WorldWideScience

Sample records for efficient parameter training

  1. Fuze Gear Train Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-01

    P6.06. S a1.0 POINTIFr .94;11 ALPHA)) -02 .O~ 5 La1. POINTEr a94 AIPHA)) a Pfl.3E S *1.0 P’) INTEF a 94149 AIPHAO a Pnl*h& S v 1.0 POINTirr a .949!. ALPHA...conditions, the point efficiency is computed according to equation 3 (ref E-1), i.e., Cŕ PO INTEF KRA 3IO M-in where, withb Ka lt ny The cycle

  2. MODALITIES OF TRAINING PARAMETER ALTERNATION IN NOWADAYS STRENGTH TRAINING PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RANISAVLJEV IGOR

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Large number of variables could be alternated during the process of planning and programming in sports training. Superior training results in majority of sports are achieved by optimally manipulating training parameters in appropriate sequences and combinations. Additionally, in some sports they might be the result of appropriate periodization pattern. Today's tendency in strength training practice is training movements instead of training muscles. Exercise classification according to the dominant movement types, allows creating new modalities in training alternation. Additional variations in volume, intensity, rest brakes, repetition velocity andinter-repetition rest can be the important part of functional strength training program. Alternation and combination of different training parameters makes appropriate training stimulus for strength increase in the most of nowadays sports. Optimal alternation of basic training parameters should be the first part in the processof planning and programming. As a result, majority of athletes might not need advanced periodization patterns for optimal improvement in muscle strength and power

  3. Some factors facilitating efficient Chinese teacher training

    OpenAIRE

    Popova, Aleksandra

    2012-01-01

    The article is devoted to the problem of Chinese teacher training major. The factors facilitating efficient Chinese teacher training as well as the most common linguistic difficulties of the Chinese language are specified in the article. The author touches upon the peculiarities of the realization of the proposed model aimed at efficient educational success within the Ukraine’s system of education.

  4. BACKPROPAGATION TRAINING ALGORITHM WITH ADAPTIVE PARAMETERS TO SOLVE DIGITAL PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Saraswathi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient technique namely Backpropagation training with adaptive parameters using Lyapunov Stability Theory for training single hidden layer feed forward network is proposed. A three-layered Feedforward neural network architecture is used to solve the selected problems. Sequential Training Mode is used to train the network. Lyapunov stability theory is employed to ensure the faster and steady state error convergence and to construct and energy surface with a single global minimum point through the adaptive adjustment of the weights and the adaptive parameter ß. To avoid local minima entrapment, an adaptive backpropagation algorithm based on Lyapunov stability theory is used. Lyapunov stability theory gives the algorithm, the efficiency of attaining a single global minimum point. The learning parameters used in this algorithm is responsible for the faster error convergence. The adaptive learning parameter used in this algorithm is chosen properly for faster error convergence. The error obtained has been asymptotically converged to zero according to Lyapunov Stability theory. The performance of the adaptive Backpropagation algorithm is measured by solving parity problem, half adder and full adder problems.

  5. Efficiency of twice weekly concurrent training in trained elderly men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Rodrigo; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins; Cadore, Eduardo Lusa; Alberton, Cristine Lima; Izquierdo, Mikel; Conceição, Matheus; Pinto, Ronei Silveira; Radaelli, Régis; Wilhelm, Eurico; Bottaro, Martim; Ribeiro, Jorge Pinto; Umpierre, Daniel

    2013-11-01

    This study compared the effects of different weekly training frequencies on the cardiovascular and neuromuscular adaptations induced by concurrent training in previously trained elderly. After 20weeks of combined strength and endurance training, twenty-four healthy elderly men (65±4 years) were randomly placed into two frequency training groups: strength and endurance training performed twice a week (SE2, n=12); or, strength and endurance training performed three times per week (SE3, n=12). The interventions lasted 10 weeks and each group performed identical exercise intensity and volume per session. Before and after the exercise training, one maximum repetition test (1RM), isometric peak torque (PT), maximal surface electromyographic activity (EMG), as well as muscle thickness (MT) were examined. Additionally, peak oxygen uptake (VO(2peak)), maximum aerobic workload (W(max)), first and second ventilatory thresholds (VT1 and VT2) were evaluated. There were significant increases in upper and lower-body 1RM, MT, VO(2peak), VT1 and VT2, with no differences between groups. There were no changes after training in maximal EMG and isometric peak torque. W(max) was improved only in SE3. After 10 weeks of training, twice weekly combined strength and endurance training leads to similar neuromuscular and cardiovascular adaptations as three times per week, demonstrating the efficiency of lower frequency of concurrent training in previously trained elderly men. © 2013.

  6. An efficient training scheme for supermodels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schevenhoven, Francine J.; Selten, Frank M.

    2017-06-01

    Weather and climate models have improved steadily over time as witnessed by objective skill scores, although significant model errors remain. Given these imperfect models, predictions might be improved by combining them dynamically into a so-called supermodel. In this paper a new training scheme to construct such a supermodel is explored using a technique called cross pollination in time (CPT). In the CPT approach the models exchange states during the prediction. The number of possible predictions grows quickly with time, and a strategy to retain only a small number of predictions, called pruning, needs to be developed. The method is explored using low-order dynamical systems and applied to a global atmospheric model. The results indicate that the CPT training is efficient and leads to a supermodel with improved forecast quality as compared to the individual models. Due to its computational efficiency, the technique is suited for application to state-of-the art high-dimensional weather and climate models.

  7. Finding structural parameters for energy efficient cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Read, S.A.; Mashayekhi, A.; Rocco de Campos Pereira, R.C.

    2014-01-01

    Europe is going through a great social, economic and environmental period of transition. The changes the EU is currently undergoing have been causing increased awareness about sustainable development, natural resources use and energy efficiency on the agenda at the European level of policy making.

  8. Effect of aerobic exercise training on cardiovascular parameters and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of aerobic exercise training on cardiovascular parameters and CD4 cell count of people living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome: A randomized controlled trial.

  9. An Efficient Supervised Training Algorithm for Multilayer Spiking Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiurui; Qu, Hong; Liu, Guisong; Zhang, Malu; Kurths, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    The spiking neural networks (SNNs) are the third generation of neural networks and perform remarkably well in cognitive tasks such as pattern recognition. The spike emitting and information processing mechanisms found in biological cognitive systems motivate the application of the hierarchical structure and temporal encoding mechanism in spiking neural networks, which have exhibited strong computational capability. However, the hierarchical structure and temporal encoding approach require neurons to process information serially in space and time respectively, which reduce the training efficiency significantly. For training the hierarchical SNNs, most existing methods are based on the traditional back-propagation algorithm, inheriting its drawbacks of the gradient diffusion and the sensitivity on parameters. To keep the powerful computation capability of the hierarchical structure and temporal encoding mechanism, but to overcome the low efficiency of the existing algorithms, a new training algorithm, the Normalized Spiking Error Back Propagation (NSEBP) is proposed in this paper. In the feedforward calculation, the output spike times are calculated by solving the quadratic function in the spike response model instead of detecting postsynaptic voltage states at all time points in traditional algorithms. Besides, in the feedback weight modification, the computational error is propagated to previous layers by the presynaptic spike jitter instead of the gradient decent rule, which realizes the layer-wised training. Furthermore, our algorithm investigates the mathematical relation between the weight variation and voltage error change, which makes the normalization in the weight modification applicable. Adopting these strategies, our algorithm outperforms the traditional SNN multi-layer algorithms in terms of learning efficiency and parameter sensitivity, that are also demonstrated by the comprehensive experimental results in this paper.

  10. Train driving efficiency and safety: examining the cost of fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorrian, Jillian; Hussey, Frank; Dawson, Drew

    2007-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of fatigue on train driving using data loggers on 50 locomotives operated by pairs of male train drivers (24-56 years) on an Adelaide-Melbourne corridor. Drivers' work history was used to calculate a fatigue score using Fatigue Audit Interdyne Software. Trains were assigned to one of three groups, based on drivers' maximum fatigue score: low (n = 15), moderate (n = 22) or high (n = 13) fatigue. Changes in driving parameters at different fatigue levels were investigated. A significant (P high group used 9% more fuel than drivers in the low group. As these trains run daily, taking horsepower into account, this represents an approximate extra weekly cost of AUD$3512 using high compared with low fatigue drivers. High fatigue-group drivers used less throttle and dynamic brake and engaged in more heavy brake and maximum speed violations. Comparison of three, 100 km track sub-sections with undulating, flat, and hilly grade indicated that fuel use increases occurred primarily during the undulating sub-section, and heavy brake and maximum speed violations occurred primarily in the flat sub-section. Fatigued driving becomes less well-planned, resulting in reduced efficiency (e.g. increased fuel consumption) and safety (e.g. braking and speeding violations). Fatigue may manifest differentially depending on track grade. In certain areas, fatigue will cause increased fuel use and economic cost, and in others, reduced safety through driving violations. These factors should be carefully examined in future railway operator research.

  11. Efficiency of Physical Therapy for Improving Hemodynamic Parameters in Young Obese Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana GHERGHEL

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The paper aims to demonstrate the efficiency of an individualized exercise training protocol on preventing cardiovascular complications, by improving hemodynamic parameters and body composition of young obese patiens. Material and method: The group included 35 subjects from which 21 female and 14 male with age between 18 and 25 years and the period of the study was 9 months of which 6 of training. At the beginning and at the end of training, subjects were assessed in regard to body composition and hemodynamic parameters. To design an individualized exercise training program, testing and monitoring protocol was based on using of some modern methods among which: cardiopulmonary exercise testing and bioimedance body composition analyses. Statistical analysis was performed by using paired t test. Value of the coefficient p under 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Training programs performed during 6 months have brought significant improvements in the following parameters: body mass index, resting heart rate, systolic blood presure and dyastolic blood pressure, allong with maximal blood presure in effort. Conclusions: The concept of individual intervals training brought improvements of targeted parameters, causing weight loss but also improvements of cardiovascular risk.

  12. THE EFFECT OF SINGING TRAINING ON ACOUSTIC PARAMETERS OF VOICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.Sibel Jagoda

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to analyze the impact of singing training on the acoustic properties of students’ voices. The participants of the stuy were 20 students between 19 and 32 without absenteeism ranging from the 1st to the 4th grade. The voices of 12 female and 8 male students, enrolled at Selcuk University Dilek Sabancı State Conservatory Opera Main-department, Sub-department of Vocal Arts were recorded throughout 2014-2015 academic year using Shure Sm 48 model microphone in order to determine their acoustic properties using CSL (Computerized Speech Laboratory 4500 to the computer with Kay Elemetrics MDVP (Multi Dimensional Voice Program. In order to determine changes in the acoustic parameters and evaluate the effectiveness of the singing training given, a single sample -pre and post-test research design was used. Hence, among the acoustic properties, F0, (Fundamental Frequency F1, F2, F3, F4, F5, formant frequencies, jitter (%, shimmer (%, NHR (Ratio of harmonic noise parameters were evaluated. The statistical analyses made for the comparison of MDVP parameters before and after the vocal training revealed no statistically significant difference in the students’ F0, Jitter, Shimmer, NHR, F1, F2, F3, and F4 acoustic parameters. However, the F5 formant value revealed statistically significant differences in all the students and a statistically significant difference was seen in the F0 parameter and F5 formant values of female students. Fundamental frequency (F0 is an important parameter changing throughout the singing training process among the female students’ acoustic characteristics. The increase in the F5 formant values of female students and the acoustic properties of all students within normal ranges could be considered as an indicator of the positive impact of the singing training received.

  13. Effect of various parameters on the efficiency of zinc phosphate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zinc phosphate solubilization efficiency of ten soil bacteria were studied for various parameters like carbon sources, temperature, pH, variable concentration of sodium chloride and glucose. For majority of the isolates 20oC was appeared to be the optimum temperature for solubilization of zinc phosphate. Glucose was the ...

  14. Differences in Spatiotemporal Parameters Between Trained Runners and Untrained Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Molina, Josué; Ogueta-Alday, Ana; Stickley, Christopher; Cámara, Jesús; Cabrejas-Ugartondo, Jon; García-López, Juan

    2017-08-01

    Gómez-Molina, J, Ogueta-Alday, A, Stickley, C, Tobalina, JC, Cabrejas-Ugartondo, J, and García-López, J. Differences in spatiotemporal parameters between trained runners and untrained participants. J Strength Cond Res 31(8): 2169-2175, 2017-The aim of this study was to compare the spatiotemporal parameters of trained runners and untrained participants with the same foot strike pattern (rearfoot) during running at controlled speeds. Twenty-one participants were classified in 2 groups according to their training experience: Trained (n = 10, amateur runners with long distance training experience) and Untrained (n = 11, healthy untrained participants). Anthropometric variables were recorded, and the participants performed both a submaximal (between 9 and 15 km·h) and a graded exercise running test (from 6 km·h until exhaustion) on a treadmill. Physiological (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, heart rate, running economy [RE], peak speed …) and biomechanical variables (contact and flight times, step rate, and length) were simultaneously registered. Trained runners showed higher step rate and shorter step length than the Untrained group at the same running speeds (between 4 and 7%, p ≤ 0.05) and at the same physiological intensities (between 7 and 11%, p ≤ 0.05). However, there were no differences in contact and flight times between groups. Significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) and large effect sizes (Cohen's d) between groups were found for body mass, sum of 6 skinfolds, V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, peak speed, and ventilatory threshold and respiratory compensation threshold speeds. The Trained group also showed a ∼7% better RE (ml·kg·km) than the Untrained group. In conclusion, adopting higher step rate and shorter step length may be an adaptive mechanism of the Trained group to reduce injury risk and possibly improve RE. However, contact and flight times were consistent regardless of training level.

  15. Efficient temporal and interlayer parameter prediction for weighted prediction in scalable high efficiency video coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Sik-Ho; Chan, Yui-Lam; Siu, Wan-Chi

    2017-01-01

    Weighted prediction (WP) is an efficient video coding tool that was introduced since the establishment of the H.264/AVC video coding standard, for compensating the temporal illumination change in motion estimation and compensation. WP parameters, including a multiplicative weight and an additive offset for each reference frame, are required to be estimated and transmitted to the decoder by slice header. These parameters cause extra bits in the coded video bitstream. High efficiency video coding (HEVC) provides WP parameter prediction to reduce the overhead. Therefore, WP parameter prediction is crucial to research works or applications, which are related to WP. Prior art has been suggested to further improve the WP parameter prediction by implicit prediction of image characteristics and derivation of parameters. By exploiting both temporal and interlayer redundancies, we propose three WP parameter prediction algorithms, enhanced implicit WP parameter, enhanced direct WP parameter derivation, and interlayer WP parameter, to further improve the coding efficiency of HEVC. Results show that our proposed algorithms can achieve up to 5.83% and 5.23% bitrate reduction compared to the conventional scalable HEVC in the base layer for SNR scalability and 2× spatial scalability, respectively.

  16. Improving efficiency of clinical skills training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolsgaard, Martin G; Bjørck, Sebastian; Birkvad Rasmussen, Maria

    2013-01-01

    The rising number of medical students and the impact this has on students' learning of clinical skills is a matter of concern. Cooperative learning in pairs, called dyad training, might help address this situation.......The rising number of medical students and the impact this has on students' learning of clinical skills is a matter of concern. Cooperative learning in pairs, called dyad training, might help address this situation....

  17. Efficient driving of CBTC ATO operated trains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvajal Carreño, W.

    2017-01-01

    Energy consumption reduction is one of the priorities of metro operators, due to financial cost and environmental impact. The new signalling system Communications- Based Train Control (CBTC) is being installed in new and upgraded metro lines to increase transportation capacity. But its continuous

  18. Automated Employee Training: Efficiency and Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boedicker, Laurie

    2010-01-01

    New legislation or modifications to existing federal and state education legislation often mandate more training for district staff and more documentation to prove compliance. These regulations come with heavy penalties for noncompliance; yet these initiatives are usually unfunded, thus making it difficult to ensure that staff members receive the…

  19. Process efficiency simulation for key process parameters in biological methanogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Bernacchi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available New generation biofuels are a suitable approach to produce energy carriers in an almost CO2 neutral way. A promising reaction is the conversion of CO2 and H2 to CH4. This contribution aims at elucidating a bioprocess comprised of a core reaction unit using microorganisms from the Archaea life domain, which metabolize CO2 and H2 to CH4, followed by a gas purification step. The process is simulated and analyzed thermodynamically using the Aspen Plus process simulation environment. The goal of the study was to quantify effects of process parameters on overall process efficiency using a kinetic model derived from previously published experimental results. The used empirical model links the production rate of CH4 and biomass to limiting reactant concentrations. In addition, Aspen Plus was used to improve bioprocess quantification. Impacts of pressure as well as dilution of reactant gas with up to 70% non-reactive gas on overall process efficiency was evaluated. Pressure in the reactor unit of 11 bar at 65℃ with a pressure of 21 bar for gas purification led to an overall process efficiency comprised between 66% and 70% for gaseous product and between 73% and 76% if heat of compression is considered a valuable product. The combination of 2 bar pressure in the reactor and 21 bar for purification was the most efficient combination of parameters. This result shows Aspen Plus potential for similar bioprocess development as it accounts for the energetic aspect of the entire process. In fact, the optimum for the overall process efficiency was found to differ from the optimum of the reaction unit. High efficiency of over 70% demonstrates that biological methanogenesis is a promising alternative for a chemical methanation reaction.

  20. COMPANY TRAINING FROM THE EFFICIENCY AND EFFECTIVENESS POINT OF VIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STAŇKOVÁ, Dana Maria

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper concentrates on the topic of efficiency and effectiveness of company training. This work has set research goals that were solved using the interrogation method, questionnaire technique and free interview. Goal No. 1 was to investigate the situation in the company training from the motivation aspect and stimulating education system requirements. Goal No. 2 was to determine the use of educational methods, forms of training from the point of view of their efficiency. Goal No. 3 was to investigate into the attitude toward company training evaluation and exploitation of the individual levels of educational process efficiency evaluation. As a resource for the training efficiency evaluation the authors used Kirkpatrick’s 4-level Learning Evaluation Model extended with the ROI method. The research group consisted of a HR managers / managers from the SME sectors, b participants of these companies’ training programmes. The most important requirements for an efficient stimulating educational system involve the conformity with the needs and goals of the company, linking with the performance system and accord with the needs of an individual. The research has shown that in certain educational methods and forms there occurs conformity between the frequency of their usage in practice and apprehension of their efficiency, e.g. the controlled discussion method and the direct group education form. In others, such as the practical example method and individual consultation form, their usage in practice is minimal, but there is a high apprehension rate of their efficiency. The efficiency evaluation is implemented mostly only on the 1st and 2nd level (the reaction level and learning level. However, in a responsible approach to the efficient use of financial means invested into the training process also a shift of evaluation on the 3rd and 4th level (transfer to the work-place level and business result level and ROI are necessary.

  1. Energy Efficiency Services Sector: Workforce Education and Training Needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, Charles A.; Peters, Jane S.; Albers, Nathaniel; Stuart, Elizabeth; Fuller, Merrian C.

    2010-03-19

    This report provides a baseline assessment of the current state of energy efficiency-related education and training programs and analyzes training and education needs to support expected growth in the energy efficiency services workforce. In the last year, there has been a significant increase in funding for 'green job' training and workforce development (including energy efficiency), through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). Key segments of the energy efficiency services sector (EESS) have experienced significant growth during the past several years, and this growth is projected to continue and accelerate over the next decade. In a companion study (Goldman et al. 2009), our research team estimated that the EESS will increase two- to four-fold by 2020, to 220,000 person-years of employment (PYE) (low-growth scenario) or up to 380,000 PYE (high-growth scenario), which may represent as many as 1.3 million individuals. In assessing energy efficiency workforce education and training needs, we focus on energy-efficiency services-related jobs that are required to improve the efficiency of residential and nonresidential buildings. Figure ES-1 shows the market value chain for the EESS, sub-sectors included in this study, as well as the types of market players and specific occupations. Our assessment does not include the manufacturing, wholesale, and retail distribution subsectors, or energy efficiency-focused operations and maintenance performed by facility managers.

  2. Endurance training increases the efficiency of rat skeletal muscle mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, Jerzy A; Koziel, Agnieszka; Woyda-Ploszczyca, Andrzej; Celichowski, Jan; Jarmuszkiewicz, Wieslawa

    2016-10-01

    Endurance training enhances mitochondrial oxidative capacity, but its effect on mitochondria functioning is poorly understood. In the present study, the influence of an 8-week endurance training on the bioenergetic functioning of rat skeletal muscle mitochondria under different assay temperatures (25, 35, and 42 °C) was investigated. The study was performed on 24 adult 4-month-old male Wistar rats, which were randomly assigned to either a treadmill training group (n = 12) or a sedentary control group (n = 12). In skeletal muscles, endurance training stimulated mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative capacity. In isolated mitochondria, endurance training increased the phosphorylation rate and elevated levels of coenzyme Q. Moreover, a decrease in mitochondrial uncoupling, including uncoupling protein-mediated proton leak, was observed after training, which could explain the increased reactive oxygen species production (in nonphosphorylating mitochondria) and enhanced oxidative phosphorylation efficiency. At all studied temperatures, endurance training significantly augmented H2O2 production (and coenzyme Q reduction level) in nonphosphorylating mitochondria and decreased H2O2 production (and coenzyme Q reduction level) in phosphorylating mitochondria. Endurance training magnified the hyperthermia-induced increase in oxidative capacity and attenuated the hyperthermia-induced decline in oxidative phosphorylation efficiency and reactive oxygen species formation of nonphosphorylating mitochondria via proton leak enhancement. Thus, endurance training induces both quantitative and qualitative changes in muscle mitochondria that are important for cell signaling as well as for maintaining muscle energy homeostasis, especially at high temperatures.

  3. Yoga Training Improves Metabolic Parameters in Obese Boys

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Dae Yun; Lee, SungRyul; Figueroa, Arturo; Kim, Hyoung Kyu; Baek, Yeong Ho; Kwak, Yi Sub; Kim, Nari; Choi, Tae Hoon; Rhee, Byoung Doo; Ko, Kyung Soo; Park, Byung Joo; Park, Song Young; Han, Jin

    2012-01-01

    Yoga has been known to have stimulatory or inhibitory effects on the metabolic parameters and to be uncomplicated therapy for obesity. The purpose of the present study was to test the effect of an 8-week of yoga-asana training on body composition, lipid profile, and insulin resistance (IR) in obese adolescent boys. Twenty volunteers with body mass index (BMI) greater than the 95th percentile were randomly assigned to yoga (age 14.7±0.5 years, n=10) and control groups (age 14.6±1.0 years, n=10...

  4. Profile parameters of wheelset detection for high speed freight train

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kai; Ma, Li; Gao, Xiaorong; Wang, Li

    2012-04-01

    Because of freight train, in China, transports goods on railway freight line throughout the country, it does not depart from or return to engine shed during a long phase, thus we cannot monitor the quality of wheel set effectively. This paper provides a system which uses leaser and high speed camera, applies no-contact light section technology to get precise wheel set profile parameters. The paper employs clamping-track method to avoid complex railway ballast modification project. And detailed descript an improved image-tracking algorithm to extract central line from profile curve. For getting one pixel width and continuous line of the profile curve, uses local gray maximum points as direction control points to direct tracking direction. The results based on practical experiment show the system adapted to detection environment of high speed and high vibration, and it can effectively detect the wheelset geometric parameters with high accuracy. The system fills the gaps in wheel set detection for freight train in main line and has an enlightening function on monitoring the quality of wheel set.

  5. An Efficient Data Partitioning to Improve Classification Performance While Keeping Parameters Interpretable.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristjan Korjus

    Full Text Available Supervised machine learning methods typically require splitting data into multiple chunks for training, validating, and finally testing classifiers. For finding the best parameters of a classifier, training and validation are usually carried out with cross-validation. This is followed by application of the classifier with optimized parameters to a separate test set for estimating the classifier's generalization performance. With limited data, this separation of test data creates a difficult trade-off between having more statistical power in estimating generalization performance versus choosing better parameters and fitting a better model. We propose a novel approach that we term "Cross-validation and cross-testing" improving this trade-off by re-using test data without biasing classifier performance. The novel approach is validated using simulated data and electrophysiological recordings in humans and rodents. The results demonstrate that the approach has a higher probability of discovering significant results than the standard approach of cross-validation and testing, while maintaining the nominal alpha level. In contrast to nested cross-validation, which is maximally efficient in re-using data, the proposed approach additionally maintains the interpretability of individual parameters. Taken together, we suggest an addition to currently used machine learning approaches which may be particularly useful in cases where model weights do not require interpretation, but parameters do.

  6. SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF INVESTMENTS INTO A PROFESSIONAL TRAINING

    OpenAIRE

    V.A. Antropov; V.S. Parshina; A. V. Kudinov

    2009-01-01

    Unlike the contemporary economics' methods that deal with the inner effect (the effect that the learner gets from the education) or the macrolevel’s effect (the effect on the state's level), the authors of the article introduce innovative methods to estimate the economical efficiency of the personnel training investing and the investing payback period from the viewpoint of the organizations that finance the personnel training (the microlevel’s effect). It is based on the discounting conceptio...

  7. Training young horses to social separation: Effect of a companion horse on training efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, E.; Christensen, Janne Winther; Keeling, LJ

    2011-01-01

    when horses were trained in pairs (P2) compared to when the same horses were subsequently trained alone (P1). Conclusions and potential relevance: It may not be efficient to habituate naive young horses to social separation initially with a partner as these horses appear to have to relearn being......, and heart rate is lower when the horse is subsequently trained alone, compared to control horses trained individually from the start. Methods: Young mares (n = 32), kept in groups of 4 were exposed to social separation: 2 horses of the group were trained singly (S1, n = 16) and the remaining 2 horses (n...... = 16) were trained first with a companion (P2) and then alone (P1). The training comprised 3 steps whereby distance from the group was gradually increased. The final learning criterion was met when a horse fed calmly alone inside a test arena (Step 3). Horses that were trained in a pair had to succeed...

  8. Efficient VLSI Architecture for Training Radial Basis Function Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhe-Cheng; Hwang, Wen-Jyi

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel VLSI architecture for the training of radial basis function (RBF) networks. The architecture contains the circuits for fuzzy C-means (FCM) and the recursive Least Mean Square (LMS) operations. The FCM circuit is designed for the training of centers in the hidden layer of the RBF network. The recursive LMS circuit is adopted for the training of connecting weights in the output layer. The architecture is implemented by the field programmable gate array (FPGA). It is used as a hardware accelerator in a system on programmable chip (SOPC) for real-time training and classification. Experimental results reveal that the proposed RBF architecture is an effective alternative for applications where fast and efficient RBF training is desired. PMID:23519346

  9. Aphasia treatment: intensity, dose parameters, and script training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherney, Leora R

    2012-10-01

    Studies of aphasia treatment have shown that intensive speech-language therapy is associated with significant improvements. However, there is no standard definition of intensity and the simplistic notion that "more is better" is not necessarily supported by the research. First, current evidence regarding intensity and aphasia treatment was briefly summarized. Second, studies that directly compare conditions of higher- and lower-intensity treatment for aphasia were reviewed with regard to the inclusion of parameters that contribute to a definition of intensity. In addition to five parameters proposed by Warren, Fey, and Yoder (2007) and highlighted by Baker (2012) , total number of sessions was also often documented. The review illustrated the complexity of quantifying the dose of comprehensive treatments that target multiple modalities and utilize a variety of different strategies. Third, data from a study reporting a relationship between intensive computer-based script training and outcomes in aphasia were examined. Results serve to illustrate Baker's contention that intensity alone is insufficient without also considering the active ingredients of the teaching episode. Information about dose, therapeutic inputs, and client acts can lead to better optimization of an intervention.

  10. Improving Remote Species Identification through Efficient Training Data Collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire A. Baldeck

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Plant species identification and mapping based on remotely-sensed spectral signatures is a challenging task with the potential to contribute enormously to ecological studies. Success in this task rests upon the appropriate collection and use of costly field-based training data, and researchers are in need of ways to improve collection efficiency based on quantitative evidence. Using imaging spectrometer data collected by the Carnegie Airborne Observatory for hundreds of field-identified tree crowns in Kruger National Park, South Africa, we developed woody plant species classification models and evaluated how classification accuracy increases with increasing numbers of training crowns. First, we show that classification accuracy must be estimated while respecting the crown as the basic unit of data; otherwise, accuracy will be overestimated and the amount of training data needed to perform successful classification will be underestimated. We found that classification accuracy and the number of training crowns needed to perform successful classification varied depending on the number and spectral separability of species in the model. We also used a modified Michaelis-Menten function to describe the empirical relationship between training crowns and model accuracy, and show how this function may be useful for predicting accuracy. This framework can assist researchers in designing field campaigns to maximize the efficiency of field data collection, and thus the amount of biodiversity information gained from remote species identification models.

  11. Efficient generation of image chips for training deep learning algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sanghui; Fafard, Alex; Kerekes, John; Gartley, Michael; Ientilucci, Emmett; Savakis, Andreas; Law, Charles; Parhan, Jason; Turek, Matt; Fieldhouse, Keith; Rovito, Todd

    2017-05-01

    Training deep convolutional networks for satellite or aerial image analysis often requires a large amount of training data. For a more robust algorithm, training data need to have variations not only in the background and target, but also radiometric variations in the image such as shadowing, illumination changes, atmospheric conditions, and imaging platforms with different collection geometry. Data augmentation is a commonly used approach to generating additional training data. However, this approach is often insufficient in accounting for real world changes in lighting, location or viewpoint outside of the collection geometry. Alternatively, image simulation can be an efficient way to augment training data that incorporates all these variations, such as changing backgrounds, that may be encountered in real data. The Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Image Image Generation (DIRSIG) model is a tool that produces synthetic imagery using a suite of physics-based radiation propagation modules. DIRSIG can simulate images taken from different sensors with variation in collection geometry, spectral response, solar elevation and angle, atmospheric models, target, and background. Simulation of Urban Mobility (SUMO) is a multi-modal traffic simulation tool that explicitly models vehicles that move through a given road network. The output of the SUMO model was incorporated into DIRSIG to generate scenes with moving vehicles. The same approach was used when using helicopters as targets, but with slight modifications. Using the combination of DIRSIG and SUMO, we quickly generated many small images, with the target at the center with different backgrounds. The simulations generated images with vehicles and helicopters as targets, and corresponding images without targets. Using parallel computing, 120,000 training images were generated in about an hour. Some preliminary results show an improvement in the deep learning algorithm when real image training data are augmented with

  12. Some parameters and conditions defining the efficiency of burners ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A number of new wordings and statements regarding the targeted problem of destruction of long-lived wastes (transmutation) is considered. Some new criteria concerning the efficiency of a particular burner type are proposed. It is shown that the destruction efficiency of a specific burner is greatly influenced by the ...

  13. Influence of laser parameters on laser ultrasonic efficiency

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Forbes, A

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available parameters, such as output couplers and gas mixture, and the impact these choices have on the laser chemistry. The authors present a theory for the catalytic recombination of the gas which shows excellent agreement with experiment. Finally, an operating laser...

  14. Efficient Algorithms for Bayesian Network Parameter Learning from Incomplete Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Bayesian networks. In IJCNN, pp. 2391– 2396. Ghahramani, Z., & Jordan, M. I. (1997). Factorial hidden markov models. Machine Learning, 29(2-3), 245–273...algorithms like EM (which require inference). 1 INTRODUCTION When learning the parameters of a Bayesian network from data with missing values, the...missing at random assumption (MAR), but also for a broad class of data that is not MAR. Their analysis is based on a graphical representation for

  15. Cognitive Training Enhances Auditory Attention Efficiency in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. O’Brien

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Auditory cognitive training (ACT improves attention in older adults; however, the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms are still unknown. The present study examined the effects of ACT on the P3b event-related potential reflecting attention allocation (amplitude and speed of processing (latency during stimulus categorization and the P1-N1-P2 complex reflecting perceptual processing (amplitude and latency. Participants completed an auditory oddball task before and after 10 weeks of ACT (n = 9 or a no contact control period (n = 15. Parietal P3b amplitudes to oddball stimuli decreased at post-test in the trained group as compared to those in the control group, and frontal P3b amplitudes show a similar trend, potentially reflecting more efficient attentional allocation after ACT. No advantages for the ACT group were evident for auditory perceptual processing or speed of processing in this small sample. Our results provide preliminary evidence that ACT may enhance the efficiency of attention allocation, which may account for the positive impact of ACT on the everyday functioning of older adults.

  16. Cognitive Training Enhances Auditory Attention Efficiency in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Jennifer L; Lister, Jennifer J; Fausto, Bernadette A; Clifton, Gregory K; Edwards, Jerri D

    2017-01-01

    Auditory cognitive training (ACT) improves attention in older adults; however, the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms are still unknown. The present study examined the effects of ACT on the P3b event-related potential reflecting attention allocation (amplitude) and speed of processing (latency) during stimulus categorization and the P1-N1-P2 complex reflecting perceptual processing (amplitude and latency). Participants completed an auditory oddball task before and after 10 weeks of ACT (n = 9) or a no contact control period (n = 15). Parietal P3b amplitudes to oddball stimuli decreased at post-test in the trained group as compared to those in the control group, and frontal P3b amplitudes show a similar trend, potentially reflecting more efficient attentional allocation after ACT. No advantages for the ACT group were evident for auditory perceptual processing or speed of processing in this small sample. Our results provide preliminary evidence that ACT may enhance the efficiency of attention allocation, which may account for the positive impact of ACT on the everyday functioning of older adults.

  17. Investigation of critical parameters controlling the efficiency of associative ionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Padellec, A.; Launoy, T.; Dochain, A.; Urbain, X.

    2017-05-01

    This paper compiles our merged-beam experimental findings for the associative ionization (AI) process from charged reactants, with the aim of guiding future investigations with e.g. the double electrostatic ion storage ring DESIREE in Stockholm. A reinvestigation of the isotopic effect in H-(D-) + He+ collisions is presented, along with a review of {{{H}}}3+ and NO+ production by AI involving ion pairs or excited neutrals, and put in perspective with the mutual neutralization and radiative association reactions. Critical parameters are identified and evaluated for their systematic role in controlling the magnitude of the cross section: isotopic substitution, exothermicity, electronic state density, and spin statistics.

  18. Efficient estimates of cochlear hearing loss parameters in individual listeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fereczkowski, Michal; Jepsen, Morten Løve; Dau, Torsten

    2013-01-01

    ) are presented and used to estimate the knee-point level and the compression ratio of the I/O function. A time-efficient paradigm based on the single-interval-up-down method (SIUD; Lecluyse and Meddis (2009)) was used. In contrast with previous studies, the present study used only on-frequency TMCs to derive...... to Jepsen and Dau (2011) IHL + OHL = HLT [dB], where HLT stands for total hearing loss. Hence having estimates of the total hearing loss and OHC loss, one can estimate the IHL. In the present study, results from forward masking experiments based on temporal masking curves (TMC; Nelson et al., 2001...

  19. Innovation Analysis Approach to Design Parameters of High Speed Train Carriage and Their Intrinsic Complexity Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Shou-Ne; Wang, Ming-Meng; Hu, Guang-Zhong; Yang, Guang-Wu

    2017-09-01

    In view of the problem that it's difficult to accurately grasp the influence range and transmission path of the vehicle top design requirements on the underlying design parameters. Applying directed-weighted complex network to product parameter model is an important method that can clarify the relationships between product parameters and establish the top-down design of a product. The relationships of the product parameters of each node are calculated via a simple path searching algorithm, and the main design parameters are extracted by analysis and comparison. A uniform definition of the index formula for out-in degree can be provided based on the analysis of out-in-degree width and depth and control strength of train carriage body parameters. Vehicle gauge, axle load, crosswind and other parameters with higher values of the out-degree index are the most important boundary conditions; the most considerable performance indices are the parameters that have higher values of the out-in-degree index including torsional stiffness, maximum testing speed, service life of the vehicle, and so on; the main design parameters contain train carriage body weight, train weight per extended metre, train height and other parameters with higher values of the in-degree index. The network not only provides theoretical guidance for exploring the relationship of design parameters, but also further enriches the application of forward design method to high-speed trains.

  20. Research dedusting efficiency of the inertial hub with adjustable parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharapov Rashid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of construction materials every year production increases, thus increasing emissions pollutants into the atmosphere subjected to cleaning. At the enterprises of building materials production equipment becoming outdated both morally and physically exhausted their useful life. Technological design standards in the operation of purification equipment has undergone a number of changes. There are a large number of works devoted to the theory of cyclone separation. They examined calculation method and to determine the minimum size of particles is separated completely from the air stream in a cyclone. In theory, the high efficiency cyclones are relatively small separation of particles from the air stream. The experiments show that certain fractions of full capture occurs from the cyclones and out relatively large particles. Designed dust device hubs. They capture dust particles with low specific density and smaller than 5–10 microns. Rational use of hubs is achieved in the aspiration systems high performance. They are placed in front of or between the filter and the cyclone filter. Hub much reduces the amount of dust-laden air directed onto a thin cleaning. This reduces energy consumption for manufacturing as a whole, as well as, due to a possible decrease in performance fine filters, reducing their initial cost, metal consumption, maintenance costs and reduce the area occupied by them.

  1. Hierarchical parameter estimation of DFIG and drive train system in a wind turbine generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xueping; Ju, Ping; Wu, Feng; Jin, Yuqing

    2017-09-01

    A new hierarchical parameter estimation method for doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) and drive train system in a wind turbine generator (WTG) is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the parameters of the DFIG and the drive train are estimated locally under different types of disturbances. Secondly, a coordination estimation method is further applied to identify the parameters of the DFIG and the drive train simultaneously with the purpose of attaining the global optimal estimation results. The main benefit of the proposed scheme is the improved estimation accuracy. Estimation results confirm the applicability of the proposed estimation technique.

  2. Effect of aerobic exercise training on cardiovascular parameters and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-02-07

    Feb 7, 2014 ... into exercise group (EG) (n = 15) and control group (CG) (n = 15) respectively. ... Key words: Aerobic exercise, cardiovascular parameters, CD4 count, human immunodeficiency .... wastage, smokers, alcoholic, diabetics and other cardiac, .... mean (SD) age of participants in EG and CG was 38.77 (9.98).

  3. PARAMETER MATCHING OF INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE AND ELECTROMECHANICAL POWER TRAIN OF WHEEL TRACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kliuchnikov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers stepless electromechanical power train of a wheel tractor. Methodology for parameter matching of electromechanical transmission and internal combustion engine for their optimum performance as part of a power wheel tractor unit. 

  4. The effect of training level on opioid utilization efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberman, Dmitry; Ahmad, Mian; Green, Michael S

    2015-05-01

    This study focuses on residents' ability to predict opioid administration requirements and if improvement is made as learners progress. Residents request opioid from the pharmacy at the start of the day based on clinical assignment. Unused and wasted opioids are returned at the end of the day. The labor and cost associated with this process are not trivial nor is the risk of excess opioid access. We examined if estimation of daily opioid use by residents increased in accuracy as progression through the program occurred. We conducted a retrospective analysis in the setting of the operating room examining pharmacy opioid usage. The measurements included the number of vials requested, the number of vials dispensed, and the number of vials returned. Information was stratified in our database by the level of training. The set inclusion criterion was any surgery performed in the operating rooms that required the use of opioids. The exclusion criteria included anesthesia that required a regional block, cardiac surgeries, emergent cases, and obstetric cases. A total of 104 opioid requests were made that met our criteria. Comparing CA-1 and CA-3 residents and CA-2 and CA-3 residents, a statistically significant difference exists between the number of vials requested and the number returned. Our data show a statistically significant difference in efficiency as residents progress from their CA-1 year to CA-3 year. In summary, our findings support the idea that residents are able to better predict opioid requirements for cases as they progress through training. Closely monitoring such patterns can serve a useful educational purpose and allow for identification of misuse. Improvement in cost-effective care and limiting waste while working in a complex integrated health care environment are additional benefits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. PREVENTIVE TRAINING PROGRAMME FOR PATIENTS AFTER ACUTE CORONARY EVENT-- CORRELATION BETWEEN SELECTED PARAMETERS AND AGE GROUPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vysoký, Robert; Fiala, Jindřich; Dosbaba, Filip; Bat'alik, Ladislav; Nehyba, Svatopluk; Ludka, Ondřej

    2015-09-01

    Interventional cardiovascular training programmes provide a prescription of optimal form and safe intensity. They are part of the second phase of cardiovascular rehabilitation which is a key point in the whole tertiary-preventive care for patients with coronary artery disease. The patients are hemodynamically adapted to a normal physical load, their aerobic capacity is gradually increased, and they learn principles of regular aerobic-resistance exercise. The aim of this study is to assess the impact of modified aerobic-resistance exercise on cardiorespiratory indicators in patients after acute coronary event, and evaluate the differences between monitored parameters in different age groups. The study was conducted on a group of 106 patients (85% of men) of an average age of 60.4 ± 10.9 years, with left ventricular ejec- tion fraction of 57.4 ± 7.2%. All subjects went through an acute coronary event. The time elapsed between the occurence of a coronary event and the beginning of the training programme was 35 ± 8 days. In patients after coronary artery bypass grafting, the time passed was 50 ± 16 days on average. All patients received a two-month aerobic-resistance training with a frequency of three times a week. The length of a training unit was set to 100 minutes (out of which 60 minutes were allocated to individual aerobic training). A significant negative correlation between age and average values of monitored parameters was observed. Even though the values of all parameters are decreasing with increasing age, a shift towards higher values in all parameters occurred after completing the training programme. The study reveals that there are interindividual differences between the parameter values. Asignificant difference in individual parameters was found between different age groups. The result of the study shows that a given parameter could characterize each age group. Completing the interventional training programme also led to a significant increase of

  6. SKYNET: an efficient and robust neural network training tool for machine learning in astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Philip; Feroz, Farhan; Hobson, Michael P.; Lasenby, Anthony

    2014-06-01

    We present the first public release of our generic neural network training algorithm, called SKYNET. This efficient and robust machine learning tool is able to train large and deep feed-forward neural networks, including autoencoders, for use in a wide range of supervised and unsupervised learning applications, such as regression, classification, density estimation, clustering and dimensionality reduction. SKYNET uses a `pre-training' method to obtain a set of network parameters that has empirically been shown to be close to a good solution, followed by further optimization using a regularized variant of Newton's method, where the level of regularization is determined and adjusted automatically; the latter uses second-order derivative information to improve convergence, but without the need to evaluate or store the full Hessian matrix, by using a fast approximate method to calculate Hessian-vector products. This combination of methods allows for the training of complicated networks that are difficult to optimize using standard backpropagation techniques. SKYNET employs convergence criteria that naturally prevent overfitting, and also includes a fast algorithm for estimating the accuracy of network outputs. The utility and flexibility of SKYNET are demonstrated by application to a number of toy problems, and to astronomical problems focusing on the recovery of structure from blurred and noisy images, the identification of gamma-ray bursters, and the compression and denoising of galaxy images. The SKYNET software, which is implemented in standard ANSI C and fully parallelized using MPI, is available at http://www.mrao.cam.ac.uk/software/skynet/.

  7. Optimization of the Separation Parameters and Indicators of Separation Efficiency of Buckwheat Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Konopka

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The separation parameters and the indicators of separation efficiency for buckwheat seeds and impurities that are difficult to separate were optimized with the use of self-designed software based on genetic algorithms. The results of the calculations differed significantly from the suboptimal values determined in previous studies. The optimal values of the indicator of separation efficiency were higher; whereas the values of the indicator of buckwheat seed loss were significantly lower. The optimal working parameters for a seed separator in order to promote separation efficiency were determined.

  8. Electromyostimulation--a systematic review of the influence of training regimens and stimulation parameters on effectiveness in electromyostimulation training of selected strength parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipovic, Andre; Kleinöder, Heinz; Dörmann, Ulrike; Mester, Joachim

    2011-11-01

    Our first review from our 2-part series investigated the effects of percutaneous electromyostimulation (EMS) on maximal strength, speed strength, jumping and sprinting ability, and power, revealing the effectiveness of different EMS methods for the enhancement of strength parameters. On the basis of these results, this second study systematically reviews training regimens and stimulation parameters to determine their influence on the effectiveness of strength training with EMS. Out of about 200 studies, 89 trials were selected according to predefined criteria: subject age (7 days). To evaluate these trials, we first defined appropriate categories according to the type of EMS (local or whole-body) and type of muscle contraction (isometric, dynamic, isokinetic). Unlike former reviews, this study differentiates between 3 categories of subjects based on their level of fitness (untrained subjects, trained subjects, and elite athletes) and on the types of EMS methods used (local, whole-body, combination). Special focus was on trained and elite athletes. Untrained subjects were investigated for comparison purposes. The primary purpose of this study was to point out the preconditions for producing a stimulus above the training threshold with EMS that activates strength adaptations to give guidelines for implementing EMS effectively in strength training especially in high-performance sports. As a result, the analysis reveals a significant relationship (p < 0.05) between a stimulation intensity of ≥50% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC; 63.2 ± 19.8%) and significant strength gains. To generate this level of MVC, it was possible to identify guidelines for effectively combining training regimens (4.4 ± 1.5 weeks, 3.2 ± 0.9 sessions per week, 17.7 ± 10.9 minutes per session, 6.0 ± 2.4 seconds per contraction with 20.3 ± 9.0% duty cycle) with relevant stimulation parameters (impulse width 306.9 ± 105.1 microseconds, impulse frequency 76.4 ± 20.9 Hz, impulse intensity

  9. Fitting of alpha-efficiency versus quenching parameter by exponential functions in liquid scintillation counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosa, M. [Departamento de Ingeniería Física, Campus León, Universidad de Guanajuato, 37150 León, Guanajuato (Mexico); Universidad de Sevilla, Departamento de Física Aplicada II, E.T.S. Arquitectura, Av. Reina Mercedes, 2, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Manjón, G., E-mail: manjon@us.es [Universidad de Sevilla, Departamento de Física Aplicada II, E.T.S. Arquitectura, Av. Reina Mercedes, 2, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Mantero, J.; García-Tenorio, R. [Universidad de Sevilla, Departamento de Física Aplicada II, E.T.S. Arquitectura, Av. Reina Mercedes, 2, 41012 Sevilla (Spain)

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this work is to propose an exponential fit for the low alpha-counting efficiency as a function of a sample quenching parameter using a Quantulus liquid scintillation counter. The sample quenching parameter in a Quantulus is the Spectral Quench Parameter of the External Standard (SQP(E)), which is defined as the number of channel under which lies the 99% of Compton spectrum generated by a gamma emitter ({sup 152}Eu). Although in the literature one usually finds a polynomial fitting of the alpha counting efficiency, it is shown here that an exponential function is a better description. - Highlights: • We have studied the quenching in alpha measurement by liquid scintillation counting. • We have reviewed typical fitting of alpha counting efficiency versus quenching parameter. • Exponential fitting of data is proposed as better fitting. • We consider exponential fitting has a physical basis.

  10. The Effects of Simulation-based Transvaginal Ultrasound Training on Quality and Efficiency of Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolsgaard, Martin Grønnebæk; Ringsted, Charlotte; Rosthøj, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of adding simulation-based transvaginal ultrasound training to trainees' clinical training compared with only clinical training on quality of and efficiency of care. BACKGROUND: Simulation-based ultrasound training may be an effective adjunct to clinical training......, but no studies have examined its effects on quality and efficiency of care. METHODS: Trainees from 4 University Hospitals in East Denmark were included (N = 54). Participants were randomized to either simulation-based ultrasound training and clinical training (intervention group, n = 28), or to clinical training......, 33.5-55.1) and 19.8% (95% CI, 4.1-32.9) in the intervention and control group, respectively (P = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: Simulation-based ultrasound training improved quality of care and reduced the need for repeated patient examination and trainee supervision....

  11. Energy-efficient Ship Operation – Training Requirements and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Baldauf

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The International Maritime Organization (IMO, through its Maritime Environmental Protection Committee (MEPC, has been carrying out substantive work on the reduction and limitation of greenhouse gas emissions from international shipping since 1997, following the adoption of the Kyoto Protocol and the 1997 MARPOL Conference. While to date no mandatory GHG instrument for international shipping has been adopted, IMO has given significant consideration of the matter and has been working in accordance with an ambitious work plan with a view to adopting a package of technical provisions. Beside the efforts undertaken by IMO, it is assumed that e.g. optimized manoeuvring regimes have potential to contribute to a reduction of GHG emissions. Such procedures and supporting technologies can decrease the negative effects to the environment and also may reduce fuel consumption. However, related training has to be developed and to be integrated into existing course schemes accordingly. IMO intends to develop a Model Course aiming at promoting the energy-efficient operation of ships. This Course will contribute to the IMO’s environmental protection goals as set out in resolutions A.947(23 and A.998(25 by promulgating industry “best practices”, which reduce greenhouse gas emissions and the negative impact of global shipping on climate change. In this paper the outline of the research work will be introduced and the fundamental ideas and concepts are described. A concept for the overall structure and the development of suggested detailed content of the draft Model course will be exemplarily explained. Also, a developed draft module for the model course with samples of the suggested integrated practical exercises will be introduced and discussed. The materials and data in this publication have been obtained partly through capacity building research project of IAMU kindly supported by the International Association of Maritime Universities (IAMU and The Nippon

  12. THE EFFECTS OF INSTRUCTIONS ON THE EFFICIENCY OF EEG ALPHA POWER VOLUNTARY INCREASE TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Yu. Lazareva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied how the efficiency of individual alpha power stimulating training depends on the use of instructions and the presence or absence of feedback. A new method of calculating the efficiency of a single training session was suggested.

  13. THE INFLUENCE OF THE MAIN PARAMETERS OF TRAIN TRAFFIC VOLUME ON TOTAL PROFITS OF RAILWAYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. YA. Mozolevich

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The paper is aimed to influence analysis of parameters such as the number of trains on the section and the length of freight trains, the total profit of the railway and determination of total profit of Prydniprovsk railway for major parts of the trains handling; the determination of the specific rate of return on 1 kilometer operational length of each individual link in the rail network. Methodology. To achieve this goal the simulation models of the sections of railway polygon and the simulation of cargo trains have been developed. On the basis of obtained results the dependence of the main parameters of train traffic and their impact on the overall profit of the railway was determined. Findings. On the basis of the conducted studies the functions operating costs for each section were developed to determine the optimal routes crossing of trains and choice of rational parameters. The operating costs, revenue, total profit of railways and certain impact parameters of train traffic volume on the economic performance of railway transport were calculated with their help. It is determined that freight trains, length 53-56 of a conventional car is optimal to pass and loading area should be 75-85% of the available crossing capacity. Taking into account given results, the electrification of the sections with diesel traction (due to the significant cost of diesel fuel is the priority development of railway transport at the possible increase in size of the movement. Originality. Authors have improved the technology of determining the total profits of railways on the basis of variables train traffic volumes. For the first time the specific rate of profit on the 1 kilometer operational length of the section depending on the size of the average daily traffic is identified and proposed to use to determine the investment attractiveness of the railways. The simulation models of individual sections of the real train polygon at Prydniprovsk railway were

  14. The Parameters Controlling the Burning Efficiency of In-Situ Burning of Crude Oil on Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Jomaas, Grunde

    2017-01-01

    Parameters that control the burning efficiency of in-situ burning of crude oil on water were identified by studying the influence of the initial slick thickness, vaporization order, oil slick diameter, weathering state of the oil, heat losses to the water layer and heat flux to the fuel surface...... on the burning efficiency for light and heavy crude oils. These parameters were studied in several small scale and intermediate scale experimental setups. The results showed that the heat losses to the water layer increase with increasing burning time because the components in a crude oil evaporate from volatile...... oil. It can be concluded that the pool fire diameter is the key parameter that determines the burning efficiency of crude oil fires on water, which was partially attributed to the increasing heat flux (in kW/m2) to the fuel surface with increasing diameter. Increasing the heat flux to the fuel surface...

  15. NEUROFEEDBACK AND EMG TRAINING COMBINING EFFICIENCY STUDY IN 6–9 YEARS OLD ADHD CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    Ye. А. Sapina

    2013-01-01

    The research goal was to study neurofeedback and EMG combining training efficiency in ADHD children.To achieve the goal three groups were compared before and after training and six months later. Experimental group included ADHD children 6–9 years old. It was divided into two: group A trained thetabeta ratio and muscle tension decrease simultaneously while group B trained only theta-beta ratio decrease. Control group included healthy children. The results showed significant effect of combined ...

  16. NEUROFEEDBACK AND EMG TRAINING COMBINING EFFICIENCY STUDY IN 6–9 YEARS OLD ADHD CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. А. Sapina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The research goal was to study neurofeedback and EMG combining training efficiency in ADHD children.To achieve the goal three groups were compared before and after training and six months later. Experimental group included ADHD children 6–9 years old. It was divided into two: group A trained thetabeta ratio and muscle tension decrease simultaneously while group B trained only theta-beta ratio decrease. Control group included healthy children. The results showed significant effect of combined EEG and EMG training for self-control improvement, anxiety and muscle tension decrease in comparison with standard EEG training.

  17. Separate and combined effects of exercise training and weight loss on exercise efficiency and substrate oxidation

    OpenAIRE

    Amati, Francesca; Dubé, John J.; Shay, Chris; Goodpaster, Bret H.

    2008-01-01

    Perturbations in body weight have been shown to affect energy expenditure and efficiency during physical activity. The separate effects of weight loss and exercise training on exercise efficiency or the proportion of energy derived from fat oxidation during physical activity, however, are not known. The purpose of this study was to determine the separate and combined effects of exercise training and weight loss on metabolic efficiency, economy (EC), and fat oxidation during steady-state moder...

  18. Advanced proficiency EHR training: effect on physicians' EHR efficiency, EHR satisfaction and job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastagir, M Tariq; Chin, Homer L; McNamara, Michael; Poteraj, Kathy; Battaglini, Sarah; Alstot, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    The best way to train clinicians to optimize their use of the Electronic Health Record (EHR) remains unclear. Approaches range from web-based training, class-room training, EHR functionality training, case-based training, role-based training, process-based training, mock-clinic training and "on the job" training. Similarly, the optimal timing of training remains unclear--whether to engage in extensive pre go-live training vs. minimal pre go-live training followed by more extensive post go-live training. In addition, the effectiveness of non-clinician trainers, clinician trainers, and peer-trainers, remains unclearly defined. This paper describes a program in which relatively experienced clinician users of an EHR underwent an intensive 3-day Peer-Led EHR advanced proficiency training, and the results of that training based on participant surveys. It highlights the effectiveness of Peer-Led Proficiency Training of existing experienced clinician EHR users in improving self-reported efficiency and satisfaction with an EHR and improvements in perceived work-life balance and job satisfaction.

  19. Differences in spatio-temporal parameters between trained runners and untrained participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Molina, Josué; Ogueta-Alday, Ana; Stickley, Christopher; Tobalina, Jesus Camara; Cabrejas-Ugartondo, Jon; García-López, Juan

    2016-10-06

    The aim of this study was to compare the spatio-temporal parameters of trained runners and untrained participants with the same foot strike pattern (rearfoot) during running at controlled speeds. Twenty-one participants were classified in two groups according to their training experience: Trained (n=10, amateur runners with long distance training experience) and Untrained (n=11, healthy non-trained participants). Anthropometric variables were recorded, and the participants performed both a submaximal (between 9 and 15 km·h) and a graded exercise running test (from 6 km·h until exhaustion) on a treadmill. Physiological (VO2max, heart rate, running economy, peak speed…) and biomechanical variables (contact and flight times, step rate and length) were simultaneously registered. Trained runners showed higher step rate and shorter step length than the Untrained group at the same running speeds (between 4-7%, p Untrained group. In conclusion, adopting higher step rate and shorter step length may be an adaptive mechanism of the Trained group to reduce injury risk and possibly improve running economy. However, contact and flight times were consistent regardless of training level.

  20. Effect of fed- versus fasted state resistance training during Ramadan on body composition and selected metabolic parameters in bodybuilders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Trabelsi, Khaled; Stannard, Stephen R; Ghlissi, Zohra; Maughan, Ronald J; Kallel, Choumous; Jamoussi, Kamel; Zeghal, Khaled M; Hakim, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Muslim bodybuilders often continue training during Ramadan. However, the effect of resistance training in a fasted versus a fed state during Ramadan on body composition and metabolic parameters in bodybuilders is not well known...

  1. Cognitive Load Theory and Aging: Effects of Worked Examples on Training Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gerven, P. W. M.; Paas, F. G. W. C.; Van Merrienboer, J. J. G.; Schmidt, H. G.

    2002-01-01

    Studied the efficiency of worked examples as a substitute for conventional practice problems in training both elderly (24 older adults in the Netherlands) and young adults (30 Dutch college students). As predicted, results show that for the elderly, the efficiency of studying worked examples is higher than the efficiency of solving conventional…

  2. FC vehicle hybridisation: an affordable solution for an energy-efficient FC powered drive train

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pede, G.; Iacobazzi, A.; Passerini, S.; Bobbio, A.; Botto, G.

    Fuel cells (FCs) have potential as clean and efficient energy sources for automotive applications without sacrifice in performance or driving range. However, the complete FC system must operate as efficiently as possible over the range of driving conditions that may be encountered while maintaining a low cost. To achieve this target, a storage unit can be introduced in the FC system to reduce the size of the fuel cell that is the most expensive component. This "hybrid" concept would not only reduce the drive train total cost but it also allow the recover of the braking energy and the operation at the voltage-current point of maximum efficiency for the FC system. Pro-and-cons of the "full-power" versus the "hybrid" configuration are shown in this work. The "Hybridisation rate" or "Hybridisation degree", a parameter expressed by the relationship between two installed powers, the generation power and the traction power, is also introduced and it is demonstrated that for each category of hybrid vehicles there is an optimal value of hybridisation degree. The storage systems considered are based on high power batteries or ultra capacitors (UCs) or a combination of them. A preliminary design of a sport utility vehicle (SUV) using a combined storage system and a FC energy source (called Triple Hybrid), is proposed. Finally, the experience of the Italian industry in this field is also reviewed.

  3. A simple and efficient solar cell parameter extraction method from a single current-voltage curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunfu; Zhang, Jincheng; Hao, Yue; Lin, Zhenhua; Zhu, Chunxiang

    2011-09-01

    In this work, a simple and efficient method for the extraction of all the parameters of a solar cell from a single current-voltage (I-V) curve under the constant illumination level is proposed. With the help of the Lambert W function, the explicit analytic expression for I is obtained. By reducing the number of the parameters, the expression for I only depends on the ideality factor n, the series resistance Rs, and the shunt resistance Rsh. This analytic expression is directly used to fit the experimental data and extract the device parameters. This simple solar cell parameter extraction method can be directly applied for all kinds of solar cells whose I-V characteristics follow the single-diode model. The parameters of various solar devices including silicon solar cells, silicon solar modules, dye-sensitized solar cells, and organic solar cells with standalone, tandem, and multi-junction structures have been successfully extracted by using our proposed method.

  4. Toward an Efficient Prediction of Solar Flares: Which Parameters, and How?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manolis K. Georgoulis

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Solar flare prediction has become a forefront topic in contemporary solar physics, with numerous published methods relying on numerous predictive parameters, that can even be divided into parameter classes. Attempting further insight, we focus on two popular classes of flare-predictive parameters, namely multiscale (i.e., fractal and multifractal and proxy (i.e., morphological parameters, and we complement our analysis with a study of the predictive capability of fundamental physical parameters (i.e., magnetic free energy and relative magnetic helicity. Rather than applying the studied parameters to a comprehensive statistical sample of flaring and non-flaring active regions, that was the subject of our previous studies, the novelty of this work is their application to an exceptionally long and high-cadence time series of the intensely eruptive National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA active region (AR 11158, observed by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. Aiming for a detailed study of the temporal evolution of each parameter, we seek distinctive patterns that could be associated with the four largest flares in the AR in the course of its five-day observing interval. We find that proxy parameters only tend to show preflare impulses that are practical enough to warrant subsequent investigation with sufficient statistics. Combining these findings with previous results, we conclude that: (i carefully constructed, physically intuitive proxy parameters may be our best asset toward an efficient future flare-forecasting; and (ii the time series of promising parameters may be as important as their instantaneous values. Value-based prediction is the only approach followed so far. Our results call for novel signal and/or image processing techniques to efficiently utilize combined amplitude and temporal-profile information to optimize the inferred solar-flare probabilities.

  5. The effects of physical training on cardiovascular parameters, lipid disorders and endothelial function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranković Goran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacground/Aim. Regular physical activity is widely accepted as factor that reduces all-cause mortality and improves a number of health outcomes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of aerobic exercise training on cardiovascular parameters, lipid profile and endothelial function in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD. Methods. The study included seventy patients with stable CAD. All the patients were divided into two groups: the group I - 33 patients with CAD and with regular aerobic physical training during cardiovascular rehabilitation program phase II for 3 weeks in our rehabilitation center and 3 weeks after that in their home setting, and the group II (control - 37 patients with CAD and sedentary lifestyle. Exercise training consisted of continual aerobic exercise for 45 minutes on a treadmill, room bicycle or walking, three times a week. We determined lipid and cardiovascular parameters and nitric oxide (NO concentration at the beginning and after a six-week of training. Results. There were no significant differences in body weight, waist circumference and waist/hip ratio at the start and at the end of physical training program. Physical training significantly reduced body mass index after six weeks compared to the initial and control values. Physical training significantly reduced systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate after a six-week training period (p < 0.05. Heart rate was significantly lower after a training period as compared to the control (p < 0.05. A significant reduction of triglyceride and increased high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C concentration after cardiovascular rehabilitation were registered (p < 0.05. The concentration of triglycerides was significantly lower while NO and HDL-C were higher after six weeks in the exercise training group (p < 0.05. Conclusion. Dynamic training can improve blood pressure in patients with moderate to severe hypertension and reduce the

  6. Source parameters and radiation efficiency for intermediate-depth earthquakes in Northeast Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nishitsuji, Y.; Mori, J.

    2013-01-01

    We estimated source parameters of 216 intermediate-depth (65–150 km) earthquakes (Mw 4.0–7.0) in the Pacific slab beneath Japan along using Hi-net data. We made determinations of static stress drop, radiated energy and radiation efficiency, along with estimates of the whole path attenuation, to

  7. Plyometric Long Jump Training With Progressive Loading Improves Kinetic and Kinematic Swimming Start Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebutini, Vanessa Z; Pereira, Gleber; Bohrer, Roberta C D; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos; Rodacki, André L F

    2016-09-01

    Rebutini, VZ, Pereira, G, Bohrer, RCD, Ugrinowitsch, C, and Rodacki, ALF. Plyometric long jump training with progressive loading improves kinetic and kinematic swimming start parameters. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2392-2398, 2016-This study was aimed to determine the effects of a plyometric long jump training program on torque around the lower limb joints and kinetic and kinematics parameters during the swimming jump start. Ten swimmers performed 3 identical assessment sessions, measuring hip and knee muscle extensors during maximal voluntary isometric contraction and kinetic and kinematics parameters during the swimming jump start, at 3 instants: INI (2 weeks before the training program, control period), PRE (2 weeks after INI measurements), and POST (24-48 hours after 9 weeks of training). There were no significant changes from INI to PRE measurements. However, the peak torque and rate of torque development increased significantly from PRE to POST measurements for both hip (47 and 108%) and knee (24 and 41%) joints. There were significant improvements to the horizontal force (7%), impulse (9%), and angle of resultant force (19%). In addition, there were significant improvements to the center of mass displacement (5%), horizontal takeoff velocity (16%), horizontal velocity at water entrance (22%), and peak angle velocity for the knee (15%) and hip joints (16%). Therefore, the plyometric long jump training protocol was effective to enhance torque around the lower limb joints and to control the resultant vector direction, to increase the swimming jump start performance. These findings suggest that coaches should use long jump training instead of vertical jump training to improve swimming start performance.

  8. Feed efficiency, blood parameters, and ingestive behavior of young Nellore males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilha, Sarah Figueiredo Martins; Cyrillo, Joslaine Noely dos Santos Gonçalves; dos Santos, Guilherme Pinheiro; Branco, Renata Helena; Ribeiro, Enilson Geraldo; Mercadante, Maria Eugênia Zerlotti

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate differences in efficiency of feed utilization between young Nellore males and females by comparing growth traits, feed intake, blood parameters, and ingestive behavior of the animals. Data from 768 Nellore males and females that participated in eight performance tests for individual feed intake evaluation were used. Performance and feed efficiency measures, efficiency-related hematological, metabolic and hormonal variables, and data regarding ingestive behavior were collected. Feed efficiency measures were defined by the relationship between performance and feed intake. Data were analyzed using mixed models that included the fixed effects of sex, herd, and the covariate age within sex and the random effects of facility within year, year, and residual. Significant differences between males and females were observed for traits related to weight gain and feed intake. Although individual dynamics of feed efficiency measures differed between males and females, no significant differences in residual feed intake, feed efficiency, or relative growth rate were observed between sexes. Significant differences between sexes were found for platelets, red blood cells, hemoglobin, creatinine, glucose, urea, triglycerides, insulin, cortisol, and IGF-I. Females spent more time feeding and less time ruminating when compared to males. However, males exhibited higher feeding efficiency and lower rumination efficiency than females. Growing Nellore males and females are efficient in feed utilization, and the differences in blood variables observed are probably due to differences in body size and feed intake. Males spend less time eating, consume more food, and spend more time ruminating than females.

  9. Energy-Efficient Train Operation Using Nature-Inspired Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Keskin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A train operation optimization by minimizing its traction energy subject to various constraints is carried out using nature-inspired evolutionary algorithms. The optimization process results in switching points that initiate cruising and coasting phases of the driving. Due to nonlinear optimization formulation of the problem, nature-inspired evolutionary search methods, Genetic Simulated Annealing, Firefly, and Big Bang-Big Crunch algorithms were employed in this study. As a case study a real-like train and test track from a part of Eskisehir light rail network were modeled. Speed limitations, various track alignments, maximum allowable trip time, and changes in train mass were considered, and punctuality was put into objective function as a penalty factor. Results have shown that all three evolutionary methods generated effective and consistent solutions. However, it has also been shown that each one has different accuracy and convergence characteristics.

  10. Spatial extrapolation of light use efficiency model parameters to predict gross primary production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Schulz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available To capture the spatial and temporal variability of the gross primary production as a key component of the global carbon cycle, the light use efficiency modeling approach in combination with remote sensing data has shown to be well suited. Typically, the model parameters, such as the maximum light use efficiency, are either set to a universal constant or to land class dependent values stored in look-up tables. In this study, we employ the machine learning technique support vector regression to explicitly relate the model parameters of a light use efficiency model calibrated at several FLUXNET sites to site-specific characteristics obtained by meteorological measurements, ecological estimations and remote sensing data. A feature selection algorithm extracts the relevant site characteristics in a cross-validation, and leads to an individual set of characteristic attributes for each parameter. With this set of attributes, the model parameters can be estimated at sites where a parameter calibration is not possible due to the absence of eddy covariance flux measurement data. This will finally allow a spatially continuous model application. The performance of the spatial extrapolation scheme is evaluated with a cross-validation approach, which shows the methodology to be well suited to recapture the variability of gross primary production across the study sites.

