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Sample records for efficacious pediculicide based

  1. An ex vivo, assessor blind, randomised, parallel group, comparative efficacy trial of the ovicidal activity of three pediculicides after a single application - melaleuca oil and lavender oil, eucalyptus oil and lemon tea tree oil, and a "suffocation" pediculicide

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    Altman Phillip M

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are two components to the clinical efficacy of pediculicides: (i efficacy against the crawling-stages (lousicidal efficacy; and (ii efficacy against the eggs (ovicidal efficacy. Lousicidal efficacy and ovicidal efficacy are confounded in clinical trials. Here we report on a trial that was specially designed to rank the clinical ovicidal efficacy of pediculicides. Eggs were collected, pre-treatment and post-treatment, from subjects with different types of hair, different coloured hair and hair of different length. Method Subjects with at least 20 live eggs of Pediculus capitis (head lice were randomised to one of three treatment-groups: a melaleuca oil (commonly called tea tree oil and lavender oil pediculicide (TTO/LO; a eucalyptus oil and lemon tea tree oil pediculicide (EO/LTTO; or a "suffocation" pediculicide. Pre-treatment: 10 to 22 live eggs were taken from the head by cutting the single hair with the live egg attached, before the treatment (total of 1,062 eggs. Treatment: The subjects then received a single treatment of one of the three pediculicides, according to the manufacturers' instructions. Post-treatment: 10 to 41 treated live eggs were taken from the head by cutting the single hair with the egg attached (total of 1,183 eggs. Eggs were incubated for 14 days. The proportion of eggs that had hatched after 14 days in the pre-treatment group was compared with the proportion of eggs that hatched in the post-treatment group. The primary outcome measure was % ovicidal efficacy for each of the three pediculicides. Results 722 subjects were examined for the presence of eggs of head lice. 92 of these subjects were recruited and randomly assigned to: the "suffocation" pediculicide (n = 31; the melaleuca oil and lavender oil pediculicide (n = 31; and the eucalyptus oil and lemon tea tree oil pediculicide (n = 30 subjects. The group treated with eucalyptus oil and lemon tea tree oil had an ovicidal efficacy of 3.3% (SD

  2. In vitro pediculicidal activity of herbal shampoo base on Thai local plants against head louse (Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassami, Watcharawit; Soonwera, Mayura

    2013-04-01

    Head lice infestation, a worldwide head infestation caused Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer, is an important public health problem in Thailand. Several chemical pediculicides have lost in efficacy due to increasing resistance of lice against insecticide. Therefore, non-toxic alternative products, such as natural products from plants, e.g. plant extract pediculicides, are needed for head lice control. The aims of this study were to evaluate the potential of pediculicidal activity of herbal shampoo base on three species of Thai local plants (Accacia concinna (Willd.) DC, Averrhoa bilimbi Linn. and Tamarindus indica Linn.) against head lice and to compare them with carbaryl shampoo (Hafif shampoo®; 0.6% w/v carbaryl) and non-treatment control in order to assess their in vitro. Doses of 0.12 and 0.25 ml/cm2 of each herbal shampoo were applied to filter paper, and ten head lice were place on the filter paper. The mortalities of head lice on the filter paper were recorded at 1, 5, 10, 30 and 60 min by sterio-microscope. All herbal shampoos at 0.25 ml/cm2 were more effective pediculicide than carbaryl shampoo with 100% mortality at 5 min. The median lethal time (LT50) of all herbal shampoos at 0.25 ml/cm2 showed no significant differences over at 0.12 ml/cm2 (Pshampoo, followed by Av. bilimbi extract shampoo and Ac. concinna extract shampoo, with LT50 valuesshampoos have high potential of pediculicide to head lice treatments for schoolchildren.

  3. Pediculicidal effect of herbal shampoo against Pediculus humanus capitis in vitro.

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    Watcharawit, R; Soonwera, M

    2013-06-01

    Human head lice infestation is an important public health problem in Thailand. Lice resistance is increasing, chemical pediculicides have lost their efficacy and thus alternative products such as herbal shampoos have been proposed to treat lice infestation. The present study investigated the efficacy of twenty nine herbal shampoos based on zinbiberaceae plants, piperaceae plants and native plants against human head lice and compared them with malathion shampoo (A-lices shampoo®: 1% w/v malathion) and commercial shampoo (BabiMild Natural'N Mild®) in order to assess their in vitro efficacy. All herbal shampoo were more effective than commercial shampoo with 100% mortality at 60 seconds and LT50 values ranged from 11.30 to 31.97 seconds, meanwhile, commercial shampoo caused 14.0-15.0% mortality and LT50 values ranged from 83.96 to 87.43 seconds. The nine herbal shampoos from Zingiber cassumunar, Piper betle, Piper ribesioides, Averrhoa bilimbi, Clitoria ternatea, Plectranthus amboincus, Myristica fragrans, Tacca chantrieri and Zanthoxylum limonella were more effective pediculicide than malathion shampoo with 100% mortality at 30 seconds and LT50 values ranged from 11.30-13.58 seconds, on the other hand malathion shampoo showed LT50 values ranging from 12.39 to 13.67 seconds. LT50 values indicated the order of pediculicidal activity in the herbal shampoos as Z. cassumunar shampoo > P. betle shampoo > Za. limonella shampoo > Av. bilimbi shampoo > P. ribesioides shampoo > My. fragrans shampoo > T. chantrieri shampoo > Pl. amboincus shampoo. Our data showed that eight of the twenty nine herbal shampoos in this study were of high potential pediculicide to human head lice treatments for Thai children.

  4. Efficacy and Safety of a Mineral Oil-Based Head Lice Shampoo: A Randomized, Controlled, Investigator-Blinded, Comparative Study.

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    Wolf, Luise; Eertmans, Frank; Wolf, Doerte; Rossel, Bart; Adriaens, Els

    2016-01-01

    Due to increased resistance and safety concerns with insecticide-based pediculicides, there is growing demand for head lice treatments with a physical mode of action. Certain mineral oils kill lice by blocking spiracles or by disrupting the epicuticular wax layer. The present study was performed to evaluate efficacy and safety of a mineral oil-based shampoo. This randomized, controlled, investigator-blinded, monocentric study (EudraCT registration no. 2014-002918-23) was performed from October 2014-June 2015 in Germany. A mineral oil shampoo (Mosquito® Med Läuse Shampoo 10 in Germany, Paranix or Silcap shampoo elsewhere), registered as medical device, was compared to a conventional, locally reimbursed, pyrethroid-based pediculicide (Goldgeist® Forte solution). In total, 107 patients (>1 year) with confirmed head lice infestation were included (test arm: n = 53; control arm: n = 54). All subjects received two applications of either test or control product at day 0 and day 7, according to the instructions for use. Efficacy and safety was evaluated directly, 1h and 24h after first application, before and after second treatment, and at day 10. The main objective was demonstrating a cure rate for the test product, being superior to 70% at day 10. Cure rates at day 10 (corrected for re-infestation) for the test product (96.1%) and control (94%) significantly exceeded the pre-defined target (70%) (p shampoo) can be safe and effective alternatives for insecticide-based pediculicides, with less risk for development of resistance because of the physical mode of action. German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS) DRKS00009753 and EudraCT database 2014-002918-23.

  5. Efficacy of herbal shampoo base on native plant against head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer, Pediculidae: Phthiraptera) in vitro and in vivo in Thailand.

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    Soonwera, Mayura

    2014-09-01

    Head lice infestation (or pediculosis) is an important public health problem in Thailand, especially in children between the ages 5 and 11 years. Head lice resistance is increasing, chemical pediculicides have lost their efficacy, and, therefore, alternative pediculicides such as herbal shampoos have been proposed to treat head lice infestation. Thus, the present study investigated the efficacy of three herbal shampoos based on native plants in Thailand (Acorus calamus Linn., Phyllanthus emblica Linn., and Zanthoxylum limonella Alston) against head lice and compared them with carbaryl shampoo (Hafif shampoo, 0.6% w/v carbaryl), malathion shampoo (A-Lice shampoo, 1.0% w/v malathion), and commercial shampoos (Babi Mild Natural' N Mild and Johnson's baby shampoo) in order to assess their in vitro and in vivo efficacy. For in vitro study, doses of 0.12 and 0.25 ml/cm(2) of each herbal shampoo were applied to filter paper, then 10 head lice were place on the filter paper. The mortalities of head lice were recorded at 5, 15, 30, and 60 min. The results revealed that all herbal shampoo were more effective on pediculicidal activity than chemical and commercial shampoos with 100% mortality at 15 min; LT₅₀ values ranged from 0.25 to 1.90 min. Meanwhile, chemical shampoos caused 20-80% mortality, and LT₅₀ values ranged from 6.50 to 85.43 min. On the other side, commercial shampoos showed 4.0% mortality. The most effective pediculicide was Z. limonella shampoo, followed by A. calamus shampoo, P. emblica shampoo, carbaryl shampoo, malathion shampoo, and commercial shampoo, respectively. In vivo results showed that all herbal shampoos were also more effective for head lice treatment than chemical and commercial shampoos with 94.67-97.68% of cure rate after the first treatment; the second treatment, 7 days later, revealed that the cure rate was 100%. Meanwhile, chemical shampoo showed 71.67-93.0% of cure rate and, unfortunately, commercial shampoos were nontoxic to

  6. New Thai herbal shampoos as pediculicides for killing head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer (Phthiraptera

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    Sirawut Sittichok

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of Thai herbal shampoos [Cartoxylum formosum (C. formosum + eucalyptus essential oil (EO, C. formosum + citrus EO, Solanum trilobatum + eucalyptus EO, Solanum trilobatum + citrus EO, Moringa oleifera + eucalyptus EO and Moringa oleifera + citrus EO] for killing all stages of Pediculus humanus capitis (Phthiraptera. Methods: A filter paper contact method was applied with three concentrations (0.05, 0.10 and 0.20 mL/cm2 of each Thai herbal shampoo as well as permethrin pediculicide (positive control and drinking water (negative control against eggs, nymphs and adults of Pediculus humanus capitis. Mortality rates of the eggs were recorded after 7 days of incubation while those of nymphs and adults were recorded after 5 minutes of contact. Results: All herbal shampoos at the high concentration were highly effective against nymphs and adults, but not effective against the eggs. C. formosum + eucalyptus EO and C. formosum + citrus EO shampoos at all concentrations exhibited the highest efficacy against nymphs and adults with 100% mortality rate at 5 min and LC50 values of 0.004 and 0.005 mL/cm2, respectively. All formulation of Solanum trilobatum and Moringa oleifera shampoos added with eucalyptus EO showed mortality rates against nymphs at 92.0%-100.0% and 76.0%-100.0% and against adults at 84.0%-100.0% and 20.0%-32.0%, respectively. Permethrin pediculicide was not effective against the eggs, but showed 68.0%-92.0% and 28.0%-60.0% mortality rates against nymphs and adults. Conclusions: These results indicate that C. formosum + eucalyptus EO shampoo can be used as an effective nymphicide and adulticide against Pediculus humanus capitis.

  7. Efficacy and Safety of a Mineral Oil-Based Head Lice Shampoo: A Randomized, Controlled, Investigator-Blinded, Comparative Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luise Wolf

    Full Text Available Due to increased resistance and safety concerns with insecticide-based pediculicides, there is growing demand for head lice treatments with a physical mode of action. Certain mineral oils kill lice by blocking spiracles or by disrupting the epicuticular wax layer. The present study was performed to evaluate efficacy and safety of a mineral oil-based shampoo.This randomized, controlled, investigator-blinded, monocentric study (EudraCT registration no. 2014-002918-23 was performed from October 2014-June 2015 in Germany. A mineral oil shampoo (Mosquito® Med Läuse Shampoo 10 in Germany, Paranix or Silcap shampoo elsewhere, registered as medical device, was compared to a conventional, locally reimbursed, pyrethroid-based pediculicide (Goldgeist® Forte solution. In total, 107 patients (>1 year with confirmed head lice infestation were included (test arm: n = 53; control arm: n = 54. All subjects received two applications of either test or control product at day 0 and day 7, according to the instructions for use. Efficacy and safety was evaluated directly, 1h and 24h after first application, before and after second treatment, and at day 10. The main objective was demonstrating a cure rate for the test product, being superior to 70% at day 10.Cure rates at day 10 (corrected for re-infestation for the test product (96.1% and control (94% significantly exceeded the pre-defined target (70% (p < 0.001, 2-sided, 1-sample, chi-square test with confirmed non-inferiority for the test product. Over all visits, cure rates were consistently higher for the test product, whereas more initially-cured subjects remained lice-free until end of study (78%; control: 60%. Both products were safe and well tolerated, offering good esthetical effects.This study showed that substance-based medical devices (including the tested mineral oil shampoo can be safe and effective alternatives for insecticide-based pediculicides, with less risk for development of resistance because

  8. Prevalence of head lice infestation and pediculicidal effect of permethrine shampoo in primary school girls in a low-income area in southeast of Iran.

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    Soleimani-Ahmadi, Moussa; Jaberhashemi, Seyed Aghil; Zare, Mehdi; Sanei-Dehkordi, Alireza

    2017-07-24

    Head lice infestation is a common public health problem that is most prevalent in primary school children throughout the world, especially in developing countries including different parts of Iran. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with head lice infestation and pediculicidal effect of 1% permethrin shampoo in primary schools girls of Bashagard County, one of the low socioeconomic areas in southeast of Iran. In this interventional study six villages with similar demographical situations were selected and randomly assigned into intervention and control areas. In each area 150 girl students aged 7-12 years were selected randomly and screened for head lice infestation by visual scalp examination. In intervention area, treatment efficacy of 1% permethrin shampoo was evaluated via re-examination for infestation after one, two, and three weeks. Pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic and associated factors of head lice infestation. The prevalence of head lice infestation was 67.3%. There was significant association between head lice infestation and school grade, family size, parents' literacy, bathing facilities, frequency of hair washing, and use of shared articles (p shampoo for head lice treatment was 29.2, 68.9, and 90.3% after the first, second, and third weeks, respectively. The head lice infestation is a health problem in primary school girls of Bashagard County. Improvement of socioeconomic status and providing appropriate educational programs about head lice risk factors and prevention can be effective for reduction of infestation in this area. This trial has been registered and approved by Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences ethical committee (Trial No.764). Trial registration date: March 17 2014.

  9. Acaricidal, pediculicidal and larvicidal activity of synthesized ZnO nanoparticles using Momordica charantia leaf extract against blood feeding parasites.

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    Gandhi, P Rajiv; Jayaseelan, C; Mary, R Regina; Mathivanan, D; Suseem, S R

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the acaricidal, pediculicidal and larvicidal effect of synthesized zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) using Momordica charantia leaf extract against the larvae of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, adult of Pediculus humanus capitis, and the larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus. The ZnO NPs were characterized by using UV, XRD, FTIR and SEM-EDX. The SEM image confirms that the synthesized nanoparticles were spherical in shape with a size of 21.32 nm. The results of GC-MS analysis indicates the presence of the major compound of Nonacosane (C 29 H 60 ) in the M. charantia leaf extract. Cattle tick, head lice and mosquito larvae were exposed to a varying concentrations of the synthesized ZnO NPs and M. charantia leaf extract for 24 h. Compared to the leaf aqueous extract, biosynthesized ZnO NPs showed higher toxicity against R. microplus, P. humanus capitis, An. stephensi, and Cx. Quinquefasciatus with the LC 50 values of 6.87, 14.38, 5.42, and 4.87 mg/L, respectively. The findings revealed that synthesized ZnO NPs possess excellent anti-parasitic activity. These results suggest that the green synthesized ZnO NPs has the potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of R. microplus, P. humanus capitis and the mosquito larvae of An. Stephensi and Cx. quinquefasciatus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Strategies for Fostering the Efficacy of School-Based Management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined community participation in the School-Based Management Committees (SBMC), the challenges hindering participation, and strategies for fostering efficacy of the School Based Management Committee. The number 340 schools were selected from the population of 2543 public primary schools in ...

  11. In vitro efficacy of five essential oils against Pediculus humanus capitis.

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    Candy, Kerdalidec; Nicolas, Patrick; Andriantsoanirina, Valérie; Izri, Arezki; Durand, Rémy

    2018-02-01

    Treatment of head lice has relied mainly on the use of topical insecticides. Today, conventional topical pediculicides have suffered considerable loss of activity worldwide. There is increasing interest in the use of natural products such as essential oils for head louse control, and many of them are now incorporated into various over-the-counter products presented as pediculicides, often without proper evaluation. The aim of the present study was to assess the in vitro efficacy of five essential oils against adults of Pediculus humanus capitis using a contact filter paper toxicity bioassay. The chemical composition of the essential oils from wild bergamot, clove, lavender, tea tree, and Yunnan verbena was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. All treatments and controls were replicated three times on separate occasions over a period of 11 months. In all, 1239 living lice were collected from the scalp of 51 subjects, aged from 1 to 69 years. Clove oil, diluted either in coco oil or sunflower oil, demonstrated the best adulticidal activity, reaching > 90% mortality within 2 h in lice submitted to a 30-min contact. Yunnan verbena oil diluted in coco oil showed also a significant efficacy. Other essential oils showed a lower efficacy. The oil's major component(s) differed according to the tested oils and appeared chemically diverse. In the case of clove oil, the eugenol appeared as the main component. This study confirmed the potential interest of some of the essential oils tested, but not all, as products to include possibly in a pediculicidal formulation.

  12. Safety and efficacy of health supplement (Pegaga based product

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    Firdaus Abd Rahman

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Most traditional products claim contained herbs and have many indication although not proven by evidence based. Hence, consumers must be more selective before buying any health products. MOH continuing demonstrate enforcement action and educating the public in this matter. More research also must be conducted to confirm the efficacy and the appropriate dose for a particular situation either for prevention or treatment of disease.

  13. Antimicrobial efficacy of alcohol-based hand gels.

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    Guilhermetti, M; Marques Wiirzler, L A; Castanheira Facio, B; da Silva Furlan, M; Campo Meschial, W; Bronharo Tognim, M C; Botelho Garcia, L; Luiz Cardoso, C

    2010-03-01

    In recent years, several commercial alcohol-based hand gels have appeared on the market to improve the hand-cleansing compliance of healthcare workers. Although the antimicrobial efficacy of these products has been reported in different countries, few studies have investigated this subject in Brazil. In this study, we assessed the antimicrobial efficacy of 12 alcohol-based hand gels produced in Brazil, containing 70% w/w or v/v ethyl alcohol as the active ingredient, according to the European Standard EN 1500 (EN 1500). The following alcohol gels were tested: Hand Gel, Voga Gel, Solumax Solugel, Doctor Clean, Rio Gel, Clear Gel, Sevengel, Hand CHC, Gel Bac, WBL-50 Gel, Sanigel and Soft Care Gel. In addition, 70% w/w ethyl alcohol and three alcohol-based hand rubs (Sterillium, Sterillium Gel, and Spitaderm), commonly used in Europe and effective according to EN 1500, were also tested. All the products tested, except for two, were approved by the EN 1500 test protocol with a 60s application. The results confirmed the antimicrobial efficacy of the majority of the alcohol gels produced in Brazil for hand hygiene of healthcare workers. Copyright 2009 The Hospital Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Self-Efficacy and Postpartum Depression Teaching Behaviors of Hospital-Based Perinatal Nurses

    OpenAIRE

    Logsdon, M. Cynthia; Foltz, Melissa Pinto; Scheetz, James; Myers, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Based upon the Self-Efficacy Theory, this study examined the relationship between self-efficacy, self-efficacy-related variables, and postpartum depression teaching behaviors of hospital-based perinatal nurses. Findings revealed that teaching new mothers about postpartum depression is related to a perinatal nurse's self-efficacy in postpartum-depression teaching, self-esteem, and the following self-efficacy-related variables: social persuasion (supervisor's expectations for teaching); mastery...

  15. Dynamic Sensor Management Algorithm Based on Improved Efficacy Function

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    TANG Shujuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A dynamic sensor management algorithm based on improved efficacy function is proposed to solve the multi-target and multi-sensory management problem. The tracking task precision requirements (TPR, target priority and sensor use cost were considered to establish the efficacy function by weighted sum the normalized value of the three factors. The dynamic sensor management algorithm was accomplished through control the diversities of the desired covariance matrix (DCM and the filtering covariance matrix (FCM. The DCM was preassigned in terms of TPR and the FCM was obtained by the centralized sequential Kalman filtering algorithm. The simulation results prove that the proposed method could meet the requirements of desired tracking precision and adjust sensor selection according to target priority and cost of sensor source usage. This makes sensor management scheme more reasonable and effective.

  16. Evidence-Based Mental Health Practices with Children Self-Efficacy Scale: Development and Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMeel, Lorri S.; Leathers, Sonya J.; Strand, Tonya C.

    2017-01-01

    This article reviews existing measures related to evidence-based practices with children and self-efficacy and describes the development and psychometric properties of the Evidence-Based Mental Health Practices With Children Efficacy Scale. This scale was developed to assess students' and clinicians' self-efficacy in their abilities to use…

  17. Structure- and oil type-based efficacy of emulsion adjuvants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Theo; Hofmans, Marij P M; Theelen, Marc J G; Manders, Frans; Schijns, Virgil E J C

    2006-06-29

    Oil-based emulsions are well-known immunopotentiators for inactivated, "killed" vaccines. We addressed the relationship between emulsion structure and levels of in vivo antibody formation to inactivated New Castle Disease virus (NDV) and Infectious Bronchitis virus (IBV) as antigens in 3-week-old chickens. The use of a polymeric emulsifier allowed for direct comparison of three types of emulsions, water-in-oil (W/O), oil-in-water (O/W) and W/O-in-water (W/O/W), while maintaining an identical content of components for each vehicle. They were prepared with either non-metabolizable, mineral oil or metabolizable, Miglyol 840. In addition, we assessed the inherent release capacity of each emulsion variant in vitro. Remarkably, we noted that W/O-type emulsions induced the best immune responses, while they released no antigen during 3 weeks. In general, mineral oil vaccines showed superior efficacy compared to Miglyol 840-based vaccines.

  18. Extracellular gadolinium-based contrast media: Differences in diagnostic efficacy

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    Molen, Aart J. van der [Department of Radiology C-2S, Leiden University Medical Centre, Albinusdreef 2, NL-2333 ZA Leiden (Netherlands)], E-mail: molen@lumc.nl; Bellin, Marie-France [Universite Paris-Sud XI, AP-HP, Service de Radiologie, Hopital Paul Brousse, 12-14 Avenue Paul Vaillant Couturier, F-94804 Villejuif Cedex (France)

    2008-05-15

    Since the introduction of the first gadolinium-based contrast agent (Gd-CA) in 1988 it has become clear that these agents significantly improve the diagnostic efficacy of MRI. Studies on single agents have shown that, in comparison to unenhanced sequences, all agents help to improve the detection and delineation of lesions which can alter diagnosis in up to 40% of patients. Doubling or tripling the standard dose of 0.1 mmol/kg body weight may be beneficial for selected indications (e.g. brain perfusion, equivocal single dose study in MRI for brain metastasis, small vessel MR angiography). A more limited number of studies have compared the various agents. These studies do not show clinically significant differences in diagnostic efficacy between the various extracellular Gd-CA. Agents with higher concentration or protein binding may be relatively better suitable for selected applications (e.g. perfusion MRI). The higher relaxivity agents may be used in somewhat lower doses than the extracellular agents.

  19. Extracellular gadolinium-based contrast media: Differences in diagnostic efficacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molen, Aart J. van der; Bellin, Marie-France

    2008-01-01

    Since the introduction of the first gadolinium-based contrast agent (Gd-CA) in 1988 it has become clear that these agents significantly improve the diagnostic efficacy of MRI. Studies on single agents have shown that, in comparison to unenhanced sequences, all agents help to improve the detection and delineation of lesions which can alter diagnosis in up to 40% of patients. Doubling or tripling the standard dose of 0.1 mmol/kg body weight may be beneficial for selected indications (e.g. brain perfusion, equivocal single dose study in MRI for brain metastasis, small vessel MR angiography). A more limited number of studies have compared the various agents. These studies do not show clinically significant differences in diagnostic efficacy between the various extracellular Gd-CA. Agents with higher concentration or protein binding may be relatively better suitable for selected applications (e.g. perfusion MRI). The higher relaxivity agents may be used in somewhat lower doses than the extracellular agents

  20. [Efficacy of a new fenbendazole formulation produced by nanotechnology-based drug delivery system against nematodosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlamova, A I; Arkhipov, I A; Odoevskaia, I M; Danilevskaia, N V; Khalikov, S S; Chistiachenko, Iu S; Dushkin, A V

    2014-01-01

    The efficacy of a new fenbendazile formulation produced by nanotechnology-based drug delivery system was investigated in45 sheep naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes. The formulation showed 95.6% efficacy against Nematodes spp. at a dose of 1.0 mg/kg dw of its active ingredient and 100% efficacy against other species of gastrointestinal nematodes. Given at a dose of 10 mg/kg dw, the basic drug--fenbendazole (substance) displayed 96.39 and 100% efficacy, respectively.

  1. Preservice Teachers' Teacher Efficacy Beliefs and Constructivist-Based Teaching Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temiz, Tugba; Topcu, Mustafa Sami

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between preservice teachers' (PTs) teacher efficacy beliefs and their constructivist-based teaching practices. Data were gathered through the questionnaire (Teachers' Sense of Efficacy Scale) and the observation protocol (Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol) administered to the…

  2. Effects of an intensive data-based decision making intervention on teacher efficacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Scheer, Emmelien; Visscher, Arend J.

    2016-01-01

    Research into the effects of interventions on teacher efficacy is scarce. In this study, the long-term effects of an intensive data-based decision making intervention on teacher efficacy of mainly grade 4 teachers were investigated by means of a delayed treatment control group design (62 teachers).

  3. Determining animal drug combinations based on efficacy and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzer, D D; Geng, S

    1986-08-01

    A procedure for deriving drug combinations for animal health is used to derive an optimal combination of 200 mg of novobiocin and 650,000 IU of penicillin for nonlactating cow mastitis treatment. The procedure starts with an estimated second order polynomial response surface equation. That surface is translated into a probability surface with contours called isoprobs. The isoprobs show drug amounts that have equal probability to produce maximal efficacy. Safety factors are incorporated into the probability surface via a noncentrality parameter that causes the isoprobs to expand as safety decreases, resulting in lower amounts of drug being used.

  4. The contribution of assessment experiences to student teachers’ self-efficacy in competence-based education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prof. Dr. Mien Segers; Dr. Mart van Dinther; Prof. Dr. Filip Dochy

    2015-01-01

    Earlier research argues that educational programmes based on social cognitive theory are successful in improving students’ self-efficacy. Focusing on some formative assessment characteristics, this qualitative research intends to study in-depth how student teachers’ assessment experiences contribute

  5. Design and validation of a standards-based science teacher efficacy instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Patricia Reda

    National standards for K--12 science education address all aspects of science education, with their main emphasis on curriculum---both science subject matter and the process involved in doing science. Standards for science teacher education programs have been developing along a parallel plane, as is self-efficacy research involving classroom teachers. Generally, studies about efficacy have been dichotomous---basing the theoretical underpinnings on the work of either Rotter's Locus of Control theory or on Bandura's explanations of efficacy beliefs and outcome expectancy. This study brings all three threads together---K--12 science standards, teacher education standards, and efficacy beliefs---in an instrument designed to measure science teacher efficacy with items based on identified critical attributes of standards-based science teaching and learning. Based on Bandura's explanation of efficacy being task-specific and having outcome expectancy, a developmental, systematic progression from standards-based strategies and activities to tasks to critical attributes was used to craft items for a standards-based science teacher efficacy instrument. Demographic questions related to school characteristics, teacher characteristics, preservice background, science teaching experience, and post-certification professional development were included in the instrument. The instrument was completed by 102 middle level science teachers, with complete data for 87 teachers. A principal components analysis of the science teachers' responses to the instrument resulted in two components: Standards-Based Science Teacher Efficacy: Beliefs About Teaching (BAT, reliability = .92) and Standards-Based Science Teacher Efficacy: Beliefs About Student Achievement (BASA, reliability = .82). Variables that were characteristic of professional development activities, science content preparation, and school environment were identified as members of the sets of variables predicting the BAT and BASA

  6. Inquiry-based leadership : The influence of affective attitude, experienced social pressure and self-efficacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uiterwijk-Luijk, L.; Krüger, M.; Zijlstra, B.; Volman, M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to improve the understanding of psychological factors that influence inquiry-based leadership. This study investigates how affective attitude, experienced social pressure, and self-efficacy relate to aspects of inquiry-based school leadership. A school leader’s

  7. Inquiry-Based Leadership: The Influence of Affective Attitude, Experienced Social Pressure and Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uiterwijk-Luijk, Lisette; Krüger, Meta; Zijlstra, Bonne; Volman, Monique

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to improve the understanding of psychological factors that influence inquiry-based leadership. This study investigates how affective attitude, experienced social pressure, and self-efficacy relate to aspects of inquiry-based school leadership. A school leader's inquiry habit of mind, data literacy, and the…

  8. Self-Efficacy of Students with Visual Impairments before and after Participation in an Inquiry-Based Camp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrand, Kathleen; Wild, Tiffany A.; Hilson, Margilee P.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to determine students' self-efficacy level prior to participation and after participation in an inquiry-based science camp to determine if self-efficacy levels changed as a result of participation. A validated instrument, the 30 item Morgan-Jinks Student Self-Efficacy Scale (MJSES) (Jinks & Morgan, 1996) was…

  9. The Effectiveness of Abstinence-Based/Faith-Based Addiction Quitting Courses on General and Coping Self-Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosin Nazari, Sh

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: One of the influential elements in the life of an individual is his or her level of self efficacy. This research aimed to study the effectiveness of abstinence-based/faith-based addiction quitting courses on general and coping self efficacy of the people who want to quit opium addiction through these courses in Tehran city. Method: In semi experimental research design 80 people who referred to abstinence-based/faith-based addiction quitting courses were selected by census method. General self efficacy questionnaire of Jerusalem and Schwartzer (1981 and coping self-efficacy questionnaire of Chesney (2006 administered among selected sample before and after treatment. Results: The results of paired t-test indicated that abstinence-based/faith-based addiction quitting courses have a significant influence on the skills of impeding negative thoughts and excitements and gaining friends’ and colleagues’ support. Conclusion: The findings of this research concur with the findings of similar researches, and indicated with appropriate strategies of training self-efficacy beliefs can be improved and boosted.

  10. The Influence of Guided Error-Based Learning on Motor Skills Self-Efficacy and Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Kuei-Pin; Chen, Sufen

    2018-01-01

    The authors investigated the role of errors in motor skills teaching, specifically the influence of errors on skills self-efficacy and achievement. The participants were 75 undergraduate students enrolled in pétanque courses. The experimental group (guided error-based learning, n = 37) received a 6-week period of instruction based on the students' errors, whereas the control group (correct motion instruction, n = 38) received a 6-week period of instruction emphasizing correct motor skills. The experimental group had significantly higher scores in motor skills self-efficacy and outcomes than did the control group. Novices' errors reflect their schema in motor skills learning, which provides a basis for instructors to implement student-centered instruction and to facilitate the learning process. Guided error-based learning can effectively enhance beginners' skills self-efficacy and achievement in precision sports such as pétanque.

  11. Efficacy of Code Optimization on Cache-based Processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderWijngaart, Rob F.; Chancellor, Marisa K. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The current common wisdom in the U.S. is that the powerful, cost-effective supercomputers of tomorrow will be based on commodity (RISC) micro-processors with cache memories. Already, most distributed systems in the world use such hardware as building blocks. This shift away from vector supercomputers and towards cache-based systems has brought about a change in programming paradigm, even when ignoring issues of parallelism. Vector machines require inner-loop independence and regular, non-pathological memory strides (usually this means: non-power-of-two strides) to allow efficient vectorization of array operations. Cache-based systems require spatial and temporal locality of data, so that data once read from main memory and stored in high-speed cache memory is used optimally before being written back to main memory. This means that the most cache-friendly array operations are those that feature zero or unit stride, so that each unit of data read from main memory (a cache line) contains information for the next iteration in the loop. Moreover, loops ought to be 'fat', meaning that as many operations as possible are performed on cache data-provided instruction caches do not overflow and enough registers are available. If unit stride is not possible, for example because of some data dependency, then care must be taken to avoid pathological strides, just ads on vector computers. For cache-based systems the issues are more complex, due to the effects of associativity and of non-unit block (cache line) size. But there is more to the story. Most modern micro-processors are superscalar, which means that they can issue several (arithmetic) instructions per clock cycle, provided that there are enough independent instructions in the loop body. This is another argument for providing fat loop bodies. With these restrictions, it appears fairly straightforward to produce code that will run efficiently on any cache-based system. It can be argued that although some of the important

  12. Field efficacy of inorganic carrier based formulations of Serratia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On the basis of the result of this experiment, it can be recommended that vermiculite (80 g/100 g of product) based formulation of S. entomophila AB2 applied at 3.6 qt hec-1 in sesame could be an effective measure of lepidopteron pest control as well as biofertilizer for qualitative and quantitative increase of sesame.

  13. Efficacy of Code Optimization on Cache-Based Processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderWijngaart, Rob F.; Saphir, William C.; Chancellor, Marisa K. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    In this paper a number of techniques for improving the cache performance of a representative piece of numerical software is presented. Target machines are popular processors from several vendors: MIPS R5000 (SGI Indy), MIPS R8000 (SGI PowerChallenge), MIPS R10000 (SGI Origin), DEC Alpha EV4 + EV5 (Cray T3D & T3E), IBM RS6000 (SP Wide-node), Intel PentiumPro (Ames' Whitney), Sun UltraSparc (NERSC's NOW). The optimizations all attempt to increase the locality of memory accesses. But they meet with rather varied and often counterintuitive success on the different computing platforms. We conclude that it may be genuinely impossible to obtain portable performance on the current generation of cache-based machines. At the least, it appears that the performance of modern commodity processors cannot be described with parameters defining the cache alone.

  14. Phone-based motivational interviewing to increase self-efficacy in individuals with phenylketonuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krista S. Viau

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: These results demonstrate the feasibility of implementing phone-based dietary counseling for PKU using MI. This study also supports further investigation of MI as an intervention approach to improving self-efficacy and self-management behaviors in adolescents and adults with PKU.

  15. Efficacy of Multimedia Learning Modules as Preparation for Lecture-Based Tutorials in Electromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, James Christopher

    2018-01-01

    We have investigated the efficacy of on-line, multimedia learning modules (MLMs) as preparation for in-class, lecture-based tutorials in electromagnetism in a physics course for natural science majors (biology and marine science). Specifically, we report the results of a multiple-group pre/post-test research design comparing two groups receiving…

  16. The Impact of Activity-Based Oral Expression Course on Speech Self-Efficacy of Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altunkaya, Hatice

    2018-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the effect of the activity-based oral expression course on the speech self-efficacy of psychological counseling and guidance students. The study group included 80 freshmen students in the Psychological Counseling and Guidance Department in the Faculty of Education of a university located in western…

  17. Student perceptions of assessment and student self-efficacy in competence-based education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dinther, van M.; Dochy, F.; Segers, M.; Braeken, J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide insight into the interplay between student perceptions of competence-based assessment and student self-efficacy, and how this influences student learning outcomes. Results reveal that student perceptions of the form authenticity aspect and the quality

  18. An Interactive Web-Based Program for Stepfamilies: Development and Evaluation of Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelatt, Vicky A.; Adler-Baeder, Francesca; Seeley, John R.

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a family life education program for stepfamilies that is self-administered, interactive, and web-based. The program uses behavior-modeling videos to demonstrate effective couple, parenting, and stepparenting practices. A diverse sample of 300 parents/stepparents of a child aged 11-15 years were randomized into…

  19. Agonist anti-GITR antibody significantly enhances the therapeutic efficacy of Listeria monocytogenes-based immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrimali, Rajeev; Ahmad, Shamim; Berrong, Zuzana; Okoev, Grigori; Matevosyan, Adelaida; Razavi, Ghazaleh Shoja E; Petit, Robert; Gupta, Seema; Mkrtichyan, Mikayel; Khleif, Samir N

    2017-08-15

    We previously demonstrated that in addition to generating an antigen-specific immune response, Listeria monocytogenes (Lm)-based immunotherapy significantly reduces the ratio of regulatory T cells (Tregs)/CD4 + and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in the tumor microenvironment. Since Lm-based immunotherapy is able to inhibit the immune suppressive environment, we hypothesized that combining this treatment with agonist antibody to a co-stimulatory receptor that would further boost the effector arm of immunity will result in significant improvement of anti-tumor efficacy of treatment. Here we tested the immune and therapeutic efficacy of Listeria-based immunotherapy combination with agonist antibody to glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor-related protein (GITR) in TC-1 mouse tumor model. We evaluated the potency of combination on tumor growth and survival of treated animals and profiled tumor microenvironment for effector and suppressor cell populations. We demonstrate that combination of Listeria-based immunotherapy with agonist antibody to GITR synergizes to improve immune and therapeutic efficacy of treatment in a mouse tumor model. We show that this combinational treatment leads to significant inhibition of tumor-growth, prolongs survival and leads to complete regression of established tumors in 60% of treated animals. We determined that this therapeutic benefit of combinational treatment is due to a significant increase in tumor infiltrating effector CD4 + and CD8 + T cells along with a decrease of inhibitory cells. To our knowledge, this is the first study that exploits Lm-based immunotherapy combined with agonist anti-GITR antibody as a potent treatment strategy that simultaneously targets both the effector and suppressor arms of the immune system, leading to significantly improved anti-tumor efficacy. We believe that our findings depicted in this manuscript provide a promising and translatable strategy that can enhance the overall

  20. The effect of site-based preservice experiences on elementary science teaching self-efficacy beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingfield, Mary E.

    Current reform in science education has focused on the need for improvement of preservice teacher training (National Science Education Standards, 1996). As a situation specific construct (Bandura, 1977), self-efficacy studies have been conducted to investigate factors that impact preservice teachers' sense of confidence as it relates to their ability to become successful science teachers. This descriptive study identified factors in the site based experiences that affected preservice elementary teachers' self-efficacy as measured by the Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument (STEBL-B) (Enochs and Riggs, 1990). The sample consisted of the entire population of undergraduate elementary preservice teachers in the site based teacher education program during the fall semester of 1997 at a large south central urban university. The 131 paired, pretest posttests of the entire STEBL-B and the two constructs were analyzed for significance in mean score gains. Results of the paired t test yielded a t value of 11.52 which was significant at p Bandura identified as sources of information used to determine self-efficacy. These include performance accomplishments through authentic teaching experiences, vicarious experiences through observation of the site based teachers, and verbal persuasion and physiological states from feedback given by the university coordinators. The majority of these preservice teachers started the semester with a negative attitude toward teaching science, but ended the semester with a positive view of themselves as effective science teachers in the future.

  1. [Mentalization-Based Treatment for Adolescents with Borderline Personality Disorder - Concept and Efficacy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taubner, Svenja; Volkert, Jana; Gablonski, Thorsten-Christian; Rossouw, Trudie

    2017-07-01

    Mentalization-Based Treatment for Adolescents with Borderline Personality Disorder - Concept and Efficacy In recent years, the concept of mentalization has become increasingly important in practice and research. It describes the imaginative ability to understand human behavior in terms of mental states. Mentalization is a central component to understand the etiology and to treat patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Both adult and adolescent patients with BPD have limited mentalization abilities, which can be reliably assessed using the Reflective Functioning Scale. Mentalization-Based Treatment (MBT) was originally developed as an integrative approach for the treatment of adult patients with BPD. It is a manualized psychotherapy with psychodynamic roots with the aim to increase mentalizing abilities of patients. Since then, MBT has been further developed for other mental disorders as well as for the treatment of different age groups. One of these developments is MBT for Adolescents (MBT-A). MBT-A includes both individual as well as family sessions and the average duration of therapy is about twelve months. MBT-A can be applied in inpatient and outpatient settings and aims to improve mentalizing abilities in emotionally important relationships and the whole family system. First studies have found evidence for the efficacy of MBT-A. A randomized controlled trial (RCT) is currently being carried out to evaluate the efficacy of MBT-A for adolescents with conduct disorder. However, further evidence for efficacy and further conceptual development is needed.

  2. Collective Efficacy and Its Relationship with Leadership in a Computer-Mediated Project-Based Group Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Yeol; Reigeluth, Charles M.; Lee, Dabae

    2014-01-01

    Based on Bandura's work, the four sources of efficacy shaping were examined in regard to frequency and students' perception of importance in a computer-mediated, project-based high school classroom. In a context of group work where there was no designated leader, groups' collective efficacy was examined if it has any relationship with individual's…

  3. Student’s mathematical understanding ability based on self-efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramdhani, M. R.; Usodo, B.; Subanti, S.

    2017-11-01

    Materials in mathematics are provided not only as an ability to memorize, but also to train the ability of mathematical understanding. Students’ mathematical understanding ability is influenced by the students’ belief in solving the given problems. This research aim to determine the mathematical understanding ability of junior high school students. This research is descriptive qualitative research. Data collection was done through a test, questionnaire, and interview. The result showed that students with high self-efficacy category could master the three indicators of students’ mathematical understanding ability well, namely translation, interpretation, and exploration. Students with moderate self-efficacy category can master translation indicator and able to achieve interpretation indicator but they unable to reach exploration indicator. Students with low self-efficacy category only master the translation, but they cannot achieve the interpretation and exploration indicators. So, the students who have high, moderate or low self-efficacy master the indicator of mathematical understanding based on the level of understanding capabilities on each student.

  4. Mechanical characteristics of plastic base Ports and impact on flushing efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiffant, Gérard; Flaud, Patrice; Royon, Laurent; Burnet, Espérie; Merckx, Jacques

    2017-01-01

    Three types of totally implantable venous access devices, Ports, are currently in use: titanium, plastic (polyoxymethylene, POM), and mixed (titanium base with a POM shell). Physics theory suggests that the interaction between a non-coring needle (NCN, made of stainless steel) and a plastic base would lead to the stronger material (steel) altering the more malleable material (plastic). To investigate whether needle impacts can alter a plastic base's surface, thus potentially reducing flushing efficacy. A Port made of POM was punctured 200 times with a 19-gauge NCN. Following the existing guidelines, the needle tip pricked the base with each puncture. The Port's base was then examined using a two-dimensional optical instrument, and a bi-dimensional numerical simulation using COMSOL ® was performed to investigate potential surface irregularities and their impact on fluid flow. Each needle impact created a hole (mean depth, 0.12 mm) with a small bump beside it (mean height, 0.02 mm) the Reynolds number Re k ≈10. A numerical simulation of the one hole/bump set showed that the flushing efficacy was 60% that of flushing along a flat surface. In clinical practice, the number of times a Port is punctured depends on patient and treatment characteristics, but each needle impact on the plastic base may increase the risk of decreased flushing effectiveness. Therefore, the more a plastic Port is accessed, the greater the risk of microorganisms, blood products, and medication accumulation. Multiple needle impacts created an irregular surface on the Port's base, which decreased flushing efficacy. Clinical investigation is needed to determine whether plastic base Ports are associated with an increased risk of Port infection and occlusion compared to titanium base Ports.

  5. Efficacy of computer technology-based HIV prevention interventions: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noar, Seth M; Black, Hulda G; Pierce, Larson B

    2009-01-02

    To conduct a meta-analysis of computer technology-based HIV prevention behavioral interventions aimed at increasing condom use among a variety of at-risk populations. Systematic review and meta-analysis of existing published and unpublished studies testing computer-based interventions. Meta-analytic techniques were used to compute and aggregate effect sizes for 12 randomized controlled trials that met inclusion criteria. Variables that had the potential to moderate intervention efficacy were also tested. The overall mean weighted effect size for condom use was d = 0.259 (95% confidence interval = 0.201, 0.317; Z = 8.74, P partners, and incident sexually transmitted diseases. In addition, interventions were significantly more efficacious when they were directed at men or women (versus mixed sex groups), utilized individualized tailoring, used a Stages of Change model, and had more intervention sessions. Computer technology-based HIV prevention interventions have similar efficacy to more traditional human-delivered interventions. Given their low cost to deliver, ability to customize intervention content, and flexible dissemination channels, they hold much promise for the future of HIV prevention.

  6. Outcomes of a Character Strengths-Based Intervention on Self-Esteem and Self-Efficacy of Psychiatrically Hospitalized Youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toback, Rebecca L; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A; Patel, Paresh D

    2016-05-01

    Mental health treatment approaches based on character strengths can be used to complement the traditional focus on functional impairment. The study tested use of a character strengths-based intervention to enhance the self-esteem and self-efficacy of psychiatrically hospitalized youths. Eighty-one hospitalized adolescents were randomly assigned to intervention or comparison groups. The intervention used the Values in Action Inventory of Strengths for Youth to discover character strengths and incorporate them into coping skills. Self-efficacy and self-esteem were measured at baseline, postintervention, two weeks, and three months. Self-esteem and self-efficacy initially increased in both groups, but only the intervention group showed sustained improvement. The intervention was associated with increased self-efficacy at two weeks and increased self-efficacy and self-esteem at three months. A brief, easily administered character strengths-based intervention may be an adjunctive tool in the treatment of psychiatrically hospitalized youths.

  7. [Disinfection efficacy of hand hygiene based on chlorhexidine gluconate content and usage of alcohol-based hand-rubbing solution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Ippei; Watanabe, Kiyoshi; Nakaminami, Hidemasa; Azuma, Chihiro; Noguchi, Norihisa

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the procedure for surgical hand hygiene has been switching to a two-stage method and hand-rubbing method from the traditional hand-scrubbing method. Both the two-stage and hand-rubbing methods use alcohol-based hand-rubbing after hand washing. The former requires 5 min of antiseptic hand washing, and the latter 1 min of nonantiseptic hand washing. For a prolonged bactericidal effect in terms of surgical hand hygiene, chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) has been noted due to its residual activity. However, no detailed study comparing the disinfection efficacy and prolonged effects according to different contents of CHG and the usage of alcohol-based hand-rubbing has been conducted. The glove juice method is able to evaluate disinfection efficacy and prolonged effects of the disinfectants more accurately because it can collect not only transitory bacteria but also normal inhabitants on hands. In the present study, we examined the disinfection efficacy and prolonged effects on alcohol-based hand-rubbing containing CHG by six hand-rubbing methods and three two-stage methods using the glove juice method. In both methods, 3 mL (one pump dispenser push volume) alcohol-based hand-rubbing solution containing 1% (w/v) CHG showed the highest disinfection efficacy and prolonged effects, and no significant difference was found between the hand-rubbing and two-stage methods. In the two methods of hand hygiene, the hand-rubbing method was able to save time and cost. Therefore, the data strongly suggest that the hand-rubbing method using a one pump dispenser push volume of alcohol-based hand-rubbing solution containing 1% (w/v) CHG is suitable for surgical hand hygiene.

  8. The effect of a self-efficacy-based educational programme on maternal breast feeding self-efficacy, breast feeding duration and exclusive breast feeding rates: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Man Yi; Ip, Wan Yim; Choi, Kai Chow

    2016-05-01

    breast feeding has a number of well-documented benefits. Numerous studies have been conducted to investigate an effective approach to increase the breast feeding rate, duration and exclusive breast feeding rate, in which maternal breast feeding self-efficacy was determined as one of the major contributors. Although numerous breast feeding educational programmes have been developed to enhance maternal breastfeeding self-efficacy, results on the effectiveness of these programmes remain inconclusive. this study aims to investigate the effectiveness of a self-efficacy-based breast feeding educational programme (SEBEP) in enhancing breast feeding self-efficacy, breast feeding duration and exclusive breast feeding rates among mothers in Hong Kong. eligible pregnant women were randomized to attend a 2.5-hour breast feeding workshop at 28-38 weeks of gestation and receive 30-60minutes of telephone counselling at two weeks post partum, whereas both intervention and control groups received usual care. At two weeks postpartum, the Breast feeding Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form (BSES-SF) and a self-developed post partum questionnaire were completed via telephone interviews. The breast feeding duration, pattern of breast feeding and exclusive breast feeding rates were recorded at two weeks, four weeks, eight weeks and six months post partum. results of analyses based on an intention-to-treat (ITT) assumption showed a significant difference (p<0.01) in the change in BSES-SF mean scores between the mothers who received SEBEP and those who did not receive SEBEP at two weeks post partum. The exclusive breast feeding rate was 11.4% for the intervention group and 5.6% for the control group at six months post partum. the findings of this study highlight the feasibility of a major trial to implement breast feeding education targeted at increasing breast feeding self-efficacy and exclusive breast feeding rates in Hong Kong. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of the Badge Mechanism on Self-Efficacy and Learning Performance in a Game-Based English Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie Chi; Quadir, Benazir; Chen, Nian-Shing

    2016-01-01

    A growing number of studies have been conducted on digital game-based learning (DGBL). However, there has been a lack of attention paid to individuals' self-efficacy and learning performance in the implementation of DGBL. This study therefore investigated how the badge mechanism in DGBL enhanced users' self-efficacy in the subject domain of…

  10. "Me? Teach Science?" Exploring EC-4 Pre-Service Teachers' Self Efficacy in an Inquiry-Based Constructivist Physics Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Ratna; Lamp, David

    2010-01-01

    In this qualitative and interpretive study, we investigated factors that influenced elementary preservice teachers' self-efficacy in a constructivist, inquiry-based physics class. Bandura's (1977) theory of social learning was used as a basis to examine preservice teacher's self-efficacy. Participants included 70 female EC-4 preservice teachers…

  11. Efficacy of monotherapies and artesunate-based combination therapies in children with uncomplicated malaria in Somalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warsame, Marian; Atta, Hoda; Klena, John D; Waqar, Butt Ahmed; Elmi, Hussein Haji; Jibril, Ali Mohamed; Hassan, Hassan Mohamed; Hassan, Abdullahi Mohamed

    2009-02-01

    In order to guide the antimalarial treatment policy of Somalia, we conducted therapeutic efficacy studies of routinely used antimalarial monotherapies as well as artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) for uncomplicated malaria in three sentinel sites during 2003-2006. Therapeutic efficacy of chloroquine (CQ), amodiaquine (AQ) and sulfadoxine/pyrimetahmine (SP) monotherapies, and artesunate plus SP (AS+SP) or AQ (AS+AQ) were evaluated in children 6 months to 10 years old with uncomplicated malaria. For the assessment of the monotherapies, 2003 WHO protocol with 14-day follow-up was used while the 2005 WHO protocol with 28-day follow-up was used for testing the ACTs. Of the monotherapies, CQ performed very poorly with treatment failures varying from 76.5% to 88% between the sites. AQ treatment failure was low except for Janale site with treatment failure of 23.4% compared to 2.8% and 8% in Jamame and Jowhar, respectively. For SP, treatment failures from 7.8% to 12.2% were observed. A 28-day test of artemisinin-based combinations, AS+SP and AS+AQ, proved to be highly efficacious with cure rates of 98-100% supporting the choice of AS+SP combination as first line treatment for uncomplicated malaria for Somalia.

