailand)

    2016-09-15

    Hybrid magnetic nanoparticles based on poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) and super-paramagnetic iron oxide nanopaticles (SPIONs) with selective surface modification has been developed for heavy metal removal by applying external magnetic fields. The nanoparticles were prepared by the emulsion polymerization technique in an aqueous suspension of SPIONs. The hydrolysis of carboxyl functional group was then applied for grafting polyethylene glycol bis(amine)(PEG-bis(amine)) onto the PMMA-coated SPIONs. The morphology, the chemical structure and the magnetic properties of the grafted nanoparticles were investigated. The efficiency of the hybrid nanoparticles for heavy metal removal were conducted on Pb(II), Hg(II), Cu(II) and Co(II) in aqueous solutions.The metal concentration in the solutions after separation by the hybrid nanoparticles was determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES). The results show the heavy metal uptake ratios of 0.08, 0.04, 0.03, and 0.01 mM per gramme of the grafted SPIONs for Pb(II), Hg(II), Cu(II), and Co(II), respectively. A competitive removal of Cu(II), Pb(II), Co(II) and Hg(II) ions in mixed metal salt solutions has also been studied.The heavy metal removal efficiency of the hybrid nanoparitcles was found to depend on the cation radius, in accordance with capture of metal ions by the amine group. - Highlights: • We synthesis hybrid magnetic nanoparticles for heavy metal removal. • The efficiency of hybrid nanoparticles for heavy metal removal is proposed. • We investigated the characteristic of hybrid nanoparticle. • The heavy metal removal efficiency of the hybrid nanoparticle was founded that depend on the heavy metal cation radius.

  16. Intermittent Moderate Energy Restriction Improves Weight Loss Efficiency in Diet-Induced Obese Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika V Seimon

    Full Text Available Intermittent severe energy restriction is popular for weight management. To investigate whether intermittent moderate energy restriction may improve this approach by enhancing weight loss efficiency, we conducted a study in mice, where energy intake can be controlled.Male C57/Bl6 mice that had been rendered obese by an ad libitum diet high in fat and sugar for 22 weeks were then fed one of two energy-restricted normal chow diets for a 12-week weight loss phase. The continuous diet (CD provided 82% of the energy intake of age-matched ad libitum chow-fed controls. The intermittent diet (ID provided cycles of 82% of control intake for 5-6 consecutive days, and ad libitum intake for 1-3 days. Weight loss efficiency during this phase was calculated as (total weight change ÷ [(total energy intake of mice on CD or ID-(total average energy intake of controls]. Subsets of mice then underwent a 3-week weight regain phase involving ad libitum re-feeding.Mice on the ID showed transient hyperphagia relative to controls during each 1-3-day ad libitum feeding period, and overall ate significantly more than CD mice (91.1±1.0 versus 82.2±0.5% of control intake respectively, n = 10, P<0.05. There were no significant differences between CD and ID groups at the end of the weight loss or weight regain phases with respect to body weight, fat mass, circulating glucose or insulin concentrations, or the insulin resistance index. Weight loss efficiency was significantly greater with ID than with CD (0.042±0.007 versus 0.018±0.001 g/kJ, n = 10, P<0.01. Mice on the CD exhibited significantly greater hypothalamic mRNA expression of proopiomelanocortin (POMC relative to ID and control mice, with no differences in neuropeptide Y or agouti-related peptide mRNA expression between energy-restricted groups.Intermittent moderate energy restriction may offer an advantage over continuous moderate energy restriction, because it induces significantly greater weight loss relative

  17. How do policies for efficient energy use in the household sector induce energy-efficiency innovation? An evaluation of European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girod, Bastien; Stucki, Tobias; Woerter, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Research on innovation induced by climate-mitigation policy has been focused predominantly on the supply side of the energy system. Despite considerable climate-mitigation potential on the demand side, less attention is given to the innovation effect of policies addressing the household sector. Based on a comprehensive data set, including 550 policy measures over 30 years (1980–2009) and covering 21 European countries, we find—based on econometric estimations—that policies targeting efficient energy use in the household sector significantly increase the number of patented energy-efficiency inventions. A comparison of the different policy types reveals a particularly strong influence from financial subsidies and energy labels. The results indicate that policies supporting early market adoption of energy-efficient technologies are effective in fostering innovation. - Highlights: • We evaluate the impact of energy-efficiency policy on energy-efficiency innovation. • The dataset covers patents and policies for 1980–2009 in 21 European countries. • Household policies show a positive influence on innovation activity (patented inventions). • The influence is most pronounced for financial subsidies and energy labels.

  18. Efficient generation of endothelial cells from human pluripotent stem cells and characterization of their functional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wei; Kaufman, Dan S; Shen, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Although endothelial cells (ECs) have been derived from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), large-scale generation of hPSC-ECs remains challenging and their functions are not well characterized. Here we report a simple and efficient three-stage method that allows generation of approximately 98 and 9500 ECs on day 16 and day 34, respectively, from each human embryonic stem cell (hESC) input. The functional properties of hESC-ECs derived in the presence and absence of a TGFβ-inhibitory molecule SB431542 were characterized and compared with those of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Confluent monolayers formed by SB431542 + hESC-ECs, SB431542 - hESC-ECs, and HUVECs showed similar permeability to 10,000 Da dextran, but these cells exhibited striking differences in forming tube-like structures in 3D fibrin gels. The SB431542 + hESC-ECs were most potent in forming tube-like structures regardless of whether VEGF and bFGF were present in the medium; less potent SB431542 - hESC-ECs and HUVECs responded differently to VEGF and bFGF, which significantly enhanced the ability of HUVECs to form tube-like structures but had little impact on SB431542 - hESC-ECs. This study offers an efficient approach to large-scale hPSC-EC production and suggests that the phenotypes and functions of hPSC-ECs derived under different conditions need to be thoroughly examined before their use in technology development. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 678-687, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Temperature regulates splicing efficiency of the cold-inducible RNA-binding protein gene Cirbp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotic, Ivana; Omidi, Saeed; Fleury-Olela, Fabienne; Molina, Nacho; Naef, Felix; Schibler, Ueli

    2016-01-01

    In mammals, body temperature fluctuates diurnally around a mean value of 36°C–37°C. Despite the small differences between minimal and maximal values, body temperature rhythms can drive robust cycles in gene expression in cultured cells and, likely, animals. Here we studied the mechanisms responsible for the temperature-dependent expression of cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (CIRBP). In NIH3T3 fibroblasts exposed to simulated mouse body temperature cycles, Cirbp mRNA oscillates about threefold in abundance, as it does in mouse livers. This daily mRNA accumulation cycle is directly controlled by temperature oscillations and does not depend on the cells’ circadian clocks. Here we show that the temperature-dependent accumulation of Cirbp mRNA is controlled primarily by the regulation of splicing efficiency, defined as the fraction of Cirbp pre-mRNA processed into mature mRNA. As revealed by genome-wide “approach to steady-state” kinetics, this post-transcriptional mechanism is widespread in the temperature-dependent control of gene expression. PMID:27633015

  20. Efficient generation of megakaryocytes from human induced pluripotent stem cells using food and drug administration-approved pharmacological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanfeng; Wang, Ying; Gao, Yongxing; Forbes, Jessica A; Qayyum, Rehan; Becker, Lewis; Cheng, Linzhao; Wang, Zack Z

    2015-04-01

    Megakaryocytes (MKs) are rare hematopoietic cells in the adult bone marrow and produce platelets that are critical to vascular hemostasis and wound healing. Ex vivo generation of MKs from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) provides a renewable cell source of platelets for treating thrombocytopenic patients and allows a better understanding of MK/platelet biology. The key requirements in this approach include developing a robust and consistent method to produce functional progeny cells, such as MKs from hiPSCs, and minimizing the risk and variation from the animal-derived products in cell cultures. In this study, we developed an efficient system to generate MKs from hiPSCs under a feeder-free and xeno-free condition, in which all animal-derived products were eliminated. Several crucial reagents were evaluated and replaced with Food and Drug Administration-approved pharmacological reagents, including romiplostim (Nplate, a thrombopoietin analog), oprelvekin (recombinant interleukin-11), and Plasbumin (human albumin). We used this method to induce MK generation from hiPSCs derived from 23 individuals in two steps: generation of CD34(+)CD45(+) hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) for 14 days; and generation and expansion of CD41(+)CD42a(+) MKs from HPCs for an additional 5 days. After 19 days, we observed abundant CD41(+)CD42a(+) MKs that also expressed the MK markers CD42b and CD61 and displayed polyploidy (≥16% of derived cells with DNA contents >4N). Transcriptome analysis by RNA sequencing revealed that megakaryocytic-related genes were highly expressed. Additional maturation and investigation of hiPSC-derived MKs should provide insights into MK biology and lead to the generation of large numbers of platelets ex vivo. ©AlphaMed Press.

  1. Efficient direct conversion of human fibroblasts into myogenic lineage induced by co-transduction with MYCL and MYOD1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakao, Junko; Kishida, Tsunao; Fumino, Shigehisa; Kimura, Koseki; Yamamoto, Kenta; Kotani, Shin-Ichiro; Mizushima, Katsura; Naito, Yuji; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu; Tajiri, Tatsuro; Mazda, Osam

    2017-06-24

    The skeletal muscle consists of contractile myofibers and plays essential roles for maintenance of body posture, movement, and metabolic regulation. During the development and regeneration of the skeletal muscle tissue, the myoblasts fuse into multinucleated myotubes that subsequently form myofibers. Transplantation of myoblasts may make possible a novel regenerative therapy against defects or dysfunction of the skeletal muscle. It is reported that rodent fibroblasts are converted into myoblast-like cells and fuse to form syncytium after forced expression of exogenous myogenic differentiation 1 (MYOD1) that is a key transcription factor for myoblast differentiation. But human fibroblasts are less efficiently converted into myoblasts and rarely fused by MYOD1 alone. Here we found that transduction of v-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene lung carcinoma derived homolog (MYCL) gene in combination with MYOD1 gene induced myoblast-like phenotypes in human fibroblasts more strongly than MYOD1 gene alone. The rate of conversion was approximately 90%. The directly converted myoblasts (dMBs) underwent fusion in an ERK5 pathway-dependent manner. The dMBs also formed myofiber-like structure in vivo after an inoculation into mice at the subcutaneous tissue. The present results strongly suggest that the combination of MYCL plus MYOD1 may promote direct conversion of human fibroblasts into functional myoblasts that could potentially be used for regenerative therapy for muscle diseases and congenital muscle defects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Tobacco Induced Renal Function Alterations in Wistar Rats: An 8 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... pattern was observed for urea and uric acid levels. Over all, the significant increase (P<0.05) in renal function parameters of the test rats (as compared to the control values), suggests that the ingestion of tobacco snuff has harmful effects on kidney functions. Keywords: Tobacco, Snuff, Kidney function, Nicotine substitute.

  3. Transcriptomic dissection of Bradyrhizobium sp. strain ORS285 in symbiosis with Aeschynomene spp. inducing different bacteroid morphotypes with contrasted symbiotic efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamouche, Florian; Gully, Djamel; Chaumeret, Anaïs; Nouwen, Nico; Verly, Camille; Pierre, Olivier; Sciallano, Coline; Fardoux, Joël; Jeudy, Christian; Szücs, Attila; Mondy, Samuel; Salon, Christophe; Nagy, István; Kereszt, Attila; Dessaux, Yves; Giraud, Eric; Mergaert, Peter; Alunni, Benoit

    2018-06-19

    To circumvent the paucity of nitrogen sources in the soil legume plants establish a symbiotic interaction with nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria called rhizobia. During symbiosis, the plants form root organs called nodules, where bacteria are housed intracellularly and become active nitrogen fixers known as bacteroids. Depending on their host plant, bacteroids can adopt different morphotypes, being either unmodified (U), elongated (E) or spherical (S). E- and S-type bacteroids undergo a terminal differentiation leading to irreversible morphological changes and DNA endoreduplication. Previous studies suggest that differentiated bacteroids display an increased symbiotic efficiency (E>U and S>U). In this study, we used a combination of Aeschynomene species inducing E- or S-type bacteroids in symbiosis with Bradyrhizobium sp. ORS285 to show that S-type bacteroids present a better symbiotic efficiency than E-type bacteroids. We performed a transcriptomic analysis on E- and S-type bacteroids formed by Aeschynomene afraspera and Aeschynomene indica nodules and identified the bacterial functions activated in bacteroids and specific to each bacteroid type. Extending the expression analysis in E- and S-type bacteroids in other Aeschynomene species by qRT-PCR on selected genes from the transcriptome analysis narrowed down the set of bacteroid morphotype-specific genes. Functional analysis of a selected subset of 31 bacteroid-induced or morphotype-specific genes revealed no symbiotic phenotypes in the mutants. This highlights the robustness of the symbiotic program but could also indicate that the bacterial response to the plant environment is partially anticipatory or even maladaptive. Our analysis confirms the correlation between differentiation and efficiency of the bacteroids and provides a framework for the identification of bacterial functions that affect the efficiency of bacteroids. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 Society for Applied

  4. High efficiency nanocomposite sorbents for CO2 capture based on amine-functionalized mesoporous capsules

    KAUST Repository

    Qi, Genggeng; Wang, Yanbing; Estevez, Luis; Duan, Xiaonan; Anako, Nkechi; Park, Ah-Hyung Alissa; Li, Wen; Jones, Christopher W.; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.

    2011-01-01

    A novel high efficiency nanocomposite sorbent for CO2 capture has been developed based on oligomeric amine (polyethylenimine, PEI, and tetraethylenepentamine, TEPA) functionalized mesoporous silica capsules. The newly synthesized sorbents exhibit extraordinary capture capacity up to 7.9 mmol g-1 under simulated flue gas conditions (pre-humidified 10% CO 2). The CO2 capture kinetics were found to be fast and reached 90% of the total capacities within the first few minutes. The effects of the mesoporous capsule features such as particle size and shell thickness on CO2 capture capacity were investigated. Larger particle size, higher interior void volume and thinner mesoporous shell thickness all improved the CO2 capacity of the sorbents. PEI impregnated sorbents showed good reversibility and stability during cyclic adsorption-regeneration tests (50 cycles). © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  5. Low rank approximation method for efficient Green's function calculation of dissipative quantum transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Lang; He, Yu; Povolotskyi, Michael; Liu, XiaoYan; Klimeck, Gerhard; Kubis, Tillmann

    2013-06-01

    In this work, the low rank approximation concept is extended to the non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) method to achieve a very efficient approximated algorithm for coherent and incoherent electron transport. This new method is applied to inelastic transport in various semiconductor nanodevices. Detailed benchmarks with exact NEGF solutions show (1) a very good agreement between approximated and exact NEGF results, (2) a significant reduction of the required memory, and (3) a large reduction of the computational time (a factor of speed up as high as 150 times is observed). A non-recursive solution of the inelastic NEGF transport equations of a 1000 nm long resistor on standard hardware illustrates nicely the capability of this new method.

  6. Application of enzymes for efficient extraction, modification, and development of functional properties of lime pectin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dominiak, Malgorzata Maria; Marie Søndergaard, Karen; Wichmann, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    pectin. The most efficient enzyme preparation was Laminex C2K derived from Penicillium funiculosum which, during 4 h treatment at pH 3.5, 50 °C, released pectin with similar yield (23% w/w), molecular weight (69 kDa), and functional properties e.g. gelling, stabilization of acidified milk drinks...... and viscosity as the classically acid-extracted pectins (8 h treatment at 70 °C, pH ... at higher temperatures. The Laminex CK2 extracted pectin polymers were not sensitive to the presence of Ca2+ ions, they formed a gel at low pH in the presence of sugar and were able to stabilize acidified milk drinks. Further modification by enzymatic de-esterification of the pectin extracted with Laminex C...

  7. Efficient O(N) integration for all-electron electronic structure calculation using numeric basis functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havu, V.; Blum, V.; Havu, P.; Scheffler, M.

    2009-01-01

    We consider the problem of developing O(N) scaling grid-based operations needed in many central operations when performing electronic structure calculations with numeric atom-centered orbitals as basis functions. We outline the overall formulation of localized algorithms, and specifically the creation of localized grid batches. The choice of the grid partitioning scheme plays an important role in the performance and memory consumption of the grid-based operations. Three different top-down partitioning methods are investigated, and compared with formally more rigorous yet much more expensive bottom-up algorithms. We show that a conceptually simple top-down grid partitioning scheme achieves essentially the same efficiency as the more rigorous bottom-up approaches.

  8. DART: A Functional-Level Reconfigurable Architecture for High Energy Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Pillement

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Flexibility becomes a major concern for the development of multimedia and mobile communication systems, as well as classical high-performance and low-energy consumption constraints. The use of general-purpose processors solves flexibility problems but fails to cope with the increasing demand for energy efficiency. This paper presents the DART architecture based on the functional-level reconfiguration paradigm which allows a significant improvement in energy efficiency. DART is built around a hierarchical interconnection network allowing high flexibility while keeping the power overhead low. To enable specific optimizations, DART supports two modes of reconfiguration. The compilation framework is built using compilation and high-level synthesis techniques. A 3G mobile communication application has been implemented as a proof of concept. The energy distribution within the architecture and the physical implementation are also discussed. Finally, the VLSI design of a 0.13 μm CMOS SoC implementing a specialized DART cluster is presented.

  9. Protein-functionalized magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: time efficient potential-water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okoli, Chuka; Boutonnet, Magali; Järås, Sven; Rajarao-Kuttuva, Gunaratna

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in nanoscience suggest that the existing issues involving water quality could be resolved or greatly improved using nanomaterials, especially magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. Magnetic nanoparticles have been synthesized for the development and use, in association with natural coagulant protein for water treatment. The nanoparticles size, morphology, structure, and magnetic properties were characterized by transmission electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, and superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry. Purified Moringa oleifera protein was attached onto microemulsions-prepared magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (ME-MION) to form stable protein-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (PMO+ME-MION). The turbidity removal efficiency in both synthetic and surface water samples were investigated and compared with the commonly used synthetic coagulant (alum) as well as PMO. More than 90 % turbidity could be removed from the surface waters within 12 min by magnetic separation of PMO+ME-MION; whereas gravimetrically, 70 % removal in high and low turbid waters can be achieved within 60 min. In contrast, alum requires 180 min to reduce the turbidity of low turbid water sample. These data support the advantage of separation with external magnetic field (magnetophoresis) over gravitational force. Time kinetics studies show a significant enhancement in ME-MION efficiency after binding with PMO implying the availability of large surface of the ME-MION. The coagulated particles (impurities) can be removed from PMO+ME-MION by washing with mild detergent or cleaning solution. To our knowledge, this is the first report on surface water turbidity removal using protein-functionalized magnetic nanoparticle.

  10. Protein-functionalized magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: time efficient potential-water treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okoli, Chuka [Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Environmental Microbiology (Sweden); Boutonnet, Magali; Jaeras, Sven [Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Chemical Technology (Sweden); Rajarao-Kuttuva, Gunaratna, E-mail: gkr@kth.se [Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Environmental Microbiology (Sweden)

    2012-10-15

    Recent advances in nanoscience suggest that the existing issues involving water quality could be resolved or greatly improved using nanomaterials, especially magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. Magnetic nanoparticles have been synthesized for the development and use, in association with natural coagulant protein for water treatment. The nanoparticles size, morphology, structure, and magnetic properties were characterized by transmission electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, and superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry. Purified Moringa oleifera protein was attached onto microemulsions-prepared magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (ME-MION) to form stable protein-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (PMO+ME-MION). The turbidity removal efficiency in both synthetic and surface water samples were investigated and compared with the commonly used synthetic coagulant (alum) as well as PMO. More than 90 % turbidity could be removed from the surface waters within 12 min by magnetic separation of PMO+ME-MION; whereas gravimetrically, 70 % removal in high and low turbid waters can be achieved within 60 min. In contrast, alum requires 180 min to reduce the turbidity of low turbid water sample. These data support the advantage of separation with external magnetic field (magnetophoresis) over gravitational force. Time kinetics studies show a significant enhancement in ME-MION efficiency after binding with PMO implying the availability of large surface of the ME-MION. The coagulated particles (impurities) can be removed from PMO+ME-MION by washing with mild detergent or cleaning solution. To our knowledge, this is the first report on surface water turbidity removal using protein-functionalized magnetic nanoparticle.

  11. Protein-functionalized magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: time efficient potential-water treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoli, Chuka; Boutonnet, Magali; Järås, Sven; Rajarao-Kuttuva, Gunaratna

    2012-10-01

    Recent advances in nanoscience suggest that the existing issues involving water quality could be resolved or greatly improved using nanomaterials, especially magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. Magnetic nanoparticles have been synthesized for the development and use, in association with natural coagulant protein for water treatment. The nanoparticles size, morphology, structure, and magnetic properties were characterized by transmission electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, and superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry. Purified Moringa oleifera protein was attached onto microemulsions-prepared magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (ME-MION) to form stable protein-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (PMO+ME-MION). The turbidity removal efficiency in both synthetic and surface water samples were investigated and compared with the commonly used synthetic coagulant (alum) as well as PMO. More than 90 % turbidity could be removed from the surface waters within 12 min by magnetic separation of PMO+ME-MION; whereas gravimetrically, 70 % removal in high and low turbid waters can be achieved within 60 min. In contrast, alum requires 180 min to reduce the turbidity of low turbid water sample. These data support the advantage of separation with external magnetic field (magnetophoresis) over gravitational force. Time kinetics studies show a significant enhancement in ME-MION efficiency after binding with PMO implying the availability of large surface of the ME-MION. The coagulated particles (impurities) can be removed from PMO+ME-MION by washing with mild detergent or cleaning solution. To our knowledge, this is the first report on surface water turbidity removal using protein-functionalized magnetic nanoparticle.

  12. Human Metapneumovirus Induces Formation of Inclusion Bodies for Efficient Genome Replication and Transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes-Muñoz, Nicolás; Branttie, Jean; Slaughter, Kerri Beth; Dutch, Rebecca Ellis

    2017-12-15

    induce the formation of large cytoplasmic granules, named inclusion bodies, for genome replication and transcription. Unlike other cytoplasmic structures, such as stress granules and processing bodies, inclusion bodies are exclusively present in infected cells and contain HMPV RNA and proteins to more efficiently transcribe and replicate the viral genome. Though inclusion body formation is nuanced, it corresponds to a more generalized strategy used by different viruses, including filoviruses and rhabdoviruses, for genome transcription and replication. Thus, an understanding of inclusion body formation is crucial for the discovery of innovative therapeutic targets. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  13. Efficient time-symmetric simulation of torqued rigid bodies using Jacobi elliptic functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celledoni, E; Saefstroem, N

    2006-01-01

    If the three moments of inertia are distinct, the solution to the Euler equations for the free rigid body is given in terms of Jacobi elliptic functions. Using the arithmetic-geometric mean algorithm (Abramowitz and Stegun 1992 Handbook of Mathematical Functions with Formulas, Graphs, and Mathematical Tables (New York: Dover)), these functions can be calculated efficiently and accurately. Compared to standard numerical ODE and Lie-Poisson solvers, the overall approach yields a faster and more accurate numerical solution to the Euler equations. This approach is designed for mass asymmetric rigid bodies. In the case of symmetric bodies, the exact solution is available in terms of trigonometric functions, see Dullweber et al (1997 J. Chem. Phys. 107 5840-51), Reich (1996 Fields Inst. Commun. 10 181-91) and Benettin et al (2001 SIAM J. Sci. Comp. 23 1189-203) for details. In this paper, we consider the case of asymmetric rigid bodies subject to external forces. We consider a strategy similar to the symplectic splitting method proposed in Reich (1996 Fields Inst. Commun. 10 181-91) and Dullweber et al (1997 J. Chem. Phys. 107 5840-51). The method proposed here is time-symmetric. We decompose the vector field of our problem into a free rigid body (FRB) problem and another completely integrable vector field. The FRB problem consists of the Euler equations and a differential equation for the 3 x 3 orientation matrix. The Euler equations are integrated exactly while the matrix equation is approximated using a truncated Magnus series. In our experiments, we observe that the overall numerical solution benefits greatly from the very accurate solution of the Euler equations. We apply the method to the heavy top and the simulation of artificial satellite attitude dynamics

  14. Finishing pigs that are divergent in feed efficiency show small differences in intestinal functionality and structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara U Metzler-Zebeli

    Full Text Available Controversial information is available regarding the feed efficiency-related variation in intestinal size, structure and functionality in pigs. The present objective was therefore to investigate the differences in visceral organ size, intestinal morphology, mucosal enzyme activity, intestinal integrity and related gene expression in low and high RFI pigs which were reared at three different geographical locations (Austria, AT; Northern Ireland, NI; Republic of Ireland, ROI using similar protocols. Pigs (n = 369 were ranked for their RFI between days 42 and 91 postweaning and low and high RFI pigs (n = 16 from AT, n = 24 from NI, and n = 60 from ROI were selected. Pigs were sacrificed and sampled on ~day 110 of life. In general, RFI-related variation in intestinal size, structure and function was small. Some energy saving mechanisms and enhanced digestive and absorptive capacity were indicated in low versus high RFI pigs by shorter crypts, higher duodenal lactase and maltase activity and greater mucosal permeability (P < 0.05, but differences were mainly seen in pigs from AT and to a lesser degree in pigs from ROI. Additionally, low RFI pigs from AT had more goblet cells in duodenum but fewer in jejunum compared to high RFI pigs (P < 0.05. Together with the lower expression of TLR4 and TNFA in low versus high RFI pigs from AT and ROI (P < 0.05, these results might indicate differences in the innate immune response between low and high RFI pigs. Results demonstrated that the variation in the size of visceral organs and intestinal structure and functionality was greater between geographic location (local environmental factors than between RFI ranks of pigs. In conclusion, present results support previous findings that the intestinal size, structure and functionality do not significantly contribute to variation in RFI of pigs.

  15. Efficient biotechnological approach for lentiviral transduction of induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, Mehrak; Soleimani, Masoud; Mohammadian, Mozhdeh; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl; Havasi, Parvaneh; Zarghami, Nosratollah

    2016-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are generated from differentiated adult somatic cells by reprogramming them. Unlimited self-renewal, and the potential to differentiate into any cell type, make iPS cells very promising candidates for basic and clinical research. Furthermore, iPS cells can be genetically manipulated for use as therapeutic tools. DNA can be introduced into iPS cells, using lentiviral vectors, which represent a helpful choice for efficient transduction and stable integration of transgenes. In this study, we compare two methods of lentiviral transduction of iPS cells, namely, the suspension method and the hanging drop method. In contrast to the conventional suspension method, in the hanging drop method, embryoid body (EB) formation and transduction occur concurrently. The iPS cells were cultured to form EBs, and then transduced with lentiviruses, using the conventional suspension method and the hanging drop method, to express miR-128 and green fluorescent protein (GFP). The number of transduced cells were assessed by fluorescent microscopy and flow cytometry. MTT assay and real-time PCR were performed to determine the cell viability and transgene expression, respectively. Morphologically, GFP+ cells were more detectable in the hanging drop method, and this finding was quantified by flow cytometric analysis. According to the results of the MTT assay, cell viability was considerably higher in the hanging drop method, and real-time PCR represented a higher relative expression of miR-128 in the iPS cells introduced with lentiviruses in drops. Altogether, it seems that lentiviral transduction of challenging iPS cells using the hanging drop method offers a suitable and sufficient strategy in their gene transfer, with less toxicity than the conventional suspension method.

  16. Cell population structure prior to bifurcation predicts efficiency of directed differentiation in human induced pluripotent cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargaje, Rhishikesh; Trachana, Kalliopi; Shelton, Martin N; McGinnis, Christopher S; Zhou, Joseph X; Chadick, Cora; Cook, Savannah; Cavanaugh, Christopher; Huang, Sui; Hood, Leroy

    2017-02-28

    Steering the differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) toward specific cell types is crucial for patient-specific disease modeling and drug testing. This effort requires the capacity to predict and control when and how multipotent progenitor cells commit to the desired cell fate. Cell fate commitment represents a critical state transition or "tipping point" at which complex systems undergo a sudden qualitative shift. To characterize such transitions during iPSC to cardiomyocyte differentiation, we analyzed the gene expression patterns of 96 developmental genes at single-cell resolution. We identified a bifurcation event early in the trajectory when a primitive streak-like cell population segregated into the mesodermal and endodermal lineages. Before this branching point, we could detect the signature of an imminent critical transition: increase in cell heterogeneity and coordination of gene expression. Correlation analysis of gene expression profiles at the tipping point indicates transcription factors that drive the state transition toward each alternative cell fate and their relationships with specific phenotypic readouts. The latter helps us to facilitate small molecule screening for differentiation efficiency. To this end, we set up an analysis of cell population structure at the tipping point after systematic variation of the protocol to bias the differentiation toward mesodermal or endodermal cell lineage. We were able to predict the proportion of cardiomyocytes many days before cells manifest the differentiated phenotype. The analysis of cell populations undergoing a critical state transition thus affords a tool to forecast cell fate outcomes and can be used to optimize differentiation protocols to obtain desired cell populations.

  17. Induced mutations in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) I. comparative mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency of physical & chemical mutagens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharkwal, M.C.

    1998-01-01

    Mutagenic effectiveness usually means the rate of mutation as related to dose. Mutagenic efficiency refers to the mutation rate in relation to damage. Studies on comparative mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency of two physical (gamma rays and fast neutrons) and two chemical mutagens (NMU and EMS) on two desi (G 130 & H 214), one kabuli (C 104) and one green seeded (L 345) chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) have been reported. The treatments included three doses each of gamma rays (400, 500 and 600 Gy) and fast neutrons (5, 10 and 15 Gy) and two concentrations with two different durations of two chemical mutagens, NMU 0.01% 20h and 0.02% 8h) and EMS (0.1% 20h and 0.2% 8h). Results indicated that chemical mutagens, particularly NMU are not only more effective but also efficient than physical mutagens in inducing mutations in chickpea. Mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency showed differential behaviour depending upon mutagen and varietal type. Chemical mutagens were more efficient than physical in inducing cholorophyll as well as viable and total number of mutations. Among the mutagens NMU was the most potent, while in the physical, gamma rays were more effective. Out of four mutagens, NMU was the most effective and efficient in inducing a high frequency and wide spectrum of chlorophyll mutations in the M2 followed by fast neutrons. While gamma rays showed least effectiveness, EMS was least efficient mutagens. Major differences in the mutagenic response of the four cultivars were observed. The varieties of desi type were more resistant towards mutagenic treatment than kabuli and green seeded type

  18. High Efficient Expression, Purification, and Functional Characterization of Native Human Epidermal Growth Factor in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Ma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human epidermal growth factor (hEGF is a small, mitotic growth polypeptide that promotes the proliferation of various cells and is widely applied in clinical practices. However, high efficient expression of native hEGF in Escherichia coli has not been successful, since three disulfide bonds in monomer hEGF made it unable to fold into correct 3D structure using in vivo system. To tackle this problem, we fused Mxe GyrA intein (Mxe at the C-terminal of hEGF followed by small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO and 10x His-tag to construct a chimeric protein hEGF-Mxe-SUMO-H10. The fusion protein was highly expressed at the concentration of 281 mg/L and up to 59.5% of the total cellular soluble proteins. The fusion protein was purified by affinity chromatography and 29.4 mg/L of native hEGF can be released by thiol induced N-terminal cleavage without any proteases. The mitotic activity in Balb/c 3T3 cells is proliferated by commercial and recombinant hEGF measured with methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT assay which indicated that recombinant hEGF protein stimulates the cell proliferation similar to commercial protein. This study significantly improved the yield and reduced the cost of hEGF in the recombinant E. coli system and could be a better strategy to produce native hEGF for pharmaceutical development.

  19. High Efficient Expression, Purification, and Functional Characterization of Native Human Epidermal Growth Factor in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yi; Yu, Jieying; Lin, Jinglian; Wu, Shaomin; Li, Shan; Wang, Jufang

    2016-01-01

    Human epidermal growth factor (hEGF) is a small, mitotic growth polypeptide that promotes the proliferation of various cells and is widely applied in clinical practices. However, high efficient expression of native hEGF in Escherichia coli has not been successful, since three disulfide bonds in monomer hEGF made it unable to fold into correct 3D structure using in vivo system. To tackle this problem, we fused Mxe GyrA intein (Mxe) at the C-terminal of hEGF followed by small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) and 10x His-tag to construct a chimeric protein hEGF-Mxe-SUMO-H 10 . The fusion protein was highly expressed at the concentration of 281 mg/L and up to 59.5% of the total cellular soluble proteins. The fusion protein was purified by affinity chromatography and 29.4 mg/L of native hEGF can be released by thiol induced N-terminal cleavage without any proteases. The mitotic activity in Balb/c 3T3 cells is proliferated by commercial and recombinant hEGF measured with methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay which indicated that recombinant hEGF protein stimulates the cell proliferation similar to commercial protein. This study significantly improved the yield and reduced the cost of hEGF in the recombinant E. coli system and could be a better strategy to produce native hEGF for pharmaceutical development.

  20. Work function and quantum efficiency study of metal oxide thin films on Ag(100)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, V.; Noakes, T. C. Q.; Harrison, N. M.

    2018-04-01

    Increasing the quantum efficiency (QE) of metal photocathodes is in the design and development of photocathodes for free-electron laser applications. The growth of metal oxide thin films on certain metal surfaces has previously been shown to reduce the work function (WF). Using a photoemission model B. Camino et al. [Comput. Mater. Sci. 122, 331 (2016), 10.1016/j.commatsci.2016.05.025] based on the three-step model combined with density functional theory calculations we predict that the growth of a finite number of MgO(100) or BaO(100) layers on the Ag(100) surface increases significantly the QE compared with the clean Ag(100) surface for a photon energy of 4.7 eV. Different mechanisms for affecting the QE are identified for the different metal oxide thin films. The addition of MgO(100) increases the QE due to the reduction of the WF and the direct excitation of electrons from the Ag surface to the MgO conduction band. For BaO(100) thin films, an additional mechanism is in operation as the oxide film also photoemits at this energy. We also note that a significant increase in the QE for photons with an energy of a few eV above the WF is achieved due to an increase in the inelastic mean-free path of the electrons.

  1. Encoding neural and synaptic functionalities in electron spin: A pathway to efficient neuromorphic computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Abhronil; Roy, Kaushik

    2017-12-01

    Present day computers expend orders of magnitude more computational resources to perform various cognitive and perception related tasks that humans routinely perform every day. This has recently resulted in a seismic shift in the field of computation where research efforts are being directed to develop a neurocomputer that attempts to mimic the human brain by nanoelectronic components and thereby harness its efficiency in recognition problems. Bridging the gap between neuroscience and nanoelectronics, this paper attempts to provide a review of the recent developments in the field of spintronic device based neuromorphic computing. Description of various spin-transfer torque mechanisms that can be potentially utilized for realizing device structures mimicking neural and synaptic functionalities is provided. A cross-layer perspective extending from the device to the circuit and system level is presented to envision the design of an All-Spin neuromorphic processor enabled with on-chip learning functionalities. Device-circuit-algorithm co-simulation framework calibrated to experimental results suggest that such All-Spin neuromorphic systems can potentially achieve almost two orders of magnitude energy improvement in comparison to state-of-the-art CMOS implementations.

  2. Effect of the Microstructure of the Functional Layers on the Efficiency of Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fuzhi; Pascoe, Alexander R; Wu, Wu-Qiang; Ku, Zhiliang; Peng, Yong; Zhong, Jie; Caruso, Rachel A; Cheng, Yi-Bing

    2017-05-01

    The efficiencies of the hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite solar cells have been rapidly approaching the benchmarks held by the leading thin-film photovoltaic technologies. Arguably, one of the most important factors leading to this rapid advancement is the ability to manipulate the microstructure of the perovskite layer and the adjacent functional layers within the device. Here, an analysis of the nucleation and growth models relevant to the formation of perovskite films is provided, along with the effect of the perovskite microstructure (grain sizes and voids) on device performance. In addition, the effect of a compact or mesoporous electron-transport-layer (ETL) microstructure on the perovskite film formation and the optical/photoelectric properties at the ETL/perovskite interface are overviewed. Insight into the formation of the functional layers within a perovskite solar cell is provided, and potential avenues for further development of the perovskite microstructure are identified. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Activation induced changes in GABA: Functional MRS at 7T with MEGA-sLASER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Sigurdsson, Hilmar P; Pépés, Sophia E; Auer, Dorothee P; Morris, Peter G; Morgan, Paul S; Gowland, Penny A; Jackson, Stephen R

    2017-08-01

    Functional magnetic resonance spectroscopy (fMRS) has been used to assess the dynamic metabolic responses of the brain to a physiological stimulus non-invasively. However, only limited information on the dynamic functional response of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain, is available. We aimed to measure the activation-induced changes in GABA unambiguously using a spectral editing method, instead of the conventional direct detection techniques used in previous fMRS studies. The Mescher-Garwood-semi-localised by adiabatic selective refocusing (MEGA-sLASER) sequence was developed at 7T to obtain the time course of GABA concentration without macromolecular contamination. A significant decrease (-12±5%) in the GABA to total creatine ratio (GABA/tCr) was observed in the motor cortex during a period of 10min of hand-clenching, compared to an initial baseline level (GABA/tCr =0.11±0.02) at rest. An increase in the Glx (glutamate and glutamine) to tCr ratio was also found, which is in agreement with previous findings. In contrast, no significant changes in NAA/tCr and tCr were detected. With consistent and highly efficient editing performance for GABA detection and the advantage of visually identifying GABA resonances in the spectra, MEGA-sLASER is demonstrated to be an effective method for studying of dynamic changes in GABA at 7T. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Functionalization of Polymer Surfaces by Radiation-Induced Grafting for Separation of Heavy Metal Ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Przybytniak, G; Kornacka, E M; Fuks, L; Walo, M; Lyczko, K; Mirkowski, K [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Dorodna 16, 03-195 Warsaw (Poland)

    2012-09-15

    The reported investigations were focused on the elucidation of the most important factors influencing radiation-induced grafting; particularly (1) the effect of radical population generated in polymeric matrix on degree of grafting, (2) parameters determined grafting and its procedure, (3) correlation between layer structure formed via copolymerization and content of monomers in the initial solution. Sorption capacity of the adsorbants was evaluated using {sup 152}Eu{sup 3+} as a marker monitoring depletion of the radioisotope from the initial solution by gamma radiometer. Electron spin resonance spectroscopy (EPR) and gas chromatography (GC) studies confirmed that yield of radiation-induced radicals increases in the following order polystyrene (PS) < polypropylene (PP) < polyethylene (PE). The same relationship was found for efficiency of radiation grafting. It was concluded that under comparable conditions the content of radicals in polymeric matrices determines grafting degree. It was found that application of the simultaneous method of grafting introduces to the grafted layers crosslinking or/and branching as well as degradation of functional groups. All these phenomena reduce access of Eu{sup 3+} to the studied sorbent therefore sorption capacity of the polyamide functionalized via pre-irradiation (indirect) method is higher than that determined for the sorbent prepared by simultaneous method of grafting. When two monomers, acrylic acid (AAc) and acrylamide (AAm) , contributed in the formation of grafted layer, their input into copolymerization was not proportional to the concentrations in the feed solution. It was confirmed that grafting of the monomers shows synergetic effect as the yield of copolymerization exceeds degree of grafting achieved for individual components. (author)

  5. A quick aphasia battery for efficient, reliable, and multidimensional assessment of language function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Stephen M; Eriksson, Dana K; Schneck, Sarah M; Lucanie, Jillian M

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes a quick aphasia battery (QAB) that aims to provide a reliable and multidimensional assessment of language function in about a quarter of an hour, bridging the gap between comprehensive batteries that are time-consuming to administer, and rapid screening instruments that provide limited detail regarding individual profiles of deficits. The QAB is made up of eight subtests, each comprising sets of items that probe different language domains, vary in difficulty, and are scored with a graded system to maximize the informativeness of each item. From the eight subtests, eight summary measures are derived, which constitute a multidimensional profile of language function, quantifying strengths and weaknesses across core language domains. The QAB was administered to 28 individuals with acute stroke and aphasia, 25 individuals with acute stroke but no aphasia, 16 individuals with chronic post-stroke aphasia, and 14 healthy controls. The patients with chronic post-stroke aphasia were tested 3 times each and scored independently by 2 raters to establish test-retest and inter-rater reliability. The Western Aphasia Battery (WAB) was also administered to these patients to assess concurrent validity. We found that all QAB summary measures were sensitive to aphasic deficits in the two groups with aphasia. All measures showed good or excellent test-retest reliability (overall summary measure: intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.98), and excellent inter-rater reliability (overall summary measure: ICC = 0.99). Sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis of aphasia (relative to clinical impression) were 0.91 and 0.95 respectively. All QAB measures were highly correlated with corresponding WAB measures where available. Individual patients showed distinct profiles of spared and impaired function across different language domains. In sum, the QAB efficiently and reliably characterized individual profiles of language deficits.