  11. Evaluation of efficiency calibration parameters of the LR-115 radon detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mireles, F; Dávila, J I; García, M L; Pinedo, J L; López, H

    2010-05-01

    Measurement of 222Rn is an important research concern because of the high-energy alpha emission of its 218Po and 214Po progeny. The LR-115 passive detector is the basis of a solid-state nuclear track detector (SSNTD) whose use for radon measurements has been well established. The usage of the SSNTD technique requires calibration by comparison. The aim of this work is to evaluate the efficiency calibration parameters for the radon measurement system that three steps: (1) irradiation conditions, (2) etching conditions, and (3) track counting. The following parameters were evaluated: breakdown and counting voltages for the spark counter, detector thickness, etching time, temperature and NaOH concentration as etching conditions for the LR-115 detector. Calibrating factors of 0.035 and 0.028 tracks cm-2 Bq-1 m3 d-1 for the open- and closed-chamber radon monitors, respectively, were determined considering the best efficiency calibration parameter values.

  12. Research of energy efficiency evaluation parameters for power quality control device based on IGBT module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jieyan; Liu, Yang; Mao, Yongqiu; Chen, Zheng; Jia, Rongda; Zhao, Caiyi; Yang, Xi

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the energy efficiency evaluation parameters for power quality control device based on IGBT modules have been discussed. First of all, energy consumption of the typical power quality control equipment, such as SVG, APF and MEC, under the rated conditions, have been analyzed to identify the main energy-consuming parts. Then, energy loss mechanism and energy saving path of IGBT module have been discussed. And the energy saving improvement direction of the power quality control equipment based on IGBT module is identified at the same time. At last, the applicable energy efficiency evaluation parameters for power quality control device have been selected, based on the research of the product performances for energy efficiency of power grid.

  13. Processing speed training increases the efficiency of attentional resource allocation in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley K Burge

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive training has been shown to improve performance on a range of tasks. However, the mechanisms underlying these improvements are still unclear. Given the wide range of transfer effects, it is likely that these effects are due to a factor common to a wide range of tasks. One such factor is a participant’s efficiency in allocating limited cognitive resources. The impact of a cognitive training program, Processing Speed Training (PST, on the allocation of resources to a set of visual tasks was measured using pupillometry in 10 young adults as compared to a control group of a 10 young adults (n = 20. PST is a well-studied computerized training program that involves identifying simultaneously presented central and peripheral stimuli. As training progresses, the task becomes increasingly more difficult, by including peripheral distracting stimuli and decreasing the duration of stimulus presentation. Analysis of baseline data confirmed that pupil diameter reflected cognitive effort. After training, participants randomized to PST used fewer attentional resources to perform complex visual tasks as compared to the control group. These pupil diameter data indicated that PST appears to increase the efficiency of attentional resource allocation. Increases in cognitive efficiency have been hypothesized to underlie improvements following experience with action video games, and improved cognitive efficiency has been hypothesized to underlie the benefits of processing speed training in older adults. These data reveal that these training schemes may share a common underlying mechanism of increasing cognitive efficiency in younger adults.

  14. Correlation of Capture Efficiency with the Geometry, Transport, and Reaction Parameters in Heterogeneous Immunosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Dharitri; Panda, Siddhartha

    2016-02-09

    Higher capture efficiency of biomarkers in heterogeneous immunosensors would enable early detection of diseases. Several strategies are used to improve the capture efficiency of these immunosensors including the geometry of the system along with the transport and reaction parameters. Having a prior knowledge of the behavior of the above parameters would facilitate the design of an efficient immunosensor. While the contributions of the transport and reaction parameters toward understanding of the mechanism involved in capture have been well studied in the literature, their effect in combination with the geometry of the sensors has not been explored until now. In this work, we have experimentally demonstrated that the capture efficiency of the antigen-antibody systems is inversely related to the size of the sensor patch. The experimental system was simulated in order to get an in-depth understanding of the mechanism behind the experimental observation. Further, the extent of heterogeneity in the system was analyzed using the Sips isotherm to obtain the heterogeneity index (α) and the reaction rate constant (K(D)) as fitted parameters for a sensor patch of 1.5 mm radius. The experimental kinetic data obtained for the same sensor patch matched reasonably with the simulation results by considering K(D) as the global affinity constant, which indicated that our system can be considered to be homogeneous. Our simulation results associated with the size dependency of the capture efficiency were in agreement with the trends obtained in our experimental observations where an inverse relation was observed owing to the fact that the mass-transfer limitation decreases with the decrease in the size of the sensor patch. The possible underlying mechanism associated with size dependency of capture efficiency was discussed based on the time-dependent radial variation of captured antigens obtained from our simulation results. A study on the parametric variation was further conducted

  15. Personalised adaptive task selection in air traffic control: Effects on training efficiency and transfer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salden, Ron; Paas, Fred; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen

    2008-01-01

    Salden, R.J.C.M., Paas, F., & Van Merriënboer, J.J.G. (2006). Personalised adaptive task selection in air traffic control: Effects on training efficiency and transfer. Learning and Instruction, 16, 350-362

  16. Improving Energy Conversion Efficiency by means of Power Splitting in Dual Drive Train EV Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roscher, Michael A; Michel, Roland; Leidholdt, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

      The limited amount of energy stored on board of battery electric vehicles (BEV) spurs research activities in the field of efficiency optimization for electric drive train applications in order to achieve an enhanced mileage...

  17. Estimation of economic efficiency from restrictions elimination of speed movement of trains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Y. Baydak

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The technique which allows to receive at level of engineering calculations preliminary results of economic efficiency from elimination of restrictions for speed movement of trains is resulted.

  18. Efficiency of the Inertia Friction Welding Process and Its Dependence on Process Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senkov, O. N.; Mahaffey, D. W.; Tung, D. J.; Zhang, W.; Semiatin, S. L.

    2017-07-01

    It has been widely assumed, but never proven, that the efficiency of the inertia friction welding (IFW) process is independent of process parameters and is relatively high, i.e., 70 to 95 pct. In the present work, the effect of IFW parameters on process efficiency was established. For this purpose, a series of IFW trials was conducted for the solid-state joining of two dissimilar nickel-base superalloys (LSHR and Mar-M247) using various combinations of initial kinetic energy ( i.e., the total weld energy, E o), initial flywheel angular velocity ( ω o), flywheel moment of inertia ( I), and axial compression force ( P). The kinetics of the conversion of the welding energy to heating of the faying sample surfaces ( i.e., the sample energy) vs parasitic losses to the welding machine itself were determined by measuring the friction torque on the sample surfaces ( M S) and in the machine bearings ( M M). It was found that the rotating parts of the welding machine can consume a significant fraction of the total energy. Specifically, the parasitic losses ranged from 28 to 80 pct of the total weld energy. The losses increased (and the corresponding IFW process efficiency decreased) as P increased (at constant I and E o), I decreased (at constant P and E o), and E o (or ω o) increased (at constant P and I). The results of this work thus provide guidelines for selecting process parameters which minimize energy losses and increase process efficiency during IFW.

  19. Training-level induced changes in blood parameters response to on-water rowing races.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desgorces, François Denis; Testa, Marc; Petibois, Cyril

    2008-01-01

    The study investigated blood markers allowing discriminating physiological responses to on-water rowing races, notably regarding training volume of athletes and race duration. College (COL) and national (NAT) rowers performed a 1000- or 2000-m race. Capillary blood samples obtained before and post-race allowed an analysis of a wide range of serum parameters. COL rowers had a lower rowing experience and training volume than NAT. Races induced a higher lactate concentration increase in NAT compared to COL (10.45 ± 0.45 vs 13.05 ± 0.60; p ¼ 0.001). Race distance (2000 vs. 1000 m) induced a higher increase in fatty acids (0.81 ± 0.31 vs +0.67 ± 0. 41; p ¼ 0.05) and triglycerides concentration in NAT (0.33 ± 0.07 vs 0.15 ± 0.09; p ¼ 0.01), but remained comparable between NAT and COL for the 1000-m races. Amino acids concentrations increased in NAT (0.19 ± 0.03, p ¼ 0.01), but urea concentration increased only for NAT rowers having performed the 2000-m race (0.72 ± 0.22, p ¼ 0.05). Transferrin concentration decreased after the 2000-m race (-0.60 ± 0.25, p ¼ 0.05), and concentration changes of haptoglobin differed between NAT2000 (tendency to be reduced) and COL (tendency to by enhanced) (p ¼ 0.05). Our results confirmed that the training level in rowing is associated with higher glycolysis utilization during maximal 1000- and 2000-m exercise and no difference for similarly trained subjects at these two distances. Our study also demonstrated that a 2000-m race could initiate fatty and amino-acid metabolisms in highly trained subjects. Therefore, these changes in blood parameter responses to a characteristic rowing exercise highlighted the importance of monitoring the physiological effects of training in sporting conditions and according to individual characteristics. Key pointsRowing races despite their short duration could initiate fatty and amino-acids metabolisms.Effects of maximal exercise on metabolic blood parameters depend on individual capabilities

  20. Increased Lytic Efficiency of Bovine Macrophages Trained with Killed Mycobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juste, Ramon A; Alonso-Hearn, Marta; Garrido, Joseba M; Abendaño, Naiara; Sevilla, Iker A; Gortazar, Christian; de la Fuente, José; Dominguez, Lucas

    2016-01-01

    Innate immunity is evolutionarily conserved in multicellular organisms and was considered to lack memory until very recently. One of its more characteristic mechanisms is phagocytosis, the ability of cells to engulf, process and eventually destroy any injuring agent. We report the results of an ex vivo experiment in bovine macrophages in which improved clearance of Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) was induced by pre-exposure to a heat killed M. bovis preparation. The effects were independent of humoral and cellular adaptive immune responses and lasted up to six months. Specifically, our results demonstrate the existence of a training effect in the lytic phase of phagocytosis that can be activated by killed mycobacteria, thus suggesting a new mechanism of vaccine protection. These findings are compatible with the recently proposed concept of trained immunity, which was developed to explain the observation that innate immune responses provide unspecific protection against pathogens including other than those that originally triggered the immune response.

  1. Improving the Efficiency of Virtual Reality Training by Integrating Partly Observational Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuviler-Gavish, Nirit; Rodríguez, Jorge; Gutiérrez, Teresa; Sánchez, Emilio; Casado, Sara

    2014-01-01

    The current study hypothesized that integrating partly observational learning into virtual reality training systems (VRTS) can enhance training efficiency for procedural tasks. A common approach in designing VRTS is the enactive approach, which stresses the importance of physical actions within the environment to enhance perception and improve…

  2. The efficiency of the psychological training in the system of training of young judoists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurylyuk S.I.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The rich in content side of organization and leadthrough of psychological training is described. Psychological training is intended for trainings employments of judoists of the initial stage of preparation in the annual loop. The important criterion of optimization of psychological, technical, tactical and physical preparation of judoists is formed of their psychomotor processes. Functional mobility, force of the nervous system, latent period, is selected, simple and difficult visile-motor reaction.

  3. Changes in sleep quantity and efficiency in professional rugby union players during home-based training and match play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagles, Alexander N; Lovell, Dale I

    2016-05-01

    Adequate sleep is paramount to athlete recovery and performance, however little is known about the typical sleep patterns of professional rugby union players during home based training and match play in the competitive season. The aim of the present study was to monitor changes in sleep quantity and efficiency of elite male rugby union players over a twelve-night period, which included training and two competitive matches. A total of ten elite male rugby union players from a selected team, participated in the study. Athletes' sleep quantity and efficiency was monitored over a twelve-night period using the BodyMedia SenseWear units (BSU). There was a significant difference in sleep quantity (Psleeping less on game nights. Time to sleep on game nights was also significantly (Psleep efficiency or time at wake over the twelve-night period. Sleep efficiency is defined as a percentage score calculated by incorporating movement and physiological measures over the sleep duration as determined by the BSU. Also there was no significant difference between sleep parameters on the game nights. The findings show players have significantly (Psleep following a home game, which is of concern considering the established negative influence of sleep deprivation on cognitive and physical performance. This data may assist coaching, medical and performance staff to develop and implement team and individualised sleep monitoring regimes to optimise training and on-field performance.

  4. Changes in sleep quantity and efficiency in professional rugby union players during home based training and match-play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagles, A; Mclellan, C; Hing, W; Carloss, N; Lovell, D

    2014-11-04

    Adequate sleep is paramount to athlete recovery and performance, however little is know about the typical sleep patterns of professional rugby union players during home based training and match-play in the competitive season. The aim of the present study was to monitor changes in sleep quantity and efficiency of elite male rugby union players over a twelve night period, which included training and two competitive matches. A total of ten elite male rugby union players from a selected team, participated in the study. Athletes sleep quantity and efficiency was monitored over a twelve night period using the Bodymedia sensewear units (BSU). There was a significant difference in sleep quantity (psleeping less on game nights. Time to sleep on game nights was also significantly (psleep efficiency or time at wake over the twelve night period. Sleep efficiency is defined as a percentage score calculated by incorporating movement and physiological measures over the sleep duration as determined by the BSU. Also there was no significant difference between sleep parameters on the game nights. The findings show players have significantly (psleep following a home game, which is of concern considering the established negative influence of sleep deprivation on cognitive and physical performance. This data may assist coaching, medical and performance staff to develop and implement team and individualised sleep monitoring regimes to optimise training and on-field performance.

  5. Increasing the Efficiency of Automation of Production Processes by Reporting the Parameters of the Parts’ Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pancho Tomov

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper are presented the analysis and the proposal to increasing the efficiency of automation of production processes by reporting the parameters of the parts’ flow. As a main focus are defined the correlation and the dependence between the input and the output parameters of the automated production process. On that basis, the contemporary requirements for development of the production process call for it to be considered as a whole, regardless of the stage in which the process automation is performed.

  6. Robust output feedback cruise control for high-speed train movement with uncertain parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shu-Kai; Yang, Li-Xing; Li, Ke-Ping

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the robust output feedback cruise control for high-speed train movement with uncertain parameters is investigated. The dynamic of a high-speed train is modeled by a cascade of cars connected by flexible couplers, which is subject to rolling mechanical resistance, aerodynamic drag and wind gust. Based on Lyapunov’s stability theory, the sufficient condition for the existence of the robust output feedback cruise control law is given in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs), under which the high-speed train tracks the desired speed, the relative spring displacement between the two neighboring cars is stable at the equilibrium state, and meanwhile a small prescribed H∞ disturbance attenuation level is guaranteed. One numerical example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods. Project supported by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of Ministry of Education of China (Grant No.2014JBM150).

  7. Management Of Trainings With Use Of Flight Simulators In Compliance With Characteristic Parameters Of Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barszcz Piotr

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Flights conditions of combat aircrafts subject to dynamic changes in variable environment, where properly trained and skilled pilots, capable of perceiving stimuli from outside, play key roles in the decision-making process. The study discloses analyses that have been completed on grounds of survey results carried out for a specific population of cadets and pilots that had practiced on flight simulators. The surveys consisted in measurements of the human response time to artificially arranged emergency circumstances with counting of misbehaviour and errors. Then, upon analysis of correlation between skill features demonstrated by pilot candidates (cadets and trained pilots and with consideration to functions of probability distribution of these features it is possible to estimate expected results that should be achieved by cadets for specific exercises to assess the training system as efficient and suitable to provide intended results when real tasks are assigned to trainees flying eventual aircrafts.

  8. Maximal Aerobic Frequency of Ball Hitting: A New Training Load Parameter in Tennis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiget, Ernest; Iglesias, Xavier; Rodríguez, Ferran A

    2017-01-01

    Baiget, E, Iglesias, X, and Rodríguez, FA. Maximal aerobic frequency of ball hitting: a new training load parameter in tennis. J Strength Cond Res 31(1): 106-114, 2017-This study aimed (a) to evaluate a new training load parameter in tennis based on the ball-hitting frequency (Ballf) at V[Combining Dot Above]O2max occurs (maximal aerobic frequency of ball hitting, MAF) and (b) to assess the accuracy of a specific endurance tennis test (SET-Test) for predicting MAF. Thirty-five male competitive tennis players performed the SET-Test and selected physiological and performance parameters at maximal workload (MAX), and last completed stage (LS) and MAF were compared. Performance parameters (Ballf, time, stage, and hits per test) at LS were higher than at MAF (20.2 ± 1.7 vs. 18.1 ± 1.5 shots·min, 6.6 ± 0.8 vs. 5.6 ± 0.8 stages, and 189 ± 33 vs. 147 ± 27 hits; p training, and that the SET-Test is a valid method for assessing MAF. Gas exchange measurements not being available, as a rule of thumb, most players reach their MAF at ∼1 stage (95% confidence interval: 0.9-1.2) and ∼2 shots·min (95% confidence interval: 1.7-2.5) less than their completed LS. A model for specific on-court training protocols for optimizing aerobic fitness in competitive tennis player is proposed.

  9. Can robotic surgery be done efficiently while training residents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honaker, Michael Drew; Paton, Beverly L; Stefanidis, Dimitrios; Schiffern, Lynnette M

    2015-01-01

    Robotic surgery is a rapidly growing area in surgery. In an era of emphasis on cost reduction, the question becomes how do you train residents in robotic surgery? The aim of this study was to determine if there was a difference in operative time and complications when comparing general surgery residents learning robotic cholecystectomies to those learning standard laparoscopic cholecystectomies. A retrospective analysis of adult patients undergoing robotic and laparoscopic cholecystectomy by surgical residents between March 2013 and February 2014 was conducted. Demographic data, operative factors, length of stay (LOS), and complications were examined. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. The significance was set at p robotic cholecystectomy group and 40 in the laparoscopic group). Age, diagnosis, and American Society of Anesthesiologists score were not significantly different between groups. There was only 1 complication in the standard laparoscopic group in which a patient had to be taken back to surgery because of an incarcerated port site. LOS was significantly higher in the standard laparoscopic group (mean = 2.28) than in the robotic group (mean = 0.56; p robotic group (mean = 97.00 minutes; p = 0.4455). When intraoperative cholangiogram was evaluated, OR time was shorter in the robotic group. Robotic training in general surgery residency does not amount to extra OR time. LOS in our study was significantly longer in the standard laparoscopic group. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Fault Diagnosis of Train Axle Box Bearing Based on Multifeature Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Failure of the train axle box bearing will cause great loss. Now, condition-based maintenance of train axle box bearing has been a research hotspot around the world. Vibration signals generated by train axle box bearing have nonlinear and nonstationary characteristics. The methods used in traditional bearing fault diagnosis do not work well with the train axle box. To solve this problem, an effective method of axle box bearing fault diagnosis based on multifeature parameters is presented in this paper. This method can be divided into three parts, namely, weak fault signal extraction, feature extraction, and fault recognition. In the first part, a db4 wavelet is employed for denoising the original signals from the vibration sensors. In the second part, five time-domain parameters, five IMF energy-torque features, and two amplitude-ratio features are extracted. The latter seven frequency domain features are calculated based on the empirical mode decomposition and envelope spectrum analysis. In the third part, a fault classifier based on BP neural network is designed for automatic fault pattern recognition. A series of tests are carried out to verify the proposed method, which show that the accuracy is above 90%.

  11. EFFICIENCY OF READING COMPREHENSION TRAINING IN PUPILS LIVING IN POVERTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Kosak Babuder

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The results of Slovene and foreign studies reveal the connection between literacy levels and the level of education, employment opportunities and consequent socio-economic status of individuals and families. Reading efficiency relating to reading comprehension is an important element of reading literacy performance. The findings of several authors indicate empirical evidence of the existence of deficits and poor reading comprehension in pupils living in poverty and stress the importance of offsetting deficits and developing reading comprehension. Results of both foreign and Slovene studies indicate that the program of reading comprehension should be implemented in this group of pupils. In the article, we want to present effectiveness of the reading comprehension improvement program in pupils living in poverty. According to the findings of our research, in which we structured and implemented the reading comprehension program for pupils living in poverty with the Metacognitive-intersentential model of reading comprehension, the reading comprehension of the experimental group pupils who participated in the program improved compared to the control group pupils who did not participate in the program. Experimental group pupils also significantly improved correctness of their reading, their vocabulary and skills of verbal expression. When the program ended, we tested its efficiency by applied tests. The results on the manifest variables indicated that the program was good and efficient for pupils who live in poverty and experience reading comprehension problems.

  12. Methane conversion efficiency as a simple control parameter for an anaerobic digester at high loading rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, W; Carnaje, N P; Cord-Ruwisch, R

    2011-01-01

    The anaerobic digestion process is globally applied to the treatment of highly concentrated wastes such as industrial and rural effluents, and sewage sludge. However, it is known to be relatively unstable. When loaded with high concentrations of organic material, unwanted volatile fatty acids (VFA) are often produced rather than methane (CH4) gas which can lead to digester acidification and failure. This study investigated digester behaviour under high loading rates, testing the usefulness of stoichiometric methane conversion efficiency as a digester control parameter at high loading rates. Our results show that, in general, the CH4 production rate was proportional to the feed rate (loading rate). However, at very high loading rates, the CH4 production rate was not proportional to the increase in the feeding rate. Consequently, VFA accumulated and the H2 partial pressure increased. The proportionality of the loading rate and gas production rate is stoichiometrically expressed as the conversion efficiency. We found that conversion efficiency was a useful indicator as an early warning of digester imbalance. The digester remained stable at conversion efficiencies above 75%. Dropping below 70% signified the onset of digester failure. As loading rate and methane production data are readily available on-line in most anaerobic digestion plants, the conversion efficiency can be monitored on-line and used as an efficient control technique to maintain safe operation of anaerobic digesters at high loading rates.

  13. The influence of training status, age, and muscle fiber type on cycling efficiency and endurance performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopker, James G; Coleman, Damian A; Gregson, Hannah C; Jobson, Simon A; Von der Haar, Tobias; Wiles, Jonathan; Passfield, Louis

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of age, training status, and muscle fiber-type distribution on cycling efficiency. Forty men were recruited into one of four groups: young and old trained cyclists, and young and old untrained individuals. All participants completed an incremental ramp test to measure their peak O2 uptake, maximal heart rate, and maximal minute power output; a submaximal test of cycling gross efficiency (GE) at a series of absolute and relative work rates; and, in trained participants only, a 1-h cycling time trial. Finally, all participants underwent a muscle biopsy of their right vastus lateralis muscle. At relative work rates, a general linear model found significant main effects of age and training status on GE (P type I muscle fibers was higher in the trained groups (P type and cycling efficiency at any work rate or cadence combination. Stepwise multiple regression indicated that muscle fiber type did not influence cycling performance (P > 0.05). Power output in the 1-h performance trial was predicted by average O2 uptake and GE, with standardized β-coefficients of 0.94 and 0.34, respectively, although some mathematical coupling is evident. These data demonstrate that muscle fiber type does not affect cycling efficiency and was not influenced by the aging process. Cycling efficiency and the percentage of type I muscle fibers were influenced by training status, but only GE at 120 revolutions/min was seen to predict cycling performance.

  14. Bouc-Wen model parameter identification for a MR fluid damper using computationally efficient GA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, N M; Ha, Q P; Nguyen, M T; Li, J; Samali, B

    2007-04-01

    A non-symmetrical Bouc-Wen model is proposed in this paper for magnetorheological (MR) fluid dampers. The model considers the effect of non-symmetrical hysteresis which has not been taken into account in the original Bouc-Wen model. The model parameters are identified with a Genetic Algorithm (GA) using its flexibility in identification of complex dynamics. The computational efficiency of the proposed GA is improved with the absorption of the selection stage into the crossover and mutation operations. Crossover and mutation are also made adaptive to the fitness values such that their probabilities need not be user-specified. Instead of using a sufficiently number of generations or a pre-determined fitness value, the algorithm termination criterion is formulated on the basis of a statistical hypothesis test, thus enhancing the performance of the parameter identification. Experimental test data of the damper displacement and force are used to verify the proposed approach with satisfactory parameter identification results.

  15. Efficient characterization of high-dimensional parameter spaces for systems biology

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    Hafner Marc

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A biological system's robustness to mutations and its evolution are influenced by the structure of its viable space, the region of its space of biochemical parameters where it can exert its function. In systems with a large number of biochemical parameters, viable regions with potentially complex geometries fill a tiny fraction of the whole parameter space. This hampers explorations of the viable space based on "brute force" or Gaussian sampling. Results We here propose a novel algorithm to characterize viable spaces efficiently. The algorithm combines global and local explorations of a parameter space. The global exploration involves an out-of-equilibrium adaptive Metropolis Monte Carlo method aimed at identifying poorly connected viable regions. The local exploration then samples these regions in detail by a method we call multiple ellipsoid-based sampling. Our algorithm explores efficiently nonconvex and poorly connected viable regions of different test-problems. Most importantly, its computational effort scales linearly with the number of dimensions, in contrast to "brute force" sampling that shows an exponential dependence on the number of dimensions. We also apply this algorithm to a simplified model of a biochemical oscillator with positive and negative feedback loops. A detailed characterization of the model's viable space captures well known structural properties of circadian oscillators. Concretely, we find that model topologies with an essential negative feedback loop and a nonessential positive feedback loop provide the most robust fixed period oscillations. Moreover, the connectedness of the model's viable space suggests that biochemical oscillators with varying topologies can evolve from one another. Conclusions Our algorithm permits an efficient analysis of high-dimensional, nonconvex, and poorly connected viable spaces characteristic of complex biological circuitry. It allows a systematic use of robustness as

  16. Effects of physical training and mental practice of in-clothes swimming: assessment by physiological parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, H; Inokuchi, S; Ishida, H

    2001-12-01

    This study examined whether a short-term physical or mental training reduces the physiological load and perceived exertion of the in-clothes swimming. The study included 24 male inter-collegiate competitive swimmers with no previous experience of the in-clothes swimming. Prior to the training, the subjects performed 200-meter swimming with two styles of swimming, namely the crawl and elementary backstroke, and the degree of perceived exertion in the Borg scale, heart rate, and blood lactic acid level were determined. Following this baseline determination, the subjects were divided into 4 groups with 6 individuals each. These four groups were Group A "in-clothes training", Group B "image training", Group C "swimsuit training", and Group N "no training". Group A and C were lectured on the in-clothes swimming and practiced 7.5 min-long in-clothes swimming per day for a week with the two swimming styles, with Group A subjects wearing daily clothes and Group C subjects in swimsuits. Group B received 15 min of nonphysical mental practice primarily through viewing video recording of swimming performance everyday for a week. No training was given to Group N. At the completion of the training session, the subjects underwent the 2nd 200-meter swimming, and the physiological parameters were determined. The 1st in-clothes swimming load test showed that the elementary backstroke swimming resulted in significantly lower values of heart rate, blood lactic acid level, and perceived exertion than the crawl. For Group N, no difference was observed in the physiological parameters between the 1st and 2nd load test with either the elementary backstroke or crawl. Upon the 2nd in-clothes load test with the elementary backstroke, all three parameters were lower for Group A, B, and C than those seen for the 1st load test, and these differences were statistically significant, except for blood lactic acid in Group A. The 2nd in-clothes load test with the crawl showed that both heart rate and

  17. Effectiveness and efficiency of training in digital healthcare packages: training doctors to use digital medical record keeping software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benwell, Nicola; Hird, Kathryn; Thomas, Nicholas; Furness, Erin; Fear, Mark; Sweetman, Greg

    2017-10-01

    Objective Fiona Stanley Hospital (FSH) is the first hospital in Western Australia to implement a digital medical record (BOSSnet, Core Medical Solutions, Australia). Formal training in the use of the digital medical record is provided to all staff as part of the induction program. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the current training program facilitates efficient and accurate use of the digital medical record in clinical practice. Methods Participants were selected from the cohort of junior doctors employed at FSH in 2015. An e-Learning package of clinically relevant tasks from the digital medical record was created and, along with a questionnaire, completed by participants on two separate occasions. The time taken to complete all tasks and the number of incorrect mouse clicks used to complete each task were recorded and used as measures of efficiency and accuracy respectively. Results Most participants used BOSSnet more than 10 times per day in their clinical roles and self-rated their baseline overall computer proficiency level as high. There was a significant increase in the self-rating of proficiency levels in successive tests. In addition, a significant improvement in both efficiency and accuracy for all participants was measured between the two tests. Interestingly, both groups ended up with similar accuracy on the second trial, despite the second group of participants starting with significantly poorer accuracy. Conclusions Overall, the greatest improvements in task performance followed daily ward-based experience using BOSSnet rather than formalised training. The greatest benefits of training were noted when training was delivered in close proximity to the onset of employment. What is known about the topic? Formalised training in the use of information and communications technology (ICT) is widespread in the health service. However, there is limited evidence to support the modes of learning typically used. Formalised training is often

  18. INFLUENCE OF ARMATURE PARAMETERS OF A LINEAR PULSE ELECTROMECHANICAL CONVERTER ON ITS EFFICIENCY

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    V. F. Bolyukh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The evaluation of the effect of armature parameters on the efficiency of a linear pulsed electromechanical converter, taking into account the power, speed, constructive and environmental parameters. Methodology. First, the height of the electrically conductive, coil and ferromagnetic armature of a linear pulse electromechanical converter is determined, at which the highest velocity develops. An integral efficiency index is introduced, which takes into account, in a relative way, the power, speed, energy, electrical and field characteristics of the converter. Variants of the efficiency evaluation strategy are used that take into account the priority of each indicator of a linear pulse electromechanical converter using the appropriate weighting factor in the integral efficiency index. Results. A mathematical model of a linear pulsed electromechanical converter is developed. It is established that as the height of the electroconductive, coil and ferromagnetic armature increases, the force pulse increases. The greatest speed develops with the use of a coil armature, and the smallest with an electroconductive armature. In the converter with coil and ferromagnetic armature, practically the same values of the electrodynamic and electromagnetic force pulse are realized, while in the converter the electrodynamic force is 1.52 times smaller in the converter by the electrically conductive armature. It is established that with all efficiency evaluation strategies, the converter with a coil armature is the most effective, even in spite of its constructive complexity, and the converter with a ferromagnetic armature is the least effective, although it is constructively the simplest. Originality. For the first time, using the integral efficiency index, which takes into account the power, speed, energy, electrical and field indices in a relative way, it is established that with all efficiency evaluation strategies, the converter with a coil armature is

  19. The Effect of Hull Biofouling on Parameters Characterising Ship Propulsion System Efficiency

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    Tarełko Wiesła

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of most important issues concerning technical objects is the increase of their operating performance. For a ship this performance mainly depends on the efficiency of its main pro-pulsion system and the resistance generated during its motion on water. The overall ship re-sistance, in turn, mainly depends on the hull friction resistance, closely related with the pres-ence of different types of roughness on the hull surface, including underwater part biofouling. The article analyses the effect of hull biofouling on selected parameters characterising the efficiency of the ship propulsion system with adjustable propeller. For this purpose a two-year research experiment was performed on a sailing vessel during its motor navigation phases. Based on the obtained results, three groups of characteristics were worked out for different combinations of engine rotational speed and adjustable propeller pitch settings. The obtained results have revealed that the phenomenon of underwater hull biofouling affects remarkably the parameters characterising propulsion system efficiency. In particular, the development of the biofouling layer leads to significant reduction of the speed of navigation.

  20. Efficient Bayesian parameter estimation with implicit sampling and surrogate modeling for a vadose zone hydrological problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Pau, G. S. H.; Finsterle, S.

    2015-12-01

    Parameter inversion involves inferring the model parameter values based on sparse observations of some observables. To infer the posterior probability distributions of the parameters, Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods are typically used. However, the large number of forward simulations needed and limited computational resources limit the complexity of the hydrological model we can use in these methods. In view of this, we studied the implicit sampling (IS) method, an efficient importance sampling technique that generates samples in the high-probability region of the posterior distribution and thus reduces the number of forward simulations that we need to run. For a pilot-point inversion of a heterogeneous permeability field based on a synthetic ponded infiltration experiment simu­lated with TOUGH2 (a subsurface modeling code), we showed that IS with linear map provides an accurate Bayesian description of the parameterized permeability field at the pilot points with just approximately 500 forward simulations. We further studied the use of surrogate models to improve the computational efficiency of parameter inversion. We implemented two reduced-order models (ROMs) for the TOUGH2 forward model. One is based on polynomial chaos expansion (PCE), of which the coefficients are obtained using the sparse Bayesian learning technique to mitigate the "curse of dimensionality" of the PCE terms. The other model is Gaussian process regression (GPR) for which different covariance, likelihood and inference models are considered. Preliminary results indicate that ROMs constructed based on the prior parameter space perform poorly. It is thus impractical to replace this hydrological model by a ROM directly in a MCMC method. However, the IS method can work with a ROM constructed for parameters in the close vicinity of the maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) estimate. We will discuss the accuracy and computational efficiency of using ROMs in the implicit sampling procedure

  1. Associations of rumen parameters with feed efficiency and sampling routine in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, S; Munro, J C; Zhou, M; Guan, L L; Schenkel, F S; Steele, M A; Miller, S P; Montanholi, Y R

    2017-11-10

    Characterizing ruminal parameters in the context of sampling routine and feed efficiency is fundamental to understand the efficiency of feed utilization in the bovine. Therefore, we evaluated microbial and volatile fatty acid (VFA) profiles, rumen papillae epithelial and stratum corneum thickness and rumen pH (RpH) and temperature (RT) in feedlot cattle. In all, 48 cattle (32 steers plus 16 bulls), fed a high moisture corn and haylage-based ration, underwent a productive performance test to determine residual feed intake (RFI) using feed intake, growth, BW and composition traits. Rumen fluid was collected, then RpH and RT logger were inserted 5.5±1 days before slaughter. At slaughter, the logger was recovered and rumen fluid and rumen tissue were sampled. The relative daily time spent in specific RpH and RT ranges were determined. Polynomial regression analysis was used to characterize RpH and RT circadian patterns. Animals were divided into efficient and inefficient groups based on RFI to compare productive performance and ruminal parameters. Efficient animals consumed 1.8 kg/day less dry matter than inefficient cattle (P⩽0.05) while achieving the same productive performance (P⩾0.10). Ruminal bacteria population was higher (P⩽0.05) (7.6×1011 v. 4.3×1011 copy number of 16S rRNA gene/ml rumen fluid) and methanogen population was lower (P⩽0.05) (2.3×109 v. 4.9×109 copy number of 16S rRNA gene/ml rumen fluid) in efficient compared with inefficient cattle at slaughter with no differences (P⩾0.10) between samples collected on-farm. No differences (P⩾0.10) in rumen fluid VFA were also observed between feed efficiency groups either on-farm or at slaughter. However, increased (P⩽0.05) acetate, and decreased (P⩽0.05) propionate, butyrate, valerate and caproate concentrations were observed at slaughter compared with on-farm. Efficient had increased (P⩽0.05) rumen epithelium thickness (136 v. 126 µm) compared with inefficient cattle. Efficient animals

  2. Effect of martial arts training on IL-6 and other immunological parameters among Trinidadian subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurhade, Geeta; Nayak, B Shivananda; Kurhade, Arvind; Unakal, Chandrasekhar; Kurhade, Krutika

    2017-09-29

    Persistent bouts of extended exercise and heavy training are associated with depressed immune cell function. It has recently been demonstrated that IL-6 is produced locally in contracting skeletal muscles and acts on a wide range of tissues. Larger amounts of IL-6 are produced in response to exercise than any other cytokines. Though the majority of existing data obtained following prolonged exercise, it remains to be explained the effect of martial arts training on IL-6 and other immunological parameters and associated changes to the duration of this type of exercise. IL-1α is produced mainly by activated macrophages, as well as neutrophils epithelial cells, and endothelial cells. It possesses metabolic, physiological, hematopoietic activities, and plays one of the central roles in the regulation of the immune responses. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of martial arts training on IL-6 and other immunological parameters among Trinidadian subjects. Sixteen healthy, nonsmoker individuals who were martial arts practitioners for last 5 15 years, aged 25.94 ±7.6.20 years (mean ± SE). Blood samples were collected to determine IL-6 and other immunological parameters at preexercise, immediately post exercise (0 Hour), 1 hour, 2 hour and 52 hours of post exercise). The IL-6 and IL-1 was measured using Human IL-6 and IL-1 β ELISA kit, blood cell count was done using automated blood cell counter and CD4, and CD3 count was performed using the automated immunofluorescence analysis by flow cytometer. The mean basal IL-6 level was 71.47 ± 4.3 and reduced to 70.1 ± 21.6 immediately after exercise and then increased to 75.70 ± 8.2 after one hour of exercise bout, returning to basal level after two hours and remained so after 52 hours. The CD4 count was decreased as low as 102.2, (much lower than immunecompromised subjects) after the bout of training but returned to normal range within 2 hours of exercise and increased even more after 52 hours. Similar trends have been

  3. Whole-body efficiency is negatively correlated with minimum torque per duty cycle in trained cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Lindsay M; Jobson, Simon A; George, Simon R; Day, Stephen H; Nevill, Alan M

    2009-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is a causal relationship between pedalling "circularity" and cycling efficiency. Eleven trained cyclists were studied during submaximal cycling. Variables recorded included gross and delta efficiency and the ratio of minimum to peak torque during a duty cycle. Participants also completed a questionnaire about their training history. The most notable results were as follows: gross efficiency (r = -0.72, P ratio of minimum to peak torque, particularly at higher work rates. There was a highly significant inverse correlation between delta efficiency and average minimum torque at 200 W (r = -0.76, P efficiency and gross efficiency, although experience and the ratio of minimum to peak torque were not related. These results show that variations in pedalling technique may account for a large proportion of the variation in efficiency in trained cyclists. However, it is also possible that some underlying physiological factor influences both. Finally, it appears that experience positively influences efficiency, although the mechanism by which this occurs remains unclear.

  4. The Influence of Controller Parameters on the Quality of the Train Converter Current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Brenna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a stability analysis of train converters in order to evaluate how the controller parameters affect the absorbed current. The new dynamic model presented in this paper is capable of considering the time-variant nature of the system for the correct tuning of the feedback proportional-integral PI controller, applying a current controlled modulation technique never used in high-power traction converters. The reduction of the harmonic content of the current absorbed by a converter employed at the input stage onboard high-speed trains is really important, considering the interaction with the signaling system set up for traffic control. A computer model of the converter, considering both the power and the control structure, has also been implemented in order to deliver a validated tool for the developed theoretical analysis.

  5. STUDY OF THE PARAMETERS OF EFFICIENCY IN CENTRES FOR REPAIR OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY

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    Natalia Stoyanova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper makes a thorough study of the parameters of efficiency in the centers for the repair of agricultural machinery, considering production and technological structure, the basic principles for design of the process of service, the quantitative indicators for servicing. It presents a theoretical model for the management of services in the service business, taking into account the basic system requirements for maintenance of agricultural machinery, the main elements of the standards of customer service, choice of forms for maintenance of agricultural machinery. Opportunities are proposed for the optimization of repair activities in the centers for repair of agricultural machinery.

  6. Effects of upper body parameters on biped walking efficiency studied by dynamic optimization

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    Kang An

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Walking efficiency is one of the considerations for designing biped robots. This article uses the dynamic optimization method to study the effects of upper body parameters, including upper body length and mass, on walking efficiency. Two minimal actuations, hip joint torque and push-off impulse, are used in the walking model, and minimal constraints are set in a free search using the dynamic optimization. Results show that there is an optimal solution of upper body length for the efficient walking within a range of walking speed and step length. For short step length, walking with a lighter upper body mass is found to be more efficient and vice versa. It is also found that for higher speed locomotion, the increase of the upper body length and mass can make the walking gait optimal rather than other kind of gaits. In addition, the typical strategy of an optimal walking gait is that just actuating the swing leg at the beginning of the step.

  7. Redirecting learners' attention during training: effects on cognitive load, transfer test performance and training efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Merriënboer, J.J.G.; Schuurman, Jan Gerrit; de Croock, M.B.M.; Paas, F.G.W.C.

    2002-01-01

    Cognitive load theory provides guidelines for improving the training of complex cognitive skills and their transfer to new situations. One guideline states that extraneous cognitive load that is irrelevant to the construction of cognitive schemata should be minimised. Experiment 1 (N=26) compares

  8. Response of the oxygen uptake efficiency slope to exercise training in patients with chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Laethem, Christophe; Van De Veire, Nico; De Backer, Guy; Bihija, Salhi; Seghers, Tony; Cambier, Dirk; Vanderheyden, Marc; De Sutter, Johan

    2007-01-01

    The oxygen uptake efficiency slope (OUES) is a new exercise parameter that provides prognostic power in patients with CHF. Little is known about the effects of exercise training (ET) on OUES. To describe the response of OUES to 6 months of ET in CHF patients and compare its evolution to that of other exercise variables. 35 patients with CHF (NYHA II-III, age 54+/-9y, LVEF 31+/-10%) performed 3 maximal exercise tests, i.e. at the start, middle and end of a 6 month ET program. OUES, PeakVO(2), ventilatory anaerobic threshold (VAT) and slope VE/VCO(2) were determined. OUES, peakVO(2), VAT, slope VE/VCO(2), peak Watt, 6MWT and NYHA-class improved during the first part of the ET period (p<0.05). Only VAT, peak Watt and 6MWT continued to improve during the second part of the ET period (p<0.05) Improvements in OUES correlated better with improvements in peakVO(2) (r=0.77, p<0.001), than changes in other prognostic variables. OUES improves significantly after 6 months of ET. Changes in peakVO(2) correlate best with changes in OUES. OUES is sensitive to ET and can be used to evaluate the progression of exercise capacity in CHF patients.

  9. Effects of High Intensity Interval Training on Fat Mass Parameters in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Cardenosa, Alba; Brazo-Sayavera, Javier; Camacho-Cardenosa, Marta; Marcos-Serrano, Marta; Timón, Rafael; Olcina, Guillermo

    2016-11-21

    Childhood and adolescence are key to the development of chronic disease stages, the distribution of fat an important factor in this regard. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects on fat parameters of a high intensity program developed in adolescents during physical education classes. In 2013, 35 school-age children of Cáceres taken part in this study divided into two groups. The high-intensity group performed for 8 weeks, 4-6 sets of 20 seconds at maximal intensity with a ratio effort / recovery of 1: 3 to 1: 1. The other group, developed continuous aerobic exercise during the same time. It conducted an assessment of fat mass before and after the training program. Repeated measures ANOVA test was used to observe that there were no statistically significant differences. Continuous aerobic training group showed statistically significant differences in intra-group analysis in the percentage of fat mass trunk (Pre: 15.66 ± 4.16 vs Post: 16.95 ± 4.03; +1, 29%; p = 0.04) and the percentage of total fat (Pre: 21.58 ± 3.93 / Post: 22.34 ± 3.70; p = 0.05). Statistically significant differences were not found in the analysis between-groups in any of the studied variables. The training program high intensity physical activity at school carried out during physical education classes did not improve fat mass parameters evaluated. However, maintaining these parameters could be a good result during the development of this stage, where an increase of these occurs.

  10. SELECTION OF RATIONAL PARAMETERS OF THE NOMINAL MODE ELECTRIC TRAINS WITH ASYNCHRONOUS TRACTION DRIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. K. Hetman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Parameters of the nominal mode are related to the most important performance indicators of traction means, therefore, the problems of choosing their optimal values always inevitably arise when forming technical requirements for a new rolling stock. The paper describes the features of solving the above-mentioned problems for electric trains with an asynchronous traction drive in the case of two-zone and three-zone frequency control of power. Methodology. Power of nominal mode of the rolling stock should be chosen in such a way that it would be possible to realize a predetermined travel time along in the section or the movement speed. On that basis, and also taking into account the fact that the important operational characteristics of electric trains include the acceleration value during the start-up and acceleration at the design speed, we will formulate the problem of determining the nominal power. In the task for a given range of traction, it is necessary to find such a value of the nominal mode power and the corresponding force value to ensure the ability to carry out transportations with the given level of average speed with minimal energy consumption for traction. At the same time, it is necessary to fulfill the following conditions: a the speed of the electric train on the section does not exceed the established limits; b it is possible to realize the given values of accelerations. A more detailed consideration of the problem shows that in real conditions, when the starting acceleration and the mass of the train are given, the problem of determining electric train power is practically reduced to determining the optimal value of the nominal mode speed. Findings. The task of choosing the optimal values of the nominal mode speed is solved by determining the electric power consumption with the variation of the possible values of starting speed. Therefore, only those values that ensure the implementation of the given starting and

  11. TRAINING-LEVEL INDUCED CHANGES IN BLOOD PARAMETERS RESPONSE TO ON-WATER ROWING RACES

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    Cyril Petibois

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated blood markers allowing discriminating physiological responses to on-water rowing races, notably regarding training volume of athletes and race duration. College (COL and national (NAT rowers performed a 1000- or 2000-m race. Capillary blood samples obtained before and post-race allowed an analysis of a wide range of serum parameters. COL rowers had a lower rowing experience and training volume than NAT. Races induced a higher lactate concentration increase in NAT compared to COL (10.45 ± 0.45 vs 13.05 ± 0.60; p < 0.001. Race distance (2000 vs. 1000 m induced a higher increase in fatty acids (0.81 ± 0.31 vs +0.67 ± 0. 41; p < 0.05 and triglycerides concentration in NAT (0.33 ± 0.07 vs 0.15 ± 0.09; p < 0.01, but remained comparable between NAT and COL for the 1000-m races. Amino acids concentrations increased in NAT (0.19 ± 0.03, p < 0.01, but urea concentration increased only for NAT rowers having performed the 2000-m race (0.72 ± 0.22, p < 0.05. Transferrin concentration decreased after the 2000-m race (-0.60 ± 0.25, p < 0.05, and concentration changes of haptoglobin differed between NAT2000 (tendency to be reduced and COL (tendency to by enhanced (p < 0.05. Our results confirmed that the training level in rowing is associated with higher glycolysis utilization during maximal 1000- and 2000-m exercise and no difference for similarly trained subjects at these two distances. Our study also demonstrated that a 2000-m race could initiate fatty and amino-acid metabolisms in highly trained subjects. Therefore, these changes in blood parameter responses to a characteristic rowing exercise highlighted the importance of monitoring the physiological effects of training in sporting conditions and according to individual characteristics

  12. Better Neuronal Efficiency After Emotional Competences Training: An fMRI Study

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    Michel Hansenne

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Earlier studies demonstrated that adult emotional competences (EC can be improved through relatively brief training. This increase has been investigated, thus far, using self-reported questionnaires and behavioral data. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cerebral correlates underlying improvement in EC. An experimental group received an EC training and a control group received brief sessions of drama improvisation. Participants viewed negative, positive, and neutral pictures while attempting to decrease, increase, or not modulate their emotional reactions. Subjective reactions were assessed via on-line ratings. After the intervention, the training group showed less cerebral activity as compared to the control group within different regions related to emotional regulation and attention including prefrontal regions and the bilateral inferior parietal lobule, the right precentral gyrus and the intraparietal sulcus. These results suggest increased neural efficiency in the training group as a result of emotional competen cies training.

  13. Context-Aware Based Efficient Training System Using Augmented Reality and Gravity Sensor for Healthcare Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seoksoo; Jung, Sungmo; Song, Jae-Gu; Kang, Byong-Ho

    As augmented reality and a gravity sensor is of growing interest, siginificant developement is being made on related technology, which allows application of the technology in a variety of areas with greater expectations. In applying Context-aware to augmented reality, it can make useful programs. A traning system suggested in this study helps a user to understand an effcienct training method using augmented reality and make sure if his exercise is being done propery based on the data collected by a gravity sensor. Therefore, this research aims to suggest an efficient training environment that can enhance previous training methods by applying augmented reality and a gravity sensor.

  14. Strength Training and Kinematics Parameters of Gait in Healthy Female Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heydar Sadeghi

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was under taken to consider the effect of strength training on some kinematics parameters of gait (step length, cadence and speed walking. Methods & Materials: Twenty-four healthy elderly women (with average and standard deviation age of 61.53±2.84 years, height of 157.1±5.5 cm, weight of 69.13±7.6 kg and BMI 28.1±3.6 kg/m participated in this study. The strength of lower limb assessed using leg press test. The subjects were randomly divided in to control and experimental group. Video camera, 3DMax, Premier and Photoshop soft ware’s were used to measure speed walking, cadence and step length before and after training program. The control group continued their daily activity, while experimental group were in eight weeks for strength training for lower limb and body stabilizer muscles. Within group differences using T-test for independent groups and between group differences were analyzed using by T-test for dependent group before and after training at significant level of 0.05. Results: The changes of speed walking and lower limb strength weren't significant in control group. While significant differences observed in step length and speed walking and lower limb strength in experimental group. In comparison between groups, except of cadence, step length, speed walking and lower limb strength showed significant increase in experimental group. Conclusion: The results confirmed the effectiveness of strength training and increasing lower limb and stabilizer muscles strength on step length and speed walking in healthy elder women.

  15. Distributed Bees Algorithm Parameters Optimization for a Cost Efficient Target Allocation in Swarms of Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Gutiérrez

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Swarms of robots can use their sensing abilities to explore unknown environments and deploy on sites of interest. In this task, a large number of robots is more effective than a single unit because of their ability to quickly cover the area. However, the coordination of large teams of robots is not an easy problem, especially when the resources for the deployment are limited. In this paper, the Distributed Bees Algorithm (DBA, previously proposed by the authors, is optimized and applied to distributed target allocation in swarms of robots. Improved target allocation in terms of deployment cost efficiency is achieved through optimization of the DBA’s control parameters by means of a Genetic Algorithm. Experimental results show that with the optimized set of parameters, the deployment cost measured as the average distance traveled by the robots is reduced. The cost-efficient deployment is in some cases achieved at the expense of increased robots’ distribution error. Nevertheless, the proposed approach allows the swarm to adapt to the operating conditions when available resources are scarce.

  16. Studying Effect of Water Quality Parameters on Coagulation Efficiency by Moringa Oleifera Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Parvini

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the performance and efficiency of Moringa seeds from different sources on turbidity. A protein analysis test was done for each source; then two different methods of extraction were compared to examine the coagulation activity for the Moringa's active ingredient. The results of sodium chloride (NaCI extraction in comparison to distilled water extraction of the Moringa olifera seeds showed that the salt solution extraction technique was more efficient than the distilled water for extracting the active coagulant ingredient.  The above mentioned findings were used to examine the effects of other parameters such as pH, calcium and magnesium hardness, bicarbonate-alkalinity, and salinity independently on turbidity removal with an optimum dosage of 1% NaCI extract of dry shelled Moringa seeds. The obtained results showed that the water quality parameters had no significant effect on the coagulation potential of the NaCI extract of the shelled Moringa seeds and was almost amenable to a wide range of water environment condition.

  17. Surface Tension Components Ratio: An Efficient Parameter for Direct Liquid Phase Exfoliation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Man; Xu, Xiaowei; Ge, Yuancai; Dong, Pei; Baines, Robert; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Ye, Mingxin; Shen, Jianfeng

    2017-03-15

    Direct liquid phase exfoliation (LPE) is generally regarded as an effective and efficient methodology for preparing single- to few-layered nanosheets on a large scale. Based on a previous finding that the polar and dispersive components of surface tension can be used as critical parameters for screening suitable solvents for LPE, in this study, we conducted in-depth research on direct LPE of two-dimensional (2D) materials by the extensive LPE of a series of 2D materials and the thorough comparison of their surfaces properties and LPE efficiencies. We rationally developed the surface tension component matching (STCM) theory, and in nature, its key point lies in the close ratio of polar to dispersive components (P/D) between the solvents and the aimed 2D materials. To this end, the surface tension components ratio is demonstrated to be an effective parameter for screening LPE solvents. In addition to the optimization of the LPE process for these 2D materials, this work has further greatly enlarged the comprehensive library for the solvent and 2D material matching pairs based on the improved STCM theory.

  18. Communicating the parameter uncertainty in the IQWiG efficiency frontier to decision-makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stollenwerk, Björn; Lhachimi, Stefan K; Briggs, Andrew; Fenwick, Elisabeth; Caro, Jaime J; Siebert, Uwe; Danner, Marion; Gerber-Grote, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    The Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG) developed-in a consultation process with an international expert panel-the efficiency frontier (EF) approach to satisfy a range of legal requirements for economic evaluation in Germany's statutory health insurance system. The EF approach is distinctly different from other health economic approaches. Here, we evaluate established tools for assessing and communicating parameter uncertainty in terms of their applicability to the EF approach. Among these are tools that perform the following: (i) graphically display overall uncertainty within the IQWiG EF (scatter plots, confidence bands, and contour plots) and (ii) communicate the uncertainty around the reimbursable price. We found that, within the EF approach, most established plots were not always easy to interpret. Hence, we propose the use of price reimbursement acceptability curves-a modification of the well-known cost-effectiveness acceptability curves. Furthermore, it emerges that the net monetary benefit allows an intuitive interpretation of parameter uncertainty within the EF approach. This research closes a gap for handling uncertainty in the economic evaluation approach of the IQWiG methods when using the EF. However, the precise consequences of uncertainty when determining prices are yet to be defined. © 2014 The Authors. Health Economics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Visual Working Memory Capacity Can Be Increased by Training on Distractor Filtering Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Cui-Hong; He, Xu; Wang, Yu-Juan; Hu, Zhe; Guo, Chun-Yan

    2017-01-01

    It is generally considered that working memory (WM) capacity is limited and that WM capacity affects cognitive processes. Distractor filtering efficiency has been suggested to be an important factor in determining the visual working memory (VWM) capacity of individuals. In the present study, we investigated whether training in visual filtering efficiency (FE) could improve VWM capacity, as measured by performance on the change detection task (CDT) and changes of contralateral delay activity (...

  20. Processing Parameters Optimization for Material Deposition Efficiency in Laser Metal Deposited Titanium Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahamood, Rasheedat M.; Akinlabi, Esther T.

    2016-03-01

    Ti6Al4V is an important Titanium alloy that is mostly used in many applications such as: aerospace, petrochemical and medicine. The excellent corrosion resistance property, the high strength to weight ratio and the retention of properties at high temperature makes them to be favoured in most applications. The high cost of Titanium and its alloys makes their use to be prohibitive in some applications. Ti6Al4V can be cladded on a less expensive material such as steel, thereby reducing cost and providing excellent properties. Laser Metal Deposition (LMD) process, an additive manufacturing process is capable of producing complex part directly from the 3-D CAD model of the part and it also has the capability of handling multiple materials. Processing parameters play an important role in LMD process and in order to achieve desired results at a minimum cost, then the processing parameters need to be properly controlled. This paper investigates the role of processing parameters: laser power, scanning speed, powder flow rate and gas flow rate, on the material utilization efficiency in laser metal deposited Ti6Al4V. A two-level full factorial design of experiment was used in this investigation, to be able to understand the processing parameters that are most significant as well as the interactions among these processing parameters. Four process parameters were used, each with upper and lower settings which results in a combination of sixteen experiments. The laser power settings used was 1.8 and 3 kW, the scanning speed was 0.05 and 0.1 m/s, the powder flow rate was 2 and 4 g/min and the gas flow rate was 2 and 4 l/min. The experiments were designed and analyzed using Design Expert 8 software. The software was used to generate the optimized process parameters which were found to be laser power of 3.2 kW, scanning speed of 0.06 m/s, powder flow rate of 2 g/min and gas flow rate of 3 l/min.

  1. Efficient cascaded parameter scan approach for studying top-off safety in storage rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjun Li

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a new algorithm, which we call the cascaded parameter scan method, to efficiently carry out the scan over magnet parameters in the safety analysis for top-off injection in synchrotron radiation storage rings. In top-off safety analysis, one must track particles populating phase space through a beam line containing magnets and apertures and clearly demonstrate that, for all possible magnet settings and errors, all particles are lost on scrapers within the properly shielded region. In the usual approach, if one considers m magnets and scans each magnet through n setpoints, then one must carry out n^{m} tracking runs. In the cascaded parameter scan method, the number of tracking runs is reduced to n×m. This reduction of exponential to linear dependence on the number of setpoints n greatly reduces the required computation time and allows one to more densely populate phase space and to increase the number n of setpoints scanned for each magnet.

  2. Methodology for determining the value of complexity parameter for emergency situation during driving of the train

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Horobchenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. During development of intelligent control systems for locomotive there is a need in the evaluation of the current train situation in the terms of traffic safety. In order to estimate the probability of the development of various emergency situations in to the traffic accidents, it is necessary to determine their complexity. The purpose of this paper is to develop the methodology for determining the complexity of emergency situations during the locomotive operation. Methodology. To achieve this purpose the statistical material of traffic safety violations was accumulated. The causes of violations are divided into groups: technical factors, human factors and external influences. Using the theory of hybrid networks it was obtained a model that gives the output complexity parameter of the emergency situation. Network type: multilayer perceptron with hybrid neurons of the first layer and the sigmoid activation function. The methods of the probability theory were used for the analysis of the results. Findings. The approach to the formalization of manufacturing situations that can only be described linguistically was developed, that allowed to use them as input data to the model for emergency situation. It was established and proved that the exponent of complexity for emergency situation during driving the train is a random quantity and obeys to the normal distribution law. It was obtained the graph of the cumulative distribution function, which identified the areas for safe operation and an increased risk of accident. Originality. It was proposed theoretical basis for determining the complexity of emergency situations in the train work and received the maximum complexity value of emergency situations that can be admitted in the operating conditions. Practical value. Constant monitoring of this value allows not only respond to the threat of danger, but also getting it in numerical form and use it as one of the input parameters for the

  3. MST-GEN: An Efficient Parameter Selection Method for One-Class Extreme Learning Machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Siqi; Liu, Qiang; Zhu, En; Yin, Jianping; Zhao, Wentao

    2017-10-01

    One-class classification (OCC) models a set of target data from one class to detect outliers. OCC approaches like one-class support vector machine (OCSVM) and support vector data description (SVDD) have wide practical applications. Recently, one-class extreme learning machine (OCELM), which inherits the fast learning speed of original ELM and achieves equivalent or higher data description performance than OCSVM and SVDD, is proposed as a promising alternative. However, OCELM faces the same thorny parameter selection problem as OCSVM and SVDD. It significantly affects the performance of OCELM and remains under-explored. This paper proposes minimal spanning tree (MST)-GEN, an automatic way to select proper parameters for OCELM. Specifically, we first build a n -round MST to model the structure and distribution of the given target set. With information from n -round MST, a controllable number of pseudo outliers are generated by edge pattern detection and a novel "repelling" process, which readily overcomes two fundamental problems in previous outlier generation methods: where and how many pseudo outliers should be generated. Unlike previous methods that only generate pseudo outliers, we further exploit n -round MST to generate pseudo target data, so as to avoid the time-consuming cross-validation process and accelerate the parameter selection. Extensive experiments on various datasets suggest that the proposed method can select parameters for OCELM in a highly efficient and accurate manner when compared with existing methods, which enables OCELM to achieve better OCC performance in OCC applications. Furthermore, our experiments show that MST-GEN can also be favorably applied to other prevalent OCC methods like OCSVM and SVDD.

  4. Fast and efficient second-order method for training radial basis function networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Tiantian; Yu, Hao; Hewlett, Joel; Rózycki, Paweł; Wilamowski, Bogdan

    2012-04-01

    This paper proposes an improved second order (ISO) algorithm for training radial basis function (RBF) networks. Besides the traditional parameters, including centers, widths and output weights, the input weights on the connections between input layer and hidden layer are also adjusted during the training process. More accurate results can be obtained by increasing variable dimensions. Initial centers are chosen from training patterns and other parameters are generated randomly in limited range. Taking the advantages of fast convergence and powerful search ability of second order algorithms, the proposed ISO algorithm can normally reach smaller training/testing error with much less number of RBF units. During the computation process, quasi Hessian matrix and gradient vector are accumulated as the sum of related sub matrices and vectors, respectively. Only one Jacobian row is stored and used for multiplication, instead of the entire Jacobian matrix storage and multiplication. Memory reduction benefits the computation speed and allows the training of problems with basically unlimited number of patterns. Several practical discrete and continuous classification problems are applied to test the properties of the proposed ISO training algorithm.

  5. Firearm Injury Prevention Skills: Increasing the Efficiency of Training with Peer Tutoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jostad, Candice M.; Miltenberger, Raymond G.

    2004-01-01

    Gun play results in hundreds of childhood injuries and deaths each year in the United States. Behavioral Skills Training (BST) is used to teach children the skills needed to resist gun play when finding a firearm. Although effective, existing BST programs are time and resource intensive and therefore lack the efficiency required to be widely…

  6. Visual Working Memory Capacity Can Be Increased by Training on Distractor Filtering Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cui-Hong; He, Xu; Wang, Yu-Juan; Hu, Zhe; Guo, Chun-Yan

    2017-01-01

    It is generally considered that working memory (WM) capacity is limited and that WM capacity affects cognitive processes. Distractor filtering efficiency has been suggested to be an important factor in determining the visual working memory (VWM) capacity of individuals. In the present study, we investigated whether training in visual filtering efficiency (FE) could improve VWM capacity, as measured by performance on the change detection task (CDT) and changes of contralateral delay activity (CDA) (contralateral delay activity) of different conditions, and evaluated the transfer effect of visual FE training on verbal WM and fluid intelligence, as indexed by performance on the verbal WM span task and Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices (RSPM) test, respectively. Participants were divided into high- and low-capacity groups based on their performance in a CDT designed to test VWM capacity, and then the low-capacity individuals received 20 days of FE training. The training significantly improved the group's performance in the CDT, and their CDA models of different conditions became more similar with high capacity group, and the effect generalized to improve verbal WM span. These gains were maintained at a 3-month follow-up test. Participants' RSPM scores were not changed by the training. These findings support the notion that WM capacity is determined, at least in part, by distractor FE and can be enhanced through training.

  7. Effective and Efficient Training Programs in Jeddah Government Hospitals: A Case Study of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Salih Suliman Al-Qudah

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hospital care broadly covers and encompasses complete range of personal health service like promotion of health service, prevention of disease, early detection of disease, diagnosis and treatment, rehabilitation of the patient. This study will try to identify the" Effective and Efficient Training Programs in Jeddah government hospitals: Case Study of Saudi Arabia”. The study will examine the demographic aspects of employees (Gender and experience and the value of what can deferent training programmes can have deep impact on their performance. The total study sample was 291 of identify employees, but 275 were suitable for statistical analysis, descriptive and analytical approach was also used to achieve the study objectives. The study major finding that there was a medium degree of effective and efficient training programs held’s in Jeddah public hospitals, also the study found that there are no statistically significant differences at  α ≤ 0.05 related to training of human resources. The study has recommended the need to improve employee’s skills in Jeddah government hospitals through actual employees participation at any training courses on a regular basis, also there is a need for continue training program for employee’s to qualify them at any future development in the deferent department of  the  hospital.

  8. Psychomotor control in a virtual laparoscopic surgery training environment: gaze control parameters differentiate novices from experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mark; McGrath, John; Vine, Samuel; Brewer, James; Defriend, David; Masters, Richard

    2010-10-01

    Surgical simulation is increasingly used to facilitate the adoption of technical skills during surgical training. This study sought to determine if gaze control parameters could differentiate between the visual control of experienced and novice operators performing an eye-hand coordination task on a virtual reality laparoscopic surgical simulator (LAP Mentor™). Typically adopted hand movement metrics reflect only one half of the eye-hand coordination relationship; therefore, little is known about how hand movements are guided and controlled by vision. A total of 14 right-handed surgeons were categorised as being either experienced (having led more than 70 laparoscopic procedures) or novice (having performed fewer than 10 procedures) operators. The eight experienced and six novice surgeons completed the eye-hand coordination task from the LAP Mentor basic skills package while wearing a gaze registration system. A variety of performance, movement, and gaze parameters were recorded and compared between groups. The experienced surgeons completed the task significantly more quickly than the novices, but only the economy of movement of the left tool differentiated skill level from the LAP Mentor parameters. Gaze analyses revealed that experienced surgeons spent significantly more time fixating the target locations than novices, who split their time between focusing on the targets and tracking the tools. The findings of the study provide support for the utility of assessing strategic gaze behaviour to better understand the way in which surgeons utilise visual information to plan and control tool movements in a virtual reality laparoscopic environment. It is hoped that by better understanding the limitations of the psychomotor system, effective gaze training programs may be developed.

  9. Static vs. mobile sink: The influence of basic parameters on energy efficiency in wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Majid I; Gansterer, Wilfried N; Haring, Guenter

    2013-05-15

    Over the last decade a large number of routing protocols has been designed for achieving energy efficiency in data collecting wireless sensor networks. The drawbacks of using a static sink are well known. It has been argued in the literature that a mobile sink may improve the energy dissipation compared to a static one. Some authors focus on minimizing Emax , the maximum energy dissipation of any single node in the network, while others aim at minimizing Ebar , the average energy dissipation over all nodes. In our paper we take a more holistic view, considering both Emax and Ebar . The main contribution of this paper is to provide a simulation-based analysis of the energy efficiency of WSNs with static and mobile sinks. The focus is on two important configuration parameters: mobility path of the sink and duty cycling value of the nodes. On the one hand, it is well known that in the case of a mobile sink with fixed trajectory the choice of the mobility path influences energy efficiency. On the other hand, in some types of applications sensor nodes spend a rather large fraction of their total lifetime in idle mode, and therefore higher energy efficiency can be achieved by using the concept of reduced duty cycles. In particular, we quantitatively analyze the influence of duty cycling and the mobility radius of the sink as well as their interrelationship in terms of energy consumption for a well-defined model scenario. The analysis starts from general load considerations and is refined into a geometrical model. This model is validated by simulations which are more realistic in terms of duty cycling than previous work. It is illustrated that over all possible configuration scenarios in terms of duty cycle and mobility radius of the sink the energy dissipation in the WSN can vary up to a factor of nine in terms of Emax and up to a factor of 17 in terms of Ebar. It turns out that in general the choice of the duty cycle value is more important for achieving energy

  10. Static vs. mobile sink: The influence of basic parameters on energy efficiency in wireless sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Majid I.; Gansterer, Wilfried N.; Haring, Guenter

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decade a large number of routing protocols has been designed for achieving energy efficiency in data collecting wireless sensor networks. The drawbacks of using a static sink are well known. It has been argued in the literature that a mobile sink may improve the energy dissipation compared to a static one. Some authors focus on minimizing Emax, the maximum energy dissipation of any single node in the network, while others aim at minimizing Ebar, the average energy dissipation over all nodes. In our paper we take a more holistic view, considering both Emax and Ebar. The main contribution of this paper is to provide a simulation-based analysis of the energy efficiency of WSNs with static and mobile sinks. The focus is on two important configuration parameters: mobility path of the sink and duty cycling value of the nodes. On the one hand, it is well known that in the case of a mobile sink with fixed trajectory the choice of the mobility path influences energy efficiency. On the other hand, in some types of applications sensor nodes spend a rather large fraction of their total lifetime in idle mode, and therefore higher energy efficiency can be achieved by using the concept of reduced duty cycles. In particular, we quantitatively analyze the influence of duty cycling and the mobility radius of the sink as well as their interrelationship in terms of energy consumption for a well-defined model scenario. The analysis starts from general load considerations and is refined into a geometrical model. This model is validated by simulations which are more realistic in terms of duty cycling than previous work. It is illustrated that over all possible configuration scenarios in terms of duty cycle and mobility radius of the sink the energy dissipation in the WSN can vary up to a factor of nine in terms of Emax and up to a factor of 17 in terms of Ebar. It turns out that in general the choice of the duty cycle value is more important for achieving energy efficiency

  11. Effects of Resistance Training on Serum Level of Reproductive Hormones and Sperm Parameters in Type 2 Diabetes Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Parastesh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Diabetes mellitus is associated with reductions in fertility indices. Resistance training, on the other hand, through reducing the adverse effects of diabetes, exerts a positive impact on diabetic individuals. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of ten weeks of resistance training on serum levels of reproductive hormones and sperm parameters in Wistar rats with diabetes mellitus type 2. Materials and Methods:In this experimental study, 36 Wistar rats with mean weight of 200±50 were ran-domly assigned to healthy control, diabetic control and diabetic training groups. The diabetic resistance training group received ten weeks of resistance training (climbing up the ladder following the induction of diabetes. Twenty-four hours after the last training session, left epididymis of the rats was examined for studying sperm parameters and blood serum samples were examined for evaluating reproductive hormones. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Turkey’s Post Hoc test at 0.05%. Results: Ten weeks of resistance training induced significant increases in serum testosterone and FSH levels in the resistance training group in comparison to the diabetic group (p<0.007.Resistance training did not have any significant effects on serum LH levels in the resistance training group compared to the diabetic control group. In ad-dition, sperm parameters (sperm count, survival rate and motility presented significant improvements compared to the diabetic group(p<0.05. Conclusion: Resistance training can improve sperm parameters, including sperm count, survival rate and motility, through increasing serum testosterone, LH and FSH levels (reproductive hormones in rats with diabetes mellitus type 2.