  12. Efficacy measures associated to a plantar pressure based classification system in diabetic foot medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschamps, Kevin; Matricali, Giovanni Arnoldo; Desmet, Dirk; Roosen, Philip; Keijsers, Noel; Nobels, Frank; Bruyninckx, Herman; Staes, Filip

    2016-09-01

    The concept of 'classification' has, similar to many other diseases, been found to be fundamental in the field of diabetic medicine. In the current study, we aimed at determining efficacy measures of a recently published plantar pressure based classification system. Technical efficacy of the classification system was investigated by applying a high resolution, pixel-level analysis on the normalized plantar pressure pedobarographic fields of the original experimental dataset consisting of 97 patients with diabetes and 33 persons without diabetes. Clinical efficacy was assessed by considering the occurence of foot ulcers at the plantar aspect of the forefoot in this dataset. Classification efficacy was assessed by determining the classification recognition rate as well as its sensitivity and specificity using cross-validation subsets of the experimental dataset together with a novel cohort of 12 patients with diabetes. Pixel-level comparison of the four groups associated to the classification system highlighted distinct regional differences. Retrospective analysis showed the occurence of eleven foot ulcers in the experimental dataset since their gait analysis. Eight out of the eleven ulcers developed in a region of the foot which had the highest forces. Overall classification recognition rate exceeded 90% for all cross-validation subsets. Sensitivity and specificity of the four groups associated to the classification system exceeded respectively the 0.7 and 0.8 level in all cross-validation subsets. The results of the current study support the use of the novel plantar pressure based classification system in diabetic foot medicine. It may particularly serve in communication, diagnosis and clinical decision making. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The Efficacy of Internet-based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy on the Anxiety Disorders among Adolescent Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsaneh Karbasi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of anxiety disorders among children and adolescents are found to be approximately between 8–12 and 5–10, respectively, and the long-lasting effects of such disorders can expose the sufferers to impairment and dysfunction in several areas of life the examples of which are poor educational performance, low self-esteem, and depression. The present study aims to evaluate the efficacy of internet-based, cognitive-behavioral therapy (ICBT in treating the anxiety disorders among adolescent females. Materials and Methods: The sample included thirty girls aged between 10 and 18 years suffering from a variety of anxiety disorders, under pharmaceutical therapy and referred to clinics of child and adolescent psychiatry specialists in Isfahan. The sample was selected through diagnostic interviews by psychiatrists based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision; afterward, they were randomly assigned to either the experimental or the control groups. To evaluate the efficacy of an ICBT in reducing anxiety disorder symptoms, Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders questionnaire was administered among the patients both before and 4 weeks after the treatment. Results: The covariance analysis results aimed to compare the anxiety disorder score variations between the two groups which demonstrate the fact that anxiety disorder scores in these two groups differ from one another (P < 0.001. Conclusions: This study is comprised of two Conclusions.the significant reduction in the mean of anxiety disorders scores in the experimental group compared to those in control group can be indicative of the efficacy of ICBT. In addition the significant reduction in the average of anxiety disorders symptoms' scores according to the type of anxiety disorders in the experimental group, compared to those in control group, can be indicative of the efficacy of ICBT.

  14. Elementary School Teachers' Motivation toward Web-Based Professional Development, and the Relationship with Internet Self-Efficacy and Belief about Web-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Chia-Pin; Wu, Ying-Tien; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to explore the relationships between teachers' motivation toward web-based professional development, Internet self-efficacy, and beliefs about web-based learning. By gathering questionnaire data from 484 elementary school teachers, this study indicated that the teachers' Internet self-efficacy and behavioral beliefs about…

  15. Efficacy of an experiential, dissonance-based smoking intervention for college students delivered via the internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Vani Nath; Heckman, Bryan W; Fink, Angelina C; Small, Brent J; Brandon, Thomas H

    2013-10-01

    College represents a window of opportunity to reach the sizeable number of cigarette smokers who are vulnerable to lifelong smoking. The underutilization of typical cessation programs suggests the need for novel and more engaging approaches for reaching college smokers. The aim of the present study was to test the efficacy of a dissonance-enhancing, Web-based experiential intervention for increasing smoking cessation motivation and behavior. We used a 4-arm, randomized design to examine the efficacy of a Web-based, experiential smoking intervention (Web-Smoke). The control conditions included a didactic smoking intervention (Didactic), a group-based experiential intervention (Group), and a Web-based nutrition experiential intervention (Web-Nutrition). We recruited 341 college smokers. Primary outcomes were motivation to quit, assessed immediately postintervention, and smoking abstinence at 1 and 6 months following the intervention. As hypothesized, the Web-Smoke intervention was more effective than control groups in increasing motivation to quit. At 6-month follow-up, the Web-Smoke intervention produced higher rates of smoking cessation than the Web-Nutrition control intervention. Daily smoking moderated intervention outcomes. Among daily smokers, the Web-Smoke intervention produced greater abstinence rates than both the Web-Nutrition and Didactic control conditions. Findings demonstrate the efficacy of a theory-based intervention delivered over the Internet for increasing motivation to quit and smoking abstinence among college smokers. The intervention has potential for translation and implementation as a secondary prevention strategy for college-aged smokers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. The Analysis of Geometrical Reasoning Ability Viewed from Self-Efficacy on Connected Mathematic Project (CMP Learning Etnomathematics-Based

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desi Dwi Damaryanti

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to know the geometrical reasoning ability of the students viewed from the self-efficacy through the learning of  Connected Mathematic Project (CMP ethnomathematic-based. The type of this research was qualitative which was descriptive. To obtained the validity of the qualitative data, the checking technique used in this research was sources triangulation, which had been done by comparing the suitability of the obtained data from the results of the interview and the test. Population of this research was the students of grade VIII at SMP Negeri 1 Sidoharjo and the sample was the students from VIII A Class. At the final, 12 research subjects were chosen to represent the group of level 1 self-efficacy, level 2 self-efficacy, level 3 self-efficacy, level 4 self efficacy, level 5 self-efficacy, and level 6 self-efficacy. In this research, there was a finding which shows us that the students with high self-efficacy had low ability to finish the geometrical reasoning ability test, while the students with low self-efficacy had the ability to finish the geometrical reasoning ability test. The factors which affected the finding were the motivations and the interest of learning mathematics which was affecting the attitude of the students in the classroom.

  17. Efficacy and toxicity profile of carfilzomib based regimens for treatment of multiple myeloma: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaq, Adeela; Kapoor, Vikas; Latif, Azka; Iftikhar, Ahmad; Zahid, Umar; McBride, Ali; Abraham, Ivo; Riaz, Irbaz Bin; Anwer, Faiz

    2018-05-01

    Standard induction therapy for multiple myeloma is three-drug combination based on following classes of drugs: proteasome inhibitors, immunomodulators and steroids. Despite its notable efficacy, bortezomib has side effects like peripheral neuropathy (PNP) with reported incidence of grade ≥3 PNP between 2%-23% Schlafer et al., 2017. Carfilzomib (CFZ) has high selectivity and minimal off-target adverse effects including lower rates of PNP. CFZ is already approved for treatment of relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM) as single agent as well as in combination with lenalidomide and/or dexamethasone. Extensive literature search identified a total of 1839 articles. Twenty-six articles (n = 5980) met the inclusion criteria, 15 in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (NDMM) and 11 in RRMM group. CFZ demonstrates comparable or even better efficacy to bortezomib with much favorable AE profile. Deep, rapid and sustainable response using KRd with safer toxicity profile supports extension of KRd therapy to frontline therapy for all risk categories of MM. High incidence of grade ≥3 HTN underscores the importance of serial BP monitoring. In RRMM, CFZ has documented efficacy with standard 20-27mg/m2 dose. Further large-scale trials are needed to study benefit-to-risk profile of 20-56 and 20-70 mg/m2 dose of CFZ vs standard 20-27 mg/m2 dose in NDMM and RRMM. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Safety and efficacy evaluation of gelatin-based nanoparticles associated with UV filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Camila Areias de; Dario, Michelli Ferrera; Sarruf, Fernanda Daud; Mariz, Inês Fátima Afonso; Velasco, Maria Valéria Robles; Rosado, Catarina; Baby, André Rolim

    2016-04-01

    The safety and efficacy assessment of nanomaterials is a major concern of industry and academia. These materials, due to their nanoscale size, can have chemical, physical, and biological properties that differ from those of their larger counterparts. The encapsulation of natural ingredients can provide marked improvements in sun protection efficacy. This strategy promotes solubility enhancement of flavonoids and yields an improved active ingredient with innovative physical, physicochemical and functional characteristics. Rutin, a flavonoid, has chemical and functional stability in topical vehicles exerting a synergistic effect in association with ultraviolet (UV) filters. However, the solubility of rutin is a limiting factor. Additionally, this bioactive compound does not have tendency to permeate across the stratum corneum. As an alternative to common synthetic based sunscreens, rutin-entrapped gelatin nanoparticles were designed. The present study investigated the pre-clinical safety of gelatin nanoparticles (GNPs) using an in vitro method and also assessed the clinical safety and efficacy of the association of GNPs with three commonly used chemical UV filters (ethylhexyl dimethyl PABA, ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate and methoxydibenzoylmethane). The non-irritant and adequate safety profile under sun-exposed skin conditions of the nanomaterials and the emulsions qualified the products for clinical efficacy assays. The in vivo results indicated that the GNPs increased the antioxidant protection of the emulsions developed. However, the presence of rutin in the nanosized material did not enhance performance on the SPF test. In conclusion, these findings characterized the nanomaterials as an innovative platform for multifunctional bioactive sunscreens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Development of a Survey to Measure Self-Efficacy and Attitudes toward Web-Based Professional Development among Elementary School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Chia-Pin; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Shih, Meilun

    2014-01-01

    The major purpose of this study was to develop a survey to measure elementary school teachers' self-efficacy for web-based professional development. Based on interviews with eight elementary school teachers, three scales of web-based professional development self-efficacy (WPDSE) were formed, namely, general self-efficacy (measuring teachers'…

  20. Influence of an Intensive, Field-Based Life Science Course on Preservice Teachers' Self-Efficacy for Environmental Science Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trauth-Nare, Amy

    2015-08-01

    Personal and professional experiences influence teachers' perceptions of their ability to implement environmental science curricula and to positively impact students' learning. The purpose of this study was twofold: to determine what influence, if any, an intensive field-based life science course and service learning had on preservice teachers' self-efficacy for teaching about the environment and to determine which aspects of the combined field-based course/service learning preservice teachers perceived as effective for enhancing their self-efficacy. Data were collected from class documents and written teaching reflections of 38 middle-level preservice teachers. Some participants ( n = 18) also completed the Environmental Education Efficacy Belief Instrument at the beginning and end of the semester. Both qualitative and quantitative data analyses indicated a significant increase in PSTs' personal efficacies for environmental teaching, t(17) = 4.50, p = .000, d = 1.30, 95 % CI (.33, .90), but not outcome expectancy, t(17) = 1.15, p = .268, d = .220, 95 % CI (-.06, .20). Preservice teachers reported three aspects of the course as important for enhancing their self-efficacies: learning about ecological concepts through place-based issues, service learning with K-5 students and EE curriculum development. Data from this study extend prior work by indicating that practical experiences with students were not the sole factor in shaping PSTs' self-efficacy; learning ecological concepts and theories in field-based activities grounded in the local landscape also influenced PSTs' self-efficacy.

  1. The Influence of Trainee Gaming Experience and Computer Self-Efficacy on Learner Outcomes of Videogame-Based Learning Environments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Orvis, Karin A; Orvis, Kara L; Belanich, James; Mullin, Laura N

    2005-01-01

    .... The purpose of the current research was to investigate the influence of two trainee characteristics, prior videogame experience and computer self-efficacy, on learner outcomes of a videogame-based training environment...

  2. Influence of hydrophilic polymers on functional properties and wound healing efficacy of hydrocolloid based wound dressings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Sung Giu; Yousaf, Abid Mehmood; Kim, Kyeong Soo; Kim, Dong Wuk; Kim, Dong Shik; Kim, Jin Ki; Yong, Chul Soon; Youn, Yu Seok; Kim, Jong Oh; Choi, Han-Gon

    2016-03-30

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of different hydrophilic polymers on the swelling, bioadhesion and mechanical strength of hydrocolloid wound dressings (HCDs) in order to provide an appropriate composition for a hydrocolloid wound dressing system. In this study, the HCDs were prepared with styrene-isoprene-styrene copolymer (SIS) and polyisobutylene (PIB) as the base using a hot melting method. Additionally, numerous SIS/PIB-based HCDs were prepared with six hydrophilic polymers, and their wound dressing properties were assessed. Finally, the wound healing efficacy of the selected formulations was compared to a commercial wound dressing. The swelling ratio, bioadhesive force and mechanical strengths of HCDs were increased in the order of sodium alginate>sodium CMC=poloxamer=HPMC>PVA=PVP, sodium alginate>sodium CMC=poloxamer>PVA>HPMC=PVP and sodium alginate≥PVA>PVP=HPMC=sodium CMC>poloxamer, respectively. Among the hydrophilic polymers tested, sodium alginate most enhanced the swelling capacity, bioadhesive force and mechanical strengths. Thus, the hydrophilic polymers played great role in the swelling, bioadhesion and mechanical strength of SIS/PIB-based HCDs. The HCD formulation composed of PIB, SIS, liquid paraffin and sodium alginate at the weight ratio of 20/25/12/43 gave better wound dressing properties and more excellent wound healing efficacy than the commercial wound dressing. Therefore, the novel HCD formulation could be a promising hydrocolloid system for wound dressings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Mechanical characteristics of plastic base Ports and impact on flushing efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiffant G

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gérard Guiffant,1 Patrice Flaud,1 Laurent Royon,1 Espérie Burnet,2 Jacques Merckx1–3 1University Paris Diderot, Biofluidic Group, UMR CNRS, 2Pulmonary Department and Adult Cystic Fibrosis Centre, Cochin Hospital, 3University Teaching Hospital, Necker-Enfants Malades, Paris, France Background: Three types of totally implantable venous access devices, Ports, are currently in use: titanium, plastic (polyoxymethylene, POM, and mixed (titanium base with a POM shell. Physics theory suggests that the interaction between a non-coring needle (NCN, made of stainless steel and a plastic base would lead to the stronger material (steel altering the more malleable material (plastic. Objectives: To investigate whether needle impacts can alter a plastic base’s surface, thus potentially reducing flushing efficacy. Study design and methods: A Port made of POM was punctured 200 times with a 19-gauge NCN. Following the existing guidelines, the needle tip pricked the base with each puncture. The Port’s base was then examined using a two-dimensional optical instrument, and a bi-dimensional numerical simulation using COMSOL® was performed to investigate potential surface irregularities and their impact on fluid flow. Results: Each needle impact created a hole (mean depth, 0.12 mm with a small bump beside it (mean height, 0.02 mm the Reynolds number Rek≈10. A numerical simulation of the one hole/bump set showed that the flushing efficacy was 60% that of flushing along a flat surface. Discussion: In clinical practice, the number of times a Port is punctured depends on patient and treatment characteristics, but each needle impact on the plastic base may increase the risk of decreased flushing effectiveness. Therefore, the more a plastic Port is accessed, the greater the risk of microorganisms, blood products, and medication accumulation. Conclusions: Multiple needle impacts created an irregular surface on the Port’s base, which decreased flushing efficacy

  4. The roles of social factor and internet self-efficacy in nurses' web-based continuing learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yen-Lin; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2014-03-01

    This study was conducted to explore the relationships among social factor, Internet self-efficacy and attitudes toward web-based continuing learning in a clinical nursing setting. The participants recruited were 244 in-service nurses from hospitals in Taiwan. Three instruments were used to assess their perceptions of social factor, Internet self-efficacy (including basic and advanced Internet self-efficacy) and attitudes toward web-based continuing learning (including perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, affection and behavior). Structural equation modeling (SEM) was utilized to identify the hypothesized structural model. The results of this study support that social factor is a significant factor correlated to Internet self-efficacy and attitudes toward web-based continuing learning (including perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use and affection). In addition, nurses' basic Internet self-efficacy plays a key role in attitudes including perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use and affection. However, advanced self-efficacy was not correlated to any of the attitudes. The behavior dimension was not linked to social factor or Internet self-efficacy, but was linked to perceived ease of use and affection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Efficacy and dermal tolerance of a novel alcohol-based skin antiseptic in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannahill, Victoria J; Cogan, Tristan; Allen, Kate; Acutt, Elizabeth; Busschers, Evita

    2018-04-14

    To determine the efficacy and dermal tolerance of a novel alcohol-based skin antiseptic (ABSA) in horses. Experimental study. Systemically healthy horses (n = 25) with no history or clinical signs of skin disease. Four clipped sites on the abdomen were randomly assigned to a skin preparation protocol: saline (negative control; NC), chlorhexidine gluconate followed by isopropyl alcohol (positive control; PC), saline followed by the ABSA (ABSA A), or a commercially available horse shampoo followed by the ABSA (ABSA B). Microbiological swabs were obtained from each site and cultured on MacConkey and mannitol salt agar plates. Colony-forming units were counted 18-24 hours later. All sites were scored for signs of skin reaction before, immediately after, 1 hour after, and 24 hours after skin preparation. The PC, ABSA A, and ABSA B methods reduced skin microbial burden compared with the NC method (P horses required veterinary treatment. The ABSA preparations tested in this study were as effective and well tolerated as a chlorhexidine gluconate-based method, but required less time in healthy horses. The ABSA tested here provides an efficacious, fast-acting, and well-tolerated alternative to achieve skin antisepsis in healthy horses. These results justify further investigation in clinical cases. © 2018 The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  6. A Limited Structural Modification Results in a Significantly More Efficacious Diazachrysene-Based Filovirus Inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rekha G. Panchal

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Ebola (EBOV and Marburg (MARV filoviruses are highly infectious pathogens causing deadly hemorrhagic fever in humans and non-human primates. Promising vaccine candidates providing immunity against filoviruses have been reported. However, the sporadic nature and swift progression of filovirus disease underlines the need for the development of small molecule therapeutics providing immediate antiviral effects. Herein we describe a brief structural exploration of two previously reported diazachrysene (DAAC-based EBOV inhibitors. Specifically, three analogs were prepared to examine how slight substituent modifications would affect inhibitory efficacy and inhibitor-mediated toxicity during not only EBOV, but also MARV cellular infection. Of the three analogs, one was highly efficacious, providing IC50 values of 0.696 µM ± 0.13 µM and 2.76 µM ± 0.21 µM against EBOV and MARV infection, respectively, with little or no associated cellular toxicity. Overall, the structure-activity and structure-toxicity results from this study provide a framework for the future development of DAAC-based filovirus inhibitors that will be both active and non-toxic in vivo.

  7. The Efficacy of Mindfulness-Based Interventions in Primary Care: A Meta-Analytic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarzo, Marcelo M P; Montero-Marin, Jesús; Cuijpers, Pim; Zabaleta-del-Olmo, Edurne; Mahtani, Kamal R; Vellinga, Akke; Vicens, Caterina; López-del-Hoyo, Yolanda; García-Campayo, Javier

    2015-11-01

    Positive effects have been reported after mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) in diverse clinical and nonclinical populations. Primary care is a key health care setting for addressing common chronic conditions, and an effective MBI designed for this setting could benefit countless people worldwide. Meta-analyses of MBIs have become popular, but little is known about their efficacy in primary care. Our aim was to investigate the application and efficacy of MBIs that address primary care patients. We performed a meta-analytic review of randomized controlled trials addressing the effect of MBIs in adult patients recruited from primary care settings. The PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) and Cochrane guidelines were followed. Effect sizes were calculated with the Hedges g in random effects models. The meta-analyses were based on 6 trials having a total of 553 patients. The overall effect size of MBI compared with a control condition for improving general health was moderate (g = 0.48; P = .002), with moderate heterogeneity (I(2) = 59; P .05). Although the number of randomized controlled trials applying MBIs in primary care is still limited, our results suggest that these interventions are promising for the mental health and quality of life of primary care patients. We discuss innovative approaches for implementing MBIs, such as complex intervention and stepped care. © 2015 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  8. Efficacy of handrubbing with alcohol based solution versus standard handwashing with antiseptic soap: randomised clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girou, Emmanuelle; Loyeau, Sabrina; Legrand, Patrick; Oppein, Françoise; Brun-Buisson, Christian

    2002-01-01

    Objective To compare the efficacy of handrubbing with an alcohol based solution versus conventional handwashing with antiseptic soap in reducing hand contamination during routine patient care. Design Randomised controlled trial during daily nursing sessions of 2 to 3 hours. Setting Three intensive care units in a French university hospital. Participants 23 healthcare workers. Interventions Handrubbing with alcohol based solution (n=12) or handwashing with antiseptic soap (n=11) when hand hygiene was indicated before and after patient care. Imprints taken of fingertips and palm of dominant hand before and after hand hygiene procedure. Bacterial counts quantified blindly. Main outcome measures Bacterial reduction of hand contamination. Results With handrubbing the median percentage reduction in bacterial contamination was significantly higher than with handwashing (83% v 58%, P=0.012), with a median difference in the percentage reduction of 26% (95% confidence interval 8% to 44%). The median duration of hand hygiene was 30 seconds in each group. Conclusions During routine patient care handrubbing with an alcohol based solution is significantly more efficient in reducing hand contamination than handwashing with antiseptic soap. What is already known on this topicTo improve compliance with hand hygiene during patient care, handrubbing with an alcohol based solution has been proposed as a substitute for handwashing because of its rapid action and accessibilityExperimental studies show that handrubbing is at least as effective as medicated soap in reducing artificial contamination of handsMany healthcare workers still have reservations regarding its efficacy and are reluctant to use this techniqueWhat this study addsWhen used in routine practice, handrubbing with an alcohol based solution after contact with patients achieved a greater reduction in bacterial contamination of hands than conventional handwashing with medicated soap PMID:12183307

  9. The effects of problem-based learning on the self-efficacy and attitudes of beginning biology majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajab, Adel Mohammad

    The problem of low persistence of science majors has resulted in calls for changes in undergraduate instruction toward environments that foster positive self-efficacy among beginning science majors. Low science self-efficacy and poor attitudes toward science may contribute to high attrition rates of science majors. Classroom environments that foster positive self-efficacy development include pedagogies that promote authentic learning contexts and involve collaborative learning teams. Problem-based learning (PBL) is an instructional model that attempts to create both conditions and may provide every source of information needed for the development of self-efficacy (i.e., mastery experiences, vicarious experiences, verbal persuasion, and physiological states) as postulated by Albert Bandura. The degree to which these sources of self-efficacy are delivered to individuals within a PBL group may depend on how the group members interact and how students perceive the PBL process itself. This study examined the development of biology self-efficacy and attitudes among biology majors in a PBL setting and in a traditional lecture-based setting. Specifically, this project investigated changes in students' biology self-efficacy beliefs, mediating aspects of PBL in self-efficacy development, the relationship between PBL processes and group collective efficacy, the predictive nature of entering self-efficacy levels on attitudes toward PBL and mid-term grades, and changes in student attitudes toward biology. The study design was quasi-experimental and included quantitative pre- and post-surveys, qualitative interviews, and classroom observations. Findings revealed that students enrolled in a PBL class exhibited greater gains in biology self-efficacy and were likely to report more favorable attitudes toward biology compared to students enrolled in a traditional class. The aspects of PBL that most accounted for these findings were students' ownership of the learning process, their

  10. [Efficacy of health education on patients with hip replacement based on the Internet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yang; Yang, Tubao; Li, Yinglan; Yu, Jie; Zeng, Biyun

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of health education on patients with hip replacement based on the Internet, and to establish a new health education model through modern technology. A total of 300 patients with hip replacement from March to August, 2015 were enrolled in this study. The participants were divided into a control group and an experimental group according to months surgeries performed. Traditional education was applied in the control group while the multimedia source material plus the Internet platform of Joint Registration System were applied in the experimental group. Levels of anxiety, degree of satisfaction, and postoperative complications were analyzed. The levels of knowledge, attitude and behavior compliance in the patients of the experimental group were significantly improved, while the levels of postoperative anxiety were decreased compared with those in the control group (PEducation based on the Internet platform of Joint Registration System and the computer video could improve patients' knowledge, attitude, and behavior, which is worthy of clinical spread.

  11. Understanding Acid-Base Concepts: Evaluating the Efficacy of a Senior High School Student-Centred Instructional Program in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahayu, Sri; Chandrasegaran, A. L.; Treagust, David F.; Kita, Masakazu; Ibnu, Suhadi

    2011-01-01

    This study was a mixed quantitative-qualitative research to evaluate the efficacy of a designed student-centred instructional (DSCI) program for teaching about acids and bases. The teaching innovation was designed based on constructivist, hands-on inquiry and context-based approaches and implemented in seven 45-min lessons with a class of 36 grade…

  12. Investigating the effects of cognitive apprenticeship-based instructional coaching on science teaching efficacy beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Teo O. H.

    The overall purpose of this collected papers dissertation was to examine the utility of a cognitive apprenticeship-based instructional coaching (CAIC) model for improving the science teaching efficacy beliefs (STEB) of preservice and inservice elementary teachers. Many of these teachers perceive science as a difficult subject and feel inadequately prepared to teach it. However, teacher efficacy beliefs have been noted as the strongest indicator of teacher quality, the variable most highly correlated with student achievement outcomes. The literature is scarce on strong, evidence-based theoretical models for improving STEB. This dissertation is comprised of two studies. STUDY #1 was a sequential explanatory mixed-methods study investigating the impact of a reformed CAIC elementary science methods course on the STEB of 26 preservice teachers. Data were collected using the Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument (STEBI-B) and from six post-course interviews. A statistically significant increase in STEB was observed in the quantitative strand. The qualitative data suggested that the preservice teachers perceived all of the CAIC methods as influential, but the significance of each method depended on their unique needs and abilities. STUDY #2 was a participatory action research case study exploring the utility of a CAIC professional development program for improving the STEB of five Bahamian inservice teachers and their competency in implementing an inquiry-based curriculum. Data were collected from pre- and post-interviews and two focus group interviews. Overall, the inservice teachers perceived the intervention as highly effective. The scaffolding and coaching were the CAIC methods portrayed as most influential in developing their STEB, highlighting the importance of interpersonal relationship aspects in successful instructional coaching programs. The teachers also described the CAIC approach as integral in supporting their learning to implement the new inquiry-based

  13. Self-Efficacy as Related to Career Aspirations Based on the Educational Quality Assessment Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dentler, Donna J.

    A study examined the relationship between the self-efficacy and career aspirations of 37,942 11th-grade students across the state of Pennsylvania. Using Albert Bandura's theory of self-efficacy, which states that the level and strength of self-efficacy of an individual will determine (1) whether or not the individual will initiate coping behavior,…

  14. Assessing the Efficacy of an App-Based Method of Family Planning: The Dot Study Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Rebecca G; Shattuck, Dominick C; Jennings, Victoria H

    2017-01-18

    Some 222 million women worldwide have unmet needs for contraception; they want to avoid pregnancy, but are not using a contraceptive method, primarily because of concerns about side effects associated with most available methods. Expanding contraceptive options-particularly fertility awareness options that provide women with information about which days during their menstrual cycles they are likely to become pregnant if they have unprotected intercourse-has the potential to reduce unmet need. Making these methods available to women through their mobile phones can facilitate access. Indeed, many fertility awareness applications have been developed for smartphones, some of which are digital platforms for existing methods, requiring women to enter information about fertility signs such as basal body temperature and cervical secretions. Others are algorithms based on (unexplained) calculations of the fertile period of the menstrual cycle. Considering particularly this latter (largely untested) group, it is critical that these apps be subject to the same rigorous research as other contraceptive methods. Dynamic Optimal Timing, available via the Dot app as a free download for iPhone and Android devices, is one such method and the only one that has published the algorithm that forms its basis. It combines historical cycle data with a woman's own personal cycle history, continuing to accrue this information over time to identify her fertile period. While Dot has a theoretical failure rate of only 3 in 100 for preventing pregnancy with perfect use, its effectiveness in typical use has yet to be determined. The study objective is to assess both perfect and typical use to determine the efficacy of the Dot app for pregnancy prevention. To determine actual use efficacy, the Institute for Reproductive Health is partnering with Cycle Technologies, which developed the Dot app, to conduct a prospective efficacy trial, following 1200 women over the course of 13 menstrual cycles to

  15. Efficacy of protocol-based pharmacotherapy management on anticoagulation with warfarin for patients with cardiovascular surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katada, Y; Nakagawa, S; Minakata, K; Odaka, M; Taue, H; Sato, Y; Yonezawa, A; Kayano, Y; Yano, I; Nakatsu, T; Sakamoto, K; Uehara, K; Sakaguchi, H; Yamazaki, K; Minatoya, K; Sakata, R; Matsubara, K

    2017-10-01

    Anticoagulation therapy with warfarin requires periodic monitoring of prothrombin time-international normalized ratio (PT-INR) and adequate dose adjustments based on the data to minimize the risk of bleeding and thromboembolic events. In our hospital, we have developed protocol-based pharmaceutical care, which we called protocol-based pharmacotherapy management (PBPM), for warfarin therapy. The protocol requires pharmacists to manage timing of blood sampling for measuring PT-INR and warfarin dosage determination based on an algorithm. This study evaluated the efficacy of PBPM in warfarin therapy by comparing to conventional pharmaceutical care. From October 2013 to June 2015, a total of 134 hospitalized patients who underwent cardiovascular surgeries received post-operative warfarin therapy. The early series of patients received warfarin therapy as the conventional care (control group, n=77), whereas the latter received warfarin therapy based on the PBPM (PBPM group, n=68). These patients formed the cohort of the present study and were retrospectively analysed. The indications for warfarin included aortic valve replacement (n=56), mitral valve replacement (n=4), mitral valve plasty (n=22) and atrial fibrillation (n=29). There were no differences in patients' characteristics between both groups. The percentage time in therapeutic range in the first 10 days was significantly higher in the PBPM group (47.1%) than that in the control group (34.4%, PWarfarin therapy based on our novel PBPM was clinically safe and resulted in significantly better anticoagulation control compared to conventional care. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Efficacy and safety of catheter-based radiofrequency renal denervation in stented renal arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfoud, Felix; Tunev, Stefan; Ruwart, Jennifer; Schulz-Jander, Daniel; Cremers, Bodo; Linz, Dominik; Zeller, Thomas; Bhatt, Deepak L; Rocha-Singh, Krishna; Böhm, Michael; Melder, Robert J

    2014-12-01

    In selected patients with hypertension, renal artery (RA) stenting is used to treat significant atherosclerotic stenoses. However, blood pressure often remains uncontrolled after the procedure. Although catheter-based renal denervation (RDN) can reduce blood pressure in certain patients with resistant hypertension, there are no data on the feasibility and safety of RDN in stented RA. We report marked blood pressure reduction after RDN in a patient with resistant hypertension who underwent previous stenting. Subsequently, radiofrequency ablation was investigated within the stented segment of porcine RA, distal to the stented segment, and in nonstented RA and compared with stent only and untreated controls. There were neither observations of thrombus nor gross or histological changes in the kidneys. After radiofrequency ablation of the nonstented RA, sympathetic nerves innervating the kidney were significantly reduced, as indicated by significant decreases in sympathetic terminal axons and reduction of norepinephrine in renal tissue. Similar denervation efficacy was found when RDN was performed distal to a renal stent. In contrast, when radiofrequency ablation was performed within the stented segment of the RA, significant sympathetic nerve ablation was not seen. Histological observation showed favorable healing in all arteries. Radiofrequency ablation of previously stented RA demonstrated that RDN provides equally safe experimental procedural outcomes in a porcine model whether the radiofrequency treatment is delivered within, adjacent, or without the stent struts being present in the RA. However, efficacious RDN is only achieved when radiofrequency ablation is delivered to the nonstented RA segment distal to the stent. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Efficacy of hypnosis-based treatment in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmieri, Arianna; Kleinbub, Johann Roland; Calvo, Vincenzo; Sorarù, Gianni; Grasso, Irene; Messina, Irene; Sambin, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and its devastating neurodegenerative consequences have an inevitably psychological impact on patients and their caregivers: however, although it would be strongly needed, there is a lack of research on the efficacy of psychological intervention. Our aim was to investigate the effect of hypnosis-based intervention on psychological and perceived physical wellbeing in patients and the indirect effect on caregivers. We recruited eight ALS volunteers patients as a pilot sample for an hypnosis intervention and self-hypnosis training protocol lasting 1 month. Anxiety and depression level was measured in patients and caregivers at pre and post treatment phase. Quality of life and perceived physical symptoms changes were also investigated in patients. One month pre-post treatment improvement in depression, anxiety, and quality of life was clearly clinically observed and confirmed by psychometric analyses on questionnaire data. Moreover, decreases in physical symptoms such as pain, sleep disorders, emotional lability, and fasciculations were reported by our patients. Improvements in caregiver psychological wellbeing, likely as a consequence of patients psychological and perceived physical symptomatology improvement, were also observed. To the best of our knowledge, even if at a preliminary level, this is the first report on efficacy psychological intervention protocol on ALS patients. The findings provide initial support for using hypnosis and self-hypnosis training to manage some ALS physical consequences and mainly to cope its dramatic psychological implications for patients and, indirectly, for their caregivers.

  18. Efficacy of hypnosis-based treatment in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianna ePalmieri

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS and its devastating neurodegenerative consequences have an inevitably psychological impact on patients and their caregivers: however, although it would be strongly needed, there is a lack of research on the efficacy of psychological intervention. Our aim was to investigate the effect of hypnosis-based intervention on psychological and perceived physical wellbeing in patients and the indirect effect on caregivers. Methods: We recruited 8 ALS volunteers patients as a pilot sample for an hypnosis intervention and self-hypnosis training protocol lasting one month. Anxiety and depression level was measured in patients and caregivers at pre and post treatment phase. Quality of life and perceived physical symptoms changes were also investigated in patients. Results: One month pre-post treatment improvement in depression, anxiety and quality of life was clearly clinically observed and confirmed by psychometric analyses on questionnaire data. Moreover, decreases in physical symptoms such as pain, sleep disorders, emotional lability and fasciculations were reported by our patients. Improvements in caregiver psychological wellbeing, likely as a consequence of patients psychological and perceived physical symptomatology improvement, were also observed. Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge, even if at a preliminary level, this is the first report on efficacy psychological intervention protocol on ALS patients. The findings provide initial support for using hypnosis and self-hypnosis training to manage some ALS physical consequences and mainly to cope its dramatic psychological implications for patients and, indirectly, for their caregivers.

  19. Efficacy of alcohol-based hand sanitizer on hands soiled with dirt and cooking oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Amy J; Davis, Jennifer; Boehm, Alexandria B

    2011-09-01

    Handwashing education and promotion are well established as effective strategies to reduce diarrhea and respiratory illness in countries around the world. However, access to reliable water supplies has been identified as an important barrier to regular handwashing in low-income countries. Alcohol-based hand sanitizer (ABHS) is an effective hand hygiene method that does not require water, but its use is not currently recommended when hands are visibly soiled. This study evaluated the efficacy of ABHS on volunteers' hands artificially contaminated with Escherichia coli in the presence of dirt (soil from Tanzania) and cooking oil. ABHS reduced levels of E. coli by a mean of 2.33 log colony forming units (CFU) per clean hand, 2.32 log CFU per dirt-covered hand, and 2.13 log CFU per oil-coated hand. No significant difference in efficacy was detected between hands that were clean versus dirty or oily. ABHS may be an appropriate hand hygiene method for hands that are moderately soiled, and an attractive option for field settings in which access to water and soap is limited.

  20. Efficacy of storage phosphor-based digital mammography in diagnosis of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitahama, Hiroyuki

    1991-01-01

    The aim of this study is to present efficacy of storage phosphor-based digital mammography (CR-mammography) in diagnosis of breast cancer. Ninety-seven cases with breast cancer including 44 cases less than 2 cm in macroscopic size (t1 cases) were evaluated using storage phosphor-based digital mammography (2000 x 2510 pixels by 10 bits). Abnormal findings on CR-mammography were detected in 86 cases (88.7%) of 97 women with breast cancer. Sensitivity of CR-mammography was 88.7%. It was superior to that of film-screen mammography. On t1 breast cancer cases, sensitivity on CR-mammography was 88.6%. False negative rate in t1 breast cancer cases was reduced by image processing using CR-mammography. To evaluate microcalcifications, CR-mammograms and film-screen mammograms were investigated in 22 cases of breast cancer proven pathologically the existence of microcalcifications and 11 paraffin tissue blocks of breast cancer. CR-mammography was superior to film-screen mammography in recognizing of microcalcifications. As regards the detectability for the number and the shape of microcalcifications, CR-mammography was equivalent to film-screen mammography. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis by eight observers was performed for CR-mammography and film-screen mammography with 54 breast cancer patients and 54 normal cases. The detectability of abnormal findings of breast cancer on CR-mammography (ROC area=0.91) was better than that on film-screen mammography (ROC area=0.88) (p<0.05). Efficacy of storage phosphor-based digital mammography in diagnosis of breast cancer was discussed and demonstrated in this study. (author)

  1. From Education Policy to Class Practices: Indonesian Secondary EFL Teachers’ Self-Efficacy in Developing School-Based EFL Syllabi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dairabi Kamil

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this quantitative inquiry was to examine the self-efficacy of Indonesian secondary school English as foreign language (EFL teachers in developing a school-based EFL syllabus. The data were collected through a survey to 98 secondary school EFL teachers in the District of Kerinci, Jambi Sumatra, Indonesia. The data were analyzed through the Rasch Analysis (Linacre 2004, 2006. The results revealed that the teachers had a high-self efficacy in developing the syllabus. However, they tended to be less efficacious on theoretical tasks in the syllabus development and on tasks that were not part of their responsibility in previous curricula. In addition, this study also produced an instrument for measuring teachers’ self-efficacy in developing the syllabus that can be used for similar purposes in other contexts.

  2. The characterization of the antibacterial efficacy of an electrically activated silver ion-based surface system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirwaiker, Rohan A.

    There have been growing concerns in the global healthcare system about the eradication of pathogens in hospitals and other health-critical environments. The problem has been aggravated by the overuse of antibiotics and antimicrobial agents leading to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant superbugs such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) which are difficult to kill. Lower immunity of sick patients coupled with the escalating concurrent problem of antibiotic-resistant pathogens has resulted in increasing incidences of hospital acquired (nosocomial) infections. There is an immediate need to control the transmission of such infections, primarily in healthcare environments, by creating touch-contact and work surfaces (e.g., door knobs, push plates, countertops) that utilize alternative antibacterial materials like the heavy metal, silver. Recent research has shown that it is silver in its ionic (Ag+ ) and not elemental form that is antibacterial. Thus, silver-based antibacterial surfaces have to release silver ions directly into the pathogenic environment (generally, an aqueous media) in order to be effective. This dissertation presents the study and analysis of a new silver-based surface system that utilizes low intensity direct electric current (LIDC) for generation of silver ions to primarily inhibit indirect contact transmission of infections. The broader objective of this research is to understand the design, and characterization of the electrically activated silver ion-based antibacterial surface system. The specific objectives of this dissertation include: (1) Developing a comprehensive system design, and identifying and studying its critical design parameters and functional mechanisms. (2) Evaluating effects of the critical design parameters on the antibacterial efficacy of the proposed surface system. (3) Developing a response surface model for the surface system performance. These objectives are

  3. The Impact of an Art-Based Media Literacy Curriculum on the Leadership Self-Efficacy of Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keown, Emily Louise

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to explore the impact of an arts-based media literacy program on the leadership efficacy of adolescent girls. The participants of this study were 19 middle school girls who participated in an after-school, arts-based media literacy curricula known as Project Girl. The group meetings were led by female…

  4. A Faith-Based and Cultural Approach to Promoting Self-Efficacy and Regular Exercise in Older African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Mary Ellen; Guion, W. Kent

    2010-01-01

    The health benefits of regular exercise are well documented, yet there has been limited success in the promotion of regular exercise in older African American women. Based on theoretical and evidence-based findings, the authors recommend a behavioral self-efficacy approach to guide exercise interventions in this high-risk population. Interventions…

  5. Collective Efficacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ying; Zhou, Xiaohu; Klyver, Kim

    2018-01-01

    at manufacturing companies show that benevolent leadership and moral leadership, both components of paternalistic leadership, are positively related to organizational commitment and further that collective efficacy mediates the moral leadership–organizational commitment relationship. We did not find a relationship...... between authoritarian leadership and organizational commitment. Besides, it was found that team cohesion negatively moderates the relationship between moral leadership and collective efficacy and positively moderates the relationship between collective efficacy and organizational commitment. Explanations......Based on social cognitive theory, we theorize that collective efficacy plays a mediating role in the relationship between paternalistic leadership and organizational commitment and that this mediating role depends on team cohesion. The empirical results from a study of 238 employees from 52 teams...

  6. The Development of a Cultural-Based Educational Program to Enhance Breast Self-Examination (BSE Self-Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanita Juanita

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To develop the educational program which is appropriate with Islamic culture in order to enhance BSE self-efficacy of nursing students and thus promote BSE practice. Method: This study is a development research study which is consisting of three phases including: 1 reviewing several existing BSE educational programs; 2 program design based on SCT and Islamic culture; and 3 program validation by three experts. Result: Based on previous studies, the most appropriate theory to enhance self-efficacy was Social Cognitive Theory (SCT because this theory provides several strategies to increase the self-efficacy. Further, the program that used Islamic culture was more appropriate to increase BSE practice among Muslim women. As a result, the newly developed program was developed used SCT and Islamic culture. This program was comprised of four sessions including: 1 exploring Islamic mandate on prevention and individual responsibility in health promotion, and culture-related beliefs toward BSE, 2 health education by conducting lecturing session and watching a video about BSE procedures, 3 BSE training activities including BSE demonstration and return demonstration, 4 follow-up by conducting a meeting. Conclusion: The cultural-based educational program for enhancing BSE self-efficacy and promoting BSE is a program using multifaceted methods. It designed based on a review of the literature from previous studies and were supported by research findings on experimental studies in other population. Keywords: Cultural, Educational program development, Breast self-examination, Self-efficacy.

  7. An Analysis of Students' Self-Efficacy and Motivation in Piano, Based on Different Variables and the Reasons for Their Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egilmez, Hatice Onuray; Engur, Doruk

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the self-efficacy and motivation of Zeki Muren Fine Arts High School piano students were examined based on different variables as well as the reasons for their failure. The data on their self-efficacy were obtained through self-efficacy scale of piano performance and the data on their motivation were obtained through motivation…

  8. Efficacy and safety of ifosfamide-based chemotherapy for osteosarcoma: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan XL

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Xiao-Liang Fan,1,* Guo-Ping Cai,2,* Liu-Long Zhu,1 Guo-Ming Ding1 1Department of Orthopaedics, Hangzhou First People’s Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Hangzhou, 2Department of Orthopaedics, Jinshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: The efficacy of ifosfamide-based chemotherapy in the treatment of osteosarcoma has been investigated; however, results are inconsistent. Therefore, we reviewed the relevant studies and conducted a meta-analysis to assess the efficacy of ifosfamide-based chemotherapy in patients with osteosarcoma.Methods: A systematic literature search on PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science databases was performed. Eligible studies were clinical trials of patients with osteosarcoma who received ifosfamide-based chemotherapy. Hazard ratios (HRs were pooled to compare event-free survival (EFS and overall survival (OS. Risk ratios (RRs were pooled to compare good histologic response rates and adverse event incidence. Meta-analysis was performed using a fixed-effects model or a random-effects model according to heterogeneity.Results: A total of seven randomized controlled trials were included in this meta-analysis. Pooled results showed that ifosfamide-based chemotherapy significantly improved EFS (HR=0.72, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.63, 0.82; P=0.000 and OS (HR=0.83, 95% CI: 0.70, 0.99; P=0.034; furthermore, this form of chemotherapy increased good histologic response rate (RR=1.27, 95% CI: 1.10, 1.46; P=0.001. In addition, patients in the ifosfamide group exhibited a significantly higher incidence of fever (RR=2.23, 95% CI: 1.42, 3.50; P=0.000 and required more frequent platelet transfusion (RR=1.92, 95% CI: 1.23, 3.01; P=0.004.Conclusion: This meta-analysis confirmed that ifosfamide-based chemotherapy can significantly improve EFS and OS; this chemotherapy can also increase good histologic response rate in patients with osteosarcoma

  9. Gemcitabine-Based Chemotherapy in Adrenocortical Carcinoma: A Multicenter Study of Efficacy and Predictive Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Judith E K; Deutschbein, Timo; Altieri, Barbara; Steinhauer, Sonja; Kircher, Stefan; Sbiera, Silviu; Wild, Vanessa; Schlötelburg, Wiebke; Kroiss, Matthias; Perotti, Paola; Rosenwald, Andreas; Berruti, Alfredo; Fassnacht, Martin; Ronchi, Cristina L

    2017-11-01

    Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is rare and confers an unfavorable prognosis in advanced stages. Other than combination chemotherapy with cisplatin, etoposide, doxorubicin, and mitotane, the second- and third-line regimens are not well-established. Gemcitabine (GEM)-based chemotherapy was suggested in a phase 2 clinical trial with 28 patients. In other solid tumors, human equilibrative nucleoside transporter type 1 (hENT1) and/or ribonucleotide reductase catalytic subunit M1 (RRM1) expression have been associated with resistance to GEM. To assess the efficacy of GEM-based chemotherapy in ACC in a real-world setting and the predictive role of molecular parameters. Retrospective multicenter study. Referral centers of university hospitals. A total of 145 patients with advanced ACC were treated with GEM-based chemotherapy (132 with concomitant capecitabine). Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor material was available for 70 patients for immunohistochemistry. The main outcome measures were progression-free survival (PFS) and an objective response to GEM-based chemotherapy. The secondary objective was the predictive role of hENT1 and RRM1. The median PFS for the patient population was 12 weeks (range, 1 to 94). A partial response or stable disease was achieved in 4.9% and 25.0% of cases, with a median duration of 26.8 weeks. Treatment was generally well tolerated, with adverse events of grade 3 or 4 occurring in 11.0% of cases. No substantial effect of hENT1 and/or RRM1 expression was observed in response to GEM-based chemotherapy. GEM-based chemotherapy is a well-tolerated, but modestly active, regimen against advanced ACC. No reliable molecular predictive factors could be identified. Owing to the scarce alternative therapeutic options, GEM-based chemotherapy remains an important option for salvage treatment for advanced ACC. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  10. Efficacy of Vancomycin-based Continuous Triple Antibiotic Irrigation in Immediate, Implant-based Breast Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M. Hunsicker, MD, FACS

    2017-12-01

    Conclusions:. Continuous breast irrigation with a vancomycin-based triple antibiotic solution is a safe and effective accompaniment for immediate implant reconstruction. Use of intramuscular anesthetic injection for postoperative pain control allows the elastomeric infusion pump to be available for local tissue antibiotic irrigation.

  11. Efficacy of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy on Depressed Mothers with Cerebral Palsy Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Sedaghati Barogh

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Findings Demonstrated that Parent of Children With Cerebral Palsy Experience Elevated Level of Distress, Depression, Anxiety, Posttraumatic Stress Symptom and Subjective Symptom of Stress. Depression is a common condition that typically has a relapsing course. Effective interventions targeting relapse have the potential to dramatically reduce the point prevalence of the condition. Many of studies have shown that Mindfulness based cognitive therapy (MBCT is an intervention that has shown efficacy in reducing Depression syndrome and depressive relapse. In This Study, Effectiveness of Mindfulness–Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT on Reduction of Depression in Mothers of Children with Cerebral Palsy was examined. Methods: Three Mothers Whose Children Had Cerebral Palsy Were Diagnosed to Have Depression Symptoms, Using Beck Depression Inventory II, Structured Clinical in This Experimental Signal–Case Study. After The Baseline was Determined, Subject Attended on Eight–Session Program of Mindfulness–Based Cognitive Therapy. Results: The Comparison of Baseline and Post–Test was Showed That Depression Symptom has decreased through MBC. Improvement Quotient for Depression of each Subject was good. Discussion: Data Showed that MBCT Reduced Depression Symptoms in Mothers of Children With Cerebral Palsy.

  12. Potentiating antimicrobial efficacy of propolis through niosomal-based system for administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Jay; Ketkar, Sameer; Patil, Sharvil; Fearnley, James; Mahadik, Kakasaheb R; Paradkar, Anant R

    2015-06-01

    Propolis is a multicomponent active, complex resinous substance collected by honeybees ( Apis mellifera ) from a variety of plant sources. This study was designed to improve the antimicrobial efficacy of propolis by engineering a niosomal-based system for topical application. Propolis was extracted in ethanol and screened for total polyphenol content. Propolis-loaded niosomes (PLNs) were prepared with varying concentrations of Span 60 and cholesterol. The PLNs were evaluated for physicochemical parameters, namely, vesicle size, entrapment efficiency, zeta potential, surface topography and shape, and stability, followed by screening for in vitro antimicrobial activity. The PLNs were formulated into propolis niosomal gel (PNG) using Carbopol P934 base and subjected to ex vivo skin deposition study. The ethanolic extract of propolis had high polyphenolic content (270 ± 9.2 mg GAE/g). The prepared PLNs showed vesicle size between 294 nm and 427 nm, and the percent entrapment in the range of 50.62-71.29% with a significant enhancement in antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans . Enhanced antimicrobial activity of PLNs was attributed to the ability of niosomes to directly interact with the bacterial cell envelop thereby facilitating the diffusion of propolis constituents across the cell wall. The formulated PNG exhibited a twofold better skin deposition due to improved retention of niosomes in the skin. The findings indicate that the engineering of a niosomal-based system for propolis enhanced its antimicrobial potential through topical application.