  6. A tamoxifen inducible knock-in allele for investigation of E2A function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondo Motonari

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background E-proteins are transcription factors important for the development of a variety of cell types, including neural, muscle and lymphocytes of the immune system. E2A, the best characterized E-protein family member in mammals, has been shown to have stage specific roles in cell differentiation, lineage commitment, proliferation, and survival. However, due to the complexity of E2A function, it is often difficult to separate these roles using conventional genetic approaches. Here, we have developed a new genetic model for reversible control of E2A protein activity at physiological levels. This system was created by inserting a tamoxifen-responsive region of the estrogen receptor (ER at the carboxyl end of the tcfe2a gene to generate E2AER fusion proteins. We have characterized and analyzed the efficiency and kinetics of this inducible E2AER system in the context of B cell development. Results B cell development has been shown previously to be blocked at an early stage in E2A deficient animals. Our E2AER/ER mice demonstrated this predicted block in B cell development, and E2AER DNA binding activity was not detected in the absence of ligand. In vitro studies verified rapid induction of E2AER DNA binding activity upon tamoxifen treatment. While tamoxifen treatment of E2AER/ER mice showed inefficient rescue of B cell development in live animals, direct exposure of bone marrow cells to tamoxifen in an ex vivo culture was sufficient to rescue and support early B cell development from the pre-proB cell stage. Conclusion The E2AER system provides inducible and reversible regulation of E2A function at the protein level. Many previous studies have utilized over-expression systems to induce E2A function, which are complicated by the toxicity often resulting from high levels of E2A. The E2AER model instead restores E2A activity at an endogenous level and in addition, allows for tight regulation of the timing of induction. These features make

  7. Constraint-induced movement therapy promotes brain functional reorganization in stroke patients with hemiplegia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenqing; Wang, Aihui; Yu, Limin; Han, Xuesong; Jiang, Guiyun; Weng, Changshui; Zhang, Hongwei; Zhou, Zhiqiang

    2012-01-01

    Stroke patients with hemiplegia exhibit flexor spasms in the upper limb and extensor spasms in the lower limb, and their movement patterns vary greatly. Constraint-induced movement therapy is an upper limb rehabilitation technique used in stroke patients with hemiplegia; however, studies of lower extremity rehabilitation are scarce. In this study, stroke patients with lower limb hemiplegia underwent conventional Bobath therapy for 4 weeks as baseline treatment, followed by constraint-induced movement therapy for an additional 4 weeks. The 10-m maximum walking speed and Berg balance scale scores significantly improved following treatment, and lower extremity motor function also improved. The results of functional MRI showed that constraint-induced movement therapy alleviates the reduction in cerebral functional activation in patients, which indicates activation of functional brain regions and a significant increase in cerebral blood perfusion. These results demonstrate that constraint-induced movement therapy promotes brain functional reorganization in stroke patients with lower limb hemiplegia. PMID:25337108

  8. Controlling the morphology and efficiency of hybrid ZnO: Polythiophene solar cells via side chain functionalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhout, S.D.; Koster, L.J.A.; Bavel, van S.S.; Loos, J.; Stenzel, O.; Thiedmann, R.; Schmidt, V.; Campo, B.J.; Cleij, T.J.; Lutzen, L.; Vanderzande, D.J.M.; Wienk, M.M.; Janssen, R.A.J.

    2011-01-01

    The efficiency of polymer – metal oxide hybrid solar cells depends critically on the intimacy of mixing of the two semiconductors. The effect of side chain functionalization on the morphology and performance of conjugated polymer:ZnO solar cells is investigated. Using an ester-functionalized side

  9. Controlling the Morphology and Efficiency of Hybrid ZnO : Polythiophene Solar Cells Via Side Chain Functionalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhout, Stefan D.; Koster, L. Jan Anton; van Bavel, Svetlana S.; Loos, Joachim; Stenzel, Ole; Thiedmann, Ralf; Schmidt, Volker; Campo, Bert; Cleij, Thomas J.; Lutzen, Laurence; Vanderzande, Dirk; Wienk, Martijn M.; Janssen, Rene A. J.

    2011-01-01

    The efficiency of polymer - metal oxide hybrid solar cells depends critically on the intimacy of mixing of the two semiconductors. The effect of side chain functionalization on the morphology and performance of conjugated polymer:ZnO solar cells is investigated. Using an ester-functionalized side

  10. Efficient intradermal delivery of superoxide dismutase using a combination of liposomes and iontophoresis for protection against UV-induced skin damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kigasawa, Kaoru; Miyashita, Moeko; Kajimoto, Kazuaki; Kanamura, Kiyoshi; Harashima, Hideyoshi; Kogure, Kentaro

    2012-01-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is a potent antioxidant agent that protects against UV-induced skin damage. However, its high molecular weight is a significant obstacle for efficient delivery into the skin through the stratum corneum and development of antioxidant activity. Recently, we developed a non-invasive transfollicular delivery system for macromolecules using a combination of liposomes and iontophoresis, that represents promising technology for enhancing transdermal administration of charged drugs (IJP, 403, 2011, Kajimoto et al.). In this study, in rats we attempted to apply this system to intradermal delivery of SOD for preventing UV-induced skin injury. SOD encapsulating in cationic liposomes was subjected to anodal iontophoresis. After iontophoretic treatment, the liposomes were diffused widely in the viable skin layer around hair follicles. In contrast, passive diffusion failed to transport liposomes efficiently into the skin. Iontophoretic delivery of liposomes encapsulating SOD caused a marked decrease in the production of oxidative products, such as malondialdehyde, hexanoyl lysine, and 8-hydroxi-2-deoxyguanosine, in UV-irradiated skin. These findings suggested that functional SOD can be delivered into the skin using a combination of iontophoresis and a liposomal system. In conclusion, we succeeded in developing an efficient intradermal SOD delivery system, that would be useful for delivery of other macromolecules.

  11. Encoding: the keystone to efficient functioning of verbal short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Johanna G; Sabisch, Beate; Friederici, Angela D; Brauer, Jens

    2011-11-01

    Verbal short-term memory (VSTM) is thought to play a critical role in language learning. It is indexed by the nonword repetition task where listeners are asked to repeat meaningless words like 'blonterstaping'. The present study investigated the effect on nonword repetition performance of differences in efficiency of functioning of some part of the neural architecture mediating VSTM. Hypotheses were stated within Baddeley and Hitch's (1974) multicomponent model of VSTM, with respect to regions of the brain known to be active during tasks tapping into VSTM. We were specifically interested in activations associated with the posterior planum temporale (Spt) which emerge during rehearsal since this region is hypothesized to be central to VTSM (Buchsbaum, Olsen, Koch, & Berman, 2005a). Participants performed a delayed reaction time task in the scanner which explicitly mimicked the three main stages of information-processing involved in VSTM (encoding, rehearsal, recall (here recognition)). The data for each stage were then convolved with scores from a separately measured nonword repetition task. Rather than observing a pattern of individual differences located to specific regions specialized for supporting VSTM, a dissociation in direction of correlation in overlapping regions of the brain was observed during encoding and recognition. Larger hemodynamic responses during encoding were associated with better nonword repetition, and vice versa during recognition. There was little evidence for a network of activations specialized for VSTM. Instead, the main correlations were observed in regions also known to be involved in long-term memory. It seems that individuals who are better at nonword repetition and hence at language learning, activate these regions more efficiently than poorer nonword-repeaters early after stimulus input. These observations are discussed with respect to various models proposed for explaining the phenomenon of VSTM. Crown Copyright © 2011

  12. Ninth degree polynomial fit function for calculation of efficiency calibrations for Ge(Li) and HPGe detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uosif, M.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    A new 9 th degree polynomial fit function has been constructed to calculate the absolute γ-ray detection efficiencies (ηth) of Ge(Li) and HPGe Detectors, for calculating the absolute efficiency at any interesting γ-energy in the energy range between 25 and 2000 keV and distance between 6 and 148 cm. The total absolute γ -ray detection efficiencies have been calculated for six detectors, three of them are Ge(Li) and three HPGe at different distances. The absolute efficiency of the different detectors was calculated at the specific energy of the standard sources for each measuring distances. In this calculation, experimental (η e xp) and fitting (η f it) efficiency have been calculated. Seven calibrated point sources Am-241, Ba-133, Co-57, Co-60, Cs-137, Eu-152 and Ra-226 were used. The uncertainties of efficiency calibration have been calculated also for quality control. The measured (η e xp) and (η f it) calculated efficiency values were compared with efficiency, which calculated, by Gray fit function (time)- The results obtained on the basis of (η e xp)and (η f it) seem to be in very good agreement

  13. Integral excitation functions for proton and alpha induced reactions on target elements 22 <= Z <= 28

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brinkmann, G.

    1979-01-01

    In the framework of a systematic study which is also important for certain cosmological questions a series of integral excitation functions of p- and α-induced nuclear reactions on target elements 22 [de

  14. Physician Incentive Management in University Hospitals: Inducing Efficient Behavior Through the Allocation of Research Facilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.M. Glorie (Kristiaan); J.M. van Oostrum (Jeroen); A.J. Dur (Robert); G. Kazemier (Geert); A.P.M. Wagelmans (Albert)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe imperative to improve healthcare efficiency is now stronger than ever. Rapidly increasing healthcare demand and the prospect of healthcare cost exploding require that measures be taken to make healthcare organizations become more efficiency-aware. Alignment of organizational

  15. Significant efficiency enhancement in thin film solar cells using laser beam-induced graphene transparent conductive electrodes

    OpenAIRE

    Thekkekara, L. V.; Cai, Bouyan

    2018-01-01

    Thin film solar cells have been attractive for decades in advanced green technology platforms due to its possibilities to be integrated with buildings and on-chip applications. However, the bottleneck issues involved to consider the current solar cells as a major electricity source includes the lower efficiencies and cost-effectiveness. We numerically demonstrate the concept of the absorption enhancement in thin-film amorphous silicon solar cells using the laser beam-induced graphene material...

  16. Efficient removal of methyl orange using Cu2O as a dual function catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Dong, Guohui; Wang, Mian; Zeng, Yubin; Wang, Chuanyi

    2018-06-01

    In this study, we synthesized Cu2O particles with rough surfaces by a facile solvothermal method as a dual-function material that can degrade contaminants not only under light irradiation but also in dark circumstance. Both the as-prepared Cu2O and commercial Cu2O exhibited excellent performance for the removal of methyl orange under visible light irradiation through a photocatalysis-based strategy. However, the former was found to show remarkable capability under dark circumstances by means of molecular oxygen activation, while the latter performed poor efficiently under the same condition. This significant difference of performances under dark circumstances was related to rich oxygen vacancies existed on the as-prepared Cu2O surfaces that are associated with the single-electron reduction of O2 to generate radO2-, which play a dominant role in the generation of Cu+. In addition, Cu+ was identified to play key roles in the broken of azo bond. Then, the generated intermediates were mineralized by radOH generated through molecular oxygen activation process. This study could not only deep the understanding of the MO removal mechanism by Cu2O but also show a novel direction of amphibious application for photocatalytic materials.

  17. Gaussian Radial Basis Function for Efficient Computation of Forest Indirect Illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Fayçal; Babahenini, Mohamed Chaouki

    2018-06-01

    Global illumination of natural scenes in real time like forests is one of the most complex problems to solve, because the multiple inter-reflections between the light and material of the objects composing the scene. The major problem that arises is the problem of visibility computation. In fact, the computing of visibility is carried out for all the set of leaves visible from the center of a given leaf, given the enormous number of leaves present in a tree, this computation performed for each leaf of the tree which also reduces performance. We describe a new approach that approximates visibility queries, which precede in two steps. The first step is to generate point cloud representing the foliage. We assume that the point cloud is composed of two classes (visible, not-visible) non-linearly separable. The second step is to perform a point cloud classification by applying the Gaussian radial basis function, which measures the similarity in term of distance between each leaf and a landmark leaf. It allows approximating the visibility requests to extract the leaves that will be used to calculate the amount of indirect illumination exchanged between neighbor leaves. Our approach allows efficiently treat the light exchanges in the scene of a forest, it allows a fast computation and produces images of good visual quality, all this takes advantage of the immense power of computation of the GPU.

  18. Some approaches to the formation of the financialmechanism of efficient housing and utility services functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernyshev Aleksey Valentinovich

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In modern market conditions the purpose of the financial mechanism formation of housing and utility services has to consist in ensuring efficient functioning of rendering services of this complex. While creating the financial mechanism of housing and utility services development, only such criteria are considered as purpose and operating principles of organizations. Thus, the main goal of this research is to establish the transparent mechanism of reflection of the price policy in housing services industry, and also the payment size control at the contents and repair of objects of housing and utility services. The financial mechanism formation has to be carried out within the principles of the finance management. Also, considering various points of view of the scientists on the quantity and essence of the principles, the authors discuss such of them, which are most specific to the sphere of housing and utility services.Many economists put as a basis of housing and utility services financial mechanism such purpose as creating favorable conditions for social development, which means compliance with the interests and requirements of the population.

  19. Gravity induced corrections to quantum mechanical wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, T.P.

    1990-03-01

    We perform a semiclassical expansion in the Wheeler-DeWitt equation, in powers of the gravitational constant. We then show that quantum gravitational fluctuations can provide a correction to the wave-functions which are solutions of the Schroedinger equation for matter. This also implies a correction to the expectation values of quantum mechanical observables. (author). 6 refs

  20. Functional MRI of food-induced brain responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, P.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    The ultimate goal of this research was to find central biomarkers of satiety, i.e., physiological measures in the brain that relate to subjectively rated appetite, actual food intake, or both. This thesis describes the changes in brain activity in response to food stimuli as measured by functional

  1. Functional polymeric materials : Complexing amphiphiles as structure-inducing elements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Brinke, G.; Ikkala, O.

    2003-01-01

    Self-assembly of polymeric comb-shaped supramolecules is a powerful tool to prepare functional materials. Enhanced conductivity due to hexagonal self-organization of conducting polyaniline and polarized photoluminance in solid-state films of rodlike poly(2,5-pyridinediyl) obtained by removing

  2. Generation of an ICF syndrome model by efficient genome editing of human induced pluripotent stem cells using the CRISPR system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horii, Takuro; Tamura, Daiki; Morita, Sumiyo; Kimura, Mika; Hatada, Izuho

    2013-09-30

    Genome manipulation of human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells is essential to achieve their full potential as tools for regenerative medicine. To date, however, gene targeting in human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) has proven to be extremely difficult. Recently, an efficient genome manipulation technology using the RNA-guided DNase Cas9, the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) system, has been developed. Here we report the efficient generation of an iPS cell model for immunodeficiency, centromeric region instability, facial anomalies syndrome (ICF) syndrome using the CRISPR system. We obtained iPS cells with mutations in both alleles of DNA methyltransferase 3B (DNMT3B) in 63% of transfected clones. Our data suggest that the CRISPR system is highly efficient and useful for genome engineering of human iPS cells.

  3. Gamma ray, EMS and sodium azide induced effectiveness and efficiency of chlorophyll mutations in basmati rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Sanjeev; Singh, J.; Singh, R.K.

    2001-01-01

    The effectiveness and efficiency of gamma ray, EMS, sodium azide alone or in combination in relation to chlorophyll mutations in two varieties of Basmati rice (Oryza sativa L.) in M 2 generation were studied. The chlorophyll mutations were induced by all the doses of mutagens alone or in combination relatively at a fair frequency in both the varieties in M 2 generation. In general, it was found that combination treatments of gamma rays and EMS were observed to be more efficient in Taraori Basmati, while EMS alone and combination treatment of gamma rays and EMS were more efficient in Pusa Basmati 1 on sterility and growth injury basis both. Sodium azide at 0.5 mM was found as the most effective dose in both Taraori Basmati and Pusa Basmati 1 cultivars. (author)

  4. Generation of an ICF Syndrome Model by Efficient Genome Editing of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Using the CRISPR System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izuho Hatada

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Genome manipulation of human induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells is essential to achieve their full potential as tools for regenerative medicine. To date, however, gene targeting in human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs has proven to be extremely difficult. Recently, an efficient genome manipulation technology using the RNA-guided DNase Cas9, the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR system, has been developed. Here we report the efficient generation of an iPS cell model for immunodeficiency, centromeric region instability, facial anomalies syndrome (ICF syndrome using the CRISPR system. We obtained iPS cells with mutations in both alleles of DNA methyltransferase 3B (DNMT3B in 63% of transfected clones. Our data suggest that the CRISPR system is highly efficient and useful for genome engineering of human iPS cells.

  5. Functional MRI of CO2 induced increase in cerebral perfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostrup, Egill; Larsson, H B; Toft, P B

    1994-01-01

    The sensitivity of MR gradient echo imaging towards CO2 induced changes in cerebral blood flow was investigated in 10 normal subjects. The subjects were inhaling 5% and 7% CO2 and the experiments were carried out at 1.5 T (n = 6) and 2.0 T (n = 5), allowing a comparison of field strengths....... Additional experiments were carried out using a higher spatial resolution. The largest signal increases were noted in areas corresponding to larger vessels, but significant changes were also conspicuous in deeper cortical and central grey matter. The changes appeared linearly related to the arterial CO2...... tension, within the range of PaCO2 studied. In white matter, the changes were not statistically significant....

  6. Functional analysis of chloroplast early light inducible proteins (ELIPs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetzel, Carolyn M

    2005-02-22

    The objectives of this project were to characterize gene expression patterns of early light inducible protein (ELIP) genes in Arabidopsis thaliana and in Lycopersicon esculentum, to identify knock mutants of the 2 ELIP genes in Arabidopsis, and to characterize the effects of the knockouts. Expression in Arabidopsis was studied in response to thylakoid electron transport chain (PETC) capacity, where it was found that there is a signal for expression associated with reduction of the PETC. Expression in response to salt was also studied, with different responses of the two gene copies. Knockout lines for ELIP1 and ELIP2 have been identified and are being characterized. In tomato, it was found that the single-copy ELIP gene is highly expressed in ripening fruit during the chloroplast-to-chromoplast transition. Studies of expression in tomato ripening mutants are ongoing.

  7. High efficiency of the spin-orbit torques induced domain wall motion in asymmetric interfacial multilayered Tb/Co wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, Do; Awano, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    We investigated current-induced DW motion in asymmetric interfacial multilayered Tb/Co wires for various thicknesses of magnetic and Pt-capping layers. It is found that the driving mechanism for the DW motion changes from interfacial to bulk effects at much thick magnetic layer (up to 19.8 nm). In thin wires, linearly depinning field dependence of critical current density and in-plane field dependence of DW velocity suggest that the extrinsic pinning governs field-induced DW motion and injecting current can be regarded as an effective field. It is expected that the high efficiency of spin-orbit torques in thick magnetic multilayers would have important implication for future spintronic devices based on in-plane current induced-DW motion or switching

  8. High efficiency of the spin-orbit torques induced domain wall motion in asymmetric interfacial multilayered Tb/Co wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Do, E-mail: bang@spin.mp.es.osaka-u.ac.jp [Toyota Technological Institute, Tempaku, Nagoya 468-8511 (Japan); Institute of Materials Science, VAST, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Awano, Hiroyuki [Toyota Technological Institute, Tempaku, Nagoya 468-8511 (Japan)

    2015-05-07

    We investigated current-induced DW motion in asymmetric interfacial multilayered Tb/Co wires for various thicknesses of magnetic and Pt-capping layers. It is found that the driving mechanism for the DW motion changes from interfacial to bulk effects at much thick magnetic layer (up to 19.8 nm). In thin wires, linearly depinning field dependence of critical current density and in-plane field dependence of DW velocity suggest that the extrinsic pinning governs field-induced DW motion and injecting current can be regarded as an effective field. It is expected that the high efficiency of spin-orbit torques in thick magnetic multilayers would have important implication for future spintronic devices based on in-plane current induced-DW motion or switching.

  9. Altered functional brain connectivity in patients with visually induced dizziness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelique Van Ombergen

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: We found alterations in the visual and vestibular cortical network in VID patients that could underlie the typical VID symptoms such as a worsening of their vestibular symptoms when being exposed to challenging visual stimuli. These preliminary findings provide the first insights into the underlying functional brain connectivity in VID patients. Future studies should extend these findings by employing larger sample sizes, by investigating specific task-based paradigms in these patients and by exploring the implications for treatment.

  10. Repeated pulse feeding induces functional stability in anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vrieze, Jo; Verstraete, Willy; Boon, Nico

    2013-07-01

    Anaerobic digestion is an environmental key technology in the future bio-based economy. To achieve functional stability, a minimal microbial community diversity is required. This microbial community should also have a certain 'elasticity', i.e. the ability to rapidly adapt to suboptimal conditions or stress. In this study it was evaluated whether a higher degree of functional stability could be achieved by changing the feeding pattern, which can change the evenness, dynamics and richness of the bacterial community. The first reactor (CSTR stable ) was fed on daily basis, whereas the second reactor (CSTR dynamic ) was fed every 2 days. Average biogas production was 0.30 l CH4 l(-1) day(-1) in both reactors, although daily variation was up to four times higher in the CSTR dynamic compared with the CSTR stable during the first 50 days. Bacterial analysis revealed that this CSTR dynamic had a two times higher degree of bacterial community dynamics. The CSTR dynamic also appeared to be more tolerant to an organic shock load of 8 g COD l(-1) and ammonium levels up to 8000 mg TAN l(-1). These results suggest that the regular application of a limited pulse of organic material and/or a variation in the substrate composition might promote higher functional stability in anaerobic digestion. © 2013 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. Scenario-based energy efficiency and productivity in China: A non-radial directional distance function analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, H.; Zhou, P.; Zhou, D.Q.

    2013-01-01

    Improving energy efficiency and productivity is one of the most cost-effective ways for achieving the sustainable development target in China. This paper employs non-radial directional distance function approach to empirically investigate energy efficiency and energy productivity by including CO 2 emissions as an undesirable output. Three production scenarios, namely energy conservation (EC), energy conservation and emission reduction (ECER), and energy conservation, emission reduction and economic growth (ECEREG), are specified to assess China's energy efficiency and productivity growth during the period of Eleventh Five-Year Plan. Our empirical results show that there exist substantial differences in China's total-factor energy efficiency and productivity under different scenarios. Under the ECEREG scenario, the national average total-factor energy efficiency score was 0.6306 in 2005–2010, while the national average total-factor energy productivity increased by 0.27% annually during the period. The main driving force for energy productivity growth in China was energy technological change rather than energy efficiency change. - Highlights: • China's regional energy efficiency and productivity in 2005–2010 are evaluated. • Three production scenarios are considered. • Non-radial directional distance function with CO 2 emissions is employed. • Technological change is the main driver for China's energy productivity growth

  12. A mechanistic understanding of processing additive-induced efficiency enhancement in bulk heterojunction organic solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Schmidt, Kristin; Tassone, Christopher J.; Niskala, Jeremy R.; Yiu, Alan T.; Lee, Olivia P.; Weiss, Thomas M.; Wang, Cheng; Frechet, Jean; Beaujuge, Pierre; Toney, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    The addition of processing additives is a widely used approach to increase power conversion efficiencies for many organic solar cells. We present how additives change the polymer conformation in the casting solution leading to a more intermixed

  13. Efficient Weibull channel model for salinity induced turbulent underwater wireless optical communications

    KAUST Repository

    Oubei, Hassan M.; Zedini, Emna; Elafandy, Rami T.; Kammoun, Abla; Ng, Tien Khee; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Ooi, Boon S.

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in underwater wireless optical communications necessitate a better understanding of the underwater channel. We propose the Weibull model to characterize the fading of salinity induced turbulent underwater wireless optical channels

  14. A mechanistic understanding of processing additive-induced efficiency enhancement in bulk heterojunction organic solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Schmidt, Kristin

    2013-10-31

    The addition of processing additives is a widely used approach to increase power conversion efficiencies for many organic solar cells. We present how additives change the polymer conformation in the casting solution leading to a more intermixed phase-segregated network structure of the active layer which in turn results in a 5-fold enhancement in efficiency. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Evaluation of isomeric excitation functions in neutron induced reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grudzevich, O.; Ignatyuk, A.; Zolotarev, K.

    1992-01-01

    The possibilities of isomer levels experimental excitation functions description with theoretical models are discussed. It is shown that the experimental data in many cases can be described by theoretical models quite well without parameter fitting. However, large discrepancies are observed for some reactions. In our opinion, these discrepancies are due to uncertainties of discrete level schemes, schemes of gamma-transitions between levels and spin dependence of level density. Small values of isomeric ratios (< 0.1) have been described with the largest errors. The simple formulae for energy dependence of isomeric ratio for (n,g) reaction has been proposed. (author). 53 refs, 10 figs, 8 tabs

  16. Disorder and strain-induced complexity in functional materials

    CERN Document Server

    Saxena, Avadh; Planes, Antoni; Kakeshita, Tomoyuki

    2012-01-01

    This book brings together an emerging consensus on our understanding of the complex functional materials including ferroics, perovskites, multiferroics, CMR and high-temperature superconductors. The common theme is the existence of many competing ground states and frustration as a collusion of spin, charge, orbital and lattice degrees of freedom in the presence of disorder and (both dipolar and elastic) long-range forces. An important consequence of the complex unit cell and the competing interactions is that the emergent materials properties are very sensitive to external fields thus rendering these materials with highly desirable, technologically important applications enabled by cross-response.

  17. Gamma Radiation Induced Preparation of Functional Conducting Polymer Hollow Spheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K. -P.; Gopalan, A. I.; Philips, M. F.; Jeong, K.M., E-mail: kplee@knu.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry Education, Teacher' s College, Kyungpook National University 1370, Sankyuk-dong, Buk-gu, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-07-01

    New materials are sought for applications in many of the emerging fields that include catalysis, sensors, biomedical, optics and electronic application. With the advent of nanotechnology, innovative materials with novel properties are being synthesized towards target applications. Changing the sizes of particles, chemical, optical, and mechanical properties of the materials can often be tailored according to the specific needs of the application. Nanocrystalline, nanoparticles, nanocapsules, nanoporous materials, nanofibers, nanowires, fullerenes, nanotubes, nanosprings, nanobelts, dendrimers and nanospheres, ets, are few of the nanostructured materials. The examples of nanostructured materials include semiconducting nanowire quantum dots for gas sensing and self-assembled flower-like architectures. Self-assembly of nanoparticles can result in specific structures with unique and useful electronic, optical, and magnetic properties. Self or induced assemby of simple nanoparticles and rods could result into complex geometries, such as nanoflowers, binary superlattices, optical grating. Over the past decade, hollow spherical nanomaterials have received considerable attention due to their interesting properties such as low density, high surface area and good permeation. Various methods like solvothermal, self-assembly, sonochemical, solvent evaporation, chemical vapor deposition, microwave-assisted aqueous hydrothermal and electrochemical are being pursued for the production of hollow spherical materials. Polymer capsules and hollow spheres have increasingly received interest because of their large surface area and potential applications in catalysis, controlled delivery, artificial cells, light fillers and photonics.

  18. Structural and functional analysis of coral Hypoxia Inducible Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoccola, Didier; Morain, Jonas; Pagès, Gilles; Caminiti-Segonds, Natacha; Giuliano, Sandy; Tambutté, Sylvie; Allemand, Denis

    2017-01-01

    Tissues of symbiotic Cnidarians are exposed to wide, rapid and daily variations of oxygen concentration. Indeed, during daytime, intracellular O2 concentration increases due to symbiont photosynthesis, while during night, respiration of both host cells and symbionts leads to intra-tissue hypoxia. The Hypoxia Inducible Factor 1 (HIF-1) is a heterodimeric transcription factor used for maintenance of oxygen homeostasis and adaptation to hypoxia. Here, we carried out a mechanistic study of the response to variations of O2 concentrations of the coral model Stylophora pistillata. In silico analysis showed that homologs of HIF-1 α (SpiHIF-1α) and HIF-1β (SpiHIF-1β) exist in coral. A specific SpiHIF-1 DNA binding on mammalian Hypoxia Response Element (HRE) sequences was shown in extracts from coral exposed to dark conditions. Then, we cloned the coral HIF-1α and β genes and determined their expression and transcriptional activity. Although HIF-1α has an incomplete Oxygen-dependent Degradation Domain (ODD) relative to its human homolog, its protein level is increased under hypoxia when tested in mammalian cells. Moreover, co-transfection of SpiHIF-1α and β in mammalian cells stimulated an artificial promoter containing HRE only in hypoxic conditions. This study shows the strong conservation of molecular mechanisms involved in adaptation to O2 concentration between Cnidarians and Mammals whose ancestors diverged about 1,200-1,500 million years ago.

  19. Structural and functional analysis of coral Hypoxia Inducible Factor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier Zoccola

    Full Text Available Tissues of symbiotic Cnidarians are exposed to wide, rapid and daily variations of oxygen concentration. Indeed, during daytime, intracellular O2 concentration increases due to symbiont photosynthesis, while during night, respiration of both host cells and symbionts leads to intra-tissue hypoxia. The Hypoxia Inducible Factor 1 (HIF-1 is a heterodimeric transcription factor used for maintenance of oxygen homeostasis and adaptation to hypoxia. Here, we carried out a mechanistic study of the response to variations of O2 concentrations of the coral model Stylophora pistillata. In silico analysis showed that homologs of HIF-1 α (SpiHIF-1α and HIF-1β (SpiHIF-1β exist in coral. A specific SpiHIF-1 DNA binding on mammalian Hypoxia Response Element (HRE sequences was shown in extracts from coral exposed to dark conditions. Then, we cloned the coral HIF-1α and β genes and determined their expression and transcriptional activity. Although HIF-1α has an incomplete Oxygen-dependent Degradation Domain (ODD relative to its human homolog, its protein level is increased under hypoxia when tested in mammalian cells. Moreover, co-transfection of SpiHIF-1α and β in mammalian cells stimulated an artificial promoter containing HRE only in hypoxic conditions. This study shows the strong conservation of molecular mechanisms involved in adaptation to O2 concentration between Cnidarians and Mammals whose ancestors diverged about 1,200-1,500 million years ago.

  20. Gamma Radiation Induced Preparation of Functional Conducting Polymer Hollow Spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K.-P.; Gopalan, A.I.; Philips, M.F.; Jeong, K.M.

    2010-01-01

    New materials are sought for applications in many of the emerging fields that include catalysis, sensors, biomedical, optics and electronic application. With the advent of nanotechnology, innovative materials with novel properties are being synthesized towards target applications. Changing the sizes of particles, chemical, optical, and mechanical properties of the materials can often be tailored according to the specific needs of the application. Nanocrystalline, nanoparticles, nanocapsules, nanoporous materials, nanofibers, nanowires, fullerenes, nanotubes, nanosprings, nanobelts, dendrimers and nanospheres, ets, are few of the nanostructured materials. The examples of nanostructured materials include semiconducting nanowire quantum dots for gas sensing and self-assembled flower-like architectures. Self-assembly of nanoparticles can result in specific structures with unique and useful electronic, optical, and magnetic properties. Self or induced assemby of simple nanoparticles and rods could result into complex geometries, such as nanoflowers, binary superlattices, optical grating. Over the past decade, hollow spherical nanomaterials have received considerable attention due to their interesting properties such as low density, high surface area and good permeation. Various methods like solvothermal, self-assembly, sonochemical, solvent evaporation, chemical vapor deposition, microwave-assisted aqueous hydrothermal and electrochemical are being pursued for the production of hollow spherical materials. Polymer capsules and hollow spheres have increasingly received interest because of their large surface area and potential applications in catalysis, controlled delivery, artificial cells, light fillers and photonics

  1. Thallium induces hydrogen peroxide generation by impairing mitochondrial function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanzel, Cecilia E.; Verstraeten, Sandra V.

    2006-01-01

    Thallium (Tl) is highly toxic through yet poorly understood mechanisms. In this study, we comparatively investigated the effects of thallic (Tl(III)) cations on mitochondrial functionality and oxidative stress promotion, and results were compared to those obtained for thallous (Tl(I)) cation. PC12 cells were incubated between 1 and 72 h in the presence of a single dose of Tl(I) or Tl(III) (10-250 μM). A metal concentration- and time-dependent decrease in cell viability was observed evaluated by both MTT reduction and calcein fluorescence. After 24 h in culture, Tl(I) and Tl(III) significantly decreased mitochondrial membrane potential evaluated as the incorporation of rhodamine 123. Along the incubation period assessed, both Tl(I) and Tl(III) (50 and 100 μM) significantly increased mitochondrial H 2 O 2 steady-state levels, being the magnitude of the effect: Tl(III) > Tl(I). Glutathione content, measured by reaction with monochlorobimane, was significantly reduced in Tl-treated cells. Finally, higher oxidant species content in cells cytoplasm was found, which positively correlated with mitochondrial H 2 O 2 content. Together, these results indicate that both ionic species of Tl enhance cells reactive oxygen species production, decreasing mitochondrial functionality. These effects could partially be responsible for the loss of cell viability, and account for the metabolic alterations found in Tl intoxication

  2. Atrioventricular node functional remodeling induced by atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Youhua; Mazgalev, Todor N

    2012-09-01

    The atrioventricular node (AVN) plays a vital role in determining the ventricular rate during atrial fibrillation (AF). AF results in profound electrophysiological and structural remodeling in the atria as well as the sinus node. However, it is unknown whether AVN undergoes remodeling during AF. To determine whether AVN undergoes functional remodeling during AF. AVN conduction properties were studied in vitro in 9 rabbits with AF and 10 normal controls. A previously validated index of AVN dual-pathway electrophysiology, His-electrogram alternans, was used to monitor fast-pathway or slow-pathway (SP) AVN conduction in these experiments. AVN conduction properties were further studied in vivo in 7 dogs with chronic AF and 8 controls. Compared with the control rabbits, the rabbits with AF had a longer AVN conduction time (83 ± 16 ms vs 68 ± 7 ms; P AVN effective refractory period (141 ± 27 ms vs 100 ± 9 ms; P AVN effective refractory period and a slower ventricular rate during AF compared with the controls. Pronounced AVN functional electrophysiological remodeling occurs after long-term AF, which could lead to a spontaneous slowing of the ventricular rate. Furthermore, the SP dominance during AF underscores the effectiveness of its modification by ablation for ventricular rate control during AF. Copyright © 2012 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. L-carnitine protects against nickel-induced neurotoxicity by maintaining mitochondrial function in Neuro-2a cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Mindi; Xu Shangcheng; Lu Yonghui; Li Li; Zhong Min; Zhang Yanwen; Wang Yuan; Li Min; Yang Ju; Zhang Guangbin; Yu Zhengping; Zhou Zhou

    2011-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is thought to be a part of the mechanism underlying nickel-induced neurotoxicity. L-carnitine (LC), a quaternary ammonium compound biosynthesized from the amino acids lysine and methionine in all mammalian species, manifests its neuroprotective effects by improving mitochondrial energetics and function. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether LC could efficiently protect against nickel-induced neurotoxicity. Here, we exposed a mouse neuroblastoma cell line (Neuro-2a) to different concentrations of nickel chloride (NiCl 2 ) (0.25, 0.5, 1, and 2 mM) for 24 h, or to 0.5 mM and 1 mM NiCl 2 for various periods (0, 3, 6, 12, or 24 h). We found that nickel significantly increased the cell viability loss and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release in Neuro-2a cells. In addition, nickel exposure significantly elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, disrupted the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ m ), reduced adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) concentrations and decreased mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy numbers and mtRNA transcript levels. However, all of the cytotoxicities and mitochondrial dysfunctions that were triggered by nickel were efficiently attenuated by pretreatment with LC. These protective effects of LC may be attributable to its role in maintaining mitochondrial function in nickel-treated cells. Our results suggest that LC may have great pharmacological potential in protecting against the adverse effects of nickel in the nervous system.

  4. Affinity Induced Surface Functionalization of Liposomes Using Cu-Free Click Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Martin; Jølck, Rasmus Irming; Eliasen, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    Functionalization of nanoparticles is a key element for improving specificity of drug delivery systems toward diseased tissue or cells. In the current study we report a highly efficient and chemoselective method for post-functionalization of liposomes with biomacromolecules, which equally well ca...

  5. Efficient Ab-Initio Electron Transport Calculations for Heterostructures by the Nonequilibrium Green’s Function Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokazu Takaki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an efficient computation technique for ab-initio electron transport calculations based on density functional theory and the nonequilibrium Green’s function formalism for application to heterostructures with two-dimensional (2D interfaces. The computational load for constructing the Green’s functions, which depends not only on the energy but also on the 2D Bloch wave vector along the interfaces and is thus catastrophically heavy, is circumvented by parallel computational techniques with the message passing interface, which divides the calculations of the Green’s functions with respect to energy and wave vectors. To demonstrate the computational efficiency of the present code, we perform ab-initio electron transport calculations of Al(100-Si(100-Al(100 heterostructures, one of the most typical metal-semiconductor-metal systems, and show their transmission spectra, density of states (DOSs, and dependence on the thickness of the Si layers.

  6. Efficient globally optimal segmentation of cells in fluorescence microscopy images using level sets and convex energy functionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeest, Jan-Philip; Rohr, Karl

    2012-10-01

    In high-throughput applications, accurate and efficient segmentation of cells in fluorescence microscopy images is of central importance for the quantification of protein expression and the understanding of cell function. We propose an approach for segmenting cell nuclei which is based on active contours using level sets and convex energy functionals. Compared to previous work, our approach determines the global solution. Thus, the approach does not suffer from local minima and the segmentation result does not depend on the initialization. We consider three different well-known energy functionals for active contour-based segmentation and introduce convex formulations of these functionals. We also suggest a numeric approach for efficiently computing the solution. The performance of our approach has been evaluated using fluorescence microscopy images from different experiments comprising different cell types. We have also performed a quantitative comparison with previous segmentation approaches. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Snake venom VEGF Vammin induces a highly efficient angiogenic response in skeletal muscle via VEGFR-2/NRP specific signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toivanen, Pyry I; Nieminen, Tiina; Laakkonen, Johanna P; Heikura, Tommi; Kaikkonen, Minna U; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo

    2017-07-17

    Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors (VEGFs) are promising molecules for the treatment of ischemic diseases by pro-angiogenic therapy. Snake venom VEGFs are a novel subgroup with unique receptor binding profiles and as such are potential new therapeutic agents. We determined the ligand-receptor interactions, gene regulation and angiogenic properties of Vipera ammodytes venom VEGF, Vammin, and compared it to the canonical angiogenic factor VEGF-A to evaluate the use of Vammin for therapeutic angiogenesis. Vammin efficiently induced VEGFR-2 mediated proliferation and expression of genes associated with proliferation, migration and angiogenesis. VEGF-A 165 and especially VEGF-A 109 induced less pronounced effects. Vammin regulates a number of signaling pathways by inducing the expression of NR4A family nuclear receptors and regulators of calcium signaling and MAP kinase pathways. Interestingly, MARC1, which encodes an enzyme discovered to catalyze reduction of nitrate to NO, was identified as a novel VEGFR-2 regulated gene. In rabbit skeletal muscle adenoviral delivery of Vammin induced prominent angiogenic responses. Both the vector dose and the co-receptor binding of the ligand were critical parameters controlling the type of angiogenic response from sprouting angiogenesis to vessel enlargement. Vammin induced VEGFR-2/NRP-1 mediated signaling more effectively than VEGF-A, consequently it is a promising candidate for development of pro-angiogenic therapies.

  8. Graphene-based vdW heterostructure Induced High-efficiency Thermoelectric Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shijun; Ang, Lay Kee

    Thermoelectric material (TE) can convert the heat into electricity to provide green energy source and its performance is characterized by a figure of merit (ZT) parameter. Traditional TE materials only give ZT equal to around 1 at room temperature. But, it is believed that materials with ZT >3 will find wide applications at this low temperature range. Prior studies have implied that the interrelation between electric conductivity and lattice thermal conductivity renders the goal of engineering ZT of bulk materials to reach ZT >3. In this work, we propose a high-efficiency van del Waals (vdW) heterostructure-based thermionic device with graphene electrodes, which is able to harvest wasted heat (around 400K) based on the newly established thermionic emission law of graphene electrodes instead of Seebeck effect, to boost the efficiency of power generation over 10% around room temperature. The efficiency can be above 20% if the Schottky barrier height and cross-plane lattice thermal conductivity of transition metal dichacogenides (TMD) materials can be fine-engineered. As a refrigerator at 260 K, the efficiency is 50% to 80% of Carnot efficiency. Finally, we identify two TMD materials as the ideal candidates of graphene/TMD/graphene devices based on the state-of-art technology.

  9. Functional decomposition with an efficient input support selection for sub-functions based on information relationship measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rawski, M.; Jozwiak, L.; Luba, T.

    2001-01-01

    The functional decomposition of binary and multi-valued discrete functions and relations has been gaining more and more recognition. It has important applications in many fields of modern digital system engineering, such as combinational and sequential logic synthesis for VLSI systems, pattern

  10. Functional magnetic resonances imaging of psychological functions with experimentally induced emotion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grodd, W.; Schneider, F.; Klose, U.; Naegele, T.

    1995-01-01

    In this study a T 2 * FLASH sequence (TR 240 ms, TE 60 ms, slice thickness 4 mm, α=40 , matrix 64x128) was used to investigate changes in signal intensity within the temporal lobe and the amygdala during experimentally induced emotions. Visual stimuli of happy [sad] facial portraits were presented to volunteers to induce changes in the subjects' mood while lying in the tomograph. In agreement with a previous PET study, a significant increase in signal intensity in the left amygdala was found during induction of a sad mood, while no comparable effect was visible during induction of a happy mood. (orig.) [de

  11. Establishment of an efficient virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) assay in Arabidopsis by Agrobacterium-mediated rubbing infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manhães, Ana Marcia E de A; de Oliveira, Marcos V V; Shan, Libo

    2015-01-01

    Several VIGS protocols have been established for high-throughput functional genomic screens as it bypasses the time-consuming and laborious process of generation of transgenic plants. The silencing efficiency in this approach is largely hindered by a technically demanding step in which the first pair of newly emerged true leaves at the 2-week-old stage are infiltrated with a needleless syringe. To further optimize VIGS efficiency and achieve rapid inoculation for a large-scale functional genomic study, here we describe a protocol of an efficient VIGS assay in Arabidopsis using Agrobacterium-mediated rubbing infection. The Agrobacterium inoculation is performed by simply rubbing the leaves with Filter Agent Celite(®) 545. The highly efficient and uniform silencing effect was indicated by the development of a visibly albino phenotype due to silencing of the Cloroplastos alterados 1 (CLA1) gene in the newly emerged leaves. In addition, the albino phenotype could be observed in stems and flowers, indicating its potential application for gene functional studies in the late vegetative development and flowering stages.