  12. Laser contrast and other key parameters enhancing the laser conversion efficiency in ion acceleration regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrisi, Lorenzo

    2018-01-01

    Measurements of ion acceleration in plasma produced by fs lasers at intensity of the order of 1018 W/cm2 have been performed in different European laboratories. The forward emission in target-normal-sheath-acceleration (TNSA) regime indicated that the maximum energy is a function of the laser parameters, of the irradiation conditions and of the target properties.In particular the laser intensity and contrast play an important role to maximize the ion acceleration enhancing the conversion efficiency. Also the use of suitable prepulses, focal distances and polarized laser light has important roles. Finally the target composition, surface, geometry and multilayered structure, permit to enhance the electric field driving the forward ion acceleration.Experimental measurements will be reported and discussed.

  13. A New Efficient Method for Calculation of Frenkel Exciton Parameters in Molecular Aggregates

    CERN Document Server

    Plötz, Per-Arno; Kühn, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    The Frenkel exciton Hamiltonian is at the heart of many simulations of excitation energy transfer in molecular aggregates. It separates the aggregate into Coulomb-coupled monomers. Here it is shown that the respective parameters, i.e. monomeric excitation energies and Coulomb couplings between transition densities, can be efficiently calculated using time-dependent tight-binding-based density functional theory (TD-DFTB). Specifically, Coulomb couplings are expressed in terms of self-consistently determined Mulliken transition charges. The determination of the sign of the coupling requires an additional super-molecule calculation. The approach is applied to two dimer systems. First, formaldehyde oxime for which a detailed comparison with standard DFT using the B3LYP and the PBE functionals is provided. Second, the Coulomb coupling is explored in dependence on the intermolecular coordinates for a perylene bisimide dimer. This provides structural evidence for the previously observed biphasic aggregation behavior...

  14. Determining an Efficient Solvent Extraction Parameters for Re-Refining of Waste Lubricating Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ali Durrani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Re-refining of vehicle waste lubricating oil by solvent extraction is one of the efficient and cheapest methods. Three extracting solvents MEK (Methyl-Ethyl-Ketone, 1-butanol, 2-propanol were determined experimentally for their performance based on the parameters i.e. solvent type, solvent oil ratio and extraction temperature. From the experimental results it was observed the MEK performance was highest based on the lowest oil percent losses and highest sludge removal. Further, when temperature of extraction increased the oil losses percent also decreased. This is due to the solvent ability that dissolves the base oil in waste lubricating oil and determines the best SOR (Solvent Oil Ratio and extraction temperatures.

  15. Separate and combined effects of exercise training and weight loss on exercise efficiency and substrate oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amati, Francesca; Dubé, John J; Shay, Chris; Goodpaster, Bret H

    2008-09-01

    Perturbations in body weight have been shown to affect energy expenditure and efficiency during physical activity. The separate effects of weight loss and exercise training on exercise efficiency or the proportion of energy derived from fat oxidation during physical activity, however, are not known. The purpose of this study was to determine the separate and combined effects of exercise training and weight loss on metabolic efficiency, economy (EC), and fat oxidation during steady-state moderate submaximal exercise. Sixty-four sedentary older (67 +/- 0.5 yr) overweight to obese (30.7 +/- 0.4 kg/m(2)) volunteers completed 4 mo of either diet-induced weight loss (WL; n = 11), exercise training (EX; n = 36), or the combination of both interventions (WLEX; n = 17). Energy expenditure, gross efficiency (GE), EC, and proportion of energy expended from fat (EF) were determined during a 1-h submaximal (50% of peak aerobic capacity) cycle ergometry exercise before the intervention and at the same absolute work rate after the intervention. We found that EX increased GE by 4.7 +/- 2.2%. EC was similarly increased by 4.2 +/- 2.1% by EX. The addition of concomitant WL to EX (WLEX) resulted in greater increases in GE (9.0 +/- 3.3%) compared with WL alone but not compared with EX alone. These effects remained after adjusting for changes in lean body mass. The proportion of energy derived from fat during the bout of moderate exercise increased with EX and WLEX but not with WL. From these findings, we conclude that exercise training, either alone or in combination with weight loss, increases both exercise efficiency and the utilization of fat during moderate physical activity in previously sedentary, obese older adults. Weight loss alone, however, significantly improves neither efficiency nor utilization of fat during exercise.

  16. GTA-based framework for evaluating the role of design parameters in cogeneration cycle power plant efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Dev, Nikhil; Samsher,; Kachhwaha, S.S.; Attri, Rajesh

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology based on graph theoretic approach (GTA) to design a new cogeneration cycle power plant (CGCPP), improvement of existing plant and comparison of two real life operating cogeneration cycle power plants. Different combinations may be suggested by a manufacturer to an organization for selecting or improving the efficiency of a power plant. This paper identifies various design parameters affecting cogeneration cycle power plant efficiency. All these parameters are...

  17. Evaluation of passive autocatalytic recombiners operation efficiency by means of the lumped parameter approach*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bury Tomasz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of hydrogen behavior in containment buildings of nuclear reactors belongs to thermal-hydraulic area. Taking into account the size of systems under consideration and, first of all, safety issues, such type of analyses cannot be done by means of full-scale experiments. Therefore, mathematical modeling and numerical simulations are widely used for these purposes. A lumped parameter approach based code HEPCAL has been elaborated in the Institute of Thermal Technology of the Silesian University of Technology for simulations of pressurized water reactor containment transient response. The VVER-440/213 and European pressurised water reactor (EPR reactors containments are the subjects of analysis within the framework of this paper. Simulations have been realized for the loss-of-coolant accident scenarios with emergency core cooling system failure. These scenarios include core overheating and hydrogen generation. Passive autocatalytic recombiners installed for removal of hydrogen has been taken into account. The operational efficiency of the hydrogen removal system has been evaluated by comparing with an actual hydrogen concentration and flammability limit. This limit has been determined for the three-component mixture of air, steam and hydrogen. Some problems related to the lumped parameter approach application have been also identified.

  18. Personalization of models with many model parameters: an efficient sensitivity analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donders, W P; Huberts, W; van de Vosse, F N; Delhaas, T

    2015-10-01

    Uncertainty quantification and global sensitivity analysis are indispensable for patient-specific applications of models that enhance diagnosis or aid decision-making. Variance-based sensitivity analysis methods, which apportion each fraction of the output uncertainty (variance) to the effects of individual input parameters or their interactions, are considered the gold standard. The variance portions are called the Sobol sensitivity indices and can be estimated by a Monte Carlo (MC) approach (e.g., Saltelli's method [1]) or by employing a metamodel (e.g., the (generalized) polynomial chaos expansion (gPCE) [2, 3]). All these methods require a large number of model evaluations when estimating the Sobol sensitivity indices for models with many parameters [4]. To reduce the computational cost, we introduce a two-step approach. In the first step, a subset of important parameters is identified for each output of interest using the screening method of Morris [5]. In the second step, a quantitative variance-based sensitivity analysis is performed using gPCE. Efficient sampling strategies are introduced to minimize the number of model runs required to obtain the sensitivity indices for models considering multiple outputs. The approach is tested using a model that was developed for predicting post-operative flows after creation of a vascular access for renal failure patients. We compare the sensitivity indices obtained with the novel two-step approach with those obtained from a reference analysis that applies Saltelli's MC method. The two-step approach was found to yield accurate estimates of the sensitivity indices at two orders of magnitude lower computational cost. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. THE EFFECT OF TRAINING IN THE IMPROVEMENT OF EMPLOYEE EFFICIENCY IN PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY AND AN APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinem AYDOĞDU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Businesses faces with important and rapid changes. This rapid change in the business environment forces the organizations to change their operations and structures. Adopting these changes fast and contionus renewal of both employees and organizations help organizations reach the set goals and survive in the competitive market. To be accomplished in competition, companies need well trained and well developed employees from front employees to the top level managers in the executive suite. Moreover, training process must gain continuity. Especially, in Pharmaceutical Industry, due to the fast and rapid changes and improvements concerning the regulations and procedures of Ministery of Health, guidelines such as GMP (Good Manufacturing Practises, GLP (Good Laboratory Practises, GDP (Good Documentation Practises etc. employees who are working should be trained and updated about the current knowledge to increase the efficiency in the organization. Vice versa, organizations can not raise their competition power in order to exist and develop themselves. To sum up, globalization, fast changes in regulations and procedures and also technological shifts lead to changes even in organizations. In order to cope with these changes, companies need to train their employees. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of training on employee efficiency. Research is carried out with 74 employees from a pharmaceutical company in İstanbul, Turkey. The results of the study support the hypotheses. There’s a significant difference between white collar and blue collar employees on the idea of efficiency of training in the area of career development, area of productivity, professional growth and customer satisfaction.

  20. Impact of 8-week endurance training on qualitative and quantitative parameters of stroke volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Pustivšek

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dynamics of stroke volume during increasing progressive load varies widely among individuals. The data of current studies describing the impact of long-term endurance training on the dynamics of cardiac stroke volume are conflicting. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of 8-week endurance training on the dynamics of stroke volume and some quantitative features of cardiac function in recreational female runners.Methods: Measurements were performed in the physiological laboratory at the Institute of Sport, Faculty of Sport in Ljubljana. CosmedK4b2 equipment that allows continuous “on-line”, “breath-by-breath” monitoring of oxygen consumption and gases in exhaled air was used. Cardiac output was calculated by the method described by Stringer et al.Results: The results showed a significant increase in stroke volume at rest and during the first two minutes of the test. Maximum stroke volume did not increase, but there was a decrease in heart rate during maximal stroke volume from 126.65 (± 27.14 to 120.15 (± 26.56 beats per minute. The dynamics of stroke volume in a majority of participants did not change. The most common dynamics of stroke volume before and after test was plateau dynamics. The training resulted in an increase in running endurance and the average increase in running speed during the final test by 4.41 % (± 4.62.Conclusion: The exercise resulted in minimal changes in cardiac function and a significant improvement in endurance parameters.

  1. Computer vision based method and system for online measurement of geometric parameters of train wheel sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Feng; Gao, Zhan; Liu, Yuan-Yuan; Jiang, Feng-Chun; Yang, Yan-Li; Ren, Yu-Fen; Yang, Hong-Jun; Yang, Kun; Zhang, Xiao-Dong

    2012-01-01

    Train wheel sets must be periodically inspected for possible or actual premature failures and it is very significant to record the wear history for the full life of utilization of wheel sets. This means that an online measuring system could be of great benefit to overall process control. An online non-contact method for measuring a wheel set's geometric parameters based on the opto-electronic measuring technique is presented in this paper. A charge coupled device (CCD) camera with a selected optical lens and a frame grabber was used to capture the image of the light profile of the wheel set illuminated by a linear laser. The analogue signals of the image were transformed into corresponding digital grey level values. The 'mapping function method' is used to transform an image pixel coordinate to a space coordinate. The images of wheel sets were captured when the train passed through the measuring system. The rim inside thickness and flange thickness were measured and analyzed. The spatial resolution of the whole image capturing system is about 0.33 mm. Theoretic and experimental results show that the online measurement system based on computer vision can meet wheel set measurement requirements.

  2. Quality parameters of wine grape varieties under the influence of different vine spacing and training systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Tkachenko

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Physicochemical and biochemical indices, which characterize quality of white wine grape varieties Zagrey and Aromatnyi of selection of NNC «IV&W named after V. Ye. Tairov», (harvest of 2016 were determined. The field trial which includes various variants of planting density and vine training systems, made it possible to study the influence of viticulture practices on the criteria of carbohydrate-acid and phenolic complex, oxidative enzyme system of grapes. Low-density plantings of Aromatnyi variety (2222 vines per ha were characterized by harvest that slightly exceeded the grapes obtained from dense plantations (4000 vines per ha in terms of carbohydrate-acid and phenolic complexes. The most optimal in terms of the mass concentration of sugars, phenolic substances, polymer forms, macerating ability of must, activity of oxidizing enzyme system was cultivation of this variety on a 160 cm – high trunk. Growing grapes of Zagrey variety with vine spacing, corresponding to 4000 plants per ha, contributed to obtaining harvest with optimal parameters of carbohydrate-acid complex, low technological reserve and mass concentration of phenolic compounds, moderate macerating ability and activity of monophenol monooxygenase in must. Training vines of this variety on a 40 cm high trunk with vertical shoot positioning led to significant deterioration of grape quality due to increased content of phenolic substances and their polymer forms, high macerating capacity of must.

  3. Computer Vision Based Method and System for Online Measurement of Geometric Parameters of Train Wheel Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Jun Yang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Train wheel sets must be periodically inspected for possible or actual premature failures and it is very significant to record the wear history for the full life of utilization of wheel sets. This means that an online measuring system could be of great benefit to overall process control. An online non-contact method for measuring a wheel set’s geometric parameters based on the opto-electronic measuring technique is presented in this paper. A charge coupled device (CCD camera with a selected optical lens and a frame grabber was used to capture the image of the light profile of the wheel set illuminated by a linear laser. The analogue signals of the image were transformed into corresponding digital grey level values. The ‘mapping function method’ is used to transform an image pixel coordinate to a space coordinate. The images of wheel sets were captured when the train passed through the measuring system. The rim inside thickness and flange thickness were measured and analyzed. The spatial resolution of the whole image capturing system is about 0.33 mm. Theoretic and experimental results show that the online measurement system based on computer vision can meet wheel set measurement requirements.

  4. Resource efficiency and culture--workplace training for small and medium-sized enterprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliesner, Anna; Liedtke, Christa; Rohn, Holger

    2014-05-15

    Although there are already some qualification offers available for enterprises to support resource efficiency innovations, the high potentials that can be identified especially for small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) have not been activated until now. As successful change lies in the hands of humans, the main aim of vocational education has to be the promotion of organisational and cultural changes in the enterprises. As there is already a small but increasing number of enterprises that perform very well in resource efficiency innovations one question arises: What are typical characteristics of those enterprises? Leaning on a good-practice approach, the project "ResourceCulture" is going to prove or falsify the hypothesis that enterprises being successful with resource efficiency innovations have a specific culture of trust, which substantially contributes to innovation processes, or even initially enables them. Detailed empirical field research will light up which correlations between resource efficiency, innovation and cultures of trust can be found and will offer important aspects for the improvement of management instruments and qualification concepts for workplace training. The project seizes qualification needs that were likewise mentioned by enterprises and consultants, regarding the implementation of resource efficiency. This article - based on first empirical field research results - derives preliminary indications for the design of the qualification module for the target groups resource efficiency consultants and managers. On this basis and in order to implement "ResourceCulture" conceptual and methodological starting points for workplace training are outlined. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Genetic properties of feed efficiency parameters in meat-type chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggrey, Samuel E; Karnuah, Arthur B; Sebastian, Bram; Anthony, Nicholas B

    2010-06-29

    Feed cost constitutes about 70% of the cost of raising broilers, but the efficiency of feed utilization has not kept up the growth potential of today's broilers. Improvement in feed efficiency would reduce the amount of feed required for growth, the production cost and the amount of nitrogenous waste. We studied residual feed intake (RFI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) over two age periods to delineate their genetic inter-relationships. We used an animal model combined with Gibb sampling to estimate genetic parameters in a pedigreed random mating broiler control population. Heritability of RFI and FCR was 0.42-0.45. Thus selection on RFI was expected to improve feed efficiency and subsequently reduce feed intake (FI). Whereas the genetic correlation between RFI and body weight gain (BWG) at days 28-35 was moderately positive, it was negligible at days 35-42. Therefore, the timing of selection for RFI will influence the expected response. Selection for improved RFI at days 28-35 will reduce FI, but also increase growth rate. However, selection for improved RFI at days 35-42 will reduce FI without any significant change in growth rate. The nature of the pleiotropic relationship between RFI and FCR may be dependent on age, and consequently the molecular factors that govern RFI and FCR may also depend on stage of development, or on the nature of resource allocation of FI above maintenance directed towards protein accretion and fat deposition. The insignificant genetic correlation between RFI and BWG at days 35-42 demonstrates the independence of RFI on the level of production, thereby making it possible to study the molecular, physiological and nutrient digestibility mechanisms underlying RFI without the confounding effects of growth. The heritability estimate of FCR was 0.49 and 0.41 for days 28-35 and days 35-42, respectively. Selection for FCR will improve efficiency of feed utilization but because of the genetic dependence of FCR and its components, selection

  6. Genetic properties of feed efficiency parameters in meat-type chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Bram

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Feed cost constitutes about 70% of the cost of raising broilers, but the efficiency of feed utilization has not kept up the growth potential of today's broilers. Improvement in feed efficiency would reduce the amount of feed required for growth, the production cost and the amount of nitrogenous waste. We studied residual feed intake (RFI and feed conversion ratio (FCR over two age periods to delineate their genetic inter-relationships. Methods We used an animal model combined with Gibb sampling to estimate genetic parameters in a pedigreed random mating broiler control population. Results Heritability of RFI and FCR was 0.42-0.45. Thus selection on RFI was expected to improve feed efficiency and subsequently reduce feed intake (FI. Whereas the genetic correlation between RFI and body weight gain (BWG at days 28-35 was moderately positive, it was negligible at days 35-42. Therefore, the timing of selection for RFI will influence the expected response. Selection for improved RFI at days 28-35 will reduce FI, but also increase growth rate. However, selection for improved RFI at days 35-42 will reduce FI without any significant change in growth rate. The nature of the pleiotropic relationship between RFI and FCR may be dependent on age, and consequently the molecular factors that govern RFI and FCR may also depend on stage of development, or on the nature of resource allocation of FI above maintenance directed towards protein accretion and fat deposition. The insignificant genetic correlation between RFI and BWG at days 35-42 demonstrates the independence of RFI on the level of production, thereby making it possible to study the molecular, physiological and nutrient digestibility mechanisms underlying RFI without the confounding effects of growth. The heritability estimate of FCR was 0.49 and 0.41 for days 28-35 and days 35-42, respectively. Conclusion Selection for FCR will improve efficiency of feed utilization but because of

  7. Training Efficiency and Transfer Success in an Extended Real-Time Functional MRI Neurofeedback Training of the Somatomotor Cortex of Healthy Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Tibor; Schweizer, Renate; Frahm, Jens

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the level of self-regulation of the somatomotor cortices (SMCs) attained by an extended functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) neurofeedback training. Sixteen healthy subjects performed 12 real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging neurofeedback training sessions within 4 weeks, involving motor imagery of the dominant right as well as the non-dominant left hand. Target regions of interests in the SMC were individually localized prior to the training by overt finger movements. The feedback signal (FS) was defined as the difference between fMRI activation in the contra- and ipsilateral SMC and visually presented to the subjects. Training efficiency was determined by an off-line general linear model analysis determining the fMRI percent signal changes in the SMC target areas accomplished during the neurofeedback training. Transfer success was assessed by comparing the pre- and post-training transfer task, i.e., the neurofeedback paradigm without the presentation of the FS. Group results show a distinct increase in feedback performance (FP) in the transfer task for the trained group compared to a matched untrained control group, as well as an increase in the time course of the training, indicating an efficient training and a successful transfer. Individual analysis revealed that the training efficiency was not only highly correlated to the transfer success but also predictive. Trainings with at least 12 efficient training runs were associated with a successful transfer outcome. A group analysis of the hemispheric contributions to the FP showed that it is mainly driven by increased fMRI activation in the contralateral SMC, although some individuals relied on ipsilateral deactivation. Training and transfer results showed no difference between left- and right-hand imagery, with a slight indication of more ipsilateral deactivation in the early right-hand trainings. PMID:26500521

  8. Training efficiency and transfer success in an extended real-time functional MRI neurofeedback training of the somato-motor cortex of healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibor eAuer

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the level of self-regulation of the somato-motor cortices (SMC attained by an extended functional MRI (fMRI neurofeedback training. Sixteen healthy subjects performed 12 real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rt-fMRI neurofeedback training sessions within 4 weeks, involving motor imagery of the dominant right as well as the non-dominant left hand. Target regions of interests in the SMC were individually localized prior to the training by overt finger movements. The feedback signal was defined as the difference between fMRI activation in the contra- and ipsilateral SMC and visually presented to the subjects. Training efficiency was determined by an off-line GLM analysis determining the fMRI percent signal changes in the somato-motor cortex (SMC target areas accomplished during the neurofeedback training. Transfer success was assessed by comparing the pre- and post-training transfer task, i.e. the neurofeedback paradigm without the presentation of the feedback signal. Group results show a distinct increase in feedback performance in the transfer task for the trained group compared to a matched untrained control group, as well as an increase in the time course of the training, indicating an efficient training and a successful transfer. Individual analysis revealed that the training efficiency was not only highly correlated to the transfer success but also predictive. Trainings with at least 12 efficient training runs were associated with a successful transfer outcome. A group analysis of the hemispheric contributions to the feedback performance showed that it is mainly driven by increased fMRI activation in the contralateral SMC, although some individuals relied on ipsilateral deactivation. Training and transfer results showed no difference between left and right hand imagery, with a slight indication of more ipsilateral deactivation in the early right hand trainings.

  9. Spatiotemporal Gait Parameters as Predictors of Lower-Limb Overuse Injuries in Military Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shmuel Springer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study objective was to determine whether spatiotemporal gait parameters could predict lower-limb overuse injuries in cohort of combat soldiers during first year of military service. Newly recruited infantry soldiers walked on a treadmill at a 15° incline with a fixed speed of 1.67 m/sec while wearing a standard military vest with a 10 kg load. Stride time variability, stride length variability, step length asymmetry, and the duration of the loading response phase of the gait cycle were measured. Injury data on 76 soldiers who did not report musculoskeletal complaints at initial screening were collected one year after recruitment. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the predictive effect of the gait parameters on lower-limb injuries. Twenty-four soldiers (31.6% had overuse injuries during the first year after recruitment. Duration of the loading response was a significant predictor of general lower-limb injury (p<0.05, as well as of foot/ankle and knee injuries (p<0.05, p<0.01, resp.. A cutoff value of less than 12.15% for loading response duration predicted knee injuries with 83% sensitivity and 67% specificity. This study demonstrates the utility of spatiotemporal gait evaluation, a simple screening tool before military training, which may help to identify individuals at risk of lower-limb overuse injuries.

  10. Impact of aerobic training on immune-endocrine parameters, neurotrophic factors, quality of life and coordinative function in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Karl-Heinz; Gold, Stefan M; Witte, Jan; Bartsch, Katharina; Lang, Undine E; Hellweg, Rainer; Reer, Rüdiger; Braumann, Klaus-Michael; Heesen, Christoph

    2004-10-15

    In recent years it has become clear that multiple sclerosis (MS) patients benefit from physical exercise as performed in aerobic training but little is known about the effect on functional domains and physiological factors mediating these effects. We studied immunological, endocrine and neurotrophic factors as well as coordinative function and quality of life during an 8-week aerobic bicycle training in a waitlist control design. In the immune-endocrine study (1) 28 patients were included, the coordinative extension study (2) included 39 patients. Training was performed at 60% VO(2)max after determining individual exertion levels through step-by-step ergometry. Metabolic (lactate), endocrine (cortisol, adrendocortico-releasing hormone, epinephrine, norepinephrine), immune (IL-6, soluble IL-6 receptor), and neurotrophic (brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF)) parameters were compared from a prestudy and a poststudy endurance test at 60% VO(2)max for 30 min. In study (1), lowered lactate levels despite higher workload levels indicated a training effect. Disease-specific quality of life (as measured by the Hamburg Quality of Life Questionnaire for Multiple Sclerosis, HAQUAMS) significantly increased in the training group. No significant training effects were seen for endocrine and immune parameters or neurotrophins. In study (2), two out of three coordinative parameters of the lower extremities were significantly improved. In summary, low-level aerobic training in MS improves not only quality of life but also coordinative function and physical fitness.

  11. Effectiveness of functional training on cardiorespiratory parameters: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende Barbosa, Marianne Penachini da Costa de; Oliveira, Vinicius Cunha; Silva, Anne Kastelianne França da; Pérez-Riera, Andrés Ricardo; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos

    2017-07-28

    Functional training is a new training vision that was prepared from the gesture imitation of daily activities. Although your use has become popular in clinical practice, the influence of the several cardiorespiratory adjustments performed during the functional training in different populations and conditions is unknown. So, the aim of this systematic review was to gather information in the literature regarding the influence of functional training on cardiorespiratory parameters. We conducted search strategies on MEDLINE, PEDro, EMBASE, SportDiscus and Cochrane to identify randomized controlled trials investigating the effects of functional training on cardiorespiratory parameters. Methodological quality of the included studies was assessed using the PEDro scale. Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) summarized the evidence. Five original studies were included. Effects favoured functional training on oxygen consumption (VO2 ) at intermediate-term follow-up: weighted mean difference -1·0 (95% CI: 5·4-3·3), P = 0·642, and a small and not clinically important effect observed on VO2 favouring control at intermediate-term follow-up (i.e. mean difference of 1·30 (95% CI 1·07-1·53), Pfunctional training is better than other interventions to improve cardiovascular parameters. This result encourages new searches about the theme. © 2017 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Artificial neural networks for the diagnosis of aggressive periodontitis trained by immunologic parameters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Papantonopoulos

    Full Text Available There is neither a single clinical, microbiological, histopathological or genetic test, nor combinations of them, to discriminate aggressive periodontitis (AgP from chronic periodontitis (CP patients. We aimed to estimate probability density functions of clinical and immunologic datasets derived from periodontitis patients and construct artificial neural networks (ANNs to correctly classify patients into AgP or CP class. The fit of probability distributions on the datasets was tested by the Akaike information criterion (AIC. ANNs were trained by cross entropy (CE values estimated between probabilities of showing certain levels of immunologic parameters and a reference mode probability proposed by kernel density estimation (KDE. The weight decay regularization parameter of the ANNs was determined by 10-fold cross-validation. Possible evidence for 2 clusters of patients on cross-sectional and longitudinal bone loss measurements were revealed by KDE. Two to 7 clusters were shown on datasets of CD4/CD8 ratio, CD3, monocyte, eosinophil, neutrophil and lymphocyte counts, IL-1, IL-2, IL-4, INF-γ and TNF-α level from monocytes, antibody levels against A. actinomycetemcomitans (A.a. and P.gingivalis (P.g.. ANNs gave 90%-98% accuracy in classifying patients into either AgP or CP. The best overall prediction was given by an ANN with CE of monocyte, eosinophil, neutrophil counts and CD4/CD8 ratio as inputs. ANNs can be powerful in classifying periodontitis patients into AgP or CP, when fed by CE values based on KDE. Therefore ANNs can be employed for accurate diagnosis of AgP or CP by using relatively simple and conveniently obtained parameters, like leukocyte counts in peripheral blood. This will allow clinicians to better adapt specific treatment protocols for their AgP and CP patients.

  13. Training Effects of the FIFA 11+ and Harmoknee on Several Neuromuscular Parameters of Physical Performance Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Francisco; Pomares-Noguera, Carlos; Robles-Palazón, Francisco Javier; Del Pilar García-Vaquero, Maria; Ruiz-Pérez, Ignacio; Hernández-Sánchez, Sergio; De Ste Croix, Mark

    2017-04-01

    The main purpose of this study was to analyse the training effects of the FIFA 11+ and Harmoknee on several parameters of physical performance measures in youth amateur football players. 41 adolescent players were randomised within each team into 2 groups (team 1: control vs. FIFA 11+; team 2: control vs. Harmoknee). The FIFA 11+ and Harmoknee groups performed the program 3 times a week for 4 weeks; the control groups completed their usual warm-up routines. 13 physical performance measures (joint range of motion, dynamic postural control, single legged hop limb symmetry, sprint time, jumping height and agility) were assessed. All physical performance parameters were compared via a magnitude-based inference analysis. Significant between-group differences (in favour of the FIFA 11+ players) were found for dynamic postural control (anterior [2.5%] and posteromedial [7.2%] distances), single legged hop limb symmetry (side-to-side symmetry during a triple hop test [8.3%]), 10 (8.4%) and 20 (1.8%) m sprint times and jumping height (9.1%) neuromuscular outcomes. For the Harmoknee, significant differences (in comparison to its paired control group) were found only for 10 (2.7%) and 20 (2.9%) m sprint times and jumping height (9.7%). Therefore, the main findings of this study suggest exchanging traditional warm-up programmes for the FIFA 11+ in male youth soccer players based on its superior effects on some neuromuscular parameters (sprinting, jumping and stability) of physical performance. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Exercise training increases oxygen uptake efficiency slope in chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gademan, Maaike G J; Swenne, Cees A; Verwey, Harriette F; van de Vooren, Hedde; Haest, Joris C W; van Exel, Henk J; Lucas, Caroline M H B; Cleuren, Ger V J; Schalij, Martin J; van der Wall, Ernst E

    2008-04-01

    The oxygen uptake efficiency slope (OUES) is a novel measure of cardiopulmonary reserve. OUES is measured during an exercise test, but it is independent of the maximally achieved exercise intensity. It has a higher prognostic value in chronic heart failure (CHF) than other exercise test-derived variables such as(Equation is included in full-text article.)or(Equation is included in full-text article.)slope. Exercise training improves(Equation is included in full-text article.)and(Equation is included in full-text article.)in CHF patients. We hypothesized that exercise training also improves OUES. We studied 34 New York Heart Association (NYHA) class II-III CHF patients who constituted an exercise training group T (N=20; 19 men/1 woman; age 60+/-9 years; left ventricular ejection fraction 34+/-5%) and a control group C (N=14; 13 men/one woman; age 63+/-10 years; left ventricular ejection fraction 34+/-7%). A symptom-limited exercise test was performed at baseline and repeated after 4 weeks (C) or after completion of the training program (T). Exercise training increased NYHA class from 2.6 to 2.0 (P<0.05),(Equation is included in full-text article.)by 14% [P(TvsC)<0.01], and OUES by 19% [P(TvsC)<0.01]. Exercise training decreased(Equation is included in full-text article.)by 14% [P(TvsC)<0.05]. Exercise training improved NYHA class,(Equation is included in full-text article.)and also OUES. This finding is of great potential interest as OUES is insensitive for peak load. Follow-up studies are needed to demonstrate whether OUES improvements induced by exercise training are associated with improved prognosis.

  15. Genetic parameters of feed efficiency traits in laying period of chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jingwei; Dou, Taocun; Ma, Meng; Yi, Guoqiang; Chen, Sirui; Qu, Lujiang; Shen, Manman; Qu, Liang; Wang, Kehua; Yang, Ning

    2015-07-01

    Laying records on 1,534 F2 hens, derived from a reciprocal cross between White Leghorns and Dongxiang blue-shelled chickens, were used to estimate genetic parameters for residual feed intake (RFI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), daily feed intake (FI), metabolic BW (MBW), BW gain (BWG), and daily egg mass (EM) at 37 to 40 (T1) and 57 to 60 wk age (T2), respectively. Genetic analysis was subsequently conducted with the AI-REML method using an animal model. Estimates for heritability of RFI, FCR, and FI were 0.21, 0.19, and 0.20 in T1, and 0.29, 0.13, and 0.26 in T2, respectively. In T1 and T2, RFI showed high and positive genetic correlations with FCR (0.51, 0.43) and FI (0.72, 0.84), whereas the genetic correlation between FI and FCR was very low (-0.09, 0.11). Genetically, negative correlations were found between RFI and its component traits (-0.01 to -0.47). In addition, high genetic correlations, from 0.76 to 0.94, were observed between T1 and T2 for RFI, FCR, and FI, suggesting that feed efficiency traits in the 2 stages had a similar genetic background. The results indicate that selection for low RFI could reduce FI without significant changes in EM, while selection on FCR will increase EM. The present study lays the foundation for genetic improvement of feed efficiency during the laying period of chickens. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Poultry Science Association.

  16. COMMUNICATION BY EVENT - THE EFFICIENCY OF SEMINARIES AS A WAY TO INFORM AND TO TRAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOANA BIANCA CHITU

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the idea that nowadays the companies use the promotion and communication by event more and more because of the advantages it entails, this paper uses the marketing quantitative research as a tool and it's scope is to present the opinions and the attitudes of the people that participated to seminaries within a project supported by European funds, regarding their efficiency as a tool for information and training.

  17. Efficiency of Training Emotional Intelligence on Reducing Alexithymia Syndrome in Third Grade Male High School Students

    OpenAIRE

    Amani, Morteza; Ahamadian, Hamze; Goodarzi, Mahmood

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the efficiency of training emotional intelligence components on reducing Alexithymia syndrome has been investigated, first using TAS_20 test and emotional intelligent test 20 high school students were selected who have received the highest scores in Alexithymia test and the lowest scores in emotional intelligence test and they were provided with intelligence components within 8 sections. Comparing the results of both control and experimental groups showed that teaching emotiona...

  18. [Assessment of the efficiency of the auditory training in children with dyslalia and auditory processing disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Włodarczyk, Elżbieta; Szkiełkowska, Agata; Skarżyński, Henryk; Piłka, Adam

    2011-01-01

    To assess effectiveness of the auditory training in children with dyslalia and central auditory processing disorders. Material consisted of 50 children aged 7-9-years-old. Children with articulation disorders stayed under long-term speech therapy care in the Auditory and Phoniatrics Clinic. All children were examined by a laryngologist and a phoniatrician. Assessment included tonal and impedance audiometry and speech therapists' and psychologist's consultations. Additionally, a set of electrophysiological examinations was performed - registration of N2, P2, N2, P2, P300 waves and psychoacoustic test of central auditory functions: FPT - frequency pattern test. Next children took part in the regular auditory training and attended speech therapy. Speech assessment followed treatment and therapy, again psychoacoustic tests were performed and P300 cortical potentials were recorded. After that statistical analyses were performed. Analyses revealed that application of auditory training in patients with dyslalia and other central auditory disorders is very efficient. Auditory training may be a very efficient therapy supporting speech therapy in children suffering from dyslalia coexisting with articulation and central auditory disorders and in children with educational problems of audiogenic origin. Copyright © 2011 Polish Otolaryngology Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner (Poland). All rights reserved.

  19. Efficiency of Calatonia on clinical parameters in the immediate post-surgery period: a clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Ferreira Lasaponari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to assess the efficiency of the Calatonia technique about clinical parameters and pain in the immediate post-surgical phase. METHOD: a randomised study was carried out with 116 patients subjected to a cholecystectomy, by laparoscopy, divided into an experimental group (58 patients and a placebo group (58 patients. The experimental group received the Calatonia technique, while the placebo was only subjected to non-intentional touches. RESULTS: The placebo group and the experimental group were considered homogeneous in terms of the variables: sex, age, physical status classification, duration of surgical procedures and also the time spent recovering in the Post-Anaesthetic Recovery Room. The only variable to show a statistically significant difference was the axillary temperature of the body. In relation to pain, the experimental group showed significant results, and hence it is possible to deduce that the relaxation caused by the Calatonia technique brought some relief of the general situation of pain. CONCLUSION: The application of Calatonia can take up the function of a resource complementary to assistance in the period immediately after surgery. Brazilian Register of Clinical Trials, UTN U1111-1129-9629.

  20. Highly efficient micellar extraction of toxic picric acid into novel ionic liquid: Effect of parameters, solubilization isotherm, evaluation of thermodynamics and design parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatt, Darshak R.; Maheria, Kalpana C. [Applied Chemistry Department, Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology, Surat 395007, Gujarat (India); Parikh, Jigisha K., E-mail: jk_parikh@yahoo.co.in [Chemical Engineering Department, Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology, Surat 395007, Gujarat (India)

    2015-12-30

    Highlights: • Picric acid is a toxic compound. • DIL significantly improves CPE efficiency of PA. • Higher extraction efficiency obtained in both nearly neutral and acidic condition. • The extraction process – spontaneous and endothermic in nature. - Abstract: A simple and new approach in cloud point extraction (CPE) method was developed for removal of picric acid (PA) by the addition of N,N,N,N’,N’,N’-hexaethyl-ethane-1,2-diammonium dibromide ionic liquid (IL) in non-ionic surfactant Triton X-114 (TX-114). A significant increase in extraction efficiency was found upon the addition of dicationic ionic liquid (DIL) at both nearly neutral and high acidic pH. The effects of different operating parameters such as pH, temperature, time, concentration of surfactant, PA and DIL on extraction of PA were investigated and optimum conditions were established. The extraction mechanism was also proposed. A developed Langmuir isotherm was used to compute the feed surfactant concentration required for the removal of PA up to an extraction efficiency of 90%. The effects of temperature and concentration of surfactant on various thermodynamic parameters were examined. It was found that the values of ΔG° increased with temperature and decreased with surfactant concentration. The values of ΔH° and ΔS° increased with surfactant concentration. The developed approach for DIL mediated CPE has proved to be an efficient and green route for extraction of PA from water sample.

  1. Metabolic parameters and responsiveness of isolated iliac artery in LDLr-/- mice: role of aerobic exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Nádia F; Sponton, Amanda Cs; Delbin, Maria A; Parente, Juliana M; Castro, Michele M; Zanesco, Angelina; de Moraes, Camila

    2017-01-01

    Physical inactivity and dyslipidemia are considered risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. There are few studies evaluating the effects of physical exercise in small-caliber artery in a model that mimics familial hypercholesterolemia. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of exercise training, at moderate intensity, on metabolic parameters and iliac artery responsiveness in LDL-/- mice. Sedentary (SD) and trained (TR) mice performed AET (5 days/week, 60 minutes/day at 60-70% of maximum speed) during 8 weeks. Body weight gain (BWG), epididymal fat, blood glucose, total cholesterol and triglycerides were evaluated. Concentration-response curves to acetylcholine (ACh), sodium nitroprusside, phenylephrine and U46619 were obtained in isolated iliac artery. The production of nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species as well as the expression and activity of MMP-2 were assessed. AET was effective in preventing BWG and epididymal fat gain, whereas no changes were observed in glucose, total cholesterol and triglycerides levels. Improvement in responsiveness to ACh was found in TR (Emax = 85±3%) compared with SD group (Emax = 62±5%) without changes in the maximal vascular response or potency to SNP, PHE and U46619. The NO level was increased (10.8-fold) while ROS formation was decreased (3.7-fold) in iliac artery from TR, without changes in MMP-2 activity or its expression. AET was effective to improve endothelium-dependent relaxation that was accompanied by increased NO production and decreased ROS formation in iliac artery. The intensity of AET should be greater to modify metabolic disorders in this experimental model of dyslipidemia.

  2. EFFECTIVENESS OF TRUNK TRAINING EXERCISES VERSUS SWISS BALL EXERCISES FOR IMPROVING SITTING BALANCE AND GAIT PARAMETERS IN ACUTE STROKE SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kothalanka Viswaja

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of trunk training and Swiss ball exercises in acute stroke subjects. Trunk is often neglected part in the stroke rehabilitation, trunk training exercises and Swiss ball exercises result in better recruitment of trunk muscles thus improving sitting balance and gait parameters in acute stroke subjects. However literature evidences for trunk training exercises and Swiss ball exercises in improving sitting balance and gait are scarce in acute stroke population. Methods: A total of 60 subjects who met the inclusion criteria were recruited from department of physiotherapy, G.S.L general hospital and were randomly allocated into 2 groups with 30 subjects in each group. Initially all of them were screened for balance and gait using trunk impairment scale and by assessing gait parameters, after that they were given a 30min of trunk training and Swiss ball exercises for 5 days a week for 4 weeks. Both the groups received conventional physiotherapy for 4 weeks. Results: Post intervention there was no significant difference between the two groups. There was improvement post treatment in trunk training group (P0.5. Conclusion: The results had shown that both groups noted significant difference. But when comparing between these two groups there is no statistical significance noted. So this study concluded that there is no significant difference between trunk training exercises and Swiss ball exercises on sitting balance and gait parameters in subjects with stroke.

  3. Intermittent claudication--surgical reconstruction or physical training? A prospective randomized trial of treatment efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, F; Dahllöf, A G; Lundholm, K; Scherstén, T; Volkmann, R

    1989-01-01

    This study reports the initial evaluation of treatment efficiency in 75 patients with intermittent claudication who were randomized to three treatment groups: 1) reconstructive surgery, 2) reconstructive surgery with subsequent physical training, and 3) physical training alone. Before treatment, there were no statistically significant differences between the groups in age, sex, smoking habits, symptom duration of claudication, ankle-arm blood pressure quotient (ankle-index), maximal plethysmographic calf blood flow, symptom-free and maximal walking distance, the history of other atherosclerotic manifestations or in the medical treatment. The walking performance was improved in all three groups at follow-up 13 +/- 0.5 months after randomization. Surgery was most effective, but the addition of training to surgery improved the symptom-free walking distance even further. In pooled observations of the three groups, age, symptom duration, and a history of myocardial ischemic disease correlated negatively with walking performance after treatment. In the operated group, the duration of claudication and a history of myocardial ischemic disease correlated negatively with the walking performance. This was not the case when patients were censored if limited by other symptoms than intermittent claudication after treatment. In the trained group, the duration of claudication correlated negatively to symptom-free and maximal walking distance. Ankle-index and maximal plethysmographic calf blood flow after treatment and the change of these variables with treatment correlated positively with both symptom-free and maximal walking distance when results were pooled for all patients. Although this mainly was a consequence of the improved blood flow after surgery, the change of maximal plethysmographic calf blood flow also correlated with symptom-free but not with maximal walking distance in the trained group. The results demonstrate that, compared with physical training alone, operation

  4. Assessing the relevance, efficiency, and sustainability of HIV/AIDS in-service training in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlew, Randi; Puckett, Amanda; Bailey, Rebecca; Caffrey, Margaret; Brantley, Stephanie

    2014-04-17

    More than three million people in Nigeria are living with HIV/AIDS. In order to reduce the HIV/AIDS burden in Nigeria, the US Government (USG) has dedicated significant resources to combating the epidemic through the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). In-service training (IST) of health workers is one of the most commonly used strategies to improve the quality and coverage of HIV/AIDS services. At USAID/Nigeria's request, the USAID-funded CapacityPlus project conducted an assessment of PEPFAR-funded IST for all cadres of health workers in Nigeria. Using the IST Improvement Framework, developed by the USAID Applying Sciences to Strengthen and Improve Systems Project (ASSIST), as a guide, the authors developed a survey tool to assess the efficiency, effectiveness and sustainability of IST provided between January 2007 and July 2012 by PEPFAR-funded implementing partners in Nigeria. The instrument was adapted to the Nigerian context and refined through a stakeholder engagement process. It was then distributed via an online platform to more than 50 PEPFAR-funded implementing partners who provided IST in Nigeria. A total of 39 implementing partners completed the survey. Our survey found that PEPFAR implementing partners have been providing a wide range of IST to a diverse group of health workers in Nigeria since 2007. Most trainings are developed using national curricula, manuals and/or other standard operating procedures. Many of the partners are conducting Training Needs Assessments to inform the planning, design and development of their training programs. However, the assessment also pointed to a number of recommendations to increase the efficiency, effectiveness and sustainability of PEPFAR-funded IST. These actions are as follows: improve collaboration and coordination among implementing partners; apply a more diverse and cost-effective set of training modalities; allocate funding specifically for the evaluation of the effectiveness of training

  5. Efficient Emulation of Radiative Transfer Codes Using Gaussian Processes and Application to Land Surface Parameter Inferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Gómez-Dans

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing need to consistently combine observations from different sensors to monitor the state of the land surface. In order to achieve this, robust methods based on the inversion of radiative transfer (RT models can be used to interpret the satellite observations. This typically results in an inverse problem, but a major drawback of these methods is the computational complexity. We introduce the concept of Gaussian Process (GP emulators: surrogate functions that accurately approximate RT models using a small set of input (e.g., leaf area index, leaf chlorophyll, etc. and output (e.g., top-of-canopy reflectances or at sensor radiances pairs. The emulators quantify the uncertainty of their approximation, and provide a fast and easy route to estimating the Jacobian of the original model, enabling the use of e.g., efficient gradient descent methods. We demonstrate the emulation of widely used RT models (PROSAIL and SEMIDISCRETE and the coupling of vegetation and atmospheric (6S RT models targetting particular sensor bands. A comparison with the full original model outputs shows that the emulators are a viable option to replace the original model, with negligible bias and discrepancies which are much smaller than the typical uncertainty in the observations. We also extend the theory of GP to cope with models with multivariate outputs (e.g., over the full solar reflective domain, and apply this to the emulation of PROSAIL, coupled 6S and PROSAIL and to the emulation of individual spectral components of 6S. In all cases, emulators successfully predict the full model output as well as accurately predict the gradient of the model calculated by finite differences, and produce speed ups between 10,000 and 50,000 times that of the original model. Finally, we use emulators to invert leaf area index ( L A I , leaf chlorophyll content ( C a b and equivalent leaf water thickness ( C w from a time series of observations from Sentinel-2/MSI

  6. Estimation of genetic parameters for traits associated with reproduction, lactation, and efficiency in sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thekkoot, D M; Kemp, R A; Rothschild, M F; Plastow, G S; Dekkers, J C M

    2016-11-01

    Increased milk production due to high litter size, coupled with low feed intake, results in excessive mobilization of sow body reserves during lactation, which can have detrimental effects on future reproductive performance. A possibility to prevent this is to improve sow lactation performance genetically, along with other traits of interest. The aim of this study was to estimate breed-specific genetic parameters (by parity, between parities, and across parities) for traits associated with lactation and reproduction in Yorkshire and Landrace sows. Performance data were available for 2,107 sows with 1 to 3 parities (3,424 farrowings total). Sow back fat, loin depth and BW at farrowing, sow feed intake (SFI), and body weight loss (BWL) during lactation showed moderate heritabilities (0.21 to 0.37) in both breeds, whereas back fat loss (BFL), loin depth loss (LDL), and litter weight gain (LWG) showed low heritabilities (0.12 to 0.18). Among the efficiency traits, sow lactation efficiency showed extremely low heritability (near zero) in Yorkshire sows but a slightly higher (0.05) estimate in Landrace sows, whereas sow residual feed intake (SRFI) and energy balance traits showed moderate heritabilities in both breeds. Genetic correlations indicated that SFI during lactation had strong negative genetic correlations with body resource mobilization traits (BWL, BFL, and LDL; -0.35 to -0.70), and tissue mobilization traits in turn had strong positive genetic correlations with LWG (+0.24 to +0.54; < 0.05). However, SFI did not have a significant genetic correlation with LWG. These genetic correlations suggest that SFI during lactation is predominantly used for reducing sow body tissue losses, rather than for milk production. Estimates of genetic correlations for the same trait measured in parities 1 and 2 ranged from 0.64 to 0.98, which suggests that first and later parities should be treated as genetically different for some traits. Genetic correlations estimated between

  7. Considerations when combining data from multiple nutrition experiments to estimate genetic parameters for feed efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardie, L C; Armentano, L E; Shaver, R D; VandeHaar, M J; Spurlock, D M; Yao, C; Bertics, S J; Contreras-Govea, F E; Weigel, K A

    2015-04-01

    Prior to genomic selection on a trait, a reference population needs to be established to link marker genotypes with phenotypes. For costly and difficult-to-measure traits, international collaboration and sharing of data between disciplines may be necessary. Our aim was to characterize the combining of data from nutrition studies carried out under similar climate and management conditions to estimate genetic parameters for feed efficiency. Furthermore, we postulated that data from the experimental cohorts within these studies can be used to estimate the net energy of lactation (NE(L)) densities of diets, which can provide estimates of energy intakes for use in the calculation of the feed efficiency metric, residual feed intake (RFI), and potentially reduce the effect of variation in energy density of diets. Individual feed intakes and corresponding production and body measurements were obtained from 13 Midwestern nutrition experiments. Two measures of RFI were considered, RFI(Mcal) and RFI(kg), which involved the regression of NE(L )intake (Mcal/d) or dry matter intake (DMI; kg/d) on 3 expenditures: milk energy, energy gained or lost in body weight change, and energy for maintenance. In total, 677 records from 600 lactating cows between 50 and 275 d in milk were used. Cows were divided into 46 cohorts based on dietary or nondietary treatments as dictated by the nutrition experiments. The realized NE(L) densities of the diets (Mcal/kg of DMI) were estimated for each cohort by totaling the average daily energy used in the 3 expenditures for cohort members and dividing by the cohort's total average daily DMI. The NE(L) intake for each cow was then calculated by multiplying her DMI by her cohort's realized energy density. Mean energy density was 1.58 Mcal/kg. Heritability estimates for RFI(kg), and RFI(Mcal) in a single-trait animal model did not differ at 0.04 for both measures. Information about realized energy density could be useful in standardizing intake data from

  8. Parameters governing the corrosion protection efficiency of fusion-bonded epoxy coatings on reinforcing steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate various epoxy coating and exposure parameters to determine their effects on the corrosion of reinforcing steel. The parameters investigated were: chloride content at the bar depth, coated bar corroded area...

  9. Correlation among extinction efficiency and other parameters in an aggregate dust model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Tanuj Kumar; Sekhar Das, Himadri

    2017-10-01

    We study the extinction properties of highly porous Ballistic Cluster-Cluster Aggregate dust aggregates in a wide range of complex refractive indices (1.4≤ n≤ 2.0, 0.001≤ k≤ 1.0) and wavelengths (0.11 {{μ }}{{m}}≤ {{λ }}≤ 3.4 {{μ }} m). An attempt has been made for the first time to investigate the correlation among extinction efficiency ({Q}{ext}), composition of dust aggregates (n,k), wavelength of radiation (λ) and size parameter of the monomers (x). If k is fixed at any value between 0.001 and 1.0, {Q}{ext} increases with increase of n from 1.4 to 2.0. {Q}{ext} and n are correlated via linear regression when the cluster size is small, whereas the correlation is quadratic at moderate and higher sizes of the cluster. This feature is observed at all wavelengths (ultraviolet to optical to infrared). We also find that the variation of {Q}{ext} with n is very small when λ is high. When n is fixed at any value between 1.4 and 2.0, it is observed that {Q}{ext} and k are correlated via a polynomial regression equation (of degree 1, 2, 3 or 4), where the degree of the equation depends on the cluster size, n and λ. The correlation is linear for small size and quadratic/cubic/quartic for moderate and higher sizes. We have also found that {Q}{ext} and x are correlated via a polynomial regression (of degree 3, 4 or 5) for all values of n. The degree of regression is found to be n and k-dependent. The set of relations obtained from our work can be used to model interstellar extinction for dust aggregates in a wide range of wavelengths and complex refractive indices.

  10. Living and Training at 825 m for 8 Weeks Supplemented With Intermittent Hypoxic Training at 3,000 m Improves Blood Parameters and Running Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonnabussapawich, Preetiwat; Hamlin, Michael J; Lizamore, Catherine A; Manimmanakorn, Nuttaset; Leelayuwat, Naruemon; Tunkamnerdthai, Orathai; Thuwakum, Worrawut; Manimmanakorn, Apiwan

    2017-12-01

    Wonnabussapawich, P, Hamlin, MJ, Lizamore, CA, Manimmanakorn, N, Leelayuwat, N, Tunkamnerdthai, O, Thuwakum, W, and Manimmanakorn, A. Living and training at 825 m for 8 weeks supplemented with intermittent hypoxic training at 3,000 m improves blood parameters and running performance. J Strength Cond Res 31(12): 3287-3294, 2017-We aimed to investigate the effect of an 8-week low-altitude training block supplemented with intermittent hypoxic training, on blood and performance parameters in soccer players. Forty university-level male soccer players were separated into altitude (n = 20, 825 m) or sea-level (n = 20, 125 m) groups. Before (1-2 days ago) and after (1 and 14 days later) training, players were asked to give a resting venous blood sample and complete a series of performance tests. Compared with sea level, the altitude group increased erythropoietin, red blood cell (RBC) count, and hematocrit 1 day after training (42.6 ± 24.0%, 1.8 ± 1.3%, 1.4 ± 1.1%, mean ± 95% confidence limits (CL), respectively). By 14 days after training, only RBC count and hemoglobin were substantially higher in the altitude compared with the sea-level group (3.2 ± 1.8%, 2.9 ± 2.1% respectively). Compared with sea level, the altitude group 1-2 days after training improved their 50-m (-2.9 ± 1.4%) and 2,800-m (-2.9 ± 4.4%) run times and demonstrated a higher maximal aerobic speed (4.7 ± 7.4%). These performance changes remained at 14 days after training with the addition of a likely higher estimated V[Combining Dot Above]O2max in the altitude compared with the sea-level group (3.2 ± 3.0%). Eight weeks of low-altitude training, supplemented with regular bouts of intermittent hypoxic training at higher altitude, produced beneficial performance improvements in team-sport athletes, which may increase the viability of such training to coaches and players that cannot access more traditional high altitude venues.

  11. Least squares QR-based decomposition provides an efficient way of computing optimal regularization parameter in photoacoustic tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Calvin B; Prakash, Jaya; Pramanik, Manojit; Yalavarthy, Phaneendra K

    2013-08-01

    A computationally efficient approach that computes the optimal regularization parameter for the Tikhonov-minimization scheme is developed for photoacoustic imaging. This approach is based on the least squares-QR decomposition which is a well-known dimensionality reduction technique for a large system of equations. It is shown that the proposed framework is effective in terms of quantitative and qualitative reconstructions of initial pressure distribution enabled via finding an optimal regularization parameter. The computational efficiency and performance of the proposed method are shown using a test case of numerical blood vessel phantom, where the initial pressure is exactly known for quantitative comparison.

  12. A resource-efficient tool for training novices in wireless capsule endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Andrew S; Freeman, Janice; Roberts, Jason; Dantzler, Todd E; Hoffman, Brenda J

    2012-09-01

    Nurses often function as capsule endoscopy "pre-readers" to save physicians' time and potentially increase diagnostic yield. Training pre-readers is time consuming, not standardized, and may not be feasible during regular business hours. A way to evaluate the progress and accuracy of pre-readers is needed to ensure competency. The aim of this study was to introduce a feedback and progress assessment tool for training novice capsule endoscopy pre-readers. We created a 1-page form with listings of potential findings for each segment of the examination. Findings could be circled or written in. The trainee reviewed capsule studies and filled out the form on each of 220 patients. The physician reviewers subsequently critiqued the data forms, providing feedback regarding missed lesions, overcalls, and overall agreement. Our trainee achieved consistent agreement with the physician reviewers, after reading 80 studies. In conclusion, a simple, 1-page standardized data sheet can be used to facilitate training of novice capsule pre-readers without significant time commitment from the supervising physician. Future studies may validate this resource-efficient instrument as a training and assessment tool for nurses, physicians, and other practitioners learning capsule endoscopy.

  13. Efficient probabilistic inference in generic neural networks trained with non-probabilistic feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, A Emin; Ma, Wei Ji

    2017-07-26

    Animals perform near-optimal probabilistic inference in a wide range of psychophysical tasks. Probabilistic inference requires trial-to-trial representation of the uncertainties associated with task variables and subsequent use of this representation. Previous work has implemented such computations using neural networks with hand-crafted and task-dependent operations. We show that generic neural networks trained with a simple error-based learning rule perform near-optimal probabilistic inference in nine common psychophysical tasks. In a probabilistic categorization task, error-based learning in a generic network simultaneously explains a monkey's learning curve and the evolution of qualitative aspects of its choice behavior. In all tasks, the number of neurons required for a given level of performance grows sublinearly with the input population size, a substantial improvement on previous implementations of probabilistic inference. The trained networks develop a novel sparsity-based probabilistic population code. Our results suggest that probabilistic inference emerges naturally in generic neural networks trained with error-based learning rules.Behavioural tasks often require probability distributions to be inferred about task specific variables. Here, the authors demonstrate that generic neural networks can be trained using a simple error-based learning rule to perform such probabilistic computations efficiently without any need for task specific operations.

  14. Energy-efficient two-hop LTE resource allocation in high speed trains with moving relays

    KAUST Repository

    Alsharoa, Ahmad M.

    2014-05-01

    High-speed railway system equipped with moving relay stations placed on the middle of the ceiling of each train wagon is investigated. The users inside the train are served in two hops via the 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) technology. The objective of this work is to maximize the number of served users by respecting a specific quality-of-service constraint while minimizing the total power consumption of the eNodeB and the moving relays. We propose an efficient algorithm based on the Hungarian method to find the optimal resource allocation over the LTE resource blocks in order to serve the maximum number of users with the minimum power consumption. Moreover, we derive a closed-form expression for the power allocation problem. Our simulation results illustrate the performance of the proposed scheme and compare it with various previously developed algorithms as well as with the direct transmission scenario. © 2014 IFIP.

  15. Improving Energy Conversion Efficiency by means of Power Splitting in Dual Drive Train EV Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Roscher

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The limited amount of energy stored on board of battery electric vehicles (BEV spurs research activities in the field of efficiency optimization for electric drive train applications in order to achieve an enhanced mileage. In this work a control method for BEV applications with two drive trains (e.g., one at the front and one at the rear axle is presented. Herein, a simple optimization algorithm is introduced enabling to operate the two drives with different torque values, depending on the instantaneous operation point, leading to a reduction of apparent power losses on board. Simulations on a virtual BEV yield a decrease in the cumulated energy consumptions during typical BEV operation, leading to an increase in the achievable mileage.

  16. Effect of fed- versus fasted state resistance training during Ramadan on body composition and selected metabolic parameters in bodybuilders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Muslim bodybuilders often continue training during Ramadan. However, the effect of resistance training in a fasted versus a fed state during Ramadan on body composition and metabolic parameters in bodybuilders is not well known. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of resistance training in a fasted versus a fed state during Ramadan on body composition and metabolic parameters in bodybuilders. Methods Sixteen men were allocated to two groups: Eight practicing resistance training in the late afternoon in a fasted state (FAST), and eight training in the late evening in an acutely fed state (FED) during Ramadan. All visited the laboratory in the morning two days before the start of Ramadan (Bef-R) and on the 29th day of Ramadan (End-R) for anthropometric measurement, completion of a dietary questionnaire, and provision of fasting blood and urine samples. Results Body mass and body fat percentage remained unchanged in FAST and FED during the whole period of the investigation. Both FAST and FED experienced an increase in the following parameters from Bef-R to End-R: urine specific gravity (1%; p = 0.028, p = 0.004 respectively), serum concentrations of urea (4%, p = 0.006; 7%, p = 0.004 respectively), creatinine (5%, p = 0.015; 6%, p = 0.04 respectively), uric acid (17%; p bodybuilders. Additionally, Ramadan fasting induced changes in urinary and some biochemical parameters, but these changes were not different according to when the training occurred. PMID:23617897

  17. Effect of Continuous Motion Parameter Feedback on Laparoscopic Simulation Training: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial on Skill Acquisition and Retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buescher, Julian Frederik; Mehdorn, Anne-Sophie; Neumann, Philipp-Alexander; Becker, Felix; Eichelmann, Ann-Kathrin; Pankratius, Ulrich; Bahde, Ralf; Foell, Daniel; Senninger, Norbert; Rijcken, Emile

    2017-08-29

    To investigate the effect of motion parameter feedback on laparoscopic basic skill acquisition and retention during a standardized box training curriculum. A Lap-X Hybrid laparoscopic simulator was designed to provide individual and continuous motion parameter feedback in a dry box trainer setting. In a prospective controlled trial, surgical novices were randomized into 2 groups (regular box group, n = 18, and Hybrid group, n = 18) to undergo an identical 5-day training program. In each group, 7 standardized tasks on laparoscopic basic skills were completed twice a day on 4 consecutive days in fixed pairs. Additionally, each participant performed a simulated standard laparoscopic cholecystectomy before (day 1) and after training (day 5) on a LAP Mentor II virtual reality (VR) trainer, allowing an independent control of skill progress in both groups. A follow-up assessment of skill retention was performed after 6 weeks with repetition of both the box tasks and VR cholecystectomy. Muenster University Hospital Training Center, Muenster, Germany. Medical students without previous surgical experience. Laparoscopic skills in both groups improved significantly during the training period, measured by the overall task performance time. The 6 week follow-up showed comparable skill retention in both groups. Evaluation of the VR cholecystectomies demonstrated significant decrease of operation time (p skill retention. Simulation training on both trainers enables reliable acquisition of laparoscopic basic skills. Furthermore, individual and continuous motion feedback improves laparoscopic skill enhancement significantly in several aspects. Thus, training systems with feedback of motion parameters should be considered to achieve long-term improvement of motion economy among surgical trainees. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparative Effectiveness of Low-Volume Time-Efficient Resistance Training Versus Endurance Training in Patients With Heart Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Gregers Winding; Birgitte Rosenmeier, Jaya; Petersen, Morten

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE: Cardiorespiratory fitness is positively related to heart failure (HF) prognosis, but lack of time and low energy are barriers for adherence to exercise. We, therefore, compared the effect of low-volume time-based resistance exercise training (TRE) with aerobic moderate-intensity cycling......, and vascular function were evaluated before and after a 6-wk training intervention with 3 training sessions per week. The AMC group and the TRE group trained for 45 and 25 min per training session, respectively. During the training sessions, the TRE and AMC groups trained at 60 ± 4% and 59 ± 2% (mean...

  19. Variation of the critical power model parameters in response to kayak training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Hideki Okano

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available This study proposed to verify the sensibility of the critical power model parameters in response to training load variation during a kayaking competitive season. Eleven young male kayakers participated of this study. They were evaluated at the end of each of three mesocycles, as follows: (M1 characteristically aerobic; (M2 characteristically aerobic-anaerobic and; (M3 characteristically anaerobic and velocity, just before competition. Critical velocity (CV and kayaking anaerobic capacity (ACkayak were estimated from the results of three distance tests (500, 1,000 e 1,800 m covered in the minimal possible time. The ACkayak did not change after the three mesocycles (M1: 91.4 ± 32.0 m; M2: 89.,0 ± 50.8 m e; M3: 74.0 ± 44.2 m. In contrast, CV improved from M1 (3.19 ± 0.28 m.s-1 to M2 (3.33 ± 0.28 m.s-1, and became stable in M3 (3.32 ± 0.19 m.s-1. The results indicated that CV is sensible to training effects, and it can be used to control for aerobic training adaptations. RESUMO O objetivo deste estudo foi averiguar a sensibilidade dos parâmetros do modelo de potência crítica, em resposta às oscilações nas cargas de treinamento, ao longo de uma temporada competitiva de canoagem. Participaram deste estudo 11 canoístas jovens, do sexo masculino, os quais foram avaliados ao final de cada um de três mesociclos seguidos, sendo: (M1 após mesociclo de característica aeróbia; (M2 após mesociclo de característica mista aeróbia-anaeróbia e; (M3 após mesociclo de característica anaeróbia e de velocidade, o qual antecedia a competição. Nos três momentos, foram determinadas a velocidade crítica (VCrit e a capacidade anaeróbia da canoagem (CACanoagem por meio de três distância fixas (500, 1.000 e 1.800 m, percorridas no menor tempo possível. A CACanoagem não foi alterada ao longo dos três mesociclos estudados (M1: 91,4 ± 32,0 m; M2: 89,0 ± 50,8 m e; M3: 74,0 ± 44,2 m. Já a VCrit foi melhorada de M1 (3,19 ± 0,28 m/s para M2 (3

  20. Genetic parameters for different measures of feed efficiency and related traits in boars of three pig breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Do, Duy Ngoc; Strathe, Anders Bjerring; Jensen, Just

    2013-01-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is commonly used as a measure of feed efficiency at a given level of production. A total of 16,872 pigs with their pedigree traced back as far as possible was used to estimate genetic parameters for RFI, growth performance, food conversion ratio (FCR), body conformation...

  1. A Comparison of the One-and Three-Parameter Logistic Models on Measures of Test Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Jeri

    Two methods of item selection were used to select sets of 40 items from a 50-item verbal analogies test, and the resulting item sets were compared for relative efficiency. The BICAL program was used to select the 40 items having the best mean square fit to the one parameter logistic (Rasch) model. The LOGIST program was used to select the 40 items…

  2. THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SUCCESSFUL AND UNSUCCESSFUL TEAMS IN NONSTANDARD STATISTICAL PARAMETERS OF SITUATIONAL EFFICIENCY AT EUROPEAN BASKETBALL CHAMPIONSHIP FOR CADETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlatko Šeparović

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the study was the all matches from European basketball championship for cadets – division B and its analysis regarding nonstandard statistical parameters of situational efficiency. The aim of the study was to determine which nonstandard statistical parameters of situational efficiency from transitional and positional offensive actions make difference between successful and unsuccessful teams at final tournament of European basketball championship for cadets. The research has been conducted on sample of 23 national team from cadets’ European basketball division B, that took place in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina. All of 93 games were recorded on DVD-s for analysis. In order to find out potential quantitative differences between successful and unsuccessful teams in nonstandard statistical parameters of situational efficiency the independent samples t-test was conducted. The obtained results showed that there were significant differences in nonstandard statistical parameters of situational efficiency - transitional offensive actions. The fact leads us to conclusion that this level of competition is very inhomogeneous quality because the teams’ successfulness in transitional offensive attacks reflects dominance and superiority of one of teams, or vice versa the inferiority of the other teams

  3. Pedagogical practices in the training of efficient readings in English language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Raquel-Coraspe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Reading comprehension is an important tool to professional and researchers’ training because it allows them to develop capacities, abilities and values for their efficient performance. The objective of this research is to analyze pedagogical practices in teaching of English language and its actions in the teaching-learning process, from identifying contradictions on the teaching-learning process of English reading. It will improve the didactic and methodological performance of a teacher and its social impact. This research points out the perfection of dynamics of teaching-learning process of reading written texts in English language.