  13. Comparison of Efficacy and Threat Perception Processes in Predicting Smoking among University Students Based on Extended Parallel Process Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bashirian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: The survey of smoking as the most toxic, common and cheapest ad-diction, and its psychological and demographic variables especially among the youth who are efficient and constructive individuals of the society is of great importance. This study was performed to compare efficacy and threat perception in predicting cigarette smoking among university students based on Expended Parallel Process Model (EPPM. Material & Methods: This cross sectional descriptive study was carried out on 700 college stu-dents of Hamadan recruited with a stratified sampling method. The participants completed a self-administered questionnaire including demographic characteristics, smoking status and EPPM Data analysis was done with the SPSS software (version 16, using t-test, one way ANOVA, Pierson correlation and logistic regression methods. Results: The average scores of threat and efficacy perception were 39.7 and 38.6, respectively. The prevalence of cigarette smoking among participants was 27.1 percent. Also, there were significant differences between the average score of efficacy perception and age, gender, his-tory of drug abuse and dwelling of students (P<0.05. Efficacy and threat perception both predicted student cigarette smoking. Conclusions: Cognitive mediating process of threat perception was a more powerful predictor of cigarette smoking as an unsafe behavior. Therefore, increasing self efficacy and response efficacy of university students aimed at facilitating the acceptance of safe behavior could be note-worthy as a principle in education. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2014; 21 (1:58-65

  14. Impact of Lesion Placement on Efficacy and Safety of Catheter-Based Radiofrequency Renal Denervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfoud, Felix; Tunev, Stefan; Ewen, Sebastian; Cremers, Bodo; Ruwart, Jennifer; Schulz-Jander, Daniel; Linz, Dominik; Davies, Justin; Kandzari, David E; Whitbourn, Robert; Böhm, Michael; Melder, Robert J

    2015-10-20

    Insufficient procedural efficacy has been proposed to explain nonresponse to renal denervation (RDN). The aim of this study was to examine the impact of different patterns of lesion placements on the efficacy and consistency of catheter-based radiofrequency RDN in pigs. The impact of increasing number of lesions versus location of RDN was investigated in a porcine model (Group 1; n = 51). The effect of treating the main artery, the branches, and the 2 combined was compared in Group 2 (n = 48). The durability of response and safety of combined treatment of the main artery plus branches was examined in Group 3 (n = 16). Renal norepinephrine (NE) tissue content and renal cortical axon density were assessed. Increasing the number of RF lesions (4, 8, and 12) in the main renal artery was not sufficient to yield a clear dose-response relationship on NE content and axon density. In contrast, targeted treatment of the renal artery branches or distal segment of the main renal artery resulted in markedly less variability of response and significantly greater reduction of both NE and axon density than conventional treatment of only the main renal artery. Combination treatment (main artery plus branches) produced the greatest change in renal NE and axon density with the least heterogeneity. The changes were durable through 28 days post-treatment. These data provide the rationale for investigation of an optimized approach for RDN in future clinical studies. This may have profound implications for the clinical application of RDN, as this approach may not only achieve greater reductions in sympathetic activity but also reduce treatment effect variability. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Clinical and biometrological efficacy of a hyaluronic acid-based mesotherapy product: a randomised controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baspeyras, Martine; Rouvrais, Céline; Liégard, Laetitia; Delalleau, Alexandre; Letellier, Sandrine; Bacle, Irène; Courrech, Laetitia; Murat, Pascale; Mengeaud, Valérie; Schmitt, Anne-Marie

    2013-10-01

    Data demonstrating the efficacy of hyaluronic acid (HA)-based mesotherapy for skin rejuvenation are scarce. The aim of the study is to assess the efficacy of non-reticulated HA-based mesotherapy on skin elasticity and complexion radiance. 55 women with cutaneous ageing signs included in the Full Analysis Set (FAS) population blindly received intradermal micro-injections (50 × 0.02 mL) of non-cross-linked HA filler with mannitol (Glytone 1, HA concentration: 14 mg/g) in one cheek and saline physiological solution in the other according to hemifacial randomisation in 3 monthly sessions. Elasticity (E1 and E2 stiffness parameters) and dermis thickness were measured by cutometry and 20 MHz echography, before (D0) treatment and 1 (1M) and 3 months (3M) after the last injection. A trained panel blindly scored skin complexion radiance from standardised and calibrated photographs, using 100 mm analogue scales. In the FAS population, only HA filler significantly decreased E1 at 1M (-10.9 %, p = 0.026) and 3M (-10.5 %, p = 0.035) compared with D0; its effect versus the control tended to be more persistent, with a difference between treatments at 3M close to significance (p = 0.063). E2 also decreased at 1M (-8.2 %, p = 0.027 in the per protocol population, n = 53) and 3M after HA-treatment only. Dermis thickness significantly increased after HA-treatment at 1M (+3.4 %, p = 0.028) and 3M (+4 %, p = 0.008), and after control-treatment at 1M only (+2.5 %, p = 0.015). The HA filler significantly improved complexion radiance at 3M compared with the control (p = 0.012) and for 51 % of subjects, their skin status. Non-reticulated HA-based mesotherapy significantly and sustainably improves skin elasticity and complexion radiance.

  16. Web-Based Aftercare for Women With Bulimia Nervosa Following Inpatient Treatment: Randomized Controlled Efficacy Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, Corinna; Beintner, Ina; Fittig, Eike; Trockel, Mickey; Braks, Karsten; Schade-Brittinger, Carmen; Dempfle, Astrid

    2017-09-22

    Relapse rates in bulimia nervosa (BN) are high even after successful treatment, but patients often hesitate to take up further treatment. An easily accessible program might help maintain treatment gains. Encouraged by the effects of Web-based eating disorder prevention programs, we developed a manualized, Web-based aftercare program (IN@) for women with BN following inpatient treatment. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of the web-based guided, 9-month, cognitive-behavioral aftercare program IN@ for women with BN following inpatient treatment. We conducted a randomized controlled efficacy trial in 253 women with DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition) BN and compared the results of IN@ with treatment as usual (TAU). Assessments were carried out at hospital admission (T0), hospital discharge/baseline (T1), postintervention (T2; 9 months after baseline), 9-month follow-up (T3; 18 months after baseline). The primary outcome, abstinence from binge eating and compensatory behaviors during the 2 months preceding T2, was analyzed by intention to treat, using logistic regression analyses. Frequencies of binge eating and vomiting episodes, and episodes of all compensatory behaviors were analyzed using mixed effects models. At T2, data from 167 women were available. There were no significant differences in abstinence rates between the TAU group (n=24, 18.9%) and the IN@ group (n=27, 21.4%; odds ratio, OR=1.29; P=.44). The frequency of vomiting episodes in the IN@ group was significantly (46%) lower than in the TAU group (P=.003). Moderator analyses revealed that both at T2 and T3, women of the intervention group who still reported binge eating and compensatory behaviors after inpatient treatment benefited from IN@, whereas women who were already abstinent after the inpatient treatment did not (P=.004; P=.002). Additional treatment utilization was high in both groups between baseline and follow-up. Overall, data

  17. Internet Self-Efficacy Preferences of Internet Based Environments and Achievement of Prospective Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozyalcin Oskay, Ozge

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study are to determine prospective chemistry teachers' internet self-efficacy and preferences of constructivist internet-assisted environments and to examine the relationship between their internet self-efficacy and their preferences for constructivist internet-assisted environments, the relationship between their achievement in…

  18. The efficacy of centralized flow rate control in 802.11-based wireless mesh networks

    KAUST Repository

    Jamshaid, K.

    2013-06-13

    Commodity WiFi-based wireless mesh networks (WMNs) can be used to provide last mile Internet access. These networks exhibit extreme unfairness with backlogged traffic sources. Current solutions propose distributed source-rate control algorithms requiring link-layer or transport-layer changes on all mesh nodes. This is often infeasible in large practical deployments. In wireline networks, router-assisted rate control techniques have been proposed for use alongside end-to-end mechanisms. We wish to evaluate the feasibility of establishing similar centralized control via gateways in WMNs. In this paper, we focus on the efficacy of this control rather than the specifics of the controller design mechanism. We answer the question: Given sources that react predictably to congestion notification, can we enforce a desired rate allocation through a single centralized controller? The answer is not obvious because flows experience varying contention levels, and transmissions are scheduled by a node using imperfect local knowledge. We find that common router-assisted flow control schemes used in wired networks fail in WMNs because they assume that (1) links are independent, and (2) router queue buildups are sufficient for detecting congestion. We show that non-work-conserving, rate-based centralized scheduling can effectively enforce rate allocation. It can achieve results comparable to source rate limiting, without requiring any modifications to mesh routers or client devices. 2013 Jamshaid et al.; licensee Springer.

  19. Efficacy of a brief image-based multiple-behavior intervention for college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werch, Chudley E; Moore, Michele J; Bian, Hui; DiClemente, Carlo C; Ames, Steven C; Weiler, Robert M; Thombs, Dennis; Pokorny, Steven B; Huang, I-Chan

    2008-10-01

    Epidemiologic data indicate most adolescents and adults experience multiple, simultaneous risk behaviors. The purpose of this study is to examine the efficacy of a brief image-based multiple-behavior intervention (MBI) for college students. A total of 303 college students were randomly assigned to: (1) a brief MBI or (2) a standard care control, with a 3-month postintervention follow-up. Omnibus treatment by time multivariate analysis of variance interactions were significant for three of six behavior groupings, with improvements for college students receiving the brief MBI on alcohol consumption behaviors, F(6, 261) = 2.73, p = 0.01, marijuana-use behaviors, F(4, 278) = 3.18, p = 0.01, and health-related quality of life, F(5, 277) = 2.80, p = 0.02, but not cigarette use, exercise, and nutrition behaviors. Participants receiving the brief MBI also got more sleep, F(1, 281) = 9.49, p = 0.00, than those in the standard care control. A brief image-based multiple-behavior intervention may be useful in influencing a number of critical health habits and health-related quality-of-life indicators of college students.

  20. Efficacy of tooth whitening with different calcium phosphate-based formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jian; Xu, Xiaohui; Lai, Guangyun; Kunzelmann, Karl-Heinz

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this in-vitro study was to evaluate the efficacy of tooth whitening using different calcium phosphate-based formulations. Teeth were treated with three different hydroxyapatite preparations at different concentrations and with two control preparations; each tooth was treated a total of three times. After application of the last material, hydrodynamic shear force was applied to mimic mechanical loading. After each treatment, tooth color was measured using a dental spectrophotometer, and the mean changes in L*a*b* values between different measurements were expressed as ∆E. The results indicated significant differences between the materials, but neither dose- nor time-dependent associations were found. The suspension containing tricalcium phosphate (10 wt%) showed the most obvious color change (∆E = 2.20 ± 0.90), while the suspension containing zinc-carbonate-apatite (20 wt%) showed the least obvious color change (∆E = 0.91 ± 0.50). Calcium phosphate-based formulations that can adhere to the enamel surface and contribute to tooth whitening have promising tooth-whitening potential. © 2013 Eur J Oral Sci.

  1. Response efficacy: the key to minimizing rejection and maximizing acceptance of emotion-based anti-speeding messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, I M; Watson, B; White, K M

    2010-03-01

    This study sought to improve understanding of the persuasive process of emotion-based appeals not only in relation to negative, fear-based appeals but also for appeals based upon positive emotions. In particular, the study investigated whether response efficacy, as a cognitive construct, mediated outcome measures of message effectiveness in terms of both acceptance and rejection of negative and positive emotion-based messages. Licensed drivers (N=406) participated via the completion of an on-line survey. Within the survey, participants received either a negative (fear-based) appeal or one of the two possible positive appeals (pride or humor-based). Overall, the study's findings confirmed the importance of emotional and cognitive components of persuasive health messages and identified response efficacy as a key cognitive construct influencing the effectiveness of not only fear-based messages but also positive emotion-based messages. Interestingly, however, the results suggested that response efficacy's influence on message effectiveness may differ for positive and negative emotion-based appeals such that significant indirect (and mediational) effects were found with both acceptance and rejection of the positive appeals yet only with rejection of the fear-based appeal. As such, the study's findings provide an important extension to extant literature and may inform future advertising message design. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Utilization and efficacy of internet-based eHealth technology in gastroenterology: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Simon R; Mikocka-Walus, Antonina

    2014-04-01

    While there have been several reviews exploring the outcomes of various eHealth studies, none have been gastroenterology-specific. This paper aims to evaluate the research conducted within gastroenterology which utilizes internet-based eHealth technology to promote physical and psychological well-being. A systematic literature review of internet-based eHealth interventions involving gastroenterological cohorts was conducted. Searched databases included: EbSCOhost Medline, CINAHL, and PsycINFO. Inclusion criteria were studies reporting on eHealth interventions (both to manage mental health problems and somatic symptoms) in gastroenterology, with no time restrictions. Exclusion criteria were non-experimental studies, or studies using only email as primary eHealth method, and studies in language other than English. A total of 17 papers were identified; seven studies evaluated the efficacy of a psychologically oriented intervention (additional two provided follow-up analyses exploring the original published data) and eight studies evaluated disease management programs for patients with either irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) or celiac disease. Overall, psychological eHealth interventions were associated with significant reductions in bowel symptoms and improvement in quality of life (QoL) that tended to continue up to 12 months follow up. The eHealth disease management was shown to generally improve QoL, adherence, knowledge about the disease, and reduce healthcare costs in IBD, although the studies were associated with various methodological problems, and thus, this observation should be confirmed in well-designed interventional studies. Based on the evidence to date, eHealth internet-based technology is a promising tool that can be utilized to both promote and enhance gastrointestinal disease management and mental health.

  3. The Effects of Project Based Learning on Undergraduate Students' Achievement and Self-Efficacy Beliefs towards Science Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgin, Ibrahim; Karakuyu, Yunus; Ay, Yusuf

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the Project-Based Learning (PBL) method on undergraduate students' achievement and its association with these students' self-efficacy beliefs about science teaching and pinions about PBL. The sample of the study consisted of two randomly chosen classes from a set of seven classes enrolled…

  4. Efficacy of the Technological/Engineering Design Approach: Imposed Cognitive Demands within Design-Based Biotechnology Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, John G.

    2016-01-01

    Though not empirically established as an efficacious pedagogy for promoting higher order thinking skills, technological/engineering design-based learning in K-12 STEM education is increasingly embraced as a core instructional method for integrative STEM learning that promotes the development of student critical thinking skills (Honey, Pearson,…

  5. Efficacy of multimodal exercise-based rehabilitation on physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and patient-reported outcomes in cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtgaard, J; Christensen, Jesper Frank; Tolver, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Sedentary behavior and impaired cardiovascular reserve capacity are common late effects of cancer therapy emphasizing the need for effective strategies to increase physical activity (PA) in cancer survivors. We examined the efficacy of a 12-month exercise-based rehabilitation program on self...

  6. Implementation of a Food-Based Science Curriculum Improves Fourth-Grade Educators' Self-Efficacy for Teaching Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stage, Virginia C.; Roseno, Ashley; Hodges, Caroline D.; Hovland, Jana; Diaz, Sebastian; Duffrin, Melani W.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Teacher self-efficacy for teaching nutrition can positively impact student dietary behaviors; however, limited curricular resources and professional development can serve as barriers to the provision of nutrition education in the classroom. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of a food-based, integrative science…

  7. Efficacy of an internet-based problem-solving training for teachers: results of a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebert, D.D.; Lehr, D.; BoB, L.; Riper, H.; Cuijpers, P.; Andersson, G.; Thiart, H.; Heber, E.; Berking, M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The primary purpose of this randomized controlled trial (RCT) was to evaluate the efficacy of internet-based problem-solving training (iPST) for employees in the educational sector (teachers) with depressive symptoms. The results of training were compared to those of a waitlist control

  8. On the evaluation of the efficacy of a smart damper: a new equivalent energy-based probabilistic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, A M; Christenson, R E

    2008-01-01

    Smart damping technology has been proposed to protect civil structures from dynamic loads. Each application of smart damping control provides varying levels of performance relative to active and passive control strategies. Currently, researchers compare the relative efficacy of smart damping control to active and passive strategies by running numerous simulations. These simulations can require significant computation time and resources. Because of this, it is desirable to develop an approach to assess the applicability of smart damping technology which requires less computation time. This paper discusses and verifies a probabilistic approach to determine the efficacy of smart damping technology based on clipped optimal state feedback control theory

  9. From grey to green: Efficacy of eco-engineering solutions for nature-based coastal defence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Rebecca L; Konlechner, Teresa M; Ghisalberti, Marco; Swearer, Stephen E

    2018-05-01

    Climate change is increasing the threat of erosion and flooding along coastlines globally. Engineering solutions (e.g. seawalls and breakwaters) in response to protecting coastal communities and associated infrastructure are increasingly becoming economically and ecologically unsustainable. This has led to recommendations to create or restore natural habitats, such as sand dunes, saltmarsh, mangroves, seagrass and kelp beds, and coral and shellfish reefs, to provide coastal protection in place of (or to complement) artificial structures. Coastal managers are frequently faced with the problem of an eroding coastline, which requires a decision on what mitigation options are most appropriate to implement. A barrier to uptake of nature-based coastal defence is stringent evaluation of the effectiveness in comparison to artificial protection structures. Here, we assess the current evidence for the efficacy of nature-based vs. artificial coastal protection and discuss future research needs. Future projects should evaluate habitats created or restored for coastal defence for cost-effectiveness in comparison to an artificial structure under the same environmental conditions. Cost-benefit analyses should take into consideration all ecosystem services provided by nature-based or artificial structures in addition to coastal protection. Interdisciplinary research among scientists, coastal managers and engineers is required to facilitate the experimental trials needed to test the value of these shoreline protection schemes, in order to support their use as alternatives to artificial structures. This research needs to happen now as our rapidly changing climate requires new and innovative solutions to reduce the vulnerability of coastal communities to an increasingly uncertain future. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Systemic Administration of Interleukin 2 Enhances the Therapeutic Efficacy of Dendritic Cell-Based Tumor Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, K.; Fields, R. C.; Giedlin, M.; Mule, J. J.

    1999-03-01

    We have reported previously that murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DC) pulsed with whole tumor lysates can mediate potent antitumor immune responses both in vitro and in vivo. Because successful therapy was dependent on host immune T cells, we have now evaluated whether the systemic administration of the T cell stimulatory/growth promoting cytokine interleukin-2 (IL-2) could enhance tumor lysate-pulsed DC-based immunizations to further promote protective immunity toward, and therapeutic rejection of, syngeneic murine tumors. In three separate approaches using a weakly immunogenic sarcoma (MCA-207), the systemic administration of non-toxic doses of recombinant IL-2 (20,000 and 40,000 IU/dose) was capable of mediating significant increases in the potency of DC-based immunizations. IL-2 could augment the efficacy of tumor lysate-pulsed DC to induce protective immunity to lethal tumor challenge as well as enhance splenic cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity and interferon-γ production in these treated mice. Moreover, treatment with the combination of tumor lysate-pulsed DC and IL-2 could also mediate regressions of established pulmonary 3-day micrometastases and 7-day macrometastases as well as established 14- and 28-day s.c. tumors, leading to either significant cure rates or prolongation in overall survival. Collectively, these findings show that nontoxic doses of recombinant IL-2 can potentiate the antitumor effects of tumor lysate-pulsed DC in vivo and provide preclinical rationale for the use of IL-2 in DC-based vaccine strategies in patients with advanced cancer.

  11. Healthy habits: efficacy of simple advice on weight control based on a habit-formation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lally, P; Chipperfield, A; Wardle, J

    2008-04-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of a simple weight loss intervention, based on principles of habit formation. An exploratory trial in which overweight and obese adults were randomized either to a habit-based intervention condition (with two subgroups given weekly vs monthly weighing; n=33, n=36) or to a waiting-list control condition (n=35) over 8 weeks. Intervention participants were followed up for 8 months. A total of 104 adults (35 men, 69 women) with an average BMI of 30.9 kg m(-2). Intervention participants were given a leaflet containing advice on habit formation and simple recommendations for eating and activity behaviours promoting negative energy balance, together with a self-monitoring checklist. Weight change over 8 weeks in the intervention condition compared with the control condition and weight loss maintenance over 32 weeks in the intervention condition. At 8 weeks, people in the intervention condition had lost significantly more weight (mean=2.0 kg) than those in the control condition (0.4 kg), with no difference between weekly and monthly weighing subgroups. At 32 weeks, those who remained in the study had lost an average of 3.8 kg, with 54% losing 5% or more of their body weight. An intention-to-treat analysis (based on last-observation-carried-forward) reduced this to 2.6 kg, with 26% achieving a 5% weight loss. This easily disseminable, low-cost, simple intervention produced clinically significant weight loss. In limited resource settings it has potential as a tool for obesity management.

  12. Efficacy of peg-interferon based treatment in patients with hepatitis C refractory to previous conventional interferon-based treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikh, S.; Devrajani, B.R.; Kalhoro, M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the efficacy of peg-interferon-based therapy in patients refractory to previous conventional interferon-based treatment and factors predicting sustained viral response (SVR). Study Design: Analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: Medical Unit IV, Liaquat University Hospital, Jamshoro, from July 2009 to June 2011. Methodology: This study included consecutive patients of hepatitis C who were previously treated with conventional interferon-based treatment for 6 months but were either non-responders, relapsed or had virologic breakthrough and stage = 2 with fibrosis on liver biopsy. All eligible patients were provided peg-interferon at the dosage of 180 mu g weekly with ribavirin thrice a day for 6 months. Sustained Viral Response (SVR) was defined as absence of HCV RNA at twenty four week after treatment. All data was processed on SPSS version 16. Results: Out of 450 patients enrolled in the study, 192 were excluded from the study on the basis of minimal fibrosis (stage 0 and 1). Two hundred and fifty eight patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria and 247 completed the course of peg-interferon treatment. One hundred and sixty one (62.4%) were males and 97 (37.6%) were females. The mean age was 39.9 +- 6.1 years, haemoglobin was 11.49 +- 2.45 g/dl, platelet count was 127.2 +- 50.6 10/sup 3/ /mm/sup 3/, ALT was 99 +- 65 IU/L. SVR was achieved in 84 (32.6%). The strong association was found between SVR and the pattern of response (p = 0. 001), degree of fibrosis and early viral response (p = 0.001). Conclusion: Peg-interferon based treatment is an effective and safe treatment option for patients refractory to conventional interferon-based treatment. (author)

  13. The efficacy of internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-yuan YE

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To evaluate the effectiveness of internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy (ICBT for the treatment of insomnia by comparison of sleep parameters, degrees of anxiety and depression of the ICBT, with traditional face-to-face cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT and pharmacotherapy for insomnia. Methods  Seventy-nine cases meeting proposed DSM-5 criteria for insomnia disorder were randomly assigned to ICBT (n=27, CBT (n=26, and pharmacotherapy (n=26 group, and treated accordingly for 8 consecutive weeks. The sleep parameters, the levels of anxiety and depression in the 3 groups were compared and analyzed before, 4 weeks after and the termination of treatment. Results  Comparing to that of pre-treatment, the sleep parameters were significantly improved, anxiety and depression levels obviously decreased after treatment for 4 and 8 consecutive weeks, the differences were statistically significant (P0.05 was found in sleep parameters and anxiety level between ICBT group and CBT group. Conclusion  ICBT may display a slower effect on improving speed in falling asleep than the pharmacotherapy does, but the efficacy of ICBT is better than that of pharmacotherapy after treatment, and there is no significant difference compared to traditional face-to-face CBT. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.04.09

  14. Efficacy of a collagen-based dressing in an animal model of delayed wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemin, Y; Le Broc, D; Ségalen, C; Kurkdjian, E; Gouze, J N

    2016-07-02

    The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro and in vivo the efficacy of GBT013, a collagen-based dressing, for the treatment of chronic wounds, in a db/db mouse model of diabetes. Macroscopic and histologic analyses of db/db mice wound healing with GBT013 or saline gauze were assessed. The mRNA expression and the proliferation of dermal fibroblast were investigated. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 activities were quantified. In db/db mice, GBT013 improves wound epithelialisation when compared with saline gauze. Histological analysis of scar tissue also shows an enhancement of remodelling associated with no sign of acute inflammation. In addition, GBT013 significantly decreases interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8, significantly increases tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP)-1 and TIMP-2 fibroblast mRNA expression and significantly reduces in vitro MMP-2 and MMP-9 enzymatic activities. Moreover, GBT013 allows cell growth inside the matrix and stimulates proliferation of human dermal fibroblast. By contributing to restore MMPs/TIMPs balance, GBT013 may function in all key stages of wound healing, such as inflammation, proliferation and tissue remodelling, and ultimately may provide a favourable environment for skin repair. This work was supported by Genbiotech, the R&D subsidiary of Laboratoires Genévrier, a pharmaceutical company.

  15. Efficacy of Multimedia Learning Modules as Preparation for Lecture-Based Tutorials in Electromagnetism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Christopher Moore

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the efficacy of on-line, multimedia learning modules (MLMs as preparation for in-class, lecture-based tutorials in electromagnetism in a physics course for natural science majors (biology and marine science. Specifically, we report the results of a multiple-group pre/post-test research design comparing two groups receiving different treatments with respect to activities preceding participation in Tutorials in Introductory Physics. The different pre-tutorial activities were as follows: (1 students were assigned reading from a traditional textbook, followed by a traditional lecture; and (2 students completed on-line MLMs developed by the Physics Education Research Group at the University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign (UIUC, and commercially known as FlipItPhysics. The MLM treatment group earned significantly higher mid-term examination scores and larger gains in content knowledge as measured by the Conceptual Survey of Electricity and Magnetism (CSEM. Student attitudes towards “reformed” instruction in the form of active-engagement tutorials were also improved. Specifically, post-course surveys showed that MLM-group students believed class time was more effective and the instructor was more clear than reported by non-MLM students, even though there was no significant difference between groups with respect to in-class activities and the same instructor taught both groups. MLM activities can be a highly effective tool for some student populations, especially when student preparation and buy-in are important for realizing significant gains.

  16. The efficacy of levofloxacin-based triple therapy for first-line Helicobacter pylori eradication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Aydın

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Standard triple therapy composed of a proton pump inhibitor, clarithromycin and amoxicillin has been widely preferred for H. pylori eradication in Turkey and World. Alternative therapies are currently under investigation because of an increase in clarithromycin resistance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a levoflox-acin-containing triple therapy.Materials and methods: The study was carried out in 81 H. pylori-infected patients (52 female, 29 male with nonul-cer dyspepsia. The mean age was found 46.3 ± 13.9. Treatment was indicated with lansoprazol 30 mg b.d., amoxicil-lin 1 g b.d., and levofloxacin 500 mg daily for 7 days. H. pylori status was rechecked by (14C urea breath test 6-8 weeks after the end of therapy.Results: Totally 81 patients could complete the treatment and follow-up protocol. Effectiveness was 68%. The distrib-tions of age, gender and smoking were similar between eradicated and non-eradicated groups (p > 0.05.Conclusion: Seven-day levofloxacin based triple therapy is not very effective in the first-line treatment of H. pylori in-fection. The new treatment modalities should be investigated.

  17. Moving evidence-based drug abuse prevention programs from basic science to practice: "bridging the efficacy-effectiveness interface".

    Science.gov (United States)

    August, Gerald J; Winters, Ken C; Realmuto, George M; Tarter, Ralph; Perry, Cheryl; Hektner, Joel M

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the challenges faced by developers of youth drug abuse prevention programs in transporting scientifically proven or evidence-based programs into natural community practice systems. Models for research on the transfer of prevention technology are described with specific emphasis given to the relationship between efficacy and effectiveness studies. Barriers that impede the successful integration of efficacy methods within effectiveness studies (e.g., client factors, practitioner factors, intervention structure characteristics, and environmental and organizational factors) are discussed. We present a modified model for program development and evaluation that includes a new type of research design, the hybrid efficacy-effectiveness study that addresses program transportability. The utility of the hybrid study is illustrated in the evaluation of the Early Risers "Skills for Success" prevention program.

  18. Teachers' Attitudes toward Web-Based Professional Development, with Relation to Internet Self-Efficacy and Beliefs about Web-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Chia-Pin; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to explore the relationships between teachers' Internet self-efficacy, beliefs about web-based learning and attitudes toward web-based professional development. The sample of this study included 421 teachers, coming from 20 elementary schools in Taiwan. The three instruments used to assess teachers' Internet self-efficacy…

  19. Correlates of Condom-use Self-efficacy on the EPPM-based Integrated Model among Chinese College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Shan Shan; Bu, Kai; Chen, Fang Fang; Xu, Hui Fang; Li, Yi; Zhao, Dong Hui; Xu, Fang; Li, Jing Yan; Han, Meng Jie; Wang, Ning; Wang, Lu

    2017-02-01

    To explore the predictors of condom-use self-efficacy in Chinese college students according to the extended parallel process model (EPPM)-based integrated model. A total of 3,081 college students were anonymously surveyed through self-administered questionnaires in Guangzhou and Harbin, China. A structural equation model was applied to assess the integrated model. Among the participants, 1,387 (46.7%) were male, 1,586 (53.3%) were female, and the average age was 18.6 years. The final integrated model was acceptable. Apart from the direct effect (r = 0.23), perceived severity had two indirect effects on condom-use self-efficacy through the attitude to HIV education (r = 0.40) and intention to engage in premarital sex (r = -0.16), respectively. However, the perceived susceptibility mediated through the intention to engage in premarital sex (intent-to-premarital-sex) had a poor indirect impact on condom-use self-efficacy (total effect was -0.06). Furthermore, attitude toward HIV health education (r = 0.49) and intent-to-premarital-sex (r = -0.31) had a strong direct effect on condom-use self-efficacy. In addition, male students perceived higher susceptibility, stronger intent-to-premarital-sex, and lower condom-use self-efficacy than female students. The integrated model may be used to assess the determinants of condom-use self-efficacy among Chinese college students. Future research should focus on raising the severity perception, HIV-risk-reduction motivation, and the premarital abstinence intention among college students. Furthermore, considering the gender differences observed in the present survey, single-sex HIV education is required in school-based HIV/sex intervention. Copyright © 2017 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  20. The Evidence Base on the Efficacy and Safety of Ibuprofen in Pediatrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.V. Marushko

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with an analysis of the world literature of recent years, the aim of which was to study the efficacy and safety of ibuprofen use as first-line antipyretic in pediatric practice. Special attention was paid to researches on the study the pharmacokinetics, efficacy and safety of ibuprofen in fever in children of all ages, as well as the use of different forms of ibuprofen (suspension, suppositories.

  1. Measuring Efficacy of Information Security Policies : A Case Study of UAE based company

    OpenAIRE

    Qureshi, Muhammad Sohail

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays information security policies are operative in many organizations. Currently few organizations take the pain of verifying the efficacy of these policies. Different standards and procedures exist about methods of measuring efficacy of information security policies. Choosing and implementing them depends mainly on the key performance indicators (KPIs) and key risk indicators (KRIs) of any particular organization. This thesis is a case study of an organization in United Arab Emirates (U...

  2. Doppler ultrasound for diagnosis of soft tissue sarcoma: efficacy of ultrasound-based screening score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagano Satoshi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. The utility of ultrasound imaging in the screening of soft-part tumours (SPTs has been reported. We classified SPTs according to their blood flow pattern on Doppler ultrasound and re-evaluated the efficacy of this imaging modality as a screening method. Additionally, we combined Doppler ultrasound with several values to improve the diagnostic efficacy and to establish a new diagnostic tool.

  3. Efficacy of technology-based interventions for obesity prevention in adolescents: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen JL

    2014-08-01

    outcomes indicated improvement in dietary behaviors. Five of seven studies suggested an improvement in psychosocial function (reduced depression, improved self-esteem and efficacy, improvement on Behavior Assessment Scale in adolescents involved in the technology-based intervention. All effective interventions utilized dietary and physical activity strategies as part of intervention components. Because of the variation in duration of intervention (range 10 weeks to 2 years, it is not clear what length of intervention is most effective. Future research should assess the long-term impact of technology-based interventions and evaluate mediators and moderators for weight change in adolescents. Keywords: technology intervention, obesity, adolescents, web-based, exer-gaming 

  4. Family-based interpersonal psychotherapy for depressed preadolescents: examining efficacy and potential treatment mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Laura J; Weinberg, Rebecca J; Brent, David A; Mufson, Laura

    2015-03-01

    To conduct a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the preliminary efficacy of family-based interpersonal psychotherapy (FB-IPT) for treating depression in preadolescents (aged 7-12 years) as compared to child-centered therapy (CCT), a supportive and nondirective treatment that closely approximates the standard of care for pediatric depression in community mental health. Preadolescents with depression (N = 42) were randomly assigned FB-IPT or CCT. Pre- and posttreatment assessments included clinician-administered measures of depression, parent- and child-reported depression and anxiety symptoms, and parent-child conflict and interpersonal impairment with peers. Preadolescents receiving FB-IPT had higher rates of remission (66.0% versus 31%), a greater decrease in depressive symptoms from pre- to posttreatment, and lower depressive symptoms at posttreatment (R(2) = 0.35, ΔR(2) = 0.22; B = -8.15, SE = 2.61, t[37] = -3.13, p = .002, F(2) = 0.28) than did preadolescents with depression receiving CCT. Furthermore, preadolescents in the FB-IPT condition reported significant reductions in anxiety and interpersonal impairment compared with preadolescents in the CCT condition. Changes in social and peer impairment from pre- to posttreatment were associated with preadolescents' posttreatment depressive symptoms. There was a significant indirect effect for decreased social impairment accounting for the association between the FB-IPT and preadolescents' posttreatment depressive symptoms. Findings indicate FB-IPT is an effective treatment for preadolescent depression and support further investigation of interpersonal mechanisms by which FB-IPT may reduce preadolescent depression. Clinical trial registration information-Phase II Study of Family Based Interpersonal Psychotherapy (FB-IPT) for Depressed Preadolescents; http://clinicaltrials.gov; NCT02054312. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  5. Efficacy of computer-based endoscope cleaning and disinfection using a hospital management information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Caixia; Chen, Yuanyuan; Yang, Feng; Ren, Jie; Yu, Xin; Wang, Jiani; Sun, Siyu

    2016-08-01

    The present study aimed to assess the efficacy of computer-based endoscope cleaning and disinfection using a hospital management information system (HMIS). A total of 2,674 gastroscopes were eligible for inclusion in this study. For the processes of disinfection management, the gastroscopes were randomly divided into 2 groups: gastroscope disinfection HMIS (GD-HMIS) group and manual group. In the GD-HMIS group, an integrated circuit card (IC card) chip was installed to monitor and record endoscope cleaning and disinfection automatically and in real time, whereas the endoscope cleaning and disinfection in the manual group was recorded manually. The overall disinfection progresses for both groups were recorded, and the total operational time was calculated. For the GD-HMIS group, endoscope disinfection HMIS software was successfully developed. The time to complete a single session of cleaning and disinfecting on a gastroscope was 15.6 minutes (range, 14.3-17.2 minutes) for the GD-HMIS group and 21.3 minutes (range, 20.2-23.9 minutes) for the manual group. Failure to record information, such as the identification number of the endoscope, occasionally occurred in the manual group, which affected the accuracy and reliability of manual recording. Computer-based gastroscope cleaning and disinfection using a hospital management information system could monitor the process of gastroscope cleaning and disinfection in real time and improve the accuracy and reliability, thereby ensuring the quality of gastroscope cleaning and disinfection. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Attribution-based motivation treatment efficacy in an online learning environment for students who differ in cognitive elaboration

    OpenAIRE

    Hamm, Jeremy M.; Perry, Raymond P.; Chipperfield, Judith G.; Murayama, Kou; Weiner, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    Attribution-based motivation treatments can boost performance in competitive achievement settings (Perry and Hamm 2017), yet their efficacy relative to mediating processes and affect-based treatments remains largely unexamined. In a two-semester, pre-post, randomized treatment study (n = 806), attributional retraining (AR) and stress-reduction (SR) treatments were administered in an online learning environment to first-year college students who differed in cognitive elaboration (low, high). L...

  7. Evaluation of Teen Cuisine: An Extension-Based Cooking Program to Increase Self-efficacy in Teens

    OpenAIRE

    Petty, Heather Keyronica

    2016-01-01

    Heather K. Petty ABSTRACT Title: Evaluation of Teen Cuisine: An Extension-Based Cooking Program to Increase Self-efficacy in Teens Background: Childhood, adolescent, and adult obesity is a major health and economic concern affecting the United States and various countries across the globe. Obese children and adolescents are at a potential risk for developing certain chronic diseases as they transition into adulthood. There are community-based cooking intervention programs designed t...

  8. Gender fairness in self-efficacy? A Rasch-based validity study of the General Academic Self-efficacy scale (GASE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tine; Vang, Maria Louison; Dammeyer, Jesper

    2018-01-01

    Studies have reported gender differences in academic self-efficacy. However, how and if academic self-efficacy questionnaires are gender-biased has not been psychometrically investigated. The psychometric properties of a general version of The Physics Self-Efficacy Questionnaire – the General...... Academic Self-Efficacy Scale (GASE) – were analyzed using Rasch measurement models, with data from 1018 Danish university students (psychology and technical), focusing on gender invariance and the sufficiency of the score. The short 4-item GASE scale was found to be essentially objective and construct...... valid and satisfactorily reliable, though differential item functioning was found relative to gender and academic discipline, and can be used to assess students’ general academic self-efficacy. Research on gender and self-efficacy needs to take gender into account and equate scores appropriately...

  9. Efficacy of a biomechanically-based yoga exercise program in knee osteoarthritis: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntz, Alexander B; Chopp-Hurley, Jaclyn N; Brenneman, Elora C; Karampatos, Sarah; Wiebenga, Emily G; Adachi, Jonathan D; Noseworthy, Michael D; Maly, Monica R

    2018-01-01

    demonstrated improvements in mobility. No improvement in any outcome was present in NE. The biomechanically-based yoga exercise program produced clinically meaningful improvements in pain, self-reported physical function and mobility in women with clinical knee OA compared to no exercise. While not statistically significant, improvements in these outcomes were larger than those elicited from the traditional exercise-based program. Though this may suggest that the yoga program may be more efficacious for knee OA, future research studying a larger sample is required. ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02370667).

  10. Efficacy of technology-based interventions for obesity prevention in adolescents: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jyu-Lin; Wilkosz, Mary Ellen

    2014-01-01

    About one third of adolescents in the USA are overweight and/or obese. Obesity during the adolescent years is associated with many adverse health consequences, including type 2 diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and psychosocial problems. Because of substantial advances in technologies and wide acceptance by adolescents, it is now possible to use technology for healthy weight management and prevention of obesity. This systematic review used Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines and aimed to evaluate the existing literature reported on the effectiveness of technology-based intervention (web-based, e-learning, and active video games) in preventing obesity in adolescents. The primary aim of this review was to explore if components of specific interventions were associated with a reduction in body mass index. Research articles obtained from CINAHL, Embase, PubMed, PsycInfo, and the Cochrane database from1990 to 2014 were reviewed. A total of 131 published articles were identified, and 14 met the inclusion criteria of a randomized or nonrandomized clinical study with body mass index as primary outcome and/or secondary outcomes of diet/physical activity and/or psychosocial function, tested lifestyle interventions to prevent obesity, used technology, and studied adolescents (aged 12-18 years). The results indicated that six of 14 studies found body mass index and/or body fat decreased at short-term (less than 12 months) follow-up. Six of eleven studies that examined physical activity or physical activity-related outcomes found an improved physical activity outcome (time playing active video games and increase in physical activity time), while five of seven studies which assessed dietary outcomes indicated improvement in dietary behaviors. Five of seven studies suggested an improvement in psychosocial function (reduced depression, improved self-esteem and efficacy, improvement on Behavior Assessment Scale) in adolescents

  11. Efficacy of theory-based HIV behavioral prevention among rural-to-urban migrants in China: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoming; Lin, Danhua; Wang, Bo; Du, Hongfei; Tam, Cheuk Chi; Stanton, Bonita

    2014-08-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy of a cultural adaptation of a social cognitive theory-based HIV behavioral prevention program among young rural-to-urban migrants in China. The intervention design and assessment were guided by the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT). The intervention was evaluated through a randomized controlled trial with 6-month and 12-month follow-ups. The primary behavioral outcome was the use of condoms. Other outcome measures include HIV knowledge, condom use knowledge, HIV-related perceptions (PMT constructs), and intention to use condom. The mixed-effects regression models for condom use with regular partners indicated that overall frequency of condom use, condom use in last three sexual acts and proper condom use increased over time for the participants but the increases were significantly greater among the intervention group than the control group at 6-month and 12-month follow-ups. The mixed-effects models for HIV-related perceptions indicated that extrinsic rewards, intrinsic rewards, and response costs decreased while vulnerability, severity, response efficacy, and self-efficacy increased over time for the intervention group. The increases in HIV knowledge, condom use knowledge, and intention to use condom were also significantly greater among the intervention group than the control group. The data in the current study suggested efficacy of a social cognitive theory-based behavioral intervention in increasing condom use among young migrants in China. The intervention also increased protective perceptions and decreased risk perception posited by the theory (i.e., PMT).

  12. Unique effects and moderators of effects of sources on self-efficacy: A model-based meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byars-Winston, Angela; Diestelmann, Jacob; Savoy, Julia N; Hoyt, William T

    2017-11-01

    Self-efficacy beliefs are strong predictors of academic pursuits, performance, and persistence, and in theory are developed and maintained by 4 classes of experiences Bandura (1986) referred to as sources: performance accomplishments (PA), vicarious learning (VL), social persuasion (SP), and affective arousal (AA). The effects of sources on self-efficacy vary by performance domain and individual difference factors. In this meta-analysis (k = 61 studies of academic self-efficacy; N = 8,965), we employed B. J. Becker's (2009) model-based approach to examine cumulative effects of the sources as a set and unique effects of each source, controlling for the others. Following Becker's recommendations, we used available data to create a correlation matrix for the 4 sources and self-efficacy, then used these meta-analytically derived correlations to test our path model. We further examined moderation of these associations by subject area (STEM vs. non-STEM), grade, sex, and ethnicity. PA showed by far the strongest unique association with self-efficacy beliefs. Subject area was a significant moderator, with sources collectively predicting self-efficacy more strongly in non-STEM (k = 14) compared with STEM (k = 47) subjects (R2 = .37 and .22, respectively). Within studies of STEM subjects, grade level was a significant moderator of the coefficients in our path model, as were 2 continuous study characteristics (percent non-White and percent female). Practical implications of the findings and future research directions are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Prediction of the Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics, and Efficacy of a Monoclonal Antibody, Using a Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic FcRn Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetty, Manoranjenni; Li, Linzhong; Rose, Rachel; Machavaram, Krishna; Jamei, Masoud; Rostami-Hodjegan, Amin; Gardner, Iain

    2015-01-01

    Although advantages of physiologically based pharmacokinetic models (PBPK) are now well established, PBPK models that are linked to pharmacodynamic (PD) models to predict pharmacokinetics (PK), PD, and efficacy of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in humans are uncommon. The aim of this study was to develop a PD model that could be linked to a physiologically based mechanistic FcRn model to predict PK, PD, and efficacy of efalizumab. The mechanistic FcRn model for mAbs with target-mediated drug disposition within the Simcyp population-based simulator was used to simulate the pharmacokinetic profiles for three different single doses and two multiple doses of efalizumab administered to virtual Caucasian healthy volunteers. The elimination of efalizumab was modeled with both a target-mediated component (specific) and catabolism in the endosome (non-specific). This model accounted for the binding between neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) and efalizumab (protective against elimination) and for changes in CD11a target concentration. An integrated response model was then developed to predict the changes in mean Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) scores that were measured in a clinical study as an efficacy marker for efalizumab treatment. PASI scores were approximated as continuous and following a first-order asymptotic progression model. The reported steady state asymptote (Y ss) and baseline score [Y (0)] was applied and parameter estimation was used to determine the half-life of progression (Tp) of psoriasis. Results suggested that simulations using this model were able to recover the changes in PASI scores (indicating efficacy) observed during clinical studies. Simulations of both single dose and multiple doses of efalizumab concentration-time profiles as well as suppression of CD11a concentrations recovered clinical data reasonably well. It can be concluded that the developed PBPK FcRn model linked to a PD model adequately predicted PK, PD, and efficacy of efalizumab. PMID

  14. The Effects of Augmented Reality-based Otago Exercise on Balance, Gait, and Falls Efficacy of Elderly Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Ha-Na; Chung, Eunjung; Lee, Byoung-Hee

    2013-07-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of augmented reality-based Otago exercise on balance, gait, and falls efficacy of elderly women. [Subjects] The subjects were 21 elderly women, who were randomly divided into two groups: an augmented reality-based Otago exercise group of 10 subjects and an Otago exercise group of 11 subjects. [Methods] All subjects were evaluated for balance (Berg Balance Scale, BBS), gait parameters (velocity, cadence, step length, and stride length), and falls efficacy. Within 12 weeks, Otago exercise for muscle strengthening and balance training was conducted three times, for a period of 60 minutes each, and subjects in the experimental group performed augmented reality-based Otago exercise. [Results] Following intervention, the augmented reality-based Otago exercise group showed significant increases in BBS, velocity, cadence, step length (right side), stride length (right side and left side) and falls efficacy. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest the feasibility and suitability of this augmented reality-based Otago exercise for elderly women.

  15. Biological efficacy and toxic effect of emergency water disinfection process based on advanced oxidation technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yiping; Yuan, Xiaoli; Xu, Shujing; Li, Rihong; Zhou, Xinying; Zhang, Zhitao

    2015-12-01

    An innovative and removable water treatment system consisted of strong electric field discharge and hydrodynamic cavitation based on advanced oxidation technologies was developed for reactive free radicals producing and waterborne pathogens eliminating in the present study. The biological efficacy and toxic effects of this advanced oxidation system were evaluated during water disinfection treatments. Bench tests were carried out with synthetic microbial-contaminated water, as well as source water in rainy season from a reservoir of Dalian city (Liaoning Province, China). Results showed that high inactivation efficiency of Escherichia coli (>5 log) could be obtained for synthetic contaminated water at a low concentration (0.5-0.7 mg L(-1)) of total oxidants in 3-10 s. The numbers of wild total bacteria (108 × 10(3) CFU mL(-1)) and total coliforms (260 × 10(2) MPN 100 mL(-1)) in source water greatly reduced to 50 and 0 CFU mL(-1) respectively after treated by the advanced oxidation system, which meet the microbiological standards of drinking water, and especially that the inactivation efficiency of total coliforms could reach 100%. Meanwhile, source water qualities were greatly improved during the disinfection processes. The values of UV254 in particular were significantly reduced (60-80%) by reactive free radicals. Moreover, the concentrations of possible disinfection by-products (formaldehyde and bromide) in treated water were lower than detection limits, indicating that there was no harmful effect on water after the treatments. These investigations are helpful for the ecotoxicological studies of advanced oxidation system in the treatments of chemical polluted water or waste water. The findings of this work suggest that the developed water treatment system is ideal in the acute phases of emergencies, which also could offer additional advantages over a wide range of applications in water pollution control.

  16. Efficacy of reduced doses of bentazone assessed by instruments based on measurement of chlorophyll fluorescence

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    Vojtěch Kocurek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlorophyll fluorescence is a type of radiation emitted by plants as unused part of energy absorbed from sunlight. Its intensity depends on many stress factors, nutrition, weather conditions etc. Methods based on chlorophyll fluorescence measurement have potential to be perspective for the assessment of herbicide efficacy, phytotoxicity or stress influence. Two fluorometers (FluorCam and handy FluorPen were used for measurements in laboratory experiments in 2007–2009. Herbicide Basagran super with active ingredient bentazone (480 g.l−1 was tested using a parameter called ‚Quantum yield of fluorescence‘ (QY in three different doses: the registered dose 2.0 l.ha−1 (100% and lower doses 1.5 l.ha−1 (75% and 1.0 l.ha−1 (50%. Treated experimental plants of redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L. were measured in 0, 1, 2, 3, 6, 9 and 15 days after treatment and the results were compared with subjective assessment (estimation and growth parameters. The obtained results showed that the effect of bentazone measured by both devices was statistically significantly different from untreated control. We can also detect herbicide effect earlier by QY measurement than by other methods. Different doses showed significant differences 15 days after treatment for dose 2.0 l.ha−1 in comparison with both reduced doses. The subjective assessment showed significant differences in all terms of measurement (1–15 days after application except of the day of application. Regeneration of plants for which the youngest leaves were not treated by herbicide was observed for all doses. Difference of QY values between used devices was on average 0.119 (higher for FluorCam but statistically insignificant.