  12. Radiation effects on regeneration and T-cell-inducing function of the thymus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirokawa, K.; Sado, T.

    1984-01-01

    Radiation effects on regeneration and T-cell-inducing function of the thymus were studied in three sets of experiments. When TXB mice were grafted with 1-week-old thymus which had been previously irradiated at various doses, an exponential decrease was observed in the morphological regeneration of the thymus grafts and in their T-cell-inducing function at doses of 600 R and over, showing about 10% that of the control at 1500 R. When in situ thymus of adult mice was locally irradiated, the radiation effect on T-cell-inducing function was less pronounced as compared with the first experiment; i.e., about 40% of the control at 1797 R. When in situ thymus of 1-day-old newborn mice was locally irradiated, regeneration potential of 1-day-old newborn thymus was highly resistant to radiation exposure and no effect on immunological functions was observed even by local irradiation of 2000 R

  13. Engineering an efficient and tight D-amino acid-inducible gene expression system in Rhodosporidium/Rhodotorula species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanbin; Koh, Chong Mei John; Ngoh, Si Te; Ji, Lianghui

    2015-10-26

    Rhodosporidium and Rhodotorula are two genera of oleaginous red yeast with great potential for industrial biotechnology. To date, there is no effective method for inducible expression of proteins and RNAs in these hosts. We have developed a luciferase gene reporter assay based on a new codon-optimized LUC2 reporter gene (RtLUC2), which is flanked with CAR2 homology arms and can be integrated into the CAR2 locus in the nuclear genome at >90 % efficiency. We characterized the upstream DNA sequence of a D-amino acid oxidase gene (DAO1) from R. toruloides ATCC 10657 by nested deletions. By comparing the upstream DNA sequences of several putative DAO1 homologs of Basidiomycetous fungi, we identified a conserved DNA motif with a consensus sequence of AGGXXGXAGX11GAXGAXGG within a 0.2 kb region from the mRNA translation initiation site. Deletion of this motif led to strong mRNA transcription under non-inducing conditions. Interestingly, DAO1 promoter activity was enhanced about fivefold when the 108 bp intron 1 was included in the reporter construct. We identified a conserved CT-rich motif in the intron with a consensus sequence of TYTCCCYCTCCYCCCCACWYCCGA, deletion or point mutations of which drastically reduced promoter strength under both inducing and non-inducing conditions. Additionally, we created a selection marker-free DAO1-null mutant (∆dao1e) which displayed greatly improved inducible gene expression, particularly when both glucose and nitrogen were present in high levels. To avoid adding unwanted peptide to proteins to be expressed, we converted the original translation initiation codon to ATC and re-created a translation initiation codon at the start of exon 2. This promoter, named P DAO1-in1m1 , showed very similar luciferase activity to the wild-type promoter upon induction with D-alanine. The inducible system was tunable by adjusting the levels of inducers, carbon source and nitrogen source. The intron 1-containing DAO1 promoters coupled with a DAO1 null

  14. Improving the Efficiency of 3-D Hydrogeological Mixers: Dilution Enhancement Via Coupled Engineering-Induced Transient Flows and Spatial Heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Dato, Mariaines; de Barros, Felipe P. J.; Fiori, Aldo; Bellin, Alberto

    2018-03-01

    Natural attenuation and in situ oxidation are commonly considered as low-cost alternatives to ex situ remediation. The efficiency of such remediation techniques is hindered by difficulties in obtaining good dilution and mixing of the contaminant, in particular if the plume deformation is physically constrained by an array of wells, which serves as a containment system. In that case, dilution may be enhanced by inducing an engineered sequence of injections and extractions from such pumping system, which also works as a hydraulic barrier. This way, the aquifer acts as a natural mixer, in a manner similar to the industrialized engineered mixers. Improving the efficiency of hydrogeological mixers is a challenging task, owing to the need to use a 3-D setup while relieving the computational burden. Analytical solutions, though approximated, are a suitable and efficient tool to seek the optimum solution among all possible flow configurations. Here we develop a novel physically based model to demonstrate how the combined spatiotemporal fluctuations of the water fluxes control solute trajectories and residence time distributions and therefore, the effectiveness of contaminant plume dilution and mixing. Our results show how external forcing configurations are capable of inducing distinct time-varying groundwater flow patterns which will yield different solute dilution rates.

  15. Combined negative effect of donor age and time in culture on the reprogramming efficiency into induced pluripotent stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ras Trokovic

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Somatic cells can be reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC by the forced expression of the transcription factors OCT4, SOX2, KLF4 and c-MYC. Pluripotent reprogramming appears as a slow and inefficient process because of genetic and epigenetic barriers of somatic cells. In this report, we have extended previous observations concerning donor age and passage number of human fibroblasts as critical determinants of the efficiency of iPSC induction. Human fibroblasts from 11 different donors of variable age were reprogrammed by ectopic expression of reprogramming factors. Although all fibroblasts gave rise to iPSC colonies, the reprogramming efficiency correlated negatively and declined rapidly with increasing donor age. In addition, the late passage fibroblasts gave less reprogrammed colonies than the early passage cell counterparts, a finding associated with the cellular senescence-induced upregulation of p21. Knockdown of p21 restored iPSC generation even in long-term passaged fibroblasts of an old donor, highlighting the central role of the p53/p21 pathway in cellular senescence induced by both donor age and culture time.

  16. Modulation transfer function and detective quantum efficiency of electron bombarded charge coupled device detector for low energy electrons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horáček, Miroslav

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 76, č. 9 (2005), 093704:1-6 ISSN 0034-6748 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/03/1575 Keywords : electron bombarded CCD * modulation transfer function * detective quantum efficiency Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.235, year: 2005

  17. Rapid and Efficient Collection of Platinum from Karstedt's Catalyst Solution via Ligands-Exchange-Induced Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gonghua; Wei, Yanlong; Huang, Zhenzhu; Hu, Jiwen; Liu, Guojun; Ou, Ming; Lin, Shudong; Tu, Yuanyuan

    2018-02-21

    Reported herein is a novel strategy for the rapid and efficient collection of platinum from Karstedt's catalyst solution. By taking advantage of a ligand-exchange reaction between alkynols and the 1,3-divinyltetramethyldisiloxane ligand (M Vi M Vi ) that coordinated with platinum (Pt(0)), the Karstedt's catalyst particles with a size of approximately 2.5 ± 0.7 nm could be reconstructed and assembled into larger particles with a size of 150 ± 35 nm due to the hydrogen bonding between the hydroxyl groups of the alkynol. In addition, because the silicone-soluble M Vi M Vi ligand of the Karstedt's catalyst was replaced by water-soluble alkynol ligands, the resultant large particles were readily dispersed in water, resulting in rapid, efficient, and complete collection of platinum from the Karstedt's catalyst solutions with platinum concentrations in the range from ∼20 000 to 0.05 ppm. Our current strategy not only was used for the rapid and efficient collection of platinum from the Karstedt's catalyst solutions, but it also enabled the precise evaluation of the platinum content in the Karstedt's catalysts, even if this platinum content was extremely low (i.e., 0.05 ppm). Moreover, these platinum specimens that were efficiently collected from the Karstedt's catalyst solutions could be directly used for the evaluation of platinum without the need for pretreatment processes, such as calcination and digestion with hydrofluoric acid, that were traditionally used prior to testing via inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in conventional methods.

  18. CRISPR Interference Efficiently Induces Specific and Reversible Gene Silencing in Human iPSCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandegar, Mohammad A.; Huebsch, Nathaniel; Frolov, Ekaterina B.

    2016-01-01

    repression system is tunable and has the potential to silence single alleles. Compared with CRISPR nuclease (CRISPRn), CRISPRi gene repression is more efficient and homogenous across cell populations. The CRISPRi system in iPSCs provides a powerful platform to perform genome-scale screens in a wide range...

  19. Efficient Weibull channel model for salinity induced turbulent underwater wireless optical communications

    KAUST Repository

    Oubei, Hassan M.

    2017-12-13

    Recent advances in underwater wireless optical communications necessitate a better understanding of the underwater channel. We propose the Weibull model to characterize the fading of salinity induced turbulent underwater wireless optical channels. The model shows an excellent agreement with the measured data under all channel conditions.

  20. Efficient photoreactivation of UVBR-induced DNA damage in the sublittoral macroalga Rhodymenia pseudopalmata (Rhodophyta)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pakker, H; Beekman, C.A C; Breeman, Arno

    Repair of DNA damage induced by ultraviolet-B radiation (UVBR) was investigated in the sublittoral red alga Rhodymenia pseudopalmata at different temperatures, using immunofluorescent detection of thymine dimers. Photoreactivation of thymine dimers was completed within about 3 h at 6, 12 and 18

  1. ANALYSIS OF EVENT TOURISM IN RUSSIA, ITS FUNCTIONS, WAYS TO IMPROVE THE EFFICIENCY OF EVENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Yur'evich Grushin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article considers one of the important directions of development of the national economy in the area of tourist services – development of event tourism in the Russian Federation. Today the market of event management in Russia is in the process of formation, therefore its impact on the socio-economic development of regions and Russia as a whole is minimal, and the analysis of the influence is not performed. This problem comes to the fore in the regions of Russia, specializing in the creation of event-direction tourist-recreational cluster. The article provides an analysis of the existing market of event management and event tourism functions. Providing the ways to improve the efficiency of event management and recommendations for the organizer of events in the regions. The article shows the specific role of event tourism in the national tourism and provides direction for the development of organizational and methodical recommendations on its formation in the regions of Russia and the creation of an effective management system at the regional level. The purpose of this article is to analyze the emerging in Russia event tourism market and its specifics. On the basis of these studies are considered folding patterns of the new market and the assessment of its impact on the modern national tourism industry. Methodology. To complete this article are used comparative and economic and statistical analysis methods. Conclusions/significance. The practical importance of this article is in the elimination of existing in the national tourism industry contradictions: on the one hand, in the Russian Federation is annually held a large amount events activities, including world-class in all regions say about tourist trips to the event, but the event tourism does not exist yet. In all regions, there is an internal and inbound tourism, but it has nothing to do with the event tourism. The article has a practical conclusions demonstrate the need to adapt the

  2. Efficient Estimation of Dynamic Density Functions with Applications in Streaming Data

    KAUST Repository

    Qahtan, Abdulhakim

    2016-05-11

    Recent advances in computing technology allow for collecting vast amount of data that arrive continuously in the form of streams. Mining data streams is challenged by the speed and volume of the arriving data. Furthermore, the underlying distribution of the data changes over the time in unpredicted scenarios. To reduce the computational cost, data streams are often studied in forms of condensed representation, e.g., Probability Density Function (PDF). This thesis aims at developing an online density estimator that builds a model called KDE-Track for characterizing the dynamic density of the data streams. KDE-Track estimates the PDF of the stream at a set of resampling points and uses interpolation to estimate the density at any given point. To reduce the interpolation error and computational complexity, we introduce adaptive resampling where more/less resampling points are used in high/low curved regions of the PDF. The PDF values at the resampling points are updated online to provide up-to-date model of the data stream. Comparing with other existing online density estimators, KDE-Track is often more accurate (as reflected by smaller error values) and more computationally efficient (as reflected by shorter running time). The anytime available PDF estimated by KDE-Track can be applied for visualizing the dynamic density of data streams, outlier detection and change detection in data streams. In this thesis work, the first application is to visualize the taxi traffic volume in New York city. Utilizing KDE-Track allows for visualizing and monitoring the traffic flow on real time without extra overhead and provides insight analysis of the pick up demand that can be utilized by service providers to improve service availability. The second application is to detect outliers in data streams from sensor networks based on the estimated PDF. The method detects outliers accurately and outperforms baseline methods designed for detecting and cleaning outliers in sensor data. The

  3. Efficient on-line setup correction strategies using plan-intent functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, Harry; Jaffray, David A.; Rosewall, Tara; White, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    With the introduction of image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) delivery systems on-line set-up correction strategies have gained in popularity. Usually, the correction workload of these strategies is high compared to off-line strategies as daily setup corrections have to be performed based on a predefined action level. In this work, it is proposed that on-line strategies must not only be judged in terms of workload but also in terms of efficacy. While workload can be easily predicted for such strategies, the efficacy must ultimately reflect the efficiency with which the original treatment plan intent is met. The purpose of this work is to investigate the tradeoff between workload and efficacy of three different on-line set-up correction strategies: The common fixed action level strategy and two novel on-line setup correction strategies, i.e., a dose-volume histogram (DVH) constraint and an equivalent uniform dose (EUD) score strategy that aim directly for better compliance with original treatment plan intent. All strategies were reformulated in terms of a score function that reflected treatment plan intent. A retrospective study was conducted on 5 prostate patients (7-field conformal, 79.8 Gy, 42 fractions). PTV margins were 10 mm except in the posterior direction (7 mm). The original treatment plan intent for these patients was defined using a set of DVH constraints. The results show that the on-line setup correction strategy based on a fixed action level of 3 mm resulted in a considerable correction workload. For larger action levels, a dose benefit (in terms of EUD) in the rectum and bladder was observed for all patients which is clinically ''fortuitous'' but difficult to take advantage of. In contrast, the application of the two novel strategies generally resulted in a controlled decrease of the dose to the rectum and the bladder with a smaller workload. It is concluded that using information about target anatomy and the planned dose distribution allows the

  4. Effect of acute moderate exercise on induced inflammation and arterial function in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranadive, Sushant Mohan; Kappus, Rebecca Marie; Cook, Marc D; Yan, Huimin; Lane, Abbi Danielle; Woods, Jeffrey A; Wilund, Kenneth R; Iwamoto, Gary; Vanar, Vishwas; Tandon, Rudhir; Fernhall, Bo

    2014-04-01

    Acute inflammation reduces flow-mediated vasodilatation and increases arterial stiffness in young healthy individuals. However, this response has not been studied in older adults. The aim of this study, therefore, was to evaluate the effect of acute induced systemic inflammation on endothelial function and wave reflection in older adults. Furthermore, an acute bout of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise can be anti-inflammatory. Taken together, we tested the hypothesis that acute moderate-intensity endurance exercise, immediately preceding induced inflammation, would be protective against the negative effects of acute systemic inflammation on vascular function. Fifty-nine healthy volunteers between 55 and 75 years of age were randomized to an exercise or a control group. Both groups received a vaccine (induced inflammation) and sham (saline) injection in a counterbalanced crossover design. Inflammatory markers, endothelial function (flow-mediated vasodilatation) and measures of wave reflection and arterial stiffness were evaluated at baseline and at 24 and 48 h after injections. There were no significant differences in endothelial function and arterial stiffness between the exercise and control group after induced inflammation. The groups were then analysed together, and we found significant differences in the inflammatory markers 24 and 48 h after induction of acute inflammation compared with sham injection. However, flow-mediated vasodilatation, augmentation index normalized for heart rate (AIx75) and β-stiffness did not change significantly. Our results suggest that acute inflammation induced by influenza vaccination did not affect endothelial function in older adults.

  5. Functionalized linear poly(amidoamine)s are efficient vectors for intracellular protein delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coué, G.M.J.P.C.; Engbersen, Johannes F.J.

    2011-01-01

    An effective intracellular protein delivery system was developed based on functionalized linear poly(amidoamine)s (PAAs) that form self-assembled cationic nanocomplexes with oppositely charged proteins. Three differently functionalized PAAs were synthesized, two of these having repetitive disulfide

  6. Highly efficient generation of ultraintense high-energy ion beams using laser-induced cavity pressure acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badziak, J.; Jablonski, S.; Raczka, P. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Euratom Association, 01-497 Warsaw (Poland)

    2012-08-20

    Results of particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of fast ion generation in the recently proposed laser-induced cavity pressure acceleration (LICPA) scheme in which a picosecond circularly polarized laser pulse of intensity {approx}10{sup 21} W/cm{sup 2} irradiates a carbon target placed in a cavity are presented. It is shown that due to circulation of the laser pulse in the cavity, the laser-ions energy conversion efficiency in the LICPA scheme is more than twice as high as that for the conventional (without a cavity) radiation pressure acceleration scheme and a quasi-monoenergetic carbon ion beam of the mean ion energy {approx}0.5 GeV and the energy fluence {approx}0.5 GJ/cm{sup 2} is produced with the efficiency {approx}40%. The results of PIC simulations are found to be in fairly good agreement with the predictions of the generalized light-sail model.

  7. Reversible cold-induced abnormalities in myocardial perfusion and function in systemic sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, E.L.; Firestein, G.S.; Weiss, J.L.; Heuser, R.R.; Leitl, G.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.; Brinker, J.A.; Ciuffo, A.A.; Becker, L.C.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of peripheral cold exposure on myocardial perfusion and function were studied in 13 patients with scleroderma without clinically evident myocardial disease. Ten patients had at least one transient, cold-induced, myocardial perfusion defect visualized by thallium-201 scintigraphy, and 12 had reversible, cold-induced, segmental left ventricular hypokinesis by two-dimensional echocardiography. The 10 patients with transient perfusion defects all had anatomically corresponding ventricular wall motion abnormalities. No one in either of two control groups (9 normal volunteers and 7 patients with chest pain and normal coronary arteriograms) had cold-induced abnormalities. This study is the first to show the simultaneous occurrence of cold-induced abnormalities in myocardial perfusion and function in patients with scleroderma. The results suggest that cold exposure in such patients may elicit transient reflex coronary vasoconstriction resulting in reversible myocardial ischemia and dysfunction. Chronic recurrent episodes of coronary spasm may lead to focal myocardial fibrosis

  8. Efficient electron-induced removal of oxalate ions and formation of copper nanoparticles from copper(II oxalate precursor layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Rückriem

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Copper(II oxalate grown on carboxy-terminated self-assembled monolayers (SAM using a step-by-step approach was used as precursor for the electron-induced synthesis of surface-supported copper nanoparticles. The precursor material was deposited by dipping the surfaces alternately in ethanolic solutions of copper(II acetate and oxalic acid with intermediate thorough rinsing steps. The deposition of copper(II oxalate and the efficient electron-induced removal of the oxalate ions was monitored by reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS. Helium ion microscopy (HIM reveals the formation of spherical nanoparticles with well-defined size and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS confirms their metallic nature. Continued irradiation after depletion of oxalate does not lead to further particle growth giving evidence that nanoparticle formation is primarily controlled by the available amount of precursor.

  9. A fitting algorithm based on simulated annealing techniques for efficiency calibration of HPGe detectors using different mathematical functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurtado, S. [Servicio de Radioisotopos, Centro de Investigacion, Tecnologia e Innovacion (CITIUS), Universidad de Sevilla, Avda. Reina Mercedes s/n, 41012 Sevilla (Spain)], E-mail: shurtado@us.es; Garcia-Leon, M. [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Facultad de Fisica, Universidad de Sevilla, Aptd. 1065, 41080 Sevilla (Spain); Garcia-Tenorio, R. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada II, E.T.S.A. Universidad de Sevilla, Avda, Reina Mercedes 2, 41012 Sevilla (Spain)

    2008-09-11

    In this work several mathematical functions are compared in order to perform the full-energy peak efficiency calibration of HPGe detectors using a 126cm{sup 3} HPGe coaxial detector and gamma-ray energies ranging from 36 to 1460 keV. Statistical tests and Monte Carlo simulations were used to study the performance of the fitting curve equations. Furthermore the fitting procedure of these complex functional forms to experimental data is a non-linear multi-parameter minimization problem. In gamma-ray spectrometry usually non-linear least-squares fitting algorithms (Levenberg-Marquardt method) provide a fast convergence while minimizing {chi}{sub R}{sup 2}, however, sometimes reaching only local minima. In order to overcome that shortcoming a hybrid algorithm based on simulated annealing (HSA) techniques is proposed. Additionally a new function is suggested that models the efficiency curve of germanium detectors in gamma-ray spectrometry.

  10. Efficient induction of dopaminergic neuron differentiation from induced pluripotent stem cells reveals impaired mitophagy in PARK2 neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Sadafumi; Akamatsu, Wado; Kisa, Fumihiko; Sone, Takefumi; Ishikawa, Kei-Ichi; Kuzumaki, Naoko; Katayama, Hiroyuki; Miyawaki, Atsushi; Hattori, Nobutaka; Okano, Hideyuki

    2017-01-29

    Patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) show promise for use as tools for in vitro modeling of Parkinson's disease. We sought to improve the efficiency of dopaminergic (DA) neuron induction from iPSCs by the using surface markers expressed in DA progenitors to increase the significance of the phenotypic analysis. By sorting for a CD184 high /CD44 - fraction during neural differentiation, we obtained a population of cells that were enriched in DA neuron precursor cells and achieved higher differentiation efficiencies than those obtained through the same protocol without sorting. This high efficiency method of DA neuronal induction enabled reliable detection of reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and vulnerable phenotypes in PARK2 iPSCs-derived DA neurons. We additionally established a quantitative system using the mt-mKeima reporter system to monitor mitophagy in which mitochondria fuse with lysosomes and, by combining this system with the method of DA neuronal induction described above, determined that mitophagy is impaired in PARK2 neurons. These findings suggest that the efficiency of DA neuron induction is important for the precise detection of cellular phenotypes in modeling Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Efficient generation of integration-free human induced pluripotent stem cells from keratinocytes by simple transfection of episomal vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, Yulan; Hung, Sandy Shen-Chi; Lim, Shiang Y; Wong, Raymond Ching-Bong; Ko, Minoru S H

    2014-07-01

    Keratinocytes represent an easily accessible cell source for derivation of human induced pluripotent stem (hiPS) cells, reportedly achieving higher reprogramming efficiency than fibroblasts. However, most studies utilized a retroviral or lentiviral method for reprogramming of keratinocytes, which introduces undesirable transgene integrations into the host genome. Moreover, current protocols of generating integration-free hiPS cells from keratinocytes are mostly inefficient. In this paper, we describe a more efficient, simple-to-use, and cost-effective method for generating integration-free hiPS cells from keratinocytes. Our improved method using lipid-mediated transfection achieved a reprogramming efficiency of ∼0.14% on average. Keratinocyte-derived hiPS cells showed no integration of episomal vectors, expressed stem cell-specific markers and possessed potentials to differentiate into all three germ layers by in vitro embryoid body formation as well as in vivo teratoma formation. To our knowledge, this represents the most efficient method to generate integration-free hiPS cells from keratinocytes. ©AlphaMed Press.

  12. Vectors to Increase Production Efficiency of Inducible Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    This invention describes the discovery that specific p53 isoform increase the number of inducible pluripotent stem cells (iPS). It is known that the activity of p53 regulates the self-renewal and pluripotency of normal and cancer stem cells, and also affects re-programming efficiency of iPS cells. This p53 isoform-based technology provides a more natural process of increasing iPS cell production than previous methods of decreasing p53. NCI seeks licensees for this technology.

  13. Direct contact with endoderm-like cells efficiently induces cardiac progenitors from mouse and human pluripotent stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Uosaki

    Full Text Available RATIONALE: Pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs have emerged as a powerful tool to study cardiogenesis in vitro and a potential cell source for cardiac regenerative medicine. However, available methods to induce CPCs are not efficient or require high-cost cytokines with extensive optimization due to cell line variations. OBJECTIVE: Based on our in-vivo observation that early endodermal cells maintain contact with nascent pre-cardiac mesoderm, we hypothesized that direct physical contact with endoderm promotes induction of CPCs from pluripotent cells. METHOD AND RESULT: To test the hypothesis, we cocultured mouse embryonic stem (ES cells with the endodermal cell line End2 by co-aggregation or End2-conditioned medium. Co-aggregation resulted in strong induction of Flk1(+ PDGFRa(+ CPCs in a dose-dependent manner, but the conditioned medium did not, indicating that direct contact is necessary for this process. To determine if direct contact with End2 cells also promotes the induction of committed cardiac progenitors, we utilized several mouse ES and induced pluripotent (iPS cell lines expressing fluorescent proteins under regulation of the CPC lineage markers Nkx2.5 or Isl1. In agreement with earlier data, co-aggregation with End2 cells potently induces both Nkx2.5(+ and Isl1(+ CPCs, leading to a sheet of beating cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, co-aggregation with End2 cells greatly promotes the induction of KDR(+ PDGFRa(+ CPCs from human ES cells. CONCLUSIONS: Our co-aggregation method provides an efficient, simple and cost-effective way to induce CPCs from mouse and human pluripotent cells.

  14. High annealing temperature induced rapid grain coarsening for efficient perovskite solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiaobing; Zhi, Lili; Jia, Yi; Li, Yahui; Cui, Xian; Zhao, Ke; Ci, Lijie; Ding, Kongxian; Wei, Jinquan

    2018-08-15

    Thermal annealing plays multiple roles in fabricating high quality perovskite films. Generally, it might result in large perovskite grains by elevating annealing temperature, but might also lead to decomposition of perovskite. Here, we study the effects of annealing temperature on the coarsening of perovskite grains in a temperature range from 100 to 250 °C, and find that the coarsening rate of the perovskite grain increase significantly with the annealing temperature. Compared with the perovskite films annealed at 100 °C, high quality perovskite films with large columnar grains are obtained by annealing perovskite precursor films at 250 °C for only 10 s. As a result, the power conversion efficiency of best solar cell increased from 12.35% to 16.35% due to its low recombination rate and high efficient charge transportation in solar cells. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. g-force induced giant efficiency of nanoparticles internalization into living cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocampo, Sandra M.; Rodriguez, Vanessa; de La Cueva, Leonor; Salas, Gorka; Carrascosa, Jose. L.; Josefa Rodríguez, María; García-Romero, Noemí; Luis, Jose; Cuñado, F.; Camarero, Julio; Miranda, Rodolfo; Belda-Iniesta, Cristobal; Ayuso-Sacido, Angel

    2015-10-01

    Nanotechnology plays an increasingly important role in the biomedical arena. Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs)-labelled cells is one of the most promising approaches for a fast and reliable evaluation of grafted cells in both preclinical studies and clinical trials. Current procedures to label living cells with IONPs are based on direct incubation or physical approaches based on magnetic or electrical fields, which always display very low cellular uptake efficiencies. Here we show that centrifugation-mediated internalization (CMI) promotes a high uptake of IONPs in glioblastoma tumour cells, just in a few minutes, and via clathrin-independent endocytosis pathway. CMI results in controllable cellular uptake efficiencies at least three orders of magnitude larger than current procedures. Similar trends are found in human mesenchymal stem cells, thereby demonstrating the general feasibility of the methodology, which is easily transferable to any laboratory with great potential for the development of improved biomedical applications.

  16. Flexible and Efficient Wireless Sensor Networks for Detecting Rainfall-Induced Landslides

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Chinh D.; Tran, Tan D.; Tran, Nghia D.; Huynh, Tue Huu; Nguyen, Duc T.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of climate change and human activities leads to a series of dangerous phenomena, such as landslides and flood. In such a context, building a system to monitor environmental hazards is seriously needed. Some studies propose to use wireless sensor network (WSN) technique for landslide monitoring systems. Two important factors for these systems are the flexibility and the energy management. This paper focuses on the development of a flexible and efficient WSN for detecting rainfall-in...

  17. Possibility of increasing the efficiency of laser-induced tattoo removal by optical skin clearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genina, E. A.; Bashkatov, A. N.; Tuchin, V. V.; Altshuler, G. B.; Yaroslavskii, I. V.

    2008-06-01

    The possibility of selective laser photothermolysis improvement for the removal of tattoo pigments due to the optical clearing of human skin is investigated. It is shown experimentally that the optical skin clearing increases the tattoo image contrast. Computer Monte Carlo simulations show that by decreasing the laser beam scattering in upper skin layers, it is possible to reduce the radiation power required for tattoo removal by 30%—40% and, therefore, to increase the the photothermolysis efficiency.

  18. A lentivirus-free inducible CRISPR-Cas9 system for efficient targeting of human genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisht, Kamlesh; Grill, Sherilyn; Graniel, Jacqueline; Nandakumar, Jayakrishnan

    2017-08-01

    CRISPR-Cas9 is a cutting-edge tool for modifying genomes. The efficacy with which Cas9 recognizes its target has revolutionized the engineering of knockouts. However this efficacy complicates the knocking out of important genes in cultured cells. Unedited cells holding a survival advantage within an edited population can confound the knockout phenotype. Here we develop a HeLa-based system that overcomes this limitation, incorporating several attractive features. First, we use Flp-recombinase to generate clones stably integrated for Cas9 and guide RNAs, eliminating the possibility of unedited cells. Second, Cas9 can be induced uniformly in the clonal cultures using doxycycline to measure the knockout phenotype. Third, two genes can be simultaneously knocked out using this approach. Finally, by not involving lentiviruses, our method is appealing to a broad research audience. Using this methodology we generated an inducible AGO2-knockout cell line showing normal RNA interference in the absence of doxycycline. Upon induction of Cas9, the AGO2 locus was cleaved, the AGO2 protein was depleted, and RNA interference was compromised. In addition to generating inducible knockouts, our technology can be adapted to improve other applications of Cas9, including transcriptional/epigenetic modulation and visualization of cellular DNA loci. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Filtration Efficiency of Functionalized Ceramic Foam Filters for Aluminum Melt Filtration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Claudia; Jäckel, Eva; Taina, Fabio; Zienert, Tilo; Salomon, Anton; Wolf, Gotthard; Aneziris, Christos G.; Le Brun, Pierre

    2017-02-01

    The influence of filter surface chemistry on the filtration efficiency of cast aluminum alloys was evaluated for four different filter coating compositions (Al2O3—alumina, MgAl2O4—spinel, 3Al2O3·2SiO2—mullite, and TiO2—rutile). The tests were conducted on a laboratory scale with a filtration pilot plant, which facilitates long-term filtration tests (40 to 76 minutes). This test set-up allows the simultaneous use of two LiMCAs (before and after the filter) for the determination of the efficiency of inclusion removal. The four tested filter surface chemistries exhibited good thermal stability and mechanical robustness after 750 kg of molten aluminum had been cast. All four filter types exhibited a mean filtration efficiency of at least 80 pct. However, differences were also observed. The highest filtration efficiencies were obtained with alumina- and spinel-coated filter surfaces (>90 pct), and the complete removal of the largest inclusions (>90 µm) was observed. The efficiency was slightly lower with mullite- and rutile-coated filter surfaces, in particular for large inclusions. These observations are discussed in relation to the properties of the filters, in particular in terms of, for example, the surface roughness.

  20. Zinc Is Indispensable in Exercise-Induced Cardioprotection against Intermittent Hypoxia-Induced Left Ventricular Function Impairment in Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-I Chen

    Full Text Available In obstructive sleep apnea (OSA, recurrent obstruction of the upper airway leads to intermittent hypoxia (IH during sleep, which can result in impairment of cardiac function. Although exercise can have beneficial effects against IH-induced cardiac dysfunction, the mechanism remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the interactions of zinc and exercise on IH-triggered left ventricular dysfunction in a rat model that mimics IH in OSA patients. Nine-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to either a control group (CON or to a group receiving 10 weeks of exercise training (EXE. During weeks 9 and 10, half the rats in each group were subjected to IH for 8 h per day for 14 days (IHCON, IHEXE, whereas the remainder continued to breathe room air. Rats within each of the CON, IHCON, EXE, and IHEXE groups were further randomly assigned to receive intraperitoneal injections of either zinc chloride, the zinc chelator N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl ethylenediamine (TPEN, or injection vehicle only. IH induced a lower left ventricular fractional shortening, reduced ejection fraction, higher myocardial levels of inflammatory factors, increased levels oxidative stress, and lower levels of antioxidative capacity, all of which were abolished by zinc treatment. IHEXE rats exhibited higher levels of cardiac function and antioxidant capacity and lower levels of inflammatory factors and oxidative stress than IHCON rats; however, IHEXE rats receiving TPEN did not exhibit these better outcomes. In conclusion, zinc is required for protecting against IH-induced LV functional impairment and likely plays a critical role in exercise-induced cardioprotection by exerting a dual antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect.

  1. Zinc Is Indispensable in Exercise-Induced Cardioprotection against Intermittent Hypoxia-Induced Left Ventricular Function Impairment in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Michael Yu-Chih

    2016-01-01

    In obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), recurrent obstruction of the upper airway leads to intermittent hypoxia (IH) during sleep, which can result in impairment of cardiac function. Although exercise can have beneficial effects against IH-induced cardiac dysfunction, the mechanism remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the interactions of zinc and exercise on IH-triggered left ventricular dysfunction in a rat model that mimics IH in OSA patients. Nine-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to either a control group (CON) or to a group receiving 10 weeks of exercise training (EXE). During weeks 9 and 10, half the rats in each group were subjected to IH for 8 h per day for 14 days (IHCON, IHEXE), whereas the remainder continued to breathe room air. Rats within each of the CON, IHCON, EXE, and IHEXE groups were further randomly assigned to receive intraperitoneal injections of either zinc chloride, the zinc chelator N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl) ethylenediamine (TPEN), or injection vehicle only. IH induced a lower left ventricular fractional shortening, reduced ejection fraction, higher myocardial levels of inflammatory factors, increased levels oxidative stress, and lower levels of antioxidative capacity, all of which were abolished by zinc treatment. IHEXE rats exhibited higher levels of cardiac function and antioxidant capacity and lower levels of inflammatory factors and oxidative stress than IHCON rats; however, IHEXE rats receiving TPEN did not exhibit these better outcomes. In conclusion, zinc is required for protecting against IH-induced LV functional impairment and likely plays a critical role in exercise-induced cardioprotection by exerting a dual antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect. PMID:27977796

  2. Facile and easily popularized synthesis of L-cysteine-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles based on one-step functionalization for highly efficient enrichment of glycopeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaoyan; Deng, Chunhui; Gao, Mingxia; Zhang, Xiangmin

    2018-01-01

    Protein glycosylation is one of the most important post-translational modifications. Also, efficient enrichment and separation of glycopeptides from complex samples are crucial for the thorough analysis of glycosylation. Developing novel hydrophilic materials with facile and easily popularized synthesis is an urgent need in large-scale glycoproteomics research. Herein, for the first time, a one-step functionalization strategy based on metal-organic coordination was proposed and Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles were directly functionalized with zwitterionic hydrophilic L-cysteine (L-Cys), greatly simplifying the synthetic procedure. The easily synthesized Fe 3 O 4 /L-Cys possessed excellent hydrophilicity and brief composition, contributing to affinity for glycopeptides and reduction in nonspecific interaction. Thus, Fe 3 O 4 /L-Cys nanoparticles showed outstanding sensitivity (25 amol/μL), high selectivity (mixture of bovine serum albumin and horseradish peroxidase tryptic digests at a mass ratio of 100:1), good reusability (five repeated times), and stability (room temperature storage of 1 month). Encouragingly, in the glycosylation analysis of human serum, a total of 376 glycopeptides with 393 N-glycosylation sites corresponding to 118 glycoproteins were identified after enrichment with Fe 3 O 4 /L-Cys, which was superior to ever reported L-Cys modified magnetic materials. Furthermore, applying the one-step functionalization strategy, cysteamine and glutathione respectively direct-functionalized Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles were successfully synthesized and also achieved efficient glycopeptide enrichment in human serum. The results indicated that we have presented an efficient and easily popularized strategy in glycoproteomics as well as in the synthesis of novel materials. Graphical abstract Fe 3 O 4 /L-Cys nanoparticles based on one-step functionalization for highly efficient enrichment of glycopeptides.

  3. SPECIFIC FEATURES OF HIGHER EFFICIENCY IN FUNCTIONING OF ROAD-TRANSPORT COMPLEX IN THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Solodkaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The road-transport complex objectively reflects the essence of efficient transportation process which is carried out by transport facilities along the highways. The complex  emphasizes an equivalent contribution of transport facilities and highways in a unified transportation process. Efficiency of the state economy rigidly depends on availability of the developed and well-functioning network of highways. Countries with the developed economy which have generally finished creation of national highway networks continue to invest money in public road systems that stimulates development of industrial sectors, agriculture and trade, etc. Their progress and efficient functioning is possible only with the balanced, overall development of the road-transport complex of the country. Functioning of the road-transport complex is inextricable connected with the operation of automotive transport and road infrastructure. Interaction of these two components of the unified economic system is determined by technical characteristics of the automotive transport and transport and operational indices of  the highways. Development of methods for optimum organization of management for functioning of the road complex is considered as an important problem of the national economy while forming market economy mechanisms. Further growth of capital expenditures including  investments will be needed in order to ensure such road conditions that meet the requirements of modern and perspective road traffic. Management of the highway network conditions presupposes a selection of such set of regulatory impacts on road conditions which will allow to minimize expenses in the road-transport complex. Elaboration and realization of the most efficient repair measures serve as such regulatory impact. The purpose is achieved while solving the problem pertaining to minimization of expenses on  transportations in the road-transport complex in the process of the realization of the most

  4. Passive Stretch Induces Structural and Functional Maturation of Engineered Heart Muscle as Predicted by Computational Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abilez, Oscar J; Tzatzalos, Evangeline; Yang, Huaxiao; Zhao, Ming-Tao; Jung, Gwanghyun; Zöllner, Alexander M; Tiburcy, Malte; Riegler, Johannes; Matsa, Elena; Shukla, Praveen; Zhuge, Yan; Chour, Tony; Chen, Vincent C; Burridge, Paul W; Karakikes, Ioannis; Kuhl, Ellen; Bernstein, Daniel; Couture, Larry A; Gold, Joseph D; Zimmermann, Wolfram H; Wu, Joseph C

    2018-02-01

    The ability to differentiate human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) into cardiomyocytes (CMs) makes them an attractive source for repairing injured myocardium, disease modeling, and drug testing. Although current differentiation protocols yield hPSC-CMs to >90% efficiency, hPSC-CMs exhibit immature characteristics. With the goal of overcoming this limitation, we tested the effects of varying passive stretch on engineered heart muscle (EHM) structural and functional maturation, guided by computational modeling. Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs, H7 line) or human induced pluripotent stem cells (IMR-90 line) were differentiated to hPSC-derived cardiomyocytes (hPSC-CMs) in vitro using a small molecule based protocol. hPSC-CMs were characterized by troponin + flow cytometry as well as electrophysiological measurements. Afterwards, 1.2 × 10 6 hPSC-CMs were mixed with 0.4 × 10 6 human fibroblasts (IMR-90 line) (3:1 ratio) and type-I collagen. The blend was cast into custom-made 12-mm long polydimethylsiloxane reservoirs to vary nominal passive stretch of EHMs to 5, 7, or 9 mm. EHM characteristics were monitored for up to 50 days, with EHMs having a passive stretch of 7 mm giving the most consistent formation. Based on our initial macroscopic observations of EHM formation, we created a computational model that predicts the stress distribution throughout EHMs, which is a function of cellular composition, cellular ratio, and geometry. Based on this predictive modeling, we show cell alignment by immunohistochemistry and coordinated calcium waves by calcium imaging. Furthermore, coordinated calcium waves and mechanical contractions were apparent throughout entire EHMs. The stiffness and active forces of hPSC-derived EHMs are comparable with rat neonatal cardiomyocyte-derived EHMs. Three-dimensional EHMs display increased expression of mature cardiomyocyte genes including sarcomeric protein troponin-T, calcium and potassium ion channels, β-adrenergic receptors, and t

  5. Study of PWR reactor efficiency as a function of turbine steam extractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, Janine Gandolpho da; Alvim, Antonio Carlos Marques; Martinez, Aquilino Senra

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this work is to optimize the extractions of the low-pressure turbine of a PWR nuclear reactor, in order to obtain the best thermodynamic cycle efficiency. We have analyzed typical data of a 1300 MW PWR reactor, operating at 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% capacities, respectively. The first stage of this study consists of generating a mathematical model capable of describing the reactor behavior and efficiency at any power level. The second stage of this study consists of to combine the generated mathematical model in an optimization computer program that optimize the extractions flow of the low-pressure turbine until it finds the optimal system efficiency. This work does not alter the nuclear facility project in any way. (author)

  6. A Model for Microcontroller Functionality Upset Induced by External Pulsed Electromagnetic Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-21

    AFRL-RD-PS- AFRL-RD-PS- TN-2016-0003 TN-2016-0003 A Model for Microcontroller Functionality Upset Induced by External Pulsed Electromagnetic...TYPE Technical Note 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 22-11-2015 – 21-11-2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Model for Microcontroller Functionality Upset Induced by... microcontroller (µC) subjected to external irradiation by a narrowband electromagnetic (EM) pulse. In our model, the state of a µC is completely specified by

  7. Dual Function Additives: A Small Molecule Crosslinker for Enhanced Efficiency and Stability in Organic Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Rumer, Joseph W.; Ashraf, Raja S.; Eisenmenger, Nancy D.; Huang, Zhenggang; Meager, Iain; Nielsen, Christian B.; Schroeder, Bob C.; Chabinyc, Michael L.; McCulloch, Iain

    2015-01-01

    A bis-azide-based small molecule crosslinker is synthesized and evaluated as both a stabilizing and efficiency-boosting additive in bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic cells. Activated by a noninvasive and scalable solution processing technique, polymer:fullerene blends exhibit improved thermal stability with suppressed polymer skin formation at the cathode and frustrated fullerene aggregation on ageing, with initial efficiency increased from 6% to 7%. © 2015 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Dual Function Additives: A Small Molecule Crosslinker for Enhanced Efficiency and Stability in Organic Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Rumer, Joseph W.