  4. Moderate endurance training (marathon-training) ? effects on immunologic and metabolic parameters in HIV-infected patients: the 42 KM cologne project

    OpenAIRE

    Schlabe, Stefan; Vogel, Martin; Boesecke, Christoph; Schwarze-Zander, Carolynne; Rockstroh, J?rgen K; K?rner, Christian; Brixius, Klara; Wasmuth, Jan-Christian

    2017-01-01

    Background Improved treatment options of HIV have resulted in regular physical activities of many HIV-infected patients. However, data on effects of sports in HIV-patients are scarce. Methods 21 HIV-infected persons were monitored prospectively while preparing for a marathon run. Multiple parameters with regard to immunology, quality of life and metabolism were measured at 4 time points (at baseline 1?year before the marathon run, 3 and 6?months after beginning of training, and immediately be...

  5. Changes in Respiratory Parameters and Fin-Swimming Performance Following a 16-Week Training Period with Intermittent Breath Holding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrou, Vasileios; Toubekis, Argyris G; Karetsi, Eleni

    2015-12-22

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of training with intermittent breath holding (IBH) on respiratory parameters, arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2) and performance. Twenty-eight fin-swimming athletes were randomly divided into two groups and followed the same training for 16 weeks. About 40% of the distance of each session was performed with self-selected breathing frequency (SBF group) or IBH (IBH group). Performance time of 50 and 400 m at maximum intensity was recorded and forced expired volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), peak expiratory flow (PEF) and SpO2 were measured before and after the 50 m test at baseline and post-training. Post-training, the respiratory parameters were increased in the IBH but remained unchanged in the SBF group (FEV1: 17 ±15% vs. -1 ±11%; FVC: 22 ±13% vs. 1 ±10%; PEF: 9 ±14% vs. -4 ±15%; p<0.05). Pre compared to post-training SpO2 was unchanged at baseline and decreased post-training following the 50 m test in both groups (p<0.05). The reduction was higher in the IBH compared to the SBF group (p<0.05). Performance in the 50 and 400 m tests improved in both groups, however, the improvement was greater in the IBH compared to the SBF group in both 50 and 400 m tests (p<0.05). The use of IBH is likely to enhance the load on the respiratory muscles, thus, contributing to improvement of the respiratory parameters. Decreased SpO2 after IBH is likely due to adaptation to hypoventilation. IBH favours performance improvement at 50 and 400 m fin-swimming.

  6. Physical training is associated with changes in Nuclear magnetic resonance and morphometrical parameters of the skeletal muscle in senescent mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Zancanaro

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of a three-month training period on T2 relaxation time as well as on myofibre size and type was investigated in the lower limbs of senescent mice. After training, T2 (which is a magnetic resonance imaging parameter known to increase during acute exercise was significantly higher in trained mice (36.37±1.27 vs 37.76±2.06 ms, p=0.003, n=8, whereas no change was found in non-trained animals (36.35±1.02 vs 36.24±1.15 ms, p=0.278, n=8. The percentage of muscle limb area evaluated in vivo on magnetic resonance images before and after the experimental period was unchanged in trained mice (69.84±2.50 vs 70.29±2.29, p=0.896, n=3 and decreased in non-trained animals (72.98±1.68 vs 64.62±2.34, p=0.006, n=3. Cross-sectional area of fast and slow myofibres, evaluated on paraffin-embedded samples after immunolabelling for skeletal fast fibre myosin, was lower in non-trained than in trained mice in both gastrocnemius and quadriceps muscle, but no change in slow/fast fibre ratio nor in apoptotic rate was found. These data show that training can prevent sarcopenia in senescent mice by affecting muscle status and inducing myofibre hypertrophy in the absence of significant muscle damage.

  7. Live high:train low increases muscle buffer capacity and submaximal cycling efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, C J; Hahn, A G; Aughey, R J; Martin, D T; Ashenden, M J; Clark, S A; Garnham, A P; Roberts, A D; Slater, G J; McKenna, M J

    2001-11-01

    This study investigated whether hypoxic exposure increased muscle buffer capacity (beta(m)) and mechanical efficiency during exercise in male athletes. A control (CON, n=7) and a live high:train low group (LHTL, n=6) trained at near sea level (600 m), with the LHTL group sleeping for 23 nights in simulated moderate altitude (3000 m). Whole body oxygen consumption (VO2) was measured under normoxia before, during and after 23 nights of sleeping in hypoxia, during cycle ergometry comprising 4 x 4-min submaximal stages, 2-min at 5.6 +/- 0.4 W kg(-1), and 2-min 'all-out' to determine total work and VO(2peak). A vastus lateralis muscle biopsy was taken at rest and after a standardized 2-min 5.6 +/- 0.4 W kg(-1) bout, before and after LHTL, and analysed for beta(m) and metabolites. After LHTL, beta(m) was increased (18%, P buffer capacity. Further, reduced VO2 during normoxic exercise after LHTL suggests that improved exercise efficiency is a fundamental adaptation to LHTL.

  8. Improving the efficiency of training judo veterans at the stage of leaving high performance sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perebeynos Volodymyr

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The system of training judoists-veterans with the use of interactive methods of pedagogical influence came forward in the article of research. The complicated character of the professionally-personal development of judoists-veterans on the basis of interactive methods of pedagogical influence stipulated the system-functional approach, and also the use of historically-logical and psychology-pedagogic analysis of the problem studied. In the course of research, the conceptions and theories, presented in researches of domestic and foreign scientists and practical workers, studying the psychology-pedagogic problems of technical and psychological training of veterans of the sport and their self-development have been used. The positive character of mutual influence of sporting activity and professional-personal development of judoists-veterans has been determined. The necessity to use interactive technologies for the construction of the modern sporting-pedagogical systems has been grounded, their role and high efficiency in the professionally-personal development of judoists-veterans have been exposed. It is well-proven that judo training, correct and positive way of life influence favourably the judoists-veterans’ health.

  9. Trial for Enhancing Technical Writing Skills to Improve Training Efficiency in Writing Technical Papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uneda, Michio; Ishikawa, Ken-Ichi

    One of the important undertakings of student in laboratory education practiced in higher educational institutions, such as universities, is the development of technical communication skills based on training in technical writing for preparing not only bachelor‧s and master‧s theses but also papers to be submitted to society journals. However, technical writing is difficult for students who are not trained in writing papers, and it might become a burden for the teaching staff. Considering this situation, we have examined methods that may enhance the technical writing skills of students and also improve the training efficiency of the teaching staff. Specifically, the methods include distributing checklists to students, providing as few corrections as possible using underlines and adding comments when correcting students‧ writings, and instructing students to exchange their writings to check each other‧s work. In this paper, we summarize and analyze the effects of practicing the above methods on the basis of the answers to a questionnaire provided by students.

  10. Influence of the type of training sport practised on psychological and physiological parameters during exhausting endurance exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcin, M; Mille-Hamard, L; Devillers, S; Delattre, E; Dufour, S; Billat, V

    2003-12-01

    The present purpose was to study the influence of the type of training sport practised (long distance running, sprinting, handball) on ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), estimation of time limit (ETL), and heart rate (HR) on running tests. It was hypothesised that these parameters would be related to the type of training sport practised. 31 trained women (10 endurance-trained runners, 10 sprinters, and 11 handball players) performed two exercises to exhaustion on an outdoor track. The first test was a graded run to estimate maximal aerobic speed (SMA), i.e., the minimal speed which elicited maximal oxygen uptake. The second test was a constant all-out run at speed delta 50 (Sdelta50), which corresponded to the speed halfway between SMA and the speed at lactate threshold (SLT), to specify time to exhaustion at this intensity (TLIM). Sensations regarding RPE, ETL, and HR were recorded during these tests. SMA, Sdelta50, and SLT, expressed in absolute values (km x hr.(-1)) were statistically significantly different between groups (p trained runners perceived the exercise as lighter and presented lower HR than handball players and sprinters for a same running %SMA (p trained runners felt that they could endure more than the other groups at a given %SMA or relative exhaustion time (%TLIM). These results mean that the type of training sport which has been performed may mediate perceptual responses and influence physiological parameters during exhausting exercises. These results are likely in part related to sport-specificity of the exercise mode used in tests. This point must be taken into consideration by physical trainers who have to prescribe exercise intensities during athletic seasons for different groups of athletes.

  11. The need for control of magnetic parameters for energy efficient performance of magnetic tunnel junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat, I. A. H.; Gale, E.; Alpha, C.; Isakovic, A. F.

    2017-07-01

    Optimizing energy performance of Magnetic Tunnel Junctions (MTJs) is the key for embedding Spin Transfer Torque-Random Access Memory (STT-RAM) in low power circuits. Due to the complex interdependencies of the parameters and variables of the device operating energy, it is important to analyse parameters with most effective control of MTJ power. The impact of threshold current density, Jco , on the energy and the impact of HK on Jco are studied analytically, following the expressions that stem from Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert-Slonczewski (LLGS-STT) model. In addition, the impact of other magnetic material parameters, such as Ms , and geometric parameters such as tfree and λ is discussed. Device modelling study was conducted to analyse the impact at the circuit level. Nano-magnetism simulation based on NMAGTM package was conducted to analyse the impact of controlling HK on the switching dynamics of the film.

  12. RESPIRATORY PARAMETERS EFFICIENCY IN SPORTS RESULTS AMONG 14-YEAR OLD MALE AND FEMALE SWIMMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dybinska Ewa

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to test fitness levels of chosen parameters in the respiratory system in comparison to sports results in a group of 100m medley 14-year old male and female swimmers. The main measurement method was based on immediate observation of the following variables: a The fitness level of particular parameters in the respiratory system, b The level of swimming fitness. Based on the detailed analysis of the chosen respiratory parameter levels among 14-year old male and female swimmers in relation to their sports result in 100m medley distance, the following general statements have been formulated: the average levels of the chosen respiratory parameters estimated, in most of the cases, above average, especially among female swimmers.

  13. Propylene glycol energy supplementation during peripartal period in dairy cows and reproduction efficiency parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vakanjac Slobodanka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the impact of two energy supplements based on propylene glycol in dairy cows diet on ovarian and follicular morphology, conception, insemination index and length of service period. A total number of 60 Holstein Friesian dairy cows, parity between 2-8, with an average milk production of 7000 kg/305 days of lactation were divided into three experimental groups (20 dairy cows per group. The first group of dairy cows was supplemented daily with "Energy-plus" (O1 group; 200 mL propylene-glycol supplement and the second group was supplemented with "Ketal" (O2 group; 160 mL propylene-glycol supplement, two weeks before partus until 30 days post partum. The third experimental group were non supplemented dairy cows (O3, control group. Ultrasound examination of the reproductive system using real time echo camera Falco VET 100 (ESAOTE PieMedical, Holland, B-shaped scan with linear-array endorectal 5-8 MHz probe was conducted on every animal starting from day 40 postpartum. The diameters of the ovaries (left and right and of the dominant follicle(s were recorded. Ultrasound testing was repeated on day 50 and 60 postpartum only in cows which in the meantime were not inseminated. Reproduction efficiency parameters (conception rate, number of inseminations and length of service period were recorded individually. The statistical significance of the differences between groups was tested using ANOVA with LSD test at the level of significance p<0.05, chi-square test and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis (the length of service period. There was no significant impact of the propylene glycol supplementation on the ovarian and follicular morphology at the first ultrasound examination. At the second ultrasound examination there was a significant difference between left ovarian dominant follicle diameter in the control and supplemented dairy cows (1.67±0.53 vs 1.12±0.29 and 1.11±0.35 cm, p<0.05, O3 vs O1 and O2, respectively. The

  14. An architecture for efficient gravitational wave parameter estimation with multimodal linear surrogate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shaughnessy, Richard; Blackman, Jonathan; Field, Scott E.

    2017-07-01

    The recent direct observation of gravitational waves has further emphasized the desire for fast, low-cost, and accurate methods to infer the parameters of gravitational wave sources. Due to expense in waveform generation and data handling, the cost of evaluating the likelihood function limits the computational performance of these calculations. Building on recently developed surrogate models and a novel parameter estimation pipeline, we show how to quickly generate the likelihood function as an analytic, closed-form expression. Using a straightforward variant of a production-scale parameter estimation code, we demonstrate our method using surrogate models of effective-one-body and numerical relativity waveforms. Our study is the first time these models have been used for parameter estimation and one of the first ever parameter estimation calculations with multi-modal numerical relativity waveforms, which include all \\ell ≤slant 4 modes. Our grid-free method enables rapid parameter estimation for any waveform with a suitable reduced-order model. The methods described in this paper may also find use in other data analysis studies, such as vetting coincident events or the computation of the coalescing-compact-binary detection statistic.

  15. Modification of Geometric Parameters in Outer Rotor Permanent Magnet Generators to Improve THD, Efficiency, and Cogging Torque

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Cruz, Javier; Ramirez, Juan M.; Leyva, Luis

    2014-10-01

    The improvement of efficiency, total harmonic distortion (THD), and cogging torque in outer rotor permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) is the main concern in this paper. The paper focuses on handling the parameters of design, i.e. the geometry of the stator, the polar arc percentage, the air gap, the skew angle in rotor poles, the pole length, and the core steel class. The modification of geometric parameters related to the stator's inductance is analyzed. Seventy-six cases are simulated, and results provide useful information for designing this type of machines. The study is carried out in a 5 kW PMSG.

  16. Changes in Respiratory Parameters and Fin-Swimming Performance Following a 16-Week Training Period with Intermittent Breath Holding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavrou Vasileios

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of training with intermittent breath holding (IBH on respiratory parameters, arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2 and performance. Twenty-eight fin-swimming athletes were randomly divided into two groups and followed the same training for 16 weeks. About 40% of the distance of each session was performed with self-selected breathing frequency (SBF group or IBH (IBH group. Performance time of 50 and 400 m at maximum intensity was recorded and forced expired volume in 1 s (FEV1, forced vital capacity (FVC, peak expiratory flow (PEF and SpO2 were measured before and after the 50 m test at baseline and post-training. Posttraining, the respiratory parameters were increased in the IBH but remained unchanged in the SBF group (FEV1: 17 ±15% vs. -1 ±11%; FVC: 22 ±13% vs. 1 ±10%; PEF: 9 ±14% vs. -4 ±15%; p<0.05. Pre compared to post-training SpO2 was unchanged at baseline and decreased post-training following the 50 m test in both groups (p<0.05. The reduction was higher in the IBH compared to the SBF group (p<0.05. Performance in the 50 and 400 m tests improved in both groups, however, the improvement was greater in the IBH compared to the SBF group in both 50 and 400 m tests (p<0.05. The use of IBH is likely to enhance the load on the respiratory muscles, thus, contributing to improvement of the respiratory parameters. Decreased SpO2 after IBH is likely due to adaptation to hypoventilation. IBH favours performance improvement at 50 and 400 m fin-swimming.

  17. Weighted next reaction method and parameter selection for efficient simulation of rare events in biochemical reaction systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhouyi; Cai, Xiaodong

    2011-07-25

    The weighted stochastic simulation algorithm (wSSA) recently developed by Kuwahara and Mura and the refined wSSA proposed by Gillespie et al. based on the importance sampling technique open the door for efficient estimation of the probability of rare events in biochemical reaction systems. In this paper, we first apply the importance sampling technique to the next reaction method (NRM) of the stochastic simulation algorithm and develop a weighted NRM (wNRM). We then develop a systematic method for selecting the values of importance sampling parameters, which can be applied to both the wSSA and the wNRM. Numerical results demonstrate that our parameter selection method can substantially improve the performance of the wSSA and the wNRM in terms of simulation efficiency and accuracy.

  18. Effects of 12 weeks of aerobic training on autonomic modulation, mucociliary clearance, and aerobic parameters in patients with COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Marceli Rocha; Ramos, Ercy Mara Cipulo; Kalva-Filho, Carlos Augusto; Freire, Ana Paula Coelho Figueira; de Alencar Silva, Bruna Spolador; Nicolino, Juliana; de Toledo-Arruda, Alessandra Choqueta; Papoti, Marcelo; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos Marques; Ramos, Dionei

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exhibit aerobic function, autonomic nervous system, and mucociliary clearance alterations. These parameters can be attenuated by aerobic training, which can be applied with continuous or interval efforts. However, the possible effects of aerobic training, using progressively both continuous and interval sessions (ie, linear periodization), require further investigation. Aim To analyze the effects of 12-week aerobic training using continuous and interval sessions on autonomic modulation, mucociliary clearance, and aerobic function in patients with COPD. Methods Sixteen patients with COPD were divided into an aerobic (continuous and interval) training group (AT) (n=10) and a control group (CG) (n=6). An incremental test (initial speed of 2.0 km·h−1, constant slope of 3%, and increments of 0.5 km·h−1 every 2 minutes) was performed. The training group underwent training for 4 weeks at 60% of the peak velocity reached in the incremental test (vVO2peak) (50 minutes of continuous effort), followed by 4 weeks of sessions at 75% of vVO2peak (30 minutes of continuous effort), and 4 weeks of interval training (5×3-minute effort at vVO2peak, separated by 1 minute of passive recovery). Intensities were adjusted through an incremental test performed at the end of each period. Results The AT presented an increase in the high frequency index (ms2) (P=0.04), peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) (P=0.01), vVO2peak (P=0.04), and anaerobic threshold (P=0.02). No significant changes were observed in the CG (P>0.21) group. Neither of the groups presented changes in mucociliary clearance after 12 weeks (AT: P=0.94 and CG: P=0.69). Conclusion Twelve weeks of aerobic training (continuous and interval sessions) positively influenced the autonomic modulation and aerobic parameters in patients with COPD. However, mucociliary clearance was not affected by aerobic training. PMID:26648712

  19. Effect of different frequencies weekly training on parameters of oxidative stress. DOI: 10.5007/1980-0037.2012v14n1p52

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Baumer Tromm

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available During the muscle contraction induced by exercises there is an increase in the reactive oxygen species production, causing oxidative stress in several organs, including liver and heart. The exercise may can increases antioxidant defenses and decrease oxidative stress in these organs. However, the number of the sessions a week necessary to improve the parameters of oxidative stress is not to well defined. The aim of the study was to investigate the frequency effects of exercise performed two and three times a week on changes in biomarkers of oxidative stress in the liver and heart. Were used 18 male mice (CF1, young (30 to 35g and divided into groups (n=6/group: not trained (NT trained twice a week (T2 and trained three times a week (T3. The animals were subjected to training for eight weeks. Forty-eight hours after the last session, the animals were killed. The liver and heart were removed and stored in - 70°C. Were analyzed the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, protein carbonyls, content of total thiols, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase. Our findings showed that the group T3 reduced oxidative damage. There was increase in content of total thiols, superoxide dismutase and catalase in the T3 group when compared to NT. The glutathione peroxidase activity showed no significant difference between groups. This study demonstrated that only the frequency of training performed three times a week was able to reduces oxidative damage and increases the efficiency of antioxidant system of mice.

  20. Physicochemical parameters affecting the electrospray ionization efficiency of amino acids after acylation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, Jos; Ongay, Sara; Markov, Vadym; Bischoff, Rainer

    2017-01-01

    Electrospray ionization (ESI) is widely used in liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS) for the analysis of biomolecules. However, the ESI process is still not completely understood and it is often a matter of trial and error to enhance ESI efficiency and hence the response of a

  1. Genetic parameters for feed intake and feed efficiency in growing dairy heifers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korver, S.; Eekelen, van E.A.M.; Vos, H.; Nieuwhof, G.J.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    1991-01-01

    Feed intake and feed efficiency are of importance in cattle breeding programmes. A divergent selection experiment on feed intake was carried out during three generations. Young performance-tested bulls were selected on high or low dry matter roughage intake. The effective phenotypic selection

  2. Efficient extraction of thin-film thermal parameters from numerical models via parametric model order reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bechtold, T.; Hohlfeld, D.; Rudnyi, E.B.; Günther, M.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a novel highly efficient approach to determine material properties from measurement results. We apply our method to thermal properties of thin-film multilayers with three different materials, amorphous silicon, silicon nitride and silicon oxide. The individual material

  3. Genetic parameters and predicted selection results for maternal traits related to lactation efficiency in sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergsma, R.; Kanis, E.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2008-01-01

    The increased productivity of sows increases the risk of a more pronounced negative energy balance during lactation. One possibility to prevent this is to increase the lactation efficiency (LE) genetically and thereby increase milk output for a given feed intake and mobilization of body tissue. The

  4. Parameters of electrostatic spraying and its influence on the application efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Shigueaki Sasaki

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available When the electrostatic spraying is used correctly, it provides advantages over conventional systems, however many factors can affect the system efficiency. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the charge/mass ratio (Q/M at different spraying distances (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 m, and the liquid deposition efficiency on the target. Evaluating the Q/M ratio the Faraday cage method was used and to evaluate the liquid deposition efficiency the artificial targets were positioned longitudinally and transversely to the spray jet. It was found that the spraying distance affects the Q/M ratio, consequently, the liquid deposition efficiency. For the closest distance to the target the Q/M ratio was 4.11 mC kg-1, and at distances of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 m, the ratio decreased to 1.38, 0.64, 0.31, 0.17 and 0.005 mC kg-1, respectively. For the liquid deposition, the electrostatic system was affected by the target orientation and spraying distance. The target transversely to the jet of liquid did not improve the liquid deposition, but longitudinally increased the deposition up to 3 meters of distance.

  5. Influence of Cycle Air Parameters and Flue Gas Path Aerodynamics on Efficiency of Gas Turbine and Steam Gas Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Grinchouk

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers an influence of gas-air path aerodynamic resistance for a gas-turbine plant, barometric pressure, air moisture and outside air temperature on parameters, efficiency and characteristics of electric power plants with gas-turbine and combined-cycle sets. Calculations and analysis have been executed for Alstom GT13E2 gas-turbine which is included in composition of Steam Gas Plant-230 at the Minsk Thermal Power Plant No.3.

  6. Moderate endurance training (marathon-training) - effects on immunologic and metabolic parameters in HIV-infected patients: the 42 KM cologne project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlabe, Stefan; Vogel, Martin; Boesecke, Christoph; Schwarze-Zander, Carolynne; Rockstroh, Jürgen K; Körner, Christian; Brixius, Klara; Wasmuth, Jan-Christian

    2017-08-08

    Improved treatment options of HIV have resulted in regular physical activities of many HIV-infected patients. However, data on effects of sports in HIV-patients are scarce. 21 HIV-infected persons were monitored prospectively while preparing for a marathon run. Multiple parameters with regard to immunology, quality of life and metabolism were measured at 4 time points (at baseline 1 year before the marathon run, 3 and 6 months after beginning of training, and immediately before marathon). 13 out of 21 participants completed the marathon (12 male, 1 female; median age 42 years [27-50]; CD4 = 620/μl [146-1268]; 11 were on ART since 3.5 years [1-7]). 8 participants ceased training early. All reasons for stopping (besides one pre-existing metatarsal fracture) were not regarded as training-related (e.g. time limitation n = 3; newly diagnosed anal cancer n = 1; personal reasons/unknown n = 3). We observed a significant increase in absolute CD4-T-cells (620/μl [146-1268] vs. 745 [207-1647]; p = 0.001) with simultaneous decrease of CD4-T-cell apoptosis (53% [47-64] vs. 32% [14-42]); p endurance training. Although training effects or ART cannot be ultimately separated as underlying mechanisms, we conclude that marathon training is safe for HIV-infected patients and potentially improves general health. DRKS00011592 (retrospectively registered on February 9th 2017).

  7. Rational Formations of a Metro Train Improve Its Efficiencies of Both Traction Energy Utilization and Passenger Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuesong Feng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on simulations of passenger transports of two representative types of metro trains in China, this study analyzes efficiencies of energy consumption and passenger transport of a metro train in the effect of its target speed, formation scale (FS (i.e., length and mass of the formation, relative traction capacity (RTC (i.e., ratio of the motoring cars to all its cars, and so forth. It is found that increasing energy cost efficiency of a metro train with decreasing its target speed is evidently accelerated with reducing its RTC below 0.50 at the expense of obviously lowering its passenger transport efficiency. Moreover, if the passenger capacity of the train is sufficiently utilized, increasing its FS for the same RTC is easy to have its passenger transport efficiency improved significantly even for a meanwhile much decreased target speed with consuming energy less intensively. Therefore, metro trains in peak hours may take comparatively big FSs, relatively high target speeds, and RTCs over 0.50 to meet usually urgent and large-scale travel demands in such time. In contrast, trains in nonpeak hours ought to have small FSs, relatively low target speeds, and RTCs smaller than 0.50 for mainly avoiding energy waste.

  8. Effective and efficient learning in the operating theater with intraoperative video-enhanced surgical procedure training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Det, M.J.; Meijerink, W.J.; Hoff, C.; Middel, B.; Pierie, J.P.

    INtraoperative Video Enhanced Surgical procedure Training (INVEST) is a new training method designed to improve the transition from basic skills training in a skills lab to procedural training in the operating theater. Traditionally, the master-apprentice model (MAM) is used for procedural training

  9. Changes in hemodynamic parameters affected by interval hypoxic exercises during the precontest training stage of qualified climbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viacheslav Mulyk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to study the effects of the use of interval hypoxic training (IHT in the 15–15 mode with breathing through the system into a confined space with a regulated composition of inhaled air in the integrated training process of climbers of the level of preparation of SP-I. Material & Methods: a study was conducted with the participation of the control and experimental groups using medical-biological methods and IHT in the experimental group with using mathematical statistics methods. Results: conducted studies have allowed to determine that the use of the regime of discontinuous hypoxia 15–15 in the training process of the precompetitive period contribute to an increase in the parameters of hemodynamics that affect the adaptation to the action of the load under conditions of hypoxia. Conclusion: reliable changes that are determined during the research testify to the effectiveness of the use of interval hypoxic training 15–15 in the precompetitive training of qualified climbers.

  10. Changes of oxidative/antioxidative parameters and DNA damage in firefighters wearing personal protective equipment during treadmill walking training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eunju; Lee, Yun-Jeong; Lee, Sun-Woo; Bang, Chang-Hoon; Lee, GyuChang; Lee, Jun-Kyoung; Kwan, Jung-Suk; Huh, Yu-Sub

    2016-11-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of personal protective equipment on the oxidant/antioxidant parameters and DNA damage in firefighters during training and recovery. [Subjects and Methods] Twelve male nonsmoking volunteer firefighters (35.1 ± 7.2 years) underwent two maximal treadmill training (9 METs, 6 km/h), within 2 weeks, one in regular clothes and one in personal protective equipment weighing 22.1 kg. Blood samples were obtained before, right after, and 40 min after training. Plasma conjugated dienes, total radical trapping antioxidant potential, erythrocytes antioxidant enzymes activities, and leukocyte DNA damage were measured. [Results] Wearing personal protective equipment during treadmill walking training resulted in increases of plasma conjugated dienes, total radical trapping antioxidant potential, and leukocyte DNA resistance to oxidative stress, which were recovered after in 40 min of rest. Erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes activities remained unchanged during the training either with regular clothes or personal protective equipment. [Conclusion] These results suggest that wearing personal protective equipment during firefighting work could induce oxidative stress, which was enough to produce DNA damage in leukocytes.

  11. Effect of L-carnitine supplementation in comparison with moderate aerobic training on serum inflammatory parameters in healthy obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafraf, M; Karimi, M; Jafari, A

    2015-11-01

    Obesity is an important worldwide public health problem and considered a disease of chronic low-grade inflammation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of L-carnitine supplementation in comparison with moderate aerobic exercise training on serum inflammatory parameters in healthy obese women. In this double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial, 44 obese women were randomly assigned to 4 groups (N.=11) as follows: 1: L-carnitine supplementation (2 g/day) (CAR), 2: aerobic training + placebo (EXR+PLA), 3: L-carnitine supplementation + aerobic training (CAR+EXR) and 4: placebo (PLA). All intervention periods were eight weeks and subjects of aerobic training groups underwent 8-week aerobic training protocol (3 sessions a week [24 sessions]). Body Mass Index, daily dietary intake and serum free L-carnitine, IL-6, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP) and IL-10 levels of subjects were measured before and after interventions. Interventions had no significant effects on body weight, BMI, daily dietary intake and serum IL-10 levels of subjects in all groups. Serum free L-carnitine concentration increased significantly after interventions in CAR and CAR+EXR groups. Significant decreases of IL-6 were observed in EXR+PLA and CAR+EXR groups compared with placebo group. L-carnitine supplementation plus aerobic training led to significant decrease of serum Hs-CRP levels in CAR+EXR group compared with baseline values. L-carnitine supplementation did not affect serum IL-6, Hs-CRP and IL-10 levels in obese women. Aerobic training alone or in combination with L-carnitine had favorable effect on serum Il-6 and Hs-CRP levels as markers of inflammation in studied subjects.

  12. Efficient parameter search for qualitative models of regulatory networks using symbolic model checking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batt, Gregory; Page, Michel; Cantone, Irene; Goessler, Gregor; Monteiro, Pedro; de Jong, Hidde

    2010-09-15

    Investigating the relation between the structure and behavior of complex biological networks often involves posing the question if the hypothesized structure of a regulatory network is consistent with the observed behavior, or if a proposed structure can generate a desired behavior. The above questions can be cast into a parameter search problem for qualitative models of regulatory networks. We develop a method based on symbolic model checking that avoids enumerating all possible parametrizations, and show that this method performs well on real biological problems, using the IRMA synthetic network and benchmark datasets. We test the consistency between IRMA and time-series expression profiles, and search for parameter modifications that would make the external control of the system behavior more robust. GNA and the IRMA model are available at http://ibis.inrialpes.fr/.

  13. Power Parameters and Efficiency of Class B Audio Amplifiers in Real-World Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Zhivomirov

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Consumer audio amplifiers are intended to op¬erate with various loudspeaker loads, i.e. the load imped¬ance profile of the audio amplifier is a priori unknown. We propose the power parameters analysis of the class B audio amplifiers to be carried out in the realistic worst-case (RWC scenario of operation with the minimal value of the impedance and a RWC type of signal, instead of the nominal impedance of the loudspeaker and a sine-wave signal. Experimental validation, carried out for different types of signals and loudspeaker loads, demonstrate the advantages of the proposed RWC-based power parameters estimation. Furthermore, we provide a way of assessing the safe-operating area (SOA boundaries, based on the output I-V loci of the amplifier and by means of an equi¬valent load line (ELL.

  14. Alginate-pomegranate peels' polyphenols beads: effects of formulation parameters on loading efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wissam Zam

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Calcium alginate beads containing pomegranate peels' polyphenol extract were encapsulated by ionic gelation method. The effects of various formulation factors (sodium alginate concentration, calcium chloride concentration, calcium chloride exposure time, gelling bath time maintaining, and extract concentration on the efficiency of extract loading were investigated. The formulation containing an extract of 1 g pomegranate peels in 100 mL distilled water encapsulated with 3 % of sodium alginate cured in 0.05 M calcium chloride for 20 minutes and kept in a gelling bath for 15 minutes was chosen as the best formula regarding the loading efficiency. These optimized conditions allowed the encapsulation of 43.90% of total extracted polyphenols and 46.34 % of total extracted proanthocyanidins. Microencapsulation of pomegranate peels' extract in calcium alginate beads is a promising technique for pharmaceutical and food supplementation with natural antioxidants.

  15. Inspiratory muscle training improves oxygen uptake efficiency slope in patients with chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Ricardo; Chiappa, Gaspar R; Güths, Henrique; Dall'Ago, Pedro; Ribeiro, Jorge P

    2009-01-01

    Inspiratory muscle training (IMT) improves exercise capacity and ventilatory responses to exercise in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) with inspiratory muscle weakness (IMW). We analyzed the effects of IMT on the oxygen uptake efficiency slope (OUES) in this patient population. Thirty-two CHF patients with IMW (maximal inspiratory pressure [PImax] < 70% of predicted) were randomly assigned to either a 12-week program of IMT (IMT, n = 16) or placebo-IMT (P-IMT, n = 16). PImax and OUES were obtained before and after the intervention. Inspiratory muscle training resulted in 115% increment in PImax (5.9 +/- 0.9 vs 12.7 +/- 0.9 kPa; P < .001) and in significant improvement in OUES (1,554 +/- 617 to 2,037 +/- 747 mL min O2/L min of minute ventilation; P = .001). There were no significant changes in the P-IMT group. There was a significant association between the changes in PImax and OUES (r = 0.82, P < .01). In CHF patients with IMW, IMT results in a significant increase in OUES.

  16. Genetic parameters for two selection criteria for feed efficiency in rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    Drouilhet, Laurence; Gilbert, Hélène; Balmisse, Elodie; Ruesche, Julien; Tircazes, Aurelie; Larzul, Catherine; Garreau, Herve

    2013-01-01

    Improvement of feed efficiency can be achieved by genetic selection directly on feed to BW gain ratio or for alternative traits. In the present study, 2 different traits were explored in the growing rabbit and their heritability and genetic correlations with traits recorded between weaning (30 d) and 63 d of age: i) residual feed intake (RFI), to select animals having low ad libitum feed intake independently from their production level, and ii) ADG under restricted feeding (ADGR; with a restr...

  17. The Efficiency Evaluation Of The Training Activity Given To Ambulance Personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Ulger

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: It was aimed to evaluate the efficiency of the three days module given to the assistant health personnel working in 112 ambulances. Material and Methods: It was assumed that all the personnel working in the 112 ambulance systems under the health directory of Kirikkale city would be involved. Theoretic and practical first aid training was given to all the personnel attending to the course in 6 groups of 20-25 with duration of 3 days for each. A 50 itemed questionnaire was applied to all the groups before and after the training. Results: 132 people working in ambulance system in Kirikkale city were involved in training. 63,6% of the personnel involved in the study were male and 66% were married. When they were grouped according to age, it was determined that 44% of them were in 26-35 age group. When they were grouped according to branches, it was determined that 47 % of them were emergency medical technician (EMT and 40,2% were health officer. When their level of education was taken into consideration, it was determined that 53% of them were graduates of high school and 43,2% were graduates of associate degree. 50,8 of all the personnel had a job experience of 1-5 years. When all the groups were evaluated together, there was a statistical meaningful difference (p<0,001 between pretest success grade (29,58±6,74 and posttest success grade (39,81±4,68. When EMT, paramedics and the other groups were compared; there was a pr test grade difference(p=0,003 between EMT and paramedics group(31,55±6,52 and the others’ group(27,70±6,4. There wasn’t a grade difference between EMT, paramedics group and the others’ group in posttest (p=0,765. Conclusion: The occupational training module which was done in a limited time was determined to be effective in providing a meaningful positive difference in knowledge level and providing personnel knowledge level standardization. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2013; 12(2.000: 151-156

  18. Effects of continuous vs interval exercise training on oxygen uptake efficiency slope in patients with coronary artery disease

    OpenAIRE

    Prado, D.M.L.; Rocco,E.A.; SILVA, A. G.; Rocco, D.F.; Pacheco, M.T.; Silva,P.F.; Furlan, V

    2016-01-01

    The oxygen uptake efficiency slope (OUES) is a submaximal index incorporating cardiovascular, peripheral, and pulmonary factors that determine the ventilatory response to exercise. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of continuous exercise training and interval exercise training on the OUES in patients with coronary artery disease. Thirty-five patients (59.3±1.8 years old; 28 men, 7 women) with coronary artery disease were randomly divided into two groups: continuous exercis...

  19. [The influence of training on rehabilitation and keep-fit tables on the chosen parameters of body weight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, Joanna; Wojciechowski, Jarosław; Leszczyński, Ryszard; Błaszczyk, Jan

    2010-01-01

    More and more people in the world contend with overweight or obesity, and this phenomenon at the moment is being recognized as one of the most important problems of modern civilization observed in many developed countries. Change of the lifestyle connected with turning from the active life to the more sedentary one and bad eating habits led to the development of overweight and obesity at an alarmingly fast rate with the parallel development of interests directed on conducting the research and looking for the effective methods of fighting against the overweight and obesity. The aim of the study was to evaluate some parameters of body weight among people being put on the healthy training on the rehabilitation and keep-fit tables Slender-Life. A group of 50 patients treated in sanatorium were included into the observation. Double measurement of body weight and thickness of the skin and fat were performed during the first and last days of the fifteen day training on the formerly mentioned tables. The statistically important decrease of examined parameters including the real body weight, fat mass, the BMI indication and the thickness of the skin and fat folds was detected. The healthy training on the rehabilitation and keep-fit tables Slender-Life causes the increase of the body fat-free weight. The positive acceptation of the rehabilitation on tables Slender-Life proves it should be applied.

  20. Effects of zeolite supplementation on parameters of intestinal barrier integrity, inflammation, redoxbiology and performance in aerobically trained subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamprecht, Manfred; Bogner, Simon; Steinbauer, Kurt; Schuetz, Burkhard; Greilberger, Joachim F; Leber, Bettina; Wagner, Bernhard; Zinser, Erwin; Petek, Thomas; Wallner-Liebmann, Sandra; Oberwinkler, Tanja; Bachl, Norbert; Schippinger, Gert

    2015-01-01

    Zeolites are crystalline compounds with microporous structures of Si-tetrahedrons. In the gut, these silicates could act as adsorbents, ion-exchangers, catalysts, detergents or anti-diarrheic agents. This study evaluated whether zeolite supplementation affects biomarkers of intestinal wall permeability and parameters of oxidation and inflammation in aerobically trained individuals, and whether it could improve their performance. In a randomized, double-blinded, placebo controlled trial, 52 endurance trained men and women, similar in body fat, non-smokers, 20-50 years, received 1.85 g of zeolite per day for 12 weeks. Stool samples for determination of intestinal wall integrity biomarkers were collected. From blood, markers of redox biology, inflammation, and DNA damage were determined at the beginning and the end of the study. In addition, VO2max and maximum performance were evaluated at baseline and after 12 weeks of treatment. For statistical analyses a 2-factor ANOVA was used. At baseline both groups showed slightly increased stool zonulin concentrations above normal. After 12 weeks with zeolite zonulin was significantly (p zeolite group. There were no significant changes observed in the other measured parameters. Twelve weeks of zeolite supplementation exerted beneficial effects on intestinal wall integrity as indicated via decreased concentrations of the tight junction modulator zonulin. This was accompanied by mild anti-inflammatory effects in this cohort of aerobically trained subjects. Further research is needed to explore mechanistic explanations for the observations in this study.

  1. Efficiency of developing 15–17-year weightlifters’ training process for a one-year macrocycle with the use of various speed and strength training methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Piven

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: developed and experimentally tested the construction of the training process of weightlifters of 15–17 years during a one-year macrocycle with the use of various speed and strength training methods. Material & Methods: to the experiment were attracted 30 young weightlifters at the age of 15–17 years, they all had II and III sports categories. Results: it was found that the athletes of the experimental group who used the unconventional training method, using different training regimes – isokinetic, plyometric, half-dynamic, impact method with speed-strength training, which included jumping with various devices in depth and jumping out, after the experiment, they improved their strengths in the amount of the duathlon by 16,5 kg, and also set their own records in contrast to the control group that trained by the traditional method and improved the power results by 7,2 kg. Conclusion: it is established that the use of non-traditional methods for the development of speed-strength qualities of weightlifters, namely, different training regimes – isokinetic, plyometric, half-dynamic, shock method, contributes to the more efficient development of speed-strength qualities, and, consequently, leads to an increase in sports performance in weightlifting.

  2. Changes in physical performance parameters during and after moderate altitude training in elite cross country skiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Höög, Martina; Willis, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The Olympic cross country skiing competitions in 2014 will be held in Sochi, Russia at an altitude of approximately 1500m. Although moderate, this altitude is known to reduce performance in highly trained endurance athletes. It is also known that individuals react differently during...... altitude exposure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate performance changes during and after three weeks of training in moderate altitude in elite skiers. METHOD: Four male and three female skiers were tested on a roller skiing treadmill using the classic technique at sea level (NORM1), after 3 and 20...... and then grade every minute. Oxygen uptake (VO2) was measured continuously during submaximal and maximal exercise. Blood lactate concentrations were measured during the 1 min rest between submax stages and 2 min after the max test. Power at each submax and max stage were calculated from roller ski friction...

  3. High-intensity interval training (HIT) for effective and time-efficient pre-surgical exercise interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Matthew; Weston, Kathryn L; Prentis, James M; Snowden, Chris P

    2016-01-01

    The advancement of perioperative medicine is leading to greater diversity in development of pre-surgical interventions, implemented to reduce patient surgical risk and enhance post-surgical recovery. Of these interventions, the prescription of pre-operative exercise training is gathering momentum as a realistic means for enhancing patient surgical outcome. Indeed, the general benefits of exercise training have the potential to pre-operatively optimise several pre-surgical risks factors, including cardiorespiratory function, frailty and cognitive function. Any exercise programme incorporated into the pre-operative pathway of care needs to be effective and time efficient in that any fitness gains are achievable in the limited period between the decision for surgery and operation (e.g. 4 weeks). Fortunately, there is a large volume of research describing effective and time-efficient exercise training programmes within the discipline of sports science. Accordingly, the objective of our commentary is to synthesise contemporary exercise training research, both from non-clinical and clinical populations, with the overarching aim of informing the development of effective and time-efficient pre-surgical exercise training programmes. The development of such exercise training programmes requires the careful consideration of several key principles, namely frequency, intensity, time, type and progression of exercise. Therefore, in light of more recent evidence demonstrating the effectiveness and time efficiency of high-intensity interval training-which involves brief bouts of intense exercise interspersed with longer recovery periods-the principles of exercise training programme design will be discussed mainly in the context of such high-intensity interval training programmes. Other issues pertinent to the development, implementation and evaluation of pre-operative exercise training programmes, such as individual exercise prescription, training session monitoring and potential

  4. Parameter Estimation of Computationally Expensive Watershed Models Through Efficient Multi-objective Optimization and Interactive Decision Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Taimoor; Shoemaker, Christine

    2016-04-01

    Watershed model calibration is inherently a multi-criteria problem. Conflicting trade-offs exist between different quantifiable calibration criterions indicating the non-existence of a single optimal parameterization. Hence, many experts prefer a manual approach to calibration where the inherent multi-objective nature of the calibration problem is addressed through an interactive, subjective, time-intensive and complex decision making process. Multi-objective optimization can be used to efficiently identify multiple plausible calibration alternatives and assist calibration experts during the parameter estimation process. However, there are key challenges to the use of multi objective optimization in the parameter estimation process which include: 1) multi-objective optimization usually requires many model simulations, which is difficult for complex simulation models that are computationally expensive; and 2) selection of one from numerous calibration alternatives provided by multi-objective optimization is non-trivial. This study proposes a "Hybrid Automatic Manual Strategy" (HAMS) for watershed model calibration to specifically address the above-mentioned challenges. HAMS employs a 3-stage framework for parameter estimation. Stage 1 incorporates the use of an efficient surrogate multi-objective algorithm, GOMORS, for identification of numerous calibration alternatives within a limited simulation evaluation budget. The novelty of HAMS is embedded in Stages 2 and 3 where an interactive visual and metric based analytics framework is available as a decision support tool to choose a single calibration from the numerous alternatives identified in Stage 1. Stage 2 of HAMS provides a goodness-of-fit measure / metric based interactive framework for identification of a small subset (typically less than 10) of meaningful and diverse set of calibration alternatives from the numerous alternatives obtained in Stage 1. Stage 3 incorporates the use of an interactive visual

  5. Moderate physical training counterbalances harmful effects of low-protein diet on heart: metabolic, oxidative and morphological parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Déborah S. Carthagenes

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Aims Maternal low-protein diet induces several impairments on cardiac system. Conversely, moderate exercise has been widely recommended to health improvement due to its effects on heart function. Thus, we investigated whether the moderate physical training is capable to offset the lasting injuries of a maternal protein restriction on the hearts of male adult rats. Methods Pregnant rats were divided into two groups: Control (C=17% casein and undernutrition (U=8% casein. Offspring from the undernutrition group, at 60 days of life, were subdivided into undernutrition (U and undernutrition+exercise (UT groups. Treadmill exercise was performed: (8 weeks, 5 days/week, 60 min/day at 70% of VO2máx. 48 hours after last exercise session, tissues were collected for morphological and biochemical analysis. Results Despite the deleterious effect induced by low-protein diet, physical training was able to restore morphological parameters to similar levels to the control group. Additionally, oxidative stress index was also improved in UT group, due to the increase in antioxidant enzymatic defense. In metabolic enzymes, maternal low-protein diet induced a change in metabolism, and moderate physical training improved oxidative metabolism. Conclusion We demonstrated that moderate physical training can offset the cardiac metabolism in adult rats that were exposed to a maternal low-protein diet.

  6. Electrothermal impedance spectroscopy as a cost efficient method for determining thermal parameters of lithium ion batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Daniel Loan; Stanciu, Tiberiu

    2017-01-01

    Current lithium-ion battery research aims in not only increasing their energy density but also power density. Emerging applications of lithium-ion batteries (hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, grid support) are becoming more and more power demanding. The increasing charging...... for parametrization. Recent research initiated by Barsoukov et al. proposed electrothermal impedance spectroscopy as a novel and non-destructive method of characterizing the thermal properties of batteries by defining frequency dependent thermal impedance. Despite its usefulness, the electrothermal impedance...... spectroscopy method can be still improved in terms of e.g. accuracy and measurement time and it has a potential to be extended to new applications. Performed review indicates that the electrothermal impedance spectroscopy is a very promising, non-destructive, simple and especially cost-efficient method...

  7. Improving efficiency of parameter estimation in case-cohort studies with multivariate failure time data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ying; Zhou, Haibo; Cai, Jianwen

    2017-09-01

    The case-cohort study design is an effective way to reduce cost of assembling and measuring expensive covariates in large cohort studies. Recently, several weighted estimators were proposed for the case-cohort design when multiple diseases are of interest. However, these existing weighted estimators do not make effective use of the covariate information available in the whole cohort. Furthermore, the auxiliary information for the expensive covariates, which may be available in the studies, cannot be incorporated directly. In this article, we propose a class of updated-estimators. We show that, by making effective use of the whole cohort information, the proposed updated-estimators are guaranteed to be more efficient than the existing weighted estimators asymptotically. Furthermore, they are flexible to incorporate the auxiliary information whenever available. The advantages of the proposed updated-estimators are demonstrated in simulation studies and a real data analysis. © 2017, The International Biometric Society.

  8. A Review of Anthropometrical, Physiological, Psychological and Training Parameters of Futsal

    OpenAIRE

    GIOLDASIS, Aristotelis

    2016-01-01

    Futsal is an upcoming sport which is already widespread in several countries around Europe, Asia and South America. The current review includes topics about the history of the sport, its anthropometrical, physiological, psychological demands, characteristics of training, match analysis and coach as well as injury risks. It aims to present recent studies about futsal as the literature review showed that most of the current ones were only in Portugesse and Spanish language. This document acts a...

  9. Precision matrix expansion - efficient use of numerical simulations in estimating errors on cosmological parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Oliver; Eifler, Tim

    2018-01-01

    Computing the inverse covariance matrix (or precision matrix) of large data vectors is crucial in weak lensing (and multiprobe) analyses of the large-scale structure of the Universe. Analytically computed covariances are noise-free and hence straightforward to invert; however, the model approximations might be insufficient for the statistical precision of future cosmological data. Estimating covariances from numerical simulations improves on these approximations, but the sample covariance estimator is inherently noisy, which introduces uncertainties in the error bars on cosmological parameters and also additional scatter in their best-fitting values. For future surveys, reducing both effects to an acceptable level requires an unfeasibly large number of simulations. In this paper we describe a way to expand the precision matrix around a covariance model and show how to estimate the leading order terms of this expansion from simulations. This is especially powerful if the covariance matrix is the sum of two contributions, C = A+B, where A is well understood analytically and can be turned off in simulations (e.g. shape noise for cosmic shear) to yield a direct estimate of B. We test our method in mock experiments resembling tomographic weak lensing data vectors from the Dark Energy Survey (DES) and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST). For DES we find that 400 N-body simulations are sufficient to achieve negligible statistical uncertainties on parameter constraints. For LSST this is achieved with 2400 simulations. The standard covariance estimator would require >105 simulations to reach a similar precision. We extend our analysis to a DES multiprobe case finding a similar performance.

  10. Electron efficiency of nZVI does not change with variation of environmental parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schöftner, Philipp, E-mail: philipp.schoeftner@ait.ac.at [AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Konrad-Lorenz-Straße 24, 3430 Tulln a.d. Donau (Austria); Waldner, Georg [AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Konrad-Lorenz-Straße 24, 3430 Tulln a.d. Donau (Austria); Lottermoser, Werner, E-mail: werner.lottermoser@sbg.ac.at [Salzburg University, FB Materialforschung und Physik, Hellbrunnerstr. 34, 5020 Salzburg (Austria); Stöger-Pollach, Michael, E-mail: stoeger@ustem.tuwien.ac.at [Technical University of Vienna, Universitäre Service-Einrichtung für Transmissionselektronenmikroskopie — USTEM (Austria); Freitag, Peter, E-mail: p.freitag@kellergrundbau.at [Keller Grundbau Ges. mbH, Mariahilfer Straße 127a, 1150 Vienna (Austria); Reichenauer, Thomas G., E-mail: thomas.reichenauer@ait.ac.at [AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Konrad-Lorenz-Straße 24, 3430 Tulln a.d. Donau (Austria)

    2015-12-01

    Nanoscale zero-valent iron particles (nZVI) are already applied for in-situ dechlorination of halogenated organic contaminants in the field. We performed batch experiments whereby trichloroethene (TCE) was dehalogenated by nZVI under different environmental conditions that are relevant in practice. The tested conditions include different ionic strengths, addition of polyelectrolytes (carboxymethylcellulose and ligninsulphonate), lowered temperature, dissolved oxygen and different particle contents. Particle properties were determined by Mössbauer spectroscopy, XRD, TEM, SEM, AAS and laser obscuration time measurements. TCE dehalogenation and H{sub 2} evolution were decelerated by reduced ionic strength, addition of polyelectrolytes, temperature reduction, the presence of dissolved oxygen and reduced particle content. The partitioning of released electrons between reactions with the contaminant vs. with water (selectivity) was low, independent of the tested conditions. Basically out of hundred electrons that were released via nZVI oxidation only 3.1 ± 1.4 were used for TCE dehalogenation. Even lower selectivities were observed at TCE concentrations below 3.5 mg l{sup −1}, hence particle modifications and/or combination of nZVI with other remediation technologies seem to be necessary to reach target concentrations for remediation. Our results suggest that selectivity is particle intrinsic and not as much condition dependent, hence particle synthesis and potential particle modifications of nZVI particles may be more important for optimization of the pollutant degradation rate, than tested environmental conditions. - Highlights: • We investigated the degradation kinetics of trichloroethene by zerovalent nanoiron particles. • Electron efficiency of the tested particles was very low (about 3%). • The tested environmental conditions had no significant influence on the degradation kinetics and electron efficiency. • We conclude that particle type is more

  11. Immune parameters of untrained or exercise-trained rats after exhaustive exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahan, M P; Young, M R

    1989-01-01

    The effect of a single exhaustive swimming exercise bout on immune competence of untrained or exercise-trained female Wistar rats was compared with the competence of control sedentary rats. After the exhaustive exercise bout, the blastogenic response to concanavalin A by spleen cells of untrained rats was extensively suppressed, whereas the response of the trained rats was only marginally suppressed. The suppressed immune competence of the untrained rats after the exhaustive exercise was associated with an increase in immune-suppressive activity of splenic lymphocytes. The macrophages of the untrained rats and of the control sedentary rats were slightly immune suppressive to normal spleen cells through a prostaglandin-dependent mechanism. The addition of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) to the blastogenesis cultures revealed that the spleen cells of untrained rats were unusually sensitive to the suppressive effects of PGE2. In contrast to the untrained rats, the marginal level of immune suppression in trained rats after the exhaustive exercise was associated with a lesser degree of lymphocyte-suppressive activity, an immune stimulatory activity by the splenic macrophages, and an insensitivity of the splenic lymphocytes to the suppressive effects of PGE2.

  12. Effect of Acute Power Load on the Parameters of Hormonal Response in Untrained Young Men During Weight Training Exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Chernozub

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The article displays the results of experimental studies on the characteristics of the changes in steroid hormones cortisol and testosterone levels in the blood of untrained young men in response to the acute power load of various kinds. It is found that the power load of high intensity at a small volume of work increase the level of hormones in the blood. However, the use of power loads of average intensity during training and with heavy workload causes opposite hormonal response that shown in reducing hormones in blood in comparison with the state of rest. In turn, it was found that, irrespective of the nature of the hormonal response to acute power load, fixed for three months of training athleticism, morphometric parameters and power capabilities of the body of participants in both groups showed positive growth dynamics.

  13. The effects of an exercise training program on body composition and aerobic capacity parameters in Tunisian obese children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofien Regaieg

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of children obesity is rising alarmingly in both developed and developing countries. Developing effective exercise programs is a strategy for decreasing this prevalence and limiting obesity-associated long-term comorbidities. Objectives: To determine whether a 16-week training program; in addition to the school physical education and without dietary intervention; could have beneficial effects on body composition and aerobic capacity of obese children. Materials and Methods: Twenty-eight obese children (16 boys, 12 girls; aged 12-14 years were enrolled and were divided into either the exercise group (EG, n = 14 or the control group (CG, n = 14. EG participated in a 16-week aerobic exercises (four 60-min sessions per week at 70-85% of HRmax (maximum heart rate, in addition to the school physical education. Fat-Free Mass (FFM and Fat Mass (FM were assessed with bioelectrical impedance equipment. To assess aerobic capacity, maximal metabolic equivalent of task (METmax and maximal workload (Wmax were estimated with an electronically braked cycle ergometer (type Ergoline 500® . Results: At baseline, there were no differences between the two groups. After the training program, only the EG showed significant reduction in BMI (body mass index and waist circumference compared with the baseline values (P < 0.001. Exercise training significantly decreased FM only in the EG. A significant increase in FFM was seen in both groups; more marked in the EG. There was a significant increase in METmax (P < 0.05 and Wmax (P = 0.02 in the EG, and no significant changes in these parameters were seen in the CG. HRmax significantly decreased only in the EG (P < 0.05. Conclusion: This training program has beneficial effects on body composition and aerobic capacity parameters in obese children. Our intervention has the advantage of providing a sustainable and reproducible school and community approach for the management of children obesity.

  14. Genetic parameters for two selection criteria for feed efficiency in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouilhet, L; Gilbert, H; Balmisse, E; Ruesche, J; Tircazes, A; Larzul, C; Garreau, H

    2013-07-01

    Improvement of feed efficiency can be achieved by genetic selection directly on feed to BW gain ratio or for alternative traits. In the present study, 2 different traits were explored in the growing rabbit and their heritability and genetic correlations with traits recorded between weaning (30 d) and 63 d of age: i) residual feed intake (RFI), to select animals having low ad libitum feed intake independently from their production level, and ii) ADG under restricted feeding (ADGR; with a restriction level of 80% compared with ad libitum feeding of a control group), to select animals having high growth rate despite limited feed intake. To study these traits, 2 rabbit lines were established named i) ConsoResidual line and ii) ADGrestrict line. Under ad libitum or restricted feeding, it comes to select animals that waste less energy for maintenance, metabolism, or activity and retain more for tissue deposition. The selection process was similar in both lines. Data comprised records from generations 0 to 6 for about 1,800 rabbits per line measured for their BW at weaning and 63 d of age (BW63) and their individual feed consumption. Under ad libitum feeding, the heritability estimates were moderate for RFI (0.16 ± 0.05), ADG (0.19 ± 0.05), and feed conversion ratio (FCR; 0.22 ± 0.05). The high genetic correlation estimated between RFI and FCR (0.96 ± 0.03) was in accordance with the literature. The genetic correlation between RFI and ADG traits was not significant. Thus, selection for low RFI with ad libitum feeding was confirmed as a potential trait to improve FCR and reduce feed intake, with little effect on ADG. To our knowledge, there is no previous selection experiment on growing rabbits with restricted feeding. Our heritability estimates for ADGR and feed conversion ratio under restricted feeding (FCRR) were moderate (0.22 ± 0.06 and 0.23 ± 0.07, respectively) and had very high negative genetic correlation. Both selection criteria were found with high and

  15. HAL® exoskeleton training improves walking parameters and normalizes cortical excitability in primary somatosensory cortex in spinal cord injury patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sczesny-Kaiser, Matthias; Höffken, Oliver; Aach, Mirko; Cruciger, Oliver; Grasmücke, Dennis; Meindl, Renate; Schildhauer, Thomas A; Schwenkreis, Peter; Tegenthoff, Martin

    2015-08-20

    Reorganization in the sensorimotor cortex accompanied by increased excitability and enlarged body representations is a consequence of spinal cord injury (SCI). Robotic-assisted bodyweight supported treadmill training (BWSTT) was hypothesized to induce reorganization and improve walking function. To assess whether BWSTT with hybrid assistive limb® (HAL®) exoskeleton affects cortical excitability in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) in SCI patients, as measured by paired-pulse somatosensory evoked potentials (ppSEP) stimulated above the level of injury. Eleven SCI patients took part in HAL® assisted BWSTT for 3 months. PpSEP were conducted before and after this training period, where the amplitude ratios (SEP amplitude following double pulses - SEP amplitude following single pulses) were assessed and compared to eleven healthy control subjects. To assess improvement in walking function, we used the 10-m walk test, timed-up-and-go test, the 6-min walk test, and the lower extremity motor score. PpSEPs were significantly increased in SCI patients as compared to controls at baseline. Following training, ppSEPs were increased from baseline and no longer significantly differed from controls. Walking parameters also showed significant improvements, yet there was no significant correlation between ppSEP measures and walking parameters. The findings suggest that robotic-assisted BWSTT with HAL® in SCI patients is capable of inducing cortical plasticity following highly repetitive, active locomotive use of paretic legs. While there was no significant correlation of excitability with walking parameters, brain areas other than S1 might reflect improvement of walking functions. EEG and neuroimaging studies may provide further information about supraspinal plastic processes and foci in SCI rehabilitation.

  16. Effects of operating parameters and fluid properties on the efficiency of a new vacuum evaporation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rösti Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new process for vacuum evaporation was developed where evaporation takes place near the inner surface of a vortex as produced by a rotor submerged in the liquid. Contrary to the state of the art the new process does not need a vacuum vessel but the rotating liquid creates a geometrically stable low pressure void surrounded by a vortex stabilized by the equilibrium between centrifugal forces and the pressure difference. First tests with water and sugar solutions at concentrations similar to wine must showed evaporation rates in the upper range of thin-film evaporators. A test series was conducted to study the effect of the variation of process parameters. The heating power and thus the fluid temperature has the most important influence on the vaporisation rate. A second test series using sucrose solution of different concentration comes to the conclusion that this method is suitable for aqueous solutions but the vapour production rate drops significantly with increased sugar content using the current rotor design. The simplicity of the construction and the process handling make this new method a promising development for the wine production.

  17. Efficient hit-finding approaches for histone methyltransferases: the key parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Thomas; Bergner, Andreas; Sheppard, David; Hafenbradl, Doris

    2012-01-01

    For many novel epigenetics targets the chemical ligand space and structural information were limited until recently and are still largely unknown for some targets. Hit-finding campaigns are therefore dependent on large and chemically diverse libraries. In the specific case of the histone methyltransferase G9a, the authors have been able to apply an efficient process of intelligent selection of compounds for primary screening, rather than screening the full diverse deck of 900 000 compounds to identify hit compounds. A number of different virtual screening methods have been applied for the compound selection, and the results have been analyzed in the context of their individual success rates. For the primary screening of 2112 compounds, a FlashPlate assay format and full-length histone H3.1 substrate were employed. Validation of hit compounds was performed using the orthogonal fluorescence lifetime technology. Rated by purity and IC(50) value, 18 compounds (0.9% of compound screening deck) were finally considered validated primary G9a hits. The hit-finding approach has led to novel chemotypes being identified, which can facilitate hit-to-lead projects. This study demonstrates the power of virtual screening technologies for novel, therapeutically relevant epigenetics protein targets.

  18. An efficient method to determine double Gaussian fluence parameters in the eclipse™ proton pencil beam model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jiajian; Liu, Wei; Stoker, Joshua; Ding, Xiaoning; Anand, Aman; Hu, Yanle; Herman, Michael G; Bues, Martin

    2016-12-01

    To find an efficient method to configure the proton fluence for a commercial proton pencil beam scanning (PBS) treatment planning system (TPS). An in-water dose kernel was developed to mimic the dose kernel of the pencil beam convolution superposition algorithm, which is part of the commercial proton beam therapy planning software, eclipse™ (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA). The field size factor (FSF) was calculated based on the spot profile reconstructed by the in-house dose kernel. The workflow of using FSFs to find the desirable proton fluence is presented. The in-house derived spot profile and FSF were validated by a direct comparison with those calculated by the eclipse TPS. The validation included 420 comparisons of the FSFs from 14 proton energies, various field sizes from 2 to 20 cm and various depths from 20% to 80% of proton range. The relative in-water lateral profiles between the in-house calculation and the eclipse TPS agree very well even at the level of 10(-4). The FSFs between the in-house calculation and the eclipse TPS also agree well. The maximum deviation is within 0.5%, and the standard deviation is less than 0.1%. The authors' method significantly reduced the time to find the desirable proton fluences of the clinical energies. The method is extensively validated and can be applied to any proton centers using PBS and the eclipse TPS.

  19. Experimental researches and comparison on aerodynamic parameters and cleaning efficiency of multi-level multi-channel cyclone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandras Chlebnikovas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Multi-level multi-channel cyclone – the lately designed air cleaning device that can remove ultra-fine 20 μm particulatematter (PM from dusted air and reach over 95% of the overall cleaning efficiency. Multi-channel cyclone technology is based on centrifugal forces and has the resulting additional filtering process operation. Multi-level structure of cyclone allows to achieve higher air flow cleaning capacity at the same dimensions of the device, thus saving installation space required for the job, production and operating costs. Studies have examined the air flow parameters change in one–, two– and three–levels multichannel cyclone. These constructions differ according to the productivity of cleaned air under the constant peripheral and transitional (50/50 case air flow relations. Accordance with the results of air flow dynamics – velocity distribution of multi-channel cyclone, aerodynamic resistance and efficiency can be judged on the flow turbulence, the flow channel cross-section and select the most appropriate application. Cleaning efficiency studies were carried out using fine granite and wood ashes PM. The maximum cleaning efficiency was 93.3%, at an average of 4.5 g/m3, the aerodynamic resistance was equal to 1525 Pa.

  20. Immune parameters, symptoms of upper respiratory tract infections, and training-load indicators in volleyball athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dias R

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Rodrigo Dias1, Anelena Bueno Frollini1, Diego Trevisan Brunelli1, André Katayama Yamada1, Richard Diego Leite4, Ricardo Adamoli Simões1, Guilherme Souza Lobo Salles1, Débora Trevisan1, Idico Luiz Pellegrinotti1, Marcelo de Castro César1, Silvia Cristina Crepaldi Alves1, Rozangela Verlengia1, João Paulo Borin2, Jonato Prestes2,3, Claudia Regina Cavaglieri21Núcleo de Performance Humana, Mestrado em Educação Física, Faculdade de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brasil; 2Faculdade de Educação Física (FEF Universidade Estadual de Campinas – UNICAMP, Campinas, Brasil; 3Programa de Mestrado e Doutorado em Educação Física, Universidade Católica de Brasília, Brasília, Brasil; 4Laboratório de Pesquisa Clínica e Experimental em Biologia Vascular (BioVasc, Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Universidade Estadual do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, BrasilBackground: The control of immunological alterations becomes important during in-season training, as a result of increased incidence of infectious diseases, and may assist in avoiding interruptions to training due to illness.Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate 28 weeks of chronic immune modulations in female volleyball athletes.Methods: The sample was composed of twelve athletes aged 19.47 ± 2.49 years, height 1.78 ± 0.08 cm, and body mass 66.77 ± 7.8 kg. Leukocytes, individual immune cell count, interleukin (IL-2, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α plasma cytokines were measured during the competitive period.Results: Results revealed that immune variables were correlated with symptoms of upper respiratory tract infections and training-load indicators, indicating a possible marker of immune status. There was a statistically significant increase in total leukocytes, neutrophils, and monocyte count, a decrease in lymphocytes, and an increase in upper respiratory tract infection symptoms, with no change

  1. Physicochemical Parameters Affecting the Electrospray Ionization Efficiency of Amino Acids after Acylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, Jos; Ongay, Sara; Markov, Vadym; Bischoff, Rainer

    2017-09-05

    Electrospray ionization (ESI) is widely used in liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS) for the analysis of biomolecules. However, the ESI process is still not completely understood, and it is often a matter of trial and error to enhance ESI efficiency and, hence, the response of a given set of compounds. In this work we performed a systematic study of the ESI response of 14 amino acids that were acylated with organic acid anhydrides of increasing chain length and with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) changing certain physicochemical properties in a predictable manner. By comparing the ESI response of 70 derivatives, we found that there was a strong correlation between the calculated molecular volume and the ESI response, while correlation with hydrophobicity (log P values), pKa, and the inverse calculated surface tension was significantly lower although still present, especially for individual derivatized amino acids with increasing acyl chain lengths. Acylation with PEG containing five ethylene glycol units led to the largest gain in ESI response. This response was maximal independent of the calculated physicochemical properties or the type of amino acid. Since no actual physicochemical data is available for most derivatized compounds, the responses were also used as input for a quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) model to find the best physicochemical descriptors relating to the ESI response from molecular structures using the amino acids and their derivatives as a reference set. A topological descriptor related to molecular size (SPAN) was isolated next to a descriptor related to the atomic composition and structural groups (BIC0). The validity of the model was checked with a test set of 43 additional compounds that were unrelated to amino acids. While prediction was generally good (R2 > 0.9), compounds containing halogen atoms or nitro groups gave a lower predicted ESI response.