  17. In vitro and in vivo antifungal efficacy of plant based lawsone against Fusarium oxysporum species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dananjaya, S H S; Udayangani, R M C; Shin, Sang Yeop; Edussuriya, M; Nikapitiya, Chamilani; Lee, Jehee; De Zoysa, Mahanama

    2017-08-01

    Fusarium oxysporum is an ascomycete facultative fungus which generally affects to plants. However, it is recently known as a serious emerging opportunistic pathogen of human and other animals. F. oxysporum shows broad resistance to commonly used antifungal agents and therefore development of alternative therapeutic agents is required. In this study, we investigated the antifungal efficacy of plant based natural lawsone against pathogenic F. oxysporum. Antifungal susceptibility test determined the concentration dependent growth inhibition of lawsone against F. oxysporum with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) at 100μg/mL. Ultra-structural analysis indicates the prominent damage on cell wall of the mycelium after lawsone treatment, and suggests that it could increase the membrane permeability and disintegration of cells leading to cellular death. Propidium iodide (PI) uptake assay results showed the higher level of cell death in lawsone treated F. oxysporum which further confirms the loss of plasma membrane integrity. Also, detection of reactive oxygen species (ROS) using DCFH-DA has clearly indicated that lawsone (100μg/mL) can induce the ROS level in the filaments of F. oxysporum. MTT assay results showed the loss of viability and germination capacity of F. oxysporum spores by lawsone in concentration dependent manner. Moreover, lawsone treatment induced the mRNA expression of two autophagy related genes (ATG1 and ATG8) indicating that lawsone may activate the autophagy related pathways in F. oxysporum due to the oxidative stress generated by ROS. F. oxysporum infected zebrafish has recovered after lawsone therapy as a topical treatment suggesting that lawsone is a potential natural antifusariosis agent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Efficacy of the Smartphone-Based Glucose Management Application Stratified by User Satisfaction

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    Hun-Sung Kim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundWe aimed to assess the efficacy of the smartphone-based health application for glucose control and patient satisfaction with the mobile network system used for glucose self-monitoring.MethodsThirty-five patients were provided with a smartphone device, and self-measured blood glucose data were automatically transferred to the medical staff through the smartphone application over the course of 12 weeks. The smartphone user group was divided into two subgroups (more satisfied group vs. less satisfied group based on the results of questionnaire surveys regarding satisfaction, comfort, convenience, and functionality, as well as their willingness to use the smartphone application in the future. The control group was set up via a review of electronic medical records by group matching in terms of age, sex, doctor in charge, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c.ResultsBoth the smartphone group and the control group showed a tendency towards a decrease in the HbA1c level after 3 months (7.7%±0.7% to 7.5%±0.7%, P=0.077. In the more satisfied group (n=27, the HbA1c level decreased from 7.7%±0.8% to 7.3%±0.6% (P=0.001, whereas in the less satisfied group (n=8, the HbA1c result increased from 7.7%±0.4% to 8.1%±0.5% (P=0.062, showing values much worse than that of the no-smartphone control group (from 7.7%±0.5% to 7.7%±0.7%, P=0.093.ConclusionIn addition to medical feedback, device and network-related patient satisfaction play a crucial role in blood glucose management. Therefore, for the smartphone app-based blood glucose monitoring to be effective, it is essential to provide the patient with a well-functioning high quality tool capable of increasing patient satisfaction and willingness to use.

  19. Athletes' perceptions of coaching effectiveness and athlete-related outcomes in rugby union: An investigation based on the coaching efficacy model

    OpenAIRE

    Boardley, Ian D; Kavussanu, Maria; Ring, Christopher M

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between athletes' perceptions of coaching effectiveness, based on the coaching efficacy model, and their effort, commitment, enjoyment, self-efficacy, and prosocial and antisocial behavior in rugby union. Participants were 166 adult male rugby-union players (M age = 26.5, SD = 8.5 years), who completed questionnaires measuring their perceptions of four dimensions of coaching effectiveness as well as their effort, commitment, enjoyment, self-efficacy, and ...

  20. Analysis of mathematical literacy ability based on self-efficacy in model eliciting activities using metaphorical thinking approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiani, C.; Waluya, S. B.; Wardono

    2018-03-01

    The purposes of this research are: (1) to identify learning quality in Model Eliciting Activities (MEAs) using a Metaphorical Thinking (MT) approach regarding qualitative and quantitative; (2) to analyze mathematical literacy of students based on Self-Efficacy (SE). This research is mixed method concurrent embedded design with qualitative research as the primary method. The quantitative research used quasi-experimental with non-equivalent control group design. The population is VIII grade students of SMP Negeri 3 Semarang Indonesia. Quantitative data is examined by conducting completeness mean test, standard completeness test, mean differentiation test and proportional differentiation test. Qualitative data is analyzed descriptively. The result of this research shows that MEAs learning using MT approach accomplishes good criteria both quantitatively and qualitatively. Students with low self-efficacy can identify problems, but they are lack ability to arrange problem-solving strategy on mathematical literacy questions. Students with medium self-efficacy can identify information provided in issues, but they find difficulties to use math symbols in making a representation. Students with high self-efficacy are excellent to represent problems into mathematical models as well as figures by using appropriate symbols and tools, so they can arrange strategy easily to solve mathematical literacy questions.

  1. Effects of a Memory and Visual-Motor Integration Program for Older Adults Based on Self-Efficacy Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Hwi; Suh, Soon Rim

    2017-06-01

    This study was conducted to verify the effects of a memory and visual-motor integration program for older adults based on self-efficacy theory. A non-equivalent control group pretest-posttest design was implemented in this quasi-experimental study. The participants were 62 older adults from senior centers and older adult welfare facilities in D and G city (Experimental group=30, Control group=32). The experimental group took part in a 12-session memory and visual-motor integration program over 6 weeks. Data regarding memory self-efficacy, memory, visual-motor integration, and depression were collected from July to October of 2014 and analyzed with independent t-test and Mann-Whitney U test using PASW Statistics (SPSS) 18.0 to determine the effects of the interventions. Memory self-efficacy (t=2.20, p=.031), memory (Z=-2.92, p=.004), and visual-motor integration (Z=-2.49, p=.013) increased significantly in the experimental group as compared to the control group. However, depression (Z=-0.90, p=.367) did not decrease significantly. This program is effective for increasing memory, visual-motor integration, and memory self-efficacy in older adults. Therefore, it can be used to improve cognition and prevent dementia in older adults. © 2017 Korean Society of Nursing Science

  2. Development and initial validation of primary care provider mental illness management and team-based care self-efficacy scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Danielle F; Crane, Lori A; Leister, Erin; Bayliss, Elizabeth A; Ludman, Evette; Binswanger, Ingrid A; Kline, Danielle M; Smith, Meredith; deGruy, Frank V; Nease, Donald E; Dickinson, L Miriam

    Develop and validate self-efficacy scales for primary care provider (PCP) mental illness management and team-based care participation. We developed three self-efficacy scales: team-based care (TBC), mental illness management (MIM), and chronic medical illness (CMI). We developed the scales using Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory as a guide. The survey instrument included items from previously validated scales on team-based care and mental illness management. We administered a mail survey to 900 randomly selected Colorado physicians. We conducted exploratory principal factor analysis with oblique rotation. We constructed self-efficacy scales and calculated standardized Cronbach's alpha coefficients to test internal consistency. We calculated correlation coefficients between the MIM and TBC scales and previously validated measures related to each scale to evaluate convergent validity. We tested correlations between the TBC and the measures expected to correlate with the MIM scale and vice versa to evaluate discriminant validity. PCPs (n=402, response rate=49%) from diverse practice settings completed surveys. Items grouped into factors as expected. Cronbach's alphas were 0.94, 0.88, and 0.83 for TBC, MIM, and CMI scales respectively. In convergent validity testing, the TBC scale was correlated as predicted with scales assessing communications strategies, attitudes toward teams, and other teamwork indicators (r=0.25 to 0.40, all statistically significant). Likewise, the MIM scale was significantly correlated with several items about knowledge and experience managing mental illness (r=0.24 to 41, all statistically significant). As expected in discriminant validity testing, the TBC scale had only very weak correlations with the mental illness knowledge and experience managing mental illness items (r=0.03 to 0.12). Likewise, the MIM scale was only weakly correlated with measures of team-based care (r=0.09 to.17). This validation study of MIM and TBC self-efficacy scales

  3. Preadolescents' and Parents' Dietary Coping Efficacy during Behavioral Family-Based Weight Control Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theim, Kelly R.; Sinton, Meghan M.; Stein, Richard I.; Saelens, Brian E.; Thekkedam, Sucheta C.; Welch, R. Robinson; Epstein, Leonard H.; Wilfley, Denise E.

    2012-01-01

    Developmentally relevant high-risk dietary situations (e.g., parties where tempting foods are available) may influence overweight youth's weight control, as they increase risk for overeating. Better self-efficacy for coping with these situations--which preadolescents may learn from their parents--could foster successful weight control. Overweight…

  4. The Educational Efficacy of a Values-Based Online Tool in a Public Health Ethics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripken, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the educational efficacy of an online software decision-making program, The Values Exchange. While ethics is a vital aspect of educating public health professionals, it is both difficult to teach and assess. There is a need to identify best practices in the pedagogy of public health ethics and in…

  5. L2 Motivational Self-System and Self-Efficacy: A Quantitative Survey-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshandel, Javad; Ghonsooly, Behzad; Ghanizadeh, Afsaneh

    2018-01-01

    The present study explored English as a foreign language (EFL) students' motivation and self-efficacy. This is accomplished by incorporating the ten subfactors of L2 motivational self-system namely; criterion measures, ideal L2 self, ought-to L2 self, family influence, instrumentality promotion, instrumentality prevention, attitudes towards…

  6. The influence inquiry-based science has on elementary teachers' perception of instruction and self-efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Felecia J.

    The nature and purpose of this study was to examine the self-efficacy of teachers who use an inquiry-based science program to provide authentic experiences within the elementary school setting. It is essential to explore necessary improvements to bring about effective science education. Using a mixed methods study, the researcher conducted interviews with elementary teachers from five elementary schools within the same school district. The interviews focused on the teachers' experiences with inquiry-based science and their perceptions of quality science instruction. The Teachers' Sense of Efficacy Scale was used to collect quantitative data regarding the teachers' perception of instructional practice and student engagement. The study revealed that limited science content knowledge, inadequate professional development, and a low sense of self-efficacy have a substantial effect on teacher outcomes, instructional planning, and ability to motivate students to participate in inquiry-based learning. It will take a collective effort from administrators, teachers, parents, and students to discover ways to improve elementary science education.

  7. Efficacy of garlic based treatments against monogenean parasites infecting the guppy (Poecilia reticulata (Peters)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridman, S; Sinai, T; Zilberg, D

    2014-06-16

    Monogenean infections of commercially farmed fishes are responsible for significant economic losses. Garlic (Allium sativum) is a well-known spice which also possesses anti-microbial and anti-parasitical properties. The current work aimed to test the efficacy of garlic-based treatments against infection with monogenean sp. in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata). Clipped sections of tail fins of guppies heavily infected with Gyrodactylus turnbulli were exposed to aqueous garlic extract (7.5 to 30 mL L(-1)) and visually observed under a dissecting microscope. Results revealed that exposure to garlic caused detachment of parasite and cessation of movement indicating death. A positive correlation was seen between garlic concentration and time to detachment and death of parasites, which, at the highest concentration of 30 mL L(-1), occurred at 4.1 and 8.6 min, respectively. Bathing in aqueous garlic extract (7.5 and 12.5 mL L(-1)) was tested in guppies infected with G. turnbulli. Prior acute toxicity tests revealed the maximum tolerance levels of guppies to garlic extract to be 12.5 mL L(-1) for 1h. Bathing of infected fish in garlic extract (7.5 and 12.5 mL L(-1)) significantly (pgarlic powder-supplemented diet were tested on guppies infected with G. turnbulli and Dactylogyrus sp. Fish were fed with food containing 10% and 20% dry garlic powder for 14 days. Groups fed with garlic supplemented diets showed significantly reduced (pgarlic did not appear to affect palatability. Fresh crushed garlic was added at a level of 1 gL(-1) and applied as an indefinite bath for 14 days. This treatment was seen to significantly reduce (pgarlic-fed group, as compared to control. These findings demonstrate the potential of garlic as a natural alternative to currently used chemical treatments for monogenean sp. infection in the guppy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Efficacy of Low-Cost PC-Based Aviation Training Devices

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    Savern l Reweti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim/Purpose: The aim of this study was to explore whether a full cost flight training device (FTD was significantly better for simulator training than a low cost PC-Based Aviation Training Device (PCATD. Background: A quasi-transfer study was undertaken to ascertain whether a Civil Aviation Authority certified Flight Training Device (FTD was more effective at improving pilot proficiency in the performance of a standard VFR traffic pattern (Overhead Rejoin Procedure than a customised low cost PCATD. Methodology: In this quasi-transfer study, a high fidelity FTD rather than an aircraft was used to test both training and transfer tasks. Ninety-three pilots were recruited to participate in the study. Contribution: The use of PCATDs is now well established for pilot training, especially for Instrument Flight Rules (IFR skills training. However, little substantive research has been undertaken to examine their efficacy for VFR training. Findings: There was no evidence of a pre-test/post-test difference in VFR task perfor-mance between participants trained on the PCATD and the FTD, when post tested on the FTD. The use of both PCATD and FTD demonstrated signifi-cant improvements in VFR task performance compared to a control group that received no PCATD or FTD training. Recommendations for Practitioners\t: We discuss the possibility that low cost PCATDs may be a viable alternative for flight schools wishing to use a flight simulator but not able to afford a FTD. Recommendation for Researchers: We discuss the introduction of improved low cost technologies that allow PCATDs to be used more effectively for training in VFR procedures. The development and testing of new technologies requires more research. Impact on Society: Flight training schools operate in a difficult economic environment with continued increases in the cost of aircraft maintenance, compliance costs, and aviation fuel. The increased utilisation of low cost PCATD’s especially for VFR

  9. Efficacy of a Deep Learning System for Detecting Glaucomatous Optic Neuropathy Based on Color Fundus Photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhixi; He, Yifan; Keel, Stuart; Meng, Wei; Chang, Robert T; He, Mingguang

    2018-03-02

    To assess the performance of a deep learning algorithm for detecting referable glaucomatous optic neuropathy (GON) based on color fundus photographs. A deep learning system for the classification of GON was developed for automated classification of GON on color fundus photographs. We retrospectively included 48 116 fundus photographs for the development and validation of a deep learning algorithm. This study recruited 21 trained ophthalmologists to classify the photographs. Referable GON was defined as vertical cup-to-disc ratio of 0.7 or more and other typical changes of GON. The reference standard was made until 3 graders achieved agreement. A separate validation dataset of 8000 fully gradable fundus photographs was used to assess the performance of this algorithm. The area under receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC) with sensitivity and specificity was applied to evaluate the efficacy of the deep learning algorithm detecting referable GON. In the validation dataset, this deep learning system achieved an AUC of 0.986 with sensitivity of 95.6% and specificity of 92.0%. The most common reasons for false-negative grading (n = 87) were GON with coexisting eye conditions (n = 44 [50.6%]), including pathologic or high myopia (n = 37 [42.6%]), diabetic retinopathy (n = 4 [4.6%]), and age-related macular degeneration (n = 3 [3.4%]). The leading reason for false-positive results (n = 480) was having other eye conditions (n = 458 [95.4%]), mainly including physiologic cupping (n = 267 [55.6%]). Misclassification as false-positive results amidst a normal-appearing fundus occurred in only 22 eyes (4.6%). A deep learning system can detect referable GON with high sensitivity and specificity. Coexistence of high or pathologic myopia is the most common cause resulting in false-negative results. Physiologic cupping and pathologic myopia were the most common reasons for false-positive results. Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by

  10. Community-Based Service-Learning as a Source of Personal Self-Efficacy: Preparing Preservice Elementary Teachers to Teach Science for Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cone, Neporcha

    2009-01-01

    Bandura (1997) contends that when compared to other sources of efficacy, mastery experiences, when presented appropriately, have the most powerful influence on self-efficacy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of community-based service learning (CBSL) experiences on preservice elementary teachers' personal self-efficacy…

  11. Assessment of Physical Activity, Exercise Self-Efficacy, and Stages of Change in College Students Using a Street-Based Survey Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenders, Nicole Y. J. M.; Silver, Lorraine Wallace; White, Susan L.; Buckworth, Janet; Sherman, W. Michael

    2002-01-01

    Used a street-based survey to assess college students' physical activity level, exercise self-efficacy, and stages of change for exercise behavior. A large proportion of respondents were not regularly active. Exercise self-efficacy was an important variable in exercise behavior. The low cost, ease of data collection, and short turnaround for…

  12. The Influence of a Campus-based Culinary, Nutrition Education Program, "College CHEF," on College Students' Self-efficacy with Cooking Skills and Nutrition Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer McMullen

    2017-11-01

    Conclusion: Findings support the implementation of campus-based programming to improve college students’ self-efficacy for using fruits, vegetables, and seasonings with cooking to promote healthier eating and cooking behaviors. Future research should explore the various means to promote self-efficacy (i.e., vicarious experiences, mastery experience, verbal persuasion, and physiological feedback among college students as part of similar programming.

  13. The effects of scenario-based communication training on nurses' communication competence and self-efficacy and myocardial infarction knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Li-Ling; Huang, Ya-Hsuan; Hsieh, Suh-Ing

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effects of a simulated communication training course on nurses' communication competence, self-efficacy, communication performance, myocardial infarction knowledge, and general satisfaction with their learning experience. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with a pre-test and two post-tests. The experimental group underwent simulated communication training course and the control group received a case-based communication training course. The experimental group made more significant improvement in competence and self-efficacy in communication from pre-test to the second post-test than the control group. Although both groups' satisfaction with their learning experience significantly increased from the first post-test to the second post-test, the experimental group was found to be more satisfied with their learning experience than the control group. No significant differences in communication performance and myocardial infarction knowledge between the two groups were identified. Scenario-based communication training can be more fully incorporated into in-service education for nurses to boost their competence and self-efficacy in communication and enhance their communication performance in myocardial infarction patient care. Introduction of real-life communication scenarios through multimedia in communication education could make learners more motivated to practice communication, hence leading to improved communication capacity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A Threat- and Efficacy-Based Framework to Understand Confidence in Vaccines among the Public Health Workforce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lainie Rutkow

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM is an established threat- and efficacy-based behavioral framework for understanding health behaviors in the face of uncertain risk. A growing body of research has applied this model to understand these behaviors among the public health workforce. In this manuscript, we aim to explore the application of this framework to the public health workforce, with a novel focus on their confidence in vaccines and perceptions of vaccine injury compensation mechanisms. We characterize specific connections between EPPM’s threat and efficacy dimensions and relevant vaccine policy frameworks and highlight how these connections can usefully inform training interventions for public health workers to enhance their confidence in these vaccine policy measures.

  15. Efficacy of individual computer-based auditory training for people with hearing loss: a systematic review of the evidence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Henshaw

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Auditory training involves active listening to auditory stimuli and aims to improve performance in auditory tasks. As such, auditory training is a potential intervention for the management of people with hearing loss. OBJECTIVE: This systematic review (PROSPERO 2011: CRD42011001406 evaluated the published evidence-base for the efficacy of individual computer-based auditory training to improve speech intelligibility, cognition and communication abilities in adults with hearing loss, with or without hearing aids or cochlear implants. METHODS: A systematic search of eight databases and key journals identified 229 articles published since 1996, 13 of which met the inclusion criteria. Data were independently extracted and reviewed by the two authors. Study quality was assessed using ten pre-defined scientific and intervention-specific measures. RESULTS: Auditory training resulted in improved performance for trained tasks in 9/10 articles that reported on-task outcomes. Although significant generalisation of learning was shown to untrained measures of speech intelligibility (11/13 articles, cognition (1/1 articles and self-reported hearing abilities (1/2 articles, improvements were small and not robust. Where reported, compliance with computer-based auditory training was high, and retention of learning was shown at post-training follow-ups. Published evidence was of very-low to moderate study quality. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate that published evidence for the efficacy of individual computer-based auditory training for adults with hearing loss is not robust and therefore cannot be reliably used to guide intervention at this time. We identify a need for high-quality evidence to further examine the efficacy of computer-based auditory training for people with hearing loss.

  16. Analysis of difficulties in mathematics problem solving based on revised Bloom’s Taxonomy viewed from high self-efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prismana, R. D. E.; Kusmayadi, T. A.; Pramudya, I.

    2018-04-01

    The ability of solving problem is a part of the mathematic curriculum that is very important. Problem solving prefers the process and strategy that is done by students in solving a problem rather than the result. This learning concept in accordance with the stages on the revised bloom’s taxonomy. The revised Bloom’s Taxonomy has two dimensions, namely the dimension of cognitive process and the dimension of knowledge. Dimension of knowledge has four categories, but this study only restricted on two knowledge, conceptual knowledge and procedural knowledge. Dimensions of cognitive processes are categorized into six kinds, namely remembering, understanding, applying, analyzing, evaluating, and creating. Implementation of learning more emphasis on the role of students. Students must have their own belief in completing tasks called self-efficacy. This research is a qualitative research. This research aims to know the site of the students’ difficulty based on revised Bloom’s Taxonomy viewed from high self-efficacy. The results of the study stated the students with high self efficacy have difficulties site. They are evaluating conceptual knowledge, evaluating procedural knowledge, creating conceptual knowledge, and creating procedural knowledge. It could be the consideration of teachers in the teaching, so as to reduce the difficulties of learning in students.

  17. Medical marijuana patient counseling points for health care professionals based on trends in the medical uses, efficacy, and adverse effects of cannabis-based pharmaceutical drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Jayesh R; Forrest, Benjamin D; Freeman, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present a review of the medical uses, efficacy, and adverse effects of the three approved cannabis-based medications and ingested marijuana. A literature review was conducted utilizing key search terms: dronabinol, nabilone, nabiximols, cannabis, marijuana, smoke, efficacy, toxicity, cancer, multiple sclerosis, nausea, vomiting, appetite, pain, glaucoma, and side effects. Abstracts of the included literature were reviewed, analyzed, and organized to identify the strength of evidence in medical use, efficacy, and adverse effects of the approved cannabis-based medications and medical marijuana. A total of 68 abstracts were included for review. Dronabinol's (Marinol) most common medical uses include weight gain, chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV), and neuropathic pain. Nabiximol's (Sativex) most common medical uses include spasticity in multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuropathic pain. Nabilone's (Cesamet) most common medical uses include CINV and neuropathic pain. Smoked marijuana's most common medical uses include neuropathic pain and glaucoma. Orally ingested marijuana's most common medical uses include improving sleep, reducing neuropathic pain, and seizure control in MS. In general, all of these agents share similar medical uses. The reported adverse effects of the three cannabis-based medications and marijuana show a major trend in central nervous system (CNS)-related adverse effects along with cardiovascular and respiratory related adverse effects. Marijuana shares similar medical uses with the approved cannabis-based medications dronabinol (Marinol), nabiximols (Sativex), and nabilone (Cesamet), but the efficacy of marijuana for these medical uses has not been fully determined due to limited and conflicting literature. Medical marijuana also has similar adverse effects as the FDA-approved cannabis-based medications mainly consisting of CNS related adverse effects but also including cardiovascular and respiratory

  18. Anhydrous polymer-based coating with sustainable controlled release functionality for facile, efficacious impregnation, and delivery of antimicrobial peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kaiyang; Saravanan, Rathi; Chong, Kelvin K L; Goh, Sharon H M; Chua, Ray R Y; Tambyah, Paul A; Chang, Matthew W; Kline, Kimberly A; Leong, Susanna S J

    2018-04-17

    Anhydrous polymers are actively explored as alternative materials to overcome limitations of conventional hydrogel-based antibacterial coating. However, the requirement for strong organic solvent in polymerization reactions often necessitates extra protection steps for encapsulation of target biomolecules, lowering encapsulation efficiency, and increasing process complexity. This study reports a novel coating strategy that allows direct solvation and encapsulation of antimicrobial peptides (HHC36) into anhydrous polycaprolactone (PCL) polymer-based dual layer coating. A thin 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) film is layered onto the peptide-impregnated PCL as a diffusion barrier, to modulate and enhance release kinetics. The impregnated peptides are eventually released in a controlled fashion. The use of 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE), as polymerization and solvation medium, induces the impregnated peptides to adopt highly stable turned conformation, conserving peptide integrity, and functionality during both encapsulation and subsequent release processes. The dual layer coating showed sustained antibacterial functionality, lasting for 14 days. In vivo assessment using an experimental mouse wounding model demonstrated good biocompatibility and significant antimicrobial efficacy of the coating under physiological conditions. The coating was translated onto silicone urinary catheters and showed promising antibacterial efficacy, even outperforming commercial silver-based Dover cather. This anhydrous polymer-based platform holds immense potential as an effective antibacterial coating to prevent clinical device-associated infections. The simplicity of the coating process enhances its industrial viability. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Effectiveness of simulation-based learning on student nurses' self-efficacy and performance while learning fundamental nursing skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsin-Hsin

    2015-01-01

    It was noted worldwide while learning fundamental skills and facing skills assessments, nursing students seemed to experience low confidence and high anxiety levels. Could simulation-based learning help to enhance students' self-efficacy and performance? Its effectiveness is mostly unidentified. This study was conducted to provide a shared experience to give nurse educators confidence and an insight into how simulation-based teaching can fit into nursing skills learning. A pilot study was completed with 50 second-year undergraduate nursing students, and the main study included 98 students where a pretest-posttest design was adopted. Data were gathered through four questionnaires and a performance assessment under scrutinized controls such as previous experiences, lecturers' teaching skills, duration of teaching, procedure of skills performance assessment and the inter-rater reliability. The results showed that simulation-based learning significantly improved students' self-efficacy regarding skills learning and the skills performance that nurse educators wish students to acquire. However, technology anxiety, examiners' critical attitudes towards students' performance and their unpredicted verbal and non-verbal expressions, have been found as possible confounding factors. The simulation-based learning proved to have a powerful positive effect on students' achievement outcomes. Nursing skills learning is one area that can benefit greatly from this kind of teaching and learning method.

  20. [The efficacy of care as perceived by adolescents presenting anxiety-based school refusal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibeoni, Jordan; Orri, Massimiliano; Campredon, Sophie; Revah-Levy, Anne

    School refusal is a complex disorder which is sometimes difficult to treat and which has potentially significant consequences on the child's schooling and mental health. A qualitative study was carried out in 2014-2015 on the feelings of adolescents and their parents with regard to the efficacy of care. The results show that, while adolescents and parents do not share the same representation of the care objectives, they agree on the therapeutic levers identified as been effective: time and relationships. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of Discipline-based Career Course on Nursing Students' Career Search Self-efficacy, Career Preparation Behavior, and Perceptions of Career Barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soonjoo

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a discipline-based career course on perceptions of career barriers, career search self-efficacy, and career preparation behavior of nursing students. Differences in career search self-efficacy and career preparation behavior by the students' levels of career barriers were also examined. The study used a modified one-group, pretest-posttest design. The convenience sample consisted of 154 undergraduate nursing students in a university. The discipline-based career course consisted of eight sessions, and was implemented for 2 hours per session over 8 weeks. The data were collected from May to June in 2012 and 2013 using the following instruments: the Korean Career Indecision Inventory, the Career Search Efficacy Scale, and the Career Preparation Behavior Scale. Descriptive statistics, paired t test, and analysis of covariance were used to analyze the data. Upon the completion of the discipline-based career course, students' perceptions of career barriers decreased and career search self-efficacy and career preparation behavior increased. Career search self-efficacy and career preparation behavior increased in students with both low and high levels of career barriers. The difference between the low and high groups was significant for career search self-efficacy but not for career preparation behavior. The discipline-based career course was effective in decreasing perceptions of career barriers and increasing career search self-efficacy and career preparation behavior among nursing students. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Efficacy of a web-based intervention with mobile phone support in treating depressive symptoms in adults with type 1 and type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nobis, S.; Lehr, D.; Ebert, D.D.; Baumeister, H.; Snoek, F.J.; Riper, H.; Berking, M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Depression is common in diabetes and linked to adverse health outcomes. This study evaluated the efficacy of a guided web-based intervention in reducing depression in adults with type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

  3. Effects of Discipline-based Career Course on Nursing Students' Career Search Self-efficacy, Career Preparation Behavior, and Perceptions of Career Barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soonjoo Park, RN, PhD

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: The discipline-based career course was effective in decreasing perceptions of career barriers and increasing career search self-efficacy and career preparation behavior among nursing students.

  4. The efficacy of amino acid-based formulas in relieving the symptoms of cow's milk allergy: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, D J; Murch, S H; Rafferty, K; Wallis, P; Green, C J

    2007-06-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the efficacy of amino acid-based formulas (AAF) in patients with cow's milk allergy (CMA). Studies were identified using electronic databases and bibliography searches. Subjects eligible for inclusion were patients of any age with CMA or symptoms suggestive of it. Comparisons of interest were AAF vs. extensively hydrolysed formula (eHF), AAF vs. soy-based formula (SF) and AAF vs. cow's milk or cow's milk-based formula. Outcomes of interest were gastrointestinal (GI), dermatological, respiratory and behavioural symptoms as well as growth. A total of 20 studies [three head-to-head randomized controlled trials (RCTs), three cross-over challenge RCTs, seven clinical trials (CTs) and seven case reports (CRs)] were included in the review. In infants with confirmed or suspected CMA, the use of an AAF was shown to be safe and efficacious. Findings from RCT comparisons of AAF with eHF showed that both formulas are equally efficacious at relieving the symptoms of CMA in confirmed or suspected cases. However, infants in specific subgroups (e.g. non-IgE mediated food-induced gastro-enterocolitis-proctitis syndromes with failure to thrive, severe atopic eczema, or with symptoms during exclusive breastfeeding) were more likely overall to benefit from AAF, as intolerance to eHF may occur. In such cases, symptoms persisting despite eHF feeding usually remit on AAF, and catch-up growth may be seen. Meta-analysis of the findings was not possible due to lack of homogenous reporting of outcomes in the original trials. This systematic review shows clinical benefit from use of AAF in both symptoms and growth in infants and children with CMA who fail to tolerate eHF. Further studies are required to determine the relative medical or economic value of initial treatment with AAF in infants at high risk of eHF intolerance.

  5. A Pilot Study to Test the Efficacy of Psychologically Based Physical Therapy Training for Treating Deployed U.S. Sailors and Marines with Musculoskeletal Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Department of Population Health , NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, NY. ****Department of Physical Therapy, Naval Medical Center Portsmouth...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-2-0146 TITLE: A Pilot Study to Test the Efficacy of Psychologically Based Physical Therapy Training for Treating...Test the Efficacy of Psychologically Based Physical Therapy Training for Treating Deployed U.S. Sailors and Marines with Musculoskeletal Injuries 5b

  6. Communicating efficacy information based on composite scores in direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Pamela A; O'Donoghue, Amie C; Sullivan, Helen W; Willoughby, Jessica Fitts; Squire, Claudia; Parvanta, Sarah; Betts, Kevin R

    2016-04-01

    Drug efficacy can be measured by composite scores, which consist of two or more symptoms or other clinical components of a disease. We evaluated how individuals interpret composite scores in direct-to-consumer (DTC) prescription drug advertising. We conducted an experimental study of seasonal allergy sufferers (n=1967) who viewed a fictitious print DTC ad that varied by the type of information featured (general indication, list of symptoms, or definition of composite scores) and the presence or absence of an educational intervention about composite scores. We measured composite score recognition and comprehension, and perceived drug efficacy and risk. Ads that featured either (1) the composite score definition alone or (2) the list of symptoms or general indication information along with the educational intervention improved composite score comprehension. Ads that included the composite score definition or the educational intervention led to lower confidence in the drug's benefits. The composite score definition improved composite score recognition and lowered drug risk perceptions. Adding composite score information to DTC print ads may improve individuals' comprehension of composite scores and affect their perceptions of the drug. Providing composite score information may lead to more informed patient-provider prescription drug decisions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Efficacy of botulinum toxins on bruxism: an evidence-based review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Hu; Liao, Zhengyu; Wang, Yan; Liao, Lina; Lai, Wenli

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of botulinum toxins on bruxism. Electronic databases (PubMed, Embase and Science Citation Index), websites (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and ClinicalTrials.gov) and the literature database of SIGLE (System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe) were searched from January 1990 to April 2011 for randomised controlled trials or nonrandomised studies assessing the efficacy of botulinum toxins on bruxism. There was no language restriction. Through a predefined search strategy, we retrieved 28 studies from PubMed, 94 from Embase, 60 from the Science Citation Index, two ongoing clinical trials and two from the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Of these, only four studies met our inclusion criteria and were finally included. Of the four included studies, two were randomised controlled trials and two were controlled before-and-after studies. These studies showed that botulinum toxin injections can reduce the frequency of bruxism events, decrease bruxism-induced pain levels and satisfy patients' self-assessment with regard to the effectiveness of botulinum toxins on bruxism. In comparison with oral splint, botulinum toxins are equally effective on bruxism. Furthermore, botulinum toxin injections at a dosage of bruxism and are safe to use. Therefore, they can be used clinically for otherwise healthy patients with bruxism. © 2012 FDI World Dental Federation.

  8. AKT2 siRNA delivery with amphiphilic-based polymeric micelles show efficacy against cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafael, Diana; Gener, Petra; Andrade, Fernanda; Seras-Franzoso, Joaquin; Montero, Sara; Fernández, Yolanda; Hidalgo, Manuel; Arango, Diego; Sayós, Joan; Florindo, Helena F; Abasolo, Ibane; Schwartz, Simó; Videira, Mafalda

    2018-11-01

    Development of RNA interference-based therapies with appropriate therapeutic window remains a challenge for advanced cancers. Because cancer stem cells (CSC) are responsible of sustaining the metastatic spread of the disease to distal organs and the progressive gain of resistance of advanced cancers, new anticancer therapies should be validated specifically for this subpopulation of cells. A new amphihilic-based gene delivery system that combines Pluronic ® F127 micelles with polyplexes spontaneously formed by electrostatic interaction between anionic siRNA and cationic polyethylenimine (PEI) 10K, was designed (PM). Resultant PM gather the requirements for an efficient and safe transport of siRNA in terms of its physicochemical characteristics, internalization capacity, toxicity profile and silencing efficacy. PM were loaded with a siRNA against AKT2, an important oncogene involved in breast cancer tumorigenesis, with a special role in CSC malignancy. Efficacy of siAKT2-PM was validated in CSC isolated from two breast cancer cell lines: MCF-7 and Triple Negative MDA-MB-231 corresponding to an aggressive subtype of breast cancer. In both cases, we observed significant reduction on cell invasion capacity and strong inhibition of mammosphere formation after treatment. These results prompt AKT2 inhibition as a powerful therapeutic target against CSC and pave the way to the appearance of more effective nanomedicine-based gene therapies aimed to prevent CSC-related tumor recurrence.

  9. Efficacy of Levofloxacin-Based Third-Line Therapy for the Eradication of Helicobacter pylori in Peptic Ulcer Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Joo Hyun; Kim, Sang Gyun; Song, Ji Hyun; Hwang, Jae Jin; Lee, Dong Ho; Han, Jae Pil; Hong, Su Jin; Kim, Ji Hyun; Jeon, Seong Woo; Kim, Gwang Ha; Shim, Ki-Nam; Shin, Woon Geon; Kim, Tae Ho; Kim, Sun Moon; Chung, Il-Kwon; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Kim, Heung Up; Lee, Joongyub; Kim, Jae Gyu

    2017-03-15

    The resistance rate of Helicobacter pylori is gradually increasing. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of levofloxacin-based third-line H. pylori eradication in peptic ulcer disease. Between 2002 and 2014, 110 patients in 14 medical centers received levofloxacin-based third-line H. pylori eradication therapy for peptic ulcer disease. Of these, 88 were included in the study; 21 were excluded because of lack of follow-up and one was excluded for poor compliance. Their eradication rates, treatment regimens and durations, and types of peptic ulcers were analyzed. The overall eradiation rate was 71.6%. The adherence rate was 80.0%. All except one received a proton-pump inhibitor, amoxicillin, and levofloxacin. One received a proton-pump inhibitor, amoxicillin, levofloxacin, and clarithromycin, and the eradication was successful. Thirty-one were administered the therapy for 7 days, 25 for 10 days, and 32 for 14 days. No significant differences were observed in the eradication rates between the three groups (7-days, 80.6% vs 10-days, 64.0% vs 14-days, 68.8%, p=0.353). Additionally, no differences were found in the eradiation rates according to the type of peptic ulcer (gastric ulcer, 73.2% vs duodenal/gastroduodenal ulcer, 68.8%, p=0.655). Levofloxacin-based third-line H. pylori eradication showed efficacy similar to that of previously reported first/second-line therapies.

  10. Efficacy of Albendazole-Chitosan Microsphere-based Treatment for Alveolar Echinococcosis in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maitiseyiti Abulaihaiti

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the pharmacology and anti-parasitic efficacy of albendazole-chitosan microspheres (ABZ-CS-MPs for established intraperitoneal infections of Echinococcus multilocularis metacestodes in an experimental murine model. Male outbred Kunming mice infected with E. multilocularis Metacestodes were administered with three ABZ formulations, namely, ABZ-CS-MPs, Liposome-Albendazole (L-ABZ, and albendazole tablet (ABZ-T. Each of the ABZ formulations was given orally at three different doses of 37.5, 75, and 150 mg/kg, three times a week for 12 weeks postinfection. After administering the drugs, we monitored the pharmacological performance and anti-parasitic efficacy of ABZ-CS-MPs compared with L-ABZ, and ABZ-T treated mice. ABZ-CS-MPs reduced the weight of tissues containing E. multilocularis metacestodes most effectively compared with the ABZ-T group and untreated controls. Metacestode grown was Highly suppressed during treatment with ABZ-CS-MPs. Significantly higher plasma levels of ABZ metabolites were measured in mice treated with ABZ-CS-MPs or L-ABZ compared with ABZ-T. In particular, enhanced ABZ-sulfoxide concentration profiles were observed in the mice given 150 mg/kg of ABZ-CS-MPs, but not in the mice treated with L-ABZ. Histological examination showed that damages caused disorganization of both the germinal and laminated layers of liver hyatid cysts, demolishing their characteristic structures after treatment with ABZ-CS-MPs or L-ABZ. Over time, ABZ-CS-MPs treatment induced a shift from Th2-dominant to Th1-dominant immune response. CS-MPs As a new carrier exhibited improved absorption and increased bioavailability of ABZ in the treatment of E. multilocularis infections in mice.

  11. Chemical and Plant-Based Insect Repellents: Efficacy, Safety, and Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, James H

    2016-03-01

    Most emerging infectious diseases today are arthropod-borne and cannot be prevented by vaccinations. Because insect repellents offer important topical barriers of personal protection from arthropod-borne infectious diseases, the main objectives of this article were to describe the growing threats to public health from emerging arthropod-borne infectious diseases, to define the differences between insect repellents and insecticides, and to compare the efficacies and toxicities of chemical and plant-derived insect repellents. Internet search engines were queried with key words to identify scientific articles on the efficacy, safety, and toxicity of chemical and plant-derived topical insect repellants and insecticides to meet these objectives. Data sources reviewed included case reports; case series; observational, longitudinal, and surveillance studies; and entomological and toxicological studies. Descriptive analysis of the data sources identified the most effective application of insect repellents as a combination of topical chemical repellents, either N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (formerly N, N-diethyl-m-toluamide, or DEET) or picaridin, and permethrin-impregnated or other pyrethroid-impregnated clothing over topically treated skin. The insecticide-treated clothing would provide contact-level insecticidal effects and provide better, longer lasting protection against malaria-transmitting mosquitoes and ticks than topical DEET or picaridin alone. In special cases, where environmental exposures to disease-transmitting ticks, biting midges, sandflies, or blackflies are anticipated, topical insect repellents containing IR3535, picaridin, or oil of lemon eucalyptus (p-menthane-3, 8-diol or PMD) would offer better topical protection than topical DEET alone. Copyright © 2016 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Efficacy of Albendazole-Chitosan Microsphere-based Treatment for Alveolar Echinococcosis in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abulaihaiti, Maitiseyiti; Wu, Xiang-Wei; Qiao, Lei; Lv, Hai-Long; Zhang, Hong-Wei; Aduwayi, Nasrul; Wang, Yan-Jie; Wang, Xin-Chun; Peng, Xin-Yu

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the pharmacology and anti-parasitic efficacy of albendazole-chitosan microspheres (ABZ-CS-MPs) for established intraperitoneal infections of Echinococcus multilocularis metacestodes in an experimental murine model. Male outbred Kunming mice infected with E. multilocularis Metacestodes were administered with three ABZ formulations, namely, ABZ-CS-MPs, Liposome-Albendazole (L-ABZ), and albendazole tablet (ABZ-T). Each of the ABZ formulations was given orally at three different doses of 37.5, 75, and 150 mg/kg, three times a week for 12 weeks postinfection. After administering the drugs, we monitored the pharmacological performance and anti-parasitic efficacy of ABZ-CS-MPs compared with L-ABZ, and ABZ-T treated mice. ABZ-CS-MPs reduced the weight of tissues containing E. multilocularis metacestodes most effectively compared with the ABZ-T group and untreated controls. Metacestode grown was Highly suppressed during treatment with ABZ-CS-MPs. Significantly higher plasma levels of ABZ metabolites were measured in mice treated with ABZ-CS-MPs or L-ABZ compared with ABZ-T. In particular, enhanced ABZ-sulfoxide concentration profiles were observed in the mice given 150 mg/kg of ABZ-CS-MPs, but not in the mice treated with L-ABZ. Histological examination showed that damages caused disorganization of both the germinal and laminated layers of liver hyatid cysts, demolishing their characteristic structures after treatment with ABZ-CS-MPs or L-ABZ. Over time, ABZ-CS-MPs treatment induced a shift from Th2-dominant to Th1-dominant immune response. CS-MPs As a new carrier exhibited improved absorption and increased bioavailability of ABZ in the treatment of E. multilocularis infections in mice.

  13. Comparative analysis of copper and zinc based agrichemical biocide products: materials characteristics, phytotoxicity and in vitro antimicrobial efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harikishan Kannan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the past few decades, copper based biocides have been extensively used in food crop protection including citrus, small fruits and in all garden vegetable production facilities. Continuous and rampant use of copper based biocides over decades has led to accumulation of this metal in the soil and the surrounding ecosystem. Toxic levels of copper and its derivatives in both the soil and in the run off pose serious environmental and public health concerns. Alternatives to copper are in great need for the agriculture industry to produce food crops with minimal environmental risks. A combination of copper and zinc metal containing biocide such as Nordox 30/30 or an improved version of zinc-only containing biocide would be a good alternative to copper-only products if the efficacy can be maintained. As of yet there is no published literature on the comparative study of the materials characteristics and phyto-compatibility properties of copper and zinc-based commercial products that would allow us to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of both versions of pesticides. In this report, we compared copper hydroxide and zinc oxide based commercially available biocides along with suitable control materials to assess their efficacy as biocides. We present a detailed material characterization of the biocides including morphological studies involving electron microscopy, molecular structure studies involving X-ray diffraction, phytotoxicity studies in model plant (tomato and antimicrobial studies involving surrogate plant pathogens (Xanthomonas alfalfae subsp. citrumelonis, Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae and Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis. Zinc based compounds were found to possess comparable to superior antimicrobial properties while exhibiting significantly lower phytotoxicity when compared to copper based products thus suggesting their potential as an alternative.

  14. Feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a web-based parenting skills program for young children with traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Shari L; Oberjohn, Karen; Burkhardt, Abby; Greenberg, Ira

    2009-01-01

    To report the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a Web-based parenting skills program to reduce behavior problems following traumatic brain injury (TBI) in young children. Families of 9 children between the ages of 3 and 8 years with TBI, injured less than 24 months earlier, participated in a pilot study of a Web-based parenting skills program designed to increase positive parenting skills and to improve caregiver stress management and coping. The program consisted of 10 core sessions and up to 4 supplemental sessions. Each session consisted of self-guided didactic information, video modeling skills, and exercises. Online sessions were followed by synchronous sessions providing in vivo coaching of target skills. Caregivers completed an average of 12 sessions (range 5-24). Ratings of ease of use and satisfaction were high. Paired t tests revealed significant improvements in target parenting behaviors between baseline and session 2 and between sessions 2 and 4. These improvements were maintained at follow-up. Among the 5 families who completed the follow-up assessment, there were trends for reductions in the overall number of behavior problems. This study provides preliminary evidence of the potential feasibility and efficacy of an online parenting skills intervention for improving positive parenting skills and for reducing child behavior problems following early TBI.

  15. Efficacy of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy on Quality of Life of Mothers of Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Sedaghati-Barog

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The findings demonstrated that parents of children with cerebral palsy experience elevated levels of distress, depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress symptom and subjective symptom of stress and low quality of life. Effective interventions targeting relapse have the potential to dramatically reduce the point prevalence of this condition.Many studies have shown that Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT is an intervention that has shown efficacy in improving quality of life. In this study, the effect of Mindfulness –Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT on increasing quality of life in mothers of children with cerebral palsy has been examined.Method: Three mothers of CP children with low scores on quality of life in WHOQOL-BREF inventory participated in this single- case study.Results: Findings revealed that the MBCT program elevated quality of life of the participants. The improvement quotient for quality of life of each participant was good.Conclusion: The results have implication for efficacy of mindfulness for improvement of psychosocial life of families of children with cerebral palsy.