    2015-02-01

    A bis-azide-based small molecule crosslinker is synthesized and evaluated as both a stabilizing and efficiency-boosting additive in bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic cells. Activated by a noninvasive and scalable solution processing technique, polymer:fullerene blends exhibit improved thermal stability with suppressed polymer skin formation at the cathode and frustrated fullerene aggregation on ageing, with initial efficiency increased from 6% to 7%. © 2015 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Dual-Function Au@Y2O3:Eu3+ Smart Film for Enhanced Power Conversion Efficiency and Long-Term Stability of Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang Woo; Eom, Tae Young; Yang, In Seok; Kim, Byung Su; Lee, Wan In; Kang, Yong Soo; Kang, Young Soo

    2017-07-28

    In the present study, a dual-functional smart film combining the effects of wavelength conversion and amplification of the converted wave by the localized surface plasmon resonance has been investigated for a perovskite solar cell. This dual-functional film, composed of Au nanoparticles coated on the surface of Y 2 O 3 :Eu 3+ phosphor (Au@Y 2 O 3 :Eu 3+ ) nanoparticle monolayer, enhances the solar energy conversion efficiency to electrical energy and long-term stability of photovoltaic cells. Coupling between the Y 2 O 3 :Eu 3+ phosphor monolayer and ultraviolet solar light induces the latter to be converted into visible light with a quantum yield above 80%. Concurrently, the Au nanoparticle monolayer on the phosphor nanoparticle monolayer amplifies the converted visible light by up to 170%. This synergy leads to an increased solar light energy conversion efficiency of perovskite solar cells. Simultaneously, the dual-function film suppresses the photodegradation of perovskite by UV light, resulting in long-term stability. Introducing the hybrid smart Au@Y 2 O 3 :Eu 3+ film in perovskite solar cells increases their overall solar-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency to 16.1% and enhances long-term stability, as compared to the value of 15.2% for standard perovskite solar cells. The synergism between the wavelength conversion effect of the phosphor nanoparticle monolayer and the wave amplification by the localized surface plasmon resonance of the Au nanoparticle monolayer in a perovskite solar cell is comparatively investigated, providing a viable strategy of broadening the solar spectrum utilization.

  10. TOWARDS A MORE EFFICIENT DETECTION OF EARTHQUAKE INDUCED FAÇADE DAMAGES USING OBLIQUE UAV IMAGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Duarte

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Urban search and rescue (USaR teams require a fast and thorough building damage assessment, to focus their rescue efforts accordingly. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV are able to capture relevant data in a short time frame and survey otherwise inaccessible areas after a disaster, and have thus been identified as useful when coupled with RGB cameras for façade damage detection. Existing literature focuses on the extraction of 3D and/or image features as cues for damage. However, little attention has been given to the efficiency of the proposed methods which hinders its use in an urban search and rescue context. The framework proposed in this paper aims at a more efficient façade damage detection using UAV multi-view imagery. This was achieved directing all damage classification computations only to the image regions containing the façades, hence discarding the irrelevant areas of the acquired images and consequently reducing the time needed for such task. To accomplish this, a three-step approach is proposed: i building extraction from the sparse point cloud computed from the nadir images collected in an initial flight; ii use of the latter as proxy for façade location in the oblique images captured in subsequent flights, and iii selection of the façade image regions to be fed to a damage classification routine. The results show that the proposed framework successfully reduces the extracted façade image regions to be assessed for damage 6 fold, hence increasing the efficiency of subsequent damage detection routines. The framework was tested on a set of UAV multi-view images over a neighborhood of the city of L’Aquila, Italy, affected in 2009 by an earthquake.

  11. Generation of electrophysiologically functional cardiomyocytes from mouse induced pluripotent stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongran Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells can efficiently differentiate into the three germ layers similar to those formed by differentiated embryonic stem (ES cells. This provides a new source of cells in which to establish preclinical allogeneic transplantation models. Our iPS cells were generated from mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs transfected with the Yamanaka factors, the four transcription factors (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc, without antibiotic selection or MEF feeders. After the formation of embryoid bodies (EBs, iPS cells spontaneously differentiated into Flk1-positive cardiac progenitors and cardiomyocytes expressing cardiac-specific markers such as alpha sarcomeric actinin (α-actinin, cardiac alpha myosin heavy chain (α-MHC, cardiac troponin T (cTnT, and connexin 43 (CX43, as well as cardiac transcription factors Nk2 homebox 5 (Nkx2.5 and gata binding protein 4 (gata4. The electrophysiological activity of iPS cell-derived cardiomyocytes (iPS-CMs was detected in beating cell clusters with optical mapping and RH237 a voltage-sensitive dye, and in single contracting cells with patch-clamp technology. Incompletely differentiated iPS cells formed teratomas when transplanted into a severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID mouse model of myocardial infarction. Our results show that somatic cells can be reprogrammed into pluripotent stem cells, which in turn spontaneously differentiate into electrophysiologically functional mature cardiomyocytes expressing cardiac-specific makers, and that these cells can potentially be used to repair myocardial infarction (MI in the future.

  12. Possibility of increasing the efficiency of laser-induced tattoo removal by optical skin clearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genina, E A; Bashkatov, A N; Tuchin, V V; Yaroslavskii, I V; Altshuler, G B

    2008-01-01

    The possibility of selective laser photothermolysis improvement for the removal of tattoo pigments due to the optical clearing of human skin is investigated. It is shown experimentally that the optical skin clearing increases the tattoo image contrast. Computer Monte Carlo simulations show that by decreasing the laser beam scattering in upper skin layers, it is possible to reduce the radiation power required for tattoo removal by 30%-40% and, therefore, to increase the the photothermolysis efficiency. (special issue devoted to application of laser technologies in biophotonics and biomedical studies)

  13. Atomization efficiency and photon yield in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy analysis of single nanoparticles in an optical trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purohit, Pablo; Fortes, Francisco J.; Laserna, J. Javier

    2017-04-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was employed for investigating the influence of particle size on the dissociation efficiency and the absolute production of photons per mass unit of airborne solid graphite spheres under single-particle regime. Particles of average diameter of 400 nm were probed and compared with 2 μm particles. Samples were first catapulted into aerosol form and then secluded in an optical trap set by a 532 nm laser. Trap stability was quantified before subjecting particles to LIBS analysis. Fine alignment of the different lines comprising the optical catapulting-optical trapping-laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy instrument and tuning of excitation parameters conditioning the LIBS signal such as fluence and acquisition delay are described in detail with the ultimate goal of acquiring clear spectroscopic data on masses as low as 75 fg. The atomization efficiency and the photon yield increase as the particle size becomes smaller. Time-resolved plasma imaging studies were conducted to elucidate the mechanisms leading to particle disintegration and excitation.

  14. Semipermeable membrane devices concentrate mixed function oxygenase inducers from oil sands and refinery wastewaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parrott, J.L.; Hewitt, L.M.

    2002-01-01

    The health of fish in the Athabasca River was examined to determine the effects of both natural and anthropogenic oil sands exposure on liver mixed function oxygenase (MFO) enzymes. Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMD) were used to concentrate bioavailable compounds that may result in MFO induction. The SPMDs were used for a period of 2 weeks in the Steepbank River as well as in oil refinery wastewater and intake ponds. They were then tested to see if they induced ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity in hepatoma cells, a cell line derived from a liver cancer of a small fish. SPMDs from the wastewater pond contained potent EROD inducers in fish liver cells. SPMDs from the Athabasca River exhibited some EROD inducers, but they were 1/100 as potent as those of the refinery wastewater. The characteristics of MFO inducers from refinery wastewater were different from natural inducers from the oil sands in the Athabasca and Steepbank Rivers. For instance, log Kow was less than 5 for refinery wastewater, but it was greater than 5 for Athabasca River wastewater and from natural oil sands exposure. In the case of the Steepbank River, the pattern of MFO induction was similar to the MFO induction seen in wild fish.The highest MFO inducers were found to be in the area of the mine, suggesting and anthropogenic pollution source. The less potent inducers were in the area of the natural and undisturbed oil sands. Very few inducers were found outside of the oil sands formation

  15. Efficient and Mild Microwave-Assisted Stepwise Functionalization of Naphthalenediimide with α-Amino Acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pengo, Paolo; Pantoş, G. Dan; Otto, Sijbren; Sanders, Jeremy K.M.

    2006-01-01

    Microwave dielectric heating proved to be an efficient method for the one-pot and stepwise syntheses of symmetrical and unsymmetrical naphthalenediimide derivatives of α-amino acids. Acid-labile side chain protecting groups are stable under the reaction conditions; protection of the α-carboxylic

  16. Functional efficiency comparison between split- and parallel-hybrid using advanced energy flow analysis methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guttenberg, Philipp; Lin, Mengyan [Romax Technology, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    The following paper presents a comparative efficiency analysis of the Toyota Prius versus the Honda Insight using advanced Energy Flow Analysis methods. The sample study shows that even very different hybrid concepts like a split- and a parallel-hybrid can be compared in a high level of detail and demonstrates the benefit showing exemplary results. (orig.)

  17. Lipid-based Transfection Reagents Exhibit Cryo-induced Increase in Transfection Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Sork

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The advantages of lipid-based transfection reagents have permitted their widespread use in molecular biology and gene therapy. This study outlines the effect of cryo-manipulation of a cationic lipid-based formulation, Lipofectamine 2000, which, after being frozen and thawed, showed orders of magnitude higher plasmid delivery efficiency throughout eight different cell lines, without compromising cell viability. Increased transfection efficiency with the freeze-thawed reagent was also seen with 2'-O-methyl phosphorothioate oligonucleotide delivery and in a splice-correction assay. Most importantly, a log-scale improvement in gene delivery using the freeze-thawed reagent was seen in vivo. Using three different methods, we detected considerable differences in the polydispersity of the different nucleic acid complexes as well as observed a clear difference in their surface spreading and sedimentation, with the freeze-thawed ones displaying substantially higher rate of dispersion and deposition on the glass surface. This hitherto overlooked elevated potency of the freeze-thawed reagent facilitates the targeting of hard-to-transfect cells, accomplishes higher transfection rates, and decreases the overall amount of reagent needed for delivery. Additionally, as we also saw a slight increase in plasmid delivery using other freeze-thawed transfection reagents, we postulate that freeze-thawing might prove to be useful for an even wider variety of transfection reagents.

  18. Tapering-induced enhancement of light extraction efficiency of nanowire deep ultraviolet LED by theoretical simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Lin, Ronghui; Galan, Sergio Valdes; Sun, Haiding; Hu, Yangrui; Alias, Mohd Sharizal; Janjua, Bilal; Ng, Tien Khee; Ooi, Boon S.; Li, Xiaohang

    2018-01-01

    A nanowire (NW) structure provides an alternative scheme for deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes (DUV-LEDs) that promises high material quality and better light extraction efficiency (LEE). In this report, we investigate the influence of the tapering angle of closely packed AlGaN NWs, which is found to exist naturally in molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) grown NW structures, on the LEE of NW DUV-LEDs. It is observed that, by having a small tapering angle, the vertical extraction is greatly enhanced for both transverse magnetic (TM) and transverse electric (TE) polarizations. Most notably, the vertical extraction of TM emission increased from 4.8% to 24.3%, which makes the LEE reasonably large to achieve high-performance DUV-LEDs. This is because the breaking of symmetry in the vertical direction changes the propagation of the light significantly to allow more coupling into radiation modes. Finally, we introduce errors to the NW positions to show the advantages of the tapered NW structures can be projected to random closely packed NW arrays. The results obtained in this paper can provide guidelines for designing efficient NW DUV-LEDs.

  19. Tapering-induced enhancement of light extraction efficiency of nanowire deep ultraviolet LED by theoretical simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Lin, Ronghui

    2018-04-21

    A nanowire (NW) structure provides an alternative scheme for deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes (DUV-LEDs) that promises high material quality and better light extraction efficiency (LEE). In this report, we investigate the influence of the tapering angle of closely packed AlGaN NWs, which is found to exist naturally in molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) grown NW structures, on the LEE of NW DUV-LEDs. It is observed that, by having a small tapering angle, the vertical extraction is greatly enhanced for both transverse magnetic (TM) and transverse electric (TE) polarizations. Most notably, the vertical extraction of TM emission increased from 4.8% to 24.3%, which makes the LEE reasonably large to achieve high-performance DUV-LEDs. This is because the breaking of symmetry in the vertical direction changes the propagation of the light significantly to allow more coupling into radiation modes. Finally, we introduce errors to the NW positions to show the advantages of the tapered NW structures can be projected to random closely packed NW arrays. The results obtained in this paper can provide guidelines for designing efficient NW DUV-LEDs.

  20. Amine treatment induced perovskite nanowire network in perovskite solar cells: efficient surface passivation and carrier transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ke; Cui, Can; Wang, Peng; Lin, Ping; Qiang, Yaping; Xu, Lingbo; Xie, Jiangsheng; Yang, Zhengrui; Zhu, Xiaodong; Yu, Xuegong; Yang, Deren

    2018-02-01

    In the fabrication of high efficiency organic-inorganic metal halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs), an additional interface modifier is usually applied for enhancing the interface passivation and carrier transport. In this paper, we develop an innovative method with in-situ growth of one-dimensional perovskite nanowire (1D PNW) network triggered by Lewis amine over the perovskite films. To our knowledge, this is the first time to fabricate PSCs with shape-controlled perovskite surface morphology, which improved power conversion efficiency (PCE) from 14.32% to 16.66% with negligible hysteresis. The amine molecule can passivate the trap states on the polycrystalline perovskite surface to reduce trap-state density. Meanwhile, as a fast channel, the 1D PNWs would promote carrier transport from the bulk perovskite film to the electron transport layer. The PSCs with 1D PNW modification not only exhibit excellent photovoltaic performances, but also show good stability with only 4% PCE loss within 30 days in the ambient air without encapsulation. Our results strongly suggest that in-situ grown 1D PNW network provides a feasible and effective strategy for nanostructured optoelectronic devices such as PSCs to achieve superior performances.

  1. Efficient Inhibition of wear debris-induced inflammation by locally delivered siRNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Xiaochun; Tao Kun; Cheng Tao; Zhu Junfeng; Zhang Xianlong

    2008-01-01

    Aseptic loosening is the most common long-term complication of total joint replacement, which is associated with the generation of wear debris. The purpose of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) on wear debris-induced inflammation. A local delivery of lentivirus-mediated TNF-α siRNA into the modified murine air pouch, which was stimulated by polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) particles, resulted in significant blockage of TNF-α both in mRNA and protein levels for up to 4 weeks. In addition, significant down-regulation of interleukin-1 (IL-1) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) was observed in TNF-α siRNA-treated pouches. The safety profile of gene therapy was proven by Bioluminescent assay and quantitative fluorescent flux. Histological analysis revealed less inflammatory responses (thinner pouch membrane and decreased cellular infiltration) in TNF-α siRNA-treated pouches. These findings suggest that local delivery of TNF-α siRNA might be an excellent therapeutic candidate to inhibit particle-induced inflammation.

  2. Response efficiency during functional communication training: effects of effort on response allocation.

    OpenAIRE

    Richman, D M; Wacker, D P; Winborn, L

    2001-01-01

    An analogue functional analysis revealed that the problem behavior of a young child with developmental delays was maintained by positive reinforcement. A concurrent-schedule procedure was then used to vary the amount of effort required to emit mands. Results suggested that response effort can be an important variable when developing effective functional communication training programs.

  3. Exchange-correlation energies of atoms from efficient density functionals: influence of the electron density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jianmin; Ye, Lin-Hui; Duan, Yuhua

    2017-12-01

    The primary goal of Kohn-Sham density functional theory is to evaluate the exchange-correlation contribution to electronic properties. However, the accuracy of a density functional can be affected by the electron density. Here we apply the nonempirical Tao-Mo (TM) semilocal functional to study the influence of the electron density on the exchange and correlation energies of atoms and ions, and compare the results with the commonly used nonempirical semilocal functionals local spin-density approximation (LSDA), Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE), Tao-Perdew-Staroverov-Scuseria (TPSS), and hybrid functional PBE0. We find that the spin-restricted Hartree-Fock density yields the exchange and correlation energies in good agreement with the Optimized Effective Potential method, particularly for spherical atoms and ions. However, the errors of these semilocal and hybrid functionals become larger for self-consistent densities. We further find that the quality of the electron density have greater effect on the exchange-correlation energies of kinetic energy density-dependent meta-GGA functionals TPSS and TM than on those of the LSDA and GGA, and therefore, should have greater influence on the performance of meta-GGA functionals. Finally, we show that the influence of the density quality on PBE0 is slightly reduced, compared to that of PBE, due to the exact mixing.

  4. Advances in generation of functional β-cells from induced pluripotent stem cells as a cure for diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Kunal; Chandrabose, Srijaya Thekkeparambil; Ramasamy, Thamil Selvee; Kasim, Noor Hayaty Binti Abu

    2018-06-04

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the leading cause for death worldwide. Loss and functional failure of pancreatic β-cells, the parenchyma cells in the islets of Langerhans onsets and progresses diabetes mellitus. The increasing incidence of this metabolic disorder necessitates efficient strategies to produce functional β-cells for treating diabetes mellitus. Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC), holds potential for treating diabetes owning to their self-renewal capacity and ability to differentiate into β-cells. iPSC technology also provides unlimited starting material to generate differentiated cells for regenerative applications. Progress has also been made in establishing in-vitro culture protocols to yield definitive endoderm, pancreatic endoderm progenitor cells and β-cells via different reprogramming strategies and growth factor supplementation. However, these generated β-cells are still immature, lack functional characteristics and exhibit lower capability in reversing the diseases conditions. Current methods employed to generate mature and functional β-cells include; use of small and large molecules to enhance the reprogramming and differentiation efficiency, 3D culture systems to improve the functional properties and heterogeneity of differentiated cells. This review details recent advancements in the generation of mature β-cells by reprogramming stem cells into iPSCs that is further programmed to β-cells. It also provides deeper insight of current reprogramming protocols and their efficacy, focusing on the underlying mechanism of chemical based approach to generate iPSCs. Furthermore, we have highlighted the recent differentiation strategies both in-vitro and in-vivo to date and the future prospects in generation of mature β-cells. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. Application of radiation-induced graft polymerization to preparation of functional materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugo, Takanobu

    2010-01-01

    Radiation-induced graft polymerization is a powerful method for appending various functionalities onto existing fabrics, nonwoven fabrics, fibers, membranes, and beads while maintaining the shape and mechanical strength. By using this method, the author has developed and commercialized functional polymeric materials over 45 years. The materials produced by the fruits of radiation chemistry contributed to the improvement of our lives and environments and the collection of rare metal resources. (author)

  6. Sulforaphane Protects against High Cholesterol-Induced Mitochondrial Bioenergetics Impairments, Inflammation, and Oxidative Stress and Preserves Pancreatic β-Cells Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Carrasco-Pozo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol plays an important role in inducing pancreatic β-cell dysfunction, leading to an impaired insulin secretory response to glucose. This study aimed to determine the protective effects of sulforaphane, a natural isothiocyanate Nrf2-inducer, against cholesterol-induced pancreatic β-cells dysfunction, through molecular and cellular mechanisms involving mitochondrial bioenergetics. Sulforaphane prevented cholesterol-induced alterations in the coupling efficiency of mitochondrial respiration, improving ATP turnover and spare capacity, and averted the impairment of the electron flow at complexes I, II, and IV. Sulforaphane also attenuated the cholesterol-induced activation of the NFκB pathway, normalizing the expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. In addition, it also inhibited the decrease in sirtuin 1 expression and greatly increased Pgc-1α expression in Min6 cells. Sulforaphane increased the expression of antioxidant enzymes downstream of the Nrf2 pathway and prevented lipid peroxidation induced by cholesterol. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of sulforaphane and its ability to protect and improve mitochondrial bioenergetic function contribute to its protective action against cholesterol-induced pancreatic β-cell dysfunction. Our data provide a scientifically tested foundation upon which sulforaphane can be developed as nutraceutical to preserve β-cell function and eventually control hyperglycemia.

  7. Effect of Cuscuta chinensis on renal function in ischemia/reperfusion-induced acute renal failure rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sun; Lee, Yun Jung; Kim, Eun Ju; Lee, An Sook; Kang, Dae Gill; Lee, Ho Sub

    2011-01-01

    The kidneys play a central role in regulating water, ion composition and excretion of metabolic waste products in the urine. Cuscuta chinensis has been known as an important traditional Oriental medicine for the treatment of liver and kidney disorders. Thus, we studied whether an aqueous extract of Cuscuta chinensis (ACC) seeds has an effect on renal function parameters in ischemia/reperfusion-induced acute renal failure (ARF) rats. Administration of 250 mg/kg/day ACC showed that renal functional parameters including urinary excretion rate, osmolality, Na(+), K(+), Cl(-), creatinine clearance, solute-free water reabsorption were significantly recovered in ischemia/reperfusion-induced ARF. Periodic acid Schiff staining showed that administration of ACC improved tubular damage in ischemia/reperfusion-induced ARF. In immunoblot and immunohistological examinations, ischemia/reperfusion-induced ARF decreased the expressions of water channel AQP 2, 3 and sodium potassium pump Na,K-ATPase in the renal medulla. However, administration of ACC markedly incremented AQP 2, 3 and Na,K-ATPase expressions. Therefore, these data indicate that administration of ACC ameliorates regulation of the urine concentration and renal functions in rats with ischemia/reperfusion-induced ARF.

  8. A Highly Efficient Xylan-Utilization System in Aspergillus niger An76: A Functional-Proteomics Study

    OpenAIRE

    Weili Gong; Lin Dai; Huaiqiang Zhang; Lili Zhang; Lushan Wang; Lushan Wang

    2018-01-01

    Xylan constituted with β-1,4-D-xylose linked backbone and diverse substituted side-chains is the most abundant hemicellulose component of biomass, which can be completely and rapidly degraded into fermentable sugars by Aspergillus niger. This is of great value for obtaining renewable biofuels and biochemicals. To clarify the underlying mechanisms associated with highly efficient xylan degradation, assimilation, and metabolism by A. niger, we utilized functional proteomics to analyze the secre...

  9. Enhanced lipid productivity and photosynthesis efficiency in a Desmodesmus sp. mutant induced by heavy carbon ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guangrong; Fan, Yong; Zhang, Lei; Yuan, Cheng; Wang, Jufang; Li, Wenjian; Hu, Qiang; Li, Fuli

    2013-01-01

    The unicellular green microalga Desmodesmus sp. S1 can produce more than 50% total lipid of cell dry weight under high light and nitrogen-limitation conditions. After irradiation by heavy (12)C(6+) ion beam of 10, 30, 60, 90 or 120 Gy, followed by screening of resulting mutants on 24-well microplates, more than 500 mutants were obtained. One of those, named D90G-19, exhibited lipid productivity of 0.298 g L(-1)⋅d(-1), 20.6% higher than wild type, likely owing to an improved maximum quantum efficiency (Fv/Fm) of photosynthesis under stress. This work demonstrated that heavy-ion irradiation combined with high-throughput screening is an effective means for trait improvement. The resulting mutant D90G-19 may be used for enhanced lipid production.

  10. Giant Pressure-Induced Enhancement of Seebeck Coefficient and Thermoelectric Efficiency in SnTe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Jason; Kumar, Ravhi; Park, Changyong; Kenney-Benson, Curtis; Cornelius, Andrew; Velisavljevic, Nenad (CIW); (LANL); (UNLV)

    2017-10-30

    The thermoelectric properties of polycrystalline SnTe have been measured up to 4.5 GPa at 330 K. SnTe shows an enormous enhancement in Seebeck coefficient, greater than 200 % after 3 GPa, which correlates to a known pressure-induced structural phase transition that is observed through simultaneous in situ X-ray diffraction measurement. Electrical resistance and relative changes to the thermal conductivity were also measured, enabling the determination of relative changes in the dimensionless figure of merit (ZT), which increases dramatically after 3 GPa, reaching 350 % of the lowest pressure ZT value. The results demonstrate a fundamental relationship between structure and thermoelectric behaviours and suggest that pressure is an effective tool to control them.

  11. An Efficient Platform for Astrocyte Differentiation from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia TCW

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Growing evidence implicates the importance of glia, particularly astrocytes, in neurological and psychiatric diseases. Here, we describe a rapid and robust method for the differentiation of highly pure populations of replicative astrocytes from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs, via a neural progenitor cell (NPC intermediate. We evaluated this protocol across 42 NPC lines (derived from 30 individuals. Transcriptomic analysis demonstrated that hiPSC-astrocytes from four individuals are highly similar to primary human fetal astrocytes and characteristic of a non-reactive state. hiPSC-astrocytes respond to inflammatory stimulants, display phagocytic capacity, and enhance microglial phagocytosis. hiPSC-astrocytes also possess spontaneous calcium transient activity. Our protocol is a reproducible, straightforward (single medium, and rapid (<30 days method to generate populations of hiPSC-astrocytes that can be used for neuron-astrocyte and microglia-astrocyte co-cultures for the study of neuropsychiatric disorders.

  12. Laser-induced efficient reduction of Cr(VI) catalyzed by ZnO nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qamar, M. [Center of Excellence in Nanotechnology, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, KFUPM Box 741, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Gondal, M.A., E-mail: magondal@kfupm.edu.sa [Center of Excellence in Nanotechnology, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, KFUPM Box 741, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Laser Research Group, Physics Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Yamani, Z.H. [Center of Excellence in Nanotechnology, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, KFUPM Box 741, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Laser Research Group, Physics Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)

    2011-03-15

    The present study demonstrates the complete removal of Cr(VI) in aqueous suspensions of zinc oxide nanoparticles using a novel laser-induced photocatalytic process without the use of any additive. The study showed that {approx}95% Cr(VI) was removed within short time (60 min) of laser exposure in the presence of ZnO. However, the removal of chromium using conventional setup under identical conditions was found to be negligible. Effect of critical parameters, such as laser energy, catalyst concentration, chromium concentration, and added electron donor and acceptor on the photocatalytic reduction process was also investigated. The data regarding temporal behavior of metal removal was fitted to first-order kinetic and reaction rate was computed.

  13. Efficient approximation of the Struve functions Hn occurring in the calculation of sound radiation quantities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarts, Ronald M; Janssen, Augustus J E M

    2016-12-01

    The Struve functions H n (z), n=0, 1, ...  are approximated in a simple, accurate form that is valid for all z≥0. The authors previously treated the case n = 1 that arises in impedance calculations for the rigid-piston circular radiator mounted in an infinite planar baffle [Aarts and Janssen, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 113, 2635-2637 (2003)]. The more general Struve functions occur when other acoustical quantities and/or non-rigid pistons are considered. The key step in the paper just cited is to express H 1 (z) as (2/π)-J 0 (z)+(2/π) I(z), where J 0 is the Bessel function of order zero and the first kind and I(z) is the Fourier cosine transform of [(1-t)/(1+t)] 1/2 , 0≤t≤1. The square-root function is optimally approximated by a linear function ĉt+d̂, 0≤t≤1, and the resulting approximated Fourier integral is readily computed explicitly in terms of sin z/z and (1-cos z)/z 2 . The same approach has been used by Maurel, Pagneux, Barra, and Lund [Phys. Rev. B 75, 224112 (2007)] to approximate H 0 (z) for all z≥0. In the present paper, the square-root function is optimally approximated by a piecewise linear function consisting of two linear functions supported by [0,t̂ 0 ] and [t̂ 0 ,1] with t̂ 0 the optimal take-over point. It is shown that the optimal two-piece linear function is actually continuous at the take-over point, causing a reduction of the additional complexity in the resulting approximations of H 0 and H 1 . Furthermore, this allows analytic computation of the optimal two-piece linear function. By using the two-piece instead of the one-piece linear approximation, the root mean square approximation error is reduced by roughly a factor of 3 while the maximum approximation error is reduced by a factor of 4.5 for H 0 and of 2.6 for H 1 . Recursion relations satisfied by Struve functions, initialized with the approximations of H 0 and H 1 , yield approximations for higher order Struve functions.

  14. Determination of Conjugation Efficiency of Antibodies and Proteins to the Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles by Capillary Electrophoresis with Laser-Induced Fluorescence Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, F.-H.; Yoshitake, Takashi [Karolinska Institutet, Department of Neuroscience (Sweden); Kim, Do-Kyung; Muhammed, Mamoun [Royal Institute of Technology, Materials Chemistry Division (Sweden); Bjelke, Boerje [MRI-Center, Experimental Unit, Karolinska Institutet (Sweden); Kehr, Jan [Karolinska Institutet, Department of Neuroscience (Sweden)], E-mail: Jan.Kehr@neuro.ki.se

    2003-04-15

    The method based on capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection (CE/LIF) was developed for determination of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (hydrodynamic diameters of 100 nm) functionalized with molecules containing primary amino groups. The magnetic nanoparticles with carboxylic or aminopropyl-trimethoxysilane groups at their surface were conjugated to the model proteins (bovine serum albumin, BSA; streptavidin or goat anti-rabbit immunoglobulin G, IgG) using carbodiimide as a zero-length cross-linker.The nanoparticle-protein conjugates (hydrodynamic diameter 163-194 nm) were derivatized with naphthalene-2,3-dicarboxaldehyde reagent and separated by CE/LIF with a helium-cadmium laser (excitation at 442 nm, emission at 488 nm). The separations were carried out by using a fused-silica capillary (effective length 48 cm, inner diameter 75 um) and 100 mM sodium borate buffer (pH 9.2), the potential was 30 kV. The detection limit for BSA-conjugate was 1.3 pg/10 nl, i.e. about 20 amol. The present method provides an efficient and fast tool for sensitive determination of the efficacy of biomolecular functionalization of magnetic nanoparticles. The CE/LIF technique requires only negligible sample volumes for analysis, which is especially suitable for controlling the process of preparation of functionalized nanoparticles with unique properties aimed to be used for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes.

  15. Performance of a two-leaf light use efficiency model for mapping gross primary productivity against remotely sensed sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zan, Mei; Zhou, Yanlian; Ju, Weimin; Zhang, Yongguang; Zhang, Leiming; Liu, Yibo

    2018-02-01

    Estimating terrestrial gross primary production is an important task when studying the carbon cycle. In this study, the ability of a two-leaf light use efficiency model to simulate regional gross primary production in China was validated using satellite Global Ozone Monitoring Instrument - 2 sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence data. The two-leaf light use efficiency model was used to estimate daily gross primary production in China's terrestrial ecosystems with 500-m resolution for the period from 2007 to 2014. Gross primary production simulated with the two-leaf light use efficiency model was resampled to a spatial resolution of 0.5° and then compared with sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence. During the study period, sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence and gross primary production simulated by the two-leaf light use efficiency model exhibited similar spatial and temporal patterns in China. The correlation coefficient between sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence and monthly gross primary production simulated by the two-leaf light use efficiency model was significant (pproduction simulated by the two-leaf light use efficiency model were similar in spring and autumn in most vegetated regions, but dissimilar in winter and summer. The spatial variability of sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence and gross primary production simulated by the two-leaf light use efficiency model was similar in spring, summer, and autumn. The proportion of spatial variations of sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence and annual gross primary production simulated by the two-leaf light use efficiency model explained by ranged from 0.76 (2011) to 0.80 (2013) during the study period. Overall, the two-leaf light use efficiency model was capable of capturing spatial and temporal variations in gross primary production in China. However, the model needs further improvement to better simulate gross primary production in summer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Dammarane Sapogenins Ameliorates Neurocognitive Functional Impairment Induced by Simulated Long-Duration Spaceflight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaorui Wu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence indicates the occurrence of cognitive impairment in astronauts under spaceflight compound conditions, but the underlying mechanisms and countermeasures need to be explored. In this study, we found that learning and memory abilities were significantly reduced in rats under a simulated long-duration spaceflight environment (SLSE, which includes microgravity, isolation confinement, noises, and altered circadian rhythms. Dammarane sapogenins (DS, alkaline hydrolyzed products of ginsenosides, can enhance cognition function by regulating brain neurotransmitter levels and inhibiting SLSE-induced neuronal injury. Bioinformatics combined with experimental verification identified that the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway was inhibited and the MAPK pathway was activated during SLSE-induced cognition dysfunction, whereas DS substantially ameliorated the changes in brain. These findings defined the characteristics of SLSE-induced cognitive decline and the mechanisms by which DS improves it. The results provide an effective candidate for improving cognitive function in spaceflight missions.

  17. Thrombospondin-4 knockout in hypertension protects small-artery endothelial function but induces aortic aneurysms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palao, Teresa; Rippe, Catarina; van Veen, Henk; VanBavel, Ed; Swärd, Karl; Bakker, Erik N. T. P.

    2016-01-01

    Thrombospondin-4 (TSP-4) is a multidomain calcium-binding protein that has both intracellular and extracellular functions. As an extracellular matrix protein, it is involved in remodeling processes. Previous work showed that, in the cardiovascular system, TSP-4 expression is induced in the heart in

  18. Functioning of spontaneous and induced Con A regulators of T-cell proliferation. Modifying factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuz'mina, E.G.

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that active spontaneous non-specific regulators of T-cell proliferation are activated in peripheral blood ''in vivo'' by endogenous metabolites; non-specific regulator action can be induced ''in vitro'' by Con A, FGA. Non-specific regulators suppress and increase lymphocyte proliferation. Cyclic character of their functioning is revealed. 4 refs.; 1 tab

  19. Carbide induced reconstruction of monatomic steps on Ni(111) - A density functional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Martin; Abild-Pedersen, Frank

    2007-01-01

    We present density functional calculations for carbon adsorption at the two types of monatomic steps on a Ni(111) surface. We show that it is thermodynamically favourable to make a carbon induced clock-type reconstruction at the close-packed step with a [111] step geometry, which creates fourfold...

  20. EFFECT OF MODIFIED CONSTRAINT INDUCED THERAPY ON UPPERLIMB FUNCTIONAL RECOVERY IN YOUNG STROKE SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Prakash Pappala

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of modified constraint induced therapy on upper limb functional recovery in young stroke subjects. Most of the stroke rehabilitation units following conventional rehabilitation methods for treatment of the stroke patients where these methods have been proved to be less useful especially in the young stroke subjects. Hence the purpose of this study is to see the effect of modified constraint induced therapy which is a task specific training method for upperlimb in young stroke subjects. Methods: Total of 40 young stroke subjects who is having minimal motor criterion and met other inclusion criteria were recruited from department of physiotherapy, g.s.l.general hospital. Pre and post intervention measures were taken using Wolf motor function test and Jebsen Taylor hand function test. Results: In this study had shown significant improvements in the modified constraint induced therapy group when compared to the conventional rehabilitation alone. P value between groups was < 0.05. Conclusion: In this study concludes that addition of 15 minutes modified constraint induced movement therapy to conventional physiotherapy is a useful adjunct in functional recovery of upper limb among young stroke subjects

  1. Response function for the characterization of photo-induced anisotropy in azobenzene containing polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sajti, S.; Kerekes, Á.; Ramanujam, P.S.

    2002-01-01

    A response function is derived for the description of photo-induced birefringence and dichroism in case of materials where the underlying process is photo-isomerization. Our result explains the usefulness of the theoretical formulae derived earlier by Kakichashvili for photo-anisotropic materials...

  2. The Zinc Finger of Prolyl Hydroxylase Domain Protein 2 Is Essential for Efficient Hydroxylation of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor α.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenault, Patrick R; Song, Daisheng; Chung, Yu Jin; Khurana, Tejvir S; Lee, Frank S

    2016-09-15

    Prolyl hydroxylase domain protein 2 (PHD2) (also known as EGLN1) is a key oxygen sensor in mammals that posttranslationally modifies hypoxia-inducible factor α (HIF-α) and targets it for degradation. In addition to its catalytic domain, PHD2 contains an evolutionarily conserved zinc finger domain, which we have previously proposed recruits PHD2 to the HSP90 pathway to promote HIF-α hydroxylation. Here, we provide evidence that this recruitment is critical both in vitro and in vivo We show that in vitro, the zinc finger can function as an autonomous recruitment domain to facilitate interaction with HIF-α. In vivo, ablation of zinc finger function by a C36S/C42S Egln1 knock-in mutation results in upregulation of the erythropoietin gene, erythrocytosis, and augmented hypoxic ventilatory response, all hallmarks of Egln1 loss of function and HIF stabilization. Hence, the zinc finger ordinarily performs a critical positive regulatory function. Intriguingly, the function of this zinc finger is impaired in high-altitude-adapted Tibetans, suggesting that their adaptation to high altitude may, in part, be due to a loss-of-function EGLN1 allele. Thus, these findings have important implications for understanding both the molecular mechanism of the hypoxic response and human adaptation to high altitude. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Evaluation of Efficient and Practical Methods for the Preparation of Functionalized Aliphatic Trifluoromethyl Ethers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolenko, Taras M; Dronkina, Maya I; Magnier, Emmanuel; Yagupolskii, Lev M; Yagupolskii, Yurii L

    2017-05-14

    The "chlorination/fluorination" technique for aliphatic trifluoromethyl ether synthesis was investigated and a range of products with various functional groups was prepared. The results were compared with oxidative desulfurization-fluorination of xanthates with the same structure.

  4. One-step ligand exchange reaction as an efficient way for functionalization of magnetic nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrówczyński, Radosław; Rednic, Lidia; Turcu, Rodica; Liebscher, Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    Novel magnetic Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles (NPs) covered by one layer of functionalized fatty acids, bearing entities (Hayashi catalyst, biotin, quinine, proline, and galactose) of high interest for practical application in nanomedicine or organocatalysis, were synthesized. The functionalized fatty acids were obtained by Cu(I)-catalyzed azide–alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) of azido fatty acids with alkynes. All the magnetic NPs show superparamagnetic behavior with high values of magnetization and high colloidal stability in DCM solution.

  5. Hypercholesterolemia Induced by a PCSK9 Gain-of-Function Mutation Augments Angiotensin II-Induced Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms in C57BL/6 Mice-Brief Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hong; Howatt, Deborah A; Balakrishnan, Anju; Graham, Mark J; Mullick, Adam E; Daugherty, Alan

    2016-09-01

    Gain-of-function mutations of PCSK9 (proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9) lead to hypercholesterolemia. This study was to determine whether infection of normocholesterolemic mice with an adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector expressing a gain-of-function mutation of mouse PCSK9 increased angiotensin II (AngII)-induced abdominal aortic aneurysms. In an initial study, male C57BL/6 mice were injected intraperitoneally with either an empty vector or PCSK9 gain-of-function mutation (D377Y). AAV at 3 doses and fed a saturated fat-enriched diet for 6 weeks. Two weeks after AAV injection, mice were infused with AngII for 4 weeks. Plasma PCSK9 concentrations were increased dose dependently in mice injected with AAV containing PCSK9D377Y mutation and positively associated with elevations of plasma cholesterol concentrations. Infection with intermediate and high doses of PCSK9D377Y.AAV led to equivalent increases of maximal width of abdominal aortas in C57BL/6 mice infused with AngII. Therefore, the intermediate dose was used in subsequent experiments. We then determined effects of PCSK9D377Y.AAV infection on 5 normolipidemic mouse strains, demonstrating that C57BL/6 mice were the most susceptible to this AAV infection. PCSK9D377Y.AAV infected male C57BL/6 mice were also compared with age-matched male low-density lipoprotein receptor(-/-) mice. Although plasma cholesterol concentrations were lower in mice infected with PCSK9D377Y.AAV, these mice had equivalent abdominal aortic aneurysmal formation, compared to low-density lipoprotein receptor(-/-) mice. In a separate study, reduced plasma PCSK9 concentrations by PCSK9 antisense oligonucleotides in male low-density lipoprotein receptor(-/-) mice did not influence AngII-induced abdominal aortic aneurysms. AAV-mediated infection with a mouse PCSK9 gain-of-function mutation is a rapid, easy, and efficient approach for inducing hypercholesterolemia and promoting abdominal aortic aneurysms in C57BL/6 mice infused with Ang

  6. Assessing and inducing neuroplasticity with transcranial magnetic stimulation and robotics for motor function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Marcia K; Ro, Tony; Levin, Harvey S

    2006-12-01

    To describe 2 new ways of assessing and inducing neuroplasticity in the human brain--transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and robotics--and to investigate and promote the recovery of motor function after brain damage. We identified recent articles and books directly bearing on TMS and robotics. Articles using these tools for purposes other than rehabilitation were excluded. From these studies, we emphasize the methodologic and technical details of these tools as applicable for assessing and inducing plasticity. Because both tools have only recently been used for rehabilitation, the majority of the articles selected for this review have been published only within the last 10 years. We used the PubMed and Compendex databases to find relevant peer-reviewed studies for this review. The studies were required to be relevant to rehabilitation and to use TMS or robotics methodologies. Guidelines were applied via independent extraction by multiple observers. Despite the limited amount of research using these procedures for assessing and inducing neuroplasticity, there is growing evidence that both TMS and robotics can be very effective, inexpensive, and convenient ways for assessing and inducing rehabilitation. Although TMS has primarily been used as an assessment tool for motor function, an increasing number of studies are using TMS as a tool to directly induce plasticity and improve motor function. Similarly, robotic devices have been used for rehabilitation because of their suitability for delivery of highly repeatable training. New directions in robotics-assisted rehabilitation are taking advantage of novel measurements that can be acquired via the devices, enabling unique methods of assessment of motor recovery. As refinements in technology and advances in our knowledge continue, TMS and robotics should play an increasing role in assessing and promoting the recovery of function. Ongoing and future studies combining TMS and robotics within the same populations may

  7. Ex vivo electroporation of retinal cells: a novel, high efficiency method for functional studies in primary retinal cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara, M Natalia; Gutierrez, Christian; O'Brien, David R; Canto-Soler, M Valeria

    2013-04-01

    Primary retinal cultures constitute valuable tools not only for basic research on retinal cell development and physiology, but also for the identification of factors or drugs that promote cell survival and differentiation. In order to take full advantage of the benefits of this system it is imperative to develop efficient and reliable techniques for the manipulation of gene expression. However, achieving appropriate transfection efficiencies in these cultures has remained challenging. The purpose of this work was to develop and optimize a technique that would allow the transfection of chick retinal cells with high efficiency and reproducibility for multiple applications. We developed an ex vivo electroporation method applied to dissociated retinal cell cultures that offers a significant improvement over other currently available transfection techniques, increasing efficiency by five-fold. In this method, eyes were enucleated, devoid of RPE, and electroporated with GFP-encoding plasmids using custom-made electrodes. Electroporated retinas were then dissociated into single cells and plated in low density conditions, to be analyzed after 4 days of incubation. Parameters such as voltage and number of electric pulses, as well as plasmid concentration and developmental stage of the animal were optimized for efficiency. The characteristics of the cultures were assessed by morphology and immunocytochemistry, and cell viability was determined by ethidium homodimer staining. Cell imaging and counting was performed using an automated high-throughput system. This procedure resulted in transfection efficiencies in the order of 22-25% of cultured cells, encompassing both photoreceptors and non-photoreceptor neurons, and without affecting normal cell survival and differentiation. Finally, the feasibility of the technique for cell-autonomous studies of gene function in a biologically relevant context was tested by carrying out gain and loss-of-function experiments for the

  8. Pre-existing vector immunity does not prevent replication deficient adenovirus from inducing efficient CD8 T-cell memory and recall responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, Maria Abildgaard; Jensen, Benjamin Anderschou Holbech; Holst, Peter Johannes

    2012-01-01

    directed against epitopes in the adenoviral vector seemed to correlate with repression of the induced response in re-vaccinated B-cell deficient mice. More importantly, despite a repressed primary effector CD8 T-cell response in Ad5-immune animals subjected to vaccination, memory T cells were generated...... that provided the foundation for an efficient recall response and protection upon subsequent viral challenge. Furthermore, the transgene specific response could be efficiently boosted by homologous re-immunization. Taken together, these studies indicate that adenoviral vectors can be used to induce efficient CD......8 T-cell memory even in individuals with pre-existing vector immunity....