  2. An "Inefficient Fin" Non-Dimensional Parameter to Measure Gas Temperatures Efficiently

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Patrick; Murray, William; Cooke, Terry; Gerhardt, James

    2012-01-01

    A gas containment vessel that is not in thermal equilibrium with the bulk gas can affect its temperature measurement. The physical nature of many gas dynamics experiments often makes the accurate measurement of temperature a challenge. The environment itself typically requires that the thermocouple be sheathed, both to protect the wires and hot junction of the instrument from their environment, and to provide a smooth, rigid surface for pressure sealing of the enclosure. However, that enclosure may also be much colder than the gas to be sensed, or vice-versa. Either way, the effect of such gradients is to potentially skew the temperature measurements themselves, since heat may then be conducted by the instrument. Thermocouple designers traditionally address this problem by insulating the sheath from the thermocouple leads and hot junction as much as possible. The thermocouple leads are typically packed in a ceramic powder inside the sheath, protecting them somewhat from temperature gradients along the sheath, but there is no effective mechanism to shield the sheath from the enclosure body itself. Standard practice dictates that thermocouples be used in installations that do not present large thermal gradients along the probe. If this conduction dominates heat transfer near the tip of the probe, then temperature measurements may be expected to be skewed. While the same problem may be experienced in the measurement of temperature at various points within a solid in a gradient, it tends to be aggravated in the measurements of gas temperature, since heat transfer dependent on convection is often less efficient than conduction along the thermocouple. The proposed solution is an inefficient fin thermocouple probe. Conventional wisdom suggests that in many experiments where gas flows through an enclosure (e.g., flow in pipe, manifold, nozzle, etc.), the thermocouple be introduced flush to the surface, so as not to interfere with the flow. In practice, however, many such

  3. Improving the efficiency of feed utilization in poultry by selection. 1. Genetic parameters of anatomy of the gastro-intestinal tract and digestive efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urvoix Séverine

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Feed costs represent about 70% of the costs of raising broilers. The main way to decrease these costs is to improve feed efficiency by modification of diet formulation, but one other possibility would be to use genetic selection. Understanding the genetic architecture of the gastro-intestinal tract (GIT and the impact of the selection criterion on the GIT would be of particular interest. We therefore studied the genetic parameters of AMEn (Apparent metabolisable energy corrected for zero nitrogen balance, feed efficiency, and GIT traits in chickens. Genetic parameters were estimated for 630 broiler chickens of the eighth generation of a divergent selection experiment on AMEn. Birds were reared until 23 d of age and fed a wheat-based diet. The traits measured were body weight (BW, feed conversion ratio (FCR, AMEn, weights of crop, liver, gizzard and proventriculus, and weight, length and density of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum. Results The heritability estimates of BW, FCR and AMEn were moderate. The heritability estimates were higher for the GIT characteristics except for the weights of the proventriculus and liver. Gizzard weight was negatively correlated with density (weight to length ratio of duodenum, jejunum and ileum. Proventriculus and gizzard weights were more strongly correlated with AMEn than with FCR, which was not the case for intestine weight and density. Conclusions GIT traits were largely dependent on genetics and that selecting on AMEn or FCR would modify them. Phenotypic observations carried out in the divergent lines selected on AMEn were consistent with estimated genetic correlations between AMEn and GIT traits.

  4. Effects of 12 weeks of aerobic training on autonomic modulation, mucociliary clearance, and aerobic parameters in patients with COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leite MR

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Marceli Rocha Leite,1 Ercy Mara Cipulo Ramos,1 Carlos Augusto Kalva-Filho,2 Ana Paula Coelho Figueira Freire,1 Bruna Spolador de Alencar Silva,1 Juliana Nicolino,1 Alessandra Choqueta de Toledo-Arruda,3 Marcelo Papoti,4 Luiz Carlos Marques Vanderlei,1 Dionei Ramos1 1Department of Physiotherapy, São Paulo State University, Presidente Prudente, 2Program in Rehabilitation and Functional Performance, São Paulo University, Ribeirão Preto, 3Department of Medicine, São Paulo University, 4School of Physical Education and Sport of Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo University, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil Introduction: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD exhibit aerobic function, autonomic nervous system, and mucociliary clearance alterations. These parameters can be attenuated by aerobic training, which can be applied with continuous or interval efforts. However, the possible effects of aerobic training, using progressively both continuous and interval sessions (ie, linear periodization, require further investigation.Aim: To analyze the effects of 12-week aerobic training using continuous and interval sessions on autonomic modulation, mucociliary clearance, and aerobic function in patients with COPD.Methods: Sixteen patients with COPD were divided into an aerobic (continuous and interval training group (AT (n=10 and a control group (CG (n=6. An incremental test (initial speed of 2.0 km·h-1, constant slope of 3%, and increments of 0.5 km·h-1 every 2 minutes was performed. The training group underwent training for 4 weeks at 60% of the peak velocity reached in the incremental test (vVO2peak (50 minutes of continuous effort, followed by 4 weeks of sessions at 75% of vVO2peak (30 minutes of continuous effort, and 4 weeks of interval training (5×3-minute effort at vVO2peak, separated by 1 minute of passive recovery. Intensities were adjusted through an incremental test performed at the end of each period.Results: The AT presented

  5. Development of an operationally efficient PTC braking enforcement algorithm for freight trains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Software algorithms used in positive train control (PTC) systems designed to predict freight train stopping distance and enforce a penalty brake application have been shown to be overly conservative, which can lead to operational inefficiencies by in...

  6. Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester Loaded PLGA Nanoparticles: Effect of Various Process Parameters on Reaction Yield, Encapsulation Efficiency, and Particle Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serap Derman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available CAPE loaded PLGA nanoparticles were prepared using the oil in water (o/w single emulsion solvent evaporation methods. Five different processing parameters including initial CAPE amount, initial PLGA amount, PVA concentration in aqueous phase, PVA volume, and solvent type were screened systematically to improve encapsulation of hydrophobic CAPE molecule, simultaneously minimize particle size, and raise the reaction yield. Obtained results showed that the encapsulation efficiency of the nanoparticles significantly increased with the increase of the initial CAPE amount (p<0.05 and particle size (p<0.05. Furthermore, the particle size is significantly influenced by initial polymer amount (p<0.05 and surfactant concentration (p<0.05. By the optimization of process parameters, the nanoparticles produced 70±6% reaction yield, 89±3% encapsulation efficiency, -34.4±2.5 mV zeta potential, and 163±2 nm particle size with low polydispersity index 0.119±0.002. The particle size and surface morphology of optimized nanoparticles were studied and analyses showed that the nanoparticles have uniform size distribution, smooth surface, and spherical shape. Lyophilized nanoparticles with different CAPE and PLGA concentration in formulation were examined for in vitro release at physiological pH. Interestingly, the optimized nanoparticles showed a high (83.08% and sustained CAPE release (lasting for 16 days compared to nonoptimized nanoparticle.

  7. EVALUATION FOR THE EFFICIENCY OF EARLY SELECTION IN Acacia mangium SEEDLING SEED ORCHARDS BASED ON AGE TRENDS IN GENETIC PARAMETER

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    Arif Nirsatmanto

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of early selection was evaluated based on age trend in genetic parameters using tree height data that was measured periodically repeatedly up to age 3 years of age in four seedling seed orchards of Acacia mangium at South Kalimantan, Indonesia. The four orchards were grouped into two populations based upon their provenances, namely: Papua New Guinea (PNG and Far North Queensland-Australia (FNQ. A model for time trend of genetic parameters was developed by fitting regression equation to the estimates of variances and correlations using tree height data as an independent variable. In both populations, genetic variances and total phenotypic variances increased along with the mean height. Trend of individual heritability along the rotation ages were almost stable at around 0.19 for PNG, and gradually increased from 0.36 to 0.40 for FNQ. Trend of genetic correlations between selection age and rotation age increased rapidly starting at around 0.5 for PNG and 0.6 for FNQ, then exceeding 0.9 at age four years in both populations. Genetic gains due to indirect selection increased with age, in which the gains in FNQ were generally larger than those in PNG. Selection efficiency based on gain per year as a ratio of the gains from indirect selection to direct selection may conclude resulted the optimum age for selection at age two years old in both of PNG and FNQ population.

  8. Effects of insulation parameters on the energy consumption in domestic ovens and the most efficient insulation design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onbasioglu S.U.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Studying on insulation and its parameters has some difficulties comparing to the other factors which affect energy consumption. On the other hand, not only computational studies, but also experimental studies are important in understanding the heat and fluid flow in domestic ovens. By having knowledge onhow insulation parameters effect on the energy consumption, getting efficient designs will come through easily. This study focuses on deciding optimum insulation design, by decreasing thermal bridges over itself. Firstly, experiments are performed for determining excessive heat region on a reference oven's insulation. Also these experiments are completed with two different thermocouple layouts in various temperatures and isotherm maps are generated for innerand outer chassis surfaces. Reference oven's insulation is also scanned by thermal camera. The results of overheated areas and thermal camera images are compared with each other. Different insulation designs are devised on the comparison of the conclusions. Standard energy consumption experiments are performed for each insulation designs under the working mode, which the dominant one in heat transfer, is forced convection. The most efficient insulation was scanned again by thermal camera and these thermal images showed that it decreased overheated areas on outer chassis surface. The experimental studies showed that energy consumption of the domestic oven decreased 4.5% with the new insulation design.

  9. Verification of electricity savings through energy-efficient train management - Influencing train movements - Annex 4; Verifizierung der Stromeinsparung durch energieeffizientes Zugsmanagement - Anhang 4: Beeinflussungen von Zugsfahrten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, M.; Lerjen, M.; Menth, S. [emkamatik GmbH, Wettingen (Switzerland); Luethi, M. [Swiss Federal Insitute of Technology (ETHZ), Institute for Transport Planning and Systems (IVT), Zuerich (Switzerland); Tuchschmid, M. [SBB AG, BahnUmwelt-Center, 3000 Bern (Switzerland)

    2009-11-15

    This appendix to a final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the frequency and character of influences on the movement of trains on the Swiss SBB rail network that can be used to determine energy efficiency on the basis of efficient train management. The SBB's PULS90 project is discussed, in which basic operational and planning methods were developed. In contrast to an initial study made in 2006/2007, possible savings in energy consumption resulting from the analysis of the frequency and character of various factors are examined. The high level of loading and low reserves make, according to the authors, adapted operational processes based on new methods indispensable.

  10. Effect of vergence adaptation and positive fusional vergence training on oculomotor parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiagarajan, Preethi; Lakshminarayanan, Vasudevan; Bobier, William R

    2010-07-01

    Clinical studies have shown that positive fusional vergence (PFV) can be trained through a program of orthoptic exercises. Models of accommodation and vergence predict that training PFV would require a reduction in the convergence accommodation (CA) cross-link. Recent investigations have found that the CA/C ratio is not changed in a clinical population after orthoptics. We hypothesized that such orthoptic programs may instead act to reduce CA through changes in the relationship between fast and slow vergence components. METHODS.: Eleven visually normal subjects were tested. Phoria adaptation to a 12-Delta base-out (BO) wedge prism and the resulting CA responses were monitored every 3 min for 15 min to a DoG target at 0.4 m. These measures were repeated after 2 weeks of orthoptics. Phorias, stimulus accommodative convergence (AC)/A and CA/C ratios, and PFV amplitudes at near were also determined. Before the orthoptics program, these measures were repeated under "adapted" conditions. Phoria adaptation following prolonged viewing through the 12-Delta BO wedge prism was associated with a concomitant reduction in the CA. These changes were asymptotic over time with 95% of the change occurring within the first 3 to 6 min. After 2 week of orthoptics, the rates and magnitudes of both phoria adaptation and CA reduction increased significantly (p vergence adaptation. CA/C and AC/A ratios were unchanged after orthoptics, but the former was reduced, and the latter increased under the vergence adapted condition. Orthoptics acts to change the time constant and magnitude of vergence adaptation to BO prisms, which leads to a concomitant reduction of CA over a similar time course. This process appears to underlie the increase in positive fusion limits. Although reductions in CA/C ratio occur under the vergence adapted state, this ratio is not directly changed with orthoptics.

  11. Genetic parameters of rumination time and feed efficiency traits in primiparous Holstein cows under research and commercial conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byskov, M V; Fogh, A; Løvendahl, P

    2017-12-01

    Feed efficiency has the potential to be improved both through feeding, management, and breeding. Including feed efficiency in a selection index is limited by the fact that dry matter intake (DMI) recording is only feasible under research facilities, resulting in small data sets and, consequently, uncertain genetic parameter estimates. As a result, the need to record DMI indicator traits on a larger scale exists. Rumination time (RT), which is already recorded in commercial dairy herds by a sensor-based system, has been suggested as a potential DMI indicator. However, RT can only be a DMI indicator if it is heritable, correlates with DMI, and if the genetic parameters of RT in commercial herd settings are similar to those in research facilities. Therefore, the objective of our study was to estimate genetic parameters for RT and the related traits of DMI in primiparous Holstein cows, and to compare genetic parameters of rumination data between a research herd and 72 commercial herds. The estimated heritability values were all moderate for DMI (0.32-0.49), residual feed intake (0.23-0.36), energy-corrected milk (ECM) yield (0.49-0.70), and RT (0.14-0.44) found in the research herd. The estimated heritability values for ECM were lower for the commercial herds (0.08-0.35) than that for the research herd. The estimated heritability values for RT were similar for the 2 herd types (0.28-0.32). For the research herd, we found negative individual level correlations between RT and DMI (-0.24 to -0.09) and between RT and RFI (-0.34 to -0.03), and we found both positive and negative correlations between RT and ECM (-0.08 to 0.09). For the commercial herds, genetic correlations between RT and ECM were both positive and negative (-0.27 to 0.10). In conclusion, RT was not found to be a suitable indicator trait for feed intake and only a weak indicator of feed efficiency. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The effect of extensive interval training at altitude on the physiological, aerobic, anaerobic and various blood parameters of athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaya Ismail

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, it was aimed to compare the physiological performances of athletes at sea level, at high altitude and 8 days after returning back to sea level on the basis of certain blood parameters, pulse and blood pressure. 12 male athletes between the ages of 19 and 23 voluntarily participated in the research. The subjects were exposed to endurance training at high altitude and at sea level between 09.00 and 11.00 in the morning. The subjects’ erythrocyte (RBC, leucocyte (WBC, haemoglobin (Hb, haematocrit (HCT, systolic blood pressure at rest (SBPR and diastolic blood pressure at rest (DBPR, heart rate at rest (HRR, aerobic (20m shuttle run test and anaerobic capacity (vertical jump levels were tested at sea level, on the 15th day at high altitude (3120m and 8 days after returning back to sea level. Statistical analysis comprised of t-test and the significance level of the results was accepted at (P<0.05. As a result of the research the following were determined: It can be said that high altitude trainings for fifteen days included in the annual training program of athletes can improve their performance.

  13. The Influence of Hydrologic Parameters on the Hydraulic Efficiency of an Extensive Green Roof in Mediterranean Area

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    Giuseppina Garofalo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In an urban environment, green roofs represent a sustainable solution for mitigating stormwater volumes and hydrograph peaks. So far, many literature studies have investigated the hydraulic efficiency and the subsurface runoff coefficient of green roofs, showing their strong variability according to several factors, including the characteristics of storm events. Furthermore, only few studies have focused on the hydraulic efficiency of green roofs under Mediterranean climate conditions and defined the influencing hydrological parameters on the subsurface runoff coefficient. Nevertheless, for designing purposes, it is crucial to properly assess the subsurface runoff coefficient of a given green roof under specific climate conditions and its influencing factors. This study intends to, firstly, evaluate the subsurface runoff coefficient at daily and event-time scales for a given green roof, through a conceptual model implemented in SWMM. The model was loaded with both daily and 1-min rainfall data from two Mediterranean climate sites, one in Thessaloniki, Greece and one in Cosenza, Italy, respectively. Then, the most influencing hydrological parameters were examined through a statistical regression analysis. The findings show that the daily subsurface runoff coefficient is 0.70 for both sites, while the event-based one is 0.79 with a standard deviation of 0.23 for the site in Cosenza, Italy. The multiple linear regression analysis revealed that the influencing parameters are the rainfall intensity and antecedent dry weather period with a confidence level of 95%. This study demonstrated that, due to the high variability of the subsurface runoff coefficient, the use of a unique value for design purposes is inappropriate and that a preliminary estimation could be obtained as a function of the total rainfall depth and the antecedent dry weather period by using the validated multi-regression relationship which is site specific.

  14. The Impact of Endurance Training on Functional Parameters During the Preparation Phase among Cross-Country Skiers

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    Žiška Peter

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the study, we have tried to demonstrate the effect of endurance training on changes in functional parameters during the preparation phase (12-week mesocycle among cross-country skiers. The group consisted of 10 male cross-country skiers (age: 21.4 ±5 year who completed control (1st 6 week mesocycle and experimental period (2nd 6 week mesocycle.We focused on the following time-varying parameters: changes in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max, the level of aerobic (AeT and anaerobic thresholds (AT, maximum heart rate (HRmax and performance on the running treadmill. The intra-individual monitoring of each athlete revealed statistical significance of VO2max (mid_VO2max = 69.48 ± 5.72 l.kg-1.min-1, post_ VO2max = 70.96 ± 5.67 ml.kg-1.min-1; p≤0.05 and the level of AT (mid_AT = 86.2 ± 5.43 %, post_AT = 87.8 ± 5.59 %; p≤0.01 the performance on the running treadmill (mid_t = 14:54 ± 1:43 min., post_t = 15:30 ± 1:50 min.; p≤0.05.The significant changes were recorded in the AeT(pre_AeT = 70.3 ± 7.56 %, mid_AeT = 72.5 ± 7.59 %; p≤0.05 in theHRmax(pre_HRmax = 190 ± 8.04 bpm, mid_HRmax = 189 bpm, post_HRmax = 188 ± 7.34 bpm; p = n.s. during control period. We assume that the significant differences occurred as a result of adaptation changes due to training stimuli, which were induced by changes in functional parameters. Increased training volume in zone lower level of oxygen regime (A1, upper level of oxygen regime (A2 and upper level of lactate tolerance(T2 during experimental period elicited changes which reflected the increase functional parameters and performance on the running treadmill compared to that of control period.

  15. Efficient probabilistic model personalization integrating uncertainty on data and parameters: Application to eikonal-diffusion models in cardiac electrophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konukoglu, Ender; Relan, Jatin; Cilingir, Ulas; Menze, Bjoern H; Chinchapatnam, Phani; Jadidi, Amir; Cochet, Hubert; Hocini, Mélèze; Delingette, Hervé; Jaïs, Pierre; Haïssaguerre, Michel; Ayache, Nicholas; Sermesant, Maxime

    2011-10-01

    Biophysical models are increasingly used for medical applications at the organ scale. However, model predictions are rarely associated with a confidence measure although there are important sources of uncertainty in computational physiology methods. For instance, the sparsity and noise of the clinical data used to adjust the model parameters (personalization), and the difficulty in modeling accurately soft tissue physiology. The recent theoretical progresses in stochastic models make their use computationally tractable, but there is still a challenge in estimating patient-specific parameters with such models. In this work we propose an efficient Bayesian inference method for model personalization using polynomial chaos and compressed sensing. This method makes Bayesian inference feasible in real 3D modeling problems. We demonstrate our method on cardiac electrophysiology. We first present validation results on synthetic data, then we apply the proposed method to clinical data. We demonstrate how this can help in quantifying the impact of the data characteristics on the personalization (and thus prediction) results. Described method can be beneficial for the clinical use of personalized models as it explicitly takes into account the uncertainties on the data and the model parameters while still enabling simulations that can be used to optimize treatment. Such uncertainty handling can be pivotal for the proper use of modeling as a clinical tool, because there is a crucial requirement to know the confidence one can have in personalized models. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Parameters Influencing the Growth of ZnO Nanowires as Efficient Low Temperature Flexible Perovskite-Based Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Dymshits

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite has proved to be a superior material for photovoltaic solar cells. In this work we investigate the parameters influencing the growth of ZnO nanowires (NWs for use as an efficient low temperature photoanode in perovskite-based solar cells. The structure of the solar cell is FTO (SnO2:F-glass (or PET-ITO (In2O3·(SnO2 (ITO on, polyethylene terephthalate (PET/ZnAc seed layer/ZnO NWs/CH3NH3PbI3/Spiro-OMeTAD/Au. The influence of the growth rate and the diameter of the ZnO NWs on the photovoltaic performance were carefully studied. The ZnO NWs perovskite-based solar cell demonstrates impressive power conversion efficiency of 9.06% on a rigid substrate with current density over 21 mA/cm2. In addition, we successfully fabricated flexible perovskite solar cells while maintaining all fabrication processes at low temperature, achieving power conversion efficiency of 6.4% with excellent stability for over 75 bending cycles.

  17. Parameters Influencing the Growth of ZnO Nanowires as Efficient Low Temperature Flexible Perovskite-Based Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymshits, Alex; Iagher, Lior; Etgar, Lioz

    2016-01-19

    Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite has proved to be a superior material for photovoltaic solar cells. In this work we investigate the parameters influencing the growth of ZnO nanowires (NWs) for use as an efficient low temperature photoanode in perovskite-based solar cells. The structure of the solar cell is FTO (SnO₂:F)-glass (or PET-ITO (In₂O₃·(SnO₂) (ITO)) on, polyethylene terephthalate (PET)/ZnAc seed layer/ZnO NWs/CH₃NH₃PbI₃/Spiro-OMeTAD/Au. The influence of the growth rate and the diameter of the ZnO NWs on the photovoltaic performance were carefully studied. The ZnO NWs perovskite-based solar cell demonstrates impressive power conversion efficiency of 9.06% on a rigid substrate with current density over 21 mA/cm². In addition, we successfully fabricated flexible perovskite solar cells while maintaining all fabrication processes at low temperature, achieving power conversion efficiency of 6.4% with excellent stability for over 75 bending cycles.

  18. Interactive internet-based clinical education: an efficient and cost-savings approach to point-of-care test training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Herschel; Chan, Kee; Anaya, Henry D; Goetz, Matthew B

    2011-06-01

    We successfully created and implemented an effective HIV rapid testing training and certification curriculum using traditional in-person training at multiple sites within the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Healthcare System. Considering the multitude of geographically remote facilities in the nationwide VA system, coupled with the expansion of HIV diagnostics, we developed an alternate training method that is affordable, efficient, and effective. Using materials initially developed for in-person HIV rapid test in-services, we used a distance learning model to offer this training via live audiovisual online technology to educate clinicians at a remote outpatient primary care VA facility. Participants' evaluation metrics showed that this form of remote education is equivalent to in-person training; additionally, HIV testing rates increased considerably in the months following this intervention. Although there is a one-time setup cost associated with this remote training protocol, there is potential cost savings associated with the point-of-care nurse manager's time productivity by using the Internet in-service learning module for teaching HIV rapid testing. If additional in-service training modules are developed into Internet-based format, there is the potential for additional cost savings. Our cost analysis demonstrates that the remote in-service method provides a more affordable and efficient alternative compared with in-person training. The online in-service provided training that was equivalent to in-person sessions based on first-hand supervisor observation, participant satisfaction surveys, and follow-up results. This method saves time and money, requires fewer personnel, and affords access to expert trainers regardless of geographic location. Further, it is generalizable to training beyond HIV rapid testing. Based on these consistent implementation successes, we plan to expand use of online training to include remote VA satellite facilities spanning

  19. Exercise Training and Calorie Restriction Influence the Metabolic Parameters in Ovariectomized Female Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anikó Pósa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The estrogen deficiency after menopause leads to overweight or obesity, and physical exercise is one of the important modulators of this body weight gain. Female Wistar rats underwent ovariectomy surgery (OVX or sham operation (SO. OVX and SO groups were randomized into new groups based on the voluntary physical activity (with or without running and the type of diet for 12 weeks. Rats were fed standard chow (CTRL, high triglyceride diet (HT, or restricted diet (CR. The metabolic syndrome was assessed by measuring the body weight gain, the glucose sensitivity, and the levels of insulin, triglyceride, leptin, and aspartate aminotransferase transaminase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT. The exercise training combined with the CR resulted in improvements in the glucose tolerance and the insulin sensitivity. Plasma TG, AST, and ALT levels were significantly higher in OVX rats fed with HT but these high values were suppressed by exercise and CR. Compared to SO animals, estrogen deprivation with HT caused a significant increase in leptin level. Our data provide evidence that CR combined with voluntary physical exercise can be a very effective strategy to prevent the development of a metabolic syndrome induced by high calorie diet.

  20. Genetic parameters for feed efficiency traits and their relationships with growth and carcass traits in Duroc pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, M A; Suzuki, K; Kadowaki, H; Shibata, T; Oikawa, T

    2007-06-01

    Genetic parameters for feed efficiency traits of 380 boars and growth and carcass traits of 1642 pigs (380 boars, 868 gilts and 394 barrows) in seven generations of Duroc population were estimated. Feed efficiency traits included the feed conversion ratio (FCR), and nutritional (RFI(nut)), phenotypic (RFI(phe)) and genetic (RFI(gen)) residual feed intake. Growth and carcass traits were the age to reach 105-kg body weight (A105), loin eye muscle area (EMA), backfat (BF), intra-muscular fat (IMF) and meat tenderness. The mean values for RFI(phe) and RFI(gen) were close to zero and for RFI(nut) was negative. All the measures of feed efficiency were moderately heritable (h(2) = 0.31, 0.38, 0.40 and 0.27 for RFI(nut), RFI(phe), RFI(gen) and FCR respectively). The heritabilities for all growth and carcass traits were moderate (ranged from 0.37 to 0.45), except for BF, which was high (0.72). The genetic correlations of RFI(phe) and RFI(gen) with A105 were positive and high. Measures of RFI were correlated negatively with EMA. BF was more strongly correlated with measures of RFI (r(g) > or = 0.73) than with FCR (r(g) = 0.52). Selection for daily gain, EMA, BF and IMF caused favourable genetic changes in feed efficiency traits. Results of this study indicate that selection against either RFI(phe) or RFI(gen) would give a similar correlated response in carcass traits.

  1. Prognostic value of a new cardiopulmonary exercise testing parameter in chronic heart failure: oxygen uptake efficiency at peak exercise - comparison with oxygen uptake efficiency slope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toste, Alexandra; Soares, Rui; Feliciano, Joana; Andreozzi, Valeska; Silva, Sofia; Abreu, Ana; Ramos, Ruben; Santos, Ninel; Ferreira, Lurdes; Ferreira, Rui Cruz

    2011-10-01

    A growing body of evidence shows the prognostic value of oxygen uptake efficiency slope (OUES), a cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) parameter derived from the logarithmic relationship between O(2) consumption (VO(2)) and minute ventilation (VE) in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). To evaluate the prognostic value of a new CPET parameter - peak oxygen uptake efficiency (POUE) - and to compare it with OUES in patients with CHF. We prospectively studied 206 consecutive patients with stable CHF due to dilated cardiomyopathy - 153 male, aged 53.3±13.0 years, 35.4% of ischemic etiology, left ventricular ejection fraction 27.7±8.0%, 81.1% in sinus rhythm, 97.1% receiving ACE-Is or ARBs, 78.2% beta-blockers and 60.2% spironolactone - who performed a first maximal symptom-limited treadmill CPET, using the modified Bruce protocol. In 33% of patients an cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) or cardiac resynchronization therapy device (CRT-D) was implanted during follow-up. Peak VO(2), percentage of predicted peak VO(2), VE/VCO(2) slope, OUES and POUE were analyzed. OUES was calculated using the formula VO(2) (l/min) = OUES (log(10)VE) + b. POUE was calculated as pVO(2) (l/min) / log(10)peakVE (l/min). Correlation coefficients between the studied parameters were obtained. The prognosis of each variable adjusted for age was evaluated through Cox proportional hazard models and R2 percent (R2%) and V index (V6) were used as measures of the predictive accuracy of events of each of these variables. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves from logistic regression models were used to determine the cut-offs for OUES and POUE. pVO(2): 20.5±5.9; percentage of predicted peak VO(2): 68.6±18.2; VE/VCO(2) slope: 30.6±8.3; OUES: 1.85±0.61; POUE: 0.88±0.27. During a mean follow-up of 33.1±14.8 months, 45 (21.8%) patients died, 10 (4.9%) underwent urgent heart transplantation and in three patients (1.5%) a left ventricular assist device was implanted. All variables proved

  2. Method for selecting parameters and assessing efficiency of wind-diesel power plants for autonomous electrical supply systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obukhov, S. G.; Plotnikov, I. A.; Masolov, V. G.

    2018-01-01

    The article presents an original technique for selecting parameters and evaluating the efficiency of wind-diesel power plants for isolated power supply systems. The initial data to perform energy calculations are simulation models of electric load and wind speed. The load is simulated using typical schedules of electric loads of a decentralized consumer, taking into account a random component for each hour of the day. To create a simulation model of the wind, a typical climatic series of wind speeds at a prospective site of the power plant has been constructed according to the data of long-term meteorological observations. The proposed technique was verified through the example of choosing a wind-diesel power plant for the village of Ust-Olenyok of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia).

  3. The effects of long term strength training on hemodynamic parameters and resistin level in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília Tardivo Marin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Investigate the influence of strength training (ST on serum resistin levels and blood pressure of postmenopausal women. Methods: Longitudinal study conducted at the Federal University of São Carlos with twenty-three sedentary postmenopausal women. The ST lasted 13 months (Dec./2008 to Jan./2010 and consisted of two weekly sessions with three sets of 8-12 maximum repetitions and one exercise for each main muscle group. Maximum muscular strength was tested in the following exercises: bench press, 45° leg press, and standing arm curl. Serum resistin level was determined using the ELISA method. ANOVA (with repeated measures was used for the comparisons between periods Pre-, 6 months and 13 months (p < 0.05; Pearson’s correlation test was used to evaluate the correlations between resistin × blood pressure, resistin × muscle strength and strength × blood pressure. Results: Women presented the following anthropometric profile: 61.33±3.8 years; height 148.5±32.7 cm; body mass 67.56±10.85 kg. The ST decreased resistin levels (30272.4 ± 8100.1 to 16350.6 ± 2404.6 pg/mL and systolic blood pressure (120.5 ± 11.8 to 115.8 ± 1.6 mmHg, and increased muscular strength in the leg press 45o (172.3 ± 27.3 to 348.6 ± 40.8kg, bench press (31.9 ± 4.1 to 41.8 ± 5.6 kg and arm curl (21.0 ± 2.4 to 26.5 ± 2.9 kg after 13 months (p < 0.05. Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that long-term ST increases maximum muscular strength, decreases systolic blood pressure and serum resistin levels, which are beneficial physiological alterations that reduce the risk for cardiovascular diseases in postmenopausal women. doi:10.5020/18061230.2013.p325

  4. Estimates of (covariance components and genetic parameters for body weights and growth efficiency traits in the New Zealand white rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sakthivel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The genetic parameters of growth traits in the New Zealand White rabbits kept at Sheep Breeding and Research Station, Sandynallah, The Nilgiris, India were estimated by partitioning the variance and covariance components. The (covariance components of body weights at weaning (W42, post-weaning (W70 and marketing (W135 age and growth efficiency traits viz., average daily gain (ADG, relative growth rate (RGR and Kleiber ratio (KR estimated on a daily basis at different age intervals (42 to 70 d; 70 to 135 d and 42 to 135 d from weaning to marketing were estimated by restricted maximum likelihood, fitting 6 animal models with various combinations of direct and maternal effects. Data were collected over a period of 15 yr (1998 to 2012. A log-likelihood ratio test was used to select the most appropriate univariate model for each trait, which was subsequently used in bivariate analysis. Heritability estimates for W42, W70 and W135 were 0.42±0.07, 0.40±0.08 and 0.27±0.07, respectively. Heritability estimates of growth efficiency traits were moderate to high (0.18 to 0.42. Of the total phenotypic variation, maternal genetic effect contributed 14 to 32% for early body weight traits (W42 and W70 and ADG1. The contribution of maternal permanent environmental effect varied from 6 to 18% for W42 and for all the growth efficiency traits except for KR2. Maternal permanent environmental effect on most of the growth efficiency traits was a carryover effect of maternal care during weaning. Direct maternal genetic correlations, for the traits in which maternal genetic effect was significant, were moderate to high in magnitude and negative in direction. Maternal effect declined as the age of the animal increased. The estimates of total heritability and maternal across year repeatability for growth traits were moderate and an optimum rate of genetic progress seems possible in the herd by mass selection. The genetic and phenotypic correlations among body weights

  5. Oxygen uptake efficiency slope, a new submaximal parameter in evaluating exercise capacity in chronic heart failure patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Laethem, Christophe; Bartunek, Jozef; Goethals, Marc; Nellens, Paul; Andries, Erik; Vanderheyden, Marc

    2005-01-01

    The oxygen uptake efficiency slope (OUES) is a new submaximal parameter which objectively predicts the maximal exercise capacity in children and healthy subjects. However, the usefulness of OUES in adult patients with and without advanced heart failure remains undetermined. The present study investigates the stability and the usefulness of OUES in adult cardiac patients with and without heart failure. Forty-five patients with advanced heart failure (group A) and 35 patients with ischemic heart disease but normal left ventricular ejection fraction (group B) performed a maximal exercise test. PeakVO2 and percentage of predicted peakVO2 were markers of maximal exercise capacity, whereas OUES, ventilatory anaerobic threshold (VAT), and slope VE/VCO2 were calculated as parameters of submaximal exercise. Group A patients had lower peakVO2 (P slope VE/VCO2 (P slope VE/VCO2, and OUES (all P slope VE/VCO2 (r = -.492, P failure patients unable to perform a maximal exercise test. Further studies are needed to confirm our hypothesis.

  6. Efficient Statistical Extraction of the Per-Unit-Length Capacitance and Inductance Matrices of Cables with Random Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Manfredi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cable bundles often exhibit random parameter variations due to uncertain or uncontrollable physical properties and wire positioning. Efficient tools, based on the so-called polynomial chaos, exist to rapidly assess the impact of such variations on the per-unit-length capacitance and inductance matrices, and on the pertinent cable response. Nevertheless, the state-of-the-art method for the statistical extraction of the per-unit-length capacitance and inductance matrices of cables suffers from several inefficiencies that hinder its applicability to large problems, in terms of number of random parameters and/or conductors. This paper presents an improved methodology that overcomes the aforementioned limitations by exploiting a recently-published, alternative approach to generate the pertinent polynomial chaos system of equations. A sparse and decoupled system is obtained that provides remarkable benefits in terms of speed, memory consumption and problem size that can be dealt with. The technique is thoroughly validated through the statistical analysis of two canonical structures, i.e. a ribbon cable and a shielded cable with random geometry and position.

  7. Plant Friendly Input Design for Parameter Estimation in an Inertial System with Respect to D-Efficiency Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiktor Jakowluk

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available System identification, in practice, is carried out by perturbing processes or plants under operation. That is why in many industrial applications a plant-friendly input signal would be preferred for system identification. The goal of the study is to design the optimal input signal which is then employed in the identification experiment and to examine the relationships between the index of friendliness of this input signal and the accuracy of parameter estimation when the measured output signal is significantly affected by noise. In this case, the objective function was formulated through maximisation of the Fisher information matrix determinant (D-optimality expressed in conventional Bolza form. As setting such conditions of the identification experiment we can only talk about the D-suboptimality, we quantify the plant trajectories using the D-efficiency measure. An additional constraint, imposed on D-efficiency of the solution, should allow one to attain the most adequate information content  from the plant which operating point is perturbed in the least invasive (most friendly way. A simple numerical example, which clearly demonstrates the idea presented in the paper, is included and discussed.

  8. A Comparative Evaluation of Public Health Centers with Private Health Training Centers on Primary Healthcare Parameters in India: a Study by Data Envelopment Analysis Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjeev Davey; Santosh Kumar Raghav; Jai Vir Singh; Anuradha Davey; Nirankar Singh

    2015-01-01

    Background: The evaluation of primary healthcare services provided by health training centers of a private medical college has not been studied in comparison with government health facilities in Indian context. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) is one such technique of operations research, which can be used on health facilities for identifying efficient operating practices and strategies for relatively efficient or inefficient health centers by calculating their efficiency scores. Materials and...

  9. Effects of different circuit training protocols on body mass, fat mass and blood parameters in overweight adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Contrò

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Benefits of exercise are known for a long time, but mechanisms underlying the exercise mode recommendations for specific chronic cardiovascular diseases remain unclear. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of different circuit training protocols in order to determine which is the best for weight loss and for specific overweight- related disorders. Forty-five female sedentary overweight participants from 20 to 50 years (average 31.8±11.2 were enrolled and assigned to three different groups; each group was compared with a control normal-weight group. Three different circuit protocols were randomly assigned to each overweight group: aerobictone- aerobic (ATA, aerobic-circuit-aerobic (ACA and mini-trampoline circuit (MTC, while control group performed a classic circuit weight training (CWT. Every group trained three times per week, for 12 weeks. The results show that ATA group reduced body fat and total body mass more than other groups (P<0.001; P=0.007. ACA group reduced total body mass in significant statistical way (P=0.032, as well as body fat (P<0.001 and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P=0.013. In MTC group there was a significant reduction in every parameter we analyzed (total body mass, body fat and lipid profile: P<0.001. CWT group has shown a significant loss only in body fat (P<0.001. Every circuit protocol is optimal for reducing body fat and total body mass: however, MTC protocol has shown the best results on lipid profile.

  10. The Efficiency of a Visual Skills Training Program on Visual Search Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzepota Justyna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we conducted an experiment in which we analyzed the possibilities to develop visual skills by specifically targeted training of visual search. The aim of our study was to investigate whether, for how long and to what extent a training program for visual functions could improve visual search. The study involved 24 healthy students from the Szczecin University who were divided into two groups: experimental (12 and control (12. In addition to regular sports and recreational activities of the curriculum, the subjects of the experimental group also participated in 8-week long training with visual functions, 3 times a week for 45 min. The Signal Test of the Vienna Test System was performed four times: before entering the study, after first 4 weeks of the experiment, immediately after its completion and 4 weeks after the study terminated. The results of this experiment proved that an 8-week long perceptual training program significantly differentiated the plot of visual detecting time. For the visual detecting time changes, the first factor, Group, was significant as a main effect (F(1,22=6.49, p<0.05 as well as the second factor, Training (F(3,66=5.06, p<0.01. The interaction between the two factors (Group vs. Training of perceptual training was F(3,66=6.82 (p<0.001. Similarly, for the number of correct reactions, there was a main effect of a Group factor (F(1,22=23.40, p<0.001, a main effect of a Training factor (F(3,66=11.60, p<0.001 and a significant interaction between factors (Group vs. Training (F(3,66=10.33, p<0.001. Our study suggests that 8-week training of visual functions can improve visual search performance.

  11. Triple Junction InGaP/GaAs/Ge Solar Cell Optimization: The Design Parameters for a 36.2% Efficient Space Cell Using Silvaco ATLAS Modeling & Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Tsutagawa, Michael H.; Michael, Sherif

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the design parameters for a triple junction InGaP/GaAs/Ge space solar cell with a simulated maximum efficiency of 36.28% using Silvaco ATLAS Virtual Wafer Fabrication tool. Design parameters include the layer material, doping concentration, and thicknesses.

  12. Treading the Troubled Waters of Training: Some Guidelines for Improving Learning Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackmann, John

    A study was undertaken to examine the practicality of formulating efficient teaching strategies by deriving them from simulations of learner characteristics. Thirty interdisciplinary concepts were introduced as guidelines for learning efficiency, and three principle requirements for learning efficiency were derived: (1) educational materials…

  13. Effects of fitness training on physical fitness parameters and quality of life in human immunodeficiency virus-positive Indian females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Renuka; Shimpi, Apurv; Rairikar, Savita; Shyam, Ashok; Sancheti, Parag

    2017-01-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy has significantly extended survival of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients. These drugs suppress replication of HIV but at the same time, have many physical and mental side effects which may affect daily activities of the patients. The present study assessed if moderate intensity exercise program helped in enhancing the physical fitness and quality of life (QoL) in HIV positive females which may reduce the comorbidities associated with the disease and medications. The aim of this study is to study the effects of moderate intensity physical training on physical fitness parameters and QoL in HIV positive females. Post IEC approval, a randomized control, single-blinded, parallel group trial was conducted on 55 females (20 experimental HIV, 20 control HIV, 15 control normal) matching the selection criteria. Post informed consent, their muscular endurance, flexibility, aerobic capacity, and QoL was assessed. Moderate intensity physical exercises were given to experimental HIV and control normal 5 days/week for 8 weeks and subjects were reassessed for above parameters. Intragroup analysis was performed using paired t-test while inter-group was by one-way ANOVA with alpha set at ≤0.05. Moderate-intensity exercises improved muscular endurance (P fitness as well as enhance the QoL in HIV positive females.

  14. Is high-intensity interval training a time-efficient exercise strategy to improve health and fitness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillen, Jenna B; Gibala, Martin J

    2014-03-01

    Growing research suggests that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a time-efficient exercise strategy to improve cardiorespiratory and metabolic health. "All out" HIIT models such as Wingate-type exercise are particularly effective, but this type of training may not be safe, tolerable or practical for many individuals. Recent studies, however, have revealed the potential for other models of HIIT, which may be more feasible but are still time-efficient, to stimulate adaptations similar to more demanding low-volume HIIT models and high-volume endurance-type training. As little as 3 HIIT sessions per week, involving ≤10 min of intense exercise within a time commitment of ≤30 min per session, including warm-up, recovery between intervals and cool down, has been shown to improve aerobic capacity, skeletal muscle oxidative capacity, exercise tolerance and markers of disease risk after only a few weeks in both healthy individuals and people with cardiometabolic disorders. Additional research is warranted, as studies conducted have been relatively short-term, with a limited number of measurements performed on small groups of subjects. However, given that "lack of time" remains one of the most commonly cited barriers to regular exercise participation, low-volume HIIT is a time-efficient exercise strategy that warrants consideration by health practitioners and fitness professionals.

  15. Specific physical trainability in elite young soccer players: efficiency over 6 weeks' in-season training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chtara, M; Rouissi, M; Haddad, M; Chtara, H; Chaalali, A; Owen, A; Chamari, K

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of 3 training protocols (plyometric [PLYO], agility [AG], or repeated shuttle sprints [RS]) on physical performance in the same population of young soccer players. Forty-two youth-level male players (13.6±0.3-years; 1.65±0.07 m; 54.1±6.5 kg; body fat: 12.8±2.6%) participated in a short-term (6-week) randomized parallel fully controlled training study (pre-to-post measurements): PLYO group, n=10; AG group, n=10; RS group, n=12; and control group [CON] n=10. PLYO training = 9 lower limb exercises (2-3 sets of 8-12 repetitions). The AG group performed planned AG drills and direction changes. RS training consisted of 2-4 sets of 5-6x 20 to 30 m shuttle sprints (20 seconds recovery in between). Progressive overload principles were incorporated into the programme by increasing the number of foot contacts and varying the complexity of the exercises. Pre/post-training tests were: bilateral standing horizontal jump, and unilateral horizontal jumps, sprint (30 m with 10 m lap time), agility (20 m zigzag), and repeated sprint ability (RSA) (i.e. 6x30 m shuttle sprints: 2x15 m with 180° turns). Significant main effects for time (i.e. training application) and group (training type) were detected. Improvements in horizontal jumping were higher (psoccer players' physical performances can be significantly and specifically improved either using PLYO or AG or RSA training over short-term in-season training.

  16. Specific physical trainability in elite young soccer players: efficiency over 6 weeks’ in-season training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouissi, M; Haddad, M; Chtara, H; Chaalali, A; Owen, A; Chamari, K

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of 3 training protocols (plyometric [PLYO], agility [AG], or repeated shuttle sprints [RS]) on physical performance in the same population of young soccer players. Forty-two youth-level male players (13.6±0.3-years; 1.65±0.07 m; 54.1±6.5 kg; body fat: 12.8±2.6%) participated in a short-term (6-week) randomized parallel fully controlled training study (pre-to-post measurements): PLYO group, n=10; AG group, n=10; RS group, n=12; and control group [CON] n=10. PLYO training = 9 lower limb exercises (2-3 sets of 8-12 repetitions). The AG group performed planned AG drills and direction changes. RS training consisted of 2-4 sets of 5-6x 20 to 30 m shuttle sprints (20 seconds recovery in between). Progressive overload principles were incorporated into the programme by increasing the number of foot contacts and varying the complexity of the exercises. Pre/post-training tests were: bilateral standing horizontal jump, and unilateral horizontal jumps, sprint (30 m with 10 m lap time), agility (20 m zigzag), and repeated sprint ability (RSA) (i.e. 6x30 m shuttle sprints: 2x15 m with 180° turns). Significant main effects for time (i.e. training application) and group (training type) were detected. Improvements in horizontal jumping were higher (psoccer players’ physical performances can be significantly and specifically improved either using PLYO or AG or RSA training over short-term in-season training. PMID:28566807

  17. Changes of Selected Hematological Parameters and Morning Rest Rate during Ten Days High Altitude Stay and Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Suchý

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Changes of Selected Hematological Parameters and Morning Rest Rate during Ten Days High Altitude Stay and Training This article describes the influence of a ten day stay and training in a high altitude area (1850 m ASL on selected blood count parameters and morning resting heart rate. Three tests were performed on a group of young cross country skiers (n = 10, age: 18.7 ± 4.8: two days before, two days after and ten days after the altitude training camp. Two day after the return, significant (p 0.05. The study in a group of young cross country skiers has shown positive effects of a tenday training camp in high altitude on blood count parameters and morning resting heart rate monitored in lowland two and ten days after the return from high altitude. Změny vybraných hematologických parametrů a ranní klidové srdeční frekvence v průběhu desetidenního tréninku a pobytu ve vyšší nadmořské výšce Článek popisuje vliv desetidenního tréninku a pobytu ve vyšší nadmořské výšce (1850 m n. m. na vybrané parametry krevního obrazu a ranní klidové srdeční frekvence. U skupiny mladých běžců na lyžích (n = 10, věk: 18,7 ± 4,8 byly realizovány celkem tři odběry krve: dva dny před soustředěním ve výšce, dva dny a deset dnů po návratu do nížiny. Dva dny po návratu byly signifikantně (p 0,05. Průměrné hodnoty ranní klidové srdeční frekvence byly během soustředění ve výšce vyšší než před odjezdem v nížině (p 0,05. Námi realizovaný výzkum u skupiny mladých běžců na lyžích prokázal pozitivní efekt desetidenního pobytu a tréninku ve vyšší nadmořské výšce (1850 m n. m. na sledované krevní parametry a ranní klidovou srdeční frekvenci v nížině po návratu.

  18. Specific physical trainability in elite young soccer players: efficiency over 6 weeks’ in-season training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Chtara

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of 3 training protocols (plyometric [PLYO], agility [AG], or repeated shuttle sprints [RS] on physical performance in the same population of young soccer players. Forty-two youth-level male players (13.6±0.3-years; 1.65±0.07 m; 54.1±6.5 kg; body fat: 12.8±2.6% participated in a short-term (6-week randomized parallel fully controlled training study (pre-to-post measurements: PLYO group, n=10; AG group, n=10; RS group, n=12; and control group [CON] n=10. PLYO training = 9 lower limb exercises (2-3 sets of 8-12 repetitions. The AG group performed planned AG drills and direction changes. RS training consisted of 2-4 sets of 5-6x 20 to 30 m shuttle sprints (20 seconds recovery in between. Progressive overload principles were incorporated into the programme by increasing the number of foot contacts and varying the complexity of the exercises. Pre/post-training tests were: bilateral standing horizontal jump, and unilateral horizontal jumps, sprint (30 m with 10 m lap time, agility (20 m zigzag, and repeated sprint ability (RSA (i.e. 6x30 m shuttle sprints: 2x15 m with 180° turns. Significant main effects for time (i.e. training application and group (training type were detected. Improvements in horizontal jumping were higher (p<0.01: ES=large in PLYO. The RS group improved significantly more (p<0.01; ES=large than other groups: 30 m sprint, RSAbest and RSAmean performances. Significantly greater increases in 20 m zigzag performance were observed following AG and RS training (4.0 and 3.8%, respectively compared with PLYO (2.0% and CON training (0.8%. No significant differences were reported in the RSAdec between groups. Elite young male soccer players’ physical performances can be significantly and specifically improved either using PLYO or AG or RSA training over short-term in-season training.

  19. INFLUENCE OF BASIC IN SHOOTING TRAINING REALIZED ACCORDING TO INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS ON THE EFFICIENCY OF A GUN USED BY POLICEWOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Vučković

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A sample of 25 female students of the second year of VSUP –Advanced School of Internal Affairs from Belgrade, without any previous knowledge in handling the firearms, went the shooting training according to the international standards.During the programme the candidates were tested three times: at the beginning of the training (TEST 1, after the 50% of the realized training (TEST 2 and at the end of the training (TEST 3.The testing included a precise shooting with 10 bullets from the CZ99 gun at the distance of 10 meters. The results showed that the initial level of knowledge (TEST 1 was 29.32 ± 16.76 of the achieved sum of the hit circles.At the transitive testing (TEST 2 the efficiency was at the level of 63.04 ±16.34 of the achieved sum of the hit circles, while at the end of the testing (TEST 3 the efficiency was at the level of 69.32 ± 10.82 of the achieved sum of the hit circles. The variance analyses (ANOVA showed that there was a general statistics difference between the results of testing at the level F=52.19648, p=0.000.A student t test showed that between the TEST 1 and TEST 2, as well as between the TEST 1 and TEST 3 there was a significant difference in shooting efficiency, at the level t = 8.547, p<0.000 and t=11.105, p<0.000, respectively, while between the TEST 2 and TEST 3 the difference was at the very edge of the statistics importance, t=1.708, p= 0.050.The mathematics model was received, described with the equation of following form: y = 24.5894x0.2315 and the model has a prediction strength at the level of reliability of 99.50%.

  20. Effects of treadmill training with load addition on non-paretic lower limb on gait parameters after stroke: A randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Tatiana S; Silva, Emília M G S; Silva, Isaíra A P; Costa, Mayara F P; Cavalcanti, Fabrícia A C; Lindquist, Ana R

    2017-05-01

    The addition of load on the non-paretic lower limb for the purpose of restraining this limb and stimulating the use of the paretic limb has been suggested to improve hemiparetic gait. However, the results are conflicting and only short-term effects have been observed. This study aims to investigate the effects of adding load on non-paretic lower limb during treadmill gait training as a multisession intervention on kinematic gait parameters after stroke. With this aim, 38 subacute stroke patients (mean time since stroke: 4.5 months) were randomly divided into two groups: treadmill training with load (equivalent to 5% of body weight) on the non-paretic ankle (experimental group) and treadmill training without load (control group). Both groups performed treadmill training during 30min per day, for two consecutive weeks (nine sessions). Spatiotemporal and angular gait parameters were assessed by a motion system analysis at baseline, post-training (at the end of 9days of interventions) and follow-up (40days after the end of interventions). Several post-training effects were demonstrated: patients walked faster and with longer paretic and non-paretic steps compared to baseline, and maintained these gains at follow-up. In addition, patients exhibited greater hip and knee joint excursion in both limbs at post-training, while maintaining most of these benefits at follow-up. All these improvements were observed in both groups. Although the proposal gait training program has provided better gait parameters for these subacute stroke patients, our data indicate that load addition used as a restraint may not provide additional benefits to gait training. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Is there influence of the load addition during treadmill training on cardiovascular parameters and gait performance in patients with stroke? A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Tatiana Souza; Chaves da Silva, Tállyta Camyla; Carlos, Renata; de Souza E Silva, Emília Márcia Gomes; Lacerda, Matheus Oliveira; Spaniol, Ana Paula; Lindquist, Ana Raquel Rodrigues

    2017-01-01

    Although exercises involving both lower limbs are indicated for aerobic training, stroke patients have shown expressive asymmetry between the paretic and non-paretic lower limb (NPLL). Performing activities that stimulate the paretic limb during aerobic exercise may optimize training results. To evaluate if there is influence of load addition on NPLL during treadmill training on cardiovascular parameters and gait performance of subacute stroke patients. Thirty-eight stroke subjects with gait deficits were randomized into experimental group, which underwent treadmill training with a mass attached on NPLL, and control group, which underwent only treadmill training. Interventions lasted 2 weeks (9 sessions). Main outcomes were heart rate, arterial blood pressure, gait speed and distance covered. Assessments occurred at rest, 10th and 20th minutes of the session and immediately after each session. There was improvement in speed and walking distance in both groups. All cardiovascular parameters had showed no changes compared to 1st and 9th sessions and there were no differences between groups within each session. Load addition on NPLL did not alter cardiovascular parameters and gait training provide better gait performance of subacute stroke patients, which indicates this therapy can be considered useful and safe for these patients.

  2. An adaptive hybrid EnKF-OI scheme for efficient state-parameter estimation of reactive contaminant transport models

    KAUST Repository

    El Gharamti, Mohamad

    2014-09-01

    Reactive contaminant transport models are used by hydrologists to simulate and study the migration and fate of industrial waste in subsurface aquifers. Accurate transport modeling of such waste requires clear understanding of the system\\'s parameters, such as sorption and biodegradation. In this study, we present an efficient sequential data assimilation scheme that computes accurate estimates of aquifer contamination and spatially variable sorption coefficients. This assimilation scheme is based on a hybrid formulation of the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) and optimal interpolation (OI) in which solute concentration measurements are assimilated via a recursive dual estimation of sorption coefficients and contaminant state variables. This hybrid EnKF-OI scheme is used to mitigate background covariance limitations due to ensemble under-sampling and neglected model errors. Numerical experiments are conducted with a two-dimensional synthetic aquifer in which cobalt-60, a radioactive contaminant, is leached in a saturated heterogeneous clayey sandstone zone. Assimilation experiments are investigated under different settings and sources of model and observational errors. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed hybrid EnKF-OI scheme successfully recovers both the contaminant and the sorption rate and reduces their uncertainties. Sensitivity analyses also suggest that the adaptive hybrid scheme remains effective with small ensembles, allowing to reduce the ensemble size by up to 80% with respect to the standard EnKF scheme. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Evaluation of WAS reduction efficiency using kinetic parameters in pilot-scale SBR operated with anaerobic sludge holding tank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Duck-Hyun; Kang, Ki-Hoon

    2013-01-01

    By evaluating microbial kinetic parameters of a pilot sludge blanket reactor (SBR) plant operated with an anaerobic sludge holding tank (SHT), it was found that the sludge production was reduced by 63.5%. According to the theory of uncoupling metabolism, the microorganisms were induced to the initial stage of the endogenous phase in SHT, which resulted in the reduction of yield coefficient. For the determination of optimal retention time in SHT without causing a significant decay of microorganisms, ammonia concentration was monitored with time at specific temperature and mixed liquor suspended solids concentrations. In a long-term (>1 yr) operation of the pilot plant, no deterioration of the effluent water quality was observed. Considering phosphorus removal, an extended sludge retention time of 60-70 days (due to the reduced yield coefficient) did not significantly affect the efficiency relative to typical biological nutrient removal (BNR) processes. According to the findings of this study, anaerobic SHT can be applied for BNR processes with reduced production of sludge, and this will help to minimize environmental and economic problems pertaining to the final disposal of sludge.

  4. Efficiency of fungicides in the control of brown rot in peaches and its relationship with physiological parameters of the fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizandra Pivotto Pavanello

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The brown rot, caused by the fungus Monilinia fructicola, is the main cause for losses in pre and postharvest of peaches. The study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of preharvest application of fungicides on the control of brown rot in the field and during cold storage, and its relation to parameters of maturation and fruit quality. Therefore, we evaluated the following active ingredients: [1] control (water application, [2] captan; [3] iprodione; [4] iminoctadine; [5] tebuconazole; [6] procymidone; [7 ] azoxystrobin; [8] difenoconazole; [9] azoxystrobin / difenoconazole; [10] trifloxystrobin / tebuconazole; [11] sequence iminoctadine + captan; [12] sequence iminoctadine + iprodione; [13] sequence of tebuconazole + captan; [14] sequence of tebuconazole + iprodione. All treatments were applied according recommended doses and grace period for culture. The fruits were evaluated at harvest and after 40 days storage at –0.5 ° C, plus six days at 20 º C. At harvest time, the best control of brown rot was obtained with difenoconazole, while the fungicide iminoctadine and its association with iprodione showed good results in controlling brown rot after 40 days of cold storage, plus six days shelf life at 20 º C. The preharvest application of captan cause skin browning. The fungicide azoxystrobin influences the fruit maturation by decreasing acidity and firmness at harvest. Good levels of control of brown rot of peach can be achieved with the use of iminoctadine and iprodione.

  5. Modeling and Solution Methods for the Energy-Efficient Train Timetables Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Jørgen Thorlund; Kidd, Martin Philip

    2015-01-01

    Timely recuperation of energy through regenerative braking is crucial in order to ensure energy ecient railway timetables. This requires a careful synchronisation of train departures such that high energy peaks, as a result of simultaneously accelerating trains, can be avoided. In this report we...... consider a variant of this problem as presented in the FAU Open Research Challenge in Discrete Optimization. We propose a mixed integer linear programming formulation (MILP) together with a number of heuristics based on this model. We show that the MILP can obtain optimal solutions to most of the instances...

  6. Improved calibration of simulation models in railway dynamics: application of a parameter identification process to the multi-body model of a TGV train

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, S.; Puel, G.; Aubry, D.; Funfschilling, C.

    2013-12-01

    This paper aims at estimating the vehicle suspension parameters of a TGV (Train à Grande Vitesse) train from measurement data. A better knowledge of these parameters is required for virtual certification or condition monitoring applications. The estimation of the parameter values is performed by minimising a misfit function describing the distance between the measured and the simulated vehicle response. Due to the unsteady excitation from the real track irregularities and nonlinear effects in the vehicle behaviour, the misfit function is defined in the time domain using a least squares estimation. Then an optimisation algorithm is applied in order to find the best parameter values within the defined constraints. The complexity of the solution surface with many local minima requires the use of global optimisation methods. The results show that the model can be improved by this approach providing a response of the simulation model closer to the measurements.

  7. Computer-based training increases efficiency in x-ray image : Interpretation by aviation security screeners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michel, S.; Ruiter, C.J. de; Hogervorst, M.A.; Koller, S.M.; Moerland, R.; Schwaninger, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    X-Ray screening of passenger bags is an essential component of airport security. Large investments into technology have been made in recent years. However, the most expensive equipment is of limited value, if th humans who operate it are not selected and trained appropriately. Scientific studies

  8. Improving the Cost Efficiency and Readiness of MC-130 Aircrew Training: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Air Force VBA Visual Basic for Applications 1 AFSOC/A3T, "MC-130 Aircrew Training," Air Force...GRASP), integer programing, the use of Excel VBA tools, and Tabu searches. The literature review provided me with a good working knowledge of this

  9. Evaluating a Computer-Assisted Pronunciation Training (CAPT) Technique for Efficient Classroom Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Beate

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates a computer-assisted pronunciation training (CAPT) technique that combines oral reading with peer review to improve pronunciation of Taiwanese English major students. In addition to traditional in-class instruction, students were given a short passage every week along with a recording of the respective text, read by a native…

  10. Effects of six weeks sprint-strength and agility training on body composition, cardiovascular and physiological parameters of male field hockey players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barun Sharma, Hanjabam; Kailashiya, Jyotsna

    2017-08-26

    Optimal physiological and cardiovascular characteristics are essential for optimal physical performance. Different types of training regimes affect these characteristics and lead to trainee's adaptation and changes in relevant parameters. In present interventional study we have evaluated effects of six weeks sprint-strength & agility training on such parameters. Twenty four young Indian national hockey players volunteered for this study. BW(weight), BMI, BF (%body fat), LBM (lean body mass), rHR (resting heart rate), rBP (blood pressure), rDP (double-product), P/power (using Running-based Anaerobic Sprint Test), VJ (vertical jump), SP (seated shot-put test), BS (ball-hitting speed), Tm (505-agility test) & VO2max were measured, and changes (d) after specified training regime were studied. The training proved to be 'short yet effective'. Significant improvements after training were found in body composition, cardiovascular, aerobic, anaerobic, strength, agility and performance related parameters; but not in BW, BMI, P/LBM, SP/LBM & VO2max/LBM. dVJ was associated with dTm; dSP with dVO2max which also related with drHR, drBP & drDP. dBS was more among those with lower initial BW, BMI & BF. dBS, along with dVO2max/LBM, was more mainly among those with lower initial anaerobic-aerobic fitness. The findings will be useful for coaches, sports managers, players and also for general population for better, individual and/or sport based designing of short yet effective training programs and monitoring of outcomes. Specific physiological parameter improvement targeted training can also be designed based on this research.

  11. Sensitivity Analysis of the Army Training and Testing Area Carrying Capacity (ATTACC) Model to User-specified Starting Parameters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anderson, Alan

    1999-01-01

    ...) program is a methodology for estimating training and testing land carrying capacity. The methodology is used to determine land rehabilitation and maintenance costs associated with land-based training and other uses...

  12. A survey of the pediatric surgery program directors: optimizing resident research to make pediatric surgery training more efficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markel, Troy A; Rescorla, Frederick J

    2015-06-01

    Resident Research (RR) has been a presumed requirement for pediatric surgery fellowship candidates. We hypothesized that: 1) pediatric surgery leaders would no longer feel that RR was necessary for fellowship candidates, 2) the type of study performed would not impact a program's opinion of candidates, and 3) the timing of RR could be altered for those interested in a research career. An anonymous survey was sent to pediatric surgery fellowship program directors (PDs). Sixty-three percent responded, and answers were compared via Chi square analysis with ppediatric surgery fellowship candidates. Seventy-five percent had no preference between one or two years of research (p=0.0005), 79% placed no heavier weight on basic or clinical research (psurgery may not be necessary. Pediatric surgery candidates who partake in RR are not penalized for their choice of study. Increasing efficiency of training is important in today's era of medical training. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparing efficient data structures to represent geometric models for three-dimensional virtual medical training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bíscaro, Helton H; Nunes, Fátima L S; Dos Santos Oliveira, Jéssica; Pereira, Gustavo R

    2016-10-01

    Data structures have been explored for several domains of computer applications in order to ensure efficiency in the data store and retrieval. However, data structures can present different behavior depending on applications that they are being used. Three-dimensional interactive environments offered by techniques of Virtual Reality require operations of loading and manipulating objects in real time, where realism and response time are two important requirements. Efficient representation of geometrical models plays an important part so that the simulation may become real. In this paper, we present the implementation and the comparison of two topologically efficient data structures - Compact Half-Edge and Mate-Face - for the representation of objects for three-dimensional interactive environments. The structures have been tested at different conditions of processors and RAM memories. The results show that both these structures can be used in an efficient manner. Mate-Face structure has shown itself to be more efficient for the manipulation of neighborhood relationships and the Compact Half-Edge was more efficient for loading of the geometric models. We also evaluated the data structures embedded in applications of biopsy simulation using virtual reality, considering a deformation simulation method applied in virtual human organs. The results showed that their use allows the building of applications considering objects with high resolutions (number of vertices), without significant impact in the time spent in the simulation. Therefore, their use contributes for the construction of more realistic simulators. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Impact of eight weeks endurance training on biochemical parameters and obesity-induced oxidative stress in high fat diet-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emami, Seyed Reza; Jafari, Mahvash; Haghshenas, Rouhollah; Ravasi, Aliasghar

    2016-03-31

    High-fat diets (HFD) feeding is an important risk factor for obesity that is accompanied with metabolic syndrome. Appropriate exercise is recommended for obesity prevention. The molecular mechanisms and cellular pathways activated in response to HFD and exercise are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 8 weeks endurance training on some plasma biochemical parameters and oxidative stress in HFD induced obese rats. Twenty-eight male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: the standard diet (SD) group, endurance training group with a standard diet (ESD), HFD group, and endurance training group with high-fat diet (EHFD). After 8 weeks, blood samples were taken by cardiac puncture and plasma were used for determination of biochemical parameters and oxidative stress biomarkers. HFD significantly increased malondialdehyde level and decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione S-transferase and the content of glutathione in the plasma. HFD also increased activities of aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, as well as levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride and low-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol. However, endurance training showed protective effect on changes in these parameters. These findings suggested that HFD alters the oxidant-antioxidant balance, as evidenced by reduction in the antioxidant enzymes activities and glutathione level and enhanced lipid peroxidation. Endurance training can be beneficial for the suppression of obesity-induced oxidative stress in HFD rats through modulating antioxidant defense system and reduces the risk of obesity-associated diseases.

  15. Changing the Army’s Weapon Training Strategies to Meet Operational Requirements More Efficiently and Effectively

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    strategies are wrong or that their evo - lutionary development processes are broken. Given tactical successes in Iraq and Afghanistan, it would not be... Morales -Steigely, and Max L. Musser, M2/M3 Unit Conduct of Fire Trainer; Post-Fielding Training and Effectiveness Analysis, Alexandria, Va.: U.S. Army...Institute, TRAC- WSMR TEA-16-87, ACN 67571, April 1987. Hughes, Charles R., Maryann Morales -Steigely, and Max L. Musser, M2/M3 Unit Conduct of Fire

  16. ANALYSIS OF EFFICIENCY OF THE DISTANCE TRAINING SYSTEM IN THE PROCESS OF COMPETENCY VERIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kravtsovа L.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Kherson State Maritime Academy conducts experimental research on the integration of the educational process on the basis of a competence approach to the state educational policy of Ukraine. One of the directions of this work is the creation and implementation of a distance education platform to support the educational process in the Kherson Maritime Academy. The distance learning system of KSMA is built on the basis of the open Moodle platform, which offers a wide range of opportunities to fully support the learning process in the remote environment, namely, a variety of ways of presenting the training material, testing knowledge and monitoring progress. The peculiarity of the developed system is that the effectiveness of the training strategy is provided by taking into account the psychological characteristics of the user contingent, the ultimate goal of training, the motivation of the whole process of education, namely, the specifics of the seaman's profession. One of the main directions of the work was a complete replacement of the classical methodology for conducting the examination session for complex testing, which covers all disciplines from 1 to 5 courses of study and is conducted on the basis of a distance education platform. The results of the experiment showed that own site of distance learning is an effective tool for studying the teaching material and for testing the quality of its learning.

  17. Increased reward in ankle robotics training enhances motor control and cortical efficiency in stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Ronald N; Rietschel, Jeremy C; Roy, Anindo; Jung, Brian C; Diaz, Jason; Macko, Richard F; Forrester, Larry W

    2014-01-01

    Robotics is rapidly emerging as a viable approach to enhance motor recovery after disabling stroke. Current principles of cognitive motor learning recognize a positive relationship between reward and motor learning. Yet no prior studies have established explicitly whether reward improves the rate or efficacy of robotics-assisted rehabilitation or produces neurophysiologic adaptations associated with motor learning. We conducted a 3 wk, 9-session clinical pilot with 10 people with chronic hemiparetic stroke, randomly assigned to train with an impedance-controlled ankle robot (anklebot) under either high reward (HR) or low reward conditions. The 1 h training sessions entailed playing a seated video game by moving the paretic ankle to hit moving onscreen targets with the anklebot only providing assistance as needed. Assessments included paretic ankle motor control, learning curves, electroencephalograpy (EEG) coherence and spectral power during unassisted trials, and gait function. While both groups exhibited changes in EEG, the HR group had faster learning curves (p = 0.05), smoother movements (p training may accelerate motor learning for restoring mobility.