  16. Medical students' self-efficacy in problem-based learning and its relationship with self-regulated learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirören, Meral; Turan, Sevgi; Öztuna, Derya

    2016-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is most commonly used in medical education to enhance self-regulated learning (SRL) skills. Self-efficacy beliefs affect students' motivation through self-regulatory processes. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between medical students' self-reported SRL skills and their self-efficacy in PBL. A cross-sectional study was conducted with second (286; 83.1%) and third (275; 80.2%) year students at the Ankara University School of Medicine. The SRL perception (SRLP) scale and self-efficacy for problem-based learning (SPBL) scale were used in the study. The SRLP subscales were positively correlated with the SPBL subscales. There was a weak but meaningful correlation between the subscales of SRLP (with the exception of the lack of self-directedness scale) and the subscales of SPBL and the students' views on benefiting from PBL. The female students' mean score was higher for the 'planning and goal setting' subscale of SRLP (p=0.017), and the second-year students' mean score was higher than that of the third-year students for the 'lack of self-directedness' subscale of SRLP (p=0.001) with small effect sizes (Cohen's d is 0.17 and 0.27). There was no statistically significant difference between the year and subscales of SPBL. With regard to gender, the female students had higher scores than the male students on the 'responsibility' subscale of SPBL (p=0.003; Cohen's d=0.26). The study showed that medical students used SRL skills and believed in their ability to learn effectively in the PBL context and demonstrated the relationship between SRL skills and self-efficacy beliefs. Monitoring students' development in these skills and giving them feedback could be beneficial for the cognitive achievement of students with learning difficulties and insufficient study skills. Further studies need to be undertaken to investigate issues such as the curriculum, learning environment, individual differences, and how these can affect the

  17. Medical students’ self-efficacy in problem-based learning and its relationship with self-regulated learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirören, Meral; Turan, Sevgi; Öztuna, Derya

    2016-01-01

    Background Problem-based learning (PBL) is most commonly used in medical education to enhance self-regulated learning (SRL) skills. Self-efficacy beliefs affect students’ motivation through self-regulatory processes. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between medical students’ self-reported SRL skills and their self-efficacy in PBL. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted with second (286; 83.1%) and third (275; 80.2%) year students at the Ankara University School of Medicine. The SRL perception (SRLP) scale and self-efficacy for problem-based learning (SPBL) scale were used in the study. Results The SRLP subscales were positively correlated with the SPBL subscales. There was a weak but meaningful correlation between the subscales of SRLP (with the exception of the lack of self-directedness scale) and the subscales of SPBL and the students’ views on benefiting from PBL. The female students’ mean score was higher for the ‘planning and goal setting’ subscale of SRLP (p=0.017), and the second-year students’ mean score was higher than that of the third-year students for the ‘lack of self-directedness’ subscale of SRLP (p=0.001) with small effect sizes (Cohen's d is 0.17 and 0.27). There was no statistically significant difference between the year and subscales of SPBL. With regard to gender, the female students had higher scores than the male students on the ‘responsibility’ subscale of SPBL (p=0.003; Cohen's d=0.26). Conclusions The study showed that medical students used SRL skills and believed in their ability to learn effectively in the PBL context and demonstrated the relationship between SRL skills and self-efficacy beliefs. Monitoring students’ development in these skills and giving them feedback could be beneficial for the cognitive achievement of students with learning difficulties and insufficient study skills. Further studies need to be undertaken to investigate issues such as the curriculum, learning

  18. Medical students’ self-efficacy in problem-based learning and its relationship with self-regulated learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meral Demirören

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Problem-based learning (PBL is most commonly used in medical education to enhance self-regulated learning (SRL skills. Self-efficacy beliefs affect students’ motivation through self-regulatory processes. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between medical students’ self-reported SRL skills and their self-efficacy in PBL. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with second (286; 83.1% and third (275; 80.2% year students at the Ankara University School of Medicine. The SRL perception (SRLP scale and self-efficacy for problem-based learning (SPBL scale were used in the study. Results: The SRLP subscales were positively correlated with the SPBL subscales. There was a weak but meaningful correlation between the subscales of SRLP (with the exception of the lack of self-directedness scale and the subscales of SPBL and the students’ views on benefiting from PBL. The female students’ mean score was higher for the ‘planning and goal setting’ subscale of SRLP (p=0.017, and the second-year students’ mean score was higher than that of the third-year students for the ‘lack of self-directedness’ subscale of SRLP (p=0.001 with small effect sizes (Cohen's d is 0.17 and 0.27. There was no statistically significant difference between the year and subscales of SPBL. With regard to gender, the female students had higher scores than the male students on the ‘responsibility’ subscale of SPBL (p=0.003; Cohen's d=0.26. Conclusions: The study showed that medical students used SRL skills and believed in their ability to learn effectively in the PBL context and demonstrated the relationship between SRL skills and self-efficacy beliefs. Monitoring students’ development in these skills and giving them feedback could be beneficial for the cognitive achievement of students with learning difficulties and insufficient study skills. Further studies need to be undertaken to investigate issues such as the curriculum

  19. Efficacy of 8- and 4-Session Mindfulness-Based Interventions in a Non-clinical Population: A Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarzo, Marcelo; Montero-Marin, Jesus; Puebla-Guedea, Marta; Navarro-Gil, Mayte; Herrera-Mercadal, Paola; Moreno-González, Sergio; Calvo-Carrión, Sandra; Bafaluy-Franch, Laura; Garcia-Campayo, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Background: Many attempts have been made to abbreviate mindfulness programmes in order to make them more accessible for general and clinical populations while maintaining their therapeutic components and efficacy. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of an 8-week mindfulness-based intervention (MBI) programme and a 4-week abbreviated version for the improvement of well-being in a non-clinical population. Method: A quasi-experimental, controlled, pilot study was conducted with pre-post and 6-month follow-up measurements and three study conditions (8- and 4-session MBI programmes and a matched no-treatment control group, with a sample of 48, 46, and 47 participants in each condition, respectively). Undergraduate students were recruited, and mindfulness, positive and negative affect, self-compassion, resilience, anxiety, and depression were assessed. Mixed-effects multi-level analyses for repeated measures were performed. Results: The intervention groups showed significant improvements compared to controls in mindfulness and positive affect at the 2- and 6-month follow-ups, with no differences between 8- vs. 4-session programmes. The only difference between the abbreviated MBI vs. the standard MBI was found in self-kindness at 6 months, favoring the standard MBI. There were marginal differences in anxiety between the controls vs. the abbreviated MBI, but there were differences between the controls vs. the standard MBI at 2- and 6-months, with higher levels in the controls. There were no differences in depression between the controls vs. the abbreviated MBI, but differences were found between the controls vs. the standard MBI at 2- and 6-months, favoring the standard MBI. There were no differences with regard to negative affect and resilience. Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the first study to directly investigate the efficacy of a standard 8-week MBI and a 4-week abbreviated protocol in the same population. Based on our findings, both programmes

  20. Efficacy of 8- and 4-Session Mindfulness-Based Interventions in a Non-clinical Population: A Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Demarzo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many attempts have been made to abbreviate mindfulness programmes in order to make them more accessible for general and clinical populations while maintaining their therapeutic components and efficacy. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of an 8-week mindfulness-based intervention (MBI programme and a 4-week abbreviated version for the improvement of well-being in a non-clinical population.Method: A quasi-experimental, controlled, pilot study was conducted with pre-post and 6-month follow-up measurements and three study conditions (8- and 4-session MBI programmes and a matched no-treatment control group, with a sample of 48, 46, and 47 participants in each condition, respectively. Undergraduate students were recruited, and mindfulness, positive and negative affect, self-compassion, resilience, anxiety, and depression were assessed. Mixed-effects multi-level analyses for repeated measures were performed.Results: The intervention groups showed significant improvements compared to controls in mindfulness and positive affect at the 2- and 6-month follow-ups, with no differences between 8- vs. 4-session programmes. The only difference between the abbreviated MBI vs. the standard MBI was found in self-kindness at 6 months, favoring the standard MBI. There were marginal differences in anxiety between the controls vs. the abbreviated MBI, but there were differences between the controls vs. the standard MBI at 2- and 6-months, with higher levels in the controls. There were no differences in depression between the controls vs. the abbreviated MBI, but differences were found between the controls vs. the standard MBI at 2- and 6-months, favoring the standard MBI. There were no differences with regard to negative affect and resilience.Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the first study to directly investigate the efficacy of a standard 8-week MBI and a 4-week abbreviated protocol in the same population. Based on our findings, both

  1. Analgesic efficacy of ultrasound guided versus landmark-based bilateral superficial cervical plexus block for thyroid surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasha M. Hassan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The use of bilateral superficial cervical plexus block (BSCPB to provide analgesia for thyroid operations remains debatable. This study was done to assess the analgesic efficacy and safety of ultrasound (US guided or landmark-based BSCPB, performed under general anesthesia, compared to systemic narcotics in thyroid surgery. Patients and methods: A total of 69 patients ASA I and II scheduled for thyroid surgery were randomly assigned into three groups (23 patients each: Group (US received US guided BSCPB. Group (LM received landmark-based BSCPB. In both groups, the block was performed under general anesthesia and before surgery using 0.5% bupivacaine 12 ml on each side. Group (C who didn’t receive any block. We measured intra-operative hemodynamics and fentanyl requirements. We also measured postoperative analgesia within 24 h of surgery as regard: pethidine consumption, visual analogue scale (VAS pain scores and time to first rescue analgesic demand. Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV and other adverse events were noted as well. Results: There was a significant reduction in systolic blood pressure (SBP and heart rate (HR in groups US and LM compared with group C. Intra-operative fentanyl requirements were significantly increased in group C compared to groups US and LM. Time to first analgesic request was significantly longer in groups US and LM than in group C. Postoperative pethidine consumption and VAS scores, measured during the first postoperative day, were significantly higher in group C than groups US and LM. No significant difference was noted between the three groups regarding PONV. No other adverse events were recorded. No significant differences were noted between groups US and LM. Conclusion: BSCPB (US guided or landmark-based, performed under general anesthesia, effectively decreased peri-operative analgesic requirements in thyroid operations. However, there was no significant difference in analgesic efficacy or

  2. Efficacy of a group-based multimedia HIV prevention intervention for drug-involved women under community supervision: project WORTH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bassel, Nabila; Gilbert, Louisa; Goddard-Eckrich, Dawn; Chang, Mingway; Wu, Elwin; Hunt, Tim; Epperson, Matt; Shaw, Stacey A; Rowe, Jessica; Almonte, Maria; Witte, Susan

    2014-01-01

    This study is designed to address the need for evidence-based HIV/STI prevention approaches for drug-involved women under criminal justice community supervision. We tested the efficacy of a group-based traditional and multimedia HIV/STI prevention intervention (Project WORTH: Women on the Road to Health) among drug-involved women under community supervision. We randomized 306 women recruited from community supervision settings to receive either: (1) a four-session traditional group-based HIV/STI prevention intervention (traditional WORTH); (2) a four-session multimedia group-based HIV/STI prevention intervention that covered the same content as traditional WORTH but was delivered in a computerized format; or (3) a four-session group-based Wellness Promotion intervention that served as an attention control condition. The study examined whether the traditional or multimedia WORTH intervention was more efficacious in reducing risks when compared to Wellness Promotion; and whether multimedia WORTH was more efficacious in reducing risks when compared to traditional WORTH. Primary outcomes were assessed over the 12-month post-intervention period and included the number of unprotected sex acts, the proportion of protected sex acts, and consistent condom use. At baseline, 77% of participants reported unprotected vaginal or anal sex (n = 237) and 63% (n = 194) had multiple sex partners. Women assigned to traditional or multimedia WORTH were significantly more likely than women assigned to the control condition to report an increase in the proportion of protected sex acts (β = 0.10; 95% CI = 0.02-0.18) and a decrease in the number of unprotected sex acts (IRR = 0.72; 95% CI = 0.57-0.90). The promising effects of traditional and multimedia WORTH on increasing condom use and high participation rates suggest that WORTH may be scaled up to redress the concentrated epidemics of HIV/STIs among drug-involved women in the criminal justice system. Clinical

  3. The efficacy of tourniquet assisted total knee arthroplasty on patient-reported and performance-based physical function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohmann-Jensen, Rasmus; Holsgaard-Larsen, Anders; Emmeluth, Claus

    2014-01-01

    surgery. The non-tourniquet assisted TKA group will have surgery performed without application of a tourniquet. The primary aim is to compare tourniquet assisted to non-tourniquet assisted TKA on patient-reported physical function (KOOS-ADL). The secondary aim is to compare post-surgery pain, function...... in sports and recreation, quality of life, and performance-based physical function. The explorative outcomes include; use of pain medication, single-fiber muscle damage, and changes in mechanical muscle function. The primary endpoint will be at 3-months following surgical treatment, and the time...... randomized clinical trial comparing the efficacy of tourniquet assisted TKA on patient-reported physical function supported by a range of performance-based secondary outcome measures. As such it will provide high quality evidence that may help determine whether tourniquet should be used in future TKA...

  4. Evaluation of oxime efficacy in nerve agent poisoning: Development of a kinetic-based dynamic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worek, Franz; Szinicz, Ladislaus; Eyer, Peter; Thiermann, Horst

    2005-01-01

    The widespread use of organophosphorus compounds (OP) as pesticides and the repeated misuse of highly toxic OP as chemical warfare agents (nerve agents) emphasize the necessity for the development of effective medical countermeasures. Standard treatment with atropine and the established acetylcholinesterase (AChE) reactivators, obidoxime and pralidoxime, is considered to be ineffective with certain nerve agents due to low oxime effectiveness. From obvious ethical reasons only animal experiments can be used to evaluate new oximes as nerve agent antidotes. However, the extrapolation of data from animal to humans is hampered by marked species differences. Since reactivation of OP-inhibited AChE is considered to be the main mechanism of action of oximes, human erythrocyte AChE can be exploited to test the efficacy of new oximes. By combining enzyme kinetics (inhibition, reactivation, aging) with OP toxicokinetics and oxime pharmacokinetics a dynamic in vitro model was developed which allows the calculation of AChE activities at different scenarios. This model was validated with data from pesticide-poisoned patients and simulations were performed for intravenous and percutaneous nerve agent exposure and intramuscular oxime treatment using published data. The model presented may serve as a tool for defining effective oxime concentrations and for optimizing oxime treatment. In addition, this model can be useful for the development of meaningful therapeutic animal models

  5. Efficacy of a Word- and Text-Based Intervention for Students With Significant Reading Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Sharon; Roberts, Garrett J; Miciak, Jeremy; Taylor, Pat; Fletcher, Jack M

    2018-05-01

    We examine the efficacy of an intervention to improve word reading and reading comprehension in fourth- and fifth-grade students with significant reading problems. Using a randomized control trial design, we compare the fourth- and fifth-grade reading outcomes of students with severe reading difficulties who were provided a researcher-developed treatment with reading outcomes of students in a business-as-usual (BAU) comparison condition. A total of 280 fourth- and fifth-grade students were randomly assigned within school in a 1:1 ratio to either the BAU comparison condition ( n = 139) or the treatment condition ( n = 141). Treatment students were provided small-group tutoring for 30 to 45 minutes for an average of 68 lessons (mean hours of instruction = 44.4, SD = 11.2). Treatment students performed statistically significantly higher than BAU students on a word reading measure (effect size [ES] = 0. 58) and a measure of reading fluency (ES = 0.46). Though not statistically significant, effect sizes for students in the treatment condition were consistently higher than BAU students for decoding measures (ES = 0.06, 0.08), and mixed for comprehension (ES = -0.02, 0.14).

  6. Motivation and performance within a collaborative computer-based modeling task: Relations between students' achievement goal orientation, self-efficacy, cognitive processing and achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Sins, P.H.M.; van Joolingen, W.R.; Savelsbergh, E.R.; van Hout-Wolters, B.H.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose of the present study was to test a conceptual model of relations among achievement goal orientation, self-efficacy, cognitive processing, and achievement of students working within a particular collaborative task context. The task involved a collaborative computer-based modeling task. In order to test the model, group measures of mastery-approach goal orientation, performance-avoidance goal orientation, self-efficacy, and achievement were employed. Students’ cognitive processing was a...

  7. The efficacy of mobile phone-based text message interventions (‘Happy Quit’ for smoking cessation in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhui Liao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Considering the extreme shortage of smoking cessation services in China, and the acceptability, feasibility and efficacy of mobile phone-based text message interventions for quitting smoking in other countries, here we propose a study of “the efficacy of mobile phone-based text message interventions (‘Happy Quit’ for smoking cessation in China”. The primary objective of this proposed project is to assess whether a program of widely accessed mobile phone-based text message interventions (‘Happy Quit’ will be effective at helping people in China who smoke, to quit. Based on the efficacy of previous studies in smoking cessation, we hypothesize that ‘Happy Quit’ will be an effective, feasible and affordable smoking cessation program in China. Methods/Design In this single-blind, randomized trial, undertaken in China, about 2000 smokers willing to make a quit attempt will be randomly allocated, using an independent telephone randomization system that includes a minimization algorithm balancing for sex (male, female, age (19–34 or >34 years, educational level (≤ or >12 years, and Fagerstrom score for nicotine addiction (≤5, >5, to ‘Happy Quit’, comprising motivational messages and behavioral-change support, or to a control group that receives text messages unrelated to quitting. Messages will be developed to be suitable for Chinese. A pilot study will be conducted before the intervention to modify the library of messages and interventions. The primary outcome will be self-reported continuous smoking abstinence. A secondary outcome will be point prevalence of abstinence. Abstinence will be assessed at six time points (4, 8, 12, 16, 20 and 24 weeks post-intervention. A third outcome will be reductions in number of cigarettes smoked per day. Discussion/Implications The results will provide valuable insights into bridging the gap between need and services received for smoking cessation interventions and

  8. The efficacy of mobile phone-based text message interventions ('Happy Quit') for smoking cessation in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yanhui; Wu, Qiuxia; Tang, Jinsong; Zhang, Fengyu; Wang, Xuyi; Qi, Chang; He, Haoyu; Long, Jiang; Kelly, Brian C; Cohen, Joanna

    2016-08-19

    Considering the extreme shortage of smoking cessation services in China, and the acceptability, feasibility and efficacy of mobile phone-based text message interventions for quitting smoking in other countries, here we propose a study of "the efficacy of mobile phone-based text message interventions ('Happy Quit') for smoking cessation in China". The primary objective of this proposed project is to assess whether a program of widely accessed mobile phone-based text message interventions ('Happy Quit') will be effective at helping people in China who smoke, to quit. Based on the efficacy of previous studies in smoking cessation, we hypothesize that 'Happy Quit' will be an effective, feasible and affordable smoking cessation program in China. In this single-blind, randomized trial, undertaken in China, about 2000 smokers willing to make a quit attempt will be randomly allocated, using an independent telephone randomization system that includes a minimization algorithm balancing for sex (male, female), age (19-34 or >34 years), educational level (≤ or >12 years), and Fagerstrom score for nicotine addiction (≤5, >5), to 'Happy Quit', comprising motivational messages and behavioral-change support, or to a control group that receives text messages unrelated to quitting. Messages will be developed to be suitable for Chinese. A pilot study will be conducted before the intervention to modify the library of messages and interventions. The primary outcome will be self-reported continuous smoking abstinence. A secondary outcome will be point prevalence of abstinence. Abstinence will be assessed at six time points (4, 8, 12, 16, 20 and 24 weeks post-intervention). A third outcome will be reductions in number of cigarettes smoked per day. The results will provide valuable insights into bridging the gap between need and services received for smoking cessation interventions and tobacco use prevention in China. It will also serve as mHealth model for extending the public

  9. Repeated Artemisinin-Based Combination Therapies in a Malaria Hyperendemic Area of Mali: Efficacy, Safety, and Public Health Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagara, Issaka; Fofana, Bakary; Gaudart, Jean; Sidibe, Bakary; Togo, Amadou; Toure, Sekou; Sanogo, Kassim; Dembele, Demba; Dicko, Alassane; Giorgi, Roch; Doumbo, Ogobara K.; Djimde, Abdoulaye A.

    2012-01-01

    Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) are the first-line treatment of uncomplicated malaria. The public health benefit and safety of repeated administration of a given ACT are poorly studied. We conducted a randomized trial comparing artemether-lumefantrine, artesunate plus amodiaquine (AS+AQ) and artesunate plus sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (AS+SP) in patients 6 months of age and older with uncomplicated malaria in Mali from July 2005 to July 2007. The patient received the same initial treatment of each subsequent uncomplicated malaria episode except for treatment failures where quinine was used. Overall, 780 patients were included. Patients in the AS+AQ and AS+SP arms had significantly less risk of having malaria episodes; risk ratio (RR) = 0.84 (P = 0.002) and RR = 0.80 (P = 0.001), respectively. The treatment efficacy was similar and above 95% in all arms. Although all drugs were highly efficacious and well tolerated, AS+AQ and AS+SP were associated with less episodes of malaria. PMID:22764291

  10. Feasibility, safety, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of measurement-based care depression treatment for HIV patients in Bamenda, Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pence, Brian W; Gaynes, Bradley N; Atashili, Julius; O'Donnell, Julie K; Kats, Dmitry; Whetten, Kathryn; Njamnshi, Alfred K; Mbu, Tabenyang; Kefie, Charles; Asanji, Shantal; Ndumbe, Peter

    2014-06-01

    Depression affects 18-30 % of HIV-infected patients in Africa and is associated with greater stigma, lower antiretroviral adherence, and faster disease progression. However, the region's health system capacity to effectively identify and treat depression is limited. Task-shifting models may help address this large mental health treatment gap. Measurement-Based Care (MBC) is a task-shifting model in which a Depression Care Manager guides a non-psychiatric (e.g., HIV) provider in prescribing and managing antidepressant treatment. We adapted MBC for depressed HIV-infected patients in Cameroon and completed a pilot study to assess feasibility, safety, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy. We enrolled 55 participants; all started amitriptyline 25-50 mg daily at baseline. By 12 weeks, most remained at 50 mg daily (range 25-125 mg). Median (interquartile range) PHQ-9 depressive severity scores declined from 13 (12-16) (baseline) to 2 (0-3) (week 12); 87 % achieved depression remission (PHQ-9 feasibility, safety, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy in this uncontrolled pilot study. Further research should assess whether MBC could improve adherence and HIV outcomes in this setting.

  11. Long-Term Single-Dose Efficacy of a Vesicular Stomatitis Virus-Based Andes Virus Vaccine in Syrian Hamsters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Prescott

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Andes virus (ANDV is highly pathogenic in humans and is the primary etiologic agent of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS in South America. Case-fatality rates are as high as 50% and there are no approved vaccines or specific therapies for infection. Our laboratory has recently developed a replication-competent recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV-based vaccine that expressed the glycoproteins of Andes virus in place of the native VSV glycoprotein (G. This vaccine is highly efficacious in the Syrian hamster model of HCPS when given 28 days before challenge with ANDV, or when given around the time of challenge (peri-exposure, and even protects when administered post-exposure. Herein, we sought to test the durability of the immune response to a single dose of this vaccine in Syrian hamsters. This vaccine was efficacious in hamsters challenged intranasally with ANDV 6 months after vaccination (p = 0.025, but animals were not significantly protected following 1 year of vaccination (p = 0.090. The decrease in protection correlated with a reduction of measurable neutralizing antibody responses, and suggests that a more robust vaccination schedule might be required to provide long-term immunity.

  12. Impact of age on efficacy of postoperative oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy in patients with rectal cancer after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xuan-Zhang; Gao, Peng; Song, Yong-Xi; Sun, Jing-Xu; Chen, Xiao-Wan; Zhao, Jun-Hua; Ma, Bin; Wang, Jun; Wang, Zhen-Ning

    2016-04-12

    Clinical practice guidelines focusing on age-related adjuvant chemotherapy for rectal cancer are currently limited. The present study aimed to explore the impact of age on the efficacy of adjuvant oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy in patients with rectal cancer after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. We performed a retrospective cohort analysis using data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare-linked database from 1992-2009. We enrolled patients with yp stages I-III rectal cancer who received neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and underwent curative resection. The age-related survival benefit of adding oxaliplatin to adjuvant 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) chemotherapy was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis with propensity score-matching and Cox proportional hazards models. Comparing the oxaliplatin group with the 5-FU group, there were significant interactions between age and chemotherapy efficacy in terms of overall survival (OS) (p for interaction = 0.017) among patients with positive lymph nodes (ypN+). Adding oxaliplatin to 5-FU could prolong survival in patients aged rectal cancer who have already received neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and undergone curative resection, adding oxaliplatin to 5-FU could prolong OS in patients aged < 73 years and ypN+ category. However, adding oxaliplatin did not translate into survival benefits in patients age ≥ 73 years and ypN+ category, or in ypN- patients.

  13. SieveSifter: a web-based tool for visualizing the sieve analyses of HIV-1 vaccine efficacy trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore-Gartland, Andrew; Kullman, Nicholas; deCamp, Allan C; Clenaghan, Graham; Yang, Wayne; Magaret, Craig A; Edlefsen, Paul T; Gilbert, Peter B

    2017-08-01

    Analysis of HIV-1 virions from participants infected in a randomized controlled preventive HIV-1 vaccine efficacy trial can help elucidate mechanisms of partial protection. By comparing the genetic sequence of viruses from vaccine and placebo recipients to the sequence of the vaccine itself, a technique called 'sieve analysis', one can identify functional specificities of vaccine-induced immune responses. We have created an interactive web-based visualization and data access tool for exploring the results of sieve analyses performed on four major preventive HIV-1 vaccine efficacy trials: (i) the HIV Vaccine Trial Network (HVTN) 502/Step trial, (ii) the RV144/Thai trial, (iii) the HVTN 503/Phambili trial and (iv) the HVTN 505 trial. The tool acts simultaneously as a platform for rapid reinterpretation of sieve effects and as a portal for organizing and sharing the viral sequence data. Access to these valuable datasets also enables the development of novel methodology for future sieve analyses. Visualization: http://sieve.fredhutch.org/viz . Source code: https://github.com/nkullman/SIEVE . Data API: http://sieve.fredhutch.org/data . agartlan@fredhutch.org. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  14. Comparison of the efficacy and safety of S-1-based and capecitabine-based regimens in gastrointestinal cancer: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xunlei Zhang

    Full Text Available Oral fluoropyrimidine (S-1, capecitabine has been considered as an important part of various regimens. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of S-1-based therapy versus capecitabine -based therapy in gastrointestinal cancers.Eligible studies were identified from Pubmed, EMBASE. Additionally, abstracts presented at American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO conferences held between 2000 and 2013 were searched to identify relevant clinical trials. The outcome included overall survival (OS, progression-free survival (PFS, overall response rate (ORR, disease control rate (DCR and advent events.A total of 6 studies (4 RCTs and 2 retrospective analysis studies containing 790 participants were included in this meta-analysis, including 401 patients in the S-1-based group and 389 patients in the capecitabine-based group. Results of our meta-analysis indicated that S-1-based and capecitabine-based regimens showed very similar efficacy in terms of PFS (HR 0.92, 95% CI 0.78-1.09, P = 0.360, OS (HR 1.01, 95% CI 0.84-1.21, P = 0.949, ORR (HR 1.04, 95% CI 0.87-1.25, P = 0.683 and DCR (HR 1.02, 95% CI 0.94-1.10, P = 0.639. There was also no significant difference in toxicity between regimens other than mild more hand-foot syndrome in capecitabine-based regimens.Both the S-1-based and capecitabine-based regimens are equally active and well tolerated, and have the potential of backbone chemotherapy regimen in further studies of gastrointestinal cancers.

  15. Efficacy of a mouthrinse based on hydroxyapatite to reduce initial bacterial colonisation in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kensche, A; Holder, C; Basche, S; Tahan, N; Hannig, C; Hannig, M

    2017-08-01

    The present in situ - investigation aimed to specify the impact of pure hydroxyapatite microclusters on initial bioadhesion and bacterial colonization at the tooth surface. Pellicle formation was carried out in situ on bovine enamel slabs (9 subjects). After 1min of pellicle formation rinses with 8ml of hydroxyapatite (HA) microclusters (5%) in bidestilled water or chlorhexidine 0.2% were performed. As negative control no rinse was adopted. In situ biofilm formation was promoted by the intraoral slab exposure for 8h overnight. Afterwards initial bacterial adhesion was quantified by DAPI staining and bacterial viability was determined in vivo/in vitro by live/dead-staining (BacLight). SEM analysis evaluated the efficacy of the mouthrinse to accumulate hydroxyapatite microclusters at the specimens' surface and spit-out samples of the testsolution were investigated by TEM. Compared to the control (2.36×10 6 ±2.01×10 6 bacteria/cm 2 ), significantly reduced amounts of adherent bacteria were detected on specimens rinsed with chlorhexidine 0.2% (8.73×10 4 ±1.37×10 5 bacteria/cm 2 ) and likewise after rinses with the hydroxyapatite testsolution (2.08×10 5 ±2.85×10 5 bacteria/cm 2 , phydroxyapatite microclusters at the tooth surface. Adhesive interactions of HA-particles with oral bacteria were shown by TEM. Hydroxyapatite microclusters reduced initial bacterial adhesion to enamel in situ considerably and could therefore sensibly supplement current approaches in dental prophylaxis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Efficacy of a Mindfulness-Based Mobile Application: a Randomized Waiting-List Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Emmerik, Arnold A P; Berings, Fieke; Lancee, Jaap

    2018-01-01

    Although several hundreds of apps are available that (cl)aim to promote mindfulness, only a few methodologically sound studies have evaluated the efficacy of these apps. This randomized waiting-list controlled trial therefore tested the hypothesis that one such app (the VGZ Mindfulness Coach ) can achieve immediate and long-term improvements of mindfulness, quality of life, general psychiatric symptoms, and self-actualization. One hundred ninety-one experimental participants received the VGZ Mindfulness Coach, which offers 40 mindfulness exercises and background information about mindfulness without any form of therapeutic guidance. Compared to 186 control participants, they reported large (Cohen's d  = 0.77) and statistically significant increases of mindfulness after 8 weeks and small-to-medium increases of the Observing, Describing, Acting with awareness, Nonjudging, and Nonreactivity mindfulness facets as measured with the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (Cohen's d  = 0.66, 0.26, 0.49, 0.34, and 0.43, respectively). Also, there were large decreases of general psychiatric symptoms (GHQ-12; Cohen's d  = -0.68) and moderate increases of psychological, social, and environmental quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF; Cohen's d  = 0.38, 0.38, and 0.36, respectively). Except for social quality of life, these gains were maintained for at least 3 months. We conclude that it is possible to achieve durable positive effects on mindfulness, general psychiatric symptoms, and several aspects of quality of life at low costs with smartphone apps for mindfulness such as the VGZ Mindfulness Coach.

  17. Improving self-perception and self-efficacy in patients with spinal cord injury: the efficacy of DVD-based instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsiao-Yu; Wu, Tzu-Jung; Lin, Chiu-Chu

    2015-06-01

    We assessed the effects of a spinal cord injury home rehabilitation DVD on patients with spinal cord injury. Multimedia have been used widely in health care in the digital age. The provision of rehabilitation instructions is a major responsibility of the rehabilitation staff. This study adopted a quasi-experimental pretest-posttest control group design. We collected data from a rehabilitation nursing ward at a medical centre between October 2011-April 2012. The participants were recruited before being discharged from the hospital. The experimental group (n = 28) received multimedia DVD instructions for three months, in addition to teaching sessions conducted by the researcher, whereas the control group (n = 31) received instructions without a DVD. Both groups completed the self-perception and self-efficacy scales used in this study before and after the intervention. The results indicated that, after the multimedia DVD intervention, the experimental group exhibited a considerably greater improvement in self-perception than did the control group. Although we recorded increased scores for both self-perception and self-efficacy for both groups, no marked differences emerged between the control and the intervention groups by using a generalised estimating equation. These results suggest that the home rehabilitation DVD is an effective instrument for improving self-perception and self-efficacy in patients with spinal cord injury. However, monitoring these patients over the long term is necessary. Our study results confirmed that the spinal cord injury home rehabilitation DVD is a practical health education tool. We plan to use the proposed DVD intervention with a larger number of hospitalised patients, and to continuously monitor their improvement. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Teachers' Perceptions of the Efficacy of Standards-Based IEP Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Traci Nicole

    2013-01-01

    Although standards-based IEP goals have been mandated in many states for almost a decade, their effectiveness is unknown. Standards-based IEP goals were first created to meet the requirements of No Child Left Behind and Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act, which increased accountability for all students as well as those with…

  19. Toxicity and efficacy of carbon nanotubes and graphene: the utility of carbon-based nanoparticles in nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongbin; Petibone, Dayton; Xu, Yang; Mahmood, Meena; Karmakar, Alokita; Casciano, Dan; Ali, Syed; Biris, Alexandru S

    2014-05-01

    Carbon-based nanomaterials have attracted great interest in biomedical applications such as advanced imaging, tissue regeneration, and drug or gene delivery. The toxicity of the carbon nanotubes and graphene remains a debated issue although many toxicological studies have been reported in the scientific community. In this review, we summarize the biological effects of carbon nanotubes and graphene in terms of in vitro and in vivo toxicity, genotoxicity and toxicokinetics. The dose, shape, surface chemistry, exposure route and purity play important roles in the metabolism of carbon-based nanomaterials resulting in differential toxicity. Careful examination of the physico-chemical properties of carbon-based nanomaterials is considered a basic approach to correlate the toxicological response with the unique properties of the carbon nanomaterials. The reactive oxygen species-mediated toxic mechanism of carbon nanotubes has been extensively discussed and strategies, such as surface modification, have been proposed to reduce the toxicity of these materials. Carbon-based nanomaterials used in photothermal therapy, drug delivery and tissue regeneration are also discussed in this review. The toxicokinetics, toxicity and efficacy of carbon-based nanotubes and graphene still need to be investigated further to pave a way for biomedical applications and a better understanding of their potential applications to humans.

  20. Efficacy of pretreating oil palm fronds with an acid-base mixture catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Young Hoon; Park, Hyun Min; Park, Yong-Cheol; Park, Kyungmoon; Kim, Kyoung Heon

    2017-07-01

    Oil palm fronds are abundant but recalcitrant to chemical pretreatment. Herein, an acid-base mixture was applied as a catalyst to efficiently pretreat oil palm fronds. Optimized conditions for the pretreatment were a 0.1M acidic acid-base mixture and 3min ramping to 190°C and 12min holding. The oil palm fronds pretreated and washed with the acid-base mixture exhibited an enzymatic digestibility of 85% by 15 FPU Accellerase 1000/g glucan after 72h hydrolysis, which was significantly higher than the enzymatic digestibilities obtained by acid or alkali pretreatment alone. This could be attributed to the synergistic actions of the acid and base, producing an 87% glucose recovery with 100% and 40.3% removal of xylan and lignin, respectively, from the solids. Therefore, an acid-base mixture can be a feasible catalyst to deconstruct oil palm fronds for sugar production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Synthesis, characterization, and efficacy of antituberculosis isoniazid zinc aluminum-layered double hydroxide based nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saifullah B

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Bullo Saifullah,1 Mohamed Ezzat El Zowalaty,2,3 Palanisamy Arulselvan,3 Sharida Fakurazi,3,4 Thomas J Webster,5–7 Benjamin Mahler Geilich,5,6 Mohd Zobir Hussein1 1Materials Synthesis and Characterization Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology, (ITMA, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; 2School of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Westville Campus, Durban, South Africa; 3Laboratory of Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics, Institute of Bioscience, 4Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; 5Department of Chemical Engineering, 6Department of Bioengineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA; 7Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials Research, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Abstract: The chemotherapy for tuberculosis (TB is complicated by its long-term treatment, its frequent drug dosing, and the adverse effects of anti-TB drugs. In this study, we have developed two nanocomposites (A and B by intercalating the anti-TB drug isoniazid (INH into Zn/Al-layered double hydroxides. The average size of the nanocomposites was found to be ~164 nm. The efficacy of the Zn/Al-layered double hydroxides intercalated INH against Mycobacterium tuberculosis was increased by approximately three times more than free INH. The nanocomposites were also found to be active against Gram-positive and -negative bacteria. Compared to the free INH, the nanodelivery formulation was determined to be three times more biocompatible with human normal lung fibroblast MRC-5 cells and 3T3 fibroblast cells at a very high concentration of 50 µg/mL for up to 72 hours. The in vitro release of INH from the Zn/Al-layered double hydroxides was found to be sustained in human body-simulated buffer solutions of pH 4.8 and 7.4. This research is a step forward in making the TB chemotherapy patient friendly. Keywords: tuberculosis, Zn/Al-LDHs, drug

  2. Prediction of drug efficacy for cancer treatment based on comparative analysis of chemosensitivity and gene expression data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wan, Peng; Li, Qiyuan; Larsen, Jens Erik Pontoppidan

    2012-01-01

    The NCI60 database is the largest available collection of compounds with measured anti-cancer activity. The strengths and limitations for using the NCI60 database as a source of new anti-cancer agents are explored and discussed in relation to previous studies. We selected a sub-set of 2333...... and in a data set of expression profiles of 1901 genes for the corresponding tumor cell lines. Five clusters were identified based on the gene expression data using self-organizing maps (SOM), comprising leukemia, melanoma, ovarian and prostate, basal breast, and luminal breast cancer cells, respectively....... The strong difference in gene expression between basal and luminal breast cancer cells was reflected clearly in the chemosensitivity data. Although most compounds in the data set were of low potency, high efficacy compounds that showed specificity with respect to tissue of origin could be found. Furthermore...

  3. Efficacy, Safety, and Interactions of a Live Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Vaccine for Chickens Based on Strain IBD V877.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geerligs, Harm J; Ons, Ellen; Boelm, Gert Jan; Vancraeynest, Dieter

    2015-03-01

    Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is a highly contagious disease in young chickens which can result in high morbidity and mortality and also in great economic losses. The main target for the virus is the lymphoid tissue with a special predilection for the bursa of Fabricius. Several vaccines are available to control the disease. Intermediate plus vaccines are used in chickens with high maternal antibody titers which face high infection pressure. An example of an intermediate plus vaccine is a live vaccine based on IBD strain V877. The results of an efficacy study in commercial broilers with different levels of maternally derived antibodies (MDA) showed that the V877-based IBD vaccine can break through maternal antibody titers of higher than 1100 as determined by an IBD ELISA. The safety of the vaccine was demonstrated in a study in which specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens were vaccinated with a tenfold dose of the vaccine strain and a tenfold dose of the vaccine strain after five back passages in SPF chickens. The vaccine virus caused lesions, as could be expected for an intermediate plus vaccine, but the scores were not much higher than the maximal scores allowed for mild IBD vaccines in the European Pharmacopoeia, and reversion to virulence was absent. In studies in SPF chickens, there were no negative impacts by the IBD V877 vaccine on the efficacy of a live QX-like IB vaccine and a live Newcastle disease La Sota vaccine in vaccination challenge studies, although the IBD vaccine had a negative effect on the antibody response generated by the QX-like IB vaccine. It is concluded that the IBD V877 vaccine has the capacity to break through high levels of MDA, has a satisfactory safety profile, and interactions with other live vaccines are limited. In order to limit bursal lesions after vaccination it is recommended to confirm the presence of MDA before vaccinating with the V877 vaccine.

  4. The efficacy of a technology-based system in a short-term behavioral weight loss intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzien, Kristen M; Jakicic, John M; Tate, Deborah F; Otto, Amy D

    2007-04-01

    The objective was to examine the efficacy of adding a technology-based program to an in-person, behavioral weight loss intervention. Fifty-seven subjects (BMI=33.1+/-2.8 kg/m2; age=41.3+/-8.7 years) participated in a 12-week intervention with random assignment to Standard In-Person Behavioral Weight Control Program (SBWP) or Intermittent or Continuous Technology-Based Program (INT-TECH, CON-TECH). SBWP subjects received seven individualized weight loss sessions encouraging dietary and exercise modifications. INT-TECH and CON-TECH subjects received all SBWP components; additionally, these groups used a SenseWear Pro Armband (BodyMedia, Inc.) to monitor energy expenditure and an Internet-based program to monitor eating behaviors. These features were used by INT-TECH subjects during weeks 1, 5, and 9 and CON-TECH subjects weekly throughout the intervention. Intent-to-treat analysis revealed weight loss of 4.1+/-2.8 kg, 3.4+/-3.4 kg, and 6.2+/-4.0 kg, for SBWP, INT-TECH, and CON-TECH groups, respectively (CON-TECH>INT-TECH, ptechnology-based program needs to be used continuously throughout the intervention period to significantly impact weight loss. Future studies should examine the long-term and independent effect of this technology on weight loss, and for whom this intervention format is most effective.

  5. Efficacy of navigation in skull base surgery using composite computer graphics of magnetic resonance and computed tomography images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Nakamasa; Kurimoto, Masanori; Hirashima, Yutaka; Ikeda, Hiroaki; Shibata, Takashi; Tomita, Takahiro; Endo, Shunro

    2001-01-01

    The efficacy of a neurosurgical navigation system using three-dimensional composite computer graphics (CGs) of magnetic resonance (MR) and computed tomography (CT) images was evaluated in skull base surgery. Three-point transformation was used for integration of MR and CT images. MR and CT image data were obtained with three skin markers placed on the patient's scalp. Volume-rendering manipulations of the data produced three-dimensional CGs of the scalp, brain, and lesions from the MR images, and the scalp and skull from the CT. Composite CGs of the scalp, skull, brain, and lesion were created by registering the three markers on the three-dimensional rendered scalp images obtained from MR imaging and CT in the system. This system was used for 14 patients with skull base lesions. Three-point transformation using three-dimensional CGs was easily performed for multimodal registration. Simulation of surgical procedures on composite CGs aided in comprehension of the skull base anatomy and selection of the optimal approaches. Intraoperative navigation aided in determination of actual spatial position in the skull base and the optimal trajectory to the tumor during surgical procedures. (author)

  6. The Effect of a School-Based Outdoor Education Program on Visual Arts Teachers' Success and Self-Efficacy Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hursen, Cigdem; Islek, Didem

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine the effect of an education programme developed based on the school-based outdoor education approach on the academic achievement of visual arts teachers, as well as their self-efficacy beliefs for using museums and the natural environment. The aim is likewise to explore the views of the teachers on the…

  7. The Effects of Teacher Efficacy, Teacher Certification Route, Content Hours in the Sciences, Field-Based Experiences and Class Size on Middle School Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, Robina

    No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) was signed into law in 2002 with the idea that all students, no matter the circumstances can learn and that highly qualified teachers should be present in every classrooms (United Stated Department of Education, 2011). The mandates of NCLB also forced states to begin measuring the progress of science proficiency beginning in 2007. The study determined the effects of teacher efficacy, the type of certification route taken by individuals, the number of content hours taken in the sciences, field-based experience and class size on middle school student achievement as measured by the 8th grade STAAR in a region located in South Texas. This data provides knowledge into the effect different teacher training methods have on secondary school science teacher efficacy in Texas and how it impacts student achievement. Additionally, the results of the study determined if traditional and alternative certification programs are equally effective in properly preparing science teachers for the classroom. The study described was a survey design comparing nonequivalent groups. The study utilized the Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument (STEBI). A 25-item efficacy scale made up of two subscales, Personal Science Teaching Efficacy Belief (PSTE) and Science Teaching Outcome Expectancy (STOE) (Bayraktar, 2011). Once the survey was completed a 3-Way ANOVA, MANOVA, and Multiple Linear Regression were performed in SPSS to calculate the results. The results from the study indicated no significant difference between route of certification on student achievement, but a large effect size was reported, 17% of the variances in student achievement can be accounted for by route of certification. A MANOVA was conducted to assess the differences between number of science content hours on a linear combination of personal science teacher efficacy, science teaching outcome expectancy and total science teacher efficacy as measured by the STEBI. No significant

  8. Comparison of efficacies of vegetable oil based and polyethylene glycol based bisacodyl suppositories in treating patients with neurogenic bowel dysfunction after spinal cord injury: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Zhu; Jie, Cheng; Wenyi, Zhang; Bin, Xie; Hongzhu, Jin

    2014-10-01

    We performed a meta-analysis to compare the efficacies of vegetable oil based bisacodyl (VOB) and polyethylene glycol based bisacodyl (PGB) suppositories in treating patients with neurogenic bowel dysfunction (NBD) after spinal cord injury (SCI). Relevant clinical studies (up to February 2014) were retrieved through the following databases: PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CCTR), Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM), Wanfang, and VIP database for Chinese Technical Periodicals. Data were analyzed using the standardized weighted mean difference (SMD) and its 95% confidence interval (CI). P-values 0.05) between patients in the PGB and VOB groups. Based on the results, we conclude that the PGB suppository could act faster than the VOB suppository in the treatment of NBD in patients with SCI.

  9. An investigation into the efficacy of avatar-based systems for student advice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Currie

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Student support is an important function in all universities. Most students expect access to support 24/7, but support staff cannot be available at all times of day. This paper addresses this problem, describing the development of an avatar-based system to guide students through the materials provided by a university student employability service. Firstly, students and staff were surveyed to establish the demand for such a system. The system was then constructed. Finally, the system was evaluated by students and staff, which led to a clearer understanding of the optimal role for avatar-based systems and consequent improvements to the system’s functionality.

  10. The efficacy and usefulness of problem based learning in undergraduate medical school education of radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchino, Minako; Itazawa, Tomoko; Someya, Masanori; Nakamura, Satoaki

    2007-01-01

    The Japanese Association for Therapeutic Radiation Oncology (JASTRO) holds a seminar for medical students every summer, which has developed into a joint program with a session addressing radiation treatment planning. To clarify this topic for medical students, we have incorporated Problem Based Learning skills into the session. Not only has the students' comprehension improved but the instructors have also found this teaching experience valuable and productive in advancing their own clinical skills. Our experience suggests that the application of this Problem Based Learning session for radiation treatment planning in undergraduate medical school education has proven to be effective. (author)

  11. Efficacy of Web-Based Instruction to Provide Training on Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    This report presents an evaluation of the current state-of-the-art Web-based instruction (WBI), reviews the current computer platforms of potential users of WBI, reviews the current status of WBI applications for Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administ...

  12. Efficacy of Simulation-Based Learning of Electronics Using Visualization and Manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Lung; Hong, Yu-Ru; Sung, Yao-Ting; Chang, Kuo-En

    2011-01-01

    Software for simulation-based learning of electronics was implemented to help learners understand complex and abstract concepts through observing external representations and exploring concept models. The software comprises modules for visualization and simulative manipulation. Differences in learning performance of using the learning software…

  13. Developing Preservice Teachers' Self-Efficacy through Field-Based Science Teaching Practice with Elementary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Ingrid M.

    2015-01-01

    Thirty preservice teachers enrolled in a field-based science methods course were placed at a public elementary school for coursework and for teaching practice with elementary students. Candidates focused on building conceptual understanding of science content and pedagogical methods through innovative curriculum development and other course…

  14. Economy, efficacy, and feasibility of a risk-based control program against paratuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kudahl, Anne Braad; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Østergaard, Søren

    2008-01-01

    Long-term effects of paratuberculosis on within-herd prevalence and on-farm economy of implementing risk-based control strategies were compared with alternative strategies by using a herd-simulation model. Closing transmission routes is essential for effective control of paratuberculosis. However...

  15. Efficacy of a minimal home-based psychoeducative intervention in patients with advanced COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bove, D. G.; Lomborg, K.; Jensen, A. K.

    2016-01-01

    -based psychoeducative intervention versus usual care for reducing symptoms of anxiety in patients with advanced COPD. METHODS: The trial included 66 participants with advanced COPD and symptoms of anxiety. The primary outcome was anxiety assessed by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HADS) subscale for anxiety...

  16. Relative efficacy of cocoa pod husk-based compost on growth and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of cocoa pod husk-based compost on growth and nutrient uptake of cocoa seedlings was compared with conventional NPK 15-15-15 fertilizer at the nursery in a randomized complete block design experiment. Poly bags were filled with either top soil or compost alone, and also with mixtures of top soil, compost ...

  17. The efficacy and safety of bromacil based herbicide for the control of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of bromacil based herbicides in agriculture and environmental management is a growing practice with economic importance. Bromacil possesses broad toxicity to many plant species, although, different formulations exist that are used for different purposes in farming systems. There is increasing concern about its ...

  18. The efficacy of mindfulness-based interventions in primary care: A meta-analytic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demarzo, M.M.P.; Montero- Marin, J.; Cuijpers, P.; Zabaleta-del-Olmo, E.; Mahtani, K.R.; Vellinga, A.; Vicens, C.; Lopez-del-Hoyo, Y.; Garcia-Campayo, J.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE Positive effects have been reported after mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) in diverse clinical and nonclinical populations. Primary care is a key health care setting for addressing common chronic conditions, and an effective MBI designed for this setting could benefit countless people

  19. Transportability of Equivalence-Based Programmed Instruction: Efficacy and Efficiency in a College Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fienup, Daniel M.; Critchfield, Thomas S.

    2011-01-01

    College students in a psychology research-methods course learned concepts related to inferential statistics and hypothesis decision making. One group received equivalence-based instruction on conditional discriminations that were expected to promote the emergence of many untaught, academically useful abilities (i.e., stimulus equivalence group). A…

  20. Evaluation of AISI Type 304 stainless steel as a suitable surface material for evaluating the efficacy of peracetic acid-based disinfectants against Clostridium difficile spores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Black

    Full Text Available Disinfectants play an important role in controlling microbial contamination on hard surfaces in hospitals. The effectiveness of disinfectants in real life can be predicted by laboratory tests that measure killing of microbes on carriers. The modified Quantitative Disk Carrier Test (QCT-2 is a standard laboratory method that employs American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI Type 430 stainless steel carriers to measure hospital disinfectant efficacy against Clostridium difficile spores. The formation of a rust-colored precipitate was observed on Type 430 carriers when testing a peracetic acid (PAA-based disinfectant with the QCT-2 method. It was hypothesized that the precipitate was indicative of corrosion of the Type 430 carrier, and that corrosion could impact efficacy results. The objective of this study was to compare the suitability of AISI Type 430 to Type 304 stainless steel carriers for evaluating PAA-based disinfectants using the QCT-2 method. Type 304 is more corrosion-resistant than Type 430, is ubiquitous in healthcare environments, and is used in other standard methods. Suitability of the carriers was evaluated by comparing their impacts on efficacy results and PAA degradation rates. In efficacy tests with 1376 ppm PAA, reductions of C. difficile spores after 5, 7 and 10 minutes on Type 430 carriers were at least about 1.5 log10 lower than reductions on Type 304 carriers. In conditions simulating a QCT-2 test, PAA concentration with Type 430 carriers was reduced by approximately 80% in 10 minutes, whereas PAA concentration in the presence of Type 304 carriers remained stable. Elemental analyses of residues on each carrier type after efficacy testing were indicative of corrosion on the Type 430 carrier. Use of Type 430 stainless steel carriers for measuring the efficacy of PAA-based disinfectants should be avoided as it can lead to an underestimation of real life sporicidal efficacy. Type 304 stainless steel carriers are recommended as a

  1. Evaluation of AISI Type 304 stainless steel as a suitable surface material for evaluating the efficacy of peracetic acid-based disinfectants against Clostridium difficile spores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Krista; Staub, Richard; Li, Junzhong; Mills, Kristen; Valenstein, Justin; Hilgren, John

    2017-01-01

    Disinfectants play an important role in controlling microbial contamination on hard surfaces in hospitals. The effectiveness of disinfectants in real life can be predicted by laboratory tests that measure killing of microbes on carriers. The modified Quantitative Disk Carrier Test (QCT-2) is a standard laboratory method that employs American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) Type 430 stainless steel carriers to measure hospital disinfectant efficacy against Clostridium difficile spores. The formation of a rust-colored precipitate was observed on Type 430 carriers when testing a peracetic acid (PAA)-based disinfectant with the QCT-2 method. It was hypothesized that the precipitate was indicative of corrosion of the Type 430 carrier, and that corrosion could impact efficacy results. The objective of this study was to compare the suitability of AISI Type 430 to Type 304 stainless steel carriers for evaluating PAA-based disinfectants using the QCT-2 method. Type 304 is more corrosion-resistant than Type 430, is ubiquitous in healthcare environments, and is used in other standard methods. Suitability of the carriers was evaluated by comparing their impacts on efficacy results and PAA degradation rates. In efficacy tests with 1376 ppm PAA, reductions of C. difficile spores after 5, 7 and 10 minutes on Type 430 carriers were at least about 1.5 log10 lower than reductions on Type 304 carriers. In conditions simulating a QCT-2 test, PAA concentration with Type 430 carriers was reduced by approximately 80% in 10 minutes, whereas PAA concentration in the presence of Type 304 carriers remained stable. Elemental analyses of residues on each carrier type after efficacy testing were indicative of corrosion on the Type 430 carrier. Use of Type 430 stainless steel carriers for measuring the efficacy of PAA-based disinfectants should be avoided as it can lead to an underestimation of real life sporicidal efficacy. Type 304 stainless steel carriers are recommended as a suitable

  2. Evaluation of AISI Type 304 stainless steel as a suitable surface material for evaluating the efficacy of peracetic acid-based disinfectants against Clostridium difficile spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Elaine; Owens, Krista; Staub, Richard; Li, Junzhong; Mills, Kristen; Valenstein, Justin; Hilgren, John

    2017-01-01

    Disinfectants play an important role in controlling microbial contamination on hard surfaces in hospitals. The effectiveness of disinfectants in real life can be predicted by laboratory tests that measure killing of microbes on carriers. The modified Quantitative Disk Carrier Test (QCT-2) is a standard laboratory method that employs American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) Type 430 stainless steel carriers to measure hospital disinfectant efficacy against Clostridium difficile spores. The formation of a rust-colored precipitate was observed on Type 430 carriers when testing a peracetic acid (PAA)-based disinfectant with the QCT-2 method. It was hypothesized that the precipitate was indicative of corrosion of the Type 430 carrier, and that corrosion could impact efficacy results. The objective of this study was to compare the suitability of AISI Type 430 to Type 304 stainless steel carriers for evaluating PAA-based disinfectants using the QCT-2 method. Type 304 is more corrosion-resistant than Type 430, is ubiquitous in healthcare environments, and is used in other standard methods. Suitability of the carriers was evaluated by comparing their impacts on efficacy results and PAA degradation rates. In efficacy tests with 1376 ppm PAA, reductions of C. difficile spores after 5, 7 and 10 minutes on Type 430 carriers were at least about 1.5 log10 lower than reductions on Type 304 carriers. In conditions simulating a QCT-2 test, PAA concentration with Type 430 carriers was reduced by approximately 80% in 10 minutes, whereas PAA concentration in the presence of Type 304 carriers remained stable. Elemental analyses of residues on each carrier type after efficacy testing were indicative of corrosion on the Type 430 carrier. Use of Type 430 stainless steel carriers for measuring the efficacy of PAA-based disinfectants should be avoided as it can lead to an underestimation of real life sporicidal efficacy. Type 304 stainless steel carriers are recommended as a suitable

  3. Assessment of Safety and Functional Efficacy of Stem Cell-Based Therapeutic Approaches Using Retinal Degenerative Animal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-Chi Lin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dysfunction and death of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE and or photoreceptors can lead to irreversible vision loss. The eye represents an ideal microenvironment for stem cell-based therapy. It is considered an “immune privileged” site, and the number of cells needed for therapy is relatively low for the area of focused vision (macula. Further, surgical placement of stem cell-derived grafts (RPE, retinal progenitors, and photoreceptor precursors into the vitreous cavity or subretinal space has been well established. For preclinical tests, assessments of stem cell-derived graft survival and functionality are conducted in animal models by various noninvasive approaches and imaging modalities. In vivo experiments conducted in animal models based on replacing photoreceptors and/or RPE cells have shown survival and functionality of the transplanted cells, rescue of the host retina, and improvement of visual function. Based on the positive results obtained from these animal experiments, human clinical trials are being initiated. Despite such progress in stem cell research, ethical, regulatory, safety, and technical difficulties still remain a challenge for the transformation of this technique into a standard clinical approach. In this review, the current status of preclinical safety and efficacy studies for retinal cell replacement therapies conducted in animal models will be discussed.