  9. Random function representation of stationary stochastic vector processes for probability density evolution analysis of wind-induced structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhangjun; Liu, Zenghui

    2018-06-01

    This paper develops a hybrid approach of spectral representation and random function for simulating stationary stochastic vector processes. In the proposed approach, the high-dimensional random variables, included in the original spectral representation (OSR) formula, could be effectively reduced to only two elementary random variables by introducing the random functions that serve as random constraints. Based on this, a satisfactory simulation accuracy can be guaranteed by selecting a small representative point set of the elementary random variables. The probability information of the stochastic excitations can be fully emerged through just several hundred of sample functions generated by the proposed approach. Therefore, combined with the probability density evolution method (PDEM), it could be able to implement dynamic response analysis and reliability assessment of engineering structures. For illustrative purposes, a stochastic turbulence wind velocity field acting on a frame-shear-wall structure is simulated by constructing three types of random functions to demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed approach. Careful and in-depth studies concerning the probability density evolution analysis of the wind-induced structure have been conducted so as to better illustrate the application prospects of the proposed approach. Numerical examples also show that the proposed approach possesses a good robustness.

  10. Factor-Reduced Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Efficiently Differentiate into Neurons Independent of the Number of Reprogramming Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Hermann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reprogramming of somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs by overexpression of the transcription factors OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and c-Myc holds great promise for the development of personalized cell replacement therapies. In an attempt to minimize the risk of chromosomal disruption and to simplify reprogramming, several studies demonstrated that a reduced set of reprogramming factors is sufficient to generate iPSC. We recently showed that a reduction of reprogramming factors in murine cells not only reduces reprogramming efficiency but also may worsen subsequent differentiation. To prove whether this is also true for human cells, we compared the efficiency of neuronal differentiation of iPSC generated from fetal human neural stem cells with either one (OCT4; hiPSC1F-NSC or two (OCT4, KLF4; hiPSC2F-NSC reprogramming factors with iPSC produced from human fibroblasts using three (hiPSC3F-FIB or four reprogramming factors (hiPSC4F-FIB. After four weeks of coculture with PA6 stromal cells, neuronal differentiation of hiPSC1F-NSC and hiPSC2F-NSC was as efficient as iPSC3F-FIB or iPSC4F-FIB. We conclude that a reduction of reprogramming factors in human cells does reduce reprogramming efficiency but does not alter subsequent differentiation into neural lineages. This is of importance for the development of future application of iPSC in cell replacement therapies.

  11. Staphylococcus aureus-induced G2/M phase transition delay in host epithelial cells increases bacterial infective efficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Alekseeva

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a highly versatile, opportunistic pathogen and the etiological agent of a wide range of infections in humans and warm-blooded animals. The epithelial surface is its principal site of colonization and infection. In this work, we investigated the cytopathic effect of S. aureus strains from human and animal origins and their ability to affect the host cell cycle in human HeLa and bovine MAC-T epithelial cell lines. S. aureus invasion slowed down cell proliferation and induced a cytopathic effect, resulting in the enlargement of host cells. A dramatic decrease in the number of mitotic cells was observed in the infected cultures. Flow cytometry analysis revealed an S. aureus-induced delay in the G2/M phase transition in synchronous HeLa cells. This delay required the presence of live S. aureus since the addition of the heat-killed bacteria did not alter the cell cycle. The results of Western blot experiments showed that the G2/M transition delay was associated with the accumulation of inactive cyclin-dependent kinase Cdk1, a key inducer of mitosis entry, and with the accumulation of unphosphorylated histone H3, which was correlated with a reduction of the mitotic cell number. Analysis of S. aureus proliferation in asynchronous, G1- and G2-phase-enriched HeLa cells showed that the G2 phase was preferential for bacterial infective efficiency, suggesting that the G2 phase delay may be used by S. aureus for propagation within the host. Taken together, our results divulge the potential of S. aureus in the subversion of key cellular processes such as cell cycle progression, and shed light on the biological significance of S. aureus-induced host cell cycle alteration.

  12. Chemical complexity induced by efficient ice evaporation in the Barnard 5 molecular cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taquet, V.; Wirström, E. S.; Charnley, S. B.; Faure, A.; López-Sepulcre, A.; Persson, C. M.

    2017-10-01

    /or that lukewarm COMs are efficiently depleted by increased hydrogenation efficiency around protostars.

  13. Reduction in photosynthetic efficiency of Cladophora glomerata, induced by overlying canopies of Lemna spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, L B; Perkins, R G; Mason, C F

    2002-04-01

    The duckweeds Lemna minor L. and L. minuscula Herter reduced PSII quantum efficiency (F'q/F'm) of the filamentous green alga Cladophora glomerata Kützing by up to 42% over seven days when floating above mats of C. glomerata in containers. Dissolved oxygen (DO) increased by 23% at 30 degrees C in containers with C. glomerata over controls. But when the water surface in the containers was covered with Lemna spp. floating above C. glomerata, DO was 83% lower at 30 degrees C over seven days than in control samples with no duckweed or alga. Dissolved oxygen was lower beneath a thick mat (1 cm) of either Lemna spp. covering the surface than under a thin layer (single-frond canopy). PAM fluorimetry showed that maximum PSII efficiency (Fv/Fm) of C. glomerata in containers was reduced under a canopy of L. minor by 17% over seven days, and under L. minuscula by 22%. F'q/F'm of C. glomerata in containers exposed to 51 micromol m(-2) s(-1) PPFD decreased under a canopy of L. minor by 16% over seven days, and under L. minuscula by 19% compared to controls. When light response curves were compared, F'q/F'm was significantly reduced under canopies of L. minor at the highest temperatures tested (28 degrees C and 30 degrees C). L. minor significantly reduced relative electron transport rate (rel. ETR) of the controls by up to 71% at 30 degrees C. Relative electron transport rate did not reach light saturation point (Esat) except at 28 degrees and 30 degrees C under mats of L. minor. Whereas the highest rate of production (rel. ETRmax) and Esat increased with temperature in controls, under a canopy of Lemna, decreases were observed. It is suggested that, during periods of high summer temperature and irradiance, shading inhibits oxygenic photosynthesis in mats of C. glomerata beneath canopies of Lenma spp. This results in less oxygen being produced by the C. glomerata (oxygen produced by Lemna spp. is not released into the water), and this may further inhibit the C. glomerata by

  14. Maintenance of exercise-induced benefits in physical functioning and bone among elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karinkanta, S; Heinonen, A; Sievänen, H; Uusi-Rasi, K; Fogelholm, M; Kannus, P

    2009-04-01

    This study showed that about a half of the exercise-induced gain in dynamic balance and bone strength was maintained one year after cessation of the supervised high-intensity training of home-dwelling elderly women. However, to maintain exercise-induced gains in lower limb muscle force and physical functioning, continued training seems necessary. Maintenance of exercise-induced benefits in physical functioning and bone structure was assessed one year after cessation of 12-month randomized controlled exercise intervention. Originally 149 healthy women 70-78 years of age participated in the 12-month exercise RCT and 120 (81%) of them completed the follow-up study. Self-rated physical functioning, dynamic balance, leg extensor force, and bone structure were assessed. During the intervention, exercise increased dynamic balance by 7% in the combination resistance and balance-jumping training group (COMB). At the follow-up, a 4% (95% CI: 1-8%) gain compared with the controls was still seen, while the exercise-induced isometric leg extension force and self-rated physical functioning benefits had disappeared. During the intervention, at least twice a week trained COMB subjects obtained a significant 2% benefit in tibial shaft bone strength index compared to the controls. A half of this benefit seemed to be maintained at the follow-up. Exercise-induced benefits in dynamic balance and rigidity in the tibial shaft may partly be maintained one year after cessation of a supervised 12-month multi-component training in initially healthy elderly women. However, to maintain the achieved gains in muscle force and physical functioning, continued training seems necessary.

  15. Ethylbenzene-induced hearing loss, neurobehavioral function, and neurotransmitter alterations in petrochemical workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming; Wang, Yanrang; Wang, Qian; Yang, Deyi; Zhang, Jingshu; Wang, Fengshan; Gu, Qing

    2013-09-01

    To estimate hearing loss, neurobehavioral function, and neurotransmitter alteration induced by ethylbenzene in petrochemical workers. From two petrochemical plants, 246 and 307 workers exposed to both ethylbenzene and noise were recruited-290 workers exposed to noise only from a power station plant and 327 office personnel as control group, respectively. Hearing and neurobehavioral functions were evaluated. Serum neurotransmitters were also determined. The prevalence of hearing loss was much higher in petrochemical groups than that in power station and control groups (P workers (P hearing loss, neurobehavioral function impairment, and imbalance of neurotransmitters.

  16. PRELIMINARY STUDY ON THE EFFICIENCY OF SEVERAL OVULATION INDUCING HORMONES ON PIKEPERCH (SANDER LUCIOPERCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. KORBULY

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of European freshwater aquaculture needs diversification of its production with reliable culture methods of new fish species. From the last two decades, more research efforts were done in order to develop culture of pikeperch (Sander lucioperca L.. Most market size pikeperch come from open waters and relatively few are produced under intensive and/or indoor conditions. The aim of this study was to test the efficiency of different hormones on pikeperch ovulation in order to reproduce the species under controlled environmental conditions. Eight clinically healthy adult pikeperch females (3-4 years old were used in our experiments. They were injected with human chorionic gonadotropine - hCG (Pregnyl and carp pituitary extract (CPE, without photo-thermal stimulation. None of the females ovulated at 72 hours after the injection. When water temperature was increased to 17°C, females stimulated with hCG ovulated first, then one of the females stimulated with CPE. None of females from the control group ovulated.

  17. Targeting tumor antigens to secreted membrane vesicles in vivo induces efficient antitumor immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeelenberg, Ingrid S; Ostrowski, Matias; Krumeich, Sophie; Bobrie, Angélique; Jancic, Carolina; Boissonnas, Alexandre; Delcayre, Alain; Le Pecq, Jean-Bernard; Combadière, Béhazine; Amigorena, Sebastian; Théry, Clotilde

    2008-02-15

    Expression of non-self antigens by tumors can induce activation of T cells in vivo, although this activation can lead to either immunity or tolerance. CD8+ T-cell activation can be direct (if the tumor expresses MHC class I molecules) or indirect (after the capture and cross-presentation of tumor antigens by dendritic cells). The modes of tumor antigen capture by dendritic cells in vivo remain unclear. Here we examine the immunogenicity of the same model antigen secreted by live tumors either in association with membrane vesicles (exosomes) or as a soluble protein. We have artificially addressed the antigen to secreted vesicles by coupling it to the factor VIII-like C1C2 domain of milk fat globule epidermal growth factor-factor VIII (MFG-E8)/lactadherin. We show that murine fibrosarcoma tumor cells that secrete vesicle-bound antigen grow slower than tumors that secrete soluble antigen in immunocompetent, but not in immunodeficient, host mice. This growth difference is due to the induction of a more potent antigen-specific antitumor immune response in vivo by the vesicle-bound than by the soluble antigen. Finally, in vivo secretion of the vesicle-bound antigen either by tumors or by vaccination with naked DNA protects against soluble antigen-secreting tumors. We conclude that the mode of secretion can determine the immunogenicity of tumor antigens and that manipulation of the mode of antigen secretion may be used to optimize antitumor vaccination protocols.

  18. Efficient micropropagation and chlorocholine chloride induced stevioside production of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Avishek; Kundu, Sayanti; Bandyopadhyay, Abhijit; Bhattacharjee, Aloke

    2013-01-01

    A promising method of micropropagation of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni has been developed with an aim to increase the biomass, survivability of the plantlets and stevioside production, using chlorocholine chloride (CCC). Microshoots transferred to the MS medium containing different combinations CCC and IBA were found to be most effective in terms of growth pattern, hardening ability of the plantlets and stevioside content, compared to MS medium containing either IBA or CCC. Among other combinations tested, MS medium supplemented with 3 mg/l CCC and 3 mg/l IBA was found most effective in inducing significant changes like reduced shoot length, increased number of roots, higher leaf size, increased biomass and chlorophyll retaining capacity, higher survival percentage and most importantly the elevated stevioside content. Collectively, the major observations of this research indicate that application of CCC in micropropagation of S. rebaudiana Bertoni is a promising approach and has commercial prospects. Copyright © 2012 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. An Efficient Platform for Astrocyte Differentiation from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tcw, Julia; Wang, Minghui; Pimenova, Anna A; Bowles, Kathryn R; Hartley, Brigham J; Lacin, Emre; Machlovi, Saima I; Abdelaal, Rawan; Karch, Celeste M; Phatnani, Hemali; Slesinger, Paul A; Zhang, Bin; Goate, Alison M; Brennand, Kristen J

    2017-08-08

    Growing evidence implicates the importance of glia, particularly astrocytes, in neurological and psychiatric diseases. Here, we describe a rapid and robust method for the differentiation of highly pure populations of replicative astrocytes from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs), via a neural progenitor cell (NPC) intermediate. We evaluated this protocol across 42 NPC lines (derived from 30 individuals). Transcriptomic analysis demonstrated that hiPSC-astrocytes from four individuals are highly similar to primary human fetal astrocytes and characteristic of a non-reactive state. hiPSC-astrocytes respond to inflammatory stimulants, display phagocytic capacity, and enhance microglial phagocytosis. hiPSC-astrocytes also possess spontaneous calcium transient activity. Our protocol is a reproducible, straightforward (single medium), and rapid (method to generate populations of hiPSC-astrocytes that can be used for neuron-astrocyte and microglia-astrocyte co-cultures for the study of neuropsychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Inhomogeneity induced and appropriately parameterized semilocal exchange and correlation energy functionals in two-dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Abhilash; Jana, Subrata; Samal, Prasanjit

    2018-04-01

    The construction of meta generalized gradient approximations based on the density matrix expansion (DME) is considered as one of the most accurate techniques to design semilocal exchange energy functionals in two-dimensional density functional formalism. The exchange holes modeled using DME possess unique features that make it a superior entity. Parameterized semilocal exchange energy functionals based on the DME are proposed. The use of different forms of the momentum and flexible parameters is to subsume the non-uniform effects of the density in the newly constructed semilocal functionals. In addition to the exchange functionals, a suitable correlation functional is also constructed by working upon the local correlation functional developed for 2D homogeneous electron gas. The non-local effects are induced into the correlation functional by a parametric form of one of the newly constructed exchange energy functionals. The proposed functionals are applied to the parabolic quantum dots with a varying number of confined electrons and the confinement strength. The results obtained with the aforementioned functionals are quite satisfactory, which indicates why these are suitable for two-dimensional quantum systems.

  1. Long-term intensive gymnastic training induced changes in intra- and inter-network functional connectivity: an independent component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huiyuan; Wang, Junjing; Seger, Carol; Lu, Min; Deng, Feng; Wu, Xiaoyan; He, Yuan; Niu, Chen; Wang, Jun; Huang, Ruiwang

    2018-01-01

    Long-term intensive gymnastic training can induce brain structural and functional reorganization. Previous studies have identified structural and functional network differences between world class gymnasts (WCGs) and non-athletes at the whole-brain level. However, it is still unclear how interactions within and between functional networks are affected by long-term intensive gymnastic training. We examined both intra- and inter-network functional connectivity of gymnasts relative to non-athletes using resting-state fMRI (R-fMRI). R-fMRI data were acquired from 13 WCGs and 14 non-athlete controls. Group-independent component analysis (ICA) was adopted to decompose the R-fMRI data into spatial independent components and associated time courses. An automatic component identification method was used to identify components of interest associated with resting-state networks (RSNs). We identified nine RSNs, the basal ganglia network (BG), sensorimotor network (SMN), cerebellum (CB), anterior and posterior default mode networks (aDMN/pDMN), left and right fronto-parietal networks (lFPN/rFPN), primary visual network (PVN), and extrastriate visual network (EVN). Statistical analyses revealed that the intra-network functional connectivity was significantly decreased within the BG, aDMN, lFPN, and rFPN, but increased within the EVN in the WCGs compared to the controls. In addition, the WCGs showed uniformly decreased inter-network functional connectivity between SMN and BG, CB, and PVN, BG and PVN, and pDMN and rFPN compared to the controls. We interpret this generally weaker intra- and inter-network functional connectivity in WCGs during the resting state as a result of greater efficiency in the WCGs' brain associated with long-term motor skill training.

  2. An Efficient Process for Pretreatment of Lignocelluloses in Functional Ionic Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Jia Dong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims. The complex structure of the lignocelluloses is the main obstacle in the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into valuable products. Ionic liquids provide the opportunities for their efficient pretreatment for biomass. Therefore, in this work, pretreatment of corn stalk was carried out in ultrasonic-assisted ionic liquid including 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride [BMIM]Cl, 1-H-3-methylimidazolium chloride [HMIM]Cl, and 1-(1-propylsulfonic-3-imidazolium chloride [HSO3-pMIM]Cl at 70°C for 2 h. We compared the pretreatments by ionic liquid with and without the addition of deionized water. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and scanning electron microscopy (SEM were employed to analyze the chemical characteristics of regenerated cellulose-rich materials. Results. [HMIM]Cl and [HSO3-pMIM]Cl were effective in lignin extraction to obtain cellulose-rich materials. FTIR analysis and SEM analysis indicated the effective lignin removal and the reduced crystallinity of cellulose-rich materials. Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose-rich materials was performed efficiently. High yields of reducing sugar and glucose were obtained when the corn stalk was pretreated by [HMIM]Cl and [HSO3-pMIM]Cl. Conclusions. Ionic liquids provided the ideal environment for lignin extraction and enzymatic hydrolysis of corn stalk and [HMIM]Cl and [HSO3-pMIM]Cl proved the most efficient ionic liquids. This simple and environmentally acceptable method has a great potential for the preparation of bioethanol for industrial production.

  3. Poly(acrylamide) functionalized chitosan: An efficient adsorbent for azo dyes from aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Vandana; Sharma, Ajit Kumar; Sanghi, Rashmi

    2009-01-01

    In the present communication we report on the optimization of persulfate/ascorbic acid initiated synthesis of chitosan-graft-poly(acrylamide) (Ch-g-PAM) and its application in the removal of azo dyes. The optimum yield of the copolymer was obtained using 16 x 10 -2 M acrylamide, 3.0 x 10 -2 M ascorbic acid, 2.4 x 10 -3 M K 2 S 2 O 8 and 0.1 g chitosan in 25 mL of 5% aqueous formic acid at 45 ± 0.2 o C. Ch-g-PAM remained water insoluble even under highly acidic conditions and could efficiently remove Remazol violet and Procion yellow dyes from the aqueous solutions over a pH range of 3-8 in contrast to chitosan (Ch) which showed pH dependent adsorption. The adsorption data of the Ch-g-PAM and Ch for both the dyes were modeled by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms where the data fitted better to Langmuir isotherms. To understand the adsorption behavior of Ch-g-PAM, adsorption of Remazol violet on to the copolymer was optimized and the kinetic and thermodynamic studies were carried out taking Ch as reference. Both Ch-g-PAM and Ch followed pseudo-second-order adsorption kinetics. The thermodynamic study revealed a positive heat of adsorption (ΔH o ), a positive ΔS o and a negative ΔG o , indicating spontaneous and endothermic nature of the adsorption of RV dye on to the Ch-g-PAM. The Ch-g-PAM was found to be very efficient in removing color from real industrial wastewater as well, though the interfering ions present in the wastewater slightly hindered its adsorption capacity. The data from regeneration efficiencies for ten cycles evidenced the high reusability of the copolymer in the treatment of waste water laden with even high concentrations of dye.

  4. The efficiency of functional mitochondrial replacement in Saccharomyces species has directional character

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sulo, P.; Spirek, M.; Soltesova, A.

    2003-01-01

    into mutants devoid of mitochondrial DNA (rho(0)). Recently we have reported that the mitochondria transferred from Saccharomyces paradoxus restored partially the respiration in Saccharomyces cerevisiae rho(0) mutants. Here we present evidence that the S. cerevisiae mitochondria completely salvage from...... respiration deficiency, not only in conspecific isolates but also in S. paradoxus. The respiratory capacity in less-related species can be recovered exclusively in the presence of S. cerevisiae chromosomes. The efficiency of the re-established oxidative phosphorylation did not rely on the presence of introns...

  5. Bovine colostrum improves intestinal function following formula-induced gut inflammation in preterm pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støy, Ann Cathrine Findal; Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Thymann, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Background & aims Only few hours of formula feeding may induce proinflammatory responses and predispose to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm pigs. We hypothesized that bovine colostrum, rich in bioactive factors, would improve intestinal function in preterm pigs following an initial...... exposure to formula feeding after some days of total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Methods After receiving TPN for 2 days, preterm pigs were fed formula (FORM, n = 14), bovine colostrum (COLOS, n = 6), or formula (6 h) followed by bovine colostrum (FCOLOS, n = 14). Intestinal lesions, function, and structure...... and FCOLOS pigs, relative to FORM pigs. Intestinal gene expression of serum amyloid A, IL-1β, -6 and -8, and bacterial abundance, correlated positively with NEC severity of the distal small intestine. Conclusions Bovine colostrum restores intestinal function after initial formula-induced inflammation...

  6. Flow-induced vibration test of an advanced water reactor model. Pt. 1. Turbulence-induced forcing function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Au-Yang, M.K.; Brenneman, B.; Raj, D.

    1995-01-01

    A 1:9 scale model of a proposed advanced water reactor was tested for flow-induced vibration. The main objectives of this test were: (1) to derive an empirical equation for the turbulence forcing function which can be applied to the full-sized prototype; (2) to study the effect of viscosity on the turbulence; (3) to verify the ''superposition'' assumption widely used in dynamic analysis of weakly coupled fluid-shell systems; and (4) to measure the shell responses to verify methods and computer programs used in the flow-induced vibration analysis of the prototype. This paper describes objectives (1), (2), and (3); objective (4) will be discussed in a companion paper.The turbulence-induced fluctuating pressure was measured at 49 locations over the surface of a thick-walled, non-responsive scale model of the reactor vessel/core support cylinders. An empirical equation relating the fluctuating pressure, the frequency, and the distance from the inlet nozzle center line was derived to fit the test data. This equation involves only non-dimensional, fluid mechanical parameters that are postulated to represent the full-sized, geometrically similar prototype. While this postulate cannot be verified until similar measurements are taken on the full-sized unit, a similar approach using a 1:6 scale model of a commercial pressurized water reactor was verified in the mid-1970s by field measurements on the full-sized reactor. (orig.)

  7. Allocative Efficiency Analysys Production Function Of Cassava Farming (Manihot, Sp.) In Tenayan Raya Sub-District Of Pekanbaru City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizar, Rini; Nurwati, Niken; Amalia

    2017-12-01

    Cassava (Manihot sp) has long been known and cultivated by Indonesian farmers. The economic and social potential of cassava aside from foodstuffs can also be used as raw materials for industrial use and animal feed. In Riau Province, Cassva has the potential to be developed considering Cassva is a plant that can easily grow on low altitude to high altitude lands. Cassava does not need a complex maintenance. Conventionally, this plant can be planted and left alone by itself. Cassava roots can be developed to be a processed products that society needs as main foodstuffs ingredients. This research is done in three months and the purpose is to know the influence of input use (pesticide, seeds, fertilizers and labor) on cassava farming to cassava farming by the model of cobb-douglas. Other than that is also the effect on economical efficiency. The method used in this research is a quantitative research by using Cobb-Douglas Function Model. This research was done in the Tenayan Raya sub-district with 55 farmer samples. This research shows Cobb-Douglas Production Function can be used as the predictor for Cassava production function in Tenayan Raya Sub-district of Pekanbaru City. Altogether the production factor used by farmers influence production. Partially only usage of organic fertilizer that does not affect production, while other production factor such as, seeds, pesticides, an-organic fertilizer (urea) and labor affect production by quite a bit. Usage of production factor seeds, urea and pesticides is not yet efficient while usage of organic fertilizer is not efficient and usage of labor on cassava agriculture by respondent farmers is relatively efficient

  8. Six-point remainder function in multi-Regge-kinematics: an efficient approach in momentum space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broedel, Johannes [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich,Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, 8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Institut für Mathematik und Institut für Physik, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin,IRIS Adlershof, Zum Großen Windkanal 6, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Sprenger, Martin [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich,Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, 8093 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2016-05-10

    Starting from the known all-order expressions for the BFKL eigenvalue and impact factor, we establish a formalism allowing the direct calculation of the six-point remainder function in N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory in momentum space to — in principle — all orders in perturbation theory. Based upon identities which relate different integrals contributing to the inverse Fourier-Mellin transform recursively, the formalism allows to easily access the full remainder function in multi-Regge kinematics up to 7 loops and up to 10 loops in the fourth logarithmic order. Using the formalism, we prove the all-loop formula for the leading logarithmic approximation proposed by Pennington and investigate the behavior of several newly calculated functions.

  9. Transforming Functional Requirements from UML into BPEL to Efficiently Develop SOA-Based Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vemulapalli, Anisha; Subramanian, Nary

    The intended behavior of any system such as services, tasks or functions can be captured by functional requirements of the system. As our dependence on online services has grown steadily, the web applications are being developed employing the SOA. BPEL4WS provides a means for expressing functional requirements of an SOA-based system by providing constructs to capture business goals and objectives for the system. In this paper we propose an approach for transforming user-centered requirements captured using UML into a corresponding BPEL specification, where the business processes are captured by means of use-cases from which UML sequence diagrams and activity diagrams are extracted. Subsequently these UML models are mapped to BPEL specifications that capture the essence of the initial business requirements to develop the SOA-based system by employing CASE tools. A student housing system is used as a case study to illustrate this approach and the system is validated using NetBeans.

  10. Full Waveform Inversion Using an Energy-Based Objective Function with Efficient Calculation of the Gradient

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Yun Seok

    2017-05-26

    Full waveform inversion (FWI) using an energy-based objective function has the potential to provide long wavelength model information even without low frequency in the data. However, without the back-propagation method (adjoint-state method), its implementation is impractical for the model size of general seismic survey. We derive the gradient of the energy-based objective function using the back-propagation method to make its FWI feasible. We also raise the energy signal to the power of a small positive number to properly handle the energy signal imbalance as a function of offset. Examples demonstrate that the proposed FWI algorithm provides a convergent long wavelength structure model even without low-frequency information, which can be used as a good starting model for the subsequent conventional FWI.

  11. Efficient fractal-based mutation in evolutionary algorithms from iterated function systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcedo-Sanz, S.; Aybar-Ruíz, A.; Camacho-Gómez, C.; Pereira, E.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper we present a new mutation procedure for Evolutionary Programming (EP) approaches, based on Iterated Function Systems (IFSs). The new mutation procedure proposed consists of considering a set of IFS which are able to generate fractal structures in a two-dimensional phase space, and use them to modify a current individual of the EP algorithm, instead of using random numbers from different probability density functions. We test this new proposal in a set of benchmark functions for continuous optimization problems. In this case, we compare the proposed mutation against classical Evolutionary Programming approaches, with mutations based on Gaussian, Cauchy and chaotic maps. We also include a discussion on the IFS-based mutation in a real application of Tuned Mass Dumper (TMD) location and optimization for vibration cancellation in buildings. In both practical cases, the proposed EP with the IFS-based mutation obtained extremely competitive results compared to alternative classical mutation operators.

  12. An efficient photoelectrochemical cell functioning in the presence of organic wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoniadou, Maria; Lianos, Panagiotis [Engineering Science Department, University of Patras, 26500 Patras (Greece); Kondarides, Dimitris IOTA. [Chemical Engineering Department, University of Patras, 26500 Patras (Greece); Labou, Diamantoula; Neophytides, Stylianos [FORTH-Institute of Chemical Engineering and High Temperature Chemical Processes, PO Box 1414, GR-26500 Patras (Greece)

    2010-03-15

    This work presents a design and studies the function of a photo-fuel cell, which can photocatalytically consume organic substances to produce electricity. The design resembles hydrogen fuel cells but, in the present case, hydrogen ions are produced photocatalytically in the presence of nanocrystalline titania. Results are presented for ethanol and glycerol but many other substances can be used as well. The cell can function in natural solar light by exploiting the UV portion of the solar spectrum. The produced current was enhanced when titania was combined with cadmium sulphide, which absorbs visible light. (author)

  13. One-step ligand exchange reaction as an efficient way for functionalization of magnetic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mrowczynski, Radoslaw [Humboldt-University Berlin, Department of Chemistry (Germany); Rednic, Lidia; Turcu, Rodica [National Institute of Research and Development for Isotopic and Molecular Technologies (Romania); Liebscher, Juergen, E-mail: liebscher@chemie.hu-berlin.de [Humboldt-University Berlin, Department of Chemistry (Germany)

    2012-07-15

    Novel magnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles (NPs) covered by one layer of functionalized fatty acids, bearing entities (Hayashi catalyst, biotin, quinine, proline, and galactose) of high interest for practical application in nanomedicine or organocatalysis, were synthesized. The functionalized fatty acids were obtained by Cu(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) of azido fatty acids with alkynes. All the magnetic NPs show superparamagnetic behavior with high values of magnetization and high colloidal stability in DCM solution.

  14. Non-verbal emotion communication training induces specific changes in brain function and structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreifelts, Benjamin; Jacob, Heike; Brück, Carolin; Erb, Michael; Ethofer, Thomas; Wildgruber, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    The perception of emotional cues from voice and face is essential for social interaction. However, this process is altered in various psychiatric conditions along with impaired social functioning. Emotion communication trainings have been demonstrated to improve social interaction in healthy individuals and to reduce emotional communication deficits in psychiatric patients. Here, we investigated the impact of a non-verbal emotion communication training (NECT) on cerebral activation and brain structure in a controlled and combined functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and voxel-based morphometry study. NECT-specific reductions in brain activity occurred in a distributed set of brain regions including face and voice processing regions as well as emotion processing- and motor-related regions presumably reflecting training-induced familiarization with the evaluation of face/voice stimuli. Training-induced changes in non-verbal emotion sensitivity at the behavioral level and the respective cerebral activation patterns were correlated in the face-selective cortical areas in the posterior superior temporal sulcus and fusiform gyrus for valence ratings and in the temporal pole, lateral prefrontal cortex and midbrain/thalamus for the response times. A NECT-induced increase in gray matter (GM) volume was observed in the fusiform face area. Thus, NECT induces both functional and structural plasticity in the face processing system as well as functional plasticity in the emotion perception and evaluation system. We propose that functional alterations are presumably related to changes in sensory tuning in the decoding of emotional expressions. Taken together, these findings highlight that the present experimental design may serve as a valuable tool to investigate the altered behavioral and neuronal processing of emotional cues in psychiatric disorders as well as the impact of therapeutic interventions on brain function and structure.

  15. Efficient and controllable thermal ablation induced by short-pulsed HIFU sequence assisted with perfluorohexane nanodroplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Nan; Lu, Shukuan; Qin, Dui; Xu, Tianqi; Han, Meng; Wang, Supin; Wan, Mingxi

    2018-07-01

    A HIFU sequence with extremely short pulse duration and high pulse repetition frequency can achieve thermal ablation at a low acoustic power using inertial cavitation. Because of its cavitation-dependent property, the therapeutic outcome is unreliable when the treatment zone lacks cavitation nuclei. To overcome this intrinsic limitation, we introduced perfluorocarbon nanodroplets as extra cavitation nuclei into short-pulsed HIFU-mediated thermal ablation. Two types of nanodroplets were used with perfluorohexane (PFH) as the core material coated with bovine serum albumin (BSA) or an anionic fluorosurfactant (FS) to demonstrate the feasibility of this study. The thermal ablation process was recorded by high-speed photography. The inertial cavitation activity during the ablation was revealed by sonoluminescence (SL). The high-speed photography results show that the thermal ablation volume increased by ∼643% and 596% with BSA-PFH and FS-PFH, respectively, than the short-pulsed HIFU alone at an acoustic power of 19.5 W. Using nanodroplets, much larger ablation volumes were created even at a much lower acoustic power. Meanwhile, the treatment time for ablating a desired volume significantly reduced in the presence of nanodroplets. Moreover, by adjusting the treatment time, lesion migration towards the HIFU transducer could also be avoided. The SL results show that the thermal lesion shape was significantly dependent on the inertial cavitation in this short-pulsed HIFU-mediated thermal ablation. The inertial cavitation activity became more predictable by using nanodroplets. Therefore, the introduction of PFH nanodroplets as extra cavitation nuclei made the short-pulsed HIFU thermal ablation more efficient by increasing the ablation volume and speed, and more controllable by reducing the acoustic power and preventing lesion migration. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. An Efficient Genome Fragment Assembling Using GA with Neighborhood Aware Fitness Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoko Kikuchi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To decode a long genome sequence, shotgun sequencing is the state-of-the-art technique. It needs to properly sequence a very large number, sometimes as large as millions, of short partially readable strings (fragments. Arranging those fragments in correct sequence is known as fragment assembling, which is an NP-problem. Presently used methods require enormous computational cost. In this work, we have shown how our modified genetic algorithm (GA could solve this problem efficiently. In the proposed GA, the length of the chromosome, which represents the volume of the search space, is reduced with advancing generations, and thereby improves search efficiency. We also introduced a greedy mutation, by swapping nearby fragments using some heuristics, to improve the fitness of chromosomes. We compared results with Parsons’ algorithm which is based on GA too. We used fragments with partial reads on both sides, mimicking fragments in real genome assembling process. In Parsons’ work base-pair array of the whole fragment is known. Even then, we could obtain much better results, and we succeeded in restructuring contigs covering 100% of the genome sequences.

  17. Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiac Progenitor Cells in Phenotypic Screening: A Transforming Growth Factor-β Type 1 Receptor Kinase Inhibitor Induces Efficient Cardiac Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drowley, Lauren; Koonce, Chad; Peel, Samantha; Jonebring, Anna; Plowright, Alleyn T; Kattman, Steven J; Andersson, Henrik; Anson, Blake; Swanson, Bradley J; Wang, Qing-Dong; Brolen, Gabriella

    2016-02-01

    Several progenitor cell populations have been reported to exist in hearts that play a role in cardiac turnover and/or repair. Despite the presence of cardiac stem and progenitor cells within the myocardium, functional repair of the heart after injury is inadequate. Identification of the signaling pathways involved in the expansion and differentiation of cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) will broaden insight into the fundamental mechanisms playing a role in cardiac homeostasis and disease and might provide strategies for in vivo regenerative therapies. To understand and exploit cardiac ontogeny for drug discovery efforts, we developed an in vitro human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived CPC model system using a highly enriched population of KDR(pos)/CKIT(neg)/NKX2.5(pos) CPCs. Using this model system, these CPCs were capable of generating highly enriched cultures of cardiomyocytes under directed differentiation conditions. In order to facilitate the identification of pathways and targets involved in proliferation and differentiation of resident CPCs, we developed phenotypic screening assays. Screening paradigms for therapeutic applications require a robust, scalable, and consistent methodology. In the present study, we have demonstrated the suitability of these cells for medium to high-throughput screens to assess both proliferation and multilineage differentiation. Using this CPC model system and a small directed compound set, we identified activin-like kinase 5 (transforming growth factor-β type 1 receptor kinase) inhibitors as novel and potent inducers of human CPC differentiation to cardiomyocytes. Significance: Cardiac disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, with no treatment available that can result in functional repair. This study demonstrates how differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells can be used to identify and isolate cell populations of interest that can translate to the adult human heart. Two separate examples of phenotypic

  18. RNAsnp: efficient detection of local RNA secondary structure changes induced by SNPs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radhakrishnan, Sabarinathan; Tafer, Hakim; Seemann, Ernst Stefan

    2013-01-01

    into structural effects of SNPs. The global measures employed so far suffer from limited accuracy of folding programs on large RNAs and are computationally too demanding for genome-wide applications. Here, we present a strategy that focuses on the local regions of maximal structural change between mutant and wild......-type. These local regions are approximated in a "screening mode" that is intended for genome-wide applications. Furthermore, localized regions are identified as those with maximal discrepancy. The mutation effects are quantified in terms of empirical P values. To this end, the RNAsnp software uses extensive...... precomputed tables of the distribution of SNP effects as function of length and GC content. RNAsnp thus achieves both a noise reduction and speed-up of several orders of magnitude over shuffling-based approaches. On a data set comprising 501 SNPs associated with human-inherited diseases, we predict 54 to have...

  19. Efficient source for the production of ultradense deuterium D(-1) for laser-induced fusion (ICF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Patrik U.; Loenn, Benny; Holmlid, Leif

    2011-01-01

    A novel source which simplifies the study of ultradense deuterium D(-1) is now described. This means one step further toward deuterium fusion energy production. The source uses internal gas feed and D(-1) can now be studied without time-of-flight spectral overlap from the related dense phase D(1). The main aim here is to understand the material production parameters, and thus a relatively weak laser with focused intensity ≤10 12 W cm -2 is employed for analyzing the D(-1) material. The properties of the D(-1) material at the source are studied as a function of laser focus position outside the emitter, deuterium gas feed, laser pulse repetition frequency and laser power, and temperature of the source. These parameters influence the D(-1) cluster size, the ionization mode, and the laser fragmentation patterns.

  20. Efficient source for the production of ultradense deuterium D(-1) for laser-induced fusion (ICF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Patrik U.; Lönn, Benny; Holmlid, Leif

    2011-01-01

    A novel source which simplifies the study of ultradense deuterium D(-1) is now described. This means one step further toward deuterium fusion energy production. The source uses internal gas feed and D(-1) can now be studied without time-of-flight spectral overlap from the related dense phase D(1). The main aim here is to understand the material production parameters, and thus a relatively weak laser with focused intensity ≤1012 W cm-2 is employed for analyzing the D(-1) material. The properties of the D(-1) material at the source are studied as a function of laser focus position outside the emitter, deuterium gas feed, laser pulse repetition frequency and laser power, and temperature of the source. These parameters influence the D(-1) cluster size, the ionization mode, and the laser fragmentation patterns.