  18. The effects of three months of aerobic and strength training on selected performance- and fitness-related parameters in modern dance students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutedakis, Yiannis; Hukam, Harmel; Metsios, George; Nevill, Alan; Giakas, Giannis; Jamurtas, Athanasios; Myszkewycz, Lynn

    2007-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the effects of a 12-week aerobic and muscular strength training program on selected dance performance and fitness-related parameters in modern dance students. The sample consisted of 32 men and women (age 19 +/- 2.2 years) who were randomly assigned into exercise (n = 19) and control (n = 13) groups. Anthropometric and flexibility assessments, treadmill ergometry, strength measurements, and- on a separate day-a dance technique test were conducted pre- and postexercise training in both groups. After the end of the program, the exercise group revealed significant increases in dance (p dance students (a) a 3-month aerobic and strength training program has positive effects on selected dance performance and fitness-related parameters, (b) aerobic capacity and leg strength improvements do not hinder dance performance as studied herein, and (c) the dance-only approach does not provide enough scope for physical fitness enhancements.

  19. The Efficiency of the University Teaching and Learning Training Program (UTL) on Developing the Teaching Competencies of the Teaching Staff at Imam University

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlRweithy, Eman; Alsaleem, Basma Issa

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at presenting the University Teaching and Learning training program UTL and determining the efficiency of the UTL on developing the teaching competencies of the teaching staff at Imam University in Saudi Arabia. The results revealed that there were statistically significant differences between the performance of the training group…

  20. Improvement of the Nuclear Radiation Protection Training for the Simulator and on sharing method of the Safety Parameter with the Emergency Organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Sungjin; Park, Daeseung [KHNP Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Radiation Emergency alert will be announced when the radiological impact is limited within the NPP or radiological impact to go out of the NPP. Radiation Protection Training is scheduled and proceeded to prevent for the radiation accidents, possibility of the radiation accidents, or radiation accident expansion, the training is to reduce the damage to property and health for the nuclear power plant worker and the people near the nuclear power plant. This paper shows the improvement of the nuclear radiation protection training for the simulator and on sharing method of the safety parameter with the emergency organization. Accident shall be correctly and quickly prevented when the NPP accident is inevitable. Therefore the radiation protection training for the operator and the emergency organization will be effective when the accident happens if the simulator has the same environment as the NPP.

  1. Magnetic resonance texture parameters are associated with ablation efficiency in MR-guided high-intensity focussed ultrasound treatment of uterine fibroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocquelet, Arnaud; Denis de Senneville, Baudouin; Frulio, Nora; Salut, Cécile; Bouzgarrou, Mounir; Papadopoulos, Panteleimon; Trillaud, Hervé

    2016-10-28

    The objective of this study is to assess the association between texture parameter analysis derived from T2-weighted images and efficiency of magnetic resonance-guided focussed ultrasound (MRgFUS) ablation for the treatment of uterine fibroids. Fifty-five women treated by MRgFUS were included in this retrospective analysis. Texture parameters were calculated using three 2D regions of interest placed on three consecutive slices on the same sagittal 3D T2-weighted images obtained at the beginning of MRgFUS ablation. Using uni- and multi-variate linear regression, texture parameters, fibroids/muscular T2W ratio (T2Wr), Funaki type, and fibroid depth were correlated with ablation efficiency, defined as the ratio of non-perfused volume (NPV) on post-treatment contrast-enhanced MRI by total volume of treatment-cell sizes used. Inter-rater reproducibility for texture analysis was assessed using variation coefficients. The mean total treatment cell volume was 49.5 (±30) ml, corresponding to a mean NPV of 57.2 (±57) ml (28%). The mean ablation efficiency was 1.14 (±0.7), with a range of 0.03-3.6. In addition to fibroid/muscular T2Wr, seven of the 14 texture parameters were significantly correlated with ablation efficiency: mean signal intensity (p = .047); Skewness (p = .03); Kurtosis (p = .015); mean uniformity (p = .052); mean sum of square (p = .045); mean sum entropy (p = .021) and mean entropy (p = .051). In multivariate linear regression, fibroid/muscular T2Wr and sum of entropy were associated with ablation efficiency. The inter-rater coefficient of variation for sum entropy was 2.6%. Uterine fibroid texture parameters provide complementary information to T2Wr, and are associated with MRgFUS efficiency. Key points Mean sum entropy is negatively correlated with MRgFUS efficiency (ρ = -0.307, p = .021). Fibroids/muscular T2-weighted ratio and entropy are associated with MRgFUS efficiency. Texture parameters are better predictors

  2. A Comparative Evaluation of Public Health Centers with Private Health Training Centers on Primary Healthcare Parameters in India: a Study by Data Envelopment Analysis Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Sanjeev; Raghav, Santosh Kumar; Singh, Jai Vir; Davey, Anuradha; Singh, Nirankar

    2015-01-01

    The evaluation of primary healthcare services provided by health training centers of a private medical college has not been studied in comparison with government health facilities in Indian context. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) is one such technique of operations research, which can be used on health facilities for identifying efficient operating practices and strategies for relatively efficient or inefficient health centers by calculating their efficiency scores. This study was carried out by DEA technique by using basic radial models (constant ratio to scale (CRS)) in linear programming via DEAOS free online Software among four decision making units (DMUs; by comparing efficiency of two private health centers of a private medical college of India with two public health centers) in district Muzaffarnagar of state Uttar Pradesh. The input and output records of all these health facilities (two from private and two from Government); for 6 months duration from 1(st) Jan 2014 to 1(st) July 2014 was taken for deciding their efficiency scores. The efficiency scores of primary healthcare services in presence of doctors (100 vs 30%) and presence of health staff (100 vs 92%) were significantly better from government health facilities as compared to private health facilities (P healthcare services delivery by DEA technique reveals that the government health facilities group were more efficient in delivery of primary healthcare services as compared to private training health facilities group, which can be further clarified in by more in-depth studies in future.

  3. Cognitively Central Actors and Their Personal Networks in an Energy Efficiency Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hytönen, Kaisa; Palonen, Tuire; Hakkarainen, Kai

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to examine cognitively central actors and their personal networks in the emerging field of energy efficiency. Cognitively central actors are frequently sought for professional advice by other actors and, therefore, they are positioned in the middle of a social network. They often are important knowledge resources, especially in…

  4. Pap-smear Classification Using Efficient Second Order Neural Network Training Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ampazis, Nikolaos; Dounias, George; Jantzen, Jan

    2004-01-01

    . The algorithms are methodologically similar, and are based on iterations of the form employed in the Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) method for non-linear least squares problems with the inclusion of an additional adaptive momentum term arising from the formulation of the training task as a constrained optimization...... problem. The classification results obtained from the application of the algorithms on a standard benchmark pap-smear data set reveal the power of the two methods to obtain excellent solutions in difficult classification problems whereas other standard computational intelligence techniques achieve...

  5. Perfection of educational-training process on the basis of account of parameters special physical preparedness of rugby-players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Pasko

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to investigate the special physical fitness rugby, who were engaged in the experimental procedure. The technique is based on the application of the developed relations training load. Material : the study involved 60 athletes aged 16-18 years. Results : the program presents the main provisions of special physical preparation of athletes in the preparatory period of training macrocycle. Value for training work on special physical preparation as follows: September - the main emphasis is placed on special endurance and was 100 % of the training time; October - special endurance - 70%, strength endurance - 20% power capacity - 10%; November - respectively 50, 30, 20 %, December - 30, 40, 30 %. Conclusions : the proposed construction of a pilot version of training is more effective than traditional. It allows rational selection of training load. Also contributing to the priority development of physical qualities, gaming specialization athletes.

  6. X-parameter Based GaN Device Modeling and its Application to a High-efficiency PA Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yelin; Nielsen, Troels Studsgaard; Jensen, Ole Kiel

    2014-01-01

    X-parameters are supersets of S-parameters and applicable to both linear and nonlinear system modeling. In this paper, a packaged 6 W Gallium Nitride (GaN) RF power transistor is modeled using load-dependent X-parameters by simulations. During the device characterization the load impedance is tuned...... only up to the 2nd-order harmonic. However, it proves that the model can still accurately approximate the behavior of the transistor under impedance tuning up to the 3rd-order harmonic. The simulation results preliminarily validate the concept of utilizing the X-parameter based modeling technique...

  7. Magnetic resonance texture parameters are associated with ablation efficiency in MR-guided high-intensity focussed ultrasound treatment of uterine fibroids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hocquelet, Arnaud; Denis de Senneville, Baudouin|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413642151; Frulio, Nora; Salut, Cécile; Bouzgarrou, Mounir; Papadopoulos, Panteleimon; Trillaud, Hervé

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to assess the association between texture parameter analysis derived from T2-weighted images and efficiency of magnetic resonance-guided focussed ultrasound (MRgFUS) ablation for the treatment of uterine fibroids. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-five women

  8. JointDNN: An Efficient Training and Inference Engine for Intelligent Mobile Cloud Computing Services

    OpenAIRE

    Eshratifar, Amir Erfan; Abrishami, Mohammad Saeed; Pedram, Massoud

    2018-01-01

    Deep neural networks are among the most influential architectures of deep learning algorithms, being deployed in many mobile intelligent applications. End-side services, such as intelligent personal assistants (IPAs), autonomous cars, and smart home services often employ either simple local models or complex remote models on the cloud. Mobile-only and cloud-only computations are currently the status quo approaches. In this paper, we propose an efficient, adaptive, and practical engine, JointD...

  9. The DOE s In-Plant Training (INPLT) Model to Promote Energy Efficiency in the Industrial Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alkadi, Nasr E [ORNL; Nimbalkar, Sachin U [ORNL; De Fontaine, Mr. Andre [United States Department of Energy (DOE), Industrial Technology Program; Schoeneborn, Fred C [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    In-Plant Training (INPLT) is a new model for developing energy efficiency expertise within the US manufacturing companies participating in the U.S. Department of Energy s (DOE s) Better Buildings, Better Plants Program-a nationwide initiative to drive a 25% reduction in industrial energy intensity in 10 years. INPLTs are designed to fill a market niche by providing hands on training in a real world manufacturing plant environment. Through INPLTs, participants from multiple manufacturing plants, supply chains, utilities, and other external stakeholders learn how to conduct energy assessments, use energy analysis tools to analyze energy saving opportunities, develop energy management systems, and implement energy savings projects. Typical INPLT events are led by DOE-certified Energy Experts and range from 2-4 days. Topics discussed include: identification of cross-cutting or system specific opportunities; introduction to ISO 50001 Energy Management Systems; and energy project implementation and replication. This model is flexible, and can be tailored to suit the needs of specific industries. The INPLTs are a significant departure from the traditional single plant energy assessment model previously employed by DOE. INPLTs shift the focus from the concept of a single-plant s energy profile to a broader focus on training and capacity building among multiple industrial participants. The objective is to enable trainees to identify, quantify, implement and replicate future energy saving projects without continued external assistance. This paper discusses the INPLT model and highlights some of the initial outcomes from the successfully delivered INPLTs and the overall impact in terms of numbers of plants/participants trained, impacted energy footprints, and potential replication of identified opportunities.

  10. Genetic parameters of estimated net energy efficiencies for milk production, maintenance, and body weight change in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttazzoni, L; Mao, I L

    1989-03-01

    Net efficiencies of converting intake energy into energy for maintenance, milk production, and body weight change in a lactation were estimated for each of 79 Holstein cows by a two-stage multiple regression model. Cows were from 16 paternal half-sib families, which each had members in at least two of the six herds. Each cow was recorded for milk yield, net energy intake, and three efficiency traits. These were analyzed in a multitrait model containing the same 14 fixed subclasses of herd by season by parity and a random factor of sires for each of the five traits. Restricted maximum likelihood estimates of sire and residual (co)variance components were obtained by an expectation maximization algorithm with canonical transformations. Between milk yield and net energy intake, net energy efficiencies for milk yield, maintenance, and body weight change, the estimated phenotypic correlations were .36, -.02, .08, and -.06, while the genetic correlations were .92, .56, .02, and -.32, respectively. Both genetic and phenotypic correlations were zero between net energy efficiency of maintenance and that of milk yield and .17 between net energy efficiency of body weight change and that of milk yield. The estimated genetic correlation between net efficiency for lactation and milk yield is approximately 60% of that between gross efficiency and milk yield. With a heritability of .32 equivalent.49, net energy efficiency for milk yield may be worth consideration for genetic selection in certain dairy cattle populations.

  11. Influence of the ability to roll the tongue and tongue-training parameters on oral motor performance and learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kothari, Mohit; Svensson, Peter; Basic, Aida

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Training of tongue function is an important part of rehabilitation of patients with brain damage. A standardized tongue-training task has been shown to induce cortical plasticity. This study tested the possible influence of the natural ability to roll the tongue and modulations of tong...

  12. TRAINING OF MANAGERS – SUPPORT FOR EXERTING A STRATEGIC EFFICIENT MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia BAESU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Managers are an important component of human resources in a company, bringing a decisive contribution to the establishment and achievement of company’s objectives. In managerial training a special role is played by the change of ideas and experiences with managers from economic environments with different degrees of development, facing with the same type of problems, by holding round tables and seminars. These events may be important opportunities for the Romanian managers to get in direct contact with all the novelties at international level of improving their own knowledge and skills. In the context of global development of economy the roles and tasks assigned to managers of corporations have changed as well. Consequently, at present the success of an enterprise depends decisively on the managers’ quality.

  13. Electromyostimulation--a systematic review of the effects of different electromyostimulation methods on selected strength parameters in trained and elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipovic, Andre; Kleinöder, Heinz; Dörmann, Ulrike; Mester, Joachim

    2012-09-01

    This is the first part of 2 studies that systematically review the current state of research and structure the results of selected electromyostimulation (EMS) studies in a way that makes accurate comparisons possible. This part will focus on the effects of EMS on strength enhancement. On the basis of these results, part 2 will deal with the influence of the training regimen and stimulation parameters on EMS training effectiveness to make recommendations for training control. Out of about 200 studies, 89 trials were selected according to predefined criteria: subject age (7 days). To evaluate these trials, we first defined appropriate categories according to the type of EMS (local or whole body) and type of muscle contraction (isometric, dynamic, isokinetic). Then, we established the most relevant strength parameters for high-performance sports: maximal strength, speed strength, power, jumping and sprinting ability. Unlike former reviews, this study differentiates between 3 categories of subjects based on their level of fitness (untrained subjects, trained subjects, and elite athletes) and on the types of EMS methods used (local, whole-body, combination). Special focus was on trained and elite athletes. Untrained athletes were investigated for comparison purposes. This scientific analysis revealed that EMS is effective for developing physical performance. After a stimulation period of 3-6 weeks, significant gains (p < 0.05) were shown in maximal strength (isometric Fmax +58.8%; dynamic Fmax +79.5%), speed strength (eccentric isokinetic Mmax +37.1%; concentric isokinetic Mmax + 41.3%; rate of force development + 74%; force impulse + 29%; vmax + 19%), and power (+67%). Developing these parameters increases vertical jump height by up to +25% (squat jump +21.4%, countermovement jump +19.2%, drop jump +12%) and improves sprint times by as much as -4.8% in trained and elite athletes. With regard to the level of fitness, the analysis shows that trained and elite athletes

  14. Evaluating the Efficiency of RPMA (Real Property Maintenance Activity) in the Air Training Command.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-11-01

    Job orders are work that require little or no planning, involve only one craft shop (e.g., masonry, electrical , carpentry, plumbing, etc.), and...control. Examples of work orders would be the construction of a new room or the complete replacement of an electrical system. Output 3: Completed...72,461, sCWO : 6 and Sc+ O VE -ILAB HR 72- 1 CW 6 nd5jO - 129. This means that Lowry was, at best, only 91.5% efficient relative to the reference set

  15. Global Aerodynamic Modeling for Stall/Upset Recovery Training Using Efficient Piloted Flight Test Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Eugene A.; Cunningham, Kevin; Hill, Melissa A.

    2013-01-01

    Flight test and modeling techniques were developed for efficiently identifying global aerodynamic models that can be used to accurately simulate stall, upset, and recovery on large transport airplanes. The techniques were developed and validated in a high-fidelity fixed-base flight simulator using a wind-tunnel aerodynamic database, realistic sensor characteristics, and a realistic flight deck representative of a large transport aircraft. Results demonstrated that aerodynamic models for stall, upset, and recovery can be identified rapidly and accurately using relatively simple piloted flight test maneuvers. Stall maneuver predictions and comparisons of identified aerodynamic models with data from the underlying simulation aerodynamic database were used to validate the techniques.

  16. EFFICIENCY OF THE USE OF AUTHENTIC WEB-RESOURCES IN TRANSLATORS TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna M. Drobit

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with pedagogical assumptions and efficiency of the use of Information and Communication Technologies, especially authentic web-resources, while teaching language for specific purposes (translators and interpreters. Accuracy, content, and functionality of web-resource TED, which contains examples of authentic speech in English, have been outlined. It has been demonstrated that usage of multimedia and communication facilities of the TED web-resource provides favourable opportunity to involve students in such professional activities as translation and proofreading, and also to improve the level of their language skills.

  17. Efficient training schemes that improve the forecast quality of a supermodel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schevenhoven, Francine; Selten, Frank; Duane, Gregory; Keenlyside, Noel

    2017-04-01

    Weather and climate models have improved steadily over time as witnessed by objective skill scores, although they remain imperfect. Given these imperfect models, predictions might be improved by combining them dynamically into a so-called "supermodel". In contrast to the standard multi-model ensemble approach, the models exchange information during the simulation, which leads to new solutions. In this study we explore different techniques to create such a supermodel. The techniques are applied to global climate models. The results indicate that the techniques are computationally efficient and lead to supermodels with superior forecast quality and climatology compared to the individual models or the standard multi-model ensemble approach.

  18. A generative vision model that trains with high data efficiency and breaks text-based CAPTCHAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Dileep; Lehrach, Wolfgang; Kansky, Ken; Lázaro-Gredilla, Miguel; Laan, Christopher; Marthi, Bhaskara; Lou, Xinghua; Meng, Zhaoshi; Liu, Yi; Wang, Huayan; Lavin, Alex; Phoenix, D Scott

    2017-12-08

    Learning from a few examples and generalizing to markedly different situations are capabilities of human visual intelligence that are yet to be matched by leading machine learning models. By drawing inspiration from systems neuroscience, we introduce a probabilistic generative model for vision in which message-passing-based inference handles recognition, segmentation, and reasoning in a unified way. The model demonstrates excellent generalization and occlusion-reasoning capabilities and outperforms deep neural networks on a challenging scene text recognition benchmark while being 300-fold more data efficient. In addition, the model fundamentally breaks the defense of modern text-based CAPTCHAs (Completely Automated Public Turing test to tell Computers and Humans Apart) by generatively segmenting characters without CAPTCHA-specific heuristics. Our model emphasizes aspects such as data efficiency and compositionality that may be important in the path toward general artificial intelligence. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  19. Unstructured meshing and parameter estimation for urban dam-break flood modeling: building treatments and implications for accuracy and efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, J. E.; Sanders, B. F.

    2011-12-01

    Urban landscapes are at the forefront of current research efforts in the field of flood inundation modeling for two major reasons. First, urban areas hold relatively large economic and social importance and as such it is imperative to avoid or minimize future damages. Secondly, urban flooding is becoming more frequent as a consequence of continued development of impervious surfaces, population growth in cities, climate change magnifying rainfall intensity, sea level rise threatening coastal communities, and decaying flood defense infrastructure. In reality urban landscapes are particularly challenging to model because they include a multitude of geometrically complex features. Advances in remote sensing technologies and geographical information systems (GIS) have promulgated fine resolution data layers that offer a site characterization suitable for urban inundation modeling including a description of preferential flow paths, drainage networks and surface dependent resistances to overland flow. Recent research has focused on two-dimensional modeling of overland flow including within-curb flows and over-curb flows across developed parcels. Studies have focused on mesh design and parameterization, and sub-grid models that promise improved performance relative to accuracy and/or computational efficiency. This presentation addresses how fine-resolution data, available in Los Angeles County, are used to parameterize, initialize and execute flood inundation models for the 1963 Baldwin Hills dam break. Several commonly used model parameterization strategies including building-resistance, building-block and building hole are compared with a novel sub-grid strategy based on building-porosity. Performance of the models is assessed based on the accuracy of depth and velocity predictions, execution time, and the time and expertise required for model set-up. The objective of this study is to assess field-scale applicability, and to obtain a better understanding of advantages

  20. The estimate efficiency of techniques development special endurance wrestlers at the specialized basic training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latyshev N.V.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of work - experimentally to check up efficiency of method of development of the special endurance of sportsmen with the use of control-trainer devices. In an experiment took part 24 sportsmen in age 16 - 17 years. Reliable distinctions are exposed between the groups of sportsmen on indexes in tests on the special physical preparation (heat round hands and passage-way in feet, in a test on the special endurance (on all of indexes of test, except for the amount of the executed exercises in the first period and during work on control-trainer device (work on a trainer during 60 seconds and work on a trainer 3×120 seconds.

  1. An efficient method to generate a perturbed parameter ensemble of a fully coupled AOGCM without flux-adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Irvine

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a simple method to generate a perturbed parameter ensemble (PPE of a fully-coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model (AOGCM, HadCM3, without requiring flux-adjustment. The aim was to produce an ensemble that samples parametric uncertainty in some key variables and gives a plausible representation of the climate. Six atmospheric parameters, a sea-ice parameter and an ocean parameter were jointly perturbed within a reasonable range to generate an initial group of 200 members. To screen out implausible ensemble members, 20 yr pre-industrial control simulations were run and members whose temperature responses to the parameter perturbations were projected to be outside the range of 13.6 ± 2 °C, i.e. near to the observed pre-industrial global mean, were discarded. Twenty-one members, including the standard unperturbed model, were accepted, covering almost the entire span of the eight parameters, challenging the argument that without flux-adjustment parameter ranges would be unduly restricted. This ensemble was used in 2 experiments; an 800 yr pre-industrial and a 150 yr quadrupled CO2 simulation. The behaviour of the PPE for the pre-industrial control compared well to ERA-40 reanalysis data and the CMIP3 ensemble for a number of surface and atmospheric column variables with the exception of a few members in the Tropics. However, we find that members of the PPE with low values of the entrainment rate coefficient show very large increases in upper tropospheric and stratospheric water vapour concentrations in response to elevated CO2 and one member showed an implausible nonlinear climate response, and as such will be excluded from future experiments with this ensemble. The outcome of this study is a PPE of a fully-coupled AOGCM which samples parametric uncertainty and a simple methodology which would be applicable to other GCMs.

  2. Iron, Hematological Parameters and Blood Plasma Lipid Profile in Vitamin D Supplemented and Non-Supplemented Young Soccer Players Subjected to High-Intensity Interval Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastrzebska, Maria; Kaczmarczyk, Mariusz; Suárez, Arturo Diaz; Sánchez, Guillermo Felipe López; Jastrzebska, Joanna; Radziminski, Lukasz; Jastrzebski, Zbigniew

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease and anemia. Vitamin D-related changes in lipid profile have been studied extensively but the relationship between vitamin D and lipid metabolism is not completely understood. As both vitamin D and intermittent training may potentially affect iron and lipid metabolism, the aim of the study was to evaluate whether a daily supplementation of vitamin D can modulate the response of hematological and lipid parameters to high-intensity interval training (HIIT) in soccer players. Thirty-six young elite junior soccer players were included in the placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Participants were non-randomly allocated into either a supplemented group (SG, n=20, HIIT and 5,000 IU of vitamin D daily) or placebo group (PG, n=16, HIIT and sunflower oil). Hematological parameters were ascertained before and after the 8-wk training. The change score (post- and pre-training difference) was calculated for each individual and the mean change score (MCS) was compared between SG and PG using the t test and analysis of covariance. There were no differences between SG and PG at baseline. The red and white cell count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, MCHC, ferritin, and HDL-cholesterol changed significantly over the 8-wk HIIT. However, no significant differences in MCS were observed between SG and PG for any variable. A daily vitamin D supplement did not have any impact on alteration in hematological or lipid parameters in young soccer players in the course of high-intensity interval training.

  3. TECHNICAL APPROACH TO THE EFFICIENCY DETERMINATION OF HIGH-SPEED TRAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Momot

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this article is to develop an approach and formulate arrangements concerning the definition of the economic appropriateness of high-speed movement implementation in Ukraine. Methodology. The economic feasibility for appropriateness of high-speed movement organization in Ukraine is an investment project, which involves step-by-step money investment into the construction. It will let get an annual profits from the passenger carriage. To solve such problems we use net present value, which UZ or newly created companies can get during the project realization and after its completion. Findings. Obtained studies can state the fact that the technical approach for full effectiveness definition of a construction and high-speed passenger trains service taking into account the cost of infrastructure, rolling stock, the impact of environmental factors, etc. was determined. Originality. We propose a scientific approach to determine the economic effectiveness of the construction and high-speed main lines service. It includes improved principles of defining the passenger traffic, the cost of high-speed rails construction, the number of rolling stock; optimizes income and expenditure calculations in the context of competitive advantages and the external factors impact on the company. A technical approach for the calculation of future traffic volumes along the high-speed line was improved. It differs essentially from the European one proposed by the French firm «SYSTRA», as it allows taking into account additional transit traffic through Ukraine. It helps to distribute the passengers on separate sections proportionally to the number of cities population, which are combined by high-speed main line, subject to the average population mobility, travel time and the coefficient that takes into account the frequency of additional passenger trips on a given section, depending on the purpose (business trip, transfer to a plane, recreation, etc

  4. Efficiency of application of means of sports preparation of combat sportsmen in physical training of students of technical high school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Litvinenko A.M.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The problem of efficiency of application of different volumes of trainings facilities of sporting single combats (on the example of kickboxing is considered in physical education of students. The complexity of influence of facilities of east single combats is shown on sportsmen. In an experiment took part 50 students of first-year of teaching in age 17-18 years. Tests were used: undercutting on a cross-bar, broad jumps from a place, at shuttle run of 4х9 m. Positive intercommunication of increase of volume of the training loading is shown by effectiveness of pedagogical process. It is set that increase of number of employments by students in kickboxing to three one time per a week allows for certain to improve the indexes of physical preparedness on the chosen tests. The higher level of technical preparedness of students is statistically confirmed applying the greater amount of physical exercises, sent to forming of skills of kickboxing. Distribution of students is educed on the tactical types of conduct of competition fight: 36 % is a playing manner, 44 % is a rate manner, 8 % is a manner of slog, 12 % is an universal manner. Offered to recommendation on the correction of volume of loading for the increase of didactic potential of employments on physical education.

  5. Centre for Education, Training, & Research in Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency (CETREE) of Malaysia: Educating the Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Kamarulazizi; Hilme, Khairur Rahim Ahmad

    2007-10-01

    Centre for Education, Training, and Research in Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency (CETREE), was established in the year 2000, in Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM). CETREE is a not-for-profit organization that was part of the Malaysian Government's continuous effort in promoting sustainable development. The centre's main task is to tackle issues and problems that are slowing the potential growth of RE & EE utilizations in Malaysia. CETREE and the Government of Malaysia, with funding and supports from Danish International Development Assistance (DANIDA) and USM, has been working together closely in applying trans-disciplinary educational methods and approaches for the teaching of RE & EE that are compatible with Malaysian. Through association with various entities such as Energy Centre of Malaysia (PTM), Energy Commission of Malaysia (ST), Malaysia Electricity Supply Industry Trust Account (MESITA); CETREE was able to successfully promote sustainable development through education and training. Significant accomplishments made by CETREE include introducing RE and EE as part of Malaysian secondary schools and universities education; conducting energy related courses for professionals; and generating awareness via campaign in the mass media and CETREE's mobile-exhibition-unit road-tour.

  6. Effect of Different HTM Layers and Electrical Parameters on ZnO Nanorod-Based Lead-Free Perovskite Solar Cell for High-Efficiency Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhana Anwar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Simulation has been done using SCAPS-1D to examine the efficiency of CH3NH3SnI3-based solar cells including various HTM layers such as spiro-OMeTAD, Cu2O, and CuSCN. ZnO nanorod array has been considered as an ETM layer. Device parameters such as thickness of the CH3NH3SnI3 layer, defect density of interfaces, density of states, and metal work function were studied. For optimum parameters of all three structures, efficiency of 20.21%, 20.23%, and 18.34% has been achieved for spiro-OMeTAD, Cu2O, and CuSCN, respectively. From the simulations, an alternative lead-free perovskite solar cell is introduced with the CH3NH3SnI3 absorber layer, ZnO nanorod ETM layer, and Cu2O HTM layer.

  7. A comparative evaluation of public health centers with private health training centers on primary healthcare parameters in India: a study by data envelopment analysis technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Davey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The evaluation of primary healthcare services provided by health training centers of a private medical college has not been studied in comparison with government health facilities in Indian context. Data envelopment analysis (DEA is one such technique of operations research, which can be used on health facilities for identifying efficient operating practices and strategies for relatively efficient or inefficient health centers by calculating their efficiency scores. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out by DEA technique by using basic radial models (constant ratio to scale (CRS in linear programming via DEAOS free online Software among four decision making units (DMUs; by comparing efficiency of two private health centers of a private medical college of India with two public health centers in district Muzaffarnagar of state Uttar Pradesh. The input and output records of all these health facilities (two from private and two from Government; for 6 months duration from 1 st Jan 2014 to 1 st July 2014 was taken for deciding their efficiency scores. Results: The efficiency scores of primary healthcare services in presence of doctors (100 vs 30% and presence of health staff (100 vs 92% were significantly better from government health facilities as compared to private health facilities (P < 0.0001. Conclusions: The evaluation of primary healthcare services delivery by DEA technique reveals that the government health facilities group were more efficient in delivery of primary healthcare services as compared to private training health facilities group, which can be further clarified in by more in-depth studies in future.

  8. Efficient training of convolutional deep belief networks in the frequency domain for application to high-resolution 2D and 3D images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosch, Tom; Tam, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Deep learning has traditionally been computationally expensive, and advances in training methods have been the prerequisite for improving its efficiency in order to expand its application to a variety of image classification problems. In this letter, we address the problem of efficient training of convolutional deep belief networks by learning the weights in the frequency domain, which eliminates the time-consuming calculation of convolutions. An essential consideration in the design of the algorithm is to minimize the number of transformations to and from frequency space. We have evaluated the running time improvements using two standard benchmark data sets, showing a speed-up of up to 8 times on 2D images and up to 200 times on 3D volumes. Our training algorithm makes training of convolutional deep belief networks on 3D medical images with a resolution of up to 128×128×128 voxels practical, which opens new directions for using deep learning for medical image analysis.

  9. Forensic efficiency parameters for the 15 STR loci in the population of the island of Cres (Croatia)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Novokmet, Natalija; Marjanović, Damir; Skaro, Vedrana; Projić, Petar; Lauc, Gordan; Grahovac, Blazenka; Mohar, Bojana; Kapović, Miljenko; Rudan, Pavao

    2009-01-01

    Forensic parameters based on 15 AmpFISTR Identifiler short tandem repeat (STR) loci (D8S1179, D21S11, D7S820, CSF1PO, D3S1358, TH01, D13S317, D16S539, D2S1338, D19S433, VWA, TPOX, D18S51, D5S818 and FGA...

  10. Optimization of structure parameters for highly efficient AlGaN based deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Ramit Kumar; Chatterjee, Vijay; Singh, Sumitra; Islam, Sk Masiul; Pal, Suchandan

    2017-12-01

    The efficiency of any LEDs critically depends on its base structure. In this paper, we have reported the dependence of active layer structure on the performance of AlGaN based deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes (LEDs) having emission wavelength at 265 nm which is very crucial for DNA manipulation of most of the water borne harmful pathogens. Advanced device simulations have been performed for the deep UV-LEDs by using SiLENSE module of the SimuLED software tool. We have optimized the number of quantum well, quantum well thickness, aluminum content in electron blocking layer (EBL) and the aluminum content in the barrier region. We have observed that optimization of structural properties plays a crucial role in improving the internal quantum efficiency leading to improvement of overall efficiency of the LEDs. The internal quantum efficiency of the UVsbnd LED having an emission wavelength of 265 nm reaches up to 55% when the number of quantum well is fixed to five and each well has a thickness in the order of 1.8 nm with aluminum content as 95% and 62% in EBL and barrier region respectively.

  11. On a New Efficient Steffensen-Like Iterative Class by Applying a Suitable Self-Accelerator Parameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taher Lotfi

    2014-01-01

    interpolation in such a way that it improves its convergence order from 8 to 12 without any extra function evaluation. Therefore, its efficiency index is increased from 81/4 to 121/4 which is the main feature of this class. To show applicability of the proposed methods, some numerical illustrations are presented.

  12. The effect of isokinetic and proprioception training on strength, movement and gait parameters after acute supination injury of the ankle ligaments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Mucha

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The effects of a three-week isokinetic training compared to typical proprio -ceptive training on parameters of strength, movement and gait function after acute ankle ligament sprain were investigated. Thirty-nine patients were randomly allocated to two comparison groups. In group 1 (n=20a proprioceptive training and in group 2 (n=19 an isokinetic strength training (Cybex 6000® were administered. Thepatients of both groups underwent training five times a week for three weeks. Before and at the end of the treatmentcourse, in both groups isokinetic strength was tested, the range of motion in the ankle joint was recorded and gait wasanalyzed (multicomponent strength measurement platform, Henschel-System®. The maximum isokinetic torque(60°/s [Nm] and the contact time (monopedal support time of the injured leg during gait cycle were the basis for evaluation.The data obtained show that in group 2 a significantly greater increase of the maximum isokinetic torque wasattained in almost all range of motion of the ankle joint in the course of treatment. A t the same time, in group 2 theshortening of the contact time in the stance phase of the injured leg could be compensated. The active range of motionin the ankle joint was less at the end of treatment in group 2 than in group 1. The isokinetic training obviously did notonly lead to better strength regeneration, but also to a functionally more stable ankle joint with a rhythmically moreevenly balanced stance phase of the gait cycle.  These results suggest that the used isokinetic training had positive effects on functional stability after acute ankle sprain.

  13. On the Efficiency of Individualized Theta/Beta Ratio Neurofeedback Combined with Forehead EMG Training in ADHD Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga M. Bazanova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neurofeedback training (NFT to decrease the theta/beta ratio (TBR has been used for treating hyperactivity and impulsivity in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; however, often with low efficiency. Individual variance in EEG profile can confound NFT, because it may lead to influencing non-relevant activity, if ignored. More importantly, it may lead to influencing ADHD-related activities adversely, which may even result in worsening ADHD symptoms. Electromyogenic (EMG signal resulted from forehead muscles can also explain the low efficiency of the NFT in ADHD from both practical and psychological point-of-view. The first aim of this study was to determine EEG and EMG biomarkers most related to the main ADHD characteristics, such as impulsivity and hyperactivity. The second aim was to confirm our hypothesis that the efficiency of the TBR NFT can be increased by individual adjustment of the frequency bands and simultaneous training on forehead muscle tension.Methods: We recruited 94 children diagnosed with ADHD (ADHD and 23 healthy controls (HC. All participants were male and aged between six and nine. Impulsivity and attention were assessed with Go/no-Go task and delayed gratification task, respectively; and 19-channel EEG and forehead EMG were recorded. Then, the ADHD group was randomly subdivided into (1 standard, (2 individualized, (3 individualized+EMG, and (4 sham NFT (control groups. The groups were compared based on TBR and EEG alpha activity, as well as hyperactivity and impulsivity three times: pre-NFT, post-NFT and 6 months after the NFT (follow-up.Results: ADHD children were characterized with decreased individual alpha peak frequency, alpha bandwidth and alpha amplitude suppression magnitude, as well as with increased alpha1/alpha2 (a1/a2 ratio and scalp muscle tension when c (η2 ≥ 0.212. All contingent TBR NFT groups exhibited significant NFT-related decrease in TBR not evident in the control group. Moreover

  14. Energy Cost and Gait Efficiency of Below-Knee Amputee and Normal Subject with Similar Physical Parameters & Quality of Life: A Comparative Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durbadal Biswas

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The study focused on the comparative analysis of energy cost and gait efficiency between a below knee (BK amputee and a reference subject (without amputation. It also attempted to indicate the specific feature responsible for a controlled gait with optimum energy cost for BK amputees. Selection criteria of the subjects were similar physical parameters and quality of life studied with WHOQOL-100 quality of life assessment. A Cosmed® k4 b2 Respiratory Analyzer system was used for the measurement of Oxygen Uptake (VO2, Energy Expenditure per minute (EE and Heart Rate (HR. Gait efficiency (p < 0.0002 was found higher for BK amputee than normal subject. The therapeutic activities and mainly walking rhythm contributed to improve the mobility & balance. This ensures the optimum time & co-ordination of movements and hence improves the gait efficiency for the BK amputee. Comparison with control group was performed to validate the data.

  15. Correlation of structure parameters of absorber layer with efficiency of Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balboul, M.R.; Fayak, S.A. [National Center for Radiation Research and Technology (NCRRT), Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt); Schock, H.W.; Werner, J.H. [University of Stuttgart, Institute of Physical Electronics (IPE), Stuttgart (Germany); El-Aal, A.A.; Ramadan, A.A. [Faculty of Science, Helween University, Department of Physics, Cairo (Egypt)

    2008-08-15

    Polycrystalline Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} with Ga-content x=Ga/(In+Ga) ranging from 0.0 (CuInSe{sub 2}) to 1.0 (CuGaSe{sub 2}) in heterojunction thin film solar cells were grown by multi-source evaporation. Solar cells with a highest efficiency of {eta}=15.3% need a composition of x{approx}0.2. At this composition, the c/a ratio of the lattice constants for the tetragonal lattice equals c/a=2, indicating ideal tetragonality. These results suggest that low electronic defect densities occur at x{approx}0.2, due to the smallest possible crystallographic distortion of the tetragonal lattice at this composition. Cells with high efficiencies require grain sizes above 145 nm and a high preferred orientation (P{sub 204}/P{sub 220} pole density ratio) for the grains. (orig.)

  16. Small Sample Properties of Asymptotically Efficient Estimators of the Parameters of a Bivariate Gaussian–Weibull Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steve P. Verrill; James W. Evans; David E. Kretschmann; Cherilyn A. Hatfield

    2012-01-01

    Two important wood properties are stiffness (modulus of elasticity or MOE) and bending strength (modulus of rupture or MOR). In the past, MOE has often been modeled as a Gaussian and MOR as a lognormal or a two or three parameter Weibull. It is well known that MOE and MOR are positively correlated. To model the simultaneous behavior of MOE and MOR for the purposes of...

  17. Dynamic problem selection in air traffic control training : A comparison between performance, mental effort and mental efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camp, Gino; Paas, Fred; Rikers, Remy; van Merrienboer, Jeroen

    2001-01-01

    The differential effects on training and training outcome of four methods of problem selection were investigated in a computer-based training for air traffic control. In one method, training problems were given to the participants in a fixed predetermined sequence, from simple to complex. In the

  18. Correlation of particular bacterial PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis patterns with bovine ruminal fermentation parameters and feed efficiency traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Sanabria, Emma; Guan, Le Luo; Goonewardene, Laksiri A; Li, Meiju; Mujibi, Denis F; Stothard, Paul; Moore, Stephen S; Leon-Quintero, Monica C

    2010-10-01

    The influence of rumen microbial structure and functions on host physiology remains poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate the interaction between the ruminal microflora and the host by correlating bacterial diversity with fermentation measurements and feed efficiency traits, including dry matter intake, feed conversion ratio, average daily gain, and residual feed intake, using culture-independent methods. Universal bacterial partial 16S rRNA gene products were amplified from ruminal fluid collected from 58 steers raised under a low-energy diet and were subjected to PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis. Multivariate statistical analysis was used to relate specific PCR-DGGE bands to various feed efficiency traits and metabolites. Analysis of volatile fatty acid profiles showed that butyrate was positively correlated with daily dry matter intake (P residual feed intake (P energy diet. This is the first study correlating PCR-DGGE bands representing specific bacteria to metabolites in the bovine rumen and to host feed efficiency traits.

  19. Continuous One-Arm Kettlebell Swing Training on Physiological Parameters in US Air Force Personnel: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Molly; O'Hara, Reginald; Caldwell, Lydia; Ordway, Jason; Bryant, Darryn

    The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effects of continuous one-arm kettlebell (KB) swing training on various US Air Force physical fitness testing components. Thirty trained male (n = 15) and female (n = 15) US Air Force (USAF) personnel volunteered and were sequentially assigned to one of three groups based on 1.5-mile run time: (1) KB one-arm swing training, (2) KB one-arm swing training plus highintensity running (KB + run), and (3) traditional USAF physical training (PT) according to Air Force Instruction 36-2905. The following measurements were made before and after 10 weeks of training: 1.5-mile run, 1-minute maximal push-ups, 1-minute maximal situps, maximal grip strength, pro agility, vertical jump, 40-yard dash, bodyweight, and percent body fat. Subjects attended three supervised exercise sessions per week for 10 weeks. During each exercise session, all groups performed a 10-minute dynamic warm-up followed by either (1) 10 minutes of continuous KB swings, (2) 10 minutes of continuous kettlebell swings plus 10 minutes of high-intensity running, or (3) 20 minutes of moderate intensity running plus push-ups and sit-ups. Average and peak heart rate were recorded for each subject after all sessions. Paired t tests were conducted to detect changes from pretesting to posttesting within each group and analysis of variance was used to compare between-group variability (ρ ≤ .05). Twenty subjects completed the study. There were no statistically significant changes in 1.5-mile run time between or within groups. The 40- yard dash significantly improved within the KB swing (ρ ≤ .05) and KB + run group (ρ ≤ .05); however, there were no significant differences in the traditional PT group (ρ ≤ .05) or between groups. Maximal push-ups significantly improved in the KB + run group (ρ ≤ .05) and trends toward significant improvements in maximal push-ups were found in both the KB (ρ = .057) and traditional PT (ρ = .067) groups. This study

  20. Effects of robot-assisted gait training on spatiotemporal gait parameters and balance in patients with chronic stroke: A randomized controlled pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Dae-Hyouk; Shin, Won-Seob

    2016-04-06

    Body weight-supported treadmill training assisted by a robotic gait orthosis is a helpful tool for restoring a symmetrical gait pattern in people with gait discrepancies. This study's aim was to compare the effects of robot-assisted gait training (RAGT) versus treadmill gait training (TGT) on spatiotemporal gait parameters, balance, and activities-specific balance confidence with stroke patients. Eighteen participants with stroke were randomly assigned to RAGT or TGT. Each group underwent twenty sessions (1 h/d, 5 d/wk for 4 weeks). Patients were assessed with gait parameters (gait speed, cadence, step length, and double limb support period) using the GAITRite, the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) score, and the activities-specific balance confidence (ABC) score before and after the intervention. Gait speed (P = 0.003), cadence (P = 0.002), step length (P = 0.004), the BBS score (P = 0.048), and the ABC score (P = 0.017) were significantly higher in the RAGT group than in the TGT group, while the double limb support period was significantly lower in the RAGT group (P = 0.043). RAGT using Lokomat may be more effective than TGT in improving waking ability, balance, and balance confidence in patients with chronic stroke.

  1. PCI coals: quality parameters for an efficient usage; Carvoes para PCI: parametros de qualidade para uma utilizacao eficiente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcombe, D.; Coin, C.D.A. [Australian Coal Industry Research Labs., Riverview, QLD (Australia); Caldeira Filho, J.G [P.D.C.A. Consultoria Empresarial, Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil)

    1996-12-31

    The technology of chemical reduction in blast furnaces has been presenting an increase in coke injection rates during the last five years. Even though the blast furnaces have been achieving excellent production rates, there is still a discussion in the community concerning which types of coke are more appropriate to the operation as well as the limits of coke injection through the blasts. This work discusses the role of PCI in metallurgy as well as its limitations giving special emphasis to the several quality parameters in the process 16 refs., 2 tabs.

  2. Genetic parameters and expected responses to selection for components of feed efficiency in a Duroc pig line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Juan P; Ragab, Mohamed; Quintanilla, Raquel; Rothschild, Max F; Piles, Miriam

    2017-12-01

    Improving feed efficiency ([Formula: see text]) is a key factor for any pig breeding company. Although this can be achieved by selection on an index of multi-trait best linear unbiased prediction of breeding values with optimal economic weights, considering deviations of feed intake from actual needs ([Formula: see text]) should be of value for further research on biological aspects of [Formula: see text]. Here, we present a random regression model that extends the classical definition of [Formula: see text] by including animal-specific needs in the model. Using this model, we explore the genetic determinism of several [Formula: see text] components: use of feed for growth ([Formula: see text]), use of feed for backfat deposition ([Formula: see text]), use of feed for maintenance ([Formula: see text]), and unspecific efficiency in the use of feed ([Formula: see text]). Expected response to alternative selection indexes involving different components is also studied. Based on goodness-of-fit to the available feed intake ([Formula: see text]) data, the model that assumes individual (genetic and permanent) variation in the use of feed for maintenance, [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] showed the best performance. Joint individual variation in feed allocation to maintenance, growth and backfat deposition comprised 37% of the individual variation of [Formula: see text]. The estimated heritabilities of [Formula: see text] using the model that accounts for animal-specific needs and the traditional [Formula: see text] model were 0.12 and 0.18, respectively. The estimated heritabilities for the regression coefficients were 0.44, 0.39 and 0.55 for [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], respectively. Estimates of genetic correlations of [Formula: see text] were positive with amount of feed used for [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] but negative for [Formula: see text]. Expected response in overall efficiency, reducing [Formula

  3. Cardiac acceleration at the onset of exercise: a potential parameter for monitoring progress during physical training in sports and rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettinga, Florentina J; Monden, Paul G; van Meeteren, Nico L U; Daanen, Hein A M

    2014-05-01

    There is a need for easy-to-use methods to assess training progress in sports and rehabilitation research. The present review investigated whether cardiac acceleration at the onset of physical exercise (HRonset) can be used as a monitoring variable. The digital databases of Scopus and PubMed were searched to retrieve studies investigating HRonset. In total 652 studies were retrieved. These articles were then classified as having emphasis on HRonset in a sports or rehabilitation setting, which resulted in 8 of 112 studies with a sports application and 6 of 68 studies with a rehabilitation application that met inclusion criteria. Two co-existing mechanisms underlie HRonset: feedforward (central command) and feedback (mechanoreflex, metaboreflex, baroreflex) control. A number of studies investigated HRonset during the first few seconds of exercise (HRonsetshort), in which central command and the mechanoreflex determine vagal withdrawal, the major mechanism by which heart rate (HR) increases. In subsequent sports and rehabilitation studies, interest focused on HRonset during dynamic exercise over a longer period of time (HRonsetlong). Central command, mechanoreflexes, baroreflexes, and possibly metaboreflexes contribute to HRonset during the first seconds and minutes of exercise, which in turn leads to further vagal withdrawal and an increase in sympathetic activity. HRonset has been described as the increase in HR compared with resting state (delta HR) or by exponential modeling, with measurement intervals ranging from 0-4 s up to 2 min. Delta HR was used to evaluate HRonsetshort over the first 4 s of exercise, as well as for analyzing HRonsetlong. In exponential modeling, the HR response to dynamic exercise is biphasic, consisting of fast (parasympathetic, 0-10 s) and slow (sympathetic, 1-4 min) components. Although available studies differed largely in measurement protocols, cross-sectional and longitudinal training studies showed that studies analyzing HRonset

  4. Erythrocyte-mediated delivery of pravastatin: in vitro study of effect of hypotonic lysis on biochemical parameters and loading efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harisa, Gamaleldin I; Ibrahim, Mohamed F; Alanazi, Fars K

    2012-08-01

    Exposure of erythrocytes to hypotonic lysis creates pores in the cell membrane, through which pravastatin can enter and become trapped, after resealing them with a suitable buffer. We investigated the effects of tonicity, incubation time and drug concentration on drug loading into erythrocytes. Furthermore, we investigate the effects of pravastatin on erythrocyte oxidative stress markers and osmotic fragility behavior. Encapsulation was achieved using buffer solutions of different tonicities (0.5, 0.6 and 0.7% NaCl) and different drug concentrations (2, 4, 8 and 10 mg/mL) for a range of incubation times (15, 30, 60 and 120 min). The results demonstrated that controlled hypotonic lysis could entrap pravastatin in human erythrocytes, with acceptable loading parameters. The highest loading (34%) was achieved at 0.6% NaCl and 10 mg/mL pravastatin for 60 min incubation. At this pravastatin concentration, oxidative stress markers were similar to those seen in controls, and fragility and hematological parameters were unaffected in drug-loaded erythrocytes. These results indicate that the loading process and pravastatin concentration had no deleterious effects on the structure of pravastatin-loaded erythrocytes, suggesting that they may therefore have a similar life span to normal cells. Pravastatin-loaded erythrocytes may thus provide an effective extended-release-delivery system for pravastatin.

  5. Interactions between minimum run time, modifier concentration, and efficiency parameters in a high performance liquid chromatography separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, T L; Stalcup, A M

    2011-01-14

    We modeled and studied the separation of uracil, nicotinamide, resorcinol, theobromine, theophylline, and caffeine on four C-18 columns of different lengths packed with the same stationary phase using water/methanol mobile phase at one temperature. Predictions of retention times and peak widths were compared with experimental results and were found to be sufficiently accurate for performing optimization calculations. With limits set on the required resolution and on maximum values for pressure and flow rate, calculations were performed for numerous virtual column lengths seeking the smallest possible analysis time for each length while allowing methanol concentration and flow rate to vary as required to minimize run time. Predictions were experimentally verified for the column lengths actually available. These calculations revealed the dependence of best-possible analysis time on column length, modifier concentration, flow rate, and pressure for the real system that was modeled, and provided insight into parameter interactions with respect to analysis times meeting the needs and limits specified. We show that when these parameters are considered in concert, rather than individually, conventional guidelines regarding setting their values may not always lead to the optimum. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Optimization of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Extraction Efficiency Parameters for Sub- and Supercritical Water Extraction (SCWE) Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Asahi A.

    2005-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are a class of molecules composed of multiple, bonded benzene rings. As PAHS are believed to be present on Mars, positive confirmation of their presence on Mars is highly desirable. To extract PAHS, which have low volatility, a fluid extraction method is ideal, and one that does not utilize organic solvents is especially ideal for in situ instrumental analysis. The use of water as a solvent, which at subcritical pressures and temperatures is relatively non-Polar, has significant potential. As SCWE instruments have not yet been commercialized, all instruments are individually-built research prototypes: thus, initial efforts were intended to determine if extraction efficiencies on the JPL-built laboratory-scale SCWE instrument are comparable to differing designs built elsewhere. Samples of soil with certified reference concentrations of PAHs were extracted using SCWE as well as conventional Soxhlet extraction. Continuation of the work would involve extractions on JPL'S newer, portable SCWE instrument prototype to determine its efficiency in extracting PAHs.

  7. Acute effects of high-intensity interval training and moderate-intensity continuous training sessions on cardiorespiratory parameters in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaun, Gustavo Zaccaria; Alberton, Cristine Lima; Ribeiro, Diego Oliveira; Pinto, Stephanie Santana

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the energy expenditure (EE) during and after two treadmill protocols, high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate continuous training (CONT), in young adult men. The sample was comprised by 26 physically active men aged between 18 and 35 years engaged in aerobic training programs. They were divided into two groups: HIIT (n = 14) which performed eight 20 s bouts at 130% of the velocity associated with the maximal oxygen consumption on a treadmill with 10 s of passive rest, or CONT (n = 12) which performed 30 min running on a treadmill at a submaximal velocity equivalent to 90-95% of the heart rate associated with the anaerobic threshold. Data related to oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]) and EE were measured during the protocols and the excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) was calculated for both sessions. No difference was found between groups for mean [Formula: see text] (HIIT: 2.84 ± 0.46 L min-1; CONT: 2.72 ± 0.43 L min-1) and EE per minute (HIIT: 14.36 ± 2.34 kcal min-1; CONT: 13.21 ± 2.08 kcal min-1) during protocols. Regarding total EE during session, CONT resulted in higher values compared to HIIT (390.45 ± 65.15; 55.20 ± 9.33 kcal, respectively). However, post-exercise EE and EPOC values were higher after HIIT (69.31 ± 10.88; 26.27 ± 2.28 kcal, respectively) compared to CONT (55.99 ± 10.20; 13.43 ± 10.45 kcal, respectively). These data suggest that supramaximal HIIT has a higher impact on EE and EPOC in the early phase of recovery when compared to CONT.

  8. Effect of training on weight and certain physiological parameters of Indian female hockey players with respect to their field positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokha, R; Sidhu, L S; Kaur, G; Singh, J

    1990-12-01

    The present study was conducted on 18 female players of the Punjabi University hockey team during their camp held at Punjabi University from 4.10.1988 to 24.10.1988; before participating in the Inter-varsity competition held at Ranchi. Weight, heart rate and blood pressure of each subject was taken before doing the exercise on the treadmill. The players were asked to run on the treadmill for four minutes at the speed of 10 km/hr. Recovery heart rate and blood pressure were also taken. All these tests were taken twice on each player, i.e. initially at the commencement of the training and finally at the completion of the training camp. It has been observed that there is a reduction of body weight in all the categories of players, the maximum being in halves (2.5 kg). There is an improvement in the percentage recovery in the heart rates of all the categories of players except the halves where the recovery is much less at the end of the training camp as compared to the values in the beginning of the camp.

  9. Effects of supplemental training on fitness and aesthetic competence parameters in contemporary dance: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angioi, Manuela; Metsios, George; Twitchett, Emily A; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Wyon, Matthew

    2012-03-01

    Within aesthetic sports such as figure skating and rhythmic gymnastics, physical fitness has been shown to have positive benefits on performance outcomes. Presently the link between physical fitness and aesthetic contemporary dance performance has not been demonstrated within an intervention study. In this study, 24 females engaged in contemporary dance (age 27 ± 5.9 yrs; height 165.3 ± 4.8 cm; weight 59.2 ± 7.6 kg) were recruited and randomly assigned to either an exercise (n = 12) or a control group (n = 12). Three dancers withdrew during the study. The intervention group completed a 6-week conditioning programme comprising two 1-hr sessions of circuit and vibration training per week. The circuit training focused on local muscular endurance and aerobic conditioning and vibration training protocol concentrated on power. Repeated measures ANOVA revealed significant increases for the conditioning group in lower body muscular power (11%), upper body muscular endurance (22%), aerobic fitness (11%), and aesthetic competence (12%) (p dance commitments, revealed significant increases in selected fitness components and a concomitant increase in aesthetic competence in contemporary professional and student dancers.

  10. Dynamic Contractility and Efficiency Impairments in Stretch-Shortening Cycle Are Stretch-Load-Dependent After Training-Induced Muscle Damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaczi, Mark; Racz, Levente; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Tihanyi, Jozsef

    Vaczi, M, Racz, L, Hortobagyi, T, and Tihanyi, J. Dynamic contractility and efficiency impairments in stretch-shortening cycle are stretch-load-dependent after training-induced muscle damage. J Strength Cond Res 27(8): 2171-2179, 2013To determine the acute task and stretch-load dependency of

  11. High Intensity Interval versus Moderate Intensity Continuous Training in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease: A Meta-analysis of Physiological and Clinical Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Kevin; Ho, Suyen; Fildes, Jennifer; Ooi, Sze-Yuan

    2016-02-01

    Exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation for patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) significantly improves their outcome, although the optimal mode of exercise training remains undetermined. Previous analyses have been constrained by small sample sizes and a limited focus on clinical parameters. Further, results from previous studies have been contradicted by a recently published large RCT. We performed a meta-analysis of published randomised controlled trials to compare high intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate intensity continuous training (MCT) in their ability to improve patients' aerobic exercise capacity (VO2peak) and various cardiovascular risk factors. We included patients with established coronary artery disease without or without impaired ejection fraction. Ten studies with 472 patients were included for analyses (218 HIIT, 254 MCT). Overall, HIIT was associated with a more pronounced incremental gain in participants' mean VO2peak when compared with MCT (+1.78mL/kg/min, 95% CI: 0.45-3.11). Moderate intensity continuous training however was associated with a more marked decline in patients' mean resting heart rate (-1.8/min, 95% CI: 0.71-2.89) and body weight (-0.48kg, 95% CI: 0.15-0.81). No significant differences were noted in the level of glucose, triglyceride and HDL at the end of exercise program between the two groups. High intensity interval training improves the mean VO2peak in patients with CAD more than MCT, although MCT was associated with a more pronounced numerical decline in patients' resting heart rate and body weight. The underlying mechanisms and clinical relevance of these results are uncertain, and remain a potential focus for future studies. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of supervised aerobic exercise training on serum adiponectin and parameters of lipid and glucose metabolism in subjects with moderate dyslipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Toshitsugu; Suto, Michiko; Kurosawa, Hideo; Hirowatari, Yuji; Ito, Kumie; Yanai, Hidekatsu; Tada, Norio; Suzuki, Masato

    2010-11-27

    To examine the effects of supervised aerobic exercise training on serum adiponectin and lipids, including triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoproteins, in moderate dyslipidemic subjects. Twenty-five dyslipidemic patients [mean body mass index (BMI)=24.6 kg/m²; mean age= 39 years; mean total cholesterol=226 mg/dL; mean TG=149 mg/dL] without metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and hypertension underwent supervised aerobic exercise training (60 min/day, 2 to 3 times/week) at an intensity of 60-80% of age-predicted maximal heart rate for 16 weeks. Lipoprotein cholesterol levels were measured by our established anion-exchange HPLC method. Aerobic exercise training significantly decreased BMI, cholesterol levels of LDL- and IDL-, and markedly reduced VLDL-cholesterol at week 8 (-45%) and week 16 (-50%), but changes in TG and HDL-cholesterol were not significant. Adiponectin significantly increased by 51% and HOMA-R was significantly decreased at week 16, although changes in these parameters were not significant at week 8. There was no significant relationship between changes in adiponectin and in VLDL- or IDL- cholesterol, but changes in adiponectin were inversely but insignificantly associated with changes in BMI (r=-0.343, p=0.095). These results suggest that supervised aerobic exercise training two to three times/week in the presence of body weight loss increases serum adiponectin with an improved lipid profile and insulin sensitivity at week 16 in non-obese moderate dyslipidemic patients, and that VLDL-cholesterol is markedly decreased by supervised aerobic exercise training.

  13. Effects of boundary conditions on the cleaning efficiency of riverbank filtration and artificial groundwater recharge systems regarding bulk parameters and trace pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storck, Florian R; Schmidt, Carsten K; Wülser, Richard; Brauch, Heinz-Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    Drinking water is often produced from surface water by riverbank filtration (RBF) or artificial groundwater recharge (AGR). In this study, an AGR system was exemplarily investigated and results were compared with those of RBF systems, in which the effects of redox milieu, temperature and surface water discharge on the cleaning efficiency were evaluated. Besides bulk parameters such as DOC (dissolved organic carbon), organic trace pollutants including iodinated X-ray contrast media, personal care products, complexing agents, and pharmaceuticals were investigated. At all studied sites, levels of TOC (total organic carbon), DOC, AOX (adsorbable organic halides), SAC (spectral absorption coefficient at 254 nm), and turbidity were reduced significantly. DOC removal was stimulated at higher groundwater temperatures during AGR. Several substances were generally easily removable during both AGR and RBF, regardless of the site, season, discharge or redox regime. For some more refractory substances, however, removal efficiency turned out to be significantly influenced by redox conditions.

  14. Energy efficiency analysis of two-sided feed scheme of DC traction network with high asymmetry of feeders parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, E. Y.; Sopov, V. I.

    2017-10-01

    In a given research using the example of traction network area with high asymmetry of power supply parameters, the sequence of comparative assessment of power losses in DC traction network with parallel and traditional separated operating modes of traction substation feeders was shown. Experimental measurements were carried out under these modes of operation. The calculation data results based on statistic processing showed the power losses decrease in contact network and the increase in feeders. The changes proved to be critical ones and this demonstrates the significance of potential effects when converting traction network areas into parallel feeder operation. An analytical method of calculation the average power losses for different feed schemes of the traction network was developed. On its basis, the dependences of the relative losses were obtained by varying the difference in feeder voltages. The calculation results showed unreasonableness transition to a two-sided feed scheme for the considered traction network area. A larger reduction in the total power loss can be obtained with a smaller difference of the feeders’ resistance and / or a more symmetrical sectioning scheme of contact network.

  15. Theoretical and experimental influence of aerosol assisted CVD parameters on the microstructural properties of magnetite nanoparticles and their response on the removal efficiency of arsenic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernández-Salcedo, P.G.; Amézaga-Madrid, P., E-mail: patricia.amezaga@cimav.edu.mx; Monárrez-Cordero, B.E.; Antúnez-Flores, W.; Pizá-Ruiz, P.; Leyva-Porras, C.; Ornelas-Gutiérrez, C.; Miki-Yoshida, M.

    2015-09-15

    The development and optimization of methodologies to generate magnetite nanoparticles is currently an innovation topic. For a desired application such as arsenic removal from waste water, the generation of these nanostructures with specific microstructural properties is determinant. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the phenomenon during the nanoparticles formation process. Thus, in this work it is reported the influence of synthesis parameters of AACVD technique on the formation of magnetite nanoparticles. Parameters were according to: (1) synthesis temperature, (2) tubular reactor diameter, (3) concentration of the precursor solution and type of solvent, (4) carrier gas flow and (5) solvent type in the collection process. The effect of these synthesis parameters on the morphology, size and microstructure are discussed in detail and related with the mechanism of formation of the particles. Theoretical simulations were performed on two of these parameters (1 and 4). The microstructure and surface morphology of the different nanostructures obtained were characterized by field emission scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy. Subsequently two materials, were selected for further microstructural analysis. Finally, to determine the removal efficiency in the two materials the arsenic adsorption was evaluated. A major contribution of this work was the calculation of the number of spherical particles formed from a single drop of precursor solution. This calculation matched with the value found experimentally.

  16. Characterization of Biosensors Based on Recombinant Glutamate Oxidase: Comparison of Crosslinking Agents in Terms of Enzyme Loading and Efficiency Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochelle Ford

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Amperometric l-glutamate (Glu biosensors, based on both wild-type and a recombinant form of l-glutamate oxidase (GluOx, were designed and characterized in terms of enzyme-kinetic, sensitivity and stability parameters in attempts to fabricate a real-time Glu monitoring device suitable for future long-term detection of this amino acid in biological and other complex media. A comparison of the enzyme from these two sources showed that they were similar in terms of biosensor performance. Optimization of the loading of the polycationic stabilization agent, polyethyleneimine (PEI, was established before investigating a range of crosslinking agents under different conditions: glutaraldehyde (GA, polyethylene glycol (PEG, and polyethylene glycol diglycidyl ether (PEGDE. Whereas PEI-free biosensor designs lost most of their meager Glu sensitivity after one or two days, configurations with a 2:5 ratio of dip-evaporation applications of PEI(1%:GluOx(400 U/mL displayed a 20-fold increase in their initial sensitivity, and a decay half-life extended to 10 days. All the crosslinkers studied had no effect on initial Glu sensitivity, but enhanced biosensor stability, provided the crosslinking procedure was carried out under well-defined conditions. The resulting biosensor design based on the recombinant enzyme deposited on a permselective layer of poly-(ortho-phenylenediamine, PoPD/PEI2/GluOx5/PEGDE, displayed good sensitivity (LOD < 0.2 μM, response time (t90% < 1 s and stability over a 90-day period, making it an attractive candidate for future long-term monitoring of Glu concentration dynamics in complex media.

  17. Genetic parameter estimation of postweaning gain, feed intake, and feed efficiency for Hereford and Angus bulls fed two different diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, L Q; Bailey, D R; Shannon, N H

    1995-02-01

    Postweaning gain performance and individual feed intake on 271 Hereford and 263 Angus bulls were recorded during three 168-d test periods from 1984 to 1986. Each breed was composed of two lines and within each breed bulls were fed either a high-energy (HD) or a medium-energy (MD) diet. Energy intake was partitioned into energy for maintenance and growth based on predicted individual animal requirements. Estimates of heritability were obtained using Restricted Maximum Likelihood with an individual animal model including fixed effects of year, diet, and covariates of initial weight and backfat change by breed and with line effects for overall data. Bulls fed the HD grew faster and had higher metabolizable energy intake per day (MEI), residual feed consumption (RFC), and gross and net feed efficiency (FE and NFE) (P heritability for Hereford and Angus bulls, respectively, were .46 and .16 for 200-d weaning weight (WWT), .16 and .43 for average daily gain (ADG), .19 and .31 for intake per day (MEI), .43 and .45 for yearling weight (YWT), .07 and .23 for RFC, .08 and .35 for FE, and .14 and .28 for NFE. Genetic and phenotypic correlations between MEI and ADG, MEI and YWT, ADG and YWT, ADG and FE, YWT and FE, and FE and NFE were moderately to highly positive for both breeds. Negative genetic and phenotypic correlations between NFE and ADG show partial correlations of FE with ADG after accounting for energy requirement for maintenance. Residual feed consumption was negatively associated with YWT, FE, and NFE, indicating a possible genetic improvement.

  18. Effects of short-term Nordic walking training on sarcopenia-related parameters in women with low bone mass: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ossowski ZM

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Zbigniew Marcin Ossowski,1 Wojciech Skrobot,2 Piotr Aschenbrenner,3 Vida Janina Cesnaitiene,4 Miroslaw Smaruj3 1Department of Health Promotion, 2Department of Kinesiology, 3Department of Physical Education, Gdansk University of Physical Education and Sport, Gdansk, Poland; 4Department of Health, Physical and Social, Lithuanian Sports University, Kaunas, Lithuania Background: Several studies have demonstrated the positive effects of physical activity on skeletal muscle mass and muscle strength in women with osteoporosis. However, the impact of Nordic walking training on sarcopenia-related parameters in women with low bone mass remains unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of 12 weeks of Nordic walking training on skeletal muscle index, muscle strength, functional mobility, and functional performance in women with low bone mass. Materials and methods: The participants were 45 women, aged 63–79 years, with osteopenia or osteoporosis. The subjects were randomly assigned either to an experimental group (12 weeks of Nordic walking training, three times a week or to a control group. Skeletal muscle mass and other body composition factors were measured with octapolar bioimpedance InBody 720 analyser. Knee extensor and flexor isometric muscle strength were measured using Biodex System 4 Pro™ dynamometers. This study also used a SAEHAN Digital Hand Dynamometer to measure handgrip muscle strength. The timed up-and-go test was used to measure functional mobility, and the 6-minute walk test was used to measure functional performance. Results: Short-term Nordic walking training induced a significant increase in skeletal muscle mass (P=0.007, skeletal muscle index (P=0.007, strength index of the knee extensor (P=0.016, flexor (P<0.001, functional mobility (P<0.001, and functional performance (P<0.001 and a significant decrease in body mass (P=0.006, body mass index (P<0.001, and percent body fat (P<0.001 in participants

  19. Efficiency of primary saliva secretion: an analysis of parameter dependence in dynamic single-cell and acinus models, with application to aquaporin knockout studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclaren, Oliver J.; Sneyd, James; Crampin, Edmund J.