  4. Efficacy of an Essential Oil-Based Pesticide for Controlling Bed Bug (Cimex lectularius Infestations in Apartment Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changlu Wang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L. and Cimex hemipterus F. are among the most difficult urban pests to manage. Many essential oil-based bed bug control products that are considered reduced risk to mammals compared to synthetic insect neurotoxins have become commercially available, but their effectiveness as a stand-alone control method is unknown. This study assessed the field efficacy of an essential oil-based bed bug control product (EcoRaider; a.i. 1% geraniol + 1% cedar oil + 2% sodium lauryl sulfate compared to a pyrethroid and neonicotinoid mixture spray (0.075% Temprid SC; a.i. beta-cyfluthrin + imidacloprid. After 12 weeks, the three treatments—EcoRaider, Temprid SC, and EcoRaider + Temprid SC caused 92.5 ± 2.7, 92.9 ± 3.0, and 91.7% ± 2.7% bed bug count reduction, respectively. No significant differences existed in the bed bug reduction among the treatments. Bed bugs were eliminated from only 22% of the treated apartments. Among those still with bed bugs, 76% of the residents did not know bed bugs were present. We documented the residents’ self-control practices and discussed the potential of using essential oil-based insecticides in bed bug management programs to minimize the health risks to building occupants and pets and to slow down the development of insecticide resistance.

  5. The efficacy of the ketogenic diet in infants and young children with refractory epilepsies using a formula-based powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafi, Mahmoud Reza; Hosseini, Seyed Ahmad; Zamani, Gholam Reza; Mohammadi, Mahmoud; Tavassoli, Alireza; Badv, Reza Shervin; Heidari, Morteza; Karimi, Parviz; Malamiri, Reza Azizi

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of a classic 4:1 ketogenic diet using a formula-based powder in infants and children with refractory seizures who are reluctant to eat homemade foods. We conducted an open label trial and administered a ketogenic diet using formula-based power (Ketocal ® ). Twenty-seven infants and children aged between 12 months and 5 years were enrolled who had refractory seizures and were reluctant to eat homemade foods. Of 27 children, 5 were lost to follow-up and 22 were remained at the end of the study. After 4 months, the median frequency of seizures per week was reduced >50% in 68.2% of patients, while 9/22 children (40.9%) showed a 50-90% reduction in seizure frequency per week, and 6/22 children (27.3%) showed more than 90% reduction in seizure frequency per week. Over the study course, 6/22 (27%) children who continued to receive the diet developed constipation, one child developed gastroesophageal reflux, and one child developed hypercholesterolemia. None of these children discontinued the diet because of the complications. Thirteen children and their parents (59%) reported that the diet was palatable and tolerable enough. The ketogenic diet using a formula-based powder (Ketocal ® ) is effective, safe, and tolerable in infants and children with refractory seizures who are reluctant to eat homemade foods according to the rules of the ketogenic diet.

  6. An investigation of the efficacy of acceptance-based behavioral therapy for academic procrastination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Debra M; Orsillo, Susan M

    2015-04-01

    Procrastination among college students is both prevalent and troublesome, harming both academic performance and physical health. Unfortunately, no "gold standard" intervention exists. Research suggests that psychological inflexibility may drive procrastination. Accordingly, interventions using acceptance and mindfulness methods to increase psychological flexibility may decrease procrastination. This study compared time management and acceptance-based behavioral interventions. College students' predictions of how much assigned reading they should complete were compared to what they did complete. Procrastination, anxiety, psychological flexibility, and academic values were also measured. Although a trend suggested that time management intervention participants completed more reading, no group differences in procrastination were revealed. The acceptance-based behavioral intervention was most effective for participants who highly valued academics. Clinical implications and future research are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Investigating the Efficacy of Web-Based Transfer Training on Independent Wheelchair Transfers Through Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worobey, Lynn A; Rigot, Stephanie K; Hogaboom, Nathan S; Venus, Chris; Boninger, Michael L

    2018-01-01

    To determine the efficacy of a web-based transfer training module at improving transfer technique across 3 groups: web-based training, in-person training (current standard of practice), and a waitlist control group (WLCG); and secondarily, to determine subject factors that can be used to predict improvements in transfer ability after training. Randomized controlled trials. Summer and winter sporting events for disabled veterans. A convenience sample (N=71) of manual and power wheelchair users who could transfer independently. An individualized, in-person transfer training session or a web-based transfer training module. The WLCG received the web training at their follow-up visit. Transfer Assessment Instrument (TAI) part 1 score was used to assess transfers at baseline, skill acquisition immediately posttraining, and skill retention after a 1- to 2-day follow-up period. The in-person and web-based training groups improved their median (interquartile range) TAI scores from 7.98 (7.18-8.46) to 9.13 (8.57-9.58; P.05). A lower initial TAI score was found to be the only significant predictor of a larger percent change in TAI score after receiving training. Transfer training can improve technique with changes retained within a short follow-up window, even among experienced wheelchair users. Web-based transfer training demonstrated comparable improvements to in-person training. With almost half of the United States population consulting online resources before a health care professional, web-based training may be an effective method to increase knowledge translation. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. All rights reserved.

  8. Efficacy of simulation-based trauma team training of non-technical skills. A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjeraa, K; Møller, T P; Østergaard, D

    2014-08-01

    Trauma resuscitation is a complex situation, and most organisations have multi-professional trauma teams. Non-technical skills are challenged during trauma resuscitation, and they play an important role in the prevention of critical incidents. Simulation-based training of these is recommended. Our research question was: Does simulation-based trauma team training of non-technical skills have effect on reaction, learning, behaviour or patient outcome? The authors searched PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library and found 13 studies eligible for analysis. We described and compared the educational interventions and the evaluations of effect according to the four Kirkpatrick levels: reaction, learning (knowledge, skills, attitudes), behaviour (in a clinical setting) and patient outcome. No studies were randomised, controlled and blinded, resulting in a moderate to high risk of bias. The multi-professional trauma teams had positive reactions to simulation-based training of non-technical skills. Knowledge and skills improved in all studies evaluating the effect on learning. Three studies found improvements in team performance (behaviour) in the clinical setting. One of these found difficulties in maintaining these skills. Two studies evaluated on patient outcome, of which none showed improvements in mortality, complication rate or duration of hospitalisation. A significant effect on learning was found after simulation-based training of the multi-professional trauma team in non-technical skills. Three studies demonstrated significantly increased clinical team performance. No effect on patient outcome was found. All studies had a moderate to high risk of bias. More comprehensive randomised studies are needed to evaluate the effect on patient outcome. © 2014 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Efficacy of an Internet-based depression intervention to improve rates of treatment in adolescent mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cynthia Logsdon, M; Myers, John; Rushton, Jeff; Gregg, Jennifer L; Josephson, Allan M; Davis, Deborah Winders; Brothers, Kyle; Baisch, Kristin; Carabello, Anissa; Vogt, Krista; Jones, Kayla; Angermeier, Jennifer

    2018-06-01

    Approximately 400,000 adolescents give birth in the USA annually. Although one-half experience depressive symptoms, less than 25% comply with referrals for depression evaluation and treatment. The current study tested the effectiveness of an Internet-based depression intervention on seeking depression treatment. Based upon the theory of planned behavior (TPB), the intervention included vignettes, questions and answers, and resources. Before the intervention, immediately after the intervention, and 2 weeks later the adolescent mothers (n = 151) answered questions related to TPB variables and depression treatment. Data were compared to adolescent mothers (n = 138) in the control group. Data were collected in community organizations or home visits for the control group. Adolescent mothers in the intervention group answered questions and completed the intervention from a computer of their choice. The adolescents were primarily African American (89.2%), less than high school educated (51.7%), had given birth in last year (97.1%), with a mean age 18.2 years. The intervention led to significant changes in attitude, perceived control, intention to seek mental health treatment, and actually seeking depression treatment. Untreated postpartum depression dramatically impacts a mother's relationship with her child, her functioning at work and school, health care-seeking behaviors, mothering skills, and her development as well as the development of her child. An Internet-based depression intervention is an inexpensive method to increase rates of depression treatment.

  10. Efficacy of an internet-based problem-solving training for teachers: results of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, David Daniel; Lehr, Dirk; Boß, Leif; Riper, Heleen; Cuijpers, Pim; Andersson, Gerhard; Thiart, Hanne; Heber, Elena; Berking, Matthias

    2014-11-01

    The primary purpose of this randomized controlled trial (RCT) was to evaluate the efficacy of internet-based problem-solving training (iPST) for employees in the educational sector (teachers) with depressive symptoms. The results of training were compared to those of a waitlist control group (WLC). One-hundred and fifty teachers with elevated depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, CES-D ≥16) were assigned to either the iPST or WLC group. The iPST consisted of five lessons, including problem-solving and rumination techniques. Symptoms were assessed before the intervention began and in follow-up assessments after seven weeks, three months, and six months. The primary outcome was depressive symptom severity (CES-D). Secondary outcomes included general and work-specific self-efficacy, perceived stress, pathological worries, burnout symptoms, general physical and mental health, and absenteeism. iPST participants displayed a significantly greater reduction in depressive symptoms after the intervention (d=0.59, 95% CI 0.26-0.92), after three months (d=0.37, 95% CI 0.05-0.70) and after six months (d=0.38, 95% CI 0.05-0.70) compared to the control group. The iPST participants also displayed significantly higher improvements in secondary outcomes. However, workplace absenteeism was not significantly affected. iPST is effective in reducing symptoms of depression among teachers. Disseminated on a large scale, iPST could contribute to reducing the burden of stress-related mental health problems among teachers. Future studies should evaluate iPST approaches for use in other working populations.

  11. The Efficacy of a Family-Based Intervention Program on Childhood Obesity: A Quasi-Experimental Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chia-Ying; Kao, Chia-Chan; Hsu, Hsiu-Yueh; Wang, Ruey-Hsia; Hsu, Shu-Hua

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to assess the efficacy of a family-based (FB) weight-loss and behavior-modification intervention among overweight/obese children (age 9-11 years) and their parents in Taiwan. The intervention group (52 child-parent dyads) participated in an FB program for 7 weeks. The control group (55 child-parent dyads) received an educational pamphlet about obesity prevention. The children's body mass index (BMI) z-scores were the primary outcome variable. The parents' BMI, high-calorie (HC) food-intake behaviors, screen-related behaviors, and restrictions on children's consumption of HC foods and screen-related behaviors and the availability of HC foods at home were the secondary outcome variables. Outcome variables were measured at baseline (T0), at the end of the intervention (T1), and 4 weeks after the end of the intervention (T2). A linear mixed model was used to assess the efficacy of the FB program. Results indicated that the children's BMI z-scores decreased significantly more from T0 to T2 in the experimental group than in the control group. The decreases in parents' HC food-intake behaviors and availability of HC foods at home and the increase in parental restrictions on children's consumption of HC foods were significantly greater in the experimental than in the control group from T0 to T1 and T0 to T2. The FB program was effective in modifying parental behaviors and the weight of overweight/obese children in a Taiwanese population. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Effect of self-efficacy on weight loss: a psychosocial analysis of a community-based adaptation of the diabetes prevention program lifestyle intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Laura M; Finch, Emily A; Saha, Chandan; Marrero, David G; Ackermann, Ronald T

    2014-11-01

    Objective. Weight loss is the most effective approach to reducing diabetes risk. It is a research priority to identify factors that may enhance weight loss success, particularly among those at risk for diabetes. This analysis explored the relationships between self-efficacy, weight loss, and dietary fat intake among adults at risk for developing type 2 diabetes. Methods. This pilot, site-randomized trial was designed to compare group-based Diabetes Prevention Program lifestyle intervention delivery by YMCA staff to brief counseling alone (control) in 92 adults at risk for diabetes (BMI ≥ 24 kg/m(2), ≥ 2 diabetes risk factors, and a random capillary blood glucose of 110-199 mg/dl). Self-efficacy was measured using the Weight Efficacy Lifestyle questionnaire. Data were collected at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. A paired t test was used to determine within-group changes in self-efficacy and weight at 6 and 12 months. Using a fitted model, we estimated how much of an increase in self-efficacy was related to a 5% weight reduction at 6 and 12 months. Results. Self-efficacy was associated with a 5% reduction in baseline weight at 6 and 12 months but was not related to fat intake. Conclusion. These findings suggest that it is important to assess the level of self-efficacy when counseling adults at high risk for diabetes about weight loss. Certain aspects of self-efficacy seem to play a greater role, depending on the stage of weight loss.

  13. Effect of Self-Efficacy on Weight Loss: A Psychosocial Analysis of a Community-Based Adaptation of the Diabetes Prevention Program Lifestyle Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Emily A.; Saha, Chandan; Marrero, David G.; Ackermann, Ronald T.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective. Weight loss is the most effective approach to reducing diabetes risk. It is a research priority to identify factors that may enhance weight loss success, particularly among those at risk for diabetes. This analysis explored the relationships between self-efficacy, weight loss, and dietary fat intake among adults at risk for developing type 2 diabetes. Methods. This pilot, site-randomized trial was designed to compare group-based Diabetes Prevention Program lifestyle intervention delivery by YMCA staff to brief counseling alone (control) in 92 adults at risk for diabetes (BMI ≥ 24 kg/m2, ≥ 2 diabetes risk factors, and a random capillary blood glucose of 110–199 mg/dl). Self-efficacy was measured using the Weight Efficacy Lifestyle questionnaire. Data were collected at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. A paired t test was used to determine within-group changes in self-efficacy and weight at 6 and 12 months. Using a fitted model, we estimated how much of an increase in self-efficacy was related to a 5% weight reduction at 6 and 12 months. Results. Self-efficacy was associated with a 5% reduction in baseline weight at 6 and 12 months but was not related to fat intake. Conclusion. These findings suggest that it is important to assess the level of self-efficacy when counseling adults at high risk for diabetes about weight loss. Certain aspects of self-efficacy seem to play a greater role, depending on the stage of weight loss. PMID:25647049

  14. Efficacy of home-based visuomotor feedback training in stroke patients with chronic hemispatial neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossit, Stéphanie; Benwell, Christopher S Y; Szymanek, Larissa; Learmonth, Gemma; McKernan-Ward, Laura; Corrigan, Elaine; Muir, Keith; Reeves, Ian; Duncan, George; Birschel, Philip; Roberts, Margaret; Livingstone, Katrina; Jackson, Hazel; Castle, Pauline; Harvey, Monika

    2017-01-24

    Hemispatial neglect is a severe cognitive condition frequently observed after a stroke, associated with unawareness of one side of space, disability and poor long-term outcome. Visuomotor feedback training (VFT) is a neglect rehabilitation technique that involves a simple, inexpensive and feasible training of grasping-to-lift rods at the centre. We compared the immediate and long-term effects of VFT vs. a control training when delivered in a home-based setting. Twenty participants were randomly allocated to an intervention (who received VFT) or a control group (n = 10 each). Training was delivered for two sessions by an experimenter and then patients self-administered it for 10 sessions over two weeks. Outcome measures included the Behavioural Inattention Test (BIT), line bisection, Balloons Test, Landmark task, room description task, subjective straight-ahead pointing task and the Stroke Impact Scale. The measures were obtained before, immediately after the training sessions and after four-months post-training. Significantly greater short and long-term improvements were obtained after VFT when compared to control training in line bisection, BIT and spatial bias in cancellation. VFT also produced improvements on activities of daily living. We conclude that VFT is a feasible, effective, home-based rehabilitation method for neglect patients that warrants further investigation with well-designed randomised controlled trials on a large sample of patients.

  15. Evaluation of the efficacy of insecticidal coatings based on teflutrin and chlorpyrifos against Rhynchophorus ferrugineus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugliese, Massimo; Rettori, Andrea Alberto; Martinis, Roberto; Al-Rohily, Khalid; Velate, Suresh; Moideen, Mohamed Ashraf; Al-Maashi, Ali

    2017-08-01

    The date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.), an important economic resource for many nations worldwide, has recently been threatened by the presence of different insect pests, like the red palm weevil (RPW) Rhynchophorus ferrugineus. Two products, a glue (polyvinyl acetate) and an oil (raw linseed oil) were used as coatings and applied together with a repellent and two insecticides (teflutrin and chlorpyrifos) at different dosages on two species of palm (P. dactylifera and P. canariensis). Phytotoxic effects of the treatments were evaluated in a greenhouse on 260 potted palms (130 P. dactylifera and 130 P. canariensis) and no negative effects were observed. Afterwards, a trial lasting 400 days was carried out in a nursery located in Sicily (south Italy), treating 572 potted palm trees (286 P. dactylifera and 286 P. canariensis) with an average diameter at the base of 18-20 cm. After 400 days, 48% of the untreated palms were infested, while only 3% of date palms and 7% of Canary palms treated with insecticide at lower dosages were infested. The application of an insecticide-based coating is a good strategy to control and prevent the red palm weevil infestation, in particular on date palms. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Comparative diagnostic efficacy of recombinant LLO and PI-PLC-based ELISAs for detection of listeriosis in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryawanshi, Rahul D; Malik, Satya Veer Singh; Jayarao, Bhushan; Chaudhari, Sandeep P; Savage, Emily; Vergis, Jess; Kurkure, Nitin V; Barbuddhe, Sukhadeo B; Rawool, Deepak B

    2017-06-01

    The present study for the first time evaluates the serodiagnostic efficacy of two recombinant antigens namely, listeriolysin O (rLLO) and phosphatidyl-inositol phospholipase C (rPI-PLC). Indirect ELISA with the above recombinant antigens was used on samples collected from bovines (n=106), goats (n=138) and pigs (n=92) having either a history of abortion, emaciation and/or apparently healthy animals. Isolation of Listeria was attempted from the blood samples using USDA-FSIS method. On screening of test sera by rLLO-based ELISA, antibodies against anti-listeriolysin O (ALLO) were observed in goats (22.46%), bovines (15.10%) and pigs (16.31%). As advocated, after adsorption of positive serum samples with streptolysin O (SLO), the seropositivity for ALLO was marginally reduced (p>0.05) in goats (21.73%) and bovines (10.38%), whereas, in pigs the reduction (5.43%) was significant (pPLC-based ELISA revealed higher non-specific seropositivity for antilisterial antibodies in goats (45.65%), bovines (31.13%) and pigs (8.69%). Further, on comparing the seropositivity with isolation rate, of the 16 animals that were culturally-positive for L. monocytogenes, 15 showed ALLO positivity in unadsorbed as well as SLO-adsorbed sera by rLLO-based ELISA, however, rPI-PLC-based ELISA could detect seropositivity in only 5 animals. Moreover, rPI-PLC-based ELISA also showed seropositivity in those animals (7/30) that were culturally positive for other Listeria spp. In conclusion, rLLO can serve as a better antigen than rPI-PLC in ELISA for the serodiagnosis of listeriosis in animals; however, prior adsorption of test sera with SLO is required to avoid false positive results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Efficacy of a short-term yoga-based lifestyle intervention in reducing stress and inflammation: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Raj Kumar; Magan, Dipti; Mehta, Nalin; Sharma, Ratna; Mahapatra, Sushil Chandra

    2012-07-01

    Previously it was shown that a brief yoga-based lifestyle intervention was efficacious in reducing oxidative stress and risk of chronic diseases even in a short duration. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of this intervention in reducing stress and inflammation in patients with chronic inflammatory diseases. This study reports preliminary results from a nonrandomized prospective ongoing study with pre-post design. The study was conducted at the Integral Health Clinic, an outpatient facility conducting these yoga-based lifestyle intervention programs for prevention and management of chronic diseases. Patients with chronic inflammatory diseases and overweight/obese subjects were included while physically challenged, and those on other interventions were excluded from the study. A pretested intervention program included asanas (postures), pranayama (breathing exercises), stress management, group discussions, lectures, and individualized advice. There was a reduction in stress (plasma cortisol and β-endorphin) and inflammation (interleukin [IL]-6 and tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α) at day 0 versus day 10. Eighty-six (86) patients (44 female, 42 male, 40.07 ± 13.91 years) attended this program. Overall, the mean level of cortisol decreased from baseline to day 10 (149.95 ± 46.07, 129.07 ± 33.30 ng/mL; p=0.001) while β-endorphins increased from baseline to day 10 (3.53 ± 0.88, 4.06 ± 0.79 ng/mL; p=0.024). Also, there was reduction from baseline to day 10 in mean levels of IL-6 (2.16 ± 0.42, 1.94 ± 0.10 pg/mL, p=0.036) and TNF-α (2.85 ± 0.59, 1.95 ± 0.32 pg/mL, p=0.002). This brief yoga-based lifestyle intervention reduced the markers of stress and inflammation as early as 10 days in patients with chronic diseases; however, complete results of this study will confirm whether this program has utility as complementary and alternative therapy.

  18. Explanation of Bullying Management Strategies Based on Teachers' Self-Efficacy: Mediating Role of Teachers' Beliefs and Attitudes about Students Bullying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Beiramy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on theoretical and empirical literature, the mediator factors such as teachers' beliefs and attitudes about the bullying of students can play an important role in explaining and predicting management of bullying through perceived self-efficacy of teachers. Based on this approach, the purpose of this study was to examine the effect on teachers' perceived self-efficacy in behavior management and bullying management strategies considering the mediating role of teachers' beliefs and attitudes. The research method was descriptive and correlational that was performed using the path analysis method. In order to implement reaserch, 207 (70 males, 137 females of primary school teachers were selected by cluster sampling method and data was collected through teachers' self-efficacy questionnaire, the social behavior of students and classroom behavior management strategies. Findings of f path analysis indicate that the direct effect of self-efficacy on normative beliefs (0/15 and the direct effects of normative beliefs (0/29 and avoidance (0/19 on bullying management strategies are positive and significant p<0/05 other findings showed that teachers' beliefs and attitudes about bullying have a mediator role in the relationship between self-efficacy and strategies to manage bullying, as perceived self-efficacy of teachers in classroom behavior management can explain in total 16% of the variance in bullying management strategies and the tested model has been a good-fitting with theoretical model of research. The results show that in order to design a successful anti-bullying programs, in addition to teachers' self-efficacy, their beliefs and attitudes also need to be considered in managing and deal with bullying.

  19. Science Teacher Efficacy and Extrinsic Factors Toward Professional Development Using Video Games in a Design-Based Research Model: The Next Generation of STEM Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annetta, Leonard A.; Frazier, Wendy M.; Folta, Elizabeth; Holmes, Shawn; Lamb, Richard; Cheng, Meng-Tzu

    2013-02-01

    Designed-based research principles guided the study of 51 secondary-science teachers in the second year of a 3-year professional development project. The project entailed the creation of student-centered, inquiry-based, science, video games. A professional development model appropriate for infusing innovative technologies into standards-based curricula was employed to determine how science teacher's attitudes and efficacy where impacted while designing science-based video games. The study's mixed-method design ascertained teacher efficacy on five factors (General computer use, Science Learning, Inquiry Teaching and Learning, Synchronous chat/text, and Playing Video Games) related to technology and gaming using a web-based survey). Qualitative data in the form of online blog posts was gathered during the project to assist in the triangulation and assessment of teacher efficacy. Data analyses consisted of an Analysis of Variance and serial coding of teacher reflective responses. Results indicated participants who used computers daily have higher efficacy while using inquiry-based teaching methods and science teaching and learning. Additional emergent findings revealed possible motivating factors for efficacy. This professional development project was focused on inquiry as a pedagogical strategy, standard-based science learning as means to develop content knowledge, and creating video games as technological knowledge. The project was consistent with the Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPCK) framework where overlapping circles of the three components indicates development of an integrated understanding of the suggested relationships. Findings provide suggestions for development of standards-based science education software, its integration into the curriculum and, strategies for implementing technology into teaching practices.

  20. The iPod binocular home-based treatment for amblyopia in adults: efficacy and compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Robert F; Babu, Raiju Jacob; Clavagnier, Simon; Black, Joanna; Bobier, William; Thompson, Benjamin

    2014-09-01

    Occlusion therapy for amblyopia is predicated on the idea that amblyopia is primarily a disorder of monocular vision; however, there is growing evidence that patients with amblyopia have a structurally intact binocular visual system that is rendered functionally monocular due to suppression. Furthermore, we have found that a dichoptic treatment intervention designed to directly target suppression can result in clinically significant improvement in both binocular and monocular visual function in adult patients with amblyopia. The fact that monocular improvement occurs in the absence of any fellow eye occlusion suggests that amblyopia is, in part, due to chronic suppression. Previously the treatment has been administered as a psychophysical task and more recently as a video game that can be played on video goggles or an iPod device equipped with a lenticular screen. The aim of this case-series study of 14 amblyopes (six strabismics, six anisometropes and two mixed) ages 13 to 50 years was to investigate: 1. whether the portable video game treatment is suitable for at-home use and 2. whether an anaglyphic version of the iPod-based video game, which is more convenient for at-home use, has comparable effects to the lenticular version. The dichoptic video game treatment was conducted at home and visual functions assessed before and after treatment. We found that at-home use for 10 to 30 hours restored simultaneous binocular perception in 13 of 14 cases along with significant improvements in acuity (0.11 ± 0.08 logMAR) and stereopsis (0.6 ± 0.5 log units). Furthermore, the anaglyph and lenticular platforms were equally effective. In addition, the iPod devices were able to record a complete and accurate picture of treatment compliance. The home-based dichoptic iPod approach represents a viable treatment for adults with amblyopia. © 2014 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2014 Optometrists Association Australia.

  1. The Development of Self-Efficacy and Self-Esteem in Pharmacy Students Based on Experiential Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorra, Mark L.

    2012-01-01

    This doctoral thesis contributes to the literature on self-efficacy and self-esteem and the relationship to a student's school, age, gender, ethnicity, GPA, paid and introductory pharmacy practice experiences in a Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) program. Graduates with a high level of self-efficacy and self-esteem are more desirable as pharmacists…

  2. Conceptual and Psychometric Properties of a Self-Efficacy Perception Scale Based on Teaching Turkish as a Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Cavus; Eryaman, Mustafa Yunus; Kocer, Tugba; Kocer, Omer

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this descriptive research study is to investigate the conceptual and psychometric properties of a self-efficacy perception scale developed for determining self-efficacy perception of 3rd and 4th grade Turkish pre-service teachers, who took Turkish as a Foreign Language (TFL) course theoretically in undergraduate level, towards…

  3. The efficacy of a herbal-based toothpaste in the control of plaque and gingivitis: A clinico-biochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Jacob

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A double-blinded controlled clinical trial with parallel groups was designed to investigate the effectiveness of a herbal-based toothpaste in the control of plaque and gingivitis as compared with a conventional dentifrice. The efficacy of Colgate Herbal over Colgate tooth paste was assessed in this study. Materials and Methods: Thirty subjects with gingivitis participated in the study. All participants had at least 20 natural teeth with no probing depths greater than 3 mm and a plaque index score of 2 or more at baseline. At baseline, the clinical parameters like gingival index, plaque index and salivary pH were estimated. Paired t-test was used to compare the difference within the groups and unpaired t-test was used to compare the difference between the groups at baseline and on the 30 th day. Results: At the end of the study, there were statistically significant reductions in the gingival index and the plaque index scores within the test group. However, there were no statistically significant differences between the test and the control groups. The salivary pH changes were not statistically significant in the test group but were displaced more toward the acidic range in the control group. Conclusion: It was however concluded that the herbal-based toothpaste was as effective as the conventionally formulated dentifrice in the control of plaque and gingivitis.

  4. Community-Based Adaptive Physical Activity Program for Chronic Stroke: Feasibility, Safety, and Efficacy of the Empoli Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Mary; Benvenuti, Francesco; Macko, Richard; Taviani, Antonio; Segenni, Lucianna; Mayer, Federico; Sorkin, John D.; Stanhope, Steven J.; Macellari, Velio; Weinrich, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine whether Adaptive Physical Activity (APA-stroke), a community-based exercise program for participants with hemiparetic stroke, improves function in the community. Methods Nonrandomized controlled study in Tuscany, Italy, of participants with mild to moderate hemiparesis at least 9 months after stroke. Forty-nine participants in a geographic health authority (Empoli) were offered APA-stroke (40 completed the study). Forty-four control participants in neighboring health authorities (Florence and Pisa) received usual care (38 completed the study). The APA intervention was a community-based progressive group exercise regimen that included walking, strength, and balance training for 1 hour, thrice a week, in local gyms, supervised by gym instructors. No serious adverse clinical events occurred during the exercise intervention. Outcome measures included the following: 6-month change in gait velocity (6-Minute Timed Walk), Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), Berg Balance Scale, Stroke Impact Scale (SIS), Barthel Index, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, and Index of Caregivers Strain. Results After 6 months, the intervention group improved whereas controls declined in gait velocity, balance, SPPB, and SIS social participation domains. These between-group comparisons were statistically significant at P glucose tolerance tests were performed on a subset of participants in the intervention group. For these individuals, insulin secretion declined 29% after 6 months (P = .01). Conclusion APA-stroke appears to be safe, feasible, and efficacious in a community setting. PMID:19318465

  5. Technology-Based Feedback and Its Efficacy in Improving Gait Parameters in Patients with Abnormal Gait: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gema Chamorro-Moriana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This systematic review synthesized and analyzed clinical findings related to the effectiveness of innovative technological feedback for tackling functional gait recovery. An electronic search of PUBMED, PEDro, WOS, CINAHL, and DIALNET was conducted from January 2011 to December 2016. The main inclusion criteria were: patients with modified or abnormal gait; application of technology-based feedback to deal with functional recovery of gait; any comparison between different kinds of feedback applied by means of technology, or any comparison between technological and non-technological feedback; and randomized controlled trials. Twenty papers were included. The populations were neurological patients (75%, orthopedic and healthy subjects. All participants were adults, bar one. Four studies used exoskeletons, 6 load platforms and 5 pressure sensors. The breakdown of the type of feedback used was as follows: 60% visual, 40% acoustic and 15% haptic. 55% used terminal feedback versus 65% simultaneous feedback. Prescriptive feedback was used in 60% of cases, while 50% used descriptive feedback. 62.5% and 58.33% of the trials showed a significant effect in improving step length and speed, respectively. Efficacy in improving other gait parameters such as balance or range of movement is observed in more than 75% of the studies with significant outcomes. Conclusion: Treatments based on feedback using innovative technology in patients with abnormal gait are mostly effective in improving gait parameters and therefore useful for the functional recovery of patients. The most frequently highlighted types of feedback were immediate visual feedback followed by terminal and immediate acoustic feedback.

  6. The efficacy of social cognitive theory-based self-care intervention for rational antibiotic use: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohebbi, Bahram; Tol, Azar; Sadeghi, Roya; Yaseri, Mehdi; Akbari Somar, Negar; Doyore Agide, Feleke

    2018-05-19

    Misuse of antibiotics can be described as a failure to complete treatment, skipping of the doses and reuse of leftover medicines and overuse of antibiotics. Health education interventions are expected to enhance awareness and general belief on rational antibiotics use. Therefore, the study aimed to determine the efficacy of social cognitive theory (SCT)-based self-care intervention for rational antibiotic use. This randomized trial was conducted in a sample of 260 adults. The study participants were randomly assigned as the intervention (n=130) and a control (n=130) groups. The intervention group received self-care educational intervention of four sessions lasting 45-60 min augmented with the text messages and the control groups attended usual education program in health centers. The study participants were invited to complete questionnaires at the baseline and end of the intervention. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 23.0. Chi-square (X2), independent t-test and covariance analysis were used for data analysis. Prational antibiotic use showed a significant difference in intervention group before and after six months (P0.05). The study suggested that tailored appropriate educational programs based on SCT constructs can reflect a positive impact on appropriate antibiotics use. Therefore, a tailored health promotion intervention should be provided to enhance the awareness and general beliefs of the target groups.

  7. The Efficacy of Balance Training with Video Game-Based Therapy in Subacute Stroke Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Morone

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The video game-based therapy emerged as a potential valid tool in improving balance in several neurological conditions with controversial results, whereas little information is available regarding the use of this therapy in subacute stroke patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of balance training using video game-based intervention on functional balance and disability in individuals with hemiparesis due to stroke in subacute phase. Fifty adult stroke patients participated to the study: 25 subjects were randomly assigned to balance training with Wii Fit, and the other 25 subjects were assigned to usual balance therapy. Both groups were also treated with conventional physical therapy (40 min 2 times/day. The main outcome was functional balance (Berg Balance Scale-BBS, and secondary outcomes were disability (Barthel Index-BI, walking ability (Functional Ambulation Category, and walking speed (10-meters walking test. Wii Fit training was more effective than usual balance therapy in improving balance (BBS: 53 versus 48, P=0.004 and independency in activity of daily living (BI: 98 versus 93, P=0.021. A balance training performed with a Wii Fit as an add on to the conventional therapy was found to be more effective than conventional therapy alone in improving balance and reducing disability in patients with subacute stroke.

  8. Efficacy of a novel PCR- and microarray-based method in diagnosis of a prosthetic joint infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods enable detection and species identification of many pathogens. We assessed the efficacy of a new PCR and microarray-based platform for detection of bacteria in prosthetic joint infections (PJIs). Methods This prospective study involved 61 suspected PJIs in hip and knee prostheses and 20 negative controls. 142 samples were analyzed by Prove-it Bone and Joint assay. The laboratory staff conducting the Prove-it analysis were not aware of the results of microbiological culture and clinical findings. The results of the analysis were compared with diagnosis of PJIs defined according to the Musculoskeletal Infection Society (MSIS) criteria and with the results of microbiological culture. Results 38 of 61 suspected PJIs met the definition of PJI according to the MSIS criteria. Of the 38 patients, the PCR detected bacteria in 31 whereas bacterial culture was positive in 28 patients. 15 of the PJI patients were undergoing antimicrobial treatment as the samples for analysis were obtained. When antimicrobial treatment had lasted 4 days or more, PCR detected bacteria in 6 of the 9 patients, but positive cultures were noted in only 2 of the 9 patients. All PCR results for the controls were negative. Of the 61 suspected PJIs, there were false-positive PCR results in 6 cases. Interpretation The Prove-it assay was helpful in PJI diagnostics during ongoing antimicrobial treatment. Without preceding treatment with antimicrobials, PCR and microarray-based assay did not appear to give any additional information over culture. PMID:24564748

  9. A Chitosan—Based Liposome Formulation Enhances the In Vitro Wound Healing Efficacy of Substance P Neuropeptide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Mengoni

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there is considerable interest in developing innovative biodegradable nanoformulations for controlled administration of therapeutic proteins and peptides. Substance P (SP is a neuropeptide of 11 amino acids that belongs to the tachykinins family and it plays an important role in wound healing. However, SP is easily degradable in vivo and has a very short half-life, so the use of chitosan-based nanocarriers could enhance its pharmaceutical properties. In light of the above, the aim of this work was to produce and characterize chitosan-coated liposomes loaded with SP (SP-CH-LP as novel biomaterials with potential application in mucosal wound healing. The loaded system’s biophysical properties were characterized by dynamic light scattering with non-invasive back scattering (DLS-NIBS, mixed mode measurements and phase analysis light scattering (M3-PALS and high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet/visible light detection (HPLC-UV/VIS. Then, the efficacy of the obtained nanoformulations was examined via proof-of-principle experiments using in vitro cell assays. These assays showed an increment on cell motility and proliferation after treatment with free and encapsulated neuropeptides. Additionally, the effect of SP on wound healing was enhanced by the entrapment on CH-LP. Overall, the amenability of chitosan-based nanomaterials to encapsulate peptides and proteins constitutes a promising approach towards potential novel therapies to treat difficult wounds.

  10. Self-efficacy and arthritis disability: An updated synthesis of the evidence base and its relevance to optimal patient care

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Self-efficacy, denoting the degree of confidence an individual has in carrying out a specific activity, was initially discussed in the 1970s as a potential correlate of disease outcomes. Drawn from 35 years of related research, this review provides an updated understanding of the concept of self-efficacy and its relevance for arthritis management. There is a consistent link between self-efficacy, arthritis pain and disability, and adherence to recommended therapeutic strategies. A wide variety of intervention strategies improve arthritis self-efficacy, as well as outcomes. Steps to assess and intervene thoughtfully to maximize self-efficacy beliefs are likely to impact arthritis disability outcomes quite favorably and significantly, regardless of disease type, duration, or sociodemographic factors. PMID:28070346

  11. ACTIVE STRATEGIES DURING INQUIRY-BASED SCIENCE TEACHER EDUCATION TO IMPROVE LONG-TERM TEACHER SELF-EFFICACY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evans, Robert Harry

    2012-01-01

    products, is the personal capacity belief of self- efficacy which has been shown to be important to personal behavioral change. The purpose of this research was to develop and test a model of teacher professional development (TPD) which adds specific elements for altering teacher self......-efficacies to existing FP7 IBST products. This model was tested for its usefulness in increasing participant self-efficacy as evidenced by short and long term quantitative measures as well as by evaluation of long terminquiry lessons. Workshops to promote IBST were conducted in five different countries. Each workshop...... months. The promotion of self-efficacy in TPD provides a consistent way of evaluating the impact of IBST workshops through the use of changes in self-efficacy....

  12. Mimotope-based vaccines of Leishmania infantum antigens and their protective efficacy against visceral leishmaniasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourena Emanuele Costa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The development of cost-effective prophylactic strategies to prevent leishmaniasis has become a high-priority. The present study has used the phage display technology to identify new immunogens, which were evaluated as vaccines in the murine model of visceral leishmaniasis (VL. Epitope-based immunogens, represented by phage-fused peptides that mimic Leishmania infantum antigens, were selected according to their affinity to antibodies from asymptomatic and symptomatic VL dogs' sera. METHODOLOGY/MAIN FINDINGS: Twenty phage clones were selected after three selection cycles, and were evaluated by means of in vitro assays of the immune stimulation of spleen cells derived from naive and chronically infected with L. infantum BALB/c mice. Clones that were able to induce specific Th1 immune response, represented by high levels of IFN-γ and low levels of IL-4 were selected, and based on their selectivity and specificity, two clones, namely B10 and C01, were further employed in the vaccination protocols. BALB/c mice vaccinated with clones plus saponin showed both a high and specific production of IFN-γ, IL-12, and GM-CSF after in vitro stimulation with individual clones or L. infantum extracts. Additionally, these animals, when compared to control groups (saline, saponin, wild-type phage plus saponin, or non-relevant phage clone plus saponin, showed significant reductions in the parasite burden in the liver, spleen, bone marrow, and paws' draining lymph nodes. Protection was associated with an IL-12-dependent production of IFN-γ, mainly by CD8+ T cells, against parasite proteins. These animals also presented decreased parasite-mediated IL-4 and IL-10 responses, and increased levels of parasite-specific IgG2a antibodies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study describes two phage clones that mimic L. infantum antigens, which were directly used as immunogens in vaccines and presented Th1-type immune responses, and that significantly reduced the

  13. The Special Place Project: Efficacy of a Place-Based Case Study Approach for Teaching Geoscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosavi, Sadredin

    2014-05-01

    Achieving geoscience literacy of the general population has become increasingly important world wide as ever more connected and growing societies depend more and more on our planet's limited natural resource base. Building citizen understanding of their dependence on the local environment, and the geologic processes which created and continue to change it, has become a great challenge to educators at all levels of the education system. The Special Place Project described in this presentation explores use of a place-based case study approach combining instruction in geoscience content with development of observation, reasoning, writing and presentation skills. The approach allows students to select the locations for their individual case studies affording development of personal connections between the learner and his environment. The approach gives instructors at many grade levels the ability to develop core pedagogical content and skills while exploring the unique geologic environments relevant to the local population including such critical issues as land use, resource depletion, energy, climate change and the future of communities in a changing world. The geologic reasons for the location of communities and key events in their histories can be incorporated into the students' case studies as appropriate. The project is unique in placing all course instruction in the context of the quest to explore and gain understanding of the student's chosen location by using the inherently more generalized course content required by the curriculum. By modeling how scientists approach their research questions, this pedagogical technique not only integrates knowledge and skills from across the curriculum, it captures the excitement of scientific thinking on real world questions directly relevant to students' lives, increasing student engagement and depth of learning as demonstrated in the case study reports crafted by the students and exam results. Student learning of topics

  14. Shikonin enhances efficacy of a gene-based cancer vaccine via induction of RANTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Hui-Ming

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shikonin, a phytochemical purified from Lithospermum erythrorhizon, has been shown to confer diverse pharmacological activities, including accelerating granuloma formation, wound healing, anti-inflammation and others, and is explored for immune-modifier activities for vaccination in this study. Transdermal gene-based vaccine is an attractive approach for delivery of DNA transgenes encoding specific tumor antigens to host skin tissues. Skin dendritic cells (DCs, a potent antigen-presenting cell type, is known to play a critical role in transmitting and orchestrating tumor antigen-specific immunities against cancers. The present study hence employs these various components for experimentation. Method The mRNA and protein expression of RANTES were detected by RT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. The regional expression of RANTES and tissue damage in test skin were evaluated via immunohistochemistry assay. Fluorescein isothiocyanate sensitization assay was performed to trace the trafficking of DCs from the skin vaccination site to draining lymph nodes. Adjuvantic effect of shikonin on gene gun-delivered human gp100 (hgp100 DNA cancer vaccine was studied in a human gp100-transfected B16 (B16/hgp100 tumor model. Results Among various phytochemicals tested, shikonin induced the highest level of expression of RANTES in normal skin tissues. In comparison, mouse RANTES cDNA gene transfection induced a higher level of mRANTES expression for a longer period, but caused more extensive skin damage. Topical application of shikonin onto the immunization site before gene gun-mediated vaccination augmented the population of skin DCs migrating into the draining lymph nodes. A hgp100 cDNA gene vaccination regimen with shikonin pretreatment as an adjuvant in a B16/hgp100 tumor model increased cytotoxic T lymphocyte activities in splenocytes and lymph node cells on target tumor cells. Conclusion Together, our findings suggest that shikonin can

  15. Efficacy of melody-based aphasia therapy may strongly depend on rhythm and conversational speech formulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Stahl

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Left-hemisphere stroke patients suffering from language and speech disorders are often able to sing entire pieces of text fluently. This finding has inspired a number of melody-based rehabilitation programs – most notable among them a treatment known as Melodic Intonation Therapy – as well as two fundamental research questions. When the experimental design focuses on one point in time (cross section, one may determine whether or not singing has an immediate effect on syllable production in patients with language and speech disorders. When the design focuses on changes over several points in time (longitudinal section, one may gain insight as to whether or not singing has a long-term effect on language and speech recovery. The current work addresses both of these questions with two separate experiments that investigate the interplay of melody, rhythm and lyric type in 32 patients with non-fluent aphasia and apraxia of speech (Stahl et al., 2011; Stahl et al., 2013. Taken together, the experiments deliver three main results. First, singing and rhythmic pacing proved to be equally effective in facilitating immediate syllable production and long-term language and speech recovery. Controlling for various influences such as prosody, syllable duration and phonetic complexity, the data did not reveal any advantage of singing over rhythmic speech. This result was independent of lesion size and lesion location in the patients. Second, patients with extensive left-sided basal ganglia lesions produced more correct syllables when their speech was paced by rhythmic drumbeats. This observation is consistent with the idea that regular auditory cues may partially compensate for corticostriatal damage and thereby improve speech-motor planning (Grahn & Watson, 2013. Third, conversational speech formulas and well-known song lyrics yielded higher rates of correct syllable production than novel word sequences – whether patients were singing or speaking

  16. A high efficacy antimicrobial acrylate based hydrogels with incorporated copper for wound healing application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuković, Jovana S.; Babić, Marija M.; Antić, Katarina M.; Miljković, Miona G.; Perić-Grujić, Aleksandra A.; Filipović, Jovanka M.; Tomić, Simonida Lj., E-mail: simonida@tmf.bg.ac.rs

    2015-08-15

    In this study, three series of hydrogels based on 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate and itaconic acid, unloaded, with incorporated copper(II) ions and reduced copper, were successfully prepared, characterized and evaluated as novel wound healing materials. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the expected structure of obtained hydrogels. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed porous morphology of unloaded hydrogels, and the morphological modifications in case of loaded hydrogels. Thermal characteristics were examined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and the glass transition temperatures were observed in range of 12–50 °C. Swelling study was conducted in wide range of pHs at 37 °C, confirming pH sensitive behaviour for all three series of hydrogels. The in vitro copper release was investigated and the experimental data were analysed using several models in order to elucidate the transport mechanism. The antimicrobial assay revealed excellent antimicrobial activity, over 99% against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans, as well as good correlation with the copper release experiments. In accordance with potential application, water vapour transmission rate, oxygen penetration, dispersion characteristics, fluid retention were observed and the suitability of the hydrogels for wound healing application was discussed. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Design and evaluation of novel pH responsive hydrogel series. • Structural, morphological, thermal characterization and controlled copper release. • Antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus over 99%. • Antifungal activity against Candida albicans over 99%. • In vitro evaluation studies revealed great potential for wound healing application.

  17. Assessing the efficacy of a modified assertive community-based treatment programme in a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botha Ulla A

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of recently published randomized controlled trials conducted in developed countries have reported no advantage for assertive interventions over standard care models. One possible explanation could be that so-called "standard care" has become more comprehensive in recent years, incorporating some of the salient aspects of assertive models in its modus operandi. Our study represents the first randomised controlled trial assessing the effect of a modified assertive treatment service on readmission rates and other measures of outcome in a developing country. Methods High frequency service users were randomized into an intervention (n = 34 and a control (n = 26 group. The control group received standard community care and the active group an assertive intervention based on a modified version of the international model of assertive community treatment. Study visits were conducted at baseline and 12 months with demographic and illness information collected at visit 1 and readmission rates documented at study end. Symptomatology and functioning were measured at both visits using the PANSS, CDSS, ESRS, WHO-QOL and SOFAS. Results At 12 month follow-up subjects receiving the assertive intervention had significantly lower total PANSS (p = 0.02 as well as positive (p Conclusions Our results indicate that assertive interventions in a developing setting where standard community mental services are often under resourced can produce significant outcomes. Furthermore, these interventions need not be as expensive and comprehensive as international, first-world models in order to reduce inpatient days, improve psychopathology and overall levels of functioning in patients with severe mental illness.

  18. The microbiology and the efficacy of antibiotic-based medical treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, C W D; Yeak, C L S; Wang, D Y

    2010-12-01

    Medical therapy including appropriate antibiotic treatment is advocated for the management of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), with sinus surgery reserved for treatment failures. This study investigates the microbiology of CRS and their response to culture-directed antibiotic treatment. Sinus aspirates of mucopus from 172 consecutive CRS patients, with (n=89) and without (n=83) previous antibiotic treatment, were obtained for bacterial culture at their first visit. Medical treatment which included initial empirical and subsequent culture-directed antibiotics was instituted. Endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) was performed for patients with persistent CRS and/or complications of CRS. A follow-up of 12 months was scheduled for all patients. One hundred and twenty (69.8%) patients were treated successfully by with antibiotic-based medical therapy. Thirty-eight patients (22.1%) did not respond to medical treatment and eventually underwent FESS. The incidence of CRS with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) was higher in FESS group (n=13, 34.2%) than patients with medical treatment only (n=9, 6.7%). Staphylococcus aureus was the most common pathogen (n=43, 25%) and amongst patients with no prior antibiotic treatment, the incidence was higher in patients with CRSwNP (n=8, 53 %) than CRS without NP (CRSwoNP) (n=20, 27%). The rate of sensitivity of the cultured microbes to amoxicillin with clavulanate and cephalosporins was 78% and 70%, respectively. The microbiology of CRS in Singapore is described. Staphylococcus aureus appears to be the most common bacterial isolates in both CRS with and without nasal polyps. Medical treatment with CRS using culture-directed antibiotics is effective in the majority of patients, especially in patients without nasal polyps.

  19. Design of dendrimer-based drug delivery nanodevices with enhanced therapeutic efficacies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Rangaramanujam

    2007-03-01

    Dendrimers and hyperbranched polymers possess highly branched architectures, with a large number of controllable, tailorable, `peripheral' functionalities. Since the surface chemistry of these materials can be modified with relative ease, these materials have tremendous potential in targeted drug delivery. They have significant potential compared to liposomes and nanoparticles, because of the reduced macrophage update, increased cellular transport, and the ability to modulate the local environment through functional groups. We are developing nanodevices based on dendritic systems for drug delivery, that contain a high drug payload, ligands, and imaging agents, resulting in `smart' drug delivery devices that can target, deliver, and signal. In collaboration with the Children's Hospital of Michigan, Karmanos Cancer Institute, and College of Pharmacy, we are testing the in vitro and in vivo response of these nanodevices, by adapting the chemistry for specific clinical applications such as asthma and cancer. These materials are characterized by UV/Vis spectroscopy, flow cytometry, fluorescence/confocal microscopy, and appropriate animal models. Our results suggest that: (1) We can prepare drug-dendrimer conjugates with drug payloads of greater than 50%, for a variety of drugs; (2) The dendritic polymers are capable of transporting and delivering drugs into cells faster than free drugs, with superior therapeutic efficiency. This can be modulated by the surface functionality of the dendrimer; (3) For chemotherapy drugs, the conjugates are a factor of 6-20 times more effective even in drug-resistant cell lines; (4) For corticosteroidal drugs, the dendritic polymers provide higher drug residence times in the lung, allowing for passive targeting. The ability of the drug-dendrimer-ligand conjugates to target specific asthma and cancer cells is currently being explored using in vitro and in vivo animal models.