  1. Impaired atrial electromechanical function and atrial fibrillation promotion in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Huaying; Liu, Changle; Li, Jian; Zhou, Changyu; Cheng, Lijun; Liu, Tong; Li, Guangping

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is an independent risk factor for atrial fibrillation (AF). However, the underlying mechanisms are still not clearly elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the atrial electromechanical function, atrial electrophysiological changes and AF inducibility in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits. In 8 alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits and 8 controls, we evaluated atrial electromechanical function by tissue Doppler imaging. Isolated Langendorff-perfused rabbit hearts were prepared to measure atrial refractory effective period (AERP) and its dispersion (AERPD), interatrial conduction time (IACT) and vulnerability to AF. Atrial interstitial fibrosis was evaluated by Sirius-Red staining. Compared with controls, left atrial lateral wall Pa'-start interval (Pastart) and right atrial wall Pastart were increased in diabetic rabbits. AERPD was increased and IACT was prolonged in diabetic rabbits. Inducibility of AF in diabetic group was significant higher than controls (6/8 vs. 1/8, p TEMA); left atrial lateral wall Papeak and TEMA, left atrial posterior wall TEMA, and IACT were correlated with atrial areas of fibrosis. Atrial electromechanical function is impaired in diabetic rabbits, and is associated with atrial fibrosis and interatrial electrical conduction delay.

  2. A rapid and efficient method to study the function of crop plant transporters in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron (Fe) is an essential micronutrient for humans. Fe deficiency disease is wide-spread and has lead to extensive studies on the mechanisms of Fe uptake and storage, especially in staple food crops such as rice. However, studies of functionally related genes in rice and other crops are often time a...

  3. Laccase-Functionalized Graphene Oxide Assemblies as Efficient Nanobiocatalysts for Oxidation Reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patila, Michaela; Kouloumpis, Antonios; Gournis, Dimitrios; Rudolf, Petra; Stamatis, Haralambos

    Multi-layer graphene oxide-enzyme nanoassemblies were prepared through the multi-point covalent immobilization of laccase from Trametes versicolor (TvL) on functionalized graphene oxide (fGO). The catalytic properties of the fGO-TvL nanoassemblies were found to depend on the number of the graphene

  4. Evaluation of Efficient and Practical Methods for the Preparation of Functionalized Aliphatic Trifluoromethyl Ethers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taras M. Sokolenko

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The “chlorination/fluorination” technique for aliphatic trifluoromethyl ether synthesis was investigated and a range of products with various functional groups was prepared. The results were compared with oxidative desulfurization-fluorination of xanthates with the same structure.

  5. Radiolytic Synthesis of Pt-Ru Catalysts Based on Functional Polymer-Grafted MWNT and Their Catalytic Efficiency for CO and MeOH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae-Soo Yang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pt-Ru catalysts based on functional polymer-grafted MWNT (Pt-Ru@FP-MWNT were prepared by radiolytic deposition of Pt-Ru nanoparticles on functional polymer-grafted multiwalled carbon nanotube (FP-MWNT. Three different types of functional polymers, poly(acrylic acid (PAAc, poly(methacrylic acid (PMAc, and poly(vinylphenyl boronic acid (PVPBAc, were grafted on the MWNT surface by radiation-induced graft polymerization (RIGP. Then, Pt-Ru nanoparticles were deposited onto the FP-MWNT supports by the reduction of metal ions using γ-irradiation to obtain Pt-Ru@FP-MWNT catalysts. The Pt-Ru@FP-MWNT catalysts were then characterized by XRD, XPS, TEM ,and elemental analysis. The catalytic efficiency of Pt-Ru@FP-MWNT catalyst was examined for CO stripping and MeOH oxidation for use in a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC. The Pt-Ru@PVPBAc-MWNT catalyst shows enhanced activity for electro-oxidation of CO and MeOH oxidation over that of the commercial E-TEK catalyst.

  6. AGROBEST: an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression method for versatile gene function analyses in Arabidopsis seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Transient gene expression via Agrobacterium-mediated DNA transfer offers a simple and fast method to analyze transgene functions. Although Arabidopsis is the most-studied model plant with powerful genetic and genomic resources, achieving highly efficient and consistent transient expression for gene function analysis in Arabidopsis remains challenging. Results We developed a highly efficient and robust Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression system, named AGROBEST (Agrobacterium-mediated enhanced seedling transformation), which achieves versatile analysis of diverse gene functions in intact Arabidopsis seedlings. Using β-glucuronidase (GUS) as a reporter for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation assay, we show that the use of a specific disarmed Agrobacterium strain with vir gene pre-induction resulted in homogenous GUS staining in cotyledons of young Arabidopsis seedlings. Optimization with AB salts in plant culture medium buffered with acidic pH 5.5 during Agrobacterium infection greatly enhanced the transient expression levels, which were significantly higher than with two existing methods. Importantly, the optimized method conferred 100% infected seedlings with highly increased transient expression in shoots and also transformation events in roots of ~70% infected seedlings in both the immune receptor mutant efr-1 and wild-type Col-0 seedlings. Finally, we demonstrated the versatile applicability of the method for examining transcription factor action and circadian reporter-gene regulation as well as protein subcellular localization and protein–protein interactions in physiological contexts. Conclusions AGROBEST is a simple, fast, reliable, and robust transient expression system enabling high transient expression and transformation efficiency in Arabidopsis seedlings. Demonstration of the proof-of-concept experiments elevates the transient expression technology to the level of functional studies in Arabidopsis seedlings in addition to previous

  7. ALS-associated mutant FUS induces selective motor neuron degeneration through toxic gain of function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Aarti; Lyashchenko, Alexander K; Lu, Lei; Nasrabady, Sara Ebrahimi; Elmaleh, Margot; Mendelsohn, Monica; Nemes, Adriana; Tapia, Juan Carlos; Mentis, George Z; Shneider, Neil A

    2016-02-04

    Mutations in FUS cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), including some of the most aggressive, juvenile-onset forms of the disease. FUS loss-of-function and toxic gain-of-function mechanisms have been proposed to explain how mutant FUS leads to motor neuron degeneration, but neither has been firmly established in the pathogenesis of ALS. Here we characterize a series of transgenic FUS mouse lines that manifest progressive, mutant-dependent motor neuron degeneration preceded by early, structural and functional abnormalities at the neuromuscular junction. A novel, conditional FUS knockout mutant reveals that postnatal elimination of FUS has no effect on motor neuron survival or function. Moreover, endogenous FUS does not contribute to the onset of the ALS phenotype induced by mutant FUS. These findings demonstrate that FUS-dependent motor degeneration is not due to loss of FUS function, but to the gain of toxic properties conferred by ALS mutations.

  8. Excitation functions for some Ne induced reactions with Holmium: incomplete fusion vs complete fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, Avinash; Kumar, Munish; Sharma, Anjali; Rizvi, I.A.; Ahamad, Tauseef; Ghugre, S.S.; Sinha, A.K.; Chaubey, A.K.

    2010-01-01

    Reactions induced by 20 Ne are expected to be considerably more complex than those of 12 C, and 16 O. As a part of the ongoing program to understand CF and ICF reaction mechanisms, it is of great interest to see whether the same experimental technique yield similarly valuable information for 20 Ne induced reactions. In this present work an attempt has been made to measure the excitation functions for fifteen evaporation residues (ERs) identified in the interaction of 20 Ne + 165 Ho system in the energy range 4 -7 MeV/A

  9. Dual-function radiation sensitizers and bioreductive drugs: factors affecting cellular uptake and sensitizing efficiency in analogues of RSU 1069

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walling, J.; Stratford, I.J.; Adams, G.E.; Stephens, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    Alkyl aziridine analogues of the hypoxic cell radiosensitizer RSU 1069 have been synthesized and one, RB 7040, containing tetramethyl substituted aziridine, is a more efficient sensitizer in vitro than RSU 1069 (Ahmed et al., 1986). The extent to which variation in drug uptake can influence the sensitizing efficiency of RSU 1069 and its analogues has been investigated by determining cellular uptake as a function of pH of extracellular medium (pHsub(e)) over the range 5.4-8.4. Following exposure of V79 cells for 1 h at room temperature, the ratio of intra-to extracellular concentration (Ci/Ce) was near unity at pH 5.4. Increasing pHsub(e) to 8.4 resulted in no change in the ratio Ci/Ce for RSU 1069 (pKsub(a) = 6.04). Values of Ci/Ce increased three-fold for RSU 1165 (pKsub(a) 7.38) and eleven-fold for RB 7040 (pKsub(a) = 8.45). Radiosensitization by RSU 1069 showed little dependence on pHsub(e) whereas increasing pH caused an apparent increase in sensitizing efficiency of both RSU 1165 and RB 7040. When enhancement ratios for sensitization were normalized to take account of the effect of extracellular pH on drug uptake, efficiency of sensitization was independent of pHsub(e). (author)

  10. Measurement precision and efficiency of multidimensional computer adaptive testing of physical functioning using the pediatric evaluation of disability inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Stephen M; Ni, Pengsheng; Ludlow, Larry H; Fragala-Pinkham, Maria A

    2006-09-01

    To compare the measurement efficiency and precision of a multidimensional computer adaptive testing (M-CAT) application to a unidimensional CAT (U-CAT) comparison using item bank data from 2 of the functional skills scales of the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI). Using existing PEDI mobility and self-care item banks, we compared the stability of item calibrations and model fit between unidimensional and multidimensional Rasch models and compared the efficiency and precision of the U-CAT- and M-CAT-simulated assessments to a random draw of items. Pediatric rehabilitation hospital and clinics. Clinical and normative samples. Not applicable. Not applicable. The M-CAT had greater levels of precision and efficiency than the separate mobility and self-care U-CAT versions when using a similar number of items for each PEDI subdomain. Equivalent estimation of mobility and self-care scores can be achieved with a 25% to 40% item reduction with the M-CAT compared with the U-CAT. M-CAT applications appear to have both precision and efficiency advantages compared with separate U-CAT assessments when content subdomains have a high correlation. Practitioners may also realize interpretive advantages of reporting test score information for each subdomain when separate clinical inferences are desired.

  11. Naringin Improves Neuronal Insulin Signaling, Brain Mitochondrial Function, and Cognitive Function in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongmei; Yan, Junqiang; Chen, Jing; Wu, Wenlan; Zhu, Xiaoying; Wang, Yong

    2015-10-01

    The epidemic and experimental studies have confirmed that the obesity induced by high-fat diet not only caused neuronal insulin resistance, but also induced brain mitochondrial dysfunction as well as learning impairment in mice. Naringin has been reported to posses biological functions which are beneficial to human cognitions, but its protective effects on HFD-induced cognitive deficits and underlying mechanisms have not been well characterized. In the present study Male C57BL/6 J mice were fed either a control or high-fat diet for 20 weeks and then randomized into four groups treated with their respective diets including control diet, control diet + naringin, high-fat diet (HFD), and high-fat diet + naringin (HFDN). The behavioral performance was assessed by using novel object recognition test and Morris water maze test. Hippocampal mitochondrial parameters were analyzed. Then the protein levels of insulin signaling pathway and the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the hippocampus were detected by Western blot method. Our results showed that oral administration of naringin significantly improved the learning and memory abilities as evidenced by increasing recognition index by 52.5% in the novel object recognition test and inducing a 1.05-fold increase in the crossing-target number in the probe test, and ameliorated mitochondrial dysfunction in mice caused by HFD consumption. Moreover, naringin significantly enhanced insulin signaling pathway as indicated by a 34.5% increase in the expression levels of IRS-1, a 47.8% decrease in the p-IRS-1, a 1.43-fold increase in the p-Akt, and a 1.89-fold increase in the p-GSK-3β in the hippocampus of the HFDN mice versus HFD mice. Furthermore, the AMPK activity significantly increased in the naringin-treated (100 mg kg(-1) d(-1)) group. These findings suggest that an enhancement in insulin signaling and a decrease in mitochondrial dysfunction through the activation of AMPK may be one of the mechanisms that naringin

  12. Efficient estimation of dynamic density functions with an application to outlier detection

    KAUST Repository

    Qahtan, Abdulhakim Ali Ali; Zhang, Xiangliang; Wang, Suojin

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method to estimate the dynamic density over data streams, named KDE-Track as it is based on a conventional and widely used Kernel Density Estimation (KDE) method. KDE-Track can efficiently estimate the density with linear complexity by using interpolation on a kernel model, which is incrementally updated upon the arrival of streaming data. Both theoretical analysis and experimental validation show that KDE-Track outperforms traditional KDE and a baseline method Cluster-Kernels on estimation accuracy of the complex density structures in data streams, computing time and memory usage. KDE-Track is also demonstrated on timely catching the dynamic density of synthetic and real-world data. In addition, KDE-Track is used to accurately detect outliers in sensor data and compared with two existing methods developed for detecting outliers and cleaning sensor data. © 2012 ACM.

  13. Development of functional nano-particle layer for highly efficient OLED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Min-Hoi; Choi, Haechul; Choi, Yoonseuk

    2015-12-01

    Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) are now widely commercialized in market due to many advantages such as possibility of making thin or flexible devices. Nevertheless there are still several things to obtain the high quality flexible OLEDs, one of the most important issues is the light extraction of the device. It is known that OLEDs have the typical light loss such as the waveguide loss, plasmon absorption loss and internal total reflection. In this paper, we demonstrate the one-step processed light scattering films with aluminum oxide nano-particles and polystyrene matrix composite to achieve highly efficient OLEDs. Optical characteristics and surface roughness of light scattering film was optimized by changing the mixing concentration of Al2O3 nano-particles and investigated with the atomic force microscopy and hazemeter, respectively.

  14. Resveratrol efficiently improves pulmonary function via stabilizing mast cells in a rat intestinal injury model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaolei; Zhao, Weicheng; Hu, Dan; Han, Xue; Wang, Hanbin; Yang, Jianyu; Xu, Yang; Li, Yuantao; Yao, Weifeng; Chen, Chaojin

    2017-09-15

    Intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (IIR) leads to acute lung injury (ALI) distally by aggravating pulmonary oxidative stress. Resveratrol is effective in attenuating ALI through its antioxidant capacity. This study aimed to determine the effects of resveratrol on IIR-induced ALI and to explore the role of mast cells (MCs) activation in a rat model of IIR. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to IIR by occluding the superior mesenteric artery for 60min followed by 4-hour reperfusion. Resveratrol was intraperitoneally injected at a dose of 15mg/kg for 5days before IIR. MCs stabilizer/inhibitor cromolyn sodium and degranulator compound 48/80 were used to explore the interaction between resveratrol and MCs. Lung tissues were collected for pathological detection and MCs staining. Pulmonary protein expression of surfactant protein-C (SP-C), tryptase, p47 phox and gp91 phox (two NADPH oxidase subunits), ICAM-1(intercellular adhesion molecule-1) and P-selectin were detected. The levels of oxidative stress markers (SOD, MDA, H 2 O 2 and MPO) and β-hexosaminidase were also measured. At the end of IIR, lung injury was significantly increased and was associated with decreased expression of SP-C and increased lung oxidative stress. Increased inflammation as well as activation of MCs was also observed in the lungs after IIR. All these changes were prevented or reversed by resveratrol pretreatment or MCs inhibition with cromolyn sodium. However, these protective effects of resveratrol or cromolyn sodium were reduced by MCs degranulator compound 48/80. These findings reveal that resveratrol attenuates IIR-induced ALI by reducing NADPH oxidase protein expression and inflammation through stabilizing MCs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Screened exchange hybrid density functional for accurate and efficient structures and interaction energies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandenburg, Jan Gerit; Caldeweyher, Eike; Grimme, Stefan

    2016-06-21

    We extend the recently introduced PBEh-3c global hybrid density functional [S. Grimme et al., J. Chem. Phys., 2015, 143, 054107] by a screened Fock exchange variant based on the Henderson-Janesko-Scuseria exchange hole model. While the excellent performance of the global hybrid is maintained for small covalently bound molecules, its performance for computed condensed phase mass densities is further improved. Most importantly, a speed up of 30 to 50% can be achieved and especially for small orbital energy gap cases, the method is numerically much more robust. The latter point is important for many applications, e.g., for metal-organic frameworks, organic semiconductors, or protein structures. This enables an accurate density functional based electronic structure calculation of a full DNA helix structure on a single core desktop computer which is presented as an example in addition to comprehensive benchmark results.

  16. An efficient and accurate method to obtain the energy-dependent Green function for general potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, T; Heller, E J; Parrott, R E

    2008-01-01

    Time-dependent quantum mechanics provides an intuitive picture of particle propagation in external fields. Semiclassical methods link the classical trajectories of particles with their quantum mechanical propagation. Many analytical results and a variety of numerical methods have been developed to solve the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. The time-dependent methods work for nearly arbitrarily shaped potentials, including sources and sinks via complex-valued potentials. Many quantities are measured at fixed energy, which is seemingly not well suited for a time-dependent formulation. Very few methods exist to obtain the energy-dependent Green function for complicated potentials without resorting to ensemble averages or using certain lead-in arrangements. Here, we demonstrate in detail a time-dependent approach, which can accurately and effectively construct the energy-dependent Green function for very general potentials. The applications of the method are numerous, including chemical, mesoscopic, and atomic physics

  17. Application of independent component analysis for speech-music separation using an efficient score function estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pishravian, Arash; Aghabozorgi Sahaf, Masoud Reza

    2012-12-01

    In this paper speech-music separation using Blind Source Separation is discussed. The separating algorithm is based on the mutual information minimization where the natural gradient algorithm is used for minimization. In order to do that, score function estimation from observation signals (combination of speech and music) samples is needed. The accuracy and the speed of the mentioned estimation will affect on the quality of the separated signals and the processing time of the algorithm. The score function estimation in the presented algorithm is based on Gaussian mixture based kernel density estimation method. The experimental results of the presented algorithm on the speech-music separation and comparing to the separating algorithm which is based on the Minimum Mean Square Error estimator, indicate that it can cause better performance and less processing time

  18. Functional MRI neurofeedback training on connectivity between two regions induces long-lasting changes in intrinsic functional network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukuda eMegumi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Motor or perceptual learning is known to influence functional connectivity between brain regions and induce short-term changes in the intrinsic functional networks revealed as correlations in slow blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD signal fluctuations. However, no cause-and-effect relationship has been elucidated between a specific change in connectivity and a long-term change in global networks. Here, we examine the hypothesis that functional connectivity (i.e. temporal correlation between two regions is increased and preserved for a long time when two regions are simultaneously activated or deactivated. Using the connectivity-neurofeedback training paradigm, subjects successfully learned to increase the correlation of activity between the lateral parietal and primary motor areas, regions that belong to different intrinsic networks and negatively correlated before training under the resting conditions. Furthermore, whole-brain hypothesis-free analysis as well as functional network analyses demonstrated that the correlation in the resting state between these areas as well as the correlation between the intrinsic networks that include the areas increased for at least two months. These findings indicate that the connectivity-neurofeedback training can cause long-term changes in intrinsic connectivity and that intrinsic networks can be shaped by experience-driven modulation of regional correlation.

  19. Zirconium, calcium, and strontium contents in magnesium based biodegradable alloys modulate the efficiency of implant-induced osseointegration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushahary, Dolly; Sravanthi, Ragamouni; Li, Yuncang; Kumar, Mahesh J; Harishankar, Nemani; Hodgson, Peter D; Wen, Cuie; Pande, Gopal

    2013-01-01

    Development of new biodegradable implants and devices is necessary to meet the increasing needs of regenerative orthopedic procedures. An important consideration while formulating new implant materials is that they should physicochemically and biologically mimic bone-like properties. In earlier studies, we have developed and characterized magnesium based biodegradable alloys, in particular magnesium-zirconium (Mg-Zr) alloys. Here we have reported the biological properties of four Mg-Zr alloys containing different quantities of strontium or calcium. The alloys were implanted in small cavities made in femur bones of New Zealand White rabbits, and the quantitative and qualitative assessments of newly induced bone tissue were carried out. A total of 30 experimental animals, three for each implant type, were studied, and bone induction was assessed by histological, immunohistochemical and radiological methods; cavities in the femurs with no implants and observed for the same period of time were kept as controls. Our results showed that Mg-Zr alloys containing appropriate quantities of strontium were more efficient in inducing good quality mineralized bone than other alloys. Our results have been discussed in the context of physicochemical and biological properties of the alloys, and they could be very useful in determining the nature of future generations of biodegradable orthopedic implants. PMID:23976848

  20. Cold inducible promoter driven Cre-lox system proved to be highly efficient for marker gene excision in transgenic barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Éva, Csaba; Téglás, Flóra; Zelenyánszki, Helga; Tamás, Cecília; Juhász, Angéla; Mészáros, Klára; Tamás, László

    2018-01-10

    A Cre-lox based auto-excision strategy has been adapted for barley, capable of cre and selectable marker gene (SMG) removal. The cold inducible wheat promoter called wcs120 was utilised for driving Cre expression. The binary vector was carrying the transgene (uidA) and a so called 'recombination cassette' flanked by the lox sequences. This part included both the recombinase gene and the SMG (bar) under the control of a constitutive promoter. T 0 , T 1 and T 2 transgenic plants were subjected to low temperature (at 4°C, 10°C and 12°C) at different developmental stages to induce recombination. The presence of uidA, cre, and bar genes and recombination footprints were studied by PCR and DNA sequencing, while cre transcription was followed by qRT-PCR. These analyses indicated that, cold treatment of the germinating seeds (4°C for 3days) followed by plant growing at higher temperature (24°C) has been the most efficient (90-100%), and this treatment lead to heritable changes in the genome. Thermal separation of Cre accumulation (at low temperature) from Cre enzyme activity (at higher temperature) could have prevented the premature excision of its own encoding gene, and lead to high expression level thereby increasing recombination frequency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Functional and Structural Neuroplasticity Induced by Short-Term Tactile Training Based on Braille Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debowska, Weronika; Wolak, Tomasz; Nowicka, Anna; Kozak, Anna; Szwed, Marcin; Kossut, Malgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Neuroplastic changes induced by sensory learning have been recognized within the cortices of specific modalities as well as within higher ordered multimodal areas. The interplay between these areas is not fully understood, particularly in the case of somatosensory learning. Here we examined functional and structural changes induced by short-term tactile training based of Braille reading, a task that requires both significant tactile expertise and mapping of tactile input onto multimodal representations. Subjects with normal vision were trained for 3 weeks to read Braille exclusively by touch and scanned before and after training, while performing a same-different discrimination task on Braille characters and meaningless characters. Functional and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging sequences were used to assess resulting changes. The strongest training-induced effect was found in the primary somatosensory cortex (SI), where we observed bilateral augmentation in activity accompanied by an increase in fractional anisotropy (FA) within the contralateral SI. Increases of white matter fractional anisotropy were also observed in the secondary somatosensory area (SII) and the thalamus. Outside of somatosensory system, changes in both structure and function were found in i.e., the fusiform gyrus, the medial frontal gyri and the inferior parietal lobule. Our results provide evidence for functional remodeling of the somatosensory pathway and higher ordered multimodal brain areas occurring as a result of short-lasting tactile learning, and add to them a novel picture of extensive white matter plasticity.

  2. Investigating Gene Function in Cereal Rust Fungi by Plant-Mediated Virus-Induced Gene Silencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panwar, Vinay; Bakkeren, Guus

    2017-01-01

    Cereal rust fungi are destructive pathogens, threatening grain production worldwide. Targeted breeding for resistance utilizing host resistance genes has been effective. However, breakdown of resistance occurs frequently and continued efforts are needed to understand how these fungi overcome resistance and to expand the range of available resistance genes. Whole genome sequencing, transcriptomic and proteomic studies followed by genome-wide computational and comparative analyses have identified large repertoire of genes in rust fungi among which are candidates predicted to code for pathogenicity and virulence factors. Some of these genes represent defence triggering avirulence effectors. However, functions of most genes still needs to be assessed to understand the biology of these obligate biotrophic pathogens. Since genetic manipulations such as gene deletion and genetic transformation are not yet feasible in rust fungi, performing functional gene studies is challenging. Recently, Host-induced gene silencing (HIGS) has emerged as a useful tool to characterize gene function in rust fungi while infecting and growing in host plants. We utilized Barley stripe mosaic virus-mediated virus induced gene silencing (BSMV-VIGS) to induce HIGS of candidate rust fungal genes in the wheat host to determine their role in plant-fungal interactions. Here, we describe the methods for using BSMV-VIGS in wheat for functional genomics study in cereal rust fungi.

  3. A Virus-Induced Assay for Functional Dissection and Analysis of Monocot and Dicot Flowering Time Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Cheng; Chen, Weiwei; Shen, Jiajia; Cheng, Linming; Akande, Femi; Zhang, Ke; Yuan, Chen; Li, Chunyang; Zhang, Pengcheng; Shi, Nongnong; Cheng, Qi; Liu, Yule; Jackson, Stephen; Hong, Yiguo

    2017-06-01

    Virus-induced flowering (VIF) uses virus vectors to express Flowering Locus T ( FT ) to induce flowering in plants. This approach has recently attracted wide interest for its practical applications in accelerating breeding in crops and woody fruit trees. However, the insight into VIF and its potential as a powerful tool for dissecting florigenic proteins remained to be elucidated. Here, we describe the mechanism and further applications of Potato virus X (PVX)-based VIF in the short-day Nicotiana tabacum cultivar Maryland Mammoth. Ectopic delivery of Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) AtFT by PVX/AtFT did not induce the expression of the endogenous FT ortholog NtFT4 ; however, it was sufficient to trigger flowering in Maryland Mammoth plants grown under noninductive long-day conditions. Infected tobacco plants developed no systemic symptoms, and the PVX-based VIF did not cause transgenerational flowering. We showed that the PVX-based VIF is a much more rapid method to examine the impacts of single amino acid mutations on AtFT for floral induction than making individual transgenic Arabidopsis lines for each mutation. We also used the PVX-based VIF to demonstrate that adding a His- or FLAG-tag to the N or C terminus of AtFT could affect its florigenic activity and that this system can be applied to assay the function of FT genes from heterologous species, including tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum ) SFT and rice ( Oryza sativa ) Hd3a Thus, the PVX-based VIF represents a simple and efficient system to identify individual amino acids that are essential for FT-mediated floral induction and to test the ability of mono- and dicotyledonous FT genes and FT fusion proteins to induce flowering. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Efficient Server-Aided Secure Two-Party Function Evaluation with Applications to Genomic Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-14

    sense that they can be used to securely evaluate arbitrary functions and offer attrac- tive performance compared to the state of the art . We apply the...seconds. The performance favor- ably compares to the state of the art (as detailed in section 7), in some cases achieving orders of magnitude...148 Table 1. Complexity of constructions in prior and our work. Party Communication Sym. key/hash op . Public key operations Security model [38], A O

  5. Enhancing efficient functioning of the nordic electricity market. Summary and conclusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-02-01

    In September 2004, Nordic Council of Ministers (NCM) in their meeting in Akureyri, Iceland, assessed the state of the Nordic electricity market. The Ministers acknowledged that the market has proved it is well functioning in many respects, however, further development of the Nordic electricity market is needed, i.e. towards a regional market without borders. The Nordic Transmission System Operators (TSOs) were asked to study how a further co-ordination of the system responsibility, a joint organizing and financing of the grid investments and a handling of peak load situations can be established in the Nordic countries. In this report, the main focus is on market-related tasks within system responsibility that are market-related and may have an effect on the functioning of the market. The report covers the following issues: definition of the system responsibility and role of TSOs, harmonization of operational rules and practices in order to improve functioning of the market, TSOs' collaboration in disturbances and shortage situations and joint Nordic transmission investments. Furthermore, the report summarizes the concrete actions taken by the TSOs in strengthening of the market mechanisms in peak load situations. (BA)

  6. Enhancing efficient functioning of the nordic electricity market. Summary and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-02-01

    In September 2004, Nordic Council of Ministers (NCM) in their meeting in Akureyri, Iceland, assessed the state of the Nordic electricity market. The Ministers acknowledged that the market has proved it is well functioning in many respects, however, further development of the Nordic electricity market is needed, i.e. towards a regional market without borders. The Nordic Transmission System Operators (TSOs) were asked to study how a further co-ordination of the system responsibility, a joint organizing and financing of the grid investments and a handling of peak load situations can be established in the Nordic countries. In this report, the main focus is on market-related tasks within system responsibility that are market-related and may have an effect on the functioning of the market. The report covers the following issues: definition of the system responsibility and role of TSOs, harmonization of operational rules and practices in order to improve functioning of the market, TSOs' collaboration in disturbances and shortage situations and joint Nordic transmission investments. Furthermore, the report summarizes the concrete actions taken by the TSOs in strengthening of the market mechanisms in peak load situations. (BA)

  7. Magnetic exchange couplings from constrained density functional theory: an efficient approach utilizing analytic derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jordan J; Peralta, Juan E

    2011-11-14

    We introduce a method for evaluating magnetic exchange couplings based on the constrained density functional theory (C-DFT) approach of Rudra, Wu, and Van Voorhis [J. Chem. Phys. 124, 024103 (2006)]. Our method shares the same physical principles as C-DFT but makes use of the fact that the electronic energy changes quadratically and bilinearly with respect to the constraints in the range of interest. This allows us to use coupled perturbed Kohn-Sham spin density functional theory to determine approximately the corrections to the energy of the different spin configurations and construct a priori the relevant energy-landscapes obtained by constrained spin density functional theory. We assess this methodology in a set of binuclear transition-metal complexes and show that it reproduces very closely the results of C-DFT. This demonstrates a proof-of-concept for this method as a potential tool for studying a number of other molecular phenomena. Additionally, routes to improving upon the limitations of this method are discussed. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  8. Image features dependant correlation-weighting function for efficient PRNU based source camera identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Mayank; Gupta, Bhupendra

    2018-04-01

    For source camera identification (SCI), photo response non-uniformity (PRNU) has been widely used as the fingerprint of the camera. The PRNU is extracted from the image by applying a de-noising filter then taking the difference between the original image and the de-noised image. However, it is observed that intensity-based features and high-frequency details (edges and texture) of the image, effect quality of the extracted PRNU. This effects correlation calculation and creates problems in SCI. For solving this problem, we propose a weighting function based on image features. We have experimentally identified image features (intensity and high-frequency contents) effect on the estimated PRNU, and then develop a weighting function which gives higher weights to image regions which give reliable PRNU and at the same point it gives comparatively less weights to the image regions which do not give reliable PRNU. Experimental results show that the proposed weighting function is able to improve the accuracy of SCI up to a great extent. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Impaired thromboxane receptor dimerization reduces signaling efficiency: A potential mechanism for reduced platelet function in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capra, Valérie; Mauri, Mario; Guzzi, Francesca; Busnelli, Marta; Accomazzo, Maria Rosa; Gaussem, Pascale; Nisar, Shaista P; Mundell, Stuart J; Parenti, Marco; Rovati, G Enrico

    2017-01-15

    Thromboxane A 2 is a potent mediator of inflammation and platelet aggregation exerting its effects through the activation of a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), termed TP. Although the existence of dimers/oligomers in Class A GPCRs is widely accepted, their functional significance still remains controversial. Recently, we have shown that TPα and TPβ homo-/hetero-dimers interact through an interface of residues in transmembrane domain 1 (TM1) whose disruption impairs dimer formation. Here, biochemical and pharmacological characterization of this dimer deficient mutant (DDM) in living cells indicates a significant impairment in its response to agonists. Interestingly, two single loss-of-function TPα variants, namely W29C and N42S recently identified in two heterozygous patients affected by bleeding disorders, match some of the residues mutated in our DDM. These two naturally occurring variants display a reduced potency to TP agonists and are characterized by impaired dimer formation in transfected HEK-293T cells. These findings provide proofs that lack of homo-dimer formation is a crucial process for reduced TPα function in vivo, and might represent one molecular mechanism through which platelet TPα receptor dysfunction affects the patient(s) carrying these mutations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A high efficient nanostructured filter based on functionalized carbon nanotube to reduce the tobacco-specific nitrosamines, NNK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoosefian, Mehdi

    2018-03-01

    Filtration efficiency of Pd and Ni loaded single-walled carbon nanotubes via the applicability of the adsorption process for the removal NNK, the tobacco-specific nitrosamines, from tobacco smoke were investigated using first-principles calculations. The thermal and mechanical stability of designed nanostructured filter could allow them to compete with typical commercially used. It is expected that the removal efficiency of the proposed nanostructured filter could also provide a promising adsorbent candidate in removing the environmental pollutant. The suggested separation mechanism in this study was discussed with frontier molecular orbital theory, natural bond orbital (NBO) analyses and the density of states in the density functional theory framework. Finally, by the Bader theory of atoms in molecules (AIM), the topological properties of the electron density contributions for intermolecular and intramolecular interactions has been analyzed. Calculations show that the transition metal-loaded SWCNT exhibit strong affinity toward the NNK molecules.

  11. Proton conductive Pt-Co nanoparticles anchoring on citric acid functionalized graphene for efficient oxygen reduction reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yige; Liu, Jingjun; Wu, Yijun; Wang, Feng

    2017-08-01

    Designing highly efficient electro-catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) has been regarded as a demanding task in the development of renewable energy sources. However, little attention has been paid on improving Pt-based catalysts by promoting proton transfer from the electrolyte solutions to the catalyst layer at the cathode. Herein, we design proton conductive Pt-Co alloy nanoparticles anchoring on citric acid functionalized graphene (Pt-Co/CA-G) catalysts for efficient ORR. The facile modification approach for graphene can introduce oxygenated functional groups on the graphene surface to promote proton transfer as well as keeping the high electron conductivity without destroying the graphene original structure. The electrochemical results show that the Pt-Co/CA-G catalyst exhibits more excellent ORR activity and stability than the commercial Pt/C catalyst, which can be attributed to its improved proton transfer ability. The fast proton transfer comes from the hydrogen-bonding networks formed by the interaction between the oxygenated functional groups and water molecules. This work provides not only a novel and simple approach to modify graphene but also an effective strategy to improve Pt-based catalysts for the ORR.

  12. Dual functional MoS2/graphene interlayer as an efficient polysulfide barrier for advanced lithium-sulfur batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Pengqian; Liu, Dequan; Liu, Zhengjiao; Shang, Xiaonan; Liu, Qiming; He, Deyan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Dual functional MoS 2 /graphene interlayer was first used as an efficient polysulfide-trapping shield for lithium-sulfur batteries. •MoS 2 /graphene interlayer shows strong chemical interactions with LiPSs. •MoS 2 /graphene interlayer forms a 3D network to facilitate electron and ion transfer during the discharge-charge processes. •The resultant lithium-sulfur batteries exhibit a superior rate capacity and improved cycling capacity. -- Abstract: A dual functional interlayer consisted of composited two-dimensional MoS 2 and graphene has been developed as an efficient polysulfide barrier for lithium-sulfur batteries (LSBs). With such a configuration, LSBs show a superior rate capacity and improved cycling capacity. The excellent electrochemical performance can be attributed to the strong bonding interactions between the MoS 2 /graphene interlayer and the formed lithium polysulfides (LiPSs) as well as the good electrical conductivity of the MoS 2 /graphene composite. The MoS 2 /graphene interlayer can physically block LiPSs by the graphene nanosheets and chemically suppress the dissolution of LiPSs by the polar MoS 2 nanoflowers. Such a dual functional interlayer further provides a good contact with the surface of the sulfur cathode, acts as an upper current collector and greatly improves the sulfur utilization and the rate capability of LSBs.

  13. Repair of endogenous and ionizing radiation-induced DNA damages: mechanisms and biological functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boiteux, S.

    2002-01-01

    The cellular DNA is continuously exposed to endogenous and exogenous stress. Oxidative stress due to cellular metabolism is the major cause of endogenous DNA damage. On the other hand, ionizing radiation (IR) is an important exogenous stress. Both induce similar DNA damages: damaged bases, abasic sites and strand breakage. Most of these lesions are lethal and/or mutagenic. The survival of the cell is managed by efficient and accurate DNA repair mechanisms that remove lesions before their replication or transcription. DNA repair pathways involved in the removal of IR-induced lesions are briefly described. Base excision repair (BER) is mostly involved in the removal of base damage, abasic sites and single strand breaks. In contrast, DNA double strand breaks are mostly repaired by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) or homologous recombination (HR). How DNA repair pathways prevent cancer process is also discussed. (author)

  14. Theoretical determination of gamma spectrometry systems efficiency based on probability functions. Application to self-attenuation correction factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrera, Manuel, E-mail: manuel.barrera@uca.es [Escuela Superior de Ingeniería, University of Cadiz, Avda, Universidad de Cadiz 10, 11519 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Suarez-Llorens, Alfonso [Facultad de Ciencias, University of Cadiz, Avda, Rep. Saharaui s/n, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Casas-Ruiz, Melquiades; Alonso, José J.; Vidal, Juan [CEIMAR, University of Cadiz, Avda, Rep. Saharaui s/n, 11510 Puerto Real, Cádiz (Spain)

    2017-05-11

    A generic theoretical methodology for the calculation of the efficiency of gamma spectrometry systems is introduced in this work. The procedure is valid for any type of source and detector and can be applied to determine the full energy peak and the total efficiency of any source-detector system. The methodology is based on the idea of underlying probability of detection, which describes the physical model for the detection of the gamma radiation at the particular studied situation. This probability depends explicitly on the direction of the gamma radiation, allowing the use of this dependence the development of more realistic and complex models than the traditional models based on the point source integration. The probability function that has to be employed in practice must reproduce the relevant characteristics of the detection process occurring at the particular studied situation. Once the probability is defined, the efficiency calculations can be performed in general by using numerical methods. Monte Carlo integration procedure is especially useful to perform the calculations when complex probability functions are used. The methodology can be used for the direct determination of the efficiency and also for the calculation of corrections that require this determination of the efficiency, as it is the case of coincidence summing, geometric or self-attenuation corrections. In particular, we have applied the procedure to obtain some of the classical self-attenuation correction factors usually employed to correct for the sample attenuation of cylindrical geometry sources. The methodology clarifies the theoretical basis and approximations associated to each factor, by making explicit the probability which is generally hidden and implicit to each model. It has been shown that most of these self-attenuation correction factors can be derived by using a common underlying probability, having this probability a growing level of complexity as it reproduces more precisely

  15. Thermo-responsive cell culture carrier: Effects on macrophage functionality and detachment efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennert, Knut; Nitschke, Mirko; Wallert, Maria; Keune, Natalie; Raasch, Martin; Lorkowski, Stefan; Mosig, Alexander S

    2017-01-01

    Harvesting cultivated macrophages for tissue engineering purposes by enzymatic digestion of cell adhesion molecules can potentially result in unintended activation, altered function, or behavior of these cells. Thermo-responsive polymer is a promising tool that allows for gentle macrophage detachment without artificial activation prior to subculture within engineered tissue constructs. We therefore characterized different species of thermo-responsive polymers for their suitability as cell substrate and to mediate gentle macrophage detachment by temperature shift. Primary human monocyte- and THP-1-derived macrophages were cultured on thermo-responsive polymers and characterized for phagocytosis and cytokine secretion in response to lipopolysaccharide stimulation. We found that both cell types differentially respond in dependence of culture and stimulation on thermo-responsive polymers. In contrast to THP-1 macrophages, primary monocyte-derived macrophages showed no signs of impaired viability, artificial activation, or altered functionality due to culture on thermo-responsive polymers compared to conventional cell culture. Our study demonstrates that along with commercially available UpCell carriers, two other thermo-responsive polymers based on poly(vinyl methyl ether) blends are attractive candidates for differentiation and gentle detachment of primary monocyte-derived macrophages. In summary, we observed similar functionality and viability of primary monocyte-derived macrophages cultured on thermo-responsive polymers compared to standard cell culture surfaces. While this first generation of custom-made thermo-responsive polymers does not yet outperform standard culture approaches, our results are very promising and provide the basis for exploiting the unique advantages offered by custom-made thermo-responsive polymers to further improve macrophage culture and recovery in the future, including the covalent binding of signaling molecules and the reduction of

  16. High-efficiency organic solar cells based on end-functional-group-modified poly(3-hexylthiophene)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Soo; Lee, Ji Hwang [School of Environmental Science and Engineering Polymer Research Institute, Pohang University of Science and Engineering Pohang, 790-784 (Korea); Lee, Youngmin; Park, Jong Hwan; Kim, Jin Kon; Cho, Kilwon [Department of Chemical Engineering Polymer Research Institute, Pohang University of Science and Engineering Pohang, 790-784 (Korea)

    2010-03-26

    Photovoltaic devices of end-functional-group-modified poly 3-(hexylthiophene)/[6,6]-phenyl-C{sub 61} butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM) are fabricated with thermal annealing. The surface energies between donor and acceptor were matched by varying the end group, which can be used to control vertical and horizontal phase separation in the active layer, leading mixed nanomorphology with optimized phase separation, low series resistance, and high performance for solar cell devices. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  17. Efficient Functionalization of Polyethylene Fibers for the Uranium Extraction from Seawater through Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neti, Venkata S. [Chemical; Das, Sadananda [Chemical; Brown, Suree [Department; Janke, Christopher J. [Materials; Kuo, Li-Jung [Marine; Gill, Gary A. [Marine; Dai, Sheng [Chemical; Department; Mayes, Richard T. [Chemical

    2017-09-14

    Brush-on-brush structures are proposed as one method to overcome support effects in grafted polymers. Utilizing glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) grafted on polyethylene (PE) fibers using radiation-induced graft polymerization (RIGP) provides a hydrophilic surface on the hydrophobic PE. When integrated with atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), the grafting of acrylonitrile (AN) and hydroxyethyl acrylate (HEA) can be controlled and manipulated more easily than with RIGP. Poly(acrylonitrile)-co-poly(hydroxyethyl acrylate) chains were grown via ATRP on PE-GMA fibers to generate an adsorbent for the extraction of uranium from seawater. The prepared adsorbents in this study demonstrated promise (159.9 g- U/kg of adsorbent) in laboratory screening tests using a high uranium concentration brine and 1.24 g-U/Kg of adsorbent in the filtered natural seawater in 21-days. The modest capacity in 21- days exceeds previous efforts to generate brush-on-brush adsorbents by ATRP while manipulating the apparent surface hydrophilicity of the trunk material (PE).