    2012-01-01

    Secretion from the salivary glands is driven by osmosis following the establishment of osmotic gradients between the lumen, the cell and the interstitium by active ion transport. We consider a dynamic model of osmotically-driven primary saliva secretion, and use singular perturbation approaches and scaling assumptions to reduce the model. Our analysis shows that isosmotic secretion is the most efficient secretion regime, and that this holds for single isolated cells and for multiple cells assembled into an acinus. For typical parameter variations, we rule out any significant synergistic effect on total water secretion of an acinar arrangement of cells about a single shared lumen. Conditions for the attainment of isosmotic secretion are considered, and we derive an expression for how the concentration gradient between the interstitium and the lumen scales with water and chloride transport parameters. Aquaporin knockout studies are interpreted in the context of our analysis and further investigated using simulations of transport efficiency with different membrane water permeabilities. We conclude that recent claims that aquaporin knockout studies can be interpreted as evidence against a simple osmotic mechanism are not supported by our work. Many of the results that we obtain are independent of specific transporter details, and our analysis can be easily extended to apply to models that use other proposed ionic mechanisms of saliva secretion. PMID:22258315

  20. Change in inflammatory parameters in prefrail and frail persons obtaining physical training and nutritional support provided by lay volunteers: A randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Haider

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare the effects of home visits with physical training and nutritional support on inflammatory parameters to home visits with social support alone within a randomized controlled trial. Prefrail and frail persons received home visits from lay volunteers twice a week for 12 weeks. Participants in the physical training and nutritional intervention group (PTN, n = 35 conducted two sets of six strength exercises and received nutritional support. The social support group (SoSu, n = 23 received visits only. TNF-α, IL-6, CRP, and total leukocyte count were assessed at baseline and after 12 weeks. Changes over time within groups were analyzed with paired t-tests; differences between groups were analyzed with ANCOVA for repeated measurements. In the PTN group, IL-6 and CRP remained stable, whereas in the SoSu group, IL-6 increased significantly from a median value of 2.6 pg/l (min-max = 2.0-10.2 to 3.0 pg/l (min-max = 2.0-20.8, and CRP rose from 0.2 mg/dl (min-max = 0.1-0.9 to 0.3 mg/dl (min-max = 0.1-3.0 after 12 weeks. In CRP, a significant difference between groups was found. TNF-α and total leukocyte count did not change in either the PTN group or the SoSu group. Persons showing an increase in physical performance (OR 4.54; 95% CI = 1.33-15.45 were more likely to have constant or decreased IL-6 values than persons who showed no improvement. In conclusion, in non-robust older adults, a physical training and nutritional support program provided by lay volunteers can delay a further increase in some inflammatory parameters.

  1. Efficiency increasing of training process on basic technique of wrestler's motor actions in free style at the initial stage with using of computer technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tupeev Y.V.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Possibilities of use of computer technologies in a system of preparation of fighters on a pioneering stage are exhibited. 10 competent sportsmen, 20 trainers of the maximum grade participated in experiment, 10 fighters of a freestyle of the first grade level. Directions of raise of a learning efficiency base the mechanic of impellent operations of juvenile fighters designated. The frame of the designed informational - methodical program "Champion" is presented. Productivity of information technologies in training base the mechanic of impellent operations in training process of juvenile fighters is defined.

  2. Modeling precipitation use efficiency of winter wheat using climatic parameters, soil properties and topographic indices in a semiarid region, Khodabandeh County, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaei, Fatemeh; Vaezi, AliReza; Taheri, Mehdi; Zarrinabadi, Ehsan

    2017-04-01

    Improved understanding of the impact of crucial factors affecting on rainfed wheat precipitation use efficiency (PUE), is needed to cope with increasing demands for sustainable agriculture in semiarid regions. The present research has assessed the effects of climatic parameters, soil physiochemical characteristics and topographic indices on wheat gain yield (WGY), PUE and effective precipitation use efficiency (PUEe) of rainfed winter wheat in a research over rainfed wheat croplands of Khodabandeh County. Therefore, 289 soil samples were collected from rainfed winter wheat croplands in two replicates, totally 578 soil samples, within the county of Khodanbandeh, in (2013-2014). Also, the WGY was measured in each cropland that year. Environmental variables including some soil physiochemical characteristics, topographic indices derived from digital terrain analysis and climatic parameters including growth season precipitation and air temperature were analyzed to develop a proper model to represent WGY, PUE and PUEe. Similar to the first study, the data was divided into two dataset: model (n=238) and test dataset (n=60) and the decision tree was used to develop the best suitable model to describe WGY, PUE and PUEe. The results indicated that CK using slope as auxiliary variable played as the best model to describe the spatial variation of WGY (n=60, R2=0.92, RMSE= 77.78 kg ha-1). Although, MLR combining principal component analysis (PCA) was able to describe PUE significantly (n=238, R2=0.28, P 1.34 kg ha-1 mm-1). Similarly, PUEe was modeled significantly (n=238, R2=0.25, Pproperties in PUE determination. Among all models Kr and CK performed better than other spatial interpolation models. In order to the lacking of reliable climatic data especially in small scales, and complexity of effective parameters, accurate spatially modelling of PUE and PUEe appears difficult.

  3. High-intensity interval training (HIT) for effective and time-efficient pre-surgical exercise interventions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weston, Matthew; Weston, Kathryn L; Prentis, James M; Snowden, Chris P

    2016-01-01

    .... Indeed, the general benefits of exercise training have the potential to pre-operatively optimise several pre-surgical risks factors, including cardiorespiratory function, frailty and cognitive function...

  4. Reproducibility of parameter learning with missing observations in naive Wnt Bayesian network trained on colorectal cancer samples and doxycycline-treated cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Shriprakash

    2015-07-01

    In this manuscript the reproducibility of parameter learning with missing observations in a naive Bayesian network and its effect on the prediction results for Wnt signaling activation in colorectal cancer is tested. The training of the network is carried out separately on doxycycline-treated LS174T cell lines (GSE18560) as well as normal and adenoma samples (GSE8671). A computational framework to test the reproducibility of the parameters is designed in order check the veracity of the prediction results. Detailed experimental analysis suggests that the prediction results are accurate and reproducible with negligible deviations. Anomalies in estimated parameters are accounted for due to the representation issues of the Bayesian network model. High prediction accuracies are reported for normal (N) and colon-related adenomas (AD), colorectal cancer (CRC), carcinomas (C), adenocarcinomas (ADC) and replication error colorectal cancer (RER CRC) test samples. Test samples from inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) do not fare well in the prediction test. Also, an interesting case regarding hypothesis testing came up while proving the statistical significance of the different design setups of the Bayesian network model. It was found that hypothesis testing may not be the correct way to check the significance between design setups, especially when the structure of the model is the same, given that the model is trained on a single piece of test data. The significance test does have value when the datasets are independent. Finally, in comparison to the biologically inspired models, the naive Bayesian model may give accurate results, but this accuracy comes at the cost of a loss of crucial biological knowledge which might help reveal hidden relations among intra/extracellular factors affecting the Wnt pathway.

  5. Examining the Effects of Long Term Exercise Training on Some Physical and Physiological Parameters of 12 - 15 Years Old Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeliz ÖZVEREN

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to make a determination about the case, by searching physical and physiological parameters with Eurofit tests of boy students at İzmir. The research was made on the age group of 12 - 15 years old, volunteer 1002 boy students who are studying at primary schools; those were chosen randomly in Karabağlar, Konak and Buca boroughs in İzmir. Height and weight, body fat percentage, vertical bounce, 20 m. shuttle run test test, max VO2, grip strength, leg strength, back strength, FVC and FEV1 tests were applied to these students. In conclusion, there were significant differences between test group and control group.

  6. Efficiency of the technique of the training process of highly skilled bodybuilders of the mesomorphic type of constitution in the competitive period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olexandr Tyhorskіy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: foundation of efficiency of the technique of the training process of highly skilled bodybuilders in the competitive period. Material & Methods: 16 highly skilled bodybuilders of 22–30 years old participated in the research, the average body weight of sportsmen makes 872 – 1022 kg, which are included in the structure of the national team of Ukraine on bodybuilding. Methods: method of the theoretical analysis and generalization of literature, pedagogical observation, pedagogical experiment, method of mathematical statistics. Results: the comparative characteristic of the most often used techniques of the training process in bodybuilding is provided. The effective technique for highly skilled bodybuilders of the mesomorphic type of constitution, depending on the initial uniform of a sportsman at the beginning of the competitive period of training is developed and proved. Dependence of change of body weight of a bodybuilder on the training process is directed. Conclusions: on the effective training method, depending on microcycle of trainings in the competitive period precompetitive and competitive mesocycles (selection and main competitions, is offered the basis of the conducted research.

  7. Impact of maximal strength training on work efficiency and muscle fiber type in the elderly: Implications for physical function and fall prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Eivind; Nyberg, Stian Kwak; Hoff, Jan; Zhao, Jia; Leivseth, Gunnar; Tørhaug, Tom; Husby, Otto Schnell; Helgerud, Jan; Richardson, Russell S

    2017-05-01

    Although aging is typically associated with a decreased efficiency of locomotion, somewhat surprisingly, there is also a reduction in the proportion of less efficient fast-twitch Type II skeletal muscle fibers and subsequently a greater propensity for falls. Maximal strength training (MST), with an emphasis on velocity in the concentric phase, improves maximal strength, the rate of force development (RFD), and work efficiency, but the impact on muscle morphology in the elderly is unknown. Therefore we evaluated force production, walking work efficiency, and muscle morphology in 11 old (72±3years) subjects before and after MST of the legs. Additionally, for reference, the MST-induced morphometric changes were compared with 7 old (74±6years) subjects who performed conventional strength training (CST), with focus on hypertrophy, as well as 13 young (24±2years) controls. As expected, MST in the old improved maximal strength (68%), RFD (48%), and work efficiency (12%), restoring each to a level similar to the young. However, of importance, these MST-induced functional changes were accompanied by a significant increase in the size (66%) and shift toward a larger percentage (56%) of Type II skeletal muscle fibers, mirroring the adaptations in the hypertrophy trained old subjects, with muscle composition now being similar to the young. In conclusion, MST can increase both work efficiency and Type II skeletal muscle fiber size and percentage in the elderly, supporting the potential role of MST as a countermeasure to maintain both physical function and fall prevention in this population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Program to study optimal protocol for cardiovascular and muscular efficiency. [physical fitness training for manned space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olree, H. D.

    1974-01-01

    Training programs necessary for the development of optimal strength during prolonged manned space flight were examined, and exercises performed on the Super Mini Gym Skylab 2 were compared with similar exercises on the Universal Gym and calisthenics. Cardiopulmonary gains were found negligible but all training groups exhibited good gains in strength.

  9. Development and Evaluation of the Efficiency of In-Service Training Program with the Theme of Peace Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basaran, Semra Demir; Karakurt, Sevgi Özden

    2017-01-01

    In this article, an in-service training program was developed and evaluated to improve the peace education competencies of primary school teachers. This program, named as In-Service Training Program with the Theme of Peace Education for Primary Teachers (BEHEP), was based on the system approach. The implementation was completed in 28 hours with…

  10. Integration of a vision-based tracking platform, visual instruction, and error analysis models for an efficient billiard training system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Chihhsiong; Hsiung, Pao-Ann; Wan, Chieh-Hao; Koong, Chorng-Shiuh; Liu, Tang-Kun; Yang, Yuanfan; Lin, Chu-Hsing; Chu, William Cheng-Chung

    2009-02-01

    A billiard ball tracking system is designed to combine with a visual guide interface to instruct users for a reliable strike. The integrated system runs on a PC platform. The system makes use of a vision system for cue ball, object ball and cue stick tracking. A least-squares error calibration process correlates the real-world and the virtual-world pool ball coordinates for a precise guidance line calculation. Users are able to adjust the cue stick on the pool table according to a visual guidance line instruction displayed on a PC monitor. The ideal visual guidance line extended from the cue ball is calculated based on a collision motion analysis. In addition to calculating the ideal visual guide, the factors influencing selection of the best shot among different object balls and pockets are explored. It is found that a tolerance angle around the ideal line for the object ball to roll into a pocket determines the difficulty of a strike. This angle depends in turn on the distance from the pocket to the object, the distance from the object to the cue ball, and the angle between these two vectors. Simulation results for tolerance angles as a function of these quantities are given. A selected object ball was tested extensively with respect to various geometrical parameters with and without using our integrated system. Players with different proficiency levels were selected for the experiment. The results indicate that all players benefit from our proposed visual guidance system in enhancing their skills, while low-skill players show the maximum enhancement in skill with the help of our system. All exhibit enhanced maximum and average hit-in rates. Experimental results on hit-in rates have shown a pattern consistent with that of the analysis. The hit-in rate is thus tightly connected with the analyzed tolerance angles for sinking object balls into a target pocket. These results prove the efficiency of our system, and the analysis results can be used to attain an

  11. Alteration in cardiac uncoupling proteins and eNOS gene expression following high-intensity interval training in favor of increasing mechanical efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahi, Ali Asghar; Shekarfroush, Shahnaz; Rahimi, Mostafa; Jalali, Amirhossain; Khoshbaten, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): High-intensity interval training (HIIT) increases energy expenditure and mechanical energy efficiency. Although both uncoupling proteins (UCPs) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) affect the mechanical efficiency and antioxidant capacity, their effects are inverse. The aim of this study was to determine whether the alterations of cardiac UCP2, UCP3, and eNOS mRNA expression following HIIT are in favor of increased mechanical efficiency or decreased oxidative stress. Materials and Methods: Wistar rats were divided into five groups: control group (n=12), HIIT for an acute bout (AT1), short term HIIT for 3 and 5 sessions (ST3 and ST5), long-term training for 8 weeks (LT) (6 in each group). The rats of the training groups were made to run on a treadmill for 60 min in three stages: 6 min running for warm-up, 7 intervals of 7 min running on treadmill with a slope of 5° to 20° (4 min with an intensity of 80-110% VO2max and 3 min at 50-60% VO2max), and 5-min running for cool-down. The control group did not participate in any exercise program. Rats were sacrificed and the hearts were extracted to analyze the levels of UCP2, UCP3 and eNOS mRNA by RT-PCR. Results: UCP3 expression was increased significantly following an acute training bout. Repeated HIIT for 8 weeks resulted in a significant decrease in UCPs mRNA and a significant increase in eNOS expression in cardiac muscle. Conclusion: This study indicates that Long term HIIT through decreasing UCPs mRNA and increasing eNOS mRNA expression may enhance energy efficiency and physical performance. PMID:27114795

  12. An epidemiological survey demonstrating decline in reproductive efficiency with age and non-seasonality of reproductive parameters in German shepherd bitches in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.M. Mutembei

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available An epidemiological survey undertaken in Kenya indicated that 2 previously well-established factors, namely decline in reproductive efficiency with age, and non-seasonality of canine reproductive parameters, hold true for German shepherd (GSD bitches in Kenya. Data collection formswere distributed to randomly selected GSDbreeders and information so obtained was verified using East African Kennel Club records. Whelping was recorded throughout the year. The litter size varied from 1 to 14 pups per litter with a mean of 6.3 ±0.4 SD puppies. Records of 567 whelpings and 3592 puppies were studied. The mean monthly whelping rate was 47.3 ±7.2. There was no significant difference in the mean litter size by month (P < 0.05.

  13. Forensic efficiency parameters of the Investigator Argus X-12 kit in women from two Mestizo and seven Amerindian populations from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Trujillo, I; Ramos-González, B; Salas-Salas, O; Zuñiga-Chiquette, F; Zetina Hernández, A; Martínez-Cortés, G; Ruiz-Hernández, M; González-Martín, A; Ferragut, J F; Rangel-Villalobos, H

    2017-05-01

    Allele frequency distribution and statistical parameters of forensic efficiency concerning the Investigator Argus X-12 kit (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany) were determined in a total sample of 641 unrelated Mexican females, including two Mestizo-admixed- populations (n=309) and seven Amerindian groups (n=332) from the main regions of the country. Most of the 12 X-STRs were in agreement with Hardy-Weinberg expectations in all nine Mexican populations. The power of discrimination in females (PD) and Median exclusion chance for trios (MECT) and duos (MECD) of this genetic system based on X-STRs were >99.99%. Although Mexican populations showed significant pairwise differentiation, a closer relationship was evident between Amerindian groups and nearby Mestizos, in agreement with historical records, previous genetic studies, and X-linked inheritance pattern expectations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. [The efficiency of recognition of the size of segments of line by the observers with different parameters of the cognitive style].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoshina, I I; Shelepin, Iu E

    2013-01-01

    We estimated efficiency of recognition of the size of segments of line by the persons with different parameters of cognitive style: the field dependence--field independence, the analytically--synthetically style, the flexible--rigid cognitive control. The size of segments of line was judged in task of the magnitude of the Ponzo illusion measurements. It was established, that the magnitude of the Ponzo illusion significantly less in subjects with the field independence cognitive style, than with field independence. The persons with the flexible type of the cognitive control showed the tendency to more accurate perception of the size of the segments in the Ponzo figure, than with the rigid cognitive control. The rinteraction between the analytically--synthetically style of the categorization and the magnitude of the Ponzo illusion is not fixed.

  15. The influence of selected parameters on the efficiency and economic charactersistics of the oxy-type coal unit with a membrane-cryogenic oxygen separator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotowicz Janusz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a 600 MW oxy-type coal unit with a pulverized bed boiler and a membrane-cryogenic oxygen separator and carbon capture installation was analyzed. A membrane-cryogenic oxygen separation installation consists of a membrane module and two cryogenic distillation columns. In this system oxygen is produced with the purity equal to 95%. Installation of carbon capture was based on the physical separation method and allows to reduce the CO2 emission by 90%. In this work the influence of the main parameter of the membrane process – the selectivity coefficient, on the efficiency of the coal unit was presented. The economic analysis with the use of the break-even point method was carried out. The economic calculations were realized in view of the break-even price of electricity depending on a coal unit availability.

  16. XMM-Newton/Sloan Digital Sky Survey: Star Formation Efficiency in Galaxy Clusters and Constraints on the Matter-density Parameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laganá, Tatiana F.; Zhang, Yu-Ying; Reiprich, Thomas H.; Schneider, Peter

    2011-12-01

    It is believed that the global baryon content of clusters of galaxies is representative of the matter distribution of the universe, and can, therefore, be used to reliably determine the matter-density parameter Ωm. This assumption is challenged by the growing evidence from optical and X-ray observations that the total baryon mass fraction increases toward rich clusters. In this context, we investigate the dependence of stellar and total baryon mass fractions as a function of mass. To do so, we used a subsample of 19 clusters extracted from the X-ray flux-limited sample HIFLUGCS that have available Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 data. From the optical analysis we derived the stellar masses. Using XMM-Newton we derived the gas masses. Then, adopting a scaling relation we estimate the total masses. Adding the gas and the stellar mass fractions we obtain the total baryonic content that we find to increase with cluster mass, reaching seven-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP7) prediction for clusters with M 500 = 1.6 × 1015 M ⊙. We observe a decrease of the stellar mass fraction (from 4.5% to ~1.0%) with increasing total mass where our findings for the stellar mass fraction agree with previous studies. This result suggests a difference in the number of stars formed per unit of halo mass, though with a large scatter for low-mass systems. That is, the efficiency of star formation varies on a cluster scale that lower mass systems are likely to have higher star formation efficiencies. It follows immediately that the dependence of the stellar mass fraction on total mass results in an increase of the mass-to-light ratio from lower to higher mass systems. We also discuss the consequences of these results in the context of determining the cosmic matter-density parameter Ωm.

  17. XMM-NEWTON/SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY: STAR FORMATION EFFICIENCY IN GALAXY CLUSTERS AND CONSTRAINTS ON THE MATTER-DENSITY PARAMETER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagana, Tatiana F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas, Departamento de Astronomia, Cidade Universitaria, CEP:05508-090, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Zhang Yuying; Reiprich, Thomas H.; Schneider, Peter [Argelander-Institut fuer Astronomie, Universitaet Bonn, 53121 Bonn (Germany)

    2011-12-10

    It is believed that the global baryon content of clusters of galaxies is representative of the matter distribution of the universe, and can, therefore, be used to reliably determine the matter-density parameter {Omega}{sub m}. This assumption is challenged by the growing evidence from optical and X-ray observations that the total baryon mass fraction increases toward rich clusters. In this context, we investigate the dependence of stellar and total baryon mass fractions as a function of mass. To do so, we used a subsample of 19 clusters extracted from the X-ray flux-limited sample HIFLUGCS that have available Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 data. From the optical analysis we derived the stellar masses. Using XMM-Newton we derived the gas masses. Then, adopting a scaling relation we estimate the total masses. Adding the gas and the stellar mass fractions we obtain the total baryonic content that we find to increase with cluster mass, reaching seven-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP7) prediction for clusters with M{sub 500} = 1.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 15} M{sub Sun }. We observe a decrease of the stellar mass fraction (from 4.5% to {approx}1.0%) with increasing total mass where our findings for the stellar mass fraction agree with previous studies. This result suggests a difference in the number of stars formed per unit of halo mass, though with a large scatter for low-mass systems. That is, the efficiency of star formation varies on a cluster scale that lower mass systems are likely to have higher star formation efficiencies. It follows immediately that the dependence of the stellar mass fraction on total mass results in an increase of the mass-to-light ratio from lower to higher mass systems. We also discuss the consequences of these results in the context of determining the cosmic matter-density parameter {Omega}{sub m}.

  18. An Impact Study of the Design of Exergaming Parameters on Body Intensity from Objective and Gameplay-Based Player Experience Perspectives, Based on Balance Training Exergame

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Kinect-based exergames allow players to undertake physical exercise in an interactive manner with visual stimulation. Previous studies focused on investigating physical fitness based on calories or heart rate to ascertain the effectiveness of exergames. However, designing an exergame for specific training purposes, with intensity levels suited to the needs and skills of the players, requires the investigation of motion performance to study player experience. This study investigates how parameters of a Kinect-based exergame, combined with balance training exercises, influence the balance control ability and intensity level the player can tolerate, by analyzing both objective and gameplay-based player experience, and taking enjoyment and difficulty levels into account. The exergame tested required participants to maintain their balance standing on one leg within a posture frame (PF) while a force plate evaluated the player's balance control ability in both static and dynamic gaming modes. The number of collisions with the PF depended on the frame's travel time for static PFs, and the leg-raising rate and angle for dynamic PFs. In terms of center of pressure (COP) metrics, significant impacts were caused by the frame's travel time on MDIST-AP for static PFs, and the leg-raising rate on MDIST-ML and TOTEX for dynamic PFs. The best static PF balance control performance was observed with a larger frame offset by a travel time of 2 seconds, and the worst performance with a smaller frame and a travel time of 1 second. The best dynamic PF performance was with a leg-raising rate of 1 second at a 45-degree angle, while the worst performance was with a rate of 2 seconds at a 90-degree angle. The results demonstrated that different evaluation methods for player experience could result in different findings, making it harder to study the design of those exergames with training purposes based on player experience. PMID:23922716

  19. An impact study of the design of exergaming parameters on body intensity from objective and gameplay-based player experience perspectives, based on balance training exergame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tien-Lung; Lee, Chia-Hsuan

    2013-01-01

    Kinect-based exergames allow players to undertake physical exercise in an interactive manner with visual stimulation. Previous studies focused on investigating physical fitness based on calories or heart rate to ascertain the effectiveness of exergames. However, designing an exergame for specific training purposes, with intensity levels suited to the needs and skills of the players, requires the investigation of motion performance to study player experience. This study investigates how parameters of a Kinect-based exergame, combined with balance training exercises, influence the balance control ability and intensity level the player can tolerate, by analyzing both objective and gameplay-based player experience, and taking enjoyment and difficulty levels into account. The exergame tested required participants to maintain their balance standing on one leg within a posture frame (PF) while a force plate evaluated the player's balance control ability in both static and dynamic gaming modes. The number of collisions with the PF depended on the frame's travel time for static PFs, and the leg-raising rate and angle for dynamic PFs. In terms of center of pressure (COP) metrics, significant impacts were caused by the frame's travel time on MDIST-AP for static PFs, and the leg-raising rate on MDIST-ML and TOTEX for dynamic PFs. The best static PF balance control performance was observed with a larger frame offset by a travel time of 2 seconds, and the worst performance with a smaller frame and a travel time of 1 second. The best dynamic PF performance was with a leg-raising rate of 1 second at a 45-degree angle, while the worst performance was with a rate of 2 seconds at a 90-degree angle. The results demonstrated that different evaluation methods for player experience could result in different findings, making it harder to study the design of those exergames with training purposes based on player experience.

  20. An impact study of the design of exergaming parameters on body intensity from objective and gameplay-based player experience perspectives, based on balance training exergame.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tien-Lung Sun

    Full Text Available Kinect-based exergames allow players to undertake physical exercise in an interactive manner with visual stimulation. Previous studies focused on investigating physical fitness based on calories or heart rate to ascertain the effectiveness of exergames. However, designing an exergame for specific training purposes, with intensity levels suited to the needs and skills of the players, requires the investigation of motion performance to study player experience. This study investigates how parameters of a Kinect-based exergame, combined with balance training exercises, influence the balance control ability and intensity level the player can tolerate, by analyzing both objective and gameplay-based player experience, and taking enjoyment and difficulty levels into account. The exergame tested required participants to maintain their balance standing on one leg within a posture frame (PF while a force plate evaluated the player's balance control ability in both static and dynamic gaming modes. The number of collisions with the PF depended on the frame's travel time for static PFs, and the leg-raising rate and angle for dynamic PFs. In terms of center of pressure (COP metrics, significant impacts were caused by the frame's travel time on MDIST-AP for static PFs, and the leg-raising rate on MDIST-ML and TOTEX for dynamic PFs. The best static PF balance control performance was observed with a larger frame offset by a travel time of 2 seconds, and the worst performance with a smaller frame and a travel time of 1 second. The best dynamic PF performance was with a leg-raising rate of 1 second at a 45-degree angle, while the worst performance was with a rate of 2 seconds at a 90-degree angle. The results demonstrated that different evaluation methods for player experience could result in different findings, making it harder to study the design of those exergames with training purposes based on player experience.

  1. Soil Parameter Mapping and Ad Hoc Power Analysis to Increase Blocking Efficiency Prior to Establishing a Long-Term Field Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Doug; Benedict, Chris; Bary, Andy; Cogger, Craig

    2015-01-01

    The spatial heterogeneity of soil and weed populations poses a challenge to researchers. Unlike aboveground variability, below-ground variability is more difficult to discern without a strategic soil sampling pattern. While blocking is commonly used to control environmental variation, this strategy is rarely informed by data about current soil conditions. Fifty georeferenced sites were located in a 0.65 ha area prior to establishing a long-term field experiment. Soil organic matter (OM) and weed seed bank populations were analyzed at each site and the spatial structure was modeled with semivariograms and interpolated with kriging to map the surface. These maps were used to formulate three strategic blocking patterns and the efficiency of each pattern was compared to a completely randomized design and a west to east model not informed by soil variability. Compared to OM, weeds were more variable across the landscape and had a shorter range of autocorrelation, and models to increase blocking efficiency resulted in less increase in power. Weeds and OM were not correlated, so no model examined improved power equally for both parameters. Compared to the west to east blocking pattern, the final blocking pattern chosen resulted in a 7-fold increase in power for OM and a 36% increase in power for weeds.

  2. Acid-base buffering in organ preservation solutions as a function of temperature: new parameters for comparing buffer capacity and efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baicu, Simona C; Taylor, Michael J

    2002-08-01

    Control of acidity and preventing intracellular acidosis are recognized as critical properties of an effective organ preservation solution. Buffer capacity and efficiency are therefore important for comparing the relative merits of preservation fluids for optimum hypothermic storage, but these parameters are not available for the variety of organ preservation solutions of interest in transplantation today. Moreover, buffer capacity is dependent upon both concentration and pH such that buffer capacity is not easily predicted for a complex solution containing multiple buffer species. Using standard electrometric methods to measure acid dissociation constants, this study was undertaken to determine the maximum and relative buffer capacities of a variety of new and commonly used hypothermic preservation solutions as a function of temperature. The reference data provided by these measurements show that comparative buffer capacity and efficiency vary widely between the commonly used solutions. Moreover, the fluids containing zwitterionic sulfonic acid buffers such as Hepes possess superior buffering for alpha-stat pH regulation in the region of physiological importance.

  3. Soil Parameter Mapping and Ad Hoc Power Analysis to Increase Blocking Efficiency Prior to Establishing a Long-Term Field Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Doug; Benedict, Chris; Bary, Andy; Cogger, Craig

    2015-01-01

    The spatial heterogeneity of soil and weed populations poses a challenge to researchers. Unlike aboveground variability, below-ground variability is more difficult to discern without a strategic soil sampling pattern. While blocking is commonly used to control environmental variation, this strategy is rarely informed by data about current soil conditions. Fifty georeferenced sites were located in a 0.65 ha area prior to establishing a long-term field experiment. Soil organic matter (OM) and weed seed bank populations were analyzed at each site and the spatial structure was modeled with semivariograms and interpolated with kriging to map the surface. These maps were used to formulate three strategic blocking patterns and the efficiency of each pattern was compared to a completely randomized design and a west to east model not informed by soil variability. Compared to OM, weeds were more variable across the landscape and had a shorter range of autocorrelation, and models to increase blocking efficiency resulted in less increase in power. Weeds and OM were not correlated, so no model examined improved power equally for both parameters. Compared to the west to east blocking pattern, the final blocking pattern chosen resulted in a 7-fold increase in power for OM and a 36% increase in power for weeds. PMID:26247056

  4. Use of real-time physiologic parameter assessment to augment osteopathic manipulative treatment training for first-year osteopathic medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Deborah M; Makin, Inder Raj S; Pedapati, Chandhana; Kirsch, Jonathon

    2014-12-01

    The first 2 years of osteopathic medical school involve training in osteopathic principles and practice, including understanding the tenets of osteopathic medicine and developing palpatory skills for clinical application. Although this training emphasizes the link between somatic dysfunction and physiologic function, it does not include the opportunity for students to quantitatively assess the physiologic effect of osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) using physiologic measurements. To evaluate an approach for integrated OMT training coupled with physiologic measurements of relevant parameters, whereby first-year osteopathic medical students assess the quantitative, real-time changes in specific physiologic signals during instruction. During mandatory musculoskeletal and cardiovascular demonstration laboratories at a single osteopathic medical school, students were divided into small groups and performed OMT on each other while recording real-time measurements of physiologic functions such as maximum clench force, time to fatigue for the forearm flexor muscles, heart rate, and peripheral vascular flow. After data were collected, students analyzed pre- and post-OMT measurements and discussed underlying physiologic principles in a large group format. At the end of the sessions, students completed a brief survey on the usefulness of the integrated laboratories. Overall, 13 of 28 student groups (46.4%) measured a pre- to post-OMT increase in maximum clench force, and 16 (57.1%) observed an increase in time to fatigue for the forearm flexor muscles. Twenty-three of 27 student groups (85.2%) observed a reduction in heart rate and 19 (70.4%) measured an increase in peripheral vascular flow after OMT. Student satisfaction was generally favorable, with overall mean (SD) ratings of 6.38 (1.86) for the musculoskeletal laboratory and 7.81 (1.69) for the cardiovascular laboratory out of a maximum of 10 points. In open-ended comments, students deemed the combined

  5. What is the impact of multidisciplinary team simulation training on team performance and efficiency of patient care? An integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Margaret; Curtis, Kate; McCloughen, Andrea

    2016-02-01

    In hospital emergencies require a structured team approach to facilitate simultaneous input into immediate resuscitation, stabilisation and prioritisation of care. Efforts to improve teamwork in the health care context include multidisciplinary simulation-based resuscitation team training, yet there is limited evidence demonstrating the value of these programmes.(1) We aimed to determine the current state of knowledge about the key components and impacts of multidisciplinary simulation-based resuscitation team training by conducting an integrative review of the literature. A systematic search using electronic (three databases) and hand searching methods for primary research published between 1980 and 2014 was undertaken; followed by a rigorous screening and quality appraisal process. The included articles were assessed for similarities and differences; the content was grouped and synthesised to form three main categories of findings. Eleven primary research articles representing a variety of simulation-based resuscitation team training were included. Five studies involved trauma teams; two described resuscitation teams in the context of intensive care and operating theatres and one focused on the anaesthetic team. Simulation is an effective method to train resuscitation teams in the management of crisis scenarios and has the potential to improve team performance in the areas of communication, teamwork and leadership. Team training improves the performance of the resuscitation team in simulated emergency scenarios. However, the transferability of educational outcomes to the clinical setting needs to be more clearly demonstrated. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Game method application efficiency for speed and power capability development of trampoline athletes at the initial training stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfia Deineko

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to prove the effectiveness of using the game method for speed and power capability development of trampoline athletes at the initial training stage. Material & Methods: in the article the materials of the research that was carried out with the help of pedagogical testing of trampoliners of 7–8 years on the basis of the Children and Youth Sports School No. 7, Trampoline Department of Kharkov. Results: conducted pedagogical experiment showed the effectiveness of the developed methodology for the development of speed-strength abilities of trampoline athletes at the initial training stage using the game method. Conclusion: results of the experiment confirm the importance of the use of the game method for the development of speed-strength abilities in the initial training of young trampolines, which further affects the level of their technical preparedness and the effectiveness of competition activities.

  7. Intensive cognitive training in schizophrenia enhances working memory and associated prefrontal cortical efficiency in a manner that drives long-term functional gains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Karuna; Luks, Tracy L; Garrett, Coleman; Chung, Cleo; Fisher, Melissa; Nagarajan, Srikantan; Vinogradov, Sophia

    2014-10-01

    We investigated whether intensive computerized cognitive training in schizophrenia could improve working memory performance and increase signal efficiency of associated middle frontal gyri (MFG) circuits in a functionally meaningful manner. Thirty schizophrenia participants and 13 healthy comparison participants underwent fMRI scanning during a letter N-back working memory task. Schizophrenia participants were then randomly assigned to either 80 h (16 weeks) of cognitive training or a computer games control condition. After this intervention, participants completed a second fMRI N-back scanning session. At baseline, during 2-back working memory trials, healthy participants showed the largest and most significant activation in bilateral MFG, which correlated with task performance. Schizophrenia participants showed impaired working memory, hypoactivation in left MFG, and no correlation between bilateral MFG signal and task performance. After training, schizophrenia participants improved their 2-back working memory performance and showed increased activation in left MFG. They also demonstrated a significant association between enhanced task performance and right MFG signal, similar to healthy participants. Both task performance and brain activity in right MFG after training predicted better generalized working memory at 6-month follow-up. Furthermore, task performance and brain activity within bilateral MFG predicted better occupational functioning at 6-month follow-up. No such findings were observed in the computer games control participants. Working memory impairments in schizophrenia and its underlying neural correlates in MFG can be improved by intensive computerized cognitive training; these improvements generalize beyond the trained task and are associated with enduring effects on cognition and functioning 6 months after the intervention. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Effects of high intensity interval versus moderate continuous training on markers of ventilatory and cardiac efficiency in coronary heart disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardozo, Gustavo G; Oliveira, Ricardo B; Farinatti, Paulo T V

    2015-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that high intensity interval training (HIIT) would be more effective than moderate intensity continuous training (MIT) to improve newly emerged markers of cardiorespiratory fitness in coronary heart disease (CHD) patients, as the relationship between ventilation and carbon dioxide production (VE/VCO2 slope), oxygen uptake efficiency slope (OUES), and oxygen pulse (O2P). Seventy-one patients with optimized treatment were randomly assigned into HIIT (n = 23, age = 56 ± 12 years), MIT (n = 24, age = 62 ± 12 years), or nonexercise control group (CG) (n = 24, age = 64 ± 12 years). MIT performed 30 min of continuous aerobic exercise at 70-75% of maximal heart rate (HRmax), and HIIT performed 30 min sessions split in 2 min alternate bouts at 60%/90% HRmax (3 times/week for 16 weeks). No differences among groups (before versus after) were found for VE/VCO2 slope or OUES (P > 0.05). After training the O2P slope increased in HIIT (22%, P 0.05), while decreased in CG (-20%, P < 0.05) becoming lower versus HIIT (P = 0.03). HIIT was more effective than MIT for improving O2P slope in CHD patients, while VE/VCO2 slope and OUES were similarly improved by aerobic training regimens versus controls.

  9. Effect of Weaning Age on Growth Performance, Feed Efficiency, Nutrient Digestibility and Blood-biochemical Parameters in Droughtmaster Crossbred Beef Calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Hui; Guo, Feng; Diao, Qi-Yu; Tu, Yan; Si, Bing-Wen; Xing, Yu-Chuan; Huang, De-Jun

    2017-11-03

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of weaning age on intake, performance, nutrition metabolism and serum parameters of beef calves. 60 head of Droughtmaster crossbred calves were assigned to 5 groups with 12 calves in each group. The calves in control Group were remained with the dams till the 22-week age, while the calves weaned at 28d (4w), 42 d(6w), 56 d(8w) and 70 d(10w) of age were sent to Group 4W, Group6W, Group 8Wand Group 10W separately, and then they were fed on milk replacer (MR) till the 22-week age. DMI of calves in Group 4W was significantly lower than that in the rest groups from w17 to 22 (Pfeed efficiency of the calves were higher in the Group 4W and 6W than that in Group 6W and 8W from 11 to 13w (P0.05). Calves in Group 4W and 6W had lower body weight than that in the Group 8W and Group 10W and control group at 10-week age (P0.05). Calve in Group 6W had higher final body weight and total gain than that in Group 4W, but no difference of total gain with that in Group 8W, 10W and control group. And weaning calve at age of 6-week age brought higher feed efficiency and average daily gain from w14 to 22, and higher DM and OM digestibility at w21. It is concluded that the weaning of calves at 6 weeks of age gave positive results.

  10. Evaluation Effects of Different Planting Systems on Water Use Efficiency, Relative Water Content and some Plant Growth Parameters in Onion (Allium cepa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousa IZADKHAH

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of different sowing methods on water use efficiency, relative water content and some vegetative growth parameters of onion a study was carried out in the Agriculturalr research Center of East Azarbayjan in 2007-2008 cropping season. The experiment was a factorial by using the randomized complete block design with 4 treaments and 4 replications. The first factor was consistting of two sowing methods, dirct sowing (DS and the transplanting method (TM, the second factor was including two onion cultivars Azarshahr (red hull and later maturing and Gooli-Ghesseh Zanjan (bright-red, early maturing. Analysis of variance for the measured traits indicated that except for the relative water content (RWC, other traits were significant influenced by the sowing methods. TM had higher values of water use efficiency (WUE, bulbing ratio (BR, aerial leaves length (ALL, leaf area (LA, leaf area index (LAI, leaves dry weight (LDW, leaves fresh weight (LFW and leaves saturation weight (LSW than the DS methods. Maximum WUE (6.07 kg m3 and minimum WU (9381 m3 ha-1 were obtained in TM. However, the lowest WUE (4.19 kg m3 and the highest WU (115921 m3 ha-1 was obtained with DS. In other words, in TM water economizing was 1.5 tim, amount of yield was increased up 15% (in comparison with DS. Also among the cultivars except for the RWC, WUE and BR other traits were significantly. The sowing method x cultivar interaction were not significant. For the studied traits, TM and red Azarshahr cv. were better than the DS and Gooli-Ghesseh Zanjan, thus thy were identified the best treatments for experiment therefore it is recommended for the places with the same environmental conditions of this experiment.

  11. Evaluation Effects of Different Planting Systems on Water Use Efficiency, Relative Water Content and some Plant Growth Parameters in Onion (Allium cepa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousa IZADKHAH

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of different sowing methods on water use efficiency, relative water content and some vegetative growth parameters of onion a study was carried out in the Agriculturalr research Center of East Azarbayjan in 2007-2008 cropping season. The experiment was a factorial by using the randomized complete block design with 4 treaments and 4 replications. The first factor was consistting of two sowing methods, dirct sowing (DS and the transplanting method (TM, the second factor was including two onion cultivars �Azarshahr� (red hull and later maturing and �Gooli-Ghesseh Zanjan� (bright-red, early maturing. Analysis of variance for the measured traits indicated that except for the relative water content (RWC, other traits were significant influenced by the sowing methods. TM had higher values of water use efficiency (WUE, bulbing ratio (BR, aerial leaves length (ALL, leaf area (LA, leaf area index (LAI, leaves dry weight (LDW, leaves fresh weight (LFW and leaves saturation weight (LSW than the DS methods. Maximum WUE (6.07 kg m3 and minimum WU (9381 m3 ha-1 were obtained in TM. However, the lowest WUE (4.19 kg m3 and the highest WU (115921 m3 ha-1 was obtained with DS. In other words, in TM water economizing was 1.5 tim, amount of yield was increased up 15% (in comparison with DS. Also among the cultivars except for the RWC, WUE and BR other traits were significantly. The sowing method x cultivar interaction were not significant. For the studied traits, TM and red �Azarshahr� cv. were better than the DS and �Gooli-Ghesseh Zanjan�, thus thy were identified the best treatments for experiment therefore it is recommended for the places with the same environmental conditions of this experiment.

  12. Is high-intensity interval training a time-efficient exercise strategy to improve health and fitness?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gillen, Jenna B; Gibala, Martin J

    .... Recent studies, however, have revealed the potential for other models of HIIT, which may be more feasible but are still time-efficient, to stimulate adaptations similar to more demanding low-volume...

  13. [Evaluation of optimal parameters for non-contrast-enhanced non-breath-holding pulmonary artery MRA using 3D-FSE imaging with variable flip angle echo trains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Hitoshi; Kobata, Takuya; Otsuka, Hideki; Harada, Masafumi

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to find the optimal acquisition parameters of non-contrast-enhanced non-breath-holding pulmonary artery MRA using 3D-FSE imaging with variable flip angle echo trains. The 3D-FSE imaging method with variable flip angle echo trains (CUBE) was employed in this study. Pulmonary artery MRA was performed in five healthy volunteers using a 1.5 tesla (T) and a 3 T clinical scanner with multi-channel torso coils. The institutional review boards approved the study, and informed consent was obtained from all subjects. Prior to the CUBE studies, ECG-gated single-shot FSE scans were performed to determine the timing of systole and diastole. After that, CUBE scans with systolic timing and three adjusted (early, middle and delayed) diastolic timings using both ECG and respiratory gating were performed and subtracted images between systolic and diastolic images were calculated. Subtracted intensities of both lung parenchyma and pulmonary arteries were evaluated using the region of interest (ROI) function. Maximum intensity projection (MIP) images with six different scan parameters (three timings and two static magnetic fields) were processed for evaluation by the ranking method with visual assessment. Three observers each scored all six images and a statistical analysis based on the variation of ratings was performed. The subtracted intensities of pulmonary arteries and lung parenchyma with middle diastolic timing were higher than that with both early and delayed systolic timing. The same tendency was shown in both 1.5 T and 3 T images. Though the subtracted intensity of 3 T was higher than that of 1.5 T, the contrast ratio between lung parenchyma and pulmonary artery of 1.5 T was higher than that of 3 T. The MIP image using the 1.5 T scanner with middle diastolic timing obtained the best score by the visual assessment using the ranking methods. The middle diastolic timing using the 1.5 T scanner provides the best non-contrast-enhanced non

  14. Among the physical fitness workouts, the efficiency of the weight training and zumba exercises on the body composition in men and women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaya Fatih

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the physical fitness workouts; whereas the weight training is one of the most prevalent physical activities used for men, the zumba dance workouts has become popular for women in the last decade, as an entertaining alternative approach. In this research, the effects of the weight training on the body composition in men and the zumba dance workouts in women have been studied. 90 sedentary individuals (44 men, average age: 30.70 ± 6.44; 46 women, average age: 29.13 ± 5.80 attending a fitness center had received weight training and zumba classes (during 2 months, 3 days each week, each session 45/60 minutes. The exercise intensity that had been kept low at the beginning was increased in the following weeks for both programs. The body composition analysis have been carried out at the start and then monthly, through bioelectrical impedence method. During the process; the medical histories of the participants as well as their levels of readiness for and participation to the physical activities have been monitored. Both sex have been evaluated separately. The descriptive statistics techniques and repeated measures ANOVA have been used to analyze the data. At the end of the study, the positive effects of both exercise programs on the body compositions of the sedentary men and women have been observed. As a conclusion, it has been recorded with the present study once again that the weight training is still an efficient and valid method for men and also, the zumba workouts are efficient for women as a popular method.

  15. Computer Based Training Authors' and Designers' training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric GODET

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This communication, through couple of studies driven since 10 years, tries to show how important is the training of authors in Computer Based Training (CBT. We submit here an approach to prepare designers mastering Interactive Multimedia modules in this domain. Which institutions are really dedicating their efforts in training authors and designers in this area of CBTs? Television devices and broadcast organisations offered since year 60s' a first support for Distance Learning. New media, New Information and Communication Technologies (NICT allowed several public and private organisations to start Distance Learning projects. As usual some of them met their training objectives, other of them failed. Did their really failed? Currently, nobody has the right answer. Today, we do not have enough efficient tools allowing us to evaluate trainees' acquisition in a short term view. Training evaluation needs more than 10 to 20 years of elapsed time to bring reliable measures. Nevertheless, given the high investments already done in this area, we cannot wait until the final results of the pedagogical evaluation. A lot of analyses showed relevant issues which can be used as directions for CBTs authors and designers training. Warning - Our studies and the derived conclusions are mainly based on projects driven in the field. We additionally bring our several years experience in the training of movie film authors in the design of interactive multimedia products. Some of our examples are extracting from vocational training projects where we were involved in all development phases from the analysis of needs to the evaluation of the acquisition within the trainee's / employee job's. Obviously, we cannot bring and exhaustive approach in this domain where a lot of parameters are involved as frame for the CBT interactive multimedia modules authors' and designers' training.

  16. Verification of electricity savings through energy-efficient train management - Energy data base for traction units - Annex 5; Verifizierung der Stromeinsparung durch energieeffizientes Zugsmanagement - Anhang 5: Energiedatenbank Traktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, M.; Lerjen, M.; Menth, S. [emkamatik GmbH, Wettingen (Switzerland); Luethi, M. [Swiss Federal Insitute of Technology (ETHZ), Institute for Transport Planning and Systems (IVT), Zuerich (Switzerland); Tuchschmid, M. [SBB AG, BahnUmwelt-Center, 3000 Bern (Switzerland)

    2009-11-15

    This appendix to a final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at how various data sources on the energy consumption of the SBB's traction units can be combined into an energy-data basis. In this way, the considerable amount of work previously involved in combining and correlating data can be avoided. The aims being followed in the realisation of the traction data base are examined and discussed. The data base will provide the basis for the manual detail analysis of energy consumption within the framework of the overall efforts to save electricity using efficient train management.

  17. Heterogeneous LTE/802.11a mobile relays for data rate enhancement and energy-efficiency in high speed trains

    KAUST Repository

    Atat, Rachad

    2012-12-01

    Performance enhancements of cellular networks for passengers in high speed railway systems are investigated. Relays placed on top of each train car are proposed. These relays communicate with the cellular base station (BS) over Long Term Evolution (LTE) long range links and with the mobile terminals (MTs) inside the train cars using IEEE 802.11a short range links. Scenarios with unicasting and multicasting from the BS are studied, both in the presence and absence of the relays. In addition, LTE resource allocation is taken into account. The presence of the relays is shown to lead to significant enhancements in the effective data rates of the MTs, in addition to leading to huge savings in the energy consumption from the batteries of the MTs. © 2012 IEEE.

  18. Organization and content efficiency substantiation of a strengthened professional and applied physical training course for railway higher educational institution students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anzhelika Yefremova

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to experimentally substantiate the effectiveness of the application of the experimental program for physical education with an intensified course of professional-applied physical training (PAPT for students of I–II courses of railway specialties. Material & Methods: analysis and generalization of literary sources, pedagogical experiment, pedagogical testing, physiological and psycho-physiological methods, methods of mathematical statistics. Result: obtained data after the introduction of the experimental program on physical education with an intensified course of professional-applied physical training, students of railway universities. Conclusion: analysis and generalization of the literature sources found the absence of a scientifically based program of PAPT for students of higher education institutions of the railway profile. The introduction in the educational process of physical education of the experimental program on physical education with the strengthened course of the PAPT showed an increase in the level of physical, professionally applied physical and psycho-physiological readiness of students.

  19. The ratio of nurse consultation and physician efficiency index of senior rheumatologists is significantly higher than junior physicians in rheumatology residency training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emamifar, Amir; van Bui Hansen, Morten Hai; Jensen Hansen, Inger Marie

    2017-01-01

    -C-Reactive Protein (DAS28-CRP) and Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) scores were used to monitor treatment outcome. Therefore, DAS28 and HAQ scores were measured 3 times: firstly at physician consultation, then after nurse consultation, and finally at the third visit, either at a nurse or physician consultation...... and sufficient treatment plan to nurses, the entire department operates more efficiently, leading to prevent additional expenses (due to the differences in yearly salary of physicians and nurses) and human resource waste. Quality of care should be monitored by markers of disease activity and CRP.......To elucidate the difference between ratios of nurse consultation sought by senior rheumatologists and junior physicians in rheumatology residency training, and also to evaluate physician efficiency index respecting patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Data regarding outpatient visits for RA...

  20. Changes in force production and stroke parameters of trained able-bodied and unilateral arm-amputee female swimmers during a 30 s tethered front-crawl swim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Casey Jane; Sanders, Ross H; Payton, Carl J

    2014-01-01

    This study examined changes in the propulsive force and stroke parameters of arm-amputee and able-bodied swimmers during tethered swimming. Eighteen well-trained female swimmers (nine unilateral arm amputees and nine able-bodied) were videotaped performing maximal-effort 30 s front-crawl swims, while attached to a load cell mounted on a pool wall. Tether force, stroke rate, stroke phase durations and inter-arm angle were quantified. The able-bodied group produced significantly higher mean and maximum tether forces than the amputee group. The mean of the intra-cyclic force peaks was very similar for both groups. Mean and maximum tether force had significant negative associations with 100 m swim time, for both groups. Both groups exhibited a similar fatigue index (relative decrease in tether force) during the test, but the amputees had a significantly greater stroke rate decline. A significant positive association between stroke rate decline and fatigue index was obtained for the able-bodied group only. Inter-arm angle and relative phase durations did not change significantly during the test for either group, except the recovery phase duration of the arm amputees, which decreased significantly. This study's results can contribute to the development of a more evidence-based classification system for swimmers with a disability.

  1. THE EFFECTS OF A SIX-MONTH TRAINING PROGRAMME ON RUNNING ENDURANCE, MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACHERISTICS AND SOME AEROBIC ABILITY PARAMETERS OF ADULT WOMEN WITH DIFFERENT PHYSICAL ABILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Plevnik

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study reveals the results of a six-month training programme between a recreational group of previously physically inactive women (Group 1 and an already regularly active recreational group of female runners (Group 2. The sample consisted of 28 women, 13 in Group 1 (age (yr = 41.7 ± 14.3, BMI = 26.8 ± 3.4 and 15 in Group 2 (age (yr = 38.3 ± 7.8, BMI = 21.5 ± 1.7. Despite different initial values, the results in both groups showed an improvement in measured parameters that were more pronounced in Group 1; however, in comparisons carried out between the two groups, only Group 1 achieved a statistically significant improvement in relative maximal oxygen uptake (ml/min/kg. The results demonstrate that the recommendations of the World Health Organization (WHO, whose guidelines suggests at least 30 min of physical activity per day, are suitable for improving and maintaining functional abilities, including those of previously inactive groups (Group 1 as well as recreational groups (Group 2 of female runners.

  2. Is there an efficient trap or collection method for sampling Anopheles darlingi and other malaria vectors that can describe the essential parameters affecting transmission dynamics as effectively as human landing catches? - A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Bento Pereira Lima

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Distribution, abundance, feeding behaviour, host preference, parity status and human-biting and infection rates are among the medical entomological parameters evaluated when determining the vector capacity of mosquito species. To evaluate these parameters, mosquitoes must be collected using an appropriate method. Malaria is primarily transmitted by anthropophilic and synanthropic anophelines. Thus, collection methods must result in the identification of the anthropophilic species and efficiently evaluate the parameters involved in malaria transmission dynamics. Consequently, human landing catches would be the most appropriate method if not for their inherent risk. The choice of alternative anopheline collection methods, such as traps, must consider their effectiveness in reproducing the efficiency of human attraction. Collection methods lure mosquitoes by using a mixture of olfactory, visual and thermal cues. Here, we reviewed, classified and compared the efficiency of anopheline collection methods, with an emphasis on Neotropical anthropophilic species, especially Anopheles darlingi, in distinct malaria epidemiological conditions in Brazil.

  3. EFFICIENCY OF PUBLIC SPENDING FOR EDUCATION WITHIN THE EUROPEAN UNION IN THE CONTEXT OF THE STRATEGIC FRAMEWORK "EDUCATION AND TRAINING 2020"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionela, POPA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Education is universally recognized as one of the foundations of human development and one of the most powerful tools that a society has for poverty reduction, sustainable development in the long term. The world we live in today can be defined as a global arena, a planet increasingly crowded, faced with a real problem - population growth and thus increasing the number of young people, which means educational systems and to able to support them and to answer their needs. Educational policies should reflect the responsibility of building a world based on a more on mutual support. Marginalization, exclusion, ignorance of the rules of democracy and lack of education are factors that may cause the gap between a minority of people are able to find a path to success and a majority that feels manipulated events. Providing everyone access to knowledge, education has the task of helping people understand the world and to understand others. In the context of the Europe 2020 strategy makes in education provides a new strategic framework for European cooperation in education and training, created from his predecessor's work program "Education and Training 2010", "Education and Training 2020". This paper aims to highlight the strategic objectives for the Member States, the implementation of these, and a number of statistics on the efficiency of public spending on education in the European Union.

  4. Highly Efficient Training, Refinement, and Validation of a Knowledge-based Planning Quality-Control System for Radiation Therapy Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Carmona, Ruben; Sirak, Igor; Kasaova, Linda; Followill, David; Michalski, Jeff; Bosch, Walter; Straube, William; Mell, Loren K; Moore, Kevin L

    2017-01-01

    To demonstrate an efficient method for training and validation of a knowledge-based planning (KBP) system as a radiation therapy clinical trial plan quality-control system. We analyzed 86 patients with stage IB through IVA cervical cancer treated with intensity modulated radiation therapy at 2 institutions according to the standards of the INTERTECC (International Evaluation of Radiotherapy Technology Effectiveness in Cervical Cancer, National Clinical Trials Network identifier: 01554397) protocol. The protocol used a planning target volume and 2 primary organs at risk: pelvic bone marrow (PBM) and bowel. Secondary organs at risk were rectum and bladder. Initial unfiltered dose-volume histogram (DVH) estimation models were trained using all 86 plans. Refined training sets were created by removing sub-optimal plans from the unfiltered sample, and DVH estimation models… and DVH estimation models were constructed by identifying 30 of 86 plans emphasizing PBM sparing (comparing protocol-specified dosimetric cutpoints V 10 (percentage volume of PBM receiving at least 10 Gy dose) and V 20 (percentage volume of PBM receiving at least 20 Gy dose) with unfiltered predictions) and another 30 of 86 plans emphasizing bowel sparing (comparing V 40 (absolute volume of bowel receiving at least 40 Gy dose) and V 45 (absolute volume of bowel receiving at least 45 Gy dose), 9 in common with the PBM set). To obtain deliverable KBP plans, refined models must inform patient-specific optimization objectives and/or priorities (an auto-planning "routine"). Four candidate routines emphasizing different tradeoffs were composed, and a script was developed to automatically re-plan multiple patients with each routine. After selection of the routine that best met protocol objectives in the 51-patient training sample (KBP FINAL ), protocol-specific DVH metrics and normal tissue complication probability were compared for original versus KBP FINAL plans across the 35-patient validation set

  5. Improving the efficiency of feed utilization in poultry by selection. 2. Genetic parameters of excretion traits and correlations with anatomy of the gastro-intestinal tract and digestive efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urvoix Séverine

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poultry production has been widely criticized for its negative environmental impact related to the quantity of manure produced and to its nitrogen and phosphorus content. In this study, we investigated which traits related to excretion could be used to select chickens for lower environmental pollution. The genetic parameters of several excretion traits were estimated on 630 chickens originating from 2 chicken lines divergently selected on apparent metabolisable energy corrected for zero nitrogen (AMEn at constant body weight. The quantity of excreta relative to feed consumption (CDUDM, the nitrogen and phosphorus excreted, the nitrogen to phosphorus ratio and the water content of excreta were measured, and the consequences of such selection on performance and gastro-intestinal tract (GIT characteristics estimated. The genetic correlations between excretion, GIT and performance traits were established. Results Heritability estimates were high for CDUDM and the nitrogen excretion rate (0.30 and 0.29, respectively. The other excretion measurements showed low to moderate heritability estimates, ranging from 0.10 for excreta water content to 0.22 for the phosphorus excretion rate. Except for the excreta water content, the CDUDM was highly correlated with the excretion traits, ranging from -0.64 to -1.00. The genetic correlations between AMEn or CDUDM and the GIT characteristics were very similar and showed that a decrease in chicken excretion involves an increase in weight of the upper part of the GIT, and a decrease in the weight of the small intestine. Conclusion In order to limit the environmental impact of chicken production, AMEn and CDUDM seem to be more suitable criteria to include in selection schemes than feed efficiency traits.

  6. [A Perspective on Innovation for Efficient Medical Practice in View of Undergraduate and Postgraduate Education and Training in Laboratory Medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Tadashi

    2015-10-01

    Continuous advances in medical laboratory technology have driven major changes in the practice of laboratory medicine over the past two decades. The importance of the overall quality of a medical laboratory has been ever-increasing in order to improve and ensure the quality and safety of clinical practice by physicians in any type of medical facility. Laboratory physicians and professional staff should challenge themselves more than ever in various ways to cooperate and contribute with practicing physicians for the appropriate utilization of laboratory testing. This will certainly lead to a decrease in inappropriate or unnecessary laboratory testing, resulting in reducing medical costs. In addition, not only postgraduate, but also undergraduate medical education/training systems must be markedly innovated, considering recent rapid progress in electronic information and communication technologies.

  7. Interval Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weston M, et al. Effects of low-volume high-intensity interval training (HIT) on fitness in adults: A meta-analysis ... 2014;44:1005. Gillen JB, et al. Is high-intensity interval training a time-efficient exercise strategy to improve health ...

  8. Effect of High Intensity Interval and Continuous Swimming Training on Body Mass Adiposity Level and Serum Parameters in High-Fat Diet Fed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme L. da Rocha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effects of interval and continuous training on the body mass gain and adiposity levels of rats fed a high-fat diet. Forty-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups, standard diet and high-fat diet, and received their respective diets for a period of four weeks without exercise stimuli. After this period, the animals were randomly divided into six groups (n=8: control standard diet (CS, control high-fat diet (CH, continuous training standard diet (CTS, continuous training high-fat diet (CTH, interval training standard diet (ITS, and interval training high-fat diet (ITH. The interval and continuous training consisted of a swimming exercise performed over eight weeks. CH rats had greater body mass gain, sum of adipose tissues mass, and lower serum high density lipoprotein values than CS. The trained groups showed lower values of feed intake, caloric intake, body mass gain, and adiposity levels compared with the CH group. No significant differences were observed between the trained groups (CTS versus ITS and CTH versus ITH on body mass gains and adiposity levels. In conclusion, both training methodologies were shown to be effective in controlling body mass gain and adiposity levels in high-fat diet fed rats.

  9. Discriminative parameter estimation for random walks segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudin, Pierre-Yves; Goodman, Danny; Kumrnar, Puneet; Azzabou, Noura; Carlier, Pierre G; Paragios, Nikos; Kumar, M Pawan

    2013-01-01

    The Random Walks (RW) algorithm is one of the most efficient and easy-to-use probabilistic segmentation methods. By combining contrast terms with prior terms, it provides accurate segmentations of medical images in a fully automated manner. However, one of the main drawbacks of using the RW algorithm is that its parameters have to be hand-tuned. we propose a novel discriminative learning framework that estimates the parameters using a training dataset. The main challenge we face is that the training samples are not fully supervised. Specifically, they provide a hard segmentation of the images, instead of a probabilistic segmentation. We overcome this challenge by treating the optimal probabilistic segmentation that is compatible with the given hard segmentation as a latent variable. This allows us to employ the latent support vector machine formulation for parameter estimation. We show that our approach significantly outperforms the baseline methods on a challenging dataset consisting of real clinical 3D MRI volumes of skeletal muscles.

  10. RiboAbacus: a model trained on polyribosome images predicts ribosome density and translational efficiency from mammalian transcriptomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauria, Fabio; Tebaldi, Toma; Lunelli, Lorenzo; Struffi, Paolo; Gatto, Pamela; Pugliese, Andrea; Brigotti, Maurizio; Montanaro, Lorenzo; Ciribilli, Yari; Inga, Alberto; Quattrone, Alessandro; Sanguinetti, Guido; Viero, Gabriella

    2015-01-01

    Fluctuations in mRNA levels only partially contribute to determine variations in mRNA availability for translation, producing the well-known poor correlation between transcriptome and proteome data. Recent advances in microscopy now enable researchers to obtain high resolution images of ribosomes on transcripts, providing precious snapshots of translation in vivo. Here we propose RiboAbacus, a mathematical model that for the first time incorporates imaging data in a predictive model of transcript-specific ribosome densities and translational efficiencies. RiboAbacus uses a mechanistic model of ribosome dynamics, enabling the quantification of the relative importance of different features (such as codon usage and the 5′ ramp effect) in determining the accuracy of predictions. The model has been optimized in the human Hek-293 cell line to fit thousands of images of human polysomes obtained by atomic force microscopy, from which we could get a reference distribution of the number of ribosomes per mRNA with unmatched resolution. After validation, we applied RiboAbacus to three case studies of known transcriptome-proteome datasets for estimating the translational efficiencies, resulting in an increased correlation with corresponding proteomes. RiboAbacus is an intuitive tool that allows an immediate estimation of crucial translation properties for entire transcriptomes, based on easily obtainable transcript expression levels. PMID:26240374

  11. The ratio of nurse consultation and physician efficiency index of senior rheumatologists is significantly higher than junior physicians in rheumatology residency training: A new efficiency measure in a cohort, exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emamifar, Amir; van Bui Hansen, Morten Hai; Jensen Hansen, Inger Marie

    2017-04-01

    To elucidate the difference between ratios of nurse consultation sought by senior rheumatologists and junior physicians in rheumatology residency training, and also to evaluate physician efficiency index respecting patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).Data regarding outpatient visits for RA patients between November 2013 and 2015 were extracted. The mean interval (day) between consultations, the nurse/physician visits ratio, and physician efficiency index (nurse/physician visits ratio × mean interval) for each senior and junior physicians were calculated. Disease Activity Score in 28 joints-C-Reactive Protein (DAS28-CRP) and Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) scores were used to monitor treatment outcome. Therefore, DAS28 and HAQ scores were measured 3 times: firstly at physician consultation, then after nurse consultation, and finally at the third visit, either at a nurse or physician consultation.Of 6046 visits, 3699 visits, planned by 11 physicians (4 specialists and 7 junior physicians), were included. These numbers of visits belonged to 672 RA patients, among which 431 (64.1%) patients were female, the mean age being 64.9 ± 14.1 years, and DAS28 at baseline was 4.5 ± 1.2. The nurse/physician visits ratio (P = .01) and mean efficiency index (P = .04) of senior rheumatologists were significantly higher than that of junior physicians. Regression analysis showed a positive correlation between physician postgraduate experience and physician efficiency index adjusted for DAS28 at baseline and number of patients for each physician (regression coefficient 5.427, 95% confidence interval 1.068-9.787, P = .022). There was a high correlation between physicians' postgraduate experience (year) and the ratio of nurse/physician visits (r = 0.91, P efficiency index (r = 0.94, P efficiently, leading to prevent additional expenses (due to the differences in yearly salary of physicians and nurses) and human resource waste. Quality of

  12. Short-Term Effects of Complex Training on Agility with the Ball, Speed, Efficiency of Crossing and Shooting in Youth Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavaco Braulio

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Complex training (CXT is the result of a combination of strength and plyometric exercises in the same session. This method has recently been used in the preparation of athletes of different sports. The aim of the present study was to observe the acute effects of a CXT program of 6 weeks: i on agility with the ball, sprinting and the efficiency of crossing and shooting in youth soccer players; ii and the influence of the number of CXT sessions per week (one vs. two. Sixteen youth male soccer players were randomly divided into three groups: a group that performed one weekly CXT session (GCT1, n = 5, age: 13.80 ± 0.45 years; or a group that performed two weekly CXT sessions (GCT2, n = 5, age: 14.20 ± 0.45 years; or a control group that did not perform the CTX (n = 6, age: 14.20 ± 0.84 years. All groups maintained their regular soccer training sessions. No significant interactions were found between GCT1 and GCT2 in all variables. Significant statistical differences were identified (F = 1139, p = 0.02, μp2 = 0531 in the pre-test versus post-test, for both experimental groups, in shot effectiveness. In conclusion, the CXT program proved to be an effective method in boosting abilities and motor skills associated with soccer among young athletes, particularly in increasing shot effectiveness.

  13. A Comparative Evaluation of Public Health Centers with Private Health Training Centers on Primary Healthcare Parameters in India: a Study by Data Envelopment Analysis Technique

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Davey, Sanjeev; Raghav, Santosh Kumar; Singh, Jai Vir; Davey, Anuradha; Singh, Nirankar

    2015-01-01

    The evaluation of primary healthcare services provided by health training centers of a private medical college has not been studied in comparison with government health facilities in Indian context...