  20. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and transcutaneous spinal electroanalgesia: a preliminary efficacy and mechanisms-based investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Shea; Cramp, Fiona; Propert, Kate; Godfrey, Helen

    2009-09-01

    To determine the effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) and transcutaneous spinal electroanalgesia (TSE) on mechanical pain threshold (MPT) and vibration threshold (VT). A prospective, single-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Laboratory based. Thirty-four healthy volunteers (12 men and 22 women; mean age+/-standard deviation 30+/-8 years). Exclusion criteria were conditions affecting upper limb sensation and contraindications to electrical stimulation. Participants were allocated at random to receive TENS (n=8), TSE (n=8), placebo (n=9) or control (n=9). Electrical stimulation was applied for 30 minutes (from time 18 minutes to 48 minutes) via electrodes (5 cmx5 cm) placed centrally above and below the space between the C6 and C7 spinous processes, with 5 cm between electrodes. MPT (using an algometer) and VT (using a vibrameter) were recorded on seven occasions from the first dorsal interosseous muscle of the right hand - at baseline (0 minutes) and then at 10-minute intervals until the end of the 60-minute testing period. There were no statistically significant group differences in MPT (all p>0.05). Significant group differences in VT were found at 20, 30 and 40 minutes (all ptests showed that the TENS group had significantly greater VT than both the placebo [median difference 0.30 microm, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.05 to 0.66] and control (0.51 microm, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.97) groups at 20 minutes, and significantly greater VT than the control group (0.69 microm, 95% CI 0.20 to 1.17) at 30 minutes (all p<0.008). Electrical stimulation did not alter MPT. The increase in VT during TENS may be due to distraction or antidromic block of large-diameter nerve fibres. TSE failed to alter either outcome measure significantly.

  1. Chitosan-based nanoparticles for improved anticancer efficacy and bioavailability of mifepristone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijuan Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In addition to its well-known abortifacient effect, mifepristone (MIF has been used as an anticancer drug for various cancers in many studies with an in-depth understanding of the mechanism of action. However, application of MIF is limited by its poor water solubility and low oral bioavailability. In this work, we developed a drug delivery system based on chitosan nanoparticles (CNs to improve its bioavailability and anticancer activity. The MIF-loaded chitosan nanoparticles (MCNs were prepared by convenient ionic gelation techniques between chitosan (Cs and tripolyphosphate (TPP. The preparation conditions, including Cs concentration, TPP concentration, Cs/MIF mass ratio, and pH value of the TPP solution, were optimized to gain better encapsulation efficiency (EE and drug loading capacity (DL. MCNs prepared with the optimum conditions resulted in spherical particles with an average size of 200 nm. FTIR and XRD spectra verified that MIF was successfully encapsulated in CNs. The EE and DL of MCNs determined by HPLC were 86.6% and 43.3%, respectively. The in vitro release kinetics demonstrated that MIF was released from CNs in a sustained-release manner. Compared with free MIF, MCNs demonstrated increased anticancer activity in several cancer cell lines. Pharmacokinetic studies in male rats that were orally administered MCNs showed a 3.2-fold increase in the area under the curve from 0 to 24 h compared with free MIF. These results demonstrated that MCNs could be developed as a potential delivery system for MIF to improve its anticancer activity and bioavailability.

  2. The efficacy of laser therapy for musculoskeletal and skin disorders : A criteria-based meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beckerman, H.; De Bie, R. A.; Bouter, L. M.; De Cuyper, H. J.; Oostendorp, R. A.B.

    1992-01-01

    The efficacy of laser therapy for musculoskeletal and skin disorders has been assessed on the basis of the results of 36 randomized clinical trials (RCTs) involving 1,704 patients. For this purpose, a criteria-based meta- analysis that took into account the methodological quality of the individual

  3. An Evaluation of a School-Based Professional Development Program on Teachers' Efficacy for Technology Integration: Findings from an Initial Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoretz, Yvonne; Childress, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this program evaluation was to determine the impact of a school-based, job-embedded professional development program on elementary and middle school teacher efficacy for technology integration. Participant bi-weekly journal postings were analyzed using Grappling's "Technology and Learning Spectrum" (Porter, 2001) to…

  4. Analysis of Student and School Level Variables Related to Mathematics Self-Efficacy Level Based on PISA 2012 Results for China-Shanghai, Turkey, and Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usta, H. Gonca

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to analyze the student and school level variables that affect students' self-efficacy levels in mathematics in China-Shanghai, Turkey, and Greece based on PISA 2012 results. In line with this purpose, the hierarchical linear regression model (HLM) was employed. The interschool variability is estimated at approximately 17% in…

  5. Motivation and performance within a collaborative computer-based modeling task: Relations between students' achievement goal orientation, self-efficacy, cognitive processing and achievement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sins, P.H.M.; van Joolingen, W.R.; Savelsbergh, E.R.; van Hout-Wolters, B.H.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose of the present study was to test a conceptual model of relations among achievement goal orientation, self-efficacy, cognitive processing, and achievement of students working within a particular collaborative task context. The task involved a collaborative computer-based modeling task. In

  6. One-Year Efficacy Testing of Enabling Mothers to Prevent Pediatric Obesity through Web-Based Education and Reciprocal Determinism (EMPOWER) Randomized Control Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlden, Adam; Sharma, Manoj

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the Enabling Mothers to Prevent Pediatric Obesity through Web-Based Education and Reciprocal Determinism (EMPOWER) intervention at 1-year, postintervention follow-up. Method: A mixed between-within subjects design was used to evaluate the trial. Independent variables included a…

  7. Vietnam as a Case Example of School-Based Mental Health Services in Low and Middle Income Countries: Efficacy and Effects of Risk Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Hoang-Minh; Weiss, Bahr; Nguyen, Cao Minh; Tran, Nam; Pollack, Amie

    2017-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to (a) assess the efficacy of a universal classroom-based mental health and social skills program for primary school students in Vietnam, and (b) given the universal nature of the intervention, assess outcomes as a function of risk status (high versus low). RECAP-VN is a semi-structured program that provides…

  8. Efficacy of a web-based intervention with mobile phone support in treating depressive symptoms in adults with type 1 and type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nobis, Stephanie; Lehr, Dirk; Ebert, David D aniel

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Depression is common in diabetes and linked to adverse health outcomes. This study evaluated the efficacy of a guided web-based intervention in reducing depression in adults with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 260 participants with diabetes and elev...

  9. Developing Mindfulness in College Students through Movement-Based Courses: Effects on Self-Regulatory Self-Efficacy, Mood, Stress, and Sleep Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Karen; Harrison, Mandy; Adams, Marianne; Quin, Rebecca H.; Greeson, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examined whether mindfulness increased through participation in movement-based courses and whether changes in self-regulatory self-efficacy, mood, and perceived stress mediated the relationship between increased mindfulness and better sleep. Participants: 166 college students enrolled in the 2007-2008 academic year in 15 week…

  10. The Effects of Learning-Style Based Activities on Students' Reading Comprehension Skills and Self-Efficacy Perceptions in English Foreign Language Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balci, Özgül

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of learning-style based activities on students' reading comprehension skills and self-efficacy perceptions in English foreign language classes. A quasi-experimental, matching-only pretest-posttest control group design was utilized. The study was conducted with freshmen university students majoring in Elementary…

  11. The Impact of Inquiry Based Instruction on Science Process Skills and Self-Efficacy Perceptions of Pre-Service Science Teachers at a University Level Biology Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Ceylan; Sezen Vekli, Gülsah

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the influence of inquiry-based teaching approach on pre-service science teachers' laboratory self-efficacy perceptions and scientific process skills. The quasi experimental model with pre-test-post-test control group design was used as an experimental design in this research. The sample of this study included…

  12. Cross-sectional analysis of self-efficacy and social capital in a community-based healthy village project in Santa Cruz, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuasa, Motoyuki; Shirayama, Yoshihisa; Osato, Keiichi; Miranda, Cesar; Condore, Julia; Siles, Roxana

    2015-06-20

    An assessment of self-efficacy and social capital may have the potential to detect an effect of dynamic, complex and comprehensive collective actions in community-based health promotion. In 2003, a healthy village project was launched in Santa Cruz, Bolivia with technical assistance from the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). The originally developed FORSA (Fortalecimiento de Redes de Salud) model accounted for participatory processes in which people could improve their health and well-being through individual behavioral changes and family/community-driven activities. This study aimed to examine the extent of self-efficacy and social capital obtained via project activities by a cross-sectional analysis. We randomly selected 340 subjects from the healthy village project site and 113 subjects from a control area. Both groups were interviewed using the same structured questionnaire. Self-efficacy was assessed with a General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES), while social capital was measured as the frequency of formal group participation in community meetings during the past three months, perceived social solidarity, and general trust. The study results showed that the participants in the project site had higher self-efficacy and social capital compared to those in the control site. The number of times a subject participated in the health committee activities was positively associated with the self-efficacy scale. Regarding social capital, females and lower-educated people were more likely to have had more frequent participation in formal groups; males and higher-educated participants showed less formal group participation, but more generosity to contribute money for the community. The main perceived benefit of participation in formal group activities varied among individuals. The findings suggest that people in the healthy village project site have higher self-efficacy, especially those with active participation in the health committee activities. To recruit

  13. The Effectiveness of Brief Information and Self-Efficacy-Based Interventions in Influencing Snack Choices in Homeless Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Emmerson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundHomeless adults frequently experience poor nutrition. Research suggests raising self-efficacy and nutritional knowledge can increase healthy eating but that the choice of specific behavioral change techniques (BCTs is also critical. This study investigated how BCTs, operationalized to increase nutrition knowledge and self-efficacy, might influence the choice of homeless adults when presented with a “healthy” and an “unhealthy” snack.MethodsA total of 125 homeless adults were randomly allocated to watch 1 of 4 brief films: “control,” “[nutrition] information only,” “self-efficacy” (aimed at increasing self-efficacy and general healthy eating knowledge, and “enhanced self-efficacy” (as “self-efficacy,” but the presenter identified themselves as a homeless adult. Post-film, participants were invited to choose between a healthy and an unhealthy snack. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and chi square.ResultsParticipants in the “enhanced self-efficacy” condition were significantly more likely to choose the healthy option compared to those in the control condition; for the “self-efficacy” condition, the difference was marginally significant. Perceived knowledge and self-efficacy were significantly associated and those with high self-efficacy were significantly more likely to choose a healthy snack regardless of condition.ConclusionHomeless adults are more likely to make healthy snack choices if their nutritional self-efficacy is increased through encouragement by a peer.

  14. The Efficacy of Problem-based Learning in an Analytical Laboratory Course for Pre-service Chemistry Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Heojeong; Woo, Ae Ja; Treagust, David; Chandrasegaran, AL

    2014-01-01

    The efficacy of problem-based learning (PBL) in an analytical chemistry laboratory course was studied using a programme that was designed and implemented with 20 students in a treatment group over 10 weeks. Data from 26 students in a traditional analytical chemistry laboratory course were used for comparison. Differences in the creative thinking ability of students in both the treatment and control groups were evaluated before and at the end of the implementation of the programme, using the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking. In addition, changes in students' self-regulated learning skills using the Self-Regulated Learning Interview Schedule (SRLIS) and their self-evaluation proficiency were evaluated. Analysis of covariance showed that the creative thinking ability of the treatment group had improved statistically significantly after the PBL course (p effect on creative thinking ability. The SRLIS test showed that students in the treatment group used self-regulated learning strategies more frequently than students in the comparison group. According to the results of the self-evaluation, students became more positive and confident in problem-solving and group work as the semester progressed. Overall, PBL was shown to be an effective pedagogical instructional strategy for enhancing chemistry students' creative thinking ability, self-regulated learning skills and self-evaluation.

  15. Efficacy and acceptability of a home-based, family-inclusive intervention for veterans with TBI: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Laraine; Moriarty, Helene J; Robinson, Keith; Piersol, Catherine V; Vause-Earland, Tracey; Newhart, Brian; Iacovone, Delores Blazer; Hodgson, Nancy; Gitlin, Laura N

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) often undermines community re-integration, impairs functioning and produces other symptoms. This study tested an innovative programme for veterans with TBI, the Veterans' In-home Programme (VIP), delivered in veterans' homes, involving a family member and targeting the environment (social and physical) to promote community re-integration, mitigate difficulty with the most troubling TBI symptoms and facilitate daily functioning. Interviews and intervention sessions were conducted in homes or by telephone. Eighty-one veterans with TBI at a VA polytrauma programme and a key family member. This was a 2-group randomized controlled trial. Control-group participants received usual-care enhanced by two attention-control telephone calls. Follow-up interviews occurred up to 4 months after baseline interview. VIP's efficacy was evaluated using measures of community re-integration, target outcomes reflecting veterans' self-identified problems and self-rated functional competence. At follow-up, VIP participants had significantly higher community re-integration scores and less difficulty managing targeted outcomes, compared to controls. Self-rated functional competence did not differ between groups. In addition, VIP's acceptability was high. A home-based, family-inclusive service for veterans with TBI shows promise for improving meaningful outcomes and warrants further research and clinical application.

  16. Efficacy and Safety of Carbomer-Based Lipid-Containing Artificial Tear Formulations in Patients With Dry Eye Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, So-Hyang; Lim, Sung A; Tchach, Hungwon

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety profile of carbomer-based lipid-containing artificial tear formulations (CBLAT) in patients with dry eye syndrome. A multicenter parallel-group study was conducted in 412 patients with dry eye syndrome. Of these patients, 221 switched from using artificial tears to CBLAT (switching group) and 191 added CBLAT to their current treatment (add-on group). Ocular symptom scores, ocular staining grades, tear film breakup time (tBUT), Schirmer I test value, and Korean dry eye level (as defined by the Korean Corneal Disease Study Group guidelines) were evaluated at baseline and after 4 weeks of treatment. After 4 weeks of treatment, ocular surface staining grade, tBUT, Schirmer I value, ocular irritation symptom scores, and the positive rate of visual symptom improved significantly in both groups. Mean reductions in ocular surface staining grades (-0.8 ± 0.9) and ocular irritation symptom scores (-0.8 ± 0.8) in the add-on group were significantly higher than those (-0.5 ± 0.8 and -0.6 ± 0.8) in the switching group (P dry eye level was 30.1% in the switching group and 51.6% in the add-on group. More patients in the add-on group had decreased dry eye levels than those in the switching group (P dry eye syndrome.

  17. Differences in regional adiposity, bone mineral density, and physical exercise participation based on exercise self-efficacy among senior adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, J M; Gray, M; Vincenzo, J L

    2015-10-01

    The impact of exercise self-efficacy levels (ESE) on exercise participation, levels of body fat (BF), and bone mineral density (BMD) are unclear in senior-aged adults. The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of ESE on exercise participation, regional distribution of BF, and BMD among seniors. Senior adults (N.=76; 36 males, 40 females) were separated into tertiles (T1, age=60.4±1.4; T2, age=61.3±1.4; T3, age=60.4±1.5) based on self-reported levels of ESE. BMD and regional BF were measured using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and exercise participation levels were measured using the Rapid Physical-Activity Questionnaire. MANOVA revealed a significant Wilks Lambda (p exercise participation levels, android BF, gynoid BF, and spinal BMD. ANOVA revealed T3 was significantly lower for android BF (p=0.002) than T1 and T2 (30% and 26%, respectively) while gynoid BF was significantly lower (p=0.012) for T3 (24%) compared to T1. When evaluating exercise participation levels, T3 was significantly higher (p < 0.001) than T1 or T2. Spinal BMD was significantly higher (p=0.030) between T2 (10%) and T1. ESE is an important factor in senior adults ability to maintain longitudinal health.

  18. [Safety and efficacy of docetaxel in prostate cancer patients: based on the post-marketing surveillance in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mera, Takeshi; Saijo, Nagahiro; Akaza, Hideyuki

    2012-04-01

    The safety and efficacy of docetaxel in prostate cancer were evaluated based on the results of post-marketing surveillance. 149 patients were enrolled between September 2008 and May 2010. The starting dose of docetaxel was 75 mg/m² in 53 patients(36%), 70 mg/m² in 55 (37%), and ≤ 60 mg/m² in 41(28%). The median number of treatment cycles was 8 (range, 1 to 10). There was no age difference observed in the starting doses and the treatment cycles. The most common ≥ grade 3 adverse drug reactions (ADRs) were neutropenia (71%)and leukocytopenia (51%), and they occurred more frequently in patients receiving ≥ 70 mg/m². However, the multi-variate analyses revealed that ≥ grade 3 ADRs did not correlate with the starting doses. Infection-related events (≥ grade 3) and interstitial pneumonia were observed in 15% and 1% of patients, respectively. Prostate-specific-antigen (PSA) flare appeared in 19% of 95 evaluable patients at median period of 26 days from treatment initiation. It continued with median duration of 39. 5 days. PSA response rate as defined ≥ 50% level decline was 37%(95%confidence interval: 27-47) in evaluable patients. It was low in patients receiving ≤ 60 mg/m² (18%). There was no notable difference between patients with initial dose of 75 and 70 mg/m². Further investigation for the longer term is warranted.

  19. Evidence-based recommendations for analgesic efficacy to treat pain of endodontic origin: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminoshariae, Anita; Kulild, James C; Donaldson, Mark; Hersh, Elliot V

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to identify evidence-based clinical trials to aid dental clinicians in establishing the efficacy for recommending or prescribing analgesics for pain of endodontic origin. The authors prepared and registered a protocol on PROSPERO and conducted electronic searches in MEDLINE, Scopus, the Cochrane Library, and ClinicalTrials.gov. In addition, the authors manually searched the bibliographies of all relevant articles, the gray literature, and textbooks for randomized controlled trials. Two authors selected the relevant articles independently. There were no disagreements between the authors. The authors analyzed 27 randomized, placebo-controlled trials. The authors divided the studies into 2 groups: preoperative and postoperative analgesic treatments. There was moderate evidence to support the use of steroids for patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. Also, there was moderate evidence to support nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) preoperatively or postoperatively to control pain of endodontic origin. When NSAIDs were not effective, a combination of NSAIDs with acetaminophen, tramadol, or an opioid appeared beneficial. NSAIDs should be considered as the drugs of choice to alleviate or minimize pain of endodontic origin if there are no contraindications for the patient to ingest an NSAID. In situations in which NSAIDs alone are not effective, the combination of an NSAID with acetaminophen or a centrally acting drug is recommended. Steroids appear effective in irreversible pulpitis. Copyright © 2016 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The prediction of parental self-efficacy and hyper-anxiety symptoms based on the components of mindfulness in women with multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mohammadi Pour

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The present study aimed to predict parental self-efficacy and hyper-anxiety symptoms based on the components of mindfulness in women with multiple sclerosis (MS. Materials and Methods: The statistical population of this descriptive-correlational study included all women with MS in Mashhad during March-Jun 2016 who referred for treatment to clinics, neurologists and psychological centers. The statistical sample consisted of 105 women with MS who were selected using convenient sampling method. In order to collect data, Parental Self-Efficacy Questionnaire, Beck Anxiety Inventory (BIA and Mindfulness Questionnaire were used. Data were analyzed using multivariate regression method. Results: The results revealed that the components of mindfulness, judgment and non-reactivity can reduce anxiety significantly in women with MS. In addition, action with awareness, judgment and non-reactivity can increase parental self-efficacy (P

  1. Anti-aging and filling efficacy of six types hyaluronic acid based dermo-cosmetic treatment: double blind, randomized clinical trial of efficacy and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobile, Vincenzo; Buonocore, Daniela; Michelotti, Angela; Marzatico, Fulvio

    2014-12-01

    Human skin aging is a multifactorial and complex biological process affecting the different skin constituents. Even if the skin aging mechanism is not yet fully unravelled is evident that epidermis loses the principal molecule responsible for binding and retaining water molecules, resulting in loss of skin moisture and accounting for some of the most striking alterations of the aged skin. This Study investigated the cosmetic filling efficacy of Fillerina® in decreasing the skin aging signs and in improving facial volume deficiencies. A placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized clinical trial was carried out on 40 healthy female subjects showing mild to moderate clinical signs of skin aging. The effect of the treatment on skin surface and on face volumes was assessed both in the short-term (3 h after a single product application) and in the long-term (7, 14, and 30 days after continuative daily use). Three hours after a single application and after 7, 14, and 30 days of treatment the lips volume was increased by 8.5%, 11.3%, 12.8%, and 14.2%. After 7, 14, and 30 days: (1) skin sagging of the face contours was decreased by -0.443 ± 0.286, -1.124 ± 0.511, and -1.326 ± 0.649 mm, respectively; (2) skin sagging of the cheekbones contours was decreased by -0.989 ± 0.585, -2.500 ± 0.929, and -2.517 ± 0.927 mm, respectively; (3) cheekbones volume was increased by 0.875 ± 0.519, 2.186 ± 0.781, and 2.275 ± 0.725 mm, respectively; (4) wrinkle volume was decreased by -11.3%, -18.4%, and -26.3%, respectively; and (5) wrinkle depth was decreased by -8.4%, -14.5%, and -21.8% respectively. This study demonstrated the positive filling effect of Fillerina® in decreasing the clinical signs of skin aging and in improving the face volumes. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. One-year efficacy and safety of the iron-based phosphate binder sucroferric oxyhydroxide in patients on peritoneal dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floege, Jürgen; Covic, Adrian C; Ketteler, Markus; Mann, Johannes; Rastogi, Anjay; Spinowitz, Bruce; Rakov, Viatcheslav; Lisk, Laura J; Sprague, Stuart M

    2017-11-01

    Sucroferric oxyhydroxide is a noncalcium, iron-based phosphate binder that demonstrated sustained serum phosphorus control, good tolerability and lower pill burden compared with sevelamer carbonate (sevelamer) in a Phase 3 study conducted in dialysis patients. This subanalysis examines the efficacy and tolerability of sucroferric oxyhydroxide and sevelamer in the peritoneal dialysis (PD) patient population. The initial study (NCT01324128) and its extension (NCT01464190) were multicenter, Phase 3, open-label, randomized (2:1), active-controlled trials comparing sucroferric oxyhydroxide (1.0-3.0 g/day) with sevelamer (2.4-14.4 g/day) in dialysis patients over 52 weeks in total. In the overall study, 84/1055 (8.1%) patients received PD and were eligible for efficacy analysis (sucroferric oxyhydroxide, n = 56; sevelamer, n = 28). The two groups were broadly comparable to each other and to the overall study population. Serum phosphorus concentrations decreased comparably with both phosphate binders by week 12 (mean change from baseline - 0.6 mmol/L). Over 52 weeks, sucroferric oxyhydroxide effectively reduced serum phosphorus concentrations to a similar extent as sevelamer; 62.5% and 64.3% of patients, respectively, were below the Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative target range (≤1.78 mmol/L). This was achieved with a lower pill burden (3.4 ± 1.3 versus 8.1 ± 3.7 tablets/day) with sucroferric oxyhydroxide compared with sevelamer. Treatment adherence rates were 91.2% with sucroferric oxyhydroxide and 79.3% with sevelamer. The proportion of patients reporting at least one treatment-emergent adverse event was 86.0% with sucroferric oxyhydroxide and 93.1% with sevelamer. The most common adverse events with both treatments were gastrointestinal: diarrhea and discolored feces with sucroferric oxyhydroxide and nausea, vomiting and constipation with sevelamer. Sucroferric oxyhydroxide is noninferior to sevelamer for controlling serum

  3. Investigation of chronic efficacy and safety profile of two potential anti-inflammatory bipyrazole-based compounds in experimental animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domiati S

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Souraya Domiati,1 Mohammed Mehanna,2,3 Hanan Ragab,4 Hania Nakkash Chmaisse,1 Ahmed El Mallah5 1Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Beirut Arab University, Beirut, Lebanon; 2Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Beirut Arab University, Beirut, Lebanon; 3Department of Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt; 4Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt; 5Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt Purpose: Although nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are widely used to treat a variety of disorders, their administration is associated with gastrointestinal side effects, acute kidney injury and liver enzymes’ elevation. Accordingly, researchers are encouraged to create novel agents with better safety profile. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the chronic efficacy and safety profile of two compounds previously proven to have acceptable acute anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities.Materials and methods: Doses were determined through formalin-induced mice paw edema-based dose–response curves. Granuloma weight was used to assess the chronic effect of the investigated compounds as compared to the vehicle and diclofenac representing the positive and the negative controls, respectively. Mice kidneys, livers and stomachs were histologically examined. Moreover, troponin I, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen levels were measured. Results: The results highlight that the granulomas and exudates developed in mice after 7 days of treatment, with compound I and compound II were significantly lower than that of the negative control group. Moreover, compound I showed significantly better anti-inflammatory effect than diclofenac. Troponin level was undetected in all groups. Histopathological

  4. Associations of Weight Concerns With Self-Efficacy and Motivation to Quit Smoking: A Population-Based Study Among Finnish Daily Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuovinen, Eeva-Liisa; Saarni, Suoma E; Kinnunen, Taru H; Haukkala, Ari; Jousilahti, Pekka; Patja, Kristiina; Kaprio, Jaakko; Korhonen, Tellervo

    2015-09-01

    Concerns about weight gain occurring after smoking cessation may affect motivation and self-efficacy towards quitting smoking. We examined associations of smoking-specific weight concerns with smoking cessation motivation and self-efficacy in a population-based cross-sectional sample of daily smokers. Six-hundred biochemically verified (blood cotinine) current daily smokers comprising 318 men and 282 women aged 25-74 years, were studied as part of the National FINRISK (Finnish Population Survey on Risk Factors on Chronic, Noncommunicable Diseases) study and its DIetary, Lifestyle and Genetic factors in the development of Obesity and Metabolic syndrome (DILGOM) sub-study that was conducted in Finland in 2007. Self-reported scales were used to assess weight concerns, motivation and self-efficacy regarding the cessation of smoking. Multiple regression analyses of concerns about weight in relation to motivation and self-efficacy were conducted with adjustments for sex, age (years), body mass index (BMI, [kg/m(2)]), physical activity (times per week), and further controlled for nicotine dependence (Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence). Higher levels of weight concerns were associated with lower self-efficacy (β = -0.07, p motivation for smoking cessation (β = 0.02, p = 0.16). These cross-sectional population-based data do not support earlier findings that suggest that smokers with high levels of weight concerns are less motivated to quit smoking. Our data suggest that daily smokers who are highly concerned about weight may have lower self-efficacy for cessation of smoking. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. The development of self-efficacy and self-esteem in pharmacy students based on experiential education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorra, Mark L.

    This doctoral thesis contributes to the literature on self-efficacy and self-esteem and the relationship to a student's school, age, gender, ethnicity, GPA, paid and introductory pharmacy practice experiences in a Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) program. Graduates with a high level of self-efficacy and self-esteem are more desirable as pharmacists upon graduation. A quantitative survey, which includes two standardized instruments, the Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale (GSE) and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), was administered to students at five schools of pharmacy in the northeast United States, resulting in a total of 399 responses. The findings confirm the significance of paid experiences and increased levels of a student's self-efficacy in a pharmacy setting. The other finding was related to ethnicity where the Asian/Pacific Islander students showed lower self-efficacy than other ethnic groups, which may be due to a cultural difference in displaying traits of high self-efficacy. Self-esteem also showed a positive finding for students with paid experiences and students who were older. There was an ethnicity finding where Asian/Pacific Islanders scored lower on the self-esteem scale, while the African-Americans scored higher than all the other groups. The results show that students improve their levels of self-efficacy and self-esteem through extended practical experiences. Schools should provide structured experiences of a sufficient length, beyond the present 300 hours, to prepare students for their transition into a professional role. Educators should be aware of the difference in Asian/Pacific Islander culture and encourage students to demonstrate their self-efficacy and self-esteem so other professionals can recognize them for their attributes.

  6. Testing efficacy of distance and tree-based methods for DNA barcoding of grasses (Poaceae tribe Poeae) in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Joanne L; Walsh, Neville G; Cantrill, David J; Holmes, Gareth D; Murphy, Daniel J

    2017-01-01

    In Australia, Poaceae tribe Poeae are represented by 19 genera and 99 species, including economically and environmentally important native and introduced pasture grasses [e.g. Poa (Tussock-grasses) and Lolium (Ryegrasses)]. We used this tribe, which are well characterised in regards to morphological diversity and evolutionary relationships, to test the efficacy of DNA barcoding methods. A reference library was generated that included 93.9% of species in Australia (408 individuals, [Formula: see text] = 3.7 individuals per species). Molecular data were generated for official plant barcoding markers (rbcL, matK) and the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. We investigated accuracy of specimen identifications using distance- (nearest neighbour, best-close match, and threshold identification) and tree-based (maximum likelihood, Bayesian inference) methods and applied species discovery methods (automatic barcode gap discovery, Poisson tree processes) based on molecular data to assess congruence with recognised species. Across all methods, success rate for specimen identification of genera was high (87.5-99.5%) and of species was low (25.6-44.6%). Distance- and tree-based methods were equally ineffective in providing accurate identifications for specimens to species rank (26.1-44.6% and 25.6-31.3%, respectively). The ITS marker achieved the highest success rate for specimen identification at both generic and species ranks across the majority of methods. For distance-based analyses the best-close match method provided the greatest accuracy for identification of individuals with a high percentage of "correct" (97.6%) and a low percentage of "incorrect" (0.3%) generic identifications, based on the ITS marker. For tribe Poeae, and likely for other grass lineages, sequence data in the standard DNA barcode markers are not variable enough for accurate identification of specimens to species rank. For recently diverged grass species similar challenges are

  7. Family-Based Interpersonal Psychotherapy (FB-IPT) for Depressed Preadolescents: Examining Efficacy and Potential Treatment Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Laura J.; Weinberg, Rebecca J.; Brent, David A.; Mufson, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Objective To conduct a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the preliminary efficacy of family-based interpersonal psychotherapy (FB-IPT) for treating depression in preadolescents (ages 7–12) as compared to child-centered therapy (CCT), a supportive and nondirective treatment that closely approximates the standard of care for pediatric depression in community mental health. Method Preadolescents with depression (N=42) were randomly assigned FB-IPT or CCT. Pre- and posttreatment assessments included clinician-administered measures of depression, parent- and child-reported depression and anxiety symptoms, and parent-child conflict and interpersonal impairment with peers. Results Preadolescents receiving FB-IPT had higher rates of remission (66.0% vs. 31%), a greater decrease in depressive symptoms from pre- to posttreatment, and lower depressive symptoms at posttreatment (R2=0.35, Δ R2 = 0.22; B= -8.15, SE= 2.61, t(37)= -3.13, p=0.002, F2=0.28) than did preadolescents with depression receiving CCT. Furthermore, preadolescents in the FB-IPT condition reported significant reductions in anxiety and interpersonal impairment than did preadolescents in the CCT condition. Changes in social and peer impairment from pre- to posttreatment were associated with preadolescents’ posttreatment depressive symptoms. There was a significant indirect effect for decreased social impairment accounting for the association between the FB-IPT and preadolescents’ posttreatment depressive symptoms. Conclusion Findings indicate FB-IPT is an effective treatment for preadolescent depression and support further investigation of interpersonal mechanisms by which FB-IPT may reduce preadolescent depression. Clinical trial registration information Phase II Study of Family Based Interpersonal Psychotherapy (FB-IPT) for Depressed Preadolescents; http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT02054312; NCT02054312. PMID:25721184

  8. Long-Term Efficacy and Patterns of Failure After Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation: A Molecular Assay-Based Clonality Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicini, Frank A.; Antonucci, J. Vito; Wallace, Michelle R.N.; Gilbert, Samuel; Goldstein, Neal S.; Kestin, Larry; Chen, Peter; Kunzman, Jonathan; Boike, Thomas; Benitez, Pamela; Martinez, Alvaro

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the long-term efficacy and cosmetic results of accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) by reviewing our institution's experience. Methods and Materials: A total of 199 patients with early-stage breast cancer were treated prospectively with adjuvant APBI after lumpectomy using interstitial brachytherapy. All patients had negative margins, 82% had Stage I disease, median tumor size was 1.1 cm, and 12% had positive lymph nodes. The median follow-up for surviving patients was 8.6 years. Fifty-three patients (27%) have been followed for ≥10 years. Results: Six ipsilateral breast tumor recurrences (IBTRs) were observed, for a 5-year and 10-year actuarial rate of 1.6% and 3.8%, respectively. A total of three regional nodal failures were observed, for a 10-year actuarial rate of 1.6%. Five contralateral breast cancers developed, for a 5- and 10-year actuarial rate of 2.2% and 5.2%, respectively. The type of IBTR (clonally related vs. clonally distinct) was analyzed using a polymerase chain reaction-based loss of heterozygosity assay. Eighty-three percent of IBTRs (n = 5) were classified as clonally related. Multiple clinical, pathologic, and treatment-related factors were analyzed for an association with the development of an IBTR, regional nodal failure, or contralateral breast cancer. On multivariate analysis, no variable was associated with any of these events. Cosmetic results were rated as excellent/good in 99% of patients. Conclusions: Long-term results with APBI using interstitial brachytherapy continue to demonstrate excellent long-term local and regional control rates and cosmetic results. According to a polymerase chain reaction-based loss of heterozygosity assay, 83% of recurrences were classified as clonally related

  9. Efficacy and Safety of Lopinavir/ritonavir- versus Efavirenz-based Antiretroviral Therapy in HIV-Infected Pregnant Ugandan Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    COHAN, Deborah; NATUREEBA, Paul; KOSS, Catherine A.; PLENTY, Albert; LUWEDDE, Flavia; MWESIGWA, Julia; ADES, Veronica; CHARLEBOIS, Edwin D.; GANDHI, Monica; CLARK, Tamara D.; NZARUBARA, Bridget; ACHAN, Jane; RUEL, Theodore; KAMYA, Moses R.; HAVLIR, Diane V.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) is now the global standard for HIV-infected pregnant and breastfeeding women at all CD4 cell counts. We compared the efficacy and safety of an efavirenz versus lopinavir/ritonavir regimen for HIV-infected pregnant women initiating ART in rural Uganda. Design Randomized clinical trial. Methods We performed a planned secondary analysis comparing viral load suppression (HIV-1 RNA ≤400 copies/ml), safety, and HIV transmission to infants in a trial designed to test the hypothesis that lopinavir/ritonavir- versus efavirenz-based ART would reduce placental malaria (PROMOTE, ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00993031). HIV-infected, ART-naïve pregnant women at 12–28 weeks gestation and any CD4 cell count were randomized. ART was provided and participants were counseled to breastfeed for one year postpartum. Results The median age of the 389 study participants was 29 years; median CD4 cell count was 370 cells/mm3. At delivery, virologic suppression was 97.6% in the efavirenz arm and 86.0% in the lopinavir/ritonavir arm, p HIV (both in the lopinavir/ritonavir arm) and HIV-free infant survival was similar between study arms: 92.9% (lopinavir/ritonavir) versus 97.2% (efavirenz), p = 0.10. Conclusions Virologic suppression at delivery was higher with an efavirenz- versus lopinavir/ritonavir-based regimen. However, women in both arms achieved high levels of virologic suppression through one year postpartum and the risk of transmission to infants was low. PMID:25426808

  10. Efficacy and safety of lopinavir/ritonavir versus efavirenz-based antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected pregnant Ugandan women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohan, Deborah; Natureeba, Paul; Koss, Catherine A; Plenty, Albert; Luwedde, Flavia; Mwesigwa, Julia; Ades, Veronica; Charlebois, Edwin D; Gandhi, Monica; Clark, Tamara D; Nzarubara, Bridget; Achan, Jane; Ruel, Theodore; Kamya, Moses R; Havlir, Diane V

    2015-01-14

    Combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) is now the global standard for HIV-infected pregnant and breastfeeding women at all CD4⁺ cell counts. We compared the efficacy and safety of an efavirenz versus lopinavir/ritonavir regimen for HIV-infected pregnant women initiating ART in rural Uganda. Randomized clinical trial. We performed a planned secondary analysis comparing viral load suppression (HIV-1 RNA ≤400 copies/ml), safety, and HIV transmission to infants in a trial designed to test the hypothesis that lopinavir/ritonavir versus efavirenz-based ART would reduce placental malaria (PROMOTE, ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00993031). HIV-infected, ART-naive pregnant women at 12-28 weeks gestation and any CD4⁺ cell count were randomized. ART was provided and participants were counseled to breastfeed for 1 year postpartum. The median age of the 389 study participants was 29 years; median CD4⁺ cell count was 370 cells/μl. At delivery, virologic suppression was 97.6% in the efavirenz arm and 86.0% in the lopinavir/ritonavir arm (P HIV (both in the lopinavir/ritonavir arm), and HIV-free infant survival was similar between study arms: 92.9% (lopinavir/ritonavir) versus 97.2% (efavirenz) (P = 0.10). Virologic suppression at delivery was higher with an efavirenz versus lopinavir/ritonavir-based regimen. However, women in both arms achieved high levels of virologic suppression through 1 year postpartum and the risk of transmission to infants was low.

  11. Efficacy of alginate-based reflux suppressant and magnesium-aluminium antacid gel for treatment of heartburn in pregnancy: a randomized double-blind controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Pontip Meteerattanapipat; Vorapong Phupong

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the therapeutic efficacy of alginate-based reflux suppressant and magnesium-aluminium antacid gel for treatment of heartburn in pregnancy. A double-blinded, randomized, controlled trial was conducted. One hundred pregnant women at less than 36 weeks gestation with heartburn at least twice per week were randomized to either alginate-based reflux suppressant or to magnesium-aluminium antacid gel. Details of heartburn were recorded before beginning the treatm...

  12. Characterizing hospital workers' willingness to report to duty in an influenza pandemic through threat- and efficacy-based assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catlett Christina L

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hospital-based providers' willingness to report to work during an influenza pandemic is a critical yet under-studied phenomenon. Witte's Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM has been shown to be useful for understanding adaptive behavior of public health workers to an unknown risk, and thus offers a framework for examining scenario-specific willingness to respond among hospital staff. Methods We administered an anonymous online EPPM-based survey about attitudes/beliefs toward emergency response, to all 18,612 employees of the Johns Hopkins Hospital from January to March 2009. Surveys were completed by 3426 employees (18.4%, approximately one third of whom were health professionals. Results Demographic and professional distribution of respondents was similar to all hospital staff. Overall, more than one-in-four (28% hospital workers indicated they were not willing to respond to an influenza pandemic scenario if asked but not required to do so. Only an additional 10% were willing if required. One-third (32% of participants reported they would be unwilling to respond in the event of a more severe pandemic influenza scenario. These response rates were consistent across different departments, and were one-third lower among nurses as compared with physicians. Respondents who were hesitant to agree to work additional hours when required were 17 times less likely to respond during a pandemic if asked. Sixty percent of the workers perceived their peers as likely to report to work in such an emergency, and were ten times more likely than others to do so themselves. Hospital employees with a perception of high efficacy had 5.8 times higher declared rates of willingness to respond to an influenza pandemic. Conclusions Significant gaps exist in hospital workers' willingness to respond, and the EPPM is a useful framework to assess these gaps. Several attitudinal indicators can help to identify hospital employees unlikely to respond. The

  13. Possible relationships between literacy-based instructional coaching and effects on high school teachers' self-efficacy and attitudes toward teaching reading in the content areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Jessica Lynn

    Grounded in the Theory of Self-Efficacy and the Theory of Reasoned Action, this quantitative, correlational study examined if participation in literacy-based instructional coaching (one-on-one, small group) predicted both high school teachers' self-efficacy as measured by the Teachers' Sense of Efficacy Scale and teachers' attitudes toward teaching reading in the content areas measured by the Scale to Measure Attitudes Toward Teaching Reading in Content Classrooms. This study utilized a convenience sample of content teachers from three high schools in Northeastern Pennsylvania participating in a literacy coaching initiative. The volunteer sample of teachers completed the Likert-type questionnaires. The study used hierarchical regression analysis to determine values for each block of the regression models. The study correlated instances of literacy-based instructional coaching (one-on-one, small group) with the scores on the SMATTRCC and the TSES to examine predictive validity. Gender, years of experience, and content area were control variables in this study. The results of the first model indicated that there was a significant relationship between the number of coaching instances and attitudes toward teaching reading in the content area with participation in instructional coaching accounting for 9.6% of the variance in scores on the SMATTRCC. The results of the second model indicated that there was a significant relationship between the number of coaching instances and teachers' self-efficacy with participation in instructional coaching accounting for 6.1% of the variance in scores on the TSES.

  14. Effects of a Web-Based Antenatal Care System on Maternal Stress and Self-Efficacy During Pregnancy: A Study in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yi-Jing; Hsu, Yu-Yun; Hou, Ting-Wei; Chang, Chiung-Hsin

    2018-03-01

    Women may experience significant stress during pregnancy, and antenatal care and education provide a means to address this. E-health, the use of computer and information technology for health care, has been incorporated into antenatal care and education, but e-health has not been evaluated for its usefulness in addressing stress. The objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a web-based antenatal care and education system on pregnancy-related stress, general self-efficacy, and satisfaction with antenatal care. A quasi-experimental design enrolled pregnant women at 16 to 24 weeks' gestation with a low-risk pregnancy. Women in the control group (n = 67) received routine antenatal care; women in the experimental group (n = 68) also received a web-based antenatal care and education program in the second trimester. Pregnancy stress and general self-efficacy were assessed at study entry and again at 36 to 38 weeks' gestation; satisfaction with care was assessed at the study endpoint. When the pretest scores were controlled, the women in the experimental group reported significantly lower pregnancy-related stress (F  =  12.9, P web-based antenatal care and education system can improve pregnancy-related stress and general self-efficacy among pregnant women. Integrating health care with web-based or internet-based interventions may improve the quality of antenatal care. © 2018 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  15. An individual-based versus group-based exercise and counselling intervention for improving quality of life in breast cancer survivors. A feasibility and efficacy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, Fiona; Munro, Aime; Martin, Eric; Magrani, Paula; Buchan, Jena; Smith, Cathie; Piggott, Ben; Philpott, Martin

    2012-10-01

    Cancer and its treatments produce lingering side-effects that undermine the quality of life (QOL) of survivors. Exercise and psycho-therapies increase QOL among survivors, however, research is needed to identify intervention characteristics most associated with such improvements. This research aimed to assess the feasibility of a 9 week individual or group based exercise and counselling program, and to examine if a group based intervention is as effective at improving the QOL of breast cancer survivors as an individual-based intervention. A three group design was implemented to compare the efficacy of a 9 week individual (IEC n = 12) and group based exercise and counselling (GEC n = 14) intervention to a usual care (UsC n = 10) group on QOL of thirty-six breast cancer survivors. Across all groups, 90% of participants completed the interventions, with no adverse effects documented. At the completion of the intervention, there was a significant difference between groups for change in global QOL across time (p group (1.8 points). The effect size was moderate (0.70). Although the GEC improved QOL by almost 10.0 points, this increase did not reach significance. Both increases were above the minimally important difference of 7-8 points. These preliminary results suggest a combined exercise and psychological counseling program is both a feasible and acceptable intervention for breast cancer survivors. Whilst both the individual and group interventions improved QOL above the clinically important difference, only the individual based intervention was significant when compared to UsC. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Evidence-based efficacy of adaptogens in fatigue, and molecular mechanisms related to their stress-protective activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panossian, Alexander; Wikman, Georg

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this review article is to assess the level of scientific evidence presented by clinical trials of adaptogens in fatigue, and to provide a rationale at the molecular level for verified effects. Strong scientific evidence is available for Rhodiola rosea SHR-5 extract, which improved attention, cognitive function and mental performance in fatigue and in chronic fatigue syndrome. Good scientific evidence has been documented in trails in which Schisandra chinensis and Eleutherococcus senticosus increased endurance and mental performance in patients with mild fatigue and weakness. Based on their efficacy in clinical studies, adaptogens can be defined as a pharmacological group of herbal preparations that increase tolerance to mental exhaustion and enhance attention and mental endurance in situations of decreased performance. The beneficial stress-protective effect of adaptogens is related to regulation of homeostasis via several mechanisms of action associated with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the control of key mediators of stress response such as molecular chaperons (e.g. Hsp70), stress-activated c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK1), Forkhead Box O transcription factor DAF-16, cortisol and nitric oxide (NO). The key point of action of phytoadaptogens appears to be their up-regulating and stress-mimetic effects on the "stress-sensor" protein Hsp70, which plays an important role in cell survival and apoptosis. Hsp70 inhibits the expression of NO synthase II gene and interacts with glucocorticoid receptors directly and via the JNK pathway, thus affecting the levels of circulating cortisol and NO. Prevention of stress-induced increase in NO, and the associated decrease in ATP production, results in increased performance and endurance. Adaptogen-induced up-regulation of Hsp70 triggers stress-induced JNK-1 and DAF-16-mediated pathways regulating the resistance to stress and resulting in enhanced mental and physical performance and, possibly

  17. Efficacy of a Parapoxvirus ovis-based immunomodulator against equine herpesvirus type 1 and Streptococcus equi equi infections in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ons, Ellen; Van Brussel, Leen; Lane, Stephen; King, Vickie; Cullinane, Ann; Kenna, Rachel; Lyons, Pamela; Hammond, Toni-Ann; Salt, Jeremy; Raue, Rudiger

    2014-10-10

    The efficacy of Zylexis®, an immunomodulator in horses based on inactivated Parapoxvirus ovis (iPPVO), was assessed using an equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) challenge model in the presence of a natural infection with Streptococcus equi equi (S. equi). Eleven horses were treated with iPPVO and twelve were kept as controls. Six horses were challenged with EHV-1 and commingled with the horses on study. Animals were dosed on Days -2, 0 (just before commingling) and Day 7. On Day 11 significantly less nasal discharge, enlarged lymph nodes, EHV-1 shedding and lower rectal temperatures were observed in the iPPVO-treated group. In addition, iPPVO-treated horses showed significantly fewer enlarged lymph nodes on Days 17 and 19, significantly less lower jaw swelling on Day 3 and significantly lower rectal temperatures on Days 12 and 13. Dyspnoea, depression and anorexia were only recorded for the control group. Following challenge seven out of 11 horses in the iPPVO treated group shed EHV-1 but on Days 11, 12, 13, 14, 15 and 16 quantitative virus detection in this group was significantly lower as compared to the controls. All animals shed S. equi but the percentage of animals with positive bacterial detection was lower in the iPPVO group than in the control group from Day 14 through Day 28. This difference was significant on Day 24. No injection site reactions or adverse events were observed. In conclusion, Zylexis administration is safe and reduced clinical signs and shedding related to both EHV-1 and S. equi infections. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. HIV prevention and care services for female sex workers: efficacy of a targeted community-based intervention in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traore, Isidore T; Meda, Nicolas; Hema, Noelie M; Ouedraogo, Djeneba; Some, Felicien; Some, Roselyne; Niessougou, Josiane; Sanon, Anselme; Konate, Issouf; Van De Perre, Philippe; Mayaud, Philippe; Nagot, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Although interventions to control HIV among high-risk groups such as female sex workers (FSW) are highly recommended in Africa, the contents and efficacy of these interventions are unclear. We therefore designed a comprehensive dedicated intervention targeting young FSW and assessed its impact on HIV incidence in Burkina Faso. Between September 2009 and September 2011 we conducted a prospective, interventional cohort study of FSW aged 18 to 25 years in Ouagadougou, with quarterly follow-up for a maximum of 21 months. The intervention combined prevention and care within the same setting, consisting of peer-led education sessions, psychological support, sexually transmitted infections and HIV care, general routine health care and reproductive health services. At each visit, behavioural characteristics were collected and HIV, HSV-2 and pregnancy were tested. We compared the cohort HIV incidence with a modelled expected incidence in the study population in the absence of intervention, using data collected at the same time from FSW clients. The 321 HIV-uninfected FSW enrolled in the cohort completed 409 person-years of follow-up. No participant seroconverted for HIV during the study (0/409 person-years), whereas the expected modelled number of HIV infections were 5.05/409 person-years (95% CI, 5.01-5.08) or 1.23 infections per 100 person-years (p=0.005). This null incidence was related to a reduction in the number of regular partners and regular clients, and by an increase in consistent condom use with casual clients (adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=2.19; 95% CI, 1.16-4.14, p=0.01) and with regular clients (aOR=2.18; 95% CI, 1.26-3.76, p=0.005). Combining peer-based prevention and care within the same setting markedly reduced the HIV incidence among young FSW in Burkina Faso, through reduced risky behaviours.

  19. A treatise on benzimidazole based Schiff base metal(II) complexes accentuating their biological efficacy: Spectroscopic evaluation of DNA interactions, DNA cleavage and antimicrobial screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumaravel, Ganesan; Raman, Natarajan, E-mail: ramchem1964@gmail.com

    2017-01-01

    Two novel imidazole derived Schiff bases, (Z)-1-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)-N-benzylidenemethanamine (L{sup 1}) and 1-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)-N-(4-nitrobenzylidene) methanamine, and a series of their transition metal complexes of the types [M(L{sup 1}){sub 2}]Cl{sub 2} and [M(L{sup 2}){sub 2}]Cl{sub 2} where, M = Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II) and Zn(II) have been designed and synthesized. These compounds were characterized by various spectral and physicochemical data. UV–Vis, magnetic susceptibility and molar conductivity data indicate that all the complexes adopt square planar geometry. The EPR spectral data of the Cu(II) complexes have provided supportive evidence to the conclusion derived on the basis of electronic absorption and magnetic moment values. Moreover, the interaction of complexes with DNA via intercalation has been explored by absorption, fluorescence spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, viscosity and circular dichroism. Agarose gel electrophoresis technique reveals that the complexes are good metallonucleases. All the compounds have relatively high antibacterial and antifungal potencies. Among the metal complexes, Cu(II) complexes exhibit higher efficacy against all the pathogens. - Highlights: • Synthesis of new and efficient benzimidazole based DNA targeting complexes • Synthesis of efficient metallointercalators • Excellent DNA exploiting ability of Cu(II) complexes • Efficient antimicrobial agents against various pathogens.

  20. [Career exploration as related to self-efficacy and the motivation based on self-determination theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizaki, Satoko; Hiraoka, Kyoichi

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the multivariate relations between career exploration and its predictors. University sophomores and seniors completed a questionnaire about career exploration, career decision-making self-efficacy, career decision-making outcome expectations, and career motivation. Canonical correlation analysis showed that combining all predictors, i.e., career decision-making self-efficacy, career decision-making outcome expectations, and career motivations, accounted for a large portion of the career exploration variance. Of subfactors of career motivation, only "integrated and identified regulation" was significantly related to career exploration. This result suggests that career exploration is predicted by self-efficacy as well as a highly self-determinated extrinsic motivation.

  1. How an inquiry-based classroom lesson intervenes in science efficacy, career-orientation and self-determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, S.; Bogner, F. X.

    2017-11-01

    Three subscales of the 'Science Motivation Questionnaire II' (SMQII; motivational components: career motivation, self-efficacy and self-determination), with 4 items each, were applied to a sample of 209 secondary school students to monitor the impact of a 3-hour structured inquiry lesson. Four testing points (before, immediately after, 6 and 12 weeks after) were applied. The modified SMQII was factor-analyzed at each testing cycle and the structure confirmed. Only self-determination was shown to be influenced by an inquiry course, while self-efficacy and career motivation did not. Only self-efficacy and career motivation were intercorrelated and also correlated with science subject grades and subsequent achievement. Implications for using the modified SMQII subscales for research and teaching in secondary school are discussed.

  2. The effects of scenario-based simulation course training on nurses' communication competence and self-efficacy: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Li-Ling; Chang, Wen-Hui; Hsieh, Suh-Ing

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that an underappreciation of the importance of person-centered communication and inappropriate communication training could result in unsatisfactory communication performance from nurses. There are a large number of studies about communication training for nurses, but not so many about communication training in early stages of nursing career. The purpose of this study is to compare the effect of a traditional course versus scenario-based simulation training on nurses' communication competency, communication self-efficacy, and communication performance in discharge planning Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE). A randomized controlled trial was used with a pretest and two posttests. The experimental group underwent the scenario-based simulation course, whereas the control group received the traditional course. A convenience sample of 116 nurses with qualifications ranging from N0 level (novice nurses) to N2 level (competent nurses) in Taiwan's clinical nursing ladder system was recruited from a medical center in northern Taiwan. Analysis of covariance was used to determine between-subjects effects on communication competency and self-efficacy, whereas independent t test and Mann-Whitney U test were used to examine between-subjects effects on learner satisfaction and discharge planning communication performance. Paired t test was used to determine communication self-efficacy. In this study, the nurses and independent raters found scenario-based simulation training more effective than traditional communication course. However, standardized patients reported no significant difference in communication performance between the two groups of nurses. Despite that traditional classroom lectures and simulation-based communication training could both produce enhanced communication competency and self-efficacy among nurses, this study has established that the latter may be better than the former in terms of learner satisfaction and communication

  3. The Mediating Effect of Self-Efficacy in the Connections between Strength-Based Parenting, Happiness and Psychological Distress in Teens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loton, Daniel J; Waters, Lea E

    2017-01-01

    Preliminary studies of s trength-based parenting (SBP), a style of parenting that seeks to build strengths knowledge and strengths use in one's child, have reported benefits such as higher life satisfaction, subjective wellbeing, and positive emotions together with lower stress in children and teens. Two proximal mediators conveying these effects have been identified: teen's own use of strengths and strength-based coping, along with a small moderating effect of growth mindsets relating to strengths. The current study tests the potential mediating effect of self-efficacy, a sense of agency in life, in the relationship between SBP and mental health (wellbeing and illbeing) in teens. Self efficacy has been linked to wellbeing and strengths processes in past studies and is classed as a basic human need and form of eudaimonic happiness. This study reconfirmed the adaptive benefits of SBP in a large sample of Australian adolescents ( N = 11,368; 59% male; M age = 14.04, SD age = 1.99) sourced from 28 schools. Using structural equation modeling, SBP significantly and directly predicted higher happiness and lower depression, with direct effects falling into the 85th and 95th percentile of meta-analytically derived individual differences effect sizes. In addition, self-efficacy was a significant partial mediator, accounting for 40.0% of the total effect on happiness and 52.7% of the total effect on distress. Self-efficacy was also a full mediator in the case of anxiety, with a strong indirect effect. Results suggest that building strengths in teens can also build self-efficacy, and given the large effect sizes, that SBP is a promising leverage point for increasing teen wellbeing.

  4. The Mediating Effect of Self-Efficacy in the Connections between Strength-Based Parenting, Happiness and Psychological Distress in Teens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Loton

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary studies of strength-based parenting (SBP, a style of parenting that seeks to build strengths knowledge and strengths use in one’s child, have reported benefits such as higher life satisfaction, subjective wellbeing, and positive emotions together with lower stress in children and teens. Two proximal mediators conveying these effects have been identified: teen’s own use of strengths and strength-based coping, along with a small moderating effect of growth mindsets relating to strengths. The current study tests the potential mediating effect of self-efficacy, a sense of agency in life, in the relationship between SBP and mental health (wellbeing and illbeing in teens. Self efficacy has been linked to wellbeing and strengths processes in past studies and is classed as a basic human need and form of eudaimonic happiness. This study reconfirmed the adaptive benefits of SBP in a large sample of Australian adolescents (N = 11,368; 59% male; Mage = 14.04, SDage = 1.99 sourced from 28 schools. Using structural equation modeling, SBP significantly and directly predicted higher happiness and lower depression, with direct effects falling into the 85th and 95th percentile of meta-analytically derived individual differences effect sizes. In addition, self-efficacy was a significant partial mediator, accounting for 40.0% of the total effect on happiness and 52.7% of the total effect on distress. Self-efficacy was also a full mediator in the case of anxiety, with a strong indirect effect. Results suggest that building strengths in teens can also build self-efficacy, and given the large effect sizes, that SBP is a promising leverage point for increasing teen wellbeing.

  5. The role of efficacy and moral outrage norms in creating the potential for international development activism through group-based interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Emma F; McGarty, Craig A

    2009-03-01

    This paper adopts an intergroup perspective on helping as collective action to explore the ways to boost motivation amongst people in developed countries to join the effort to combat poverty and preventable disease in developing countries. Following van Zomeren, Spears, Leach, and Fischer's (2004) model of collective action, we investigated the role of norms about an emotional response (moral outrage) and beliefs about efficacy in motivating commitment to take action amongst members of advantaged groups. Norms about outrage and efficacy were harnessed to an opinion-based group identity (Bliuc, McGarty, Reynolds, & Muntele, 2007) and explored in the context of a novel group-based interaction method. Results showed that the group-based interaction boosted commitment to action especially when primed with an (injunctive) outrage norm. This norm stimulated a range of related effects including increased identification with the pro-international development opinion-based group, and higher efficacy beliefs. Results provide an intriguing instance of the power of group interaction (particularly where strengthened with emotion norms) to bolster commitment to positive social change.

  6. Efficacy of community-based physiotherapy networks for patients with Parkinson's disease: a cluster-randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munneke, Marten; Nijkrake, Maarten J; Keus, Samyra Hj; Kwakkel, Gert; Berendse, Henk W; Roos, Raymund Ac; Borm, George F; Adang, Eddy M; Overeem, Sebastiaan; Bloem, Bastiaan R

    2010-01-01

    Many patients with Parkinson's disease are treated with physiotherapy. We have developed a community-based professional network (ParkinsonNet) that involves training of a selected number of expert physiotherapists to work according to evidence-based recommendations, and structured referrals to these trained physiotherapists to increase the numbers of patients they treat. We aimed to assess the efficacy of this approach for improving health-care outcomes. Between February, 2005, and August, 2007, we did a cluster-randomised trial with 16 clusters (defined as community hospitals and their catchment area). Clusters were randomly allocated by use of a variance minimisation algorithm to ParkinsonNet care (n=8) or usual care (n=8). Patients were assessed at baseline and at 8, 16, and 24 weeks of follow-up. The primary outcome was a patient preference disability score, the patient-specific index score, at 16 weeks. Health secondary outcomes were functional mobility, mobility-related quality of life, and total societal costs over 24 weeks. Analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered, number NCT00330694. We included 699 patients. Baseline characteristics of the patients were comparable between the ParkinsonNet clusters (n=358) and usual-care clusters (n=341). The primary endpoint was similar for patients within the ParkinsonNet clusters (mean 47.7, SD 21.9) and control clusters (48.3, 22.4). Health secondary endpoints were also similar for patients in both study groups. Total costs over 24 weeks were lower in ParkinsonNet clusters compared with usual-care clusters (difference euro727; 95% CI 56-1399). Implementation of ParkinsonNet networks did not change health outcomes for patients living in ParkinsonNet clusters. However, health-care costs were reduced in ParkinsonNet clusters compared with usual-care clusters. ZonMw; Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research; Dutch Parkinson's Disease Society; National Parkinson Foundation; Stichting Robuust

  7. Superior Efficacy and Improved Renal and Bone Safety After Switching from a Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate- to a Tenofovir Alafenamide-Based Regimen Through 96 Weeks of Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJesus, Edwin; Haas, Bernard; Segal-Maurer, Sorana; Ramgopal, Moti N; Mills, Anthony; Margot, Nicolas; Liu, Ya-Pei; Makadzange, Tariro; McCallister, Scott

    2018-04-01

    We previously demonstrated superior efficacy and safety advantages in HIV-infected, virologically suppressed adults switched to a regimen containing tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) as compared with those remaining on a tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) regimen through week 48. We now report long-term data through week 96. In this randomized, active-controlled, multicenter, open-label, noninferiority trial (ClinicalTrials.gov No. NCT01815736), we randomized virologically suppressed (HIV-1 RNA TAF group or to continue one of four TDF-containing regimens (TDF group) for 96 weeks. We evaluated efficacy (HIV-1 RNA TAF n = 959, TDF n = 477). At week 96, TAF was superior to TDF in virologic efficacy, with 93% on TAF and 89% on TDF having HIV-1 RNA TAF versus TDF continued through week 96 (p TAF group versus TDF through week 96 (p TAF group as compared with one case in the TDF group. Switching to EVG/COBI/FTC/TAF (E/C/F/TAF) was associated with statistically significant efficacy and safety advantages over remaining on a standard-of-care TDF-based regimen.

  8. Efficacy of omalizumab (Xolair®) in patients with moderate to severe predominately chronic oral steroid dependent asthma in Taiwan: a retrospective, population-based database cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao-Cheng; Huang, Chien-Da; Chang, Erin; Kuo, Han-Pin

    2016-01-08

    Omalizumab (Xolair®), a recombinant monoclonal anti-IgE antibody, has demonstrated efficacy in clinical trials conducted in patients with moderate to severe persistent allergic asthma. We aimed to investigate the efficacy, discontinuation and medical resource utilization of omalizumab in the real-life setting in Taiwan. This study was a retrospective, population-based database cohort study using the Taiwan NHIRD from 2007 to 2011 assessing the efficacy of omalizumab therapy over 4 months on changes in asthma medication, asthma control, frequency of exacerbations and hospitalization rates at baseline and after omalizumab discontinuation. There was a reduction in asthma medication post omalizumab therapy and severe exacerbations and hospitalizations from baseline (31.2%, n = 282) to the end of follow-up (11.8%, n = 144, p omalizumab, the cost of ER medical expenses decreased from New Taiwan dollars (NTD) 3934 at 2 months to NTD 2860 at 12 months. Patients who received omalizumab therapy for over 4 months were more likely to reduce the use of other asthma medications and less likely to experience an asthma exacerbation, ER visits, and hospitalization, even after the discontinuation of omalizumab. These data suggest that omalizumab has efficacy in improving health outcomes in patients with moderate to severe predominately chronic oral steroid dependent asthma in the real-life setting in Taiwan.

  9. A Pilot Study to Test the Efficacy of Psychologically Based Physical Therapy Training for Treating Deployed U.S. Sailors and Marines with Musculoskeletal Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    intervention carrier training was successfully presented as a poster at the Military Health System Research Symposium (MHSRS) annual conference...other non-periodical, one-time publications Nothing to report -Other publications, conference papers, and presentations Poster abstract titled...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-2-0146 TITLE: A Pilot Study to Test the Efficacy of Psychologically Based Physical Therapy Training for Treating

  10. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for wound healing in diabetic rats: Varying efficacy after a clinically-based protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W. van Neck (Han); B. Tuk (Bastiaan); E.M.G. Fijneman (Esther ); Redeker, J.J. (Jonathan J.); Talahatu, E.M. (Edwin M.); M. Tong (Miao)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractHyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is a clinical treatment in which a patient breathes pure oxygen for a limited period of time at an increased pressure. Although this therapy has been used for decades to assist wound healing, its efficacy for many conditions is unproven and its mechanism

  11. Reading and Teaching in an Urban Middle School: Preservice Teachers' Self-Efficacy Beliefs and Field-Based Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers-Haverback, Heather; Mee, Molly

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate middle level preservice teacher self-efficacy beliefs in general, as well as in the domain of reading. The participants were 8 middle school preservice teachers enrolled in a state-mandated reading methods course and student teaching over the course of a year. As part of the yearlong internship, the…

  12. The Effectiveness of the Harm Reduction Group Therapy Based on Bandura's Self-Efficacy Theory on Risky Behaviors of Drug-Dependent Sex Worker Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabani-Bavojdan, Marjan; Rabani-Bavojdan, Mozhgan; Rajabizadeh, Ghodratollah; Kaviani, Nahid; Bahramnejad, Ali; Ghaffari, Zohreh; Shafiei-Bafti, Mehdi

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of the harm reduction group therapy based on Bandura's self-efficacy theory on risky behaviors of sex workers in Kerman, Iran. A quasi-experimental two-group design (a random selection with pre-test and post-test) was used. A risky behaviors questionnaire was used to collect. The sample was selected among sex workers referring to drop-in centers in Kerman. Subjects were allocated to two groups and were randomly classified into two experimental and control groups. The sample group consisted of 56 subjects. The experimental design was carried out during 12 sessions, and the post-test was performed one month and two weeks after the completion of the sessions. The results were analyzed statistically. By reducing harm based on Bandura's self-efficacy theory, the risky behaviors of the experimental group, including injection behavior, sexual behavior, violence, and damage to the skin, were significantly reduced in the pre-test compared to the post-test (P group therapy based on Bandura's self-efficacy theory can reduce the risky behaviors of sex workers.

  13. Trial-based psychotherapy and the efficacy of trial-based thought record in changing unhelpful core beliefs and reducing self-criticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Irismar Reis; Hemmany, Curt; Powell, Vania B; Bonfim, Thaís D; Duran, Erica P; Novais, Nilma; Velasquez, Michella; Di Sarno, Elaine; Alves, Gledson L; Cesnik, Joici A

    2012-03-01

    The best prevention against relapse results when patients are taught to restructure negative core beliefs (CBs). Efficacy of the trial-based thought record (TBTR) in decreasing the credit given by patients to negative CBs and corresponding emotions was evaluated. Patients (n = 166) were submitted to a simulation of a legal trial to assess their adherence to negative CBs and corresponding emotions after each cognitive therapy technique incorporated by TBTR. Significant reductions existed in percent values after the first and second defense attorney pleas, as well as after jury's verdict and initial preparation for the appeal (p < 0.001), relative to the investigation phase. Significant differences also emerged between the defense attorney's first and second pleas and between the defense attorney's second plea and jury's verdict, as well as preparation for the appeal (p < 0.001). There was no significant difference between percentages presented by patients submitted to TBTR used in the empty chair format relative to the conventional format. Similarly, there was no difference between outcomes, regardless of therapists' level of exposure to TBTR. TBTR may help patients reduce attachment to negative CBs and corresponding emotions. Outcomes were significantly favorable regardless of the format use and therapists' level of exposure to TBTR.

  14. Effect of simulation-based emergency cardiac arrest education on nursing students' self-efficacy and critical thinking skills: Roleplay versus lecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunsook

    2018-02-01

    Simulation education is a learning method for improving self-efficacy and critical thinking skills. However, not much study has been done on how to use it for education on emergency cardiac arrest situations, for which a multidisciplinary team approach is required. This study investigated the effects of simulation education on nursing students' self-efficacy and critical thinking skills in emergency cardiac arrest situations. A quasi-experimental research approach with a crossover design was used to compare two types of simulation instruction methods. This study was conducted with 76 nursing students divided into two groups by order of instruction methods, in November and December 2016. Both groups of participants experienced a simulation lesson based on the same emergency scenario. Group A first completed a roleplay of an emergency cardiac arrest situation in a clinical setting, while Group B first listened to a lecture on the procedure. After ten days, Group A repeated the simulation exercise after listening to the lecture, while Group B completed the simulation exercise after the roleplay. The students' self-efficacy and critical thinking skills were measured using a questionnaire before and after each session. In the first session, self-efficacy and critical thinking skills scores increased greatly from pretest to posttest for Group A in comparison to Group B; no statistically significant difference was found between the two groups. In the second session, Group B showed a significant increase between pretest and posttest, while Group A showed no significant difference. Conducting the simulation exercise after the roleplay was a more effective teaching method than conducting it after the lecture. Moreover, having the nursing students assume various roles in realistic roleplay situations combined with simulation exercises led to a deeper understanding of clinical situations and improved their self-efficacy and critical thinking skills. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier

  15. How can group-based multidisciplinary rehabilitation for patients with fibromyalgia influence patients' self-efficacy and ability to cope with their illness: a grounded theory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Marianne Uggen; Amris, Kirstine; Rydahl-Hansen, Susan

    2017-04-01

    To describe how group-based multidisciplinary rehabilitation for patients with fibromyalgia can influence patients' self-efficacy and ability to cope with their illness. Multidisciplinary rehabilitation is recommended in the management of fibromyalgia. Self-efficacy is said to influence and predict adaptive coping behaviours and functioning. However, knowledge is lacking on how rehabilitation programmes may influence self-efficacy and ability to cope, from the patients' perspective. Grounded theory study of semi-structured focus group interviews. Participants (n = 17) were included in four focus groups that had completed a two-week multidisciplinary rehabilitation programme together. Interviews were conducted four weeks after each group had completed the programme. The analysis was conducted constant comparatively applying open, axial and selective coding. Categories (in italics) were derived from data in which the explanatory core category was identified: Learning to accept and live with pain as a life condition, and linked to three categories mutually influencing each other: Increased self-acceptance of living with the illness, experiencing acceptance from others and developing new coping strategies. Thus, patients benefitted from multidisciplinary rehabilitation with stronger self-efficacy and expectations to their future coping. However, limitations in the programme were identified, as the programme was short and intensive with no subsequent follow-up, and social welfare was not sufficiently addressed. Participants also found it difficult to maintain knowledge and were lacking individual sessions with the psychologist and had waited long to receive rehabilitation. Multidisciplinary rehabilitation may advantageously be offered to patients with fibromyalgia. However, earlier action with longer programmes, in which patients' social situation is addressed, comprising individual sessions with the psychologist, with multiple repetitions of the content and follow

  16. Efficacy of Pharmacist Based Diabetes Educational Interventions on Clinical Outcomes of Adults With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Network Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allah Bukhsh

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Comparative efficacy of different pharmacist based interventions on glycemic control of type 2 diabetes patients is unclear. This review aimed to evaluate and compare the efficacy of different pharmacist based interventions on clinical outcomes of type 2 diabetes patients.Methods: A systematic search was conducted across five databases from date of database inception to September 2017. All randomized clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of pharmacist based interventions on type 2 diabetes patients were included for network meta-analysis (NMA. The protocol is available with PROSPERO (CRD42017078854.Results: A total of 43 studies, involving 6259 type 2 diabetes patients, were included. NMA demonstrated that all interventions significantly lowered glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c levels compared to usual care, but there was no statistical evidence from this study that one intervention was significantly better than the other for reducing HbA1c levels. Pharmacist based diabetes education plus pharmaceutical care showed maximum efficacy for reducing HbA1c levels [−0.86, 95% CI −0.983, −0.727; p < 0.001]. Pharmacist based diabetes education plus pharmaceutical care was observed to be statistically significant in lowering levels of systolic blood pressure [−4.94; 95%CI −8.65, −1.23] and triglycerides levels [−0.26, 95%CI −0.51, −0.01], as compared to the interventions which involved diabetes education by pharmacist, and for body mass index (BMI [−0.57; 95%CI −1.25, −0.12] in comparison to diabetes education by health care team involving pharmacist as member.Conclusion: The findings of this review demonstrate that all interventions had a significantly positive effect on HbA1c, but there was no statistical evidence from this study that one intervention was significantly better than the other for achieving glycemic control.Pharmacist based diabetes education plus pharmaceutical care showed maximum efficacy on HbA1c and

  17. Efficacy of a randomized cell phone-based counseling intervention in postponing subsequent pregnancy among teen mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Kathy S; Rodan, Margaret; Milligan, Renee; Tan, Sylvia; Courtney, Lauren; Gantz, Marie; Blake, Susan M; McClain, Lenora; Davis, Maurice; Kiely, Michele; Subramanian, Siva

    2011-12-01

    Adolescent mothers in Washington, DC have a high rate of subsequent teen pregnancies, often within 24 months. Children of teen mothers are at risk for adverse psychosocial outcomes. When adolescents are strongly attached to parents, schools, and positive peers, they may be less likely to repeat a pregnancy. This study tested the efficacy of a counseling intervention delivered by cell phone and focused on postponing subsequent teen pregnancies by strengthening healthy relationships, reproductive practices, and positive youth assets. The objective of this study was to compare time to a repeat pregnancy between the intervention and usual care groups, and, secondarily, to determine whether treatment intensity influenced time to subsequent conception. Primiparous pregnant teens ages 15-19, were recruited in Washington, DC. Of 849 teens screened, 29.3% (n = 249) met inclusion criteria, consented to participate, and completed baseline measures. They were then randomized to the intervention (N = 124) or to usual care (N = 125). Intervention group teens received cell phones for 18 months of counseling sessions, and quarterly group sessions. Follow-up measures assessed subsequent pregnancy through 24 months post-delivery. A survival analysis compared time to subsequent conception in the two treatment groups. Additional models examined the effect of treatment intensity. By 24 months, 31% of the intervention and 36% of usual care group teens had a subsequent pregnancy. Group differences were not statistically significant in intent-to-treat analysis. Because there was variability in the degree of exposure of teens to the curriculum, a survival analysis accounting for treatment intensity was performed and a significant interaction with age was detected. Participants who were aged 15-17 years at delivery showed a significant reduction in subsequent pregnancy with increased levels of intervention exposure (P teen pregnancy. Cell phone-based approaches to counseling may not be the

  18. Testing the effectiveness of a self-efficacy based exercise intervention for inactive people with type 2 diabetes mellitus: design of a controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heijden, Marion M P; Pouwer, François; Romeijnders, Arnold C; Pop, Victor J M

    2012-07-04

    Sufficient exercise is important for people with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM), as it can prevent future health problems. Despite, it is estimated that only 30-40% of people with T2DM are sufficiently active. One of the psychosocial constructs that is believed to influence physical activity behaviour, is exercise self-efficacy. The goal of this study is to evaluate a patient-tailored exercise intervention for people with T2DM that takes exercise self-efficacy into account. This study is conducted as a non-randomized controlled clinical trial. Patients are eligible when they are diagnosed with T2DM, exercise less than advised in the ADA guideline of 150 min/week of moderate-intensity aerobic physical activity, have an BMI >25 and are between 18 and 80 years old. Recruitment takes place at a Primary care organization of general practitioners and practice nurses in the south of the Netherlands.Participants are allocated to three groups: An advice intervention -for participants with a high exercise self-efficacy score- in which participants receive a patient-tailored exercise intervention, an intensive intervention -for participants with a low exercise self-efficacy score- in which participants receive a patient-tailored exercise intervention accomplished by a group based intervention, and a control group in which participants receive regular Dutch diabetes care. The primary outcome measure of this study is physical activity. Secondary outcome measures are health status, (symptoms of) depression, exercise self-efficacy, Body Mass Index (BMI), blood pressure and glycemic control. We aimed to design an intervention that can be implemented in Primary care, but also to design an easy accessible program. This study is innovative as it is -to our best knowledge- the first study that takes level of exercise self-efficacy of people with T2DM into account by means of giving extra support to those with the lowest exercise self-efficacy. If the program succeeds in increasing

  19. Testing the effectiveness of a self-efficacy based exercise intervention for inactive people with type 2 diabetes mellitus: design of a controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Heijden Marion MP

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sufficient exercise is important for people with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM, as it can prevent future health problems. Despite, it is estimated that only 30-40% of people with T2DM are sufficiently active. One of the psychosocial constructs that is believed to influence physical activity behaviour, is exercise self-efficacy. The goal of this study is to evaluate a patient-tailored exercise intervention for people with T2DM that takes exercise self-efficacy into account. Methods/Design This study is conducted as a non-randomized controlled clinical trial. Patients are eligible when they are diagnosed with T2DM, exercise less than advised in the ADA guideline of 150 min/week of moderate-intensity aerobic physical activity, have an BMI >25 and are between 18 and 80 years old. Recruitment takes place at a Primary care organization of general practitioners and practice nurses in the south of the Netherlands. Participants are allocated to three groups: An advice intervention -for participants with a high exercise self-efficacy score- in which participants receive a patient-tailored exercise intervention, an intensive intervention -for participants with a low exercise self-efficacy score- in which participants receive a patient-tailored exercise intervention accomplished by a group based intervention, and a control group in which participants receive regular Dutch diabetes care. The primary outcome measure of this study is physical activity. Secondary outcome measures are health status, (symptoms of depression, exercise self-efficacy, Body Mass Index (BMI, blood pressure and glycemic control. Discussion We aimed to design an intervention that can be implemented in Primary care, but also to design an easy accessible program. This study is innovative as it is -to our best knowledge- the first study that takes level of exercise self-efficacy of people with T2DM into account by means of giving extra support to those with the

  20. Efficacy of home-based non-pharmacological interventions for treating depression: a systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhato, Kanokporn; Lotrakul, Manote; Dellow, Alan; Ittasakul, Pichai; Thakkinstian, Ammarin; Anothaisintawee, Thunyarat

    2017-07-12

    To systematically review and compare the efficacy of all available home-based non-pharmacological treatments of depression. Systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Medline, Scopus and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) databases were searched since inceptions to 7 August 2016. Randomised controlled trials comparing the efficacy of home-based non-pharmacological interventions with usual care of patients with depression were included in the review. Depression symptom scores and disease remission rates at the end of treatment. Seventeen studies were included in the review. Home-based non-pharmacological interventions were categorised as (1) home-based psychological intervention, (2) home-based exercise intervention, (3) combined home-based psychological intervention with exercise intervention and (4) complementary medicine. Complementary medicine approaches were excluded from the meta-analysis due to heterogeneity. The standardised mean differences of post-treatment depression symptom scores between usual care groups and home-based psychological intervention, home-based exercise intervention and combined home-based psychological intervention with exercise intervention were âˆ'0.57 (95% CI âˆ'0.84 to âˆ'0.31), âˆ'1.03 (95% CI âˆ'2.89 to 0.82) and âˆ'0.78 (95% CI âˆ'1.09 to âˆ'0.47), respectively. These results suggest that only home-based psychological intervention and combined home-based psychological intervention with exercise intervention could significantly decrease depression scores. Compared with usual care groups, the disease remission rate was also significantly higher for home-based psychological intervention (pooled risk ratio=1.53; 95% CI 1.19 to 1.98) and combined home-based psychological intervention with exercise intervention (pooled risk ratio=3.47; 95% CI 2.11 to 5.70). Of all the studied interventions, combined home-based psychological intervention with

  1. Efficacy of a copper-based bactericide in controlling bacterial blight of grapevines caused by Xylophilus ampelinus

    OpenAIRE

    Komatsu, Tsutomu; Kondo, Norio

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the efficacy of a microbial copper agent to protect against bacterial blight of grapevine caused by Xylophilus ampelinus from 2012 to 2014 in Hokkaido, Japan. A solution of the basic copper wettable powder sulfate was sprayed at 10-day intervals in two processing plots, using two application protocols: seven rounds of application immediately after leaf development and three or four applications at the initial onset of the disease. Due to the low disease incidence for the durat...

  2. Immunogenicity and efficacy in mice of an adenovirus-based bicistronic rotavirus vaccine expressing NSP4 and VP7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Li; Yan, Min; Wang, Xiaonan; Ye, Jing; Mi, Kai; Yan, Shanshan; Niu, Xianglian; Li, Hongjun; Sun, Maosheng

    2015-12-02

    NSP4 and VP7 are important functional proteins of rotavirus. Proper combination of viral gene expression is favorable to improving the protection effect of subunit vaccine. In the present study, We evaluated the immunogenicity and efficacy of the bicistronic recombinant adenovirus (rAd-NSP4-VP7) and two single-gene expressing adenoviruses (rAd-NSP4, rAd-VP7). The three adenovirus vaccines were used to immunize mice by intramuscular or intranasal administration. The data showed significant increases in serum antibodies, T lymphocyte subpopulations proliferation, and cytokine secretions of splenocyte in all immunized groups. However, the serum IgA and neutralizing antibody levels of the rAd-NSP4-VP7 or rAd-VP7 groups were significantly higher than those of the rAd-NSP4, while the splenocyte numbers of IFN-γ secretion in the rAd-NSP4-VP7 or rAd-NSP4 groups was greater than that of the rAd-VP7. Furthermore, the efficacy evaluation in a suckling mice model indicated that only rAd-NSP4-VP7 conferred significant protection against rotavirus shedding challenge. These results suggest that the co-expression of NSP4 and VP7 in an adenovirus vector induce both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses efficiently, and provide potential efficacy for protection against rotavirus disease. It is possible to represent an efficacious subunits vaccine strategy for control of rotavirus infection and transmission. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Efficacy of a minimal home-based psychoeducative intervention versus usual care for managing anxiety and dyspnoea in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bove, Dorthe Gaby; Overgaard, Dorthe; Lomborg, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    investigates the efficacy of a minimal home-based psychoeducative intervention versus usual care for patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The trial is a randomised controlled trial with a 4-week and 3-month follow-up. 66 patients with severe chronic obstructive...... pulmonary disease and associated anxiety will be randomised 1:1 to either an intervention or control group. The intervention consists of a single psychoeducative session in the patient's home in combination with a telephone booster session. The intervention is based on a manual, with a theoretical...

  4. The role of self-efficacy, self-esteem and optimism for using routine health check-ups in a population-based sample. A longitudinal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajek, André; Hans-Helmut-König

    2017-12-01

    While several cross-sectional studies have shown that self-efficacy, self-esteem and optimism are associated with the use of routine health check-ups, little is known about this relationship based on longitudinal studies. Consequently, the purpose of this study was to examine whether these factors are associated with routine health check-ups longitudinally. Data were retrieved from a population-based longitudinal study of individuals (≥40years of age) residing in private households in Germany (two waves: 2008 and 2011). Widely established scales were used to quantify self-efficacy, self-esteem, and optimism. Respondents reported whether they used a health check-up in the last two years. Conditional fixed-effects logistic regressions were used (n=1504), adjusting for socio-demographic, lifestyle and health-related variables. After adjusting for various potential confounders, regression analysis revealed that the use of routine health check-ups increased with self-efficacy [OR: 1.71 (95%-CI: 1.14-2.55)], self-esteem [OR: 1.78 (1.16-2.73)], and optimism [OR: 1.37 (1.01-1.86)]. Furthermore, the use of routine health check-ups increased with changes from employment to retirement [OR: 2.60 (1.34-5.03)], whereas it was not associated with changes in age, marital status, smoking status, the number of physical illnesses, self-rated health and body-mass index. The current study stresses the importance of an association between screening behavior and self-efficacy, self-esteem and optimism longitudinally. Interventions aiming at modifying these psychological factors might help to increase the use of routine health check-ups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. 21 CFR 358.650 - Labeling of pediculicide drug products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... act against the introduction or delivery for introduction into interstate commerce of unapproved new... to the skin surface [bullet] may be present on the short hairs of groin, thighs, trunk, and underarms...

  6. Efficacy of Web-Based Collection of Strength-Based Testimonials for Text Message Extension of Youth Suicide Prevention Program: Randomized Controlled Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiha, Phyo; Pisani, Anthony R; Gurditta, Kunali; Cherry, Erin; Peterson, Derick R; Kautz, Henry; Wyman, Peter A

    2016-11-09

    Equipping members of a target population to deliver effective public health messaging to peers is an established approach in health promotion. The Sources of Strength program has demonstrated the promise of this approach for "upstream" youth suicide prevention. Text messaging is a well-established medium for promoting behavior change and is the dominant communication medium for youth. In order for peer 'opinion leader' programs like Sources of Strength to use scalable, wide-reaching media such as text messaging to spread peer-to-peer messages, they need techniques for assisting peer opinion leaders in creating effective testimonials to engage peers and match program goals. We developed a Web interface, called Stories of Personal Resilience in Managing Emotions (StoryPRIME), which helps peer opinion leaders write effective, short-form messages that can be delivered to the target population in youth suicide prevention program like Sources of Strength. To determine the efficacy of StoryPRIME, a Web-based interface for remotely eliciting high school peer leaders, and helping them produce high-quality, personal testimonials for use in a text messaging extension of an evidence-based, peer-led suicide prevention program. In a double-blind randomized controlled experiment, 36 high school students wrote testimonials with or without eliciting from the StoryPRIME interface. The interface was created in the context of Sources of Strength-an evidence-based youth suicide prevention program-and 24 ninth graders rated these testimonials on relatability, usefulness/relevance, intrigue, and likability. Testimonials written with the StoryPRIME interface were rated as more relatable, useful/relevant, intriguing, and likable than testimonials written without StoryPRIME, P=.054. StoryPRIME is a promising way to elicit high-quality, personal testimonials from youth for prevention programs that draw on members of a target population to spread public health messages. ©Phyo Thiha, Anthony

  7. Pharmacogenetics-based area-under-curve model can predict efficacy and adverse events from axitinib in individual patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yoshiaki; Tsunedomi, Ryouichi; Fujita, Yusuke; Otori, Toru; Ohba, Mitsuyoshi; Kawai, Yoshihisa; Hirata, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Hiroaki; Haginaka, Jun; Suzuki, Shigeo; Dahiya, Rajvir; Hamamoto, Yoshihiko; Matsuyama, Kenji; Hazama, Shoichi; Nagano, Hiroaki; Matsuyama, Hideyasu

    2018-03-30

    We investigated the relationship between axitinib pharmacogenetics and clinical efficacy/adverse events in advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and established a model to predict clinical efficacy and adverse events using pharmacokinetic and gene polymorphisms related to drug metabolism and efflux in a phase II trial. We prospectively evaluated the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) of axitinib, objective response rate, and adverse events in 44 consecutive advanced RCC patients treated with axitinib. To establish a model for predicting clinical efficacy and adverse events, polymorphisms in genes including ABC transporters ( ABCB1 and ABCG2 ), UGT1A , and OR2B11 were analyzed by whole-exome sequencing, Sanger sequencing, and DNA microarray. To validate this prediction model, calculated AUC by 6 gene polymorphisms was compared with actual AUC in 16 additional consecutive patients prospectively. Actual AUC significantly correlated with the objective response rate ( P = 0.0002) and adverse events (hand-foot syndrome, P = 0.0055; and hypothyroidism, P = 0.0381). Calculated AUC significantly correlated with actual AUC ( P treatment precisely predicted actual AUC after axitinib treatment ( P = 0.0066). Our pharmacogenetics-based AUC prediction model may determine the optimal initial dose of axitinib, and thus facilitate better treatment of patients with advanced RCC.

  8. Reassessment of Allied Health Professionals' Level of Self-Efficacy in, Outcome Expectancy in, and Use of Evidence-Based Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Shelley A; Hills, Andrew P; Street, Steven J; Hinchliffe, Fiona

    2016-01-01

    Evidence-based practice (EBP) is fundamental to improving patient outcomes. Factors affecting EBP capabilities are linked with institutional culture and barriers, personal self-belief, and individual ability. To effect change in capabilities, interventions must target barriers and be informed by behaviour change theory. This study measured the effect of training and organisational change on EBP measures amongst allied health professionals. All allied health staff (n=196) employed across the Mater Health Services (Brisbane, Queensland) were invited to complete a survey assessing EBP self-efficacy, outcome expectancy and use, as well as EBP training undertaken. Data were compared with those of surveys from 2010 and 2011. Response rate was 70.9% (n=139/196); 32 staff completed all surveys. Significant improvements were observed in staff undertaking training (EBP, p=0.008; research design and analysis, p=0.003) since the first survey. The significant increase in EBP self-efficacy that occurred from T1 to T2 remained at T3 (p=0.008). Fewer between-department differences were observed over time. This study identified sustained EBP self-efficacy improvements in this cohort and found that between-department differences have virtually disappeared. Ongoing interventions are required to sustain and improve staff's belief in their ability to deliver EBP.

  9. Efficacy of ethanol-based hand foams using clinically relevant amounts: a cross-over controlled study among healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marschall Sigunde

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Foams containing 62% ethanol are used for hand decontamination in many countries. A long drying time may reduce the compliance of healthcare workers in applying the recommended amount of foam. Therefore, we have investigated the correlation between the applied amount and drying time, and the bactericidal efficacy of ethanol foams. Methods In a first part of tests, four foams (Alcare plus, Avagard Foam, Bode test foam, Purell Instant Hand Sanitizer containing 62% ethanol, which is commonly used in U.S. hospitals, were applied to 14 volunteers in a total of seven variations, to measure drying times. In a second part of tests, the efficacy of the established amount of foam for a 30 s application time of two foams (Alcare plus, Purell Instant Hand Sanitizer and water was compared to the EN 1500 standard of 2 × 3 mL applications of 2-propanol 60% (v/v, on hands artificially contaminated with Escherichia coli. Each application used a cross-over design against the reference alcohol with 15 volunteers. Results The mean weight of the applied foam varied between 1.78 and 3.09 g, and the mean duration to dryness was between 37 s and 103 s. The correlation between the amount of foam applied and time until hands felt dry was highly significant (p 10-reduction: 3.05 ± 0.45 and Alcare plus (3.58 ± 0.71 was significantly less effective than the reference disinfection (4.83 ± 0.89 and 4.60 ± 0.59, respectively; p 10-reduction of 2.39 ± 0.57. Conclusions When using 62% ethanol foams, the time required for dryness often exceeds the recommended 30 s. Therefore, only a small volume is likely to be applied in clinical practice. Small amounts, however, failed to meet the efficacy requirements of EN 1500 and were only somewhat more effective than water.

  10. A phase III study of the efficacy and safety of a novel iron-based phosphate binder in dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floege, Jürgen; Covic, Adrian C; Ketteler, Markus; Rastogi, Anjay; Chong, Edward M F; Gaillard, Sylvain; Lisk, Laura J; Sprague, Stuart M

    2014-09-01

    Efficacy of PA21 (sucroferric oxyhydroxide), a novel calcium-free polynuclear iron(III)-oxyhydroxide phosphate binder, was compared with that of sevelamer carbonate in an open-label, randomized, active-controlled phase III study. Seven hundred and seven hemo- and peritoneal dialysis patients with hyperphosphatemia received PA21 1.0-3.0 g per day and 348 received sevelamer 4.8-14.4 g per day for an 8-week dose titration, followed by 4 weeks without dose change, and then 12 weeks maintenance. Serum phosphorus reductions at week 12 were -0.71 mmol/l (PA21) and -0.79 mmol/l (sevelamer), demonstrating non-inferiority of, on average, three tablets of PA21 vs. eight of sevelamer. Efficacy was maintained to week 24. Non-adherence was 15.1% (PA21) vs. 21.3% (sevelamer). The percentage of patients that reported at least one treatment-emergent adverse event was 83.2% with PA21 and 76.1% with sevelamer. A higher proportion of patients withdrew owing to treatment-emergent adverse events with PA21 (15.7%) vs. sevelamer (6.6%). Mild, transient diarrhea, discolored feces, and hyperphosphatemia were more frequent with PA21; nausea and constipation were more frequent with sevelamer. After 24 weeks, 99 hemodialysis patients on PA21 were re-randomized into a 3-week superiority analysis of PA21 maintenance dose in 50 patients vs. low dose (250 mg per day (ineffective control)) in 49 patients. The PA21 maintenance dose was superior to the low dose in maintaining serum phosphorus control. Thus, PA21 was effective in lowering serum phosphorus in dialysis patients, with similar efficacy to sevelamer carbonate, a lower pill burden, and better adherence.

  11. Effects of a mindfulness-based intervention on psychological distress, well-being, and maternal self-efficacy in breast-feeding mothers: results of a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Blasco, Josefa; Viguer, Paz; Rodrigo, Maria F

    2013-06-01

    Several pilot studies have provided evidence that mindfulness-based intervention is beneficial during pregnancy, yet its effects in mothers during the early parenting period are unknown. The purpose of the present pilot study was to examine the effectiveness of a mindfulness-based intervention in breast-feeding mothers. We developed and tested an 8-week mindfulness-based intervention aimed at improving maternal self-efficacy, mindfulness, self-compassion, satisfaction with life, and subjective happiness, and at reducing psychological distress. A randomized controlled, between-groups design was used with treatment and control groups (n = 26) and pretest and posttest measures. ANCOVA results indicated that, compared to the control group, mothers in the treatment group scored significantly higher on maternal self-efficacy, some dimensions of mindfulness (observing, acting with awareness, non-judging, and non-reactivity), and self-compassion (self-kindness, mindfulness, over-identification, and total self-compassion). In addition, mothers who received the treatment exhibited significantly less anxiety, stress, and psychological distress. The results supported previous research findings about the benefits of mindfulness-based intervention in women from the perinatal and postpartum periods through the early parenting period. Additional research is needed to validate our findings in non-breast-feeding mothers and to examine the intervention's indirect benefits in terms of family relationships and child development.

  12. Testing the efficacy of web-based cognitive behavioural therapy for adult patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CBIT): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janse, Anthonie; Worm-Smeitink, Margreet; Bussel-Lagarde, José; Bleijenberg, Gijs; Nikolaus, Stephanie; Knoop, Hans

    2015-08-12

    Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for fatigue and disabilities in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). However, treatment capacity is limited. Providing web-based CBT and tailoring the amount of contact with the therapist to the individual needs of the patient may increase the efficiency of the intervention. Web-based CBT for adolescents with CFS has proven to be effective in reducing fatigue and increasing school attendance. In the proposed study the efficacy of a web-based CBT intervention for adult patients with CFS will be explored. Two different formats of web-based CBT will be tested. In the first format named protocol driven feedback, patients report on their progress and receive feedback from a therapist according to a preset schedule. In the second format named support on demand, feedback and support of the therapist is only given when patients ask for it. The primary objective of the study is to determine the efficacy of a web-based CBT intervention on fatigue severity. A randomized clinical trial will be conducted. Two-hundred-forty adults who have been diagnosed with CFS according to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) consensus criteria will be recruited and randomized to one of three conditions: web-based CBT with protocol driven feedback, web-based CBT with support on demand, or wait list. Feedback will be delivered by therapists specialized in CBT for CFS. Each of the web-based CBT interventions will be compared to a wait list condition with respect to its effect on the primary outcome measure; fatigue severity. Secondary outcome measures are level of disability, physical functioning, psychological distress, and the proportion of patients with clinical significant improvement in fatigue severity. Outcomes will be assessed at baseline and six months post randomization. The web-based CBT formats will be compared with respect to the time therapists need to deliver the intervention. As far as we

  13. Effects of Simulation With Problem-Based Learning Program on Metacognition, Team Efficacy, and Learning Attitude in Nursing Students: Nursing Care With Increased Intracranial Pressure Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myung-Nam; Nam, Kyung-Dong; Kim, Hyeon-Young

    2017-03-01

    Nursing care for patients with central nervous system problems requires advanced professional knowledge and care skills. Nursing students are more likely to have difficulty in dealing with adult patients who have severe neurological problems in clinical practice. This study investigated the effect on the metacognition, team efficacy, and learning attitude of nursing students after an integrated simulation and problem-based learning program. A real scenario of a patient with increased intracranial pressure was simulated for the students. The results showed that this method was effective in improving the metacognitive ability of the students. Furthermore, we used this comprehensive model of simulation with problem-based learning in order to assess the consequences of student satisfaction with the nursing major, interpersonal relationships, and importance of simulation-based education in relation to the effectiveness of the integrated simulation with problem-based learning. The results can be used to improve the design of clinical practicum and nursing education.

  14. Is a video-based cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia as efficacious as a professionally administered treatment in breast cancer? Results of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savard, Josée; Ivers, Hans; Savard, Marie-Hélène; Morin, Charles M

    2014-08-01

    To assess the short-term efficacy of a video-based cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) as compared to a professionally administered CBT-I and to a no-treatment group. Randomized controlled trial. Radio-oncology department of a public hospital affiliated with Université Laval (CHU de Québec). Two hundred forty-two women with breast cancer who had received radiation therapy in the past 18 mo and who had insomnia symptoms or were using hypnotic medications were randomized to: (1) professionally administered CBT-I (PCBT-I; n = 81); (2) video-based CBT-I (VCBT-I; n = 80); and (3) no treatment (CTL; n = 81). PCBT-I composed of six weekly, individual sessions of approximately 50 min; VCBT-I composed of a 60-min animated video + six booklets. Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) total score and sleep parameters derived from a daily sleep diary and actigraphy, collected at pretreatment and posttreatment. PCBT-I and VCBT-I were associated with significantly greater sleep improvements, assessed subjectively, as compared to CTL. However, relative to VCBT-I, PCBT-I was associated with significantly greater improvements of insomnia severity, early morning awakenings, depression, fatigue, and dysfunctional beliefs about sleep. The remission rates of insomnia (ISI insomnia (CBT-I) using a video format appears to be a valuable treatment option, but face-to-face sessions remain the optimal format for administering CBT-I efficaciously in patients with breast cancer. Self-help interventions for insomnia may constitute an appropriate entry level as part of a stepped care model. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00674830. Savard J, Ivers H, Savard MH, Morin CM. Is a video-based cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia as efficacious as a professionally administered treatment in breast cancer? Results of a randomized controlled trial.

  15. Registered nurses' perception of self-efficacy and competence in smoking cessation after participating in a web-based learning activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosvall, Annica; Carlson, Elisabeth

    2017-12-01

    To describe how registered nurses having undergone a web-based learning activity perceive their self-efficacy and competence to support patients with smoking cessation in connection with surgery. Smoking cessation in connection with surgery reduces postoperative complications, and the support patients get from registered nurses may be important in helping them become smoke-free in connection with their surgery. Therefore, registered nurses are in need of enhanced understanding about which kind of counselling is the most effective for smoking cessation. Educating large groups of registered nurses in a digital environment appears to be a flexible and cost-effective way. A convergent mixed-method design with data collection was done using questionnaires (n = 47) and semistructured interviews (n = 11). Inclusion criteria were registered nurses in surgical wards. The samples were nonprobability and modified nested. Descriptive statistics and content analysis were used for data analysis. After completing the web-based learning activity, the registered nurses perception was that of good self-efficacy and increased competence in supporting patients with smoking cessation in connection with surgery. They improved their understanding of how to talk about smoking cessation with patients in dialogue using open-ended questions. Nevertheless, the registered nurses requested opportunities for dialogue and interaction with colleagues or topic experts. The results indicate that registered nurses can enhance their competence in supporting patients to embrace smoking cessation by learning in a digital environment. Self-efficacy and understanding of the topic seems to motivate registered nurses to counsel patients about smoking cessation. Findings from this study will be of particular interest to educators in healthcare settings who can devise further development of web-based learning activities. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Self-assembling protein nanoparticles with built-in flagellin domains increases protective efficacy of a Plasmodium falciparum based vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaba, Stephen A; Karch, Christopher P; Seth, Labdhi; Ferlez, Karen M B; Storme, Casey K; Pesavento, Danielle M; Laughlin, Paige Y; Bergmann-Leitner, Elke S; Burkhard, Peter; Lanar, David E

    2018-02-01

    To eliminate the problems associated with the use of extraneous adjuvants we have designed a Self-Assembling Protein Nanoparticle (SAPN) containing epitopes from the Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein (PfCSP) (designated FMP014) and portions of the TLR5 agonist flagellin (designated FMP014 D0D1 ) as an intrinsic adjuvant. By combining different molar ratios of FMP014 to FMP014 D0D1 monomers before self-assembly, we generated multiple nanoparticles and investigated their biophysical characteristics, immunogenicity and protective efficacy. Immunization with the construct formulated with the ratio 58:2 of FMP014 to FMP014 D0D1 had the highest protective efficacy against a challenge with a transgenic P. berghei sporozoite expressing PfCSP. Increasing the proportion of flagellin per particle resulted in an inverse relationship with levels of both antibody titers and protection. The cytokine profiles of the various immunization groups were evaluated and quantitative amounts of the cytokines IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-12/p70 (Th1); IL4, IL5 (Th2); TNF-α, IL1β, IL-6, KC/GRO (pro-inflammatory), and IL-10 (immunomodulatory) were measured. The relationship of the cytokines to each other revealed a strong immunomodulatory effect depending on the proportion of flagellin in the construct. Our results demonstrate that SAPNs with flagellin may be a promising strategy for the development and delivery of a safe vaccine for infectious diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Efficacy of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy on Late Post-Treatment Pain in Women Treated for Primary Breast Cancer: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Maja; O Connor, Maja; OToole, Mia Skytte

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess the efficacy of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) for late post-treatment pain in women treated for primary breast cancer. METHODS: A randomized wait list-controlled trial was conducted with 129 women treated for breast cancer reporting post-treatment pain (score ≥ 3...... pain rehabilitation strategy for women treated for breast cancer. In addition, the effect on neuropathic pain, a pain type reported by women treated for breast cancer, further suggests the potential of MBCT but should be considered preliminary....

  18. How can group-based multidisciplinary rehabilitation for patients with fibromyalgia influence patients' self-efficacy and ability to cope with their illness: a grounded theory approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uggen Rasmussen, Marianne; Amris, K; Rydahl-Hansen, Susan

    2017-01-01

    Aims and objectives: To describe how group-based multidisciplinary rehabilitation for patients with fibromyalgia can influence patients' self-efficacy and ability to cope with their illness. Background