  18. Functional vascular smooth muscle cells derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells via mesenchymal stem cell intermediates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, Vivek K.; Mistriotis, Panagiotis; Loh, Yuin-Han; Daley, George Q.; Andreadis, Stelios T.

    2012-01-01

    Aims Smooth muscle cells (SMC) play an important role in vascular homeostasis and disease. Although adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been used as a source of contractile SMC, they suffer from limited proliferation potential and culture senescence, particularly when originating from older donors. By comparison, human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) can provide an unlimited source of functional SMC for autologous cell-based therapies and for creating models of vascular disease. Our goal was to develop an efficient strategy to derive functional, contractile SMC from hiPSC. Methods and results We developed a robust, stage-wise, feeder-free strategy for hiPSC differentiation into functional SMC through an intermediate stage of multipotent MSC, which could be coaxed to differentiate into fat, bone, cartilage, and muscle. At this stage, the cells were highly proliferative and displayed higher clonogenic potential and reduced senescence when compared with parental hair follicle mesenchymal stem cells. In addition, when exposed to differentiation medium, the myogenic proteins such as α-smooth muscle actin, calponin, and myosin heavy chain were significantly upregulated and displayed robust fibrillar organization, suggesting the development of a contractile phenotype. Indeed, tissue constructs prepared from these cells exhibited high levels of contractility in response to receptor- and non-receptor-mediated agonists. Conclusion We developed an efficient stage-wise strategy that enabled hiPSC differentiation into contractile SMC through an intermediate population of clonogenic and multipotent MSC. The high yield of MSC and SMC derivation suggests that our strategy may facilitate an acquisition of the large numbers of cells required for regenerative medicine or for studying vascular disease pathophysiology. PMID:22941255

  19. Lesion-induced pseudo-dominance at functional magnetic resonance imaging: implications for preoperative assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmer, John L; Hacein-Bey, Lotfi; Mathews, Vincent P; Mueller, Wade M; DeYoe, Edgar A; Prost, Robert W; Meyer, Glenn A; Krouwer, Hendrikus G; Schmainda, Kathleen M

    2004-09-01

    To illustrate how lesion-induced neurovascular uncoupling at functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can mimic hemispheric dominance opposite the side of a lesion preoperatively. We retrospectively reviewed preoperative fMRI mapping data from 50 patients with focal brain abnormalities to establish patterns of hemispheric dominance of language, speech, visual, or motor system functions. Abnormalities included gliomas (31 patients), arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) (11 patients), other congenital lesions (4 patients), encephalomalacia (3 patients), and tumefactive encephalitis (1 patient). A laterality ratio of fMRI hemispheric dominance was compared with actual hemispheric dominance as verified by electrocortical stimulation, Wada testing, postoperative and posttreatment deficits, and/or lesion-induced deficits. fMRI activation maps were generated with cross-correlation (P frontal gyrus gliomas and in one patient with focal tumefactive meningoencephalitis, fMRI incorrectly suggested strong right hemispheric speech dominance. In two patients with lateral precentral gyrus region gliomas and one patient with a left central sulcus AVM, the fMRI pattern incorrectly suggested primary corticobulbar motor dominance contralateral to the side of the lesion. In a patient with a right superior frontal gyrus AVM, fMRI revealed pronounced left dominant supplementary motor area activity in response to a bilateral complex motor task, but right superior frontal gyrus perilesional hemorrhage and edema subsequently caused left upper-extremity plegia. Pathophysiological factors that might have caused neurovascular uncoupling and facilitated pseudo-dominance at fMRI in these patients included direct tumor infiltration, neovascularity, cerebrovascular inflammation, and AVM-induced hemodynamic effects. Sixteen patients had proven (1 patient), probable (2 patients), or possible (13 patients) but unproven lesion-induced homotopic cortical reorganization. Lesion-induced neurovascular

  20. Softwarization of Mobile Network Functions towards Agile and Energy Efficient 5G Architectures: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dlamini Thembelihle

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Future mobile networks (MNs are required to be flexible with minimal infrastructure complexity, unlike current ones that rely on proprietary network elements to offer their services. Moreover, they are expected to make use of renewable energy to decrease their carbon footprint and of virtualization technologies for improved adaptability and flexibility, thus resulting in green and self-organized systems. In this article, we discuss the application of software defined networking (SDN and network function virtualization (NFV technologies towards softwarization of the mobile network functions, taking into account different architectural proposals. In addition, we elaborate on whether mobile edge computing (MEC, a new architectural concept that uses NFV techniques, can enhance communication in 5G cellular networks, reducing latency due to its proximity deployment. Besides discussing existing techniques, expounding their pros and cons and comparing state-of-the-art architectural proposals, we examine the role of machine learning and data mining tools, analyzing their use within fully SDN- and NFV-enabled mobile systems. Finally, we outline the challenges and the open issues related to evolved packet core (EPC and MEC architectures.

  1. Snapin-regulated late endosomal transport is critical for efficient autophagy-lysosomal function in neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qian; Lu, Li; Tian, Jin-Hua; Zhu, Yi-Bing; Qiao, Haifa; Sheng, Zu-Hang

    2010-10-06

    Neuron maintenance and survival require late endocytic transport from distal processes to the soma where lysosomes are predominantly localized. Here, we report a role for Snapin in attaching dynein to late endosomes through its intermediate chain (DIC). snapin(-/-) neurons exhibit aberrant accumulation of immature lysosomes, clustering and impaired retrograde transport of late endosomes along processes, reduced lysosomal proteolysis due to impaired delivery of internalized proteins and hydrolase precursors from late endosomes to lysosomes, and impaired clearance of autolysosomes, combined with reduced neuron viability and neurodegeneration. The phenotypes are rescued by expressing the snapin transgene, but not the DIC-binding-defective Snapin-L99K mutant. Snapin overexpression in wild-type neurons enhances late endocytic transport and lysosomal function, whereas expressing the mutant defective in Snapin-DIC coupling shows a dominant-negative effect. Altogether, our study highlights new mechanistic insights into how Snapin-DIC coordinates retrograde transport and late endosomal-lysosomal trafficking critical for autophagy-lysosomal function, and thus neuronal homeostasis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Common effects of lithium and valproate on mitochondrial functions: protection against methamphetamine-induced mitochondrial damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Rosilla F; Wang, Yun; Yuan, Peixiong; Zhou, Rulun; Li, Xiaoxia; Alesci, Salvatore; Du, Jing; Manji, Husseini K

    2009-07-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction plays a critical role in the progression of a variety of neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders. Thus, enhancing mitochondrial function could potentially help ameliorate the impairments of neural plasticity and cellular resilience associated with a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders. A series of studies was undertaken to investigate the effects of mood stabilizers on mitochondrial function, and against mitochondrially mediated neurotoxicity. We found that long-term treatment with lithium and valproate (VPA) enhanced cell respiration rate. Furthermore, chronic treatment with lithium or VPA enhanced mitochondrial function as determined by mitochondrial membrane potential, and mitochondrial oxidation in SH-SY5Y cells. In-vivo studies showed that long-term treatment with lithium or VPA protected against methamphetamine (Meth)-induced toxicity at the mitochondrial level. Furthermore, these agents prevented the Meth-induced reduction of mitochondrial cytochrome c, the mitochondrial anti-apoptotic Bcl-2/Bax ratio, and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase (COX) activity. Oligoarray analysis demonstrated that the gene expression of several proteins related to the apoptotic pathway and mitochondrial functions were altered by Meth, and these changes were attenuated by treatment with lithium or VPA. One of the genes, Bcl-2, is a common target for lithium and VPA. Knock-down of Bcl-2 with specific Bcl-2 siRNA reduced the lithium- and VPA-induced increases in mitochondrial oxidation. These findings illustrate that lithium and VPA enhance mitochondrial function and protect against mitochondrially mediated toxicity. These agents may have potential clinical utility in the treatment of other diseases associated with impaired mitochondrial function, such as neurodegenerative diseases and schizophrenia.

  3. Efficient solution methodology for calibrating the hemodynamic model using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) measurements

    KAUST Repository

    Zambri, Brian

    2015-11-05

    Our aim is to propose a numerical strategy for retrieving accurately and efficiently the biophysiological parameters as well as the external stimulus characteristics corresponding to the hemodynamic mathematical model that describes changes in blood flow and blood oxygenation during brain activation. The proposed method employs the TNM-CKF method developed in [1], but in a prediction/correction framework. We present numerical results using both real and synthetic functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) measurements to highlight the performance characteristics of this computational methodology. © 2015 IEEE.

  4. Efficient solution methodology for calibrating the hemodynamic model using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) measurements

    KAUST Repository

    Zambri, Brian; Djellouli, Rabia; Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem

    2015-01-01

    Our aim is to propose a numerical strategy for retrieving accurately and efficiently the biophysiological parameters as well as the external stimulus characteristics corresponding to the hemodynamic mathematical model that describes changes in blood flow and blood oxygenation during brain activation. The proposed method employs the TNM-CKF method developed in [1], but in a prediction/correction framework. We present numerical results using both real and synthetic functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) measurements to highlight the performance characteristics of this computational methodology. © 2015 IEEE.

  5. Measurement-induced decoherence and Gaussian smoothing of the Wigner distribution function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Yong-Jin; Lee, Hai-Woong

    2003-01-01

    We study the problem of measurement-induced decoherence using the phase-space approach employing the Gaussian-smoothed Wigner distribution function. Our investigation is based on the notion that measurement-induced decoherence is represented by the transition from the Wigner distribution to the Gaussian-smoothed Wigner distribution with the widths of the smoothing function identified as measurement errors. We also compare the smoothed Wigner distribution with the corresponding distribution resulting from the classical analysis. The distributions we computed are the phase-space distributions for simple one-dimensional dynamical systems such as a particle in a square-well potential and a particle moving under the influence of a step potential, and the time-frequency distributions for high-harmonic radiation emitted from an atom irradiated by short, intense laser pulses

  6. Effects of modified constraint-induced movement therapy on reach-to-grasp movements and functional performance after chronic stroke: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, K-C; Wu, C-Y; Wei, T-H; Lee, C-Y; Liu, J-S

    2007-12-01

    To evaluate changes in (1) motor control characteristics of the hemiparetic hand during the performance of a functional reach-to-grasp task and (2) functional performance of daily activities in patients with stroke treated with modified constraint-induced movement therapy. Two-group randomized controlled trial with pretreatment and posttreatment measures. Rehabilitation clinics. Thirty-two chronic stroke patients (21 men, 11 women; mean age=57.9 years, range=43-81 years) 13-26 months (mean 16.3 months) after onset of a first-ever cerebrovascular accident. Thirty-two patients were randomized to receive modified constraint-induced movement therapy (restraint of the unaffected limb combined with intensive training of the affected limb) or traditional rehabilitation for three weeks. Kinematic analysis was used to assess motor control characteristics as patients reached to grasp a beverage can. Functional outcomes were evaluated using the Motor Activity Log and Functional Independence Measure. There were moderate and significant effects of modified constraint-induced movement therapy on some aspects of motor control of reach-to-grasp and on functional ability. The modified constraint-induced movement therapy group preplanned reaching and grasping (P=0.018) more efficiently and depended more on the feedforward control of reaching (P=0.046) than did the traditional rehabilitation group. The modified constraint-induced movement therapy group also showed significantly improved functional performance on the Motor Activity Log (Pcontrol strategy during goal-directed reaching, a possible mechanism for the improved movement performance of stroke patients undergoing this therapy.

  7. Handedness- and Brain Size-Related Efficiency Differences in Small-World Brain Networks: A Resting-State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Meiling; Wang, Junping; Liu, Feng; Chen, Heng; Lu, Fengmei; Wu, Guorong; Yu, Chunshui; Chen, Huafu

    2015-01-01

    The human brain has been described as a complex network, which integrates information with high efficiency. However, the relationships between the efficiency of human brain functional networks and handedness and brain size remain unclear. Twenty-one left-handed and 32 right-handed healthy subjects underwent a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan. The whole brain functional networks were constructed by thresholding Pearson correlation matrices of 90 cortical and subcortical...

  8. Monocytes can be induced by lipopolysaccharide-triggered T lymphocytes to express functional factor VII/VIIa protease activity

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    In the present study we demonstrate that human monocytes can be induced by the model stimulus, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), to produce and assemble on their surface functional Factor VII/VIIa. This protease was not induced in relatively purified monocytes alone following exposure to LPS; but was induced in the presence of Leu-3a positive helper/inducer T cells. The Factor VII/VIIa protease activity represented 35-40% of the potential initiating activity for the extrinsic coagulation pathway and ...

  9. Remeasurement and compilation of excitation function of proton induced reactions on iron for activation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takacs, S.; Vasvary, L.; Tarkanyi, F.

    1994-01-01

    Excitation functions of proton induced reactions on nat Fe(p, xn) 56 Co have been remeasured in the energy region up to 18 MeV using stacked foil technique and standard high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry at the Debrecen MGC-20E cyclotron. Compilation of the available data measured between 1959 and 1993 has been made. The corresponding excitation functions have been reviewed, critical comparison of all the available data was done to obtain the most accurate data set. The feasibility of the evaluated data set was checked by reproducing experimental calibration curves for TLA by calculation. (orig.)

  10. Opposite variations in maternal and neonatal thyroid function induced by iodine supplementation during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, S B; Laurberg, P

    2000-01-01

    pregnancy, and 95 took no artificial iodine supplementation. Iodine supplementation (+I) induced opposite variations in thyroid function in the mother and the fetus. In +I mothers, TSH was 7.6% lower than in mothers with no supplementation (P ... in the +I group (P caused by opposite shifts in TSH frequency distribution in mothers and neonates. The association between iodine supplementation and high serum TSH in the neonates was further substantiated by an inverse correlation between thyroglobulin and TSH in cord blood...

  11. Neuropathic Pain-like Alterations in Muscle Nociceptor Function Associated with Vibration-induced Muscle Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xiaojie; Green, Paul G.; Levine, Jon D.

    2010-01-01

    We recently developed a rodent model of the painful muscle disorders induced by occupational exposure to vibration. In the present study we used this model to evaluate the function of sensory neurons innervating the vibration-exposed gastrocnemius muscle. Activity of 74 vibration-exposed and 40 control nociceptors, with mechanical receptive fields in the gastrocnemius muscle, were recorded. In vibration-exposed rats ~15% of nociceptors demonstrated an intense and long-lasting barrage of actio...

  12. Myocardial Perfusion and Function Are Distinctly Altered by Sevoflurane Anesthesia in Diet-Induced Prediabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Brom, Charissa E; Boly, Chantal A; Bulte, Carolien S E; van den Akker, Rob F P; Kwekkeboom, Rick F J; Loer, Stephan A; Boer, Christa; Bouwman, R Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Preservation of myocardial perfusion during surgery is particularly important in patients with increased risk for perioperative complications, such as diabetes. Volatile anesthetics, like sevoflurane, have cardiodepressive effects and may aggravate cardiovascular complications. We investigated the effect of sevoflurane on myocardial perfusion and function in prediabetic rats. Rats were fed a western diet (WD; n = 18) or control diet (CD; n = 18) for 8 weeks and underwent (contrast) echocardiography to determine perfusion and function during baseline and sevoflurane exposure. Myocardial perfusion was estimated based on the product of microvascular filling velocity and blood volume. WD-feeding resulted in a prediabetic phenotype characterized by obesity, hyperinsulinemia, hyperlipidemia, glucose intolerance, and hyperglycemia. At baseline, WD-feeding impaired myocardial perfusion and systolic function compared to CD-feeding. Exposure of healthy rats to sevoflurane increased the microvascular filling velocity without altering myocardial perfusion but impaired systolic function. In prediabetic rats, sevoflurane did also not affect myocardial perfusion; however, it further impaired systolic function. Diet-induced prediabetes is associated with impaired myocardial perfusion and function in rats. While sevoflurane further impaired systolic function, it did not affect myocardial perfusion in prediabetic rats. Our findings suggest that sevoflurane anesthesia leads to uncoupling of myocardial perfusion and function, irrespective of the metabolic state.

  13. DIRECTIONS OF INCREASE OF EFFICIENCY OF FUNCTIONING OF THE INSTITUTION OF BANKRUPTCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonina Nikolaevna Ryakhovskaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a synthesis of the experience of foreign government and corporate procurement management. Set out key aspects of the organization of procurement for government and corporate needs, disclosed issues of centralization and decentralization of procurement, as well as given clarification of the concept of "procurement management system" and structured the main elements that make up this system. The purpose / goal. The purpose of the work is to study the nature and characteristics of the functioning of government and corporate experience in procurement management, identifying problems and prospects of its development. Methodology. To perform this work were used legal, comparative and statistical analysis methods. Results. As part of the presentation of the present article the author has examined the nature, objectives and stages of public and corporate procurement management.

  14. Efficient calculation of nuclear spin-rotation constants from auxiliary density functional theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuniga-Gutierrez, Bernardo, E-mail: bzuniga.51@gmail.com [Departamento de Ciencias Computacionales, Universidad de Guadalajara, Blvd. Marcelino García Barragán 1421, C.P. 44430 Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico); Camacho-Gonzalez, Monica [Universidad Tecnológica de Tecámac, División A2, Procesos Industriales, Carretera Federal México Pachuca Km 37.5, Col. Sierra Hermosa, C.P. 55740 Tecámac, Estado de México (Mexico); Bendana-Castillo, Alfonso [Universidad Tecnológica de Tecámac, División A3, Tecnologías de la Información y Comunicaciones, Carretera Federal México Pachuca Km 37.5, Col. Sierra Hermosa, C.P. 55740 Tecámac, Estado de México (Mexico); Simon-Bastida, Patricia [Universidad Tecnlógica de Tulancingo, División Electromecánica, Camino a Ahuehuetitla No. 301, Col. Las Presas, C.P. 43642 Tulancingo, Hidalgo (Mexico); Calaminici, Patrizia; Köster, Andreas M. [Departamento de Química, CINVESTAV, Avenida Instituto Politécnico Nacional 2508, A.P. 14-740, México D.F. 07000 (Mexico)

    2015-09-14

    The computation of the spin-rotation tensor within the framework of auxiliary density functional theory (ADFT) in combination with the gauge including atomic orbital (GIAO) scheme, to treat the gauge origin problem, is presented. For the spin-rotation tensor, the calculation of the magnetic shielding tensor represents the most demanding computational task. Employing the ADFT-GIAO methodology, the central processing unit time for the magnetic shielding tensor calculation can be dramatically reduced. In this work, the quality of spin-rotation constants obtained with the ADFT-GIAO methodology is compared with available experimental data as well as with other theoretical results at the Hartree-Fock and coupled-cluster level of theory. It is found that the agreement between the ADFT-GIAO results and the experiment is good and very similar to the ones obtained by the coupled-cluster single-doubles-perturbative triples-GIAO methodology. With the improved computational performance achieved, the computation of the spin-rotation tensors of large systems or along Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics trajectories becomes feasible in reasonable times. Three models of carbon fullerenes containing hundreds of atoms and thousands of basis functions are used for benchmarking the performance. Furthermore, a theoretical study of temperature effects on the structure and spin-rotation tensor of the H{sup 12}C–{sup 12}CH–DF complex is presented. Here, the temperature dependency of the spin-rotation tensor of the fluorine nucleus can be used to identify experimentally the so far unknown bent isomer of this complex. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time that temperature effects on the spin-rotation tensor are investigated.

  15. Efficient second order Algorithms for Function Approximation with Neural Networks. Application to Sextic Potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gougam, L.A.; Taibi, H.; Chikhi, A.; Mekideche-Chafa, F.

    2009-01-01

    The problem of determining the analytical description for a set of data arises in numerous sciences and applications and can be referred to as data modeling or system identification. Neural networks are a convenient means of representation because they are known to be universal approximates that can learn data. The desired task is usually obtained by a learning procedure which consists in adjusting the s ynaptic weights . For this purpose, many learning algorithms have been proposed to update these weights. The convergence for these learning algorithms is a crucial criterion for neural networks to be useful in different applications. The aim of the present contribution is to use a training algorithm for feed forward wavelet networks used for function approximation. The training is based on the minimization of the least-square cost function. The minimization is performed by iterative second order gradient-based methods. We make use of the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm to train the architecture of the chosen network and, then, the training procedure starts with a simple gradient method which is followed by a BFGS (Broyden, Fletcher, Glodfarb et Shanno) algorithm. The performances of the two algorithms are then compared. Our method is then applied to determine the energy of the ground state associated to a sextic potential. In fact, the Schrodinger equation does not always admit an exact solution and one has, generally, to solve it numerically. To this end, the sextic potential is, firstly, approximated with the above outlined wavelet network and, secondly, implemented into a numerical scheme. Our results are in good agreement with the ones found in the literature.

  16. Efficient calculation of nuclear spin-rotation constants from auxiliary density functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuniga-Gutierrez, Bernardo; Camacho-Gonzalez, Monica; Bendana-Castillo, Alfonso; Simon-Bastida, Patricia; Calaminici, Patrizia; Köster, Andreas M.

    2015-01-01

    The computation of the spin-rotation tensor within the framework of auxiliary density functional theory (ADFT) in combination with the gauge including atomic orbital (GIAO) scheme, to treat the gauge origin problem, is presented. For the spin-rotation tensor, the calculation of the magnetic shielding tensor represents the most demanding computational task. Employing the ADFT-GIAO methodology, the central processing unit time for the magnetic shielding tensor calculation can be dramatically reduced. In this work, the quality of spin-rotation constants obtained with the ADFT-GIAO methodology is compared with available experimental data as well as with other theoretical results at the Hartree-Fock and coupled-cluster level of theory. It is found that the agreement between the ADFT-GIAO results and the experiment is good and very similar to the ones obtained by the coupled-cluster single-doubles-perturbative triples-GIAO methodology. With the improved computational performance achieved, the computation of the spin-rotation tensors of large systems or along Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics trajectories becomes feasible in reasonable times. Three models of carbon fullerenes containing hundreds of atoms and thousands of basis functions are used for benchmarking the performance. Furthermore, a theoretical study of temperature effects on the structure and spin-rotation tensor of the H 12 C– 12 CH–DF complex is presented. Here, the temperature dependency of the spin-rotation tensor of the fluorine nucleus can be used to identify experimentally the so far unknown bent isomer of this complex. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time that temperature effects on the spin-rotation tensor are investigated

  17. Efficient calculation of nuclear spin-rotation constants from auxiliary density functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuniga-Gutierrez, Bernardo; Camacho-Gonzalez, Monica; Bendana-Castillo, Alfonso; Simon-Bastida, Patricia; Calaminici, Patrizia; Köster, Andreas M

    2015-09-14

    The computation of the spin-rotation tensor within the framework of auxiliary density functional theory (ADFT) in combination with the gauge including atomic orbital (GIAO) scheme, to treat the gauge origin problem, is presented. For the spin-rotation tensor, the calculation of the magnetic shielding tensor represents the most demanding computational task. Employing the ADFT-GIAO methodology, the central processing unit time for the magnetic shielding tensor calculation can be dramatically reduced. In this work, the quality of spin-rotation constants obtained with the ADFT-GIAO methodology is compared with available experimental data as well as with other theoretical results at the Hartree-Fock and coupled-cluster level of theory. It is found that the agreement between the ADFT-GIAO results and the experiment is good and very similar to the ones obtained by the coupled-cluster single-doubles-perturbative triples-GIAO methodology. With the improved computational performance achieved, the computation of the spin-rotation tensors of large systems or along Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics trajectories becomes feasible in reasonable times. Three models of carbon fullerenes containing hundreds of atoms and thousands of basis functions are used for benchmarking the performance. Furthermore, a theoretical study of temperature effects on the structure and spin-rotation tensor of the H(12)C-(12)CH-DF complex is presented. Here, the temperature dependency of the spin-rotation tensor of the fluorine nucleus can be used to identify experimentally the so far unknown bent isomer of this complex. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time that temperature effects on the spin-rotation tensor are investigated.

  18. Apoptosis-Inducing-Factor-Dependent Mitochondrial Function Is Required for T Cell but Not B Cell Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milasta, Sandra; Dillon, Christopher P; Sturm, Oliver E; Verbist, Katherine C; Brewer, Taylor L; Quarato, Giovanni; Brown, Scott A; Frase, Sharon; Janke, Laura J; Perry, S Scott; Thomas, Paul G; Green, Douglas R

    2016-01-19

    The role of apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) in promoting cell death versus survival remains controversial. We report that the loss of AIF in fibroblasts led to mitochondrial electron transport chain defects and loss of proliferation that could be restored by ectopic expression of the yeast NADH dehydrogenase Ndi1. Aif-deficiency in T cells led to decreased peripheral T cell numbers and defective homeostatic proliferation, but thymic T cell development was unaffected. In contrast, Aif-deficient B cells developed and functioned normally. The difference in the dependency of T cells versus B cells on AIF for function and survival correlated with their metabolic requirements. Ectopic Ndi1 expression rescued homeostatic proliferation of Aif-deficient T cells. Despite its reported roles in cell death, fibroblasts, thymocytes and B cells lacking AIF underwent normal death. These studies suggest that the primary role of AIF relates to complex I function, with differential effects on T and B cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Evidence of changes in alpha-1/AT1 receptor function generated by diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarez, Esther; Tufiño, Cecilia; Querejeta, Enrique; Bracho-Valdes, Ismael; Bobadilla-Lugo, Rosa A

    2017-11-01

    To study whether hypercaloric diet-induced obesity deteriorates vascular contractility of rat aorta through functional changes in α 1 adrenergic and/or AT1 Angiotensin II receptors. Angiotensin II- or phenylephrine-induced contraction was tested on isolated aorta rings with and without endothelium from female Wistar rats fed for 7 weeks with hypercaloric diet or standard diet. Vascular expression of Angiotensin II Receptor type 1 (AT1R), Angiotensin II Receptor type 2 (AT2R), Cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1), Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase (iNOS) and endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase (eNOS), as well as blood pressure, glucose, insulin and angiotensin II blood levels were measured. Diet-induced obesity did not significantly change agonist-induced contractions (Emax and pD 2 hypercaloric diet vs standard diet n.s.d.) of both intact (e+) or endothelium free (e-) vessels but significantly decrease both phenylephrine and angiotensin II contraction (Emax p obesity did not change angiotensin II AT1, AT2 receptor proteins expression but reduced COX-1 and NOS2 ( p obesity produces alterations in vascular adrenergic and angiotensin II receptor dynamics that suggest an endothelium-dependent adrenergic/angiotensin II crosstalk. These changes reflect early-stage vascular responses to obesity.

  20. Function and regulation of ATF 3 expression induced by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Feiyue; Wang, Yong; Du, Liqin; Zhan, Qimin

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Ionizing radiation results in a series of damages of mammalian cells as a genotoxic stress. There are some genes expressed after cells damaged, in which ATF 3, a member of ATF/CREB family of transcription factors, is one of them. In this report, we demonstrate that ATF 3 can be induced by ionizing radiation. The induction of ATF 3 protein requires normal status of p53 function in cells. There are some quantitative relationships between ATF 3 induction and dosages of radiation or time post-irradiation. In another word, ATF 3 expression induced by ionizing radiation present dose- and time-dependent. The regulation of ATF 3 expression refers to program of promoter and transcription. Radiation induces ATF 3 expression by activating the promoter and RNA transcription. In method of tetracycline-inducible system (tet-off), we have found that over-expression of ATF 3 protein brings caspase/PARP proteins into cleavage, which induces cell programmed death, and suppresses cell growth. Meanwhile, it was found that ATF 3 expression could slow down progression of cell from G 1 to S phase. It indicates ATF 3 protein might play a negative role in the control of cell cycle progression. It is very excited that expression of ATF 3 protein did not only suppress cell growth, but also demonstrated protecting effect of cell growth suppression resulting from ionizing radiation. It is suggested that ATF 3 protein might take part in the damage repair process of cells. (author)

  1. Artificial stone dust-induced functional and inflammatory abnormalities in exposed workers monitored quantitatively by biometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ophir, Noa; Shai, Amir Bar; Alkalay, Yifat; Israeli, Shani; Korenstein, Rafi; Kramer, Mordechai R; Fireman, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The manufacture of kitchen and bath countertops in Israel is based mainly on artificial stone that contains 93% silica as natural quartz, and ∼3500 workers are involved in cutting and processing it. Artificial stone produces high concentrations of silica dust. Exposure to crystalline silica may cause silicosis, an irreversible lung disease. Our aim was to screen exposed workers by quantitative biometric monitoring of functional and inflammatory parameters. 68 exposed artificial stone workers were compared to 48 nonexposed individuals (controls). Exposed workers filled in questionnaires, and all participants underwent pulmonary function tests and induced sputum analyses. Silica was quantitated by a Niton XL3 X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Pulmonary function test results of exposed workers were significantly lower and induced sputa showed significantly higher neutrophilic inflammation compared to controls; both processes were slowed down by the use of protective measures in the workplace. Particle size distribution in induced sputum samples of exposed workers was similar to that of artificial stone dust, which contained aluminium, zirconium and titanium in addition to silica. In conclusion, the quantitation of biometric parameters is useful for monitoring workers exposed to artificial stone in order to avoid deterioration over time.

  2. Functional and structural changes in internal pudendal arteries underlie erectile dysfunction induced by androgen deprivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhéure Alves-Lopes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Androgen deficiency is strongly associated with erectile dysfunction (ED. Inadequate penile arterial blood flow is one of the major causes of ED. The blood flow to the corpus cavernosum is mainly derived from the internal pudendal arteries (IPAs; however, no study has evaluated the effects of androgen deprivation on IPA′s function. We hypothesized that castration impairs IPAs reactivity and structure, contributing to ED. In our study, Wistar male rats, 8-week-old, were castrated and studied 30 days after orchiectomy. Functional and structural properties of rat IPAs were determined using wire and pressure myograph systems, respectively. Protein expression was determined by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Plasma testosterone levels were determined using the IMMULITE 1000 Immunoassay System. Castrated rats exhibited impaired erectile function, represented by decreased intracavernosal pressure/mean arterial pressure ratio. IPAs from castrated rats exhibited decreased phenylephrine- and electrical field stimulation (EFS-induced contraction and decreased acetylcholine- and EFS-induced vasodilatation. IPAs from castrated rats exhibited decreased internal diameter, external diameter, thickness of the arterial wall, and cross-sectional area. Castration decreased nNOS and α-actin expression and increased collagen expression, p38 (Thr180/Tyr182 phosphorylation, as well as caspase 3 cleavage. In conclusion, androgen deficiency is associated with impairment of IPA reactivity and structure and increased apoptosis signaling markers. Our findings suggest that androgen deficiency-induced vascular dysfunction is an event involving hypotrophic vascular remodeling of IPAs.

  3. The PROMIS Physical Function item bank was calibrated to a standardized metric and shown to improve measurement efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Matthias; Bjørner, Jakob; Gandek, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To document the development and psychometric evaluation of the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Physical Function (PF) item bank and static instruments. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: The items were evaluated using qualitative and quantitative methods. A total...... response model was used to estimate item parameters, which were normed to a mean of 50 (standard deviation [SD]=10) in a US general population sample. RESULTS: The final bank consists of 124 PROMIS items covering upper, central, and lower extremity functions and instrumental activities of daily living...... to identify differences between age and disease groups. CONCLUSION: The item bank provides a common metric and can improve the measurement of PF by facilitating the standardization of patient-reported outcome measures and implementation of CATs for more efficient PF assessments over a larger range....

  4. A Rapid and Efficient Method for Purifying High Quality Total RNA from Peaches (Prunus persica for Functional Genomics Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEE MEISEL

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Prunus persica has been proposed as a genomic model for deciduous trees and the Rosaceae family. Optimized protocols for RNA isolation are necessary to further advance studies in this model species such that functional genomics analyses may be performed. Here we present an optimized protocol to rapidly and efficiently purify high quality total RNA from peach fruits (Prunus persica. Isolating high-quality RNA from fruit tissue is often difficult due to large quantities of polysaccharides and polyphenolic compounds that accumulate in this tissue and co-purify with the RNA. Here we demonstrate that a modified version of the method used to isolate RNA from pine trees and the woody plant Cinnamomun tenuipilum is ideal for isolating high quality RNA from the fruits of Prunus persica. This RNA may be used for many functional genomic based experiments such as RT-PCR and the construction of large-insert cDNA libraries.

  5. Predicting the efficiencies of 2-mercaptobenzothiazole collectors used as chelating agents in flotation processes: a density-functional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yekeler, Hülya; Yekeler, Meftuni

    2006-09-01

    In recent years, several new chelating reagents have been synthesized and tested for their collecting power in sulfide and non-sulfide minerals flotation. Many researchers have indicated that chelating reagents have the advantage of offering better selectivity and specificity as flotation collectors. Therefore, density functional theory (DFT) calculations at the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level were performed to investigate the observed activities of 2-mercaptobenzothiazole, 6-methyl-2-mercaptobenzothiazole and 6-methoxy-2-mercaptobenzothiazole as the most popular flotation collectors. The molecular properties and activity relationships were determined by the HOMO localizations, the HOMO energies, Mulliken charges and the electrostatic potentials at the thioamide functional group, which is the key site in the forming efficiency of the collectors studied. It is concluded that these quantities can be used successfully for understanding the collecting abilities of 2-mercaptobenzothiazoles. The results obtained theoretically are consistent with the experimental data reported in the literature.

  6. Probabilistic migration modelling focused on functional barrier efficiency and low migration concepts in support of risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandsch, Rainer

    2017-10-01

    Migration modelling provides reliable migration estimates from food-contact materials (FCM) to food or food simulants based on mass-transfer parameters like diffusion and partition coefficients related to individual materials. In most cases, mass-transfer parameters are not readily available from the literature and for this reason are estimated with a given uncertainty. Historically, uncertainty was accounted for by introducing upper limit concepts first, turning out to be of limited applicability due to highly overestimated migration results. Probabilistic migration modelling gives the possibility to consider uncertainty of the mass-transfer parameters as well as other model inputs. With respect to a functional barrier, the most important parameters among others are the diffusion properties of the functional barrier and its thickness. A software tool that accepts distribution as inputs and is capable of applying Monte Carlo methods, i.e., random sampling from the input distributions of the relevant parameters (i.e., diffusion coefficient and layer thickness), predicts migration results with related uncertainty and confidence intervals. The capabilities of probabilistic migration modelling are presented in the view of three case studies (1) sensitivity analysis, (2) functional barrier efficiency and (3) validation by experimental testing. Based on the predicted migration by probabilistic migration modelling and related exposure estimates, safety evaluation of new materials in the context of existing or new packaging concepts is possible. Identifying associated migration risk and potential safety concerns in the early stage of packaging development is possible. Furthermore, dedicated material selection exhibiting required functional barrier efficiency under application conditions becomes feasible. Validation of the migration risk assessment by probabilistic migration modelling through a minimum of dedicated experimental testing is strongly recommended.

  7. Design of functional guanidinium ionic liquid aqueous two-phase systems for the efficient purification of protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Xueqin; Wang, Yuzhi, E-mail: wyzss@hnu.edu.cn; Zeng, Qun; Chen, Jing; Huang, Yanhua; Xu, Kaijia

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A series of novel cationic functional hexaalkylguanidinium ionic liquids and anionic functional tetraalkylguanidinium ionic liquids have been synthesized. • Functional guanidinium ionic liquid aqueous two-phase systems have been first designed for the purification of protein. • Mechanisms and performances of the process were researched. • Simple, green, safety and presents better purified ability than ordinary process. • A potential efficient platform for protein purification and related studies. - Abstract: A series of novel cationic functional hexaalkylguanidinium ionic liquids and anionic functional tetraalkylguanidinium ionic liquids have been devised and synthesized based on 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidine. The structures of the ionic liquids (ILs) were confirmed by {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 1}H NMR) and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (13C NMR) and the production yields were all above 90%. Functional guanidinium ionic liquid aqueous two-phase systems (FGIL-ATPSs) have been first designed with these functional guanidinium ILs and phosphate solution for the purification of protein. After phase separation, proteins had transferred into the IL-rich phase and the concentrations of proteins were determined by measuring the absorbance at 278 nm using an ultra violet visible (UV–vis) spectrophotometer. The advantages of FGIL-ATPSs were compared with ordinary ionic liquid aqueous two-phase systems (IL-ATPSs). The proposed FGIL-ATPS has been applied to purify lysozyme, trypsin, ovalbumin and bovine serum albumin. Single factor experiments were used to research the effects of the process, such as the amount of ionic liquid (IL), the concentration of salt solution, temperature and the amount of protein. The purification efficiency reaches to 97.05%. The secondary structure of protein during the experimental process was observed upon investigation using UV–vis spectrophotometer, Fourier-transform infrared

  8. Highly efficient delivery of functional cargoes by the synergistic effect of GAG binding motifs and cell-penetrating peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, James E; Osman, Gizem; Morris, Gavin E; Markides, Hareklea; Rotherham, Michael; Bayoussef, Zahia; El Haj, Alicia J; Denning, Chris; Shakesheff, Kevin M

    2016-01-19

    Protein transduction domains (PTDs) are powerful nongenetic tools that allow intracellular delivery of conjugated cargoes to modify cell behavior. Their use in biomedicine has been hampered by inefficient delivery to nuclear and cytoplasmic targets. Here we overcame this deficiency by developing a series of novel fusion proteins that couple a membrane-docking peptide to heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) with a PTD. We showed that this GET (GAG-binding enhanced transduction) system could deliver enzymes (Cre, neomycin phosphotransferase), transcription factors (NANOG, MYOD), antibodies, native proteins (cytochrome C), magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), and nucleic acids [plasmid (p)DNA, modified (mod)RNA, and small inhibitory RNA] at efficiencies of up to two orders of magnitude higher than previously reported in cell types considered hard to transduce, such as mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs), human ESCs (hESCs), and induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). This technology represents an efficient strategy for controlling cell labeling and directing cell fate or behavior that has broad applicability for basic research, disease modeling, and clinical application.

  9. Rhynchophylline suppresses soluble Aβ1-42-induced impairment of spatial cognition function via inhibiting excessive activation of extrasynaptic NR2B-containing NMDA receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Ji, Wei-Gang; Zhu, Zhi-Ru; Wu, Yu-Ling; Zhang, Zhi-Yang; Qu, Shao-Chen

    2018-06-01

    Rhynchophylline (RIN) is a significant active component isolated from the Chinese herbal medicine Uncaria rhynchophylla. The overproduction of soluble amyloid β protein (Aβ) oligomers in the hippocampus is closely involved in impairments in cognitive function at the early stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Growing evidences show that RIN possesses neuroprotective effects against Aβ-induced neurotoxicity. However, whether RIN can prevent soluble Aβ 1-42 -induced impairments in spatial cognitive function and synaptic plasticity is still unclear. Using the combined methods of behavioral tests, immunofluorescence and electrophysiological recordings, we characterized the key neuroprotective properties of RIN and its possible cellular and molecular mechanisms against soluble Aβ 1-42 -related impairments in rats. Our findings are as follows: (1) RIN efficiently rescued the soluble Aβ 1-42 -induced spatial learning and memory deficits in the Morris water maze test and prevented soluble Aβ 1-42 -induced suppression in long term potentiation (LTP) in the entorhinal cortex (EC)-dentate gyrus (DG) circuit. (2) Excessive activation of extrasynaptic GluN2B-NMDAR and subsequent Ca 2+ overload contributed to the soluble Aβ 1-42 -induced impairments in spatial cognitive function and synaptic plasticity. (3) RIN prevented Aβ 1-42 -induced excessive activation of extrasynaptic NMDARs by reducing extrasynaptic NMDARs -mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents and down regulating GluN2B-NMDAR expression in the DG region, which inhibited Aβ 1-42 -induced Ca 2+ overload mediated by extrasynanptic NMDARs. The results suggest that RIN could be an effective therapeutic candidate for cognitive impairment in AD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Robust and highly-efficient differentiation of functional monocytic cells from human pluripotent stem cells under serum- and feeder cell-free conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masakatsu D Yanagimachi

    Full Text Available Monocytic lineage cells (monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells play important roles in immune responses and are involved in various pathological conditions. The development of monocytic cells from human embryonic stem cells (ESCs and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs is of particular interest because it provides an unlimited cell source for clinical application and basic research on disease pathology. Although the methods for monocytic cell differentiation from ESCs/iPSCs using embryonic body or feeder co-culture systems have already been established, these methods depend on the use of xenogeneic materials and, therefore, have a relatively poor-reproducibility. Here, we established a robust and highly-efficient method to differentiate functional monocytic cells from ESCs/iPSCs under serum- and feeder cell-free conditions. This method produced 1.3 × 10(6 ± 0.3 × 10(6 floating monocytes from approximately 30 clusters of ESCs/iPSCs 5-6 times per course of differentiation. Such monocytes could be differentiated into functional macrophages and dendritic cells. This method should be useful for regenerative medicine, disease-specific iPSC studies and drug discovery.

  11. Peptide functionalized gold nanoparticles: the influence of pH on binding efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Emma; Hamilton, Jeremy W. J.; Macias-Montero, Manuel; Dixon, Dorian

    2017-07-01

    We report herein on the synthesis of mixed monolayer gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) capped with both polyethylene glycol (PEG) and one of three peptides. Either a receptor-mediated endocytosis peptide, an endosomal escape pathway (H5WYG) peptide or the Nrp-1 targeting RGD peptide (CRGDK) labeled with FITC. All three peptides have a thiol containing cysteine residue which can be used to bind the peptides to the AuNPs. In order to investigate the influence of pH on peptide attachment, PEGylated AuNPs were centrifuged, the supernatant removed, and the nanoparticles were then re-suspended in a range of pH buffer solutions above, below and at the respective isoelectric points of the peptides before co-functionalization. Peptide attachment was investigated using dynamic light scattering, Ultra-violet visible spectroscopy (UV/Vis), FTIR and photo luminescence spectroscopy. UV/Vis analysis coupled with protein assay results and photoluminescence of the FITC tagged RGD peptide concluded that a pH of ∼8 optimized the cysteine binding and stability, irrespective of the peptide used.

  12. Photopeak efficiency response function of an underwater gamma-ray NaI(Tl) detector using MCNP-X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salgado, William L.; Silva, Ademir X.; Salgado, Cesar M.

    2015-01-01

    This work presents a study to calculate the response function of a 1.5″ x 1″ NaI(Tl) scintillation detector when it is used in the marine environment in the energy range from 20 keV to 662 keV. The method takes into account both the scattering of photons in the water and the detection mechanism of the detector. In addition, the calculation of the response function of the whole system is essential for suppressing the background of the measurement and for estimating the concentration of the involved radionuclides, especially given the greater probability of primary gamma photons undergoing multiple scattering events before they interact with the detector. The experimental photopeak efficiency measurements for point sources were compared with the simulated results under the same conditions of the experimental setup to validate the simulation of the detector. Monte Carlo simulations were performed using the MCNP-X code for the investigation of gamma-ray absorption in water in different brines. The energy resolution curve was used to improve the response of the mathematical simulation of the detector. The detector’s simulation was based on information obtained from the gammagraphy technique. Both dimensions and materials were used for the calculation with the MCNP-X code. The photopeak efficiency of a NaI(Tl) detector for different radionuclides in the aquatic environment with different salinities was calculated. (author)

  13. Redox-Triggered Bonding-Induced Emission of Thiol-Functionalized Gold Nanoclusters for Luminescence Turn-On Detection of Molecular Oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, Hang; Feng, Hui; Zhao, Mengting; Zhao, Meizhi; Chen, Jianrong; Qian, Zhaosheng

    2017-11-22

    Most optical sensors for molecular oxygen were developed based on the quenching effect of the luminescence of oxygen-sensitive probes; however, the signal turn-off mode of these probes is undesirable to quantify and visualize molecular oxygen. Herein, we report a novel luminescence turn-on detection strategy for molecular oxygen via the specific oxygen-triggered bonding-induced emission of thiol-functionalized gold nanoclusters. Thiol-functionalized gold nanoclusters were prepared by a facile one-step synthesis, and as-prepared gold nanoclusters possess significant aggregation-induced emission (AIE) property. It is the first time to discover the oxygen-triggered bonding-induced emission (BIE) behavior of gold nanoclusters, which results in disulfide-linked covalent bonding assemblies with intensely red luminescence. This specific redox-triggered BIE is capable of quantitatively detecting dissolved oxygen in aqueous solution in a light-up manner, and trace amount of dissolved oxygen at ppb level is achieved based on this detection method. A facile and convenient test strip for oxygen detection was also developed to monitor molecular oxygen in a gas matrix. Covalent bonding-induced emission is proven to be a more efficient way to attain high brightness of AIEgens than a physical aggregation-induced emission process, and provides a more convenient and desirable detection method for molecular oxygen than the previous sensors.

  14. Efficient system of artificial oil bodies for functional expression and purification of recombinant nattokinase in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Chung-Jen; Chen, Hong-Chen; Chao, Yun-Peng; Tzen, Jason T C

    2005-06-15

    Nattokinase, a serine protease, and pronattokinase, when expressed in Escherichia coli, formed insoluble aggregates without enzymatic activity. For functional expression and purification, nattokinase or pronattokinase was first overexpressed in E. coli as an insoluble recombinant protein linked to the C terminus of oleosin, a structural protein of seed oil bodies, by an intein fragment. Artificial oil bodies were reconstituted with triacylglycerol, phospholipid, and the insoluble recombinant protein thus formed. Soluble nattokinase was subsequently released through self-splicing of intein induced by temperature alteration, with the remaining oleosin-intein residing in oil bodies and the leading propeptide of pronattokinase, when present, spontaneously cleaved in the process. Active nattokinase with fibrinolytic activity was harvested by concentrating the supernatant. Nattokinase released from oleosin-intein-pronattokinase exhibited 5 times higher activity than that released from oleosin-intein-nattokinase, although the production yields were similar in both cases. Furthermore, active nattokinase could be harvested in the same system by fusing pronattokinase to the N terminus of oleosin via a different intein linker, with self-splicing induced by 1,4-dithiothreitol. These results have shown a great potential of this system for bacterial expression and purification of functional recombinant proteins.

  15. Functionalized carbon nanotube doping of P3HT:PCBM photovoltaic devices for enhancing short circuit current and efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Bhatia

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We have successfully functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs using nitrene approach employing the two aryl azides as a precursor for nitrene generation. The dispersion of functionalized MWCNTs has been enhanced in various organic solvents. These functionalized MWCNTs have been successfully doped in various concentrations in the bulk heterojunction (BHJ organic photovoltaic (OPV cells with a poly (3-hexyl thiophene (P3HT and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM photoactive blended layer. The incorporation of MWCNTs with aryl functional groups, in active the layer, results in enhanced performance with respect to a reference cell. The maximum power conversion efficiency of 1.86% is achieved with adduct I while in the case of adduct II it gets double to 2.0% in comparison with a reference cell. This improvement in the device performance is attributed to enhanced exciton dissociation and improved charge transport properties due to the formation of a nanotube percolation network in the photoactive composite layer.

  16. Simultaneous fitting of real-time PCR data with efficiency of amplification modeled as Gaussian function of target fluorescence

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    Lazar Andreas

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In real-time PCR, it is necessary to consider the efficiency of amplification (EA of amplicons in order to determine initial target levels properly. EAs can be deduced from standard curves, but these involve extra effort and cost and may yield invalid EAs. Alternatively, EA can be extracted from individual fluorescence curves. Unfortunately, this is not reliable enough. Results Here we introduce simultaneous non-linear fitting to determine – without standard curves – an optimal common EA for all samples of a group. In order to adjust EA as a function of target fluorescence, and still to describe fluorescence as a function of cycle number, we use an iterative algorithm that increases fluorescence cycle by cycle and thus simulates the PCR process. A Gauss peak function is used to model the decrease of EA with increasing amplicon accumulation. Our approach was validated experimentally with hydrolysis probe or SYBR green detection with dilution series of 5 different targets. It performed distinctly better in terms of accuracy than standard curve, DART-PCR, and LinRegPCR approaches. Based on reliable EAs, it was possible to detect that for some amplicons, extraordinary fluorescence (EA > 2.00 was generated with locked nucleic acid hydrolysis probes, but not with SYBR green. Conclusion In comparison to previously reported approaches that are based on the separate analysis of each curve and on modelling EA as a function of cycle number, our approach yields more accurate and precise estimates of relative initial target levels.

  17. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Induced Synthesis of a Novel Viral Factor Mediates Efficient Replication of Genotype-1 Hepatitis E Virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya P Nair

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis E virus (HEV causes acute hepatitis in many parts of the world including Asia, Africa and Latin America. Though self-limiting in normal individuals, it results in ~30% mortality in infected pregnant women. It has also been reported to cause acute and chronic hepatitis in organ transplant patients. Of the seven viral genotypes, genotype-1 virus infects humans and is a major public health concern in South Asian countries. Sporadic cases of genotype-3 and 4 infection in human and animals such as pigs, deer, mongeese have been reported primarily from industrialized countries. Genotype-5, 6 and 7 viruses are known to infect animals such as wild boar and camel, respectively. Genotype-3 and 4 viruses have been successfully propagated in the laboratory in mammalian cell culture. However, genotype-1 virus replicates poorly in mammalian cell culture and no other efficient model exists to study its life cycle. Here, we report that endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress promotes genotype-1 HEV replication by inducing cap-independent, internal initiation mediated translation of a novel viral protein (named ORF4. Importantly, ORF4 expression and stimulatory effect of ER stress inducers on viral replication is specific to genotype-1. ORF4 protein sequence is mostly conserved among genotype-1 HEV isolates and ORF4 specific antibodies were detected in genotype-1 HEV patient serum. ORF4 interacted with multiple viral and host proteins and assembled a protein complex consisting of viral helicase, RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp, X, host eEF1α1 (eukaryotic elongation factor 1 isoform-1 and tubulinβ. In association with eEF1α1, ORF4 stimulated viral RdRp activity. Furthermore, human hepatoma cells that stably express ORF4 or engineered proteasome resistant ORF4 mutant genome permitted enhanced viral replication. These findings reveal a positive role of ER stress in promoting genotype-1 HEV replication and pave the way towards development of an efficient

  18. Assessment of the imprinting efficiency of an imide with a "stoichiometric" pyridine-based functional monomer in precipitation polymerisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, K Fremielle; Hall, Andrew J; Lettieri, Stefania; Holdsworth, Clovia I

    2018-03-01

    The efficiency of the stoichiometric non-covalent imprinting of the imide 2,3,5-tri-O-acetyluridine (TAU) with 2,6-bis(acrylamido)pyridine (BAAPy) as functional monomer due to their strong donor-acceptor-donor/acceptor-donor-acceptor (DAD/ADA) hydrogen bond array interaction has been evaluated by bulk imprinting. This study is the first to investigate the imprinting and template rebinding efficiencies of the TAU/BAAPy molecularly imprinted polymeric (MIP) system prepared by precipitation polymerisation. We found that the stoichiometric 1:1 T:FM ratio has not been maintained in precipitation polymerisation and an optimal TAU:BAAPy ratio of 1:2.5 was obtained in acetonitrile without agitation affording an affinity constant (1.7 × 10 4 M -1 ) and a binding capacity (3.69 μmol/g) higher than its bulk counterpart. Molecular modelling, NMR studies, and selectivity assays against analogues uridine and 2,3,5-tri-O-acetyl cytidine (TAC) indicate that, aside from the DAD/ADA hydrogen bond interaction, BAAPy also interacts with the acetyl groups of TAU. Template incorporation and rebinding in precipitation MIPs are favoured by a moderate initiator concentration, ie, initiator:total monomer (I:TM) ratio of 1:131, while low I:TM ratio (ie, 1:200) drastically reduced template incorporation and binding capacity. Vigorous agitation by stirring showed higher template incorporation but significantly lower template rebinding compared to that prepared without agitation. While the imprinting efficiencies for the best performing bulk and precipitation TAU MIPs generated in this study were moderate, 41% and 60%, respectively, their rebinding capacities were only between 3 and 4% of the incorporated template. We also present quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy as an efficient method for MIP characterisation. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Decision-making conflict and the neural efficiency hypothesis of intelligence: a functional near-infrared spectroscopy investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Domenico, Stefano I; Rodrigo, Achala H; Ayaz, Hasan; Fournier, Marc A; Ruocco, Anthony C

    2015-04-01

    Research on the neural efficiency hypothesis of intelligence (NEH) has revealed that the brains of more intelligent individuals consume less energy when performing easy cognitive tasks but more energy when engaged in difficult mental operations. However, previous studies testing the NEH have relied on cognitive tasks that closely resemble psychometric tests of intelligence, potentially confounding efficiency during intelligence-test performance with neural efficiency per se. The present study sought to provide a novel test of the NEH by examining patterns of prefrontal activity while participants completed an experimental paradigm that is qualitatively distinct from the contents of psychometric tests of intelligence. Specifically, participants completed a personal decision-making task (e.g., which occupation would you prefer, dancer or chemist?) in which they made a series of forced choices according to their subjective preferences. The degree of decisional conflict (i.e., choice difficulty) between the available response options was manipulated on the basis of participants' unique preference ratings for the target stimuli, which were obtained prior to scanning. Evoked oxygenation of the prefrontal cortex was measured using 16-channel continuous-wave functional near-infrared spectroscopy. Consistent with the NEH, intelligence predicted decreased activation of the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) during low-conflict situations and increased activation of the right-IFG during high-conflict situations. This pattern of right-IFG activity among more intelligent individuals was complemented by faster reaction times in high-conflict situations. These results provide new support for the NEH and suggest that the neural efficiency of more intelligent individuals generalizes to the performance of cognitive tasks that are distinct from intelligence tests. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Increasing on-target cleavage efficiency for CRISPR/Cas9-induced large fragment deletion in Myxococcus xanthus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ying-Jie; Wang, Ye; Li, Zhi-Feng; Gong, Ya; Zhang, Peng; Hu, Wen-Chao; Sheng, Duo-Hong; Li, Yue-Zhong

    2017-08-16

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system is a powerful tool for genome editing, in which the sgRNA binds and guides the Cas9 protein for the sequence-specific cleavage. The protocol is employable in different organisms, but is often limited by cell damage due to the endonuclease activity of the introduced Cas9 and the potential off-target DNA cleavage from incorrect guide by the 20 nt spacer. In this study, after resolving some critical limits, we have established an efficient CRISPR/Cas9 system for the deletion of large genome fragments related to the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites in Myxococcus xanthus cells. We revealed that the high expression of a codon-optimized cas9 gene in M. xanthus was cytotoxic, and developed a temporally high expression strategy to reduce the cell damage from high expressions of Cas9. We optimized the deletion protocol by using the tRNA-sgRNA-tRNA chimeric structure to ensure correct sgRNA sequence. We found that, in addition to the position-dependent nucleotide preference, the free energy of a 20 nt spacer was a key factor for the deletion efficiency. By using the developed protocol, we achieved the CRISPR/Cas9-induced deletion of large biosynthetic gene clusters for secondary metabolites in M. xanthus DK1622 and its epothilone-producing mutant. The findings and the proposals described in this paper were suggested to be workable in other organisms, for example, other Gram negative bacteria with high GC content.

  1. DNA repair efficiency in germ cells and early mouse embryos and consequences for radiation-induced transgenerational genomic damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchetti, Francesco; Wyrobek, Andrew J.

    2009-01-18

    Exposure to ionizing radiation and other environmental agents can affect the genomic integrity of germ cells and induce adverse health effects in the progeny. Efficient DNA repair during gametogenesis and the early embryonic cycles after fertilization is critical for preventing transmission of DNA damage to the progeny and relies on maternal factors stored in the egg before fertilization. The ability of the maternal repair machinery to repair DNA damage in both parental genomes in the fertilizing egg is especially crucial for the fertilizing male genome that has not experienced a DNA repair-competent cellular environment for several weeks prior to fertilization. During the DNA repair-deficient period of spermatogenesis, DNA lesions may accumulate in sperm and be carried into the egg where, if not properly repaired, could result in the formation of heritable chromosomal aberrations or mutations and associated birth defects. Studies with female mice deficient in specific DNA repair genes have shown that: (i) cell cycle checkpoints are activated in the fertilized egg by DNA damage carried by the sperm; and (ii) the maternal genotype plays a major role in determining the efficiency of repairing genomic lesions in the fertilizing sperm and directly affect the risk for abnormal reproductive outcomes. There is also growing evidence that implicates DNA damage carried by the fertilizing gamete as a mediator of postfertilization processes that contribute to genomic instability in subsequent generations. Transgenerational genomic instability most likely involves epigenetic mechanisms or error-prone DNA repair processes in the early embryo. Maternal and embryonic DNA repair processes during the early phases of mammalian embryonic development can have far reaching consequences for the genomic integrity and health of subsequent generations.

  2. Pacing-induced chronic atrial fibrillation impairs sinus node function in dogs. Electrophysiological remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvan, A; Wylie, K; Zipes, D P

    1996-12-01

    We assessed the effects of pacing-induced chronic atrial fibrillation (AF) on sinus node function, intra-atrial conduction, and atrial refractoriness. In 15 mongrel dogs (20 to 30 kg), AV nodal block was produced by radiofrequency catheter ablation, and a ventricular-inhibited (VVI) pacemaker (Minix 8330, Medtronic) was implanted and programmed to pace at 80 pulses per minute. In 11 of these dogs, right atrial endocardial pacing leads were connected to a pulse generator (Itrel 7432, Medtronic) and set at a rate of 20 Hz to induce AF. Corrected sinus node recovery time, P-wave duration, 24-hour Holter ECG to assess AF duration, maximal heart rate in response to isoproterenol (10 micrograms/min), intrinsic heart rate after administration of atropine (0.04 mg/kg) and propranolol (0.1 mg/kg), and atrial effective refractory periods (ERPs) were obtained at baseline (EPS-1) and after 2 to 6 weeks (EPS-2) of VVI pacing alone (n = 4) or VVI pacing and rapid atrial pacing (n = 11). At EPS-2, corrected sinus node recovery time and P-wave duration were prolonged, maximal heart rate and intrinsic heart rate were decreased, atrial ERPs were shortened, and the duration of AF was increased significantly compared with EPS-1. These changes partially reversed toward baseline 1 week after conversion to sinus rhythm. Sinus node function and AF inducibility observed in the control dogs that underwent ventricular pacing alone (n = 4) did not change. Pacing-induced chronic AF induces sinus node dysfunction, prolongs intra-atrial conduction time, shortens atrial refractoriness, and perpetuates AF, changes that reverse gradually after termination of AF.

  3. Zirconium, calcium, and strontium contents in magnesium based biodegradable alloys modulate the efficiency of implant-induced osseointegration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mushahary D

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Dolly Mushahary,1,2 Ragamouni Sravanthi,2 Yuncang Li,2 Mahesh J Kumar,1 Nemani Harishankar,4 Peter D Hodgson,1 Cuie Wen,3 Gopal Pande2 1Institute for Frontier Materials, Deakin University, Geelong, Australia; 2CSIR- Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Hyderabad, India; 3Faculty of Engineering and Industrial Sciences, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, Australia; 4National Institute of Nutrition (ICMR, Tarnaka, Hyderabad, India Abstract: Development of new biodegradable implants and devices is necessary to meet the increasing needs of regenerative orthopedic procedures. An important consideration while formulating new implant materials is that they should physicochemically and biologically mimic bone-like properties. In earlier studies, we have developed and characterized magnesium based biodegradable alloys, in particular magnesium-zirconium (Mg-Zr alloys. Here we have reported the biological properties of four Mg-Zr alloys containing different quantities of strontium or calcium. The alloys were implanted in small cavities made in femur bones of New Zealand White rabbits, and the quantitative and qualitative assessments of newly induced bone tissue were carried out. A total of 30 experimental animals, three for each implant type, were studied, and bone induction was assessed by histological, immunohistochemical and radiological methods; cavities in the femurs with no implants and observed for the same period of time were kept as controls. Our results showed that Mg-Zr alloys containing appropriate quantities of strontium were more efficient in inducing good quality mineralized bone than other alloys. Our results have been discussed in the context of physicochemical and biological properties of the alloys, and they could be very useful in determining the nature of future generations of biodegradable orthopedic implants. Keywords: osteoblasts, bone mineralization, corrosion, osseointegration, surface energy, peri-implant

  4. Efficient and accurate Greedy Search Methods for mining functional modules in protein interaction networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jieyue; Li, Chaojun; Ye, Baoliu; Zhong, Wei

    2012-06-25

    Most computational algorithms mainly focus on detecting highly connected subgraphs in PPI networks as protein complexes but ignore their inherent organization. Furthermore, many of these algorithms are computationally expensive. However, recent analysis indicates that experimentally detected protein complexes generally contain Core/attachment structures. In this paper, a Greedy Search Method based on Core-Attachment structure (GSM-CA) is proposed. The GSM-CA method detects densely connected regions in large protein-protein interaction networks based on the edge weight and two criteria for determining core nodes and attachment nodes. The GSM-CA method improves the prediction accuracy compared to other similar module detection approaches, however it is computationally expensive. Many module detection approaches are based on the traditional hierarchical methods, which is also computationally inefficient because the hierarchical tree structure produced by these approaches cannot provide adequate information to identify whether a network belongs to a module structure or not. In order to speed up the computational process, the Greedy Search Method based on Fast Clustering (GSM-FC) is proposed in this work. The edge weight based GSM-FC method uses a greedy procedure to traverse all edges just once to separate the network into the suitable set of modules. The proposed methods are applied to the protein interaction network of S. cerevisiae. Experimental results indicate that many significant functional modules are detected, most of which match the known complexes. Results also demonstrate that the GSM-FC algorithm is faster and more accurate as compared to other competing algorithms. Based on the new edge weight definition, the proposed algorithm takes advantages of the greedy search procedure to separate the network into the suitable set of modules. Experimental analysis shows that the identified modules are statistically significant. The algorithm can reduce the

  5. Orally Targeted Delivery of Tripeptide KPV via Hyaluronic Acid-Functionalized Nanoparticles Efficiently Alleviates Ulcerative Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Bo; Xu, Zhigang; Viennois, Emilie; Zhang, Yuchen; Zhang, Zhan; Zhang, Mingzhen; Han, Moon Kwon; Kang, Yuejun; Merlin, Didier

    2017-07-05

    Overcoming adverse effects and selectively delivering drug to target cells are two major challenges in the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC). Lysine-proline-valine (KPV), a naturally occurring tripeptide, has been shown to attenuate the inflammatory responses of colonic cells. Here, we loaded KPV into hyaluronic acid (HA)-functionalized polymeric nanoparticles (NPs). The resultant HA-KPV-NPs had a desirable particle size (∼272.3 nm) and a slightly negative zeta potential (∼-5.3 mV). These NPs successfully mediated the targeted delivery of KPV to key UC therapy-related cells (colonic epithelial cells and macrophages). In addition, these KPV-loaded NPs appear to be nontoxic and biocompatible with intestinal cells. Intriguingly, we found that HA-KPV-NPs exert combined effects against UC by both accelerating mucosal healing and alleviating inflammation. Oral administration of HA-KPV-NPs encapsulated in a hydrogel (chitosan/alginate) exhibited a much stronger capacity to prevent mucosa damage and downregulate TNF-α, thus they showed a much better therapeutic efficacy against UC in a mouse model, compared with a KPV-NP/hydrogel system. These results collectively demonstrate that our HA-KPV-NP/hydrogel system has the capacity to release HA-KPV-NPs in the colonic lumen and that these NPs subsequently penetrate into colitis tissues and enable KPV to be internalized into target cells, thereby alleviating UC. Copyright © 2016 The American Society of Gene and Cell Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Efficient Server-Aided Secure Two-Party Function Evaluation with Applications to Genomic Computation

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    Blanton Marina

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Computation based on genomic data is becoming increasingly popular today, be it for medical or other purposes. Non-medical uses of genomic data in a computation often take place in a server-mediated setting where the server offers the ability for joint genomic testing between the users. Undeniably, genomic data is highly sensitive, which in contrast to other biometry types, discloses a plethora of information not only about the data owner, but also about his or her relatives. Thus, there is an urgent need to protect genomic data. This is particularly true when the data is used in computation for what we call recreational non-health-related purposes. Towards this goal, in this work we put forward a framework for server-aided secure two-party computation with the security model motivated by genomic applications. One particular security setting that we treat in this work provides stronger security guarantees with respect to malicious users than the traditional malicious model. In particular, we incorporate certified inputs into secure computation based on garbled circuit evaluation to guarantee that a malicious user is unable to modify her inputs in order to learn unauthorized information about the other user’s data. Our solutions are general in the sense that they can be used to securely evaluate arbitrary functions and offer attractive performance compared to the state of the art. We apply the general constructions to three specific types of genomic tests: paternity, genetic compatibility, and ancestry testing and implement the constructions. The results show that all such private tests can be executed within a matter of seconds or less despite the large size of one’s genomic data.

  7. Analysis of functioning and efficiency of a code blue system in a tertiary care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monangi, Srinivas; Setlur, Rangraj; Ramanathan, Ramprasad; Bhasin, Sidharth; Dhar, Mridul

    2018-01-01

    "Code blue" (CB) is a popular hospital emergency code, which is used by hospitals to alert their emergency response team of any cardiorespiratory arrest. The factors affecting the outcomes of emergencies are related to both the patient and the nature of the event. The primary objective was to analyze the survival rate and factors associated with survival and also practical problems related to functioning of a CB system (CBS). After the approval of hospital ethics committee, an analysis and audit was conducted of all patients on whom a CB had been called in our tertiary care hospital over 24 months. Data collected were demographic data, diagnosis, time of cardiac arrest and activation of CBS, time taken by CBS to reach the patient, presenting rhythm on arrival of CB team, details of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) such as duration and drugs given, and finally, events and outcomes. Chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were used to analyze the data. A total of 720 CB calls were initiated during the period. After excluding 24 patients, 694 calls were studied and analyzed. Six hundred and twenty were true calls and 74 were falls calls. Of the 620, 422 were cardiac arrests and 198 were medical emergencies. Overall survival was 26%. Survival in patients with cardiac arrests was 11.13%. Factors such as age, presenting rhythm, and duration of CPR were found to have a significant effect on survival. Problems encountered were personnel and equipment related. A CBS is effective in improving the resuscitation efforts and survival rates after inhospital cardiac arrests. Age, presenting rhythm at the time of arrest, and duration of CPR have significant effect on survival of the patient after a cardiac arrest. Technical and staff-related problems need to be considered and improved upon.

  8. Glucose-induced effects and joker function of glucose: endocrine or genotoxic prevalence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berstein, L M; Vasilyev, D A; Poroshina, T E; Kovalenko, I G

    2006-10-01

    The steady increase in chronic "glycemic load" is characteristic for modern times. Among myriad of glucose functions, two principals can be emphasized: first, endocrine (in particular, ability to induce insulin secretion) and second, DNA-damaging related to formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). It was suggested by us earlier that a shift in the ratio of mentioned functions reflects a possible "joker" role of glucose as an important modifier of human pathology. Therefore, we embarked on a study to investigate an individual effect of peroral glucose challenge on serum insulin level and ROS generation by mononuclears (luminol-dependent/latex-induced chemiluminescence) in 20 healthy people aged between 28-75. Concentrations of glucose, blood lipids, carbonylated proteins, malondialdehyde, leptin and TNF-alpha were determined as well. On the basis of received data two separate groups could be distinguished: one (n=8), in which glucose stimulation of ROS generation by mononuclears was increased and relatively prevailed over induction of insulin secretion (state of the so called glucose-induced genotoxicity, GIGT), and another (n=12), in which signs of GIGT were not revealed. People who belonged to the first group were characterized with a tendency to lower body mass index, blood leptin and cholesterol and to higher TNF-alpha concentration. Thus, if joker function of glucose is realized in "genotoxic mode", the phenotype (and probably genotype) of subjects may be rather distinctive to the one discovered in glucose-induced "endocrine prevalence". Whether such changes may serve as a pro-mutagenic or pro-endocrine basis for the rise of different chronic diseases or, rather, different features/aggressiveness of the same disease warrants further study.

  9. AMPKγ3 is dispensable for skeletal muscle hypertrophy induced by functional overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedl, Isabelle; Osler, Megan E; Björnholm, Marie; Egan, Brendan; Nader, Gustavo A; Chibalin, Alexander V; Zierath, Juleen R

    2016-03-15

    Mechanisms regulating skeletal muscle growth involve a balance between the activity of serine/threonine protein kinases, including the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). The contribution of different AMPK subunits to the regulation of cell growth size remains inadequately characterized. Using AMPKγ3 mutant-overexpressing transgenic Tg-Prkag3(225Q) and AMPKγ3-knockout (Prkag3(-/-)) mice, we investigated the requirement for the AMPKγ3 isoform in functional overload-induced muscle hypertrophy. Although the genetic disruption of the γ3 isoform did not impair muscle growth, control sham-operated AMPKγ3-transgenic mice displayed heavier plantaris muscles in response to overload hypertrophy and underwent smaller mass gain and lower Igf1 expression compared with wild-type littermates. The mTOR signaling pathway was upregulated with functional overload but unchanged between genetically modified animals and wild-type littermates. Differences in AMPK-related signaling pathways between transgenic, knockout, and wild-type mice did not impact muscle hypertrophy. Glycogen content was increased following overload in wild-type mice. In conclusion, our functional, transcriptional, and signaling data provide evidence against the involvement of the AMPKγ3 isoform in the regulation of skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Thus, the AMPKγ3 isoform is dispensable for functional overload-induced muscle growth. Mechanical loading can override signaling pathways that act as negative effectors of mTOR signaling and consequently promote skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Immunodetection and quantification of insulin-like antigens in sprouts: development of an efficient functional food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manju Pathak

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hormone Insulin is a drug used for the treatment of type 1 and type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Insulin used in this experiment is derived from bovine and pork pancreas, as well as through recombinant technology. Patients with diabetes mellitus face an inability to utilize glucose from blood due to either less secretion of insulin, or the inability of the insulin to act; As a result of this glucose levels in the blood rise. The prevention and treatment of type 2 Diabetes Mellitus one is world’s major public health issues. Natural alternatives have a big role to play in this field. This study aims at discovering functional foods rich in Insulin like proteins. Here we are reporting Insulin-like proteins synthesizing during the embryo development stage of Glycine max: soybean, Vigna radiata: moong and Vigna unguiculata: cowpea seeds. Hence, germination transforms these seeds containing human insulin like proteins.Methods: In our investigation we have provided protein extraction with Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The plant materials weighing 1g were crushed in mortar and pestle, and the protein from the plant materials was extracted with 20 ml of 0.05 M sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.6. The suspensions were centrifuged at 6000 rpm for 15 min, and the clear supernatants were subjected to Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for the detection of insulin-like proteins. We have used USDA nutritional data sources for the analysis of new products. Results: Our results demonstrate that Insulin is not expressed in dry mature dormant seeds, but is expressed only during the embryo development stage. Dry mature dormant seeds and the seeds germinated for 24 hours, 48 hours, 72 hours, and 96 hours of Glycine max, Vigna radiata and Vigna unguiculata, were investigated for expression of insulin through immunodetection using anti-insulin antibodies. Dry dormant seeds of all the three seeds showed zero expression at 450 nm for insulin, while

  11. Functional response of cerebral blood flow induced by somatosensory stimulation in rats with subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiguo; Huang, Qin; Liu, Peng; Li, Pengcheng; Ma, Lianting; Lu, Jinling

    2015-09-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is often accompanied by cerebral vasospasm (CVS), which is the phenomenon of narrowing of large cerebral arteries, and then can produce delayed ischemic neurological deficit (DIND) such as lateralized sensory dysfunction. CVS was regarded as a major contributor to DIND in patients with SAH. However, therapy for preventing vasospasm after SAH to improve the outcomes may not work all the time. It is important to find answers to the relationship between CVS and DIND after SAH. How local cerebral blood flow (CBF) is regulated during functional activation after SAH still remains poorly understood, whereas, the regulation of CBF may play an important role in weakening the impact of CVS on cortex function. Therefore, it is worthwhile to evaluate the functional response of CBF in the activated cortex in an SAH animal model. Most evaluation of the effect of SAH is presently carried out by neurological behavioral scales. The functional imaging of cortical activation during sensory stimulation may help to reflect the function of the somatosensory cortex more locally than the behavioral scales do. We investigated the functional response of CBF in the somatosensory cortex induced by an electrical stimulation to contralateral forepaw via laser speckle imaging in a rat SAH model. Nineteen Sprague-Dawley rats from two groups (control group, n=10 and SAH group, n=9) were studied. SAH was induced in rats by double injection of autologous blood into the cisterna magna after CSF aspiration. The same surgical procedure was applied in the control group without CSF aspiration or blood injection. Significant CVS was found in the SAH group. Meanwhile, we observed a delayed peak of CBF response in rats with SAH compared with those in the control group, whereas no significant difference was found in magnitude, duration, and areas under curve of relative CBF changes between the two groups. The results suggest that the regulation function of local CBF during

  12. TVP1022 Protects Neonatal Rat Ventricular Myocytes against Doxorubicin-Induced Functional Derangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdichevski, Alexandra; Meiry, Gideon; Milman, Felix; Reiter, Irena; Sedan, Oshra; Eliyahu, Sivan; Duffy, Heather S.; Youdim, Moussa B.; Binah, Ofer

    2010-01-01

    Our recent studies demonstrated that propargylamine derivatives such as rasagiline (Azilect, Food and Drug Administration-approved anti-Parkinson drug) and its S-isomer TVP1022 protect cardiac and neuronal cell cultures against apoptotic-inducing stimuli. Studies on structure-activity relationship revealed that their neuroprotective effect is associated with the propargylamine moiety, which protects mitochondrial viability and prevents apoptosis by activating Bcl-2 and protein kinase C-ε and by down-regulating the proapoptotic protein Bax. Based on the established cytoprotective and neuroprotective efficacies of propargylamine derivatives, as well as on our recent study showing that TVP1022 attenuates serum starvation-induced and doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs), we tested the hypothesis that TVP1022 will also provide protection against doxorubicin-induced NRVM functional derangements. The present study demonstrates that pretreatment of NRVMs with TVP1022 (1 μM, 24 h) prevented doxorubicin (0.5 μM, 24 h)-induced elevation of diastolic [Ca2+]i, the slowing of [Ca2+]i relaxation kinetics, and the decrease in the rates of myocyte contraction and relaxation. Furthermore, pretreatment with TVP1022 attenuated the doxorubicin-induced reduction in the protein expression of sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium (Ca2+) ATPase, Na+/Ca2+ exchanger 1, and total connexin 43. Finally, TVP1022 diminished the inhibitory effect of doxorubicin on gap junctional intercellular coupling (measured by means of Lucifer yellow transfer) and on conduction velocity, the amplitude of the activation phase, and the maximal rate of activation (dv/dtmax) measured by the Micro-Electrode-Array system. In summary, our results indicate that TVP1022 acts as a novel cardioprotective agent against anthracycline cardiotoxicity, and therefore potentially can be coadmhence, the inistered with doxorubicin in the treatment of malignancies in humans. PMID:19915070

  13. Radiation-induced genomic instability, and the cloning and functional analysis of its related gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muto, Masahiro; Kanari, Yasuyoshi; Kubo, Eiko; Yamada, Yutaka

    2000-01-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation produces a number of biological consequences including gene mutations, chromosome aberrations, cellular transformation and cell death. The classical view has been that mutations occur at the sites of DNA damage, that is, damage produced by radiation is converted into a mutation during subsequent DNA replication or as a consequence of enzymatic repair processes. However, many investigators have presented evidence for an alternative mechanism to explain these biological effects. This evidence suggests that radiation may induce a process of genomic instability that is transmissible over many generations of cell replication and that serves to enhance the probability of the occurrence of such genetic effects among the progeny of the irradiated cell after many generations of cell replication. If such a process exists in vivo, it could have significant implications for mechanisms of carcinogenesis. Exposure of B10 mice to fractionated X-irradiation induces a high incidence of thymic lymphomas, whereas the incidence in STS/A mice is very low. Such strain differences are presumably determined genetically, and various genetic factors have been reported to be involved in radiation-induced lymphomagenesis. The mechanism of radiation-induced lymphomagenesis appears to develop through a complex and multistep process. Using this experimental system, we characterized the prelymphoma cells induced by radiation, and identified the genetic changes preceding the development of thymic lymphomas by comparing the oncogenic alterations with the pattern of T cell receptor (TCR) γ rearrangements. In these studies, the latent expression of some chromosomal aberrations and p53 mutations in irradiated progeny has been interpreted to be a manifestation of genomic instability. In the present report we review the results of in vivo studies conducted in our laboratory that support the hypothesis of genomic instability induced by radiation, and we describe the

  14. Repair of radiation-induced DNA damage in rat epidermis as a function of age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sargent, E.V.; Burns, F.J.

    1985-01-01

    The rate of repair of radiation-induced DNA damage in proliferating rat epidermal cells diminished progressively with increasing age of the animal. The dorsal skin was irradiated with 1200 rad of 0.8 MeV electrons at various ages, and the amount of DNA damage was determined as a function of time after irradiation by the method of alkaline unwinding followed by S 1 nuclease digestion. The amount of DNA damage immediately after irradiation was not age dependent, while the rate of damage removal from the DNA decreased with increasing age. By fitting an exponential function to the relative amount of undamaged DNA as a function of time after irradiation, DNA repair halftimes of 20, 27, 69, and 107 min were obtained for 28, 100-, 200-, and 400-day-old animals, respectively

  15. Impaired Functional Connectivity in the Prefrontal Cortex: A Mechanism for Chronic Stress-Induced Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Negrón-Oyarzo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic stress-related psychiatric diseases, such as major depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and schizophrenia, are characterized by a maladaptive organization of behavioral responses that strongly affect the well-being of patients. Current evidence suggests that a functional impairment of the prefrontal cortex (PFC is implicated in the pathophysiology of these diseases. Therefore, chronic stress may impair PFC functions required for the adaptive orchestration of behavioral responses. In the present review, we integrate evidence obtained from cognitive neuroscience with neurophysiological research with animal models, to put forward a hypothesis that addresses stress-induced behavioral dysfunctions observed in stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders. We propose that chronic stress impairs mechanisms involved in neuronal functional connectivity in the PFC that are required for the formation of adaptive representations for the execution of adaptive behavioral responses. These considerations could be particularly relevant for understanding the pathophysiology of chronic stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders.

  16. Excitation functions of radionuclides produced by proton induced reactions on gadolinium targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Challana, M.B.; Comsana, M.N.H.; Moawadb, G.S.; Abou-Zeid, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Cross section study for proton induced reaction on natural Gadolinium targets were performed. Excitation functions for the reactions n atGd(p,x) 152m+g , 154m,154g Tb from threshold up to E p = 18 MeV have been measured employing the stacked foil activation technique, and using high resolution HPGe gamma spectrometry. Utilizing the simultaneous measurement of the excitation function of n atCu(p,x) 62 Zn, n atCu(p,x) 63 Zn, and n atCu(p,x) 65 Zn as monitor reactions. The theoretical analysis of the excitation functions has been done employing both ALICE-91 and EMPIRE-II codes. In general, theoretical calculations agree well with the experimental data. A significant contribution of pre-equilibrium component has been observed at these energies

  17. Memory function approach to the line shape problem in collision-induced light scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balucani, U.; Tognetti, V.; Vallauri, R.

    1980-01-01

    This article mainly deals with the problem of the shape of the spectrum due to interacting pairs of atoms at low and moderate densities. A memory function approach is used which permits to obtain in a consistent way the shape of the scattered spectrum. In order to obtain 'exact' time correlation functions and spectral shapes, molecular-dynamics 'experiments' in Lennard-Jones argon at two different densities were also performed. The dipole-induced dipole (DID) polarizabilities have been used to ascertain the validity of the theoretical approach in a well-defined physical model. The theoretical shapes and correlation functions can be then directly compared with computer simulations. Finally, a comparison with the data of real experiments clarifies the relevance of other-than-DID polarizability mechanisms as far as the spectrum is concerned. (KBE)

  18. Eucalyptus hairy roots, a fast, efficient and versatile tool to explore function and expression of genes involved in wood formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plasencia, Anna; Soler, Marçal; Dupas, Annabelle; Ladouce, Nathalie; Silva-Martins, Guilherme; Martinez, Yves; Lapierre, Catherine; Franche, Claudine; Truchet, Isabelle; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline

    2016-06-01

    Eucalyptus are of tremendous economic importance being the most planted hardwoods worldwide for pulp and paper, timber and bioenergy. The recent release of the Eucalyptus grandis genome sequence pointed out many new candidate genes potentially involved in secondary growth, wood formation or lineage-specific biosynthetic pathways. Their functional characterization is, however, hindered by the tedious, time-consuming and inefficient transformation systems available hitherto for eucalypts. To overcome this limitation, we developed a fast, reliable and efficient protocol to obtain and easily detect co-transformed E. grandis hairy roots using fluorescent markers, with an average efficiency of 62%. We set up conditions both to cultivate excised roots in vitro and to harden composite plants and verified that hairy root morphology and vascular system anatomy were similar to wild-type ones. We further demonstrated that co-transformed hairy roots are suitable for medium-throughput functional studies enabling, for instance, protein subcellular localization, gene expression patterns through RT-qPCR and promoter expression, as well as the modulation of endogenous gene expression. Down-regulation of the Eucalyptus cinnamoyl-CoA reductase1 (EgCCR1) gene, encoding a key enzyme in lignin biosynthesis, led to transgenic roots with reduced lignin levels and thinner cell walls. This gene was used as a proof of concept to demonstrate that the function of genes involved in secondary cell wall biosynthesis and wood formation can be elucidated in transgenic hairy roots using histochemical, transcriptomic and biochemical approaches. The method described here is timely because it will accelerate gene mining of the genome for both basic research and industry purposes. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Differentiation-inducing factor-1 and -2 function also as modulators for Dictyostelium chemotaxis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidekazu Kuwayama

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the early stages of development of the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum, chemotaxis toward cAMP plays a pivotal role in organizing discrete cells into a multicellular structure. In this process, a series of signaling molecules, such as G-protein-coupled cell surface receptors for cAMP, phosphatidylinositol metabolites, and cyclic nucleotides, function as the signal transducers for controlling dynamics of cytoskeleton. Differentiation-inducing factor-1 and -2 (DIF-1 and DIF-2 were originally identified as the factors (chlorinated alkylphenones that induce Dictyostelium stalk cell differentiation, but it remained unknown whether the DIFs had any other physiologic functions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To further elucidate the functions of DIFs, in the present study we investigated their effects on chemotaxis under various conditions. Quite interestingly, in shallow cAMP gradients,