  14. Highly Efficient Training, Refinement, and Validation of a Knowledge-based Planning Quality-Control System for Radiation Therapy Clinical Trials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Nan; Carmona, Ruben [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Sirak, Igor; Kasaova, Linda [Department of Oncology and Radiotherapy, University Hospital, Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic); Followill, David [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Michalski, Jeff; Bosch, Walter; Straube, William [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University in St Louis, St Louis, Missouri (United States); Mell, Loren K. [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Moore, Kevin L., E-mail: kevinmoore@ucsd.edu [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate an efficient method for training and validation of a knowledge-based planning (KBP) system as a radiation therapy clinical trial plan quality-control system. Methods and Materials: We analyzed 86 patients with stage IB through IVA cervical cancer treated with intensity modulated radiation therapy at 2 institutions according to the standards of the INTERTECC (International Evaluation of Radiotherapy Technology Effectiveness in Cervical Cancer, National Clinical Trials Network identifier: 01554397) protocol. The protocol used a planning target volume and 2 primary organs at risk: pelvic bone marrow (PBM) and bowel. Secondary organs at risk were rectum and bladder. Initial unfiltered dose-volume histogram (DVH) estimation models were trained using all 86 plans. Refined training sets were created by removing sub-optimal plans from the unfiltered sample, and DVH estimation models… and DVH estimation models were constructed by identifying 30 of 86 plans emphasizing PBM sparing (comparing protocol-specified dosimetric cutpoints V{sub 10} (percentage volume of PBM receiving at least 10 Gy dose) and V{sub 20} (percentage volume of PBM receiving at least 20 Gy dose) with unfiltered predictions) and another 30 of 86 plans emphasizing bowel sparing (comparing V{sub 40} (absolute volume of bowel receiving at least 40 Gy dose) and V{sub 45} (absolute volume of bowel receiving at least 45 Gy dose), 9 in common with the PBM set). To obtain deliverable KBP plans, refined models must inform patient-specific optimization objectives and/or priorities (an auto-planning “routine”). Four candidate routines emphasizing different tradeoffs were composed, and a script was developed to automatically re-plan multiple patients with each routine. After selection of the routine that best met protocol objectives in the 51-patient training sample (KBP{sub FINAL}), protocol-specific DVH metrics and normal tissue complication probability were compared for original

  15. The ratio of nurse consultation and physician efficiency index of senior rheumatologists is significantly higher than junior physicians in rheumatology residency training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emamifar, Amir; van Bui Hansen, Morten Hai; Jensen Hansen, Inger Marie

    2017-01-01

    Abstract To elucidate the difference between ratios of nurse consultation sought by senior rheumatologists and junior physicians in rheumatology residency training, and also to evaluate physician efficiency index respecting patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Data regarding outpatient visits for RA patients between November 2013 and 2015 were extracted. The mean interval (day) between consultations, the nurse/physician visits ratio, and physician efficiency index (nurse/physician visits ratio × mean interval) for each senior and junior physicians were calculated. Disease Activity Score in 28 joints-C-Reactive Protein (DAS28-CRP) and Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) scores were used to monitor treatment outcome. Therefore, DAS28 and HAQ scores were measured 3 times: firstly at physician consultation, then after nurse consultation, and finally at the third visit, either at a nurse or physician consultation. Of 6046 visits, 3699 visits, planned by 11 physicians (4 specialists and 7 junior physicians), were included. These numbers of visits belonged to 672 RA patients, among which 431 (64.1%) patients were female, the mean age being 64.9 ± 14.1 years, and DAS28 at baseline was 4.5 ± 1.2. The nurse/physician visits ratio (P = .01) and mean efficiency index (P = .04) of senior rheumatologists were significantly higher than that of junior physicians. Regression analysis showed a positive correlation between physician postgraduate experience and physician efficiency index adjusted for DAS28 at baseline and number of patients for each physician (regression coefficient 5.427, 95% confidence interval 1.068–9.787, P = .022). There was a high correlation between physicians’ postgraduate experience (year) and the ratio of nurse/physician visits (r = 0.91, P Nurse consultation did not contribute to worsening treatment outcome, since DAS28 and HAQ scores were significantly decreased if physician visits were followed by nurse visits

  16. Defects in Mitochondrial Efficiency and H2O2 Emissions in Obese Women Are Restored to a Lean Phenotype With Aerobic Exercise Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopka, Adam R.; Asante, Albert; Lanza, Ian R.; Robinson, Matthew M.; Johnson, Matthew L.; Dalla Man, Chiara; Cobelli, Claudio; Amols, Mark H.; Irving, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    The notion that mitochondria contribute to obesity-induced insulin resistance is highly debated. Therefore, we determined whether obese (BMI 33 kg/m2), insulin-resistant women with polycystic ovary syndrome had aberrant skeletal muscle mitochondrial physiology compared with lean, insulin-sensitive women (BMI 23 kg/m2). Maximal whole-body and mitochondrial oxygen consumption were not different between obese and lean women. However, obese women exhibited lower mitochondrial coupling and phosphorylation efficiency and elevated mitochondrial H2O2 (mtH2O2) emissions compared with lean women. We further evaluated the impact of 12 weeks of aerobic exercise on obesity-related impairments in insulin sensitivity and mitochondrial energetics in the fasted state and after a high-fat mixed meal. Exercise training reversed obesity-related mitochondrial derangements as evidenced by enhanced mitochondrial bioenergetics efficiency and decreased mtH2O2 production. A concomitant increase in catalase antioxidant activity and decreased DNA oxidative damage indicate improved cellular redox status and a potential mechanism contributing to improved insulin sensitivity. mtH2O2 emissions were refractory to a high-fat meal at baseline, but after exercise, mtH2O2 emissions increased after the meal, which resembles previous findings in lean individuals. We demonstrate that obese women exhibit impaired mitochondrial bioenergetics in the form of decreased efficiency and impaired mtH2O2 emissions, while exercise effectively restores mitochondrial physiology toward that of lean, insulin-sensitive individuals. PMID:25605809

  17. Conventional Training Versus Game-Based Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    Shooter) ( Bug Killer ) (Spy Plane) Conventional Training Versus Game-Based Training Anacapa Sciences, Inc. – Final Report, March 2006 Page...test- bed (which is described in more detail in Chapter 3.) Articles that referenced improved efficiency of training (e.g., reduced training time or...test- bed training programs. In designing the taxonomy, we also conferred with our expert consultant in the field of instructional design, Dr

  18. The Impact Of Ten Weeks Of Bodyweight Training On The Level Of Physical Fitness And Selected Parameters Of Body Composition In Women Aged 21-23 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipecki Krzysztof

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of 10 weeks of bodyweight training on selected elements of body composition (body mass, muscle mass, and the percentage of body fat and water and components of physical fitness (strength, strength endurance, flexibility, and aerobic capacity of women aged 21-23 years who do not practise sports professionally.

  19. Measurable parameters analysis for designing a profile of courses online training; Analisis de parametros cuantificables para el diseno de un perfiel de cursos de formacion online

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monroy Anton, J. L.; Izquierdo Soriano, J. V.; Ribes Llopis, L.; Buendia Garcia, F.

    2013-07-01

    The main objective of this study is to quantify the connections and actions performed by students and teachers in online courses related to the field of ionizing radiation, analyzing the number of training hours and number of students and teachers, so that we can establish a profile of course adapted to the demands and possibilities teachers. (Author)

  20. The impact of a 17-day training period for an international championship on mucosal immune parameters in top-level basketball players and staff members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Alexandre; Arsati, Franco; Cury, Patrícia Ramos; Franciscon, Clóvis; Simões, Antonio Carlos; de Oliveira, Paulo Roberto; de Araújo, Vera Cavalcanti

    2008-10-01

    This investigation examined the impact of a 17-d training period (that included basketball-specific training, sprints, intermittent running exercises, and weight training, prior to an international championship competition) on salivary immunoglobulin A (SIgA) levels in 10 subjects (athletes and staff members) from a national basketball team, as a biomarker for mucosal immune defence. Unstimulated saliva samples were collected at rest at the beginning of the preparation for the Pan American Games and 1 d before the first game. The recovery interval from the last bout of exercise was 4 h. The SIgA level was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and expressed as absolute concentrations, secretion rate, and SIgA level relative to total protein. The decrease in SIgA levels following training was greater in athletes than in support staff; however, no significant differences between the two groups were detected. A decrease in SIgA level, regardless of the method used to express IgA results, was verified for athletes. Only one episode of upper respiratory tract illness symptoms was reported, and it was not associated with changes in SIgA levels. In summary, a situation of combined stress for an important championship was found to decrease the level of SIgA-mediated immune protection at the mucosal surface in team members, with greater changes observed in the athletes.

  1. Interference of psychomotor and spatio-temporal parameters on the efficiency of motor actions involved in the eastern species physical culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Qiang Liu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to identify interferences psychomotor abilities for consistency in the management of spatio-temporal parameters of procedural and final precision in the movements with complex motor structure. Material : the study involved 30 people occupying the eastern species physical culture (Wushu Qigong and Tai Chi Chuan. Results : It was found that the identified trusted connection as positive (n = 59, r = 0.63 to 0.92 and negative (n = 21, r = from -0.63 to -0.89 confirm the influence of particular classes in the eastern system ability to coordinated control movements of different coordination complexity. Conclusions : the ability to control the internal forces, the ability to focus, alertness and mind control depend on three complementary levels - substance "Jing", "Qi" and "Shen", which directly affect the state of psychomotor sphere and target accuracy of spatio-temporal motion parameters.

  2. Correlation of Particular Bacterial PCR-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis Patterns with Bovine Ruminal Fermentation Parameters and Feed Efficiency Traits ▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Hernandez-Sanabria, Emma; Guan, Le Luo; Goonewardene, Laksiri A.; Li, Meiju; Mujibi, Denis F.; Stothard, Paul; Moore, Stephen S; Leon-Quintero, Monica C.

    2010-01-01

    The influence of rumen microbial structure and functions on host physiology remains poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate the interaction between the ruminal microflora and the host by correlating bacterial diversity with fermentation measurements and feed efficiency traits, including dry matter intake, feed conversion ratio, average daily gain, and residual feed intake, using culture-independent methods. Universal bacterial partial 16S rRNA gene products were amplified from rumi...

  3. CORRECTION OF ENDOTHELIAL FUNCTION OF MICROCIRCULATION DISTURBANCE, BLOOD BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS, STANDARDS OF EFFICIENCY, AUTONOMIC AND PSYCHO-EMOTIONAL STATUS IN YOUNG ATHLETES WITH APIFITOPRODUKTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The function of endothelium of microcirculation vessels, vegetative and psychoemotional status, lipid spectrum and physical efficiency in 43 young sportsmen are corrected with the aid of Tentorium api-phyto products (APP.The following tests were conducted: samples of reactive hyperemia and hyperventilation, ultrasound investigation of brachial artery, determination of performance efficiency, total cholesterin, triglycerides, cortisol, red cells, vegetative and psychoemotional status by the Spielberger’s test and SAN test, as well as biomicroscopy of sclera. To relief the psychophysical stress, improve the endothelium function and performance efficiency, the sportsmen received APP as a food additive.After the reception of APP, the lipid and cortisol levels decreased markedly, and the level of red cells increased. The aerobic capacity increased. The recovery time after exercise shortened. The vegetative stress level decreased significantly, and the psychoemotional status improved. The endothelium dysfunction removed.It is shown that APP is a new method of prophylaxis of sudden death in sport, in people with blood circulation pathology, creative professionals, and businessmen.

  4. Feed intake, average daily gain, feed efficiency, and real-time ultrasound traits in Duroc pigs: I. Genetic parameter estimation and accuracy of genomic prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, S; Maltecca, C; Gray, K A; Cassady, J P

    2014-06-01

    The efficiency of producing salable products in the pork industry is largely determined by costs associated with feed and by the amount and quality of lean meat produced. The objectives of this paper were 1) to explore heritability and genetic correlations for growth, feed efficiency, and real-time ultrasound traits using both pedigree and marker information and 2) to assess accuracy of genomic prediction for those traits using Bayes A prediction models in a Duroc terminal sire population. Body weight at birth (BW at birth) and weaning (BW at weaning) and real-time ultrasound traits, including back fat thickness (BF), muscle depth (MD), and intramuscular fat content (IMF), were collected on the basis of farm protocol. Individual feed intake and serial BW records of 1,563 boars obtained from feed intake recording equipment (FIRE; Osborne Industries Inc., Osborne, KS) were edited to obtain growth, feed intake, and feed efficiency traits, including ADG, ADFI, feed conversion ratio (FCR), and residual feed intake (RFI). Correspondingly, 1,047 boars were genotyped using the Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip. The remaining 516 boars, as an independent sample, were genotyped with a low-density GGP-Porcine BeadChip and imputed to 60K. Magnitudes of heritability from pedigree analysis were moderate for growth, feed intake, and ultrasound traits (ranging from 0.44 ± 0.11 for ADG to 0.58 ± 0.09 for BF); heritability estimates were 0.32 ± 0.09 for FCR but only 0.10 ± 0.05 for RFI. Comparatively, heritability estimates using marker information by Bayes A models were about half of those from pedigree analysis, suggesting "missing heritability." Moderate positive genetic correlations between growth and feed intake (0.32 ± 0.05) and back fat (0.22 ± 0.04), as well as negative genetic correlations between growth and feed efficiency traits (-0.21 ± 0.08, -0.05 ± 0.07), indicate selection solely on growth traits may lead to an undesirable increase in feed intake, back fat, and

  5. A Practical and Time-Efficient High-Intensity Interval Training Program Modifies Cardio-Metabolic Risk Factors in Adults with Risk Factors for Type II Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethan E. Phillips

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionRegular physical activity (PA can reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes, but adherence to time-orientated (150 min week−1 or more PA guidelines is very poor. A practical and time-efficient PA regime that was equally efficacious at controlling risk factors for cardio-metabolic disease is one solution to this problem. Herein, we evaluate a new time-efficient and genuinely practical high-intensity interval training (HIT protocol in men and women with pre-existing risk factors for type 2 diabetes.Materials and methodsOne hundred eighty-nine sedentary women (n = 101 and men (n = 88 with impaired glucose tolerance and/or a body mass index >27 kg m−2 [mean (range age: 36 (18–53 years] participated in this multi-center study. Each completed a fully supervised 6-week HIT protocol at work-loads equivalent to ~100 or ~125% V˙O2 max. Change in V˙O2 max was used to monitor protocol efficacy, while Actiheart™ monitors were used to determine PA during four, weeklong, periods. Mean arterial (blood pressure (MAP and fasting insulin resistance [homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-IR] represent key health biomarker outcomes.ResultsThe higher intensity bouts (~125% V˙O2 max used during a 5-by-1 min HIT protocol resulted in a robust increase in V˙O2 max (136 participants, +10.0%, p < 0.001; large size effect. 5-by-1 HIT reduced MAP (~3%; p < 0.001 and HOMA-IR (~16%; p < 0.01. Physiological responses were similar in men and women while a sizeable proportion of the training-induced changes in V˙O2 max, MAP, and HOMA-IR was retained 3 weeks after cessation of training. The supervised HIT sessions accounted for the entire quantifiable increase in PA, and this equated to 400 metabolic equivalent (MET min week−1. Meta-analysis indicated that 5-by-1 HIT matched the efficacy and variability of a time-consuming 30-week PA program on V˙O2 max, MAP, and HOMA-IR.ConclusionWith a total time-commitment of

  6. HANDBALL IDEOMOTOR TRAINING

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beatrice Aurelia Abălaşei

    2017-01-01

    .... injury, is particularly satisfactory results. Mental training or ideomotor training is the process of maintaining and consolidating, movement and actions, resulting bands neuromuscular activation and thus increase efficiency athletes...

  7. The Effects of Continuous One-Arm Kettlebell Swing Training on Physiological Parameters in United States Air Force Personnel: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    capacity. Additional research should also focus on the association of KB training and its effects on reducing pain in the neck, shoulders , and lower back...is a need to scientifically evaluate the effectiveness of such programs in military populations for inclusion in formalized PT [3,4]. It may be...Hulsey et al. indicates that KB swings may elicit an anaerobic response in this population. Several studies have evaluated the metabolic demands of

  8. Influence of the use of testosterone associated with physical training on some hematologic and physical parameters in older rats with alloxan-induced diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Romeu Paulo Martins; Santos, Rodrigo Otávio Dos; Matildes, Nelson Eurípedes; Mundim, Antônio Vicente; Garrote-Filho, Mario da Silva; Rodrigues, Pâmella Ferreira; Penha-Silva, Nilson

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the possible blood changes in wistar rats elderly with and without treatment with anabolic steroids submitted physical training. Elderly rats (32) were divided into four groups: normal (N), treated normal (NT), diabetic (D) and treated diabetic (DT). They were submitted to 20 sessions of swimming with overload (5% body weight), 40 min/day for four weeks. The NT and DT groups received application of testosterone twice a week. At the end of the sessions, the animals were subjected to swimming until exhaustion and then killed for removal of blood and visceral fat. We evaluated maximum swim time, weight of visceral fat, erythrogram, leukogram, lipidogram and serum levels of glucose, lactate, aspartate aminotransferase and creatine kinase. The results were compared using one-way ANOVA followed by the post hoc Tukey test. In elderly diabetic rats, the use of anabolic associated with physical training in older rats resulted in improvement in erythrogram, lipidogram and physical performance for high-intensity aerobic exercise. However, it was related to changes in leukocyte count, probably associated with inflammation. The combination of the use of testosterone with physical training, followed by maximal effort test caused changes hematological and biochemical can be associated with improvement in physiological characteristics, with increase of the swimming time and decrease of visceral fat levels, improvement in aerobic metabolism of fatty acids and glucose in normal and diabetic animals.

  9. A Research on the Chronic Effects of Training at High Altitude on Some Physical Characteristics and Some Blood Parameters of the Students from Kastamonu School of Physical Education and Sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Kaya

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the alternations of physical performance, some blood parameters, pulse and blood pressure of male student athletes from Kastamonu School of Physical Education and Sports. 15 student athletes volunteered for the study. The sampling group trained for two hours between 9.00-11.00 a.m. The sampling groups’ RBC, WBC, Hb, HCT, resting systolic blood pressure, resting diastolic blood pressure, resting heart rate and aerobic and anaerobic values on the fifteenth day at high altitude (3250 m and on the seventh day after returning sea level were measured. T- test was used as a statistical method and significance level was determined as (P0.05. The results suggest that athletes who trained at high altitude should be supplied by vitamin and minerals, they should sleep and rest regularly, they shouldn't make any exercise which can cause to lactic acid accumulation.

  10. Injury rates in martial art athletes: anthropometric parameters and training volume, but not foot morphology indexes, are predictive risk factors for lower limb injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Jacopo A; Bassani, Tito; Galbusera, Fabio; Bianchi, Alberto; Martinelli, Nicolò

    2017-09-22

    Previous studies attempted to identify possible risk factors for acute and overuse injuries in several sports disciplines such as running, gymnastics or team sports. Given the lack of scientific works focused on risk factors for lower limb injuries in martial arts, the present study was aimed to investigate foot anatomy, anthropometric measures, and other background information as possible risk factors of injury in barefoot athletes practicing judo, karate, kung fu, thai boxe, or aikido. In addition, the injury rates were evaluated in relation with the different martial art styles. One group of 130 martial artists was retrospectively evaluated. Data of three foot morphological variables were collected: navicular height (NH), navicular drop (ND) and the rear foot (RF). In addition, each participant filled an interview questionnaire providing the following information: age, sex, body weight, height, BMI, hours of training per week, the kind of injury occurred to the lower limbs in the preceding year. Of 130 subjects, 70 (53.8%) did not sustain injuries, 35 (27.0%) suffered an acute injury and the remaining 25 (19.2%) reported an overuse injury. No significant differences were observed in the injury rates in relation to style and kind of martial art. Age, training volume and BMI were found as significant predictors of injury, while NH, ND and RF were not able to predict acute or overuse injury at lower limbs. The injury rates were similar in karate, judo, kung fu, aikido, and thai boxe. The foot morphology variables were not related with the presence or absence of acute and overuse injuries. Conversely, older and heavier martial artists, performing more hours of barefoot training, are at higher risk of acute and overuse injury. Athletic trainers should strongly take into account the present information in order to develop more accurate and specific injury prevention programs for martial artists.

  11. The effect of four-week high-intensity interval training with beta-alanine supplementation on aerobic and anaerobic performance and some blood parameters in girls basketball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    bahareh ketabdar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of four-week high-intensity interval training with beta-alanine supplementation on aerobic and anaerobic performance and some blood parameters in girls basketball players. Materials & Methods: This was a quasi-experimental study. Twenty female basketball players, with the mean age of 24.65 ± 4.81 years, height of 166.97 ± 4.12 cm, weight of 59.15 ± 5.23 kg and body mass index of 21.5 ± 1.23 kg/m2, were divided into two groups, including intervention (exercise + supplement and control groups. Two days before and after the intervention, the subjects performed Wingate test (to estimate the average aerobic power and Bruce test (to estimate VO2max.The subjects attended basketball training two sessions per week; Intervention group performed high-intensity interval training in addition to the basketball training in every session. The dose of beta-alanine supplementation was 2.4, 3.6, 4.8 g per day. After four weeks, creatine kinase and lactate levels and performance tests were reevaluated. Data were analyzed by SPSS software version 21, with a significance level of P0.05. Conclusion: This study showed that high-intensity interval training with beta-alanine supplementation resulted in delay in the fatigue threshold, stabilization of PH and hydrogen ions balance, increased aerobic-anaerobic capacity and exercise performance in female basketball players.

  12. The impact of the training process in functional status and parameters of physical qualities of sportsmen-veterans on stage exit from the sport of higher achievements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viacheslav Mulyk

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to accomplish the analysis of influence of the training loadings on the indices of the functional state and physical qualities in different age periods of sportsmen-veterans. Material & Methods: researches were conducted with the sportsmen-veterans (football players of the different age groups (35–40; 41–45; 46–55 who continued to employ and participate in competitions after finishing of active performances in professional commands. The methods of determination of level of motive qualities and indices of the functional state of footballers-veterans were used. Results were calculated by the methods of mathematical statistics. Results: the results of long-term researches of determination of dynamics of changes of motive qualities level and functional state indices during age period 35–55-years of football players are presented. Conclusions: it is determined that during the research period the most changes of level of physical qualities and indices of functional state are received in the period of 35–40 years, that is caused by plummet of the training and competitive loadings after active employments in professional soccer commands.

  13. [Absolute numbers of peripheral blood CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells prior to a leukapheresis procedure as a parameter predicting the efficiency of stem cell collection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galtseva, I V; Davydova, Yu O; Gaponova, T V; Kapranov, N M; Kuzmina, L A; Troitskaya, V V; Gribanova, E O; Kravchenko, S K; Mangasarova, Ya K; Zvonkov, E E; Parovichnikova, E N; Mendeleeva, L P; Savchenko, V G

    To identify a parameter predicting a collection of at least 2·106 CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells (HSC)/kg body weight per leukapheresis (LA) procedure. The investigation included 189 patients with hematological malignancies and 3 HSC donors, who underwent mobilization of stem cells with their subsequent collection by LA. Absolute numbers of peripheral blood leukocytes and CD34+ cells before a LA procedure, as well as a number of CD34+ cells/kg body weight (BW) in the LA product stored on the same day were determined in each patient (donor). There was no correlation between the number of leukocytes and that of stored CD34+ cells/kg BW. There was a close correlation between the count of peripheral blood CD34+ cells prior to LA and that of collected CD34+ cells calculated with reference to kg BW. The optimal absolute blood CD34+ cell count was estimated to 20 per µl, at which a LA procedure makes it possible to collect 2·106 or more CD34+ cells/kg BW.

  14. Efficiencies of different microbial parameters as indicator to assess slight metal pollutions in a farm field near a gold mining area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiang; Dai, Jiulan; Yu, Yue; Zhang, Yongli; Shen, Tianlin; Liu, Jiangsheng; Wang, Renqing

    2010-02-01

    In order to monitor changes in the concentrations of metals in the soil, different microbial indices such as BIOLOG, microbial carbon (C(mic)), basal respiration, and culturable microbe's most probable number were used. We compared these methods and wanted to discover which method was the best at measuring slight changes in the amounts of heavy metals. Factor analyses were applied to the BIOLOG data and metal concentrations so the combined effects of heavy metals on microbes could be analyzed via statistical data reduction and the distribution patterns of metal concentration could also be revealed. The results showed that the BIOLOG method could barely detect subtle characteristic changes in the soil samples, while the C(mic) method was more sensitive. Furthermore, different heavy metals did not have the same origin/source, and their effects on microbial indices should be analyzed separately. Significant positive correlations between C(mic) and metals were observed and suggested the limitation of using traditional microbial parameters as metal pollution indicators. Among all the soil characteristics in our study, pH seemed to be the most active abiotic factor that affected microorganisms.

  15. High efficiency cell-recycle continuous sodium gluconate production by Aspergillus niger using on-line physiological parameters association analysis to regulate feed rate rationally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Fei; Li, Chao; Wang, Zejian; Zhao, Wei; Chu, Ju; Zhuang, Yingping; Zhang, Siliang

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, a system of cell-recycle continuous fermentation for sodium gluconate (SG) production by Aspergillus niger (A. niger) was established. Based on initial continuous fermentation result (100.0h) with constant feed rate, an automatic feedback strategy to regulate feed rate using on-line physiological parameters (OUR and DO) was proposed and applied successfully for the first time in the improved continuous fermentation (240.5h). Due to less auxiliary time, highest SG production rate (31.05±0.29gL(-1)h(-1)) and highest yield (0.984±0.067molmol(-1)), overall SG production capacity (975.8±5.8gh(-1)) in 50-L fermentor of improved continuous fermentation increased more than 300.0% compared to that of batch fermentation. Improvement of mass transfer and dispersed mycelia morphology were the two major reasons responsible for the high SG production rate. This system had been successfully applied to industrial fermentation and SG production was greatly improved. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Parameters Selection of PSO Algorithm influencing On performance of Fault Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Yan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The particle swarm optimization (PSO is an optimization algorithm based on intelligent optimization. Parameters selection of PSO will play an important role in performance and efficiency of the algorithm. In this paper, the performance of PSO is analyzed when the control parameters vary, including particle number, accelerate constant, inertia weight and maximum limited velocity. And then PSO with dynamic parameters has been applied on the neural network training for gearbox fault diagnosis, the results with different parameters of PSO are compared and analyzed. At last some suggestions for parameters selection are proposed to improve the performance of PSO.

  17. Criterion-based laparoscopic training reduces total training time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkman, W.M.; Buzink, S.N.; Alevizos, L.; De Hingh, I.H.J.T.; Jakimowicz, J.J.

    The benefits of criterion-based laparoscopic training over time-oriented training are unclear. The purpose of this study is to compare these types of training based on training outcome and time efficiency. Methods During four training sessions within 1 week (one session per day) 34 medical interns

  18. Effect of some operational parameters on the hydrogen generation efficiency of Ni-ZnO/PANI composite under visible-light irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nsib, Mohamed Faouzi, E-mail: Mohamed.faouzi.ncib@gmail.com [URCMEP (UR11ES85), Faculty of Sciences, University of Gabès, 6029 Gabès (Tunisia); National School of Engineers (ENIG), University of Gabès, 6029 Gabès (Tunisia); Naffati, Naima [URCMEP (UR11ES85), Faculty of Sciences, University of Gabès, 6029 Gabès (Tunisia); Rayes, Ali; Moussa, Noomen [URCMEP (UR11ES85), Faculty of Sciences, University of Gabès, 6029 Gabès (Tunisia); National School of Engineers (ENIG), University of Gabès, 6029 Gabès (Tunisia); Houas, Ammar [URCMEP (UR11ES85), Faculty of Sciences, University of Gabès, 6029 Gabès (Tunisia); Al Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University (IMSIU), College of Sciences, Department of Chemistry, Riyadh 11623 (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-10-15

    Graphical abstract: UV–vis spectra of PANI, ZnO, Ni{sub 0.01}Zn{sub 0.99}O, Ni{sub 0.01}Zn{sub 0.99}O/PANI3 and Ni{sub 0.1}Zn{sub 0.9}O/PANI{sub 10} nanocomposites. - Highlights: • Ni{sub x}Zn{sub 1−x}O/PANI{sub y} photocatalysts are synthesized by the impregnation method. • Ni{sup 2+} amount control the morphology of ZnO and enhances its photoactivity. • Both Ni{sup 2+} and PANI extend the light absorption of ZnO toward the visible region. • Both Ni{sup 2+} and PANI enhance the electron–hole separation. - Abstract: Ni{sub x}Zn{sub 1−x}O/Polyaniline hybrid photocatalysts are synthesized and used for the experiments of hydrogen production from water-splitting under visible irradiation. XRD, UV–vis DRS and SEM are used to characterize the prepared materials. It is shown that the Ni{sup 2+} amount doped into ZnO controls its morphology and enhances its photoactivity for H{sub 2} generation. Polyaniline (PANI) is shown to sensitize ZnO and to extend its light absorption toward the visible region. The hybrid photocatalyst with 10 mol% Ni{sup 2+} and 10 wt.% PANI shows the maximum photocatalytic H{sub 2} production for one hour of visible irradiation: ∼558 μmol while only ∼178 μmol in the presence of pure ZnO. Additives like sacrificial electron donors and carbonate salts are found to play a key role in the improvement of H{sub 2} evolution. Thus, the hydrogen photoproduction efficiency increases in the order: thiosulfate > sulfide > propanol and HCO{sub 3}{sup −} > CO{sub 3}{sup 2−}.

  19. Endurance training and the menstrual cycle : effects of menstrual cycle based-training on physiologic measures of endurance capacity and on muscle cell parameters in women with and without oral contraception

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Ahreum

    2012-01-01

    Sowohl Frauen ohne (non-OC users) als auch mit (OC users) Einnahme oraler Kontrazeptiva (OC) zeigen Hormonschwankungen während des Menstruationszyklus (MZ). Diese Milieus können die Trainierbarkeit der Ausdauerleistungsfähigkeit beeinflussen. Es wurden die Effekte des MZ-phasenbetonten Ausdauertrainings bei non-OC und OC users untersucht. 13 non- OC und 14 OC users absolvierten ein 12-wöchiges Training, wobei sie das eine Bein vor allem in der Follikelphase (FT), das andere Bein i...

  20. Furrow Irrigation Management and Design Criteria Using Efficiency Parameters and Simulation Models Criterios para Manejo y Diseño de Riego por Surcos Utilizando Parámetros de Eficiencia y Modelos de Simulación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo A. Holzapfel

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the relationship between the variables of furrow irrigation and the irrigation performance parameters, crop yield, and deep percolation as a basis for furrow irrigation design and management. Application efficiency (AE, requirement efficiency (RE, requirement distribution efficiency (RDE, total distribution efficiency (TDE, and furrow irrigation management, operation, and design variables (inflow discharge, furrow length, and irrigation cutoff time were correlated. The relationship between performance irrigation parameters and relative yield was also examined. In addition, environmental aspects related to leaching and runoff were also presented for each of the parameters. Study results indicate that increasing the length of the furrow reduces RE, RDE, and TDE values. However, an increase in inflow discharge and cutoff time increases efficiency. In contrast, an increase in furrow length increases AE while an increase in inflow discharge and cutoff time reduces it. Unlike AE, RE, RDE, and TDE parameters are well-correlated with relative yield. TDE and AE are recommended parameters for the design, management, and operation of furrow irrigation systems, in order to establish good irrigation practices, and to prevent contamination.El presente artículo analiza la relación entre las variables de riego por surcos y los parámetros que determinan la calidad del riego, producción, y percolación profunda como base para el diseño y manejo del riego por surcos. Se ha realizado la correlación entre la eficiencia de aplicación (AE, eficiencia de requerimiento (RE, eficiencia de distribución del requerimiento (RDE, eficiencia de distribución total (TDE, y las variables de manejo, operación y diseño de riego por surcos (caudal, longitud de surco y tiempo de corte de riego. También se ha examinado la relación entre los parámetros que determinan la calidad de riego y la producción relativa. Además, se presentan para cada uno de

  1. Verification of electricity savings through energy-efficient train management - Measurements made on trains and extrapolations - Annex 3; Verifizierung der Stromeinsparung durch energieeffizientes Zugsmanagement - Anhang 3: Messungen auf Fahrzeugen und Hochrechnungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, M.; Lerjen, M.; Menth, S. [emkamatik GmbH, Wettingen (Switzerland); Luethi, M. [Swiss Federal Insitute of Technology (ETHZ), Institute for Transport Planning and Systems (IVT), Zuerich (Switzerland); Tuchschmid, M. [SBB AG, BahnUmwelt-Center, 3000 Bern (Switzerland)

    2009-11-15

    This appendix to a final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of measurements made on trains and presents and discusses extrapolations made on the basis of these measurements. The evaluation and selection of the trains on which the measurements were to be made is discussed. Mainly passenger trains were selected as only few goods engines have the necessary equipment and equipping them would be costly. Measurements made on a Re 460 locomotive are presented and discussed. The methods used in the energy analysis are described and the results obtained on several itineraries that include partial single-track working are presented and discussed.

  2. Time-course effects of aerobic exercise training on cardiovascular and renal parameters in 2K1C renovascular hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, R C A; Sousa, L E; Santos, R A S; Silva, M E; Lima, W G; Campagnole-Santos, M J; Alzamora, A C

    2015-11-01

    Exercise training (Ex) has been recommended for its beneficial effects in hypertensive states. The present study evaluated the time-course effects of Ex without workload on mean arterial pressure (MAP), reflex bradycardia, cardiac and renal histology, and oxidative stress in two-kidney, one-clip (2K1C) hypertensive rats. Male Fischer rats (10 weeks old; 150-180 g) underwent surgery (2K1C or SHAM) and were subsequently divided into a sedentary (SED) group and Ex group (swimming 1 h/day, 5 days/week for 2, 4, 6, 8, or 10 weeks). Until week 4, Ex decreased MAP, increased reflex bradycardia, prevented concentric hypertrophy, reduced collagen deposition in the myocardium and kidneys, decreased the level of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) in the left ventricle, and increased the catalase (CAT) activity in the left ventricle and both kidneys. From week 6 to week 10, however, MAP and reflex bradycardia in 2K1C Ex rats became similar to those in 2K1C SED rats. Ex effectively reduced heart rate and prevented collagen deposition in the heart and both kidneys up to week 10, and restored the level of TBARS in the left ventricle and clipped kidney and the CAT activity in both kidneys until week 8. Ex without workload for 10 weeks in 2K1C rats provided distinct beneficial effects. The early effects of Ex on cardiovascular function included reversing MAP and reflex bradycardia. The later effects of Ex included preventing structural alterations in the heart and kidney by decreasing oxidative stress and reducing injuries in these organs during hypertension.

  3. Time-course effects of aerobic exercise training on cardiovascular and renal parameters in 2K1C renovascular hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C.A. Maia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Exercise training (Ex has been recommended for its beneficial effects in hypertensive states. The present study evaluated the time-course effects of Ex without workload on mean arterial pressure (MAP, reflex bradycardia, cardiac and renal histology, and oxidative stress in two-kidney, one-clip (2K1C hypertensive rats. Male Fischer rats (10 weeks old; 150–180 g underwent surgery (2K1C or SHAM and were subsequently divided into a sedentary (SED group and Ex group (swimming 1 h/day, 5 days/week for 2, 4, 6, 8, or 10 weeks. Until week 4, Ex decreased MAP, increased reflex bradycardia, prevented concentric hypertrophy, reduced collagen deposition in the myocardium and kidneys, decreased the level of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS in the left ventricle, and increased the catalase (CAT activity in the left ventricle and both kidneys. From week 6 to week 10, however, MAP and reflex bradycardia in 2K1C Ex rats became similar to those in 2K1C SED rats. Ex effectively reduced heart rate and prevented collagen deposition in the heart and both kidneys up to week 10, and restored the level of TBARS in the left ventricle and clipped kidney and the CAT activity in both kidneys until week 8. Ex without workload for 10 weeks in 2K1C rats provided distinct beneficial effects. The early effects of Ex on cardiovascular function included reversing MAP and reflex bradycardia. The later effects of Ex included preventing structural alterations in the heart and kidney by decreasing oxidative stress and reducing injuries in these organs during hypertension.

  4. Verification of electricity savings through energy-efficient train management - Concept and system architecture - Annex 1; Verifizierung der Stromeinsparung durch energieeffizientes Zugsmanagement - Anhang 1: Konzept und Systemarchitektur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, M.; Lerjen, M.; Menth, S. [emkamatik GmbH, Wettingen (Switzerland); Luethi, M. [Swiss Federal Insitute of Technology (ETHZ), Institute for Transport Planning and Systems (IVT), Zuerich (Switzerland); Tuchschmid, M. [SBB AG, BahnUmwelt-Center, 3000 Bern (Switzerland)

    2009-11-15

    This appendix to a final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses a system concept that can be used to help save energy in the Swiss rail network. The concept proposes that the highest level of energy savings can be achieved by controlling the trains to provide a high level of smooth flow as far as speed is concerned. In particular, various situations are described where, for example, double and single track working exists and unnecessary breaking when trains have to pass each other can be avoided. Predictor algorithms are described and discussed and possible indicators for train drivers are proposed. The system architecture required is examined and recommendations are made concerning the implementation of the system. Restrictions caused by the running of non-equipped foreign trains on the Swiss rail network are also discussed.

  5. ENERGY SAVING MODES DEFINITION OF TRAINS HANDLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Kyslyi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Traction calculations with the definition of energy-efficient trajectories provide search for rational energy consumption depending on the time course of the train. When selecting energy-efficient trajectory of the train and the development of regime charts conducting trains must take into account variables such as: the profile of the site, weight train, locomotive series, etc. When increasing the speed of the growth it occurs the resistance movement, which is proportional to the square of the speed, which leads to higher costs of fuel and energy resources. In contrast, the reduction of costs due to the decrease in speed leads to an increase in travel time of the train, which should be consistent with the timetable and other technical and economic parameters, depending on the speed. The article describes one way to reduce the cost of energy for traction. The aim of the article is to reduce energy consumption by identifying energy-saving control modes. It occurs with the locomotive optimization function of control actions on the running time of the train and the flow of energy in the management of the train from the end of the acceleration to go to the coasts. Methodology. The technique of choice of energy saving path of the train and power control and electric locomotives with electric transmission provides the calculation of multiple paths with variable input data and parameters of the composition of the train situation. The methodology takes into account the uniform mathematical methods of search and parametric optimization. For uniformity of motion needed to slow down the accelerating forces are balanced. Findings. On the basis of calculations of multiple advanced algorithms determine the trajectories of energy-saving trains, built multiparametric locomotive power control function, which can reduce energy consumption by 11 to 13% depending on the weight of the train and the train situation. Originality. The author obtained the energy

  6. PT AND THE 8-STEP TRAINING MODEL: IMPLEMENTING TRAINING MANGEMENT EVERY DAY

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Darrell E Fawley III

    2012-01-01

    .... [...]applying this training model to the physical training process can lead to better, more efficient training and a crop of new leaders versed in how to properly plan, resource, and execute training.

  7. Parameter Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sales-Cruz, Mauricio; Heitzig, Martina; Cameron, Ian

    2011-01-01

    In this chapter the importance of parameter estimation in model development is illustrated through various applications related to reaction systems. In particular, rate constants in a reaction system are obtained through parameter estimation methods. These approaches often require the application...... of optimisation techniques coupled with dynamic solution of the underlying model. Linear and nonlinear approaches to parameter estimation are investigated. There is also the application of maximum likelihood principles in the estimation of parameters, as well as the use of orthogonal collocation to generate a set...... of algebraic equations as the basis for parameter estimation.These approaches are illustrated using estimations of kinetic constants from reaction system models....

  8. Adaptive optimal training of animal behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Ji Hyun; Choi, Jung Yoon; Akrami, Athena; Witten, Ilana; Pillow, Jonathan

    Neuroscience experiments often require training animals to perform tasks designed to elicit various sensory, cognitive, and motor behaviors. Training typically involves a series of gradual adjustments of stimulus conditions and rewards in order to bring about learning. However, training protocols are usually hand-designed, and often require weeks or months to achieve a desired level of task performance. Here we combine ideas from reinforcement learning and adaptive optimal experimental design to formulate methods for efficient training of animal behavior. Our work addresses two intriguing problems at once: first, it seeks to infer the learning rules underlying an animal's behavioral changes during training; second, it seeks to exploit these rules to select stimuli that will maximize the rate of learning toward a desired objective. We develop and test these methods using data collected from rats during training on a two-interval sensory discrimination task. We show that we can accurately infer the parameters of a learning algorithm that describes how the animal's internal model of the task evolves over the course of training. We also demonstrate by simulation that our method can provide a substantial speedup over standard training methods.

  9. Parameters for Efficient Fuel Cell Catalyst Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-03

    Holger Wolfschmidt, 2010, Bochum, Germany Electrochimica Acta Gold Medal of International Society of Electrochemistry 2010, U. Stimming, 2010 Graduate...Henglein, U. Stimming, and W. Unkauf, Electrochim. Acta , 45, (2000) 3283. [4] H. A. Gasteiger, J. E. Panels, and S. G. Yan, J. Power Sources, 127...Stimming, Z. Phys. Chem. (Int. Ed.), 217, (2003) 395. [17] S. Pandelov and U. Stimming, Electrochim. Acta , 52, (2007) 5548. [18] S. L. Chen and A

  10. Focusing the research agenda for simulation training visual system requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Charles J.

    2014-06-01

    Advances in the capabilities of the display-related technologies with potential uses in simulation training devices continue to occur at a rapid pace. Simultaneously, ongoing reductions in defense spending stimulate the services to push a higher proportion of training into ground-based simulators to reduce their operational costs. These two trends result in increased customer expectations and desires for more capable training devices, while the money available for these devices is decreasing. Thus, there exists an increasing need to improve the efficiency of the acquisition process and to increase the probability that users get the training devices they need at the lowest practical cost. In support of this need the IDEAS program was initiated in 2010 with the goal of improving display system requirements associated with unmet user needs and expectations and disrupted acquisitions. This paper describes a process of identifying, rating, and selecting the design parameters that should receive research attention. Analyses of existing requirements documents reveal that between 40 and 50 specific design parameters (i.e., resolution, contrast, luminance, field of view, frame rate, etc.) are typically called out for the acquisition of a simulation training display system. Obviously no research effort can address the effects of this many parameters. Thus, we developed a defensible strategy for focusing limited R&D resources on a fraction of these parameters. This strategy encompasses six criteria to identify the parameters most worthy of research attention. Examples based on display design parameters recommended by stakeholders are provided.

  11. Improvement of management by training process of boxers at a stage of direct preparation for competitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiprych S.V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of work is perfection of estimation of the special capacity and increase on this basis of efficiency of training process of boxers control. 27 skilled sportsmen took part in research. The estimation of training impulse is conducted - integral index of reaction of the cardiorespiratory system. Trainings employments were standardized on duration (40 minutes and orientation on development speed-power qualities, endurance. Three groups of trainings employments were utillized in all. The degree of tension of training work was determined. It is set that perfection of training process in boxing can be based on the estimation of changes a capacity and reactive properties of the cardiorespiratory system of sportsmen. The orientation of training process is certain and the individual parameters of the trainings loadings are chosen.

  12. SU-G-TeP4-09: Development of a Plan Data Aggregator for Time Efficient Physics Second-Checks of Machine Parameters for External Beam Treatment Plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belley, M; Schmidt, M; Knutson, N [Rhode Island Hospital, Providence RI (United States); University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI (United States); Price, M [Rhode Island Hospital, Providence RI (United States); University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI (United States); Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Physics second-checks for external beam radiation therapy are performed, in-part, to verify that the machine parameters in the Record-and-Verify (R&V) system that will ultimately be sent to the LINAC exactly match the values initially calculated by the Treatment Planning System (TPS). While performing the second-check, a large portion of the physicists’ time is spent navigating and arranging display windows to locate and compare the relevant numerical values (MLC position, collimator rotation, field size, MU, etc.). Here, we describe the development of a software tool that guides the physicist by aggregating and succinctly displaying machine parameter data relevant to the physics second-check process. Methods: A data retrieval software tool was developed using Python to aggregate data and generate a list of machine parameters that are commonly verified during the physics second-check process. This software tool imported values from (i) the TPS RT Plan DICOM file and (ii) the MOSAIQ (R&V) Structured Query Language (SQL) database. The machine parameters aggregated for this study included: MLC positions, X&Y jaw positions, collimator rotation, gantry rotation, MU, dose rate, wedges and accessories, cumulative dose, energy, machine name, couch angle, and more. Results: A GUI interface was developed to generate a side-by-side display of the aggregated machine parameter values for each field, and presented to the physicist for direct visual comparison. This software tool was tested for 3D conformal, static IMRT, sliding window IMRT, and VMAT treatment plans. Conclusion: This software tool facilitated the data collection process needed in order for the physicist to conduct a second-check, thus yielding an optimized second-check workflow that was both more user friendly and time-efficient. Utilizing this software tool, the physicist was able to spend less time searching through the TPS PDF plan document and the R&V system and focus the second-check efforts on

  13. Learning regularization parameters for general-form Tikhonov

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Julianne; Español, Malena I.

    2017-07-01

    Computing regularization parameters for general-form Tikhonov regularization can be an expensive and difficult task, especially if multiple parameters or many solutions need to be computed in real time. In this work, we assume training data is available and describe an efficient learning approach for computing regularization parameters that can be used for a large set of problems. We consider an empirical Bayes risk minimization framework for finding regularization parameters that minimize average errors for the training data. We first extend methods from Chung et al (2011 SIAM J. Sci. Comput. 33 3132-52) to the general-form Tikhonov problem. Then we develop a learning approach for multi-parameter Tikhonov problems, for the case where all involved matrices are simultaneously diagonalizable. For problems where this is not the case, we describe an approach to compute near-optimal regularization parameters by using operator approximations for the original problem. Finally, we propose a new class of regularizing filters, where solutions correspond to multi-parameter Tikhonov solutions, that requires less data than previously proposed optimal error filters, avoids the generalized SVD, and allows flexibility and novelty in the choice of regularization matrices. Numerical results for 1D and 2D examples using different norms on the errors show the effectiveness of our methods.

  14. Competition Efficiency Analysis of Croatian Junior Wrestlers in European Championship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristijan Slacanac

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Croatian junior wrestler won a bronze medal at the European Championship 2016 year. Considering the potential of our wrestlers there is an obvious need of technical and tactical analysis so our juniors and seniors U23 wrestlers would be able to achieve even better results. Match analysis were conducted by LongoMatch 0.20.1. Seven matches of Croatian wrestlers were analysed. Time parameters, score efficiency, technical efficiency and tactical structure were observed and analysed from the aspect of attack and defence phase and successful/unsuccessful techniques. This paper shows descriptive parameters and competitor efficiency were calculated. The results show a great number of positive score in a standing position in relation to parterre position. The parameters of competitive efficiency (0.49 points per minute show better attacking efficiency (1.32 points per minute in relation to defence efficiency (0.83 points per minute. Croatian wrestlers achieve less score per minute in relation with elite wrestlers, but it is visible a significant progress in technical and tactical efficiency in relation in the past three year. According to place realization of technique, Croatian wrestlers realized more technique in the center, while opponents realized technique in the zone and moving to the zone. Further analysis of efficiency and individualisation training will improve efficiency of Croatian national wrestlers.

  15. Timetable Attractiveness Parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schittenhelm, Bernd

    2008-01-01

    Timetable attractiveness is influenced by a set of key parameters that are described in this article. Regarding the superior structure of the timetable, the trend in Europe goes towards periodic regular interval timetables. Regular departures and focus on optimal transfer possibilities make...... these timetables attractive. The travel time in the timetable depends on the characteristics of the infrastructure and rolling stock, the heterogeneity of the planned train traffic and the necessary number of transfers on the passenger’s journey. Planned interdependencies between trains, such as transfers...... and heterogeneous traffic, add complexity to the timetable. The risk of spreading initial delays to other trains and parts of the network increases with the level of timetable complexity....

  16. Efficient prediction methods for the micro-pressure wave from a high-speed train entering a tunnel using the Kirchhoff formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, T; Lee, S

    2001-11-01

    The compression wave generated by a high-speed train emerging from the exit portal of a tunnel gives rise to an impulsive noise called a micro-pressure wave. In this study, new methods for the prediction of sonic-boom noise are proposed. The first method combines acoustic monopole analysis and the method of characteristics with the Kirchhoff method. The compression wave from a train entering a tunnel is calculated by an approximate compact Green's function, and the resultant noise at the tunnel exit is predicted by a linear Kirchhoff formulation. The second method couples the Kirchhoff formulation with the Euler equation, which is solved numerically for the generation and propagation of the compression wave. Numerical prediction of the compression wave, the propagation in the tunnel, and the micro-pressure wave obtained by the present methods are compared with measured data. The numerical results exhibit a reasonable agreement with the experimental data. The proposed methods in this study are shown to be very useful design tools for the nose shape of trains and the geometry of tunnels, and they can be utilized to minimize the pressure fluctuation in the tunnel and the corresponding booming noise.

  17. Inventory parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Sanjay

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a detailed overview of various parameters/factors involved in inventory analysis. It especially focuses on the assessment and modeling of basic inventory parameters, namely demand, procurement cost, cycle time, ordering cost, inventory carrying cost, inventory stock, stock out level, and stock out cost. In the context of economic lot size, it provides equations related to the optimum values. It also discusses why the optimum lot size and optimum total relevant cost are considered to be key decision variables, and uses numerous examples to explain each of these inventory parameters separately. Lastly, it provides detailed information on parameter estimation for different sectors/products. Written in a simple and lucid style, it offers a valuable resource for a broad readership, especially Master of Business Administration (MBA) students.

  18. Optimization design of wind turbine drive train based on Matlab genetic algorithm toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, R. N.; Liu, X.; Liu, S. J.

    2013-12-01

    In order to ensure the high efficiency of the whole flexible drive train of the front-end speed adjusting wind turbine, the working principle of the main part of the drive train is analyzed. As critical parameters, rotating speed ratios of three planetary gear trains are selected as the research subject. The mathematical model of the torque converter speed ratio is established based on these three critical variable quantity, and the effect of key parameters on the efficiency of hydraulic mechanical transmission is analyzed. Based on the torque balance and the energy balance, refer to hydraulic mechanical transmission characteristics, the transmission efficiency expression of the whole drive train is established. The fitness function and constraint functions are established respectively based on the drive train transmission efficiency and the torque converter rotating speed ratio range. And the optimization calculation is carried out by using MATLAB genetic algorithm toolbox. The optimization method and results provide an optimization program for exact match of wind turbine rotor, gearbox, hydraulic mechanical transmission, hydraulic torque converter and synchronous generator, ensure that the drive train work with a high efficiency, and give a reference for the selection of the torque converter and hydraulic mechanical transmission.

  19. Whole-brain vessel wall MRI: A parameter tune-up solution to improve the scan efficiency of three-dimensional variable flip-angle turbo spin-echo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qi; Deng, Zixin; Bi, Xiaoming; Song, Shlee S; Schlick, Konrad H; Gonzalez, Nestor R; Li, Debiao; Fan, Zhaoyang

    2017-09-01

    To propose and evaluate a parameter tune-up solution to expedite a three-dimensional (3D) variable-flip-angle turbo spin-echo (TSE) sequence for whole-brain intracranial vessel wall (IVW) imaging. Elliptical k-space sampling and prolonged echo train length (ETL), were used to expedite a 3D variable-flip-angle TSE-based sequence. To compensate for the potential loss in vessel wall signal, optimal combination of prescribed T 2 and ETL was experimentally investigated on 22 healthy volunteers at 3 Tesla. The optimized protocol (7-8 min) was then compared with a previous protocol (reference protocol, 11-12 min) in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), vessel wall sharpness, and wall delineation quality on a 4-point scale (0:poor; 3:excellent) in 10 healthy volunteers. A pilot study of five patients was performed and lesion delineation score was used to demonstrate the diagnostic quality. A protocol with ETL = 52 and prescribed T 2  = 170 ms was deemed an optimized one, which, compared with the reference protocol, provided significantly improved wall SNR (12.0 ± 1.3 versus 10.0 ± 1.1; P = 0.002), wall-lumen CNR (9.7 ± 1.2 versus 8.0 ± 0.9; P = 0.002), wall-CSF CNR (2.8 ± 1.0 versus 1.7 ± 1.0; P = 0.026), similar vessel wall sharpness at both inner (1.59 ± 0.18 versus 1.58 ± 0.14, P = 0.87) and outer (1.71 ± 0.25 versus 1.83 ± 0.30; P = 0.18) boundaries, and comparable vessel wall delineation score for individual segments (1.95-3; P > 0.06). In all patients, atherosclerotic plaques (10) or wall dissection (5) were identified with a delineation score of 3 or 2. A parameter tune-up solution can accelerate 3D variable-flip-angle TSE acquisitions, particularly allowed for expedited whole-brain IVW imaging with preserved wall delineation quality. 2. Technical Efficacy: Stage 1 J. MAGN. RESON. IMAGING 2017;46:751-757. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic

  20. Building an efficient surgical team using a bench model simulation: construct validity of the Legacy Inanimate System for Endoscopic Team Training (LISETT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, B; Denk, P M; Martinec, D V; Gatta, P; Whiteford, M H; Swanström, L L

    2008-04-01

    Complex laparoscopic tasks require collaboration of surgeons as a surgical team. Conventionally, surgical teams are formed shortly before the start of the surgery, and team skills are built during the surgery. There is a need to establish a training simulation to improve surgical team skills without jeopardizing the safety of surgery. The Legacy Inanimate System for Laparoscopic Team Training (LISETT) is a bench simulation designed to enhance surgical team skills. The reported project tested the construct validity of LISETT. The research question was whether the LISETT scores show progressive improvement correlating with the level of surgical training and laparoscopic team experience or not. With LISETT, two surgeons are required to work closely to perform two laparoscopic tasks: peg transportation and suturing. A total of 44 surgical dyad teams were recruited, composed of medical students, residents, laparoscopic fellows, and experienced surgeons. The LISETT scores were calculated according to the speed and accuracy of the movements. The LISETT scores were positively correlated with surgical experience, and the results can be generalized confidently to surgical teams (Pearson's coefficient, 0.73; p = 0.001). To analyze the influences of individual skill and team dynamics on LISETT performance, team quality was rated by team members using communication and cooperation characters after each practice. The LISETT scores are positively correlated with self-rated team quality scores (Pearson's coefficient, 0.39; p = 0.008). The findings proved LISETT to be a valid system for assessing cooperative skills of a surgical team. By increasing practice time, LISETT provides an opportunity to build surgical team skills, which include effective communication and cooperation.

  1. Trainees' reactions to training: shaping groups and courses for happier trainees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giangreco, Antonio; Carugati, Andrea; Sebastiano, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    The extensive use of training demands more extensive evaluations of its real effects. Human resource scholars attempt to develop multi-dimensional training evaluation models, often ignored by practitioners, whereas training managers tend to evaluate only reaction evaluations, the first dimension...... in several models. To provide more practically relevant research, this study includes five training parameters in a model that assesses trainees’ overall satisfaction with training (OST), which results from perceived usefulness of training, perceived trainer performance and perceived training efficiency....... Structured survey data from a sample of 13,753 trainees, grouped in 1230 courses, involving 3047 companies, and financed by an Italian inter-professional fund, confirm the role of all three antecedents of OST. Moreover, of the five course- and participantrelated variables, participation of female workers...

  2. Quantum autoencoders for efficient compression of quantum data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Jonathan; Olson, Jonathan P.; Aspuru-Guzik, Alan

    2017-12-01

    Classical autoencoders are neural networks that can learn efficient low-dimensional representations of data in higher-dimensional space. The task of an autoencoder is, given an input x, to map x to a lower dimensional point y such that x can likely be recovered from y. The structure of the underlying autoencoder network can be chosen to represent the data on a smaller dimension, effectively compressing the input. Inspired by this idea, we introduce the model of a quantum autoencoder to perform similar tasks on quantum data. The quantum autoencoder is trained to compress a particular data set of quantum states, where a classical compression algorithm cannot be employed. The parameters of the quantum autoencoder are trained using classical optimization algorithms. We show an example of a simple programmable circuit that can be trained as an efficient autoencoder. We apply our model in the context of quantum simulation to compress ground states of the Hubbard model and molecular Hamiltonians.

  3. iPad integration in plastic surgical training: optimizing clinical efficiency, education, and compliance with the health insurance portability and accountability act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstle, Theodore; Hassanein, Aladdin H; Eriksson, Elof

    2015-01-01

    The authors share their experience with the issuance of iPads to all residents, faculty, and physician extenders in their plastic surgical division. They found that these devices (1) optimized compliance with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act by eliminating the use of paper service lists; (2) improved clinical efficiency; and (3) promoted resident education. They believe the use of these devices in residency is cost-effective when considering mitigating patient privacy risk and enriching educational value.

  4. Predicting the parameters of energy installations with laser ignition: Neural network models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey A. Pastukhov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the possibility of using artificial neural networks for predicting the parameters of the model energy installation with laser ignition. The main stages of creating a prognostic model based on an artificial neural network have been presented. Input data were analyzed by principal component method. The synthesized neural network was designed to predict the parameter value of the model in question. The artificial neural network was trained by a back-propagation algorithm. The efficiency of the artificial neural networks and their applicability to predicting parameter values of various rocket engine elements were demonstrated.

  5. Farelo da vagem de algaroba em dietas para cabras lactantes: parâmetros ruminais e síntese de proteína microbiana Mesquite pod meal in diets of lactating goats: ruminal parameters and microbial efficiency synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizziane da Silva Argôlo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar os efeitos da adição de farelo da vagem de algaroba (0; 33,3; 66,7 e 100% em substituição ao fubá de milho sobre a excreção de derivados de purina, estimada com coleta total de urina, e sobre os parâmetros ruminais (pH, amônia e ácidos graxos voláteis de cabras em lactação. Utilizaram-se oito cabras adultas lactantes distribuídas em dois quadrados latinos 4 × 4 e alimentadas com dietas isoproteicas, compostas de 40% de silagem de capim-elefante e 60% de concentrado. Não houve efeito significativo da adição de farelo da vagem de algaroba sobre os parâmetros ruminais. O pH manteve-se em faixa adequada, entre 6,85 e 7,03, e a concentração média de nitrogênio amoniacal ruminal foi de 6,97 mg de N/100 mL de fluido ruminal. As concentrações de acetato e propionato variaram de 9,47 a 10,54 e de 4,79 a 6,58 mM, respectivamente. As excreções (mmol/dia de alantoína, ácido úrico, xantinahipoxantina, a quantidade (mmol/dia de purinas absorvidas, o fluxo intestinal (g/dia de nitrogênio microbiano e a eficiência de síntese microbiana (PM/kg NDT apresentaram resposta linear negativa à substituição do fubá de milho pelo farelo da vagem de algaroba. A estimativa da síntese de proteína microbiana em cabras deve ser calculada pela excreção de derivados de purinas a partir de equações obtidas com caprinos.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of adding mesquite pod meal (0, 33.3, 66.7 and 100% to substitute corn meal on purin derivative the excretion, estimated by total urine collection, and on the ruminal parameters (pH, ammonia and volatile fatty acids. Eight lactating goats were used and distributed in a 4 × 4 Latin square and fed iso-protein diets consisting of 40% elephant grass silage and 60% concentrate. There was no significant effect from adding mesquite pod meal on the ruminal parameters. The pH ranged from 6.85 to 7.03 and the ruminal ammonia concentration averaged 6.97 mg

  6. Human Factors in Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barshi, Immanuel; Byrne, Vicky; Arsintescu, Lucia; Connell, Erin

    2010-01-01

    Future space missions will be significantly longer than current shuttle missions and new systems will be more complex than current systems. Increasing communication delays between crews and Earth-based support means that astronauts need to be prepared to handle the unexpected on their own. As crews become more autonomous, their potential span of control and required expertise must grow to match their autonomy. It is not possible to train for every eventuality ahead of time on the ground, or to maintain trained skills across long intervals of disuse. To adequately prepare NASA personnel for these challenges, new training approaches, methodologies, and tools are required. This research project aims at developing these training capabilities. By researching established training principles, examining future needs, and by using current practices in space flight training as test beds, both in Flight Controller and Crew Medical domains, this research project is mitigating program risks and generating templates and requirements to meet future training needs. Training efforts in Fiscal Year 09 (FY09) strongly focused on crew medical training, but also began exploring how Space Flight Resource Management training for Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) Flight Controllers could be integrated with systems training for optimal Mission Control Center (MCC) operations. The Training Task addresses Program risks that lie at the intersection of the following three risks identified by the Project: 1) Risk associated with poor task design; 2) Risk of error due to inadequate information; and 3) Risk associated with reduced safety and efficiency due to poor human factors design.

  7. The determination of efficiency of a special obstacle course for training of cadets and rescuers of Public Service of Ukraine on emergency situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olexandr Baybak

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine directions of the improvement of the educational and training process of cadets and retraining of rescuers of Public Service of Ukraine on emergency situations (PSES for carrying out the search-rescue works in highlands. Material & Methods: the contingent – cadets (25, rescuers (25 and officers (25 of Public Services of Ukraine on emergency situations took part in the research. The following methods are used for the solution of objectives: the theoretical analysis and generalization of scientific and methodical literature, pedagogical methods of research (poll and questioning. Results: the main requirements to a special obstacle course were defined on the basis of studying and analysis of biographical particulars with the purpose of the improvement of rescuers of PSES for carrying out the search-rescue works (SRW during the emergency situations (ES of a natural character. Conclusions: the need of modeling of weather conditions on a special obstacle course is defined for the purpose of the improvement of the level of preparedness of staff of the search-rescue groups in highlands.

  8. ADRB2 Gln27Glu polymorphism influenced changes in leptin but not body composition or metabolic and other inflammatory parameters after twelve weeks of combined training in overweight adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neiva Leite

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Aim To compare the anthropometric, metabolic, and inflammatory parameters of overweight adolescents after 12-weeks of resistance and aerobic training (CT, taking into account the Gln27Glu polymorphism of the β2 adrenergic receptor (ADRB2 gene. Methods Forty-seven adolescents (15.05±1.07y were assigned to one of four groups, according to the presence or absence of the Glu27 allele: CT (CarrierT n=11; NoncarrierT n=11 or control (CarrierC n=13; NoncarrierC n=12. Body composition, abdominal fat, maturation, fitness, metabolic and lipid profile, inflammatory markers were assessed. The CT consisted of six resistance exercises, followed by 30 min of walking/running at 50-80% VO2max, totaling 60 min/session, three times a week. A mixed-model factorial ANOVA was used to compare variables at baseline and after 12-weeks. Results TC was effective in reducing total fat mass (NoncarrierT ES=.45, CarrierT ES=.27 and subcutaneous abdominal fat (NoncarrierT ES=.48, CarrierT ES=.46 and increasing lean mass (NoncarrierT ES=.58, CarrierT ES=.60 and fitness. CarrierT group showed a reduction in leptin (ES=.49. Conclusion The responses of body composition and physical fitness to TC were not influenced by the presence of the Gln27Glu polymorphism. However, only the Glu27 allele carriers showed reductions in leptin after 12-weeks. Besides, a lack of intervention caused obesogenic effects, especially in Glu27carriers.

  9. Twenty weeks of home-based interactive training of children with cerebral palsy improves functional abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorentzen, Jakob; Greve, Line Z; Kliim-Due, Mette; Rasmussen, Betina; Bilde, P E; Nielsen, Jens B

    2015-05-10

    Home-based training is becoming ever more important with increasing demands on the public health systems. We investigated whether individualized and supervised interactive home-based training delivered through the internet improves functional abilities in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Thirty four children with CP (aged 9-16; mean age 10.9 ± 2.4 years) (GMFCS I-II; MACS I-II) were included in this non-randomized controlled clinical training study. 12 children (aged 7-16; mean age: 11.3+/-0.9 years) were allocated to a control group in which measurements were performed with 20 weeks interval without any intervening training. Daily activities, functional abilities of upper- and lower limbs, and balance were evaluated before, immediately after training and 12 weeks after training. The training consisted of 30 min daily home-based training for 20 weeks delivered through the internet. The training group on average completed 17 min daily training for the 20 week period (total of 40 h of training). The training group showed significant improvements of daily activities (AMPS), upper limb function (AHA) and functional tests of lower limbs (sit to stand, lateral step up, half knee to standing) after 20 weeks of training. No difference was found between the test after 20 weeks of training and the test 12 weeks after training. No significance was reached for balance after training. No difference was found for any parameter for the control group. Interactive home training of children with CP is an efficient way to deliver training, which can enable functional motor improvements and increased activity to perform daily activities. ISRCTN13188513 . Date of registration: 04/12/2014.

  10. Driving Resistance from Railroad Trains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgreen, Erik Bjørn Grønning; Sorenson, Spencer C

    2005-01-01

    This report methods and parameters for calculating the driving resistance of railroad trains. Calculations and comparisons are presented for aerodynamic, rolling and total resistance for a variety of freight trains under different loading conditions, operating speed and configuration. Simplified...... methods are presented for the estimation of the driving resistance for passenger trains. This report is a supplement to the ARTEMIS rail emissions model....

  11. The comparison of the efficiency of traditional lectures to video-supported lectures within the training of the Emergency Medicine residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aydın Sarıhan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Recent developments in computer and video technology, multimedia resources enter quickest way possible into medical education and have started to gain popularity. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of video-supported lectures on leaning, with comparison to traditional lectures. Methods: According to lecture techniques, two separate groups; one is the traditional lectures group (TLG and the other is video-supported lectures group (VSLG, are formed. While the TLG is offered a traditional lecture the VSLG is offered a video-supported lecture with imbedded videos which are related to the topics in the traditional lecture. Both study groups take pretest and posttest with MCQs (multiple choice questions and OSCEs (objective structured clinical examination. Results: The study includes 30 volunteer residents in Dokuz Eylul University School of Medicine Department of Emergency Medicine. No difference is observed between TGL and VSLG in pretest and posttest scores (p = 0.949, p = 0.580. And additionally, comparing the scores of both groups, we cannot observe any difference between the pretest OSCE scores of each group (p = 0.300, however posttest OSCE scores shows a dramatic odd in-between (p = 0.010. When pretest MCQs and posttest MCQs mean scores are compared, both tests (TLG, VSLG has not any significant difference (p=0.949, p = 0.580. Nevertheless, after comparing OSCEs pretest and posttest mean scores, we can see significant difference in mean scores of both (TLG, VSLG, (p = 0.011, p = 0.001. Conclusions: Taken into consideration, the findings of this study shows possibility of improving educational techniques to acquire clinical skills by using local resources and low-cost technology. Keywords: ATLS training, Video-supported lecture, Medical education, Lecture techniques, Teaching method

  12. Impact of training volume and intensity on RBC-NOS/NO pathway and endurance capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koliamitra, Christina; Holtkamp, Bastian; Zimmer, Philipp; Bloch, Wilhelm; Grau, Marijke

    2017-01-01

    Acute exercise increases red blood cell-nitric oxide synthase (RBC-NOS) activation and RBC deformability but the effect of regular training remains unclear. To detect the chronic effect of enduring moderate and high intensity training on the RBC-NOS/NO pathway and to detect a relation between RBC deformability and endurance capacity. 38 healthy male subjects were randomly assigned to one of three training groups: High Volume Training (HVT; 120-140 beats per minute (bpm)), High Intensity Training (HIT; 160-180 bpm) and Moderate Intensity Training (MIT; 140-160 bpm). Blood parameters, maximum oxygen capacity (VO2 max), RBC deformability, RBC nitrite level and RBC-NOS activation were measured after venous blood sampling at rest pre (T0) and after six weeks of training (T1). RBC-NOS activation, RBC nitrite concentration and RBC deformability were significantly increased at T1 in the HIT group. Parameters were unaltered in MIT and HVT. Maximum oxygen uptake was only significantly increased in the HIT group and regression analysis revealed positive regression between VO2 max and RBC deformability. High intensity training was the only training programme that sustainably affected RBC-NOS dependent NO production and performance capacity. HIT therefore represents a time efficient training program resulting in improved RBC function potentially improving physical condition.

  13. Language training: French training

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2005-01-01

    General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 30 January to 07 April 2006. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz : Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 30 January to 07 April 2006. This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken French. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF (for 8 students) For further information and registration, please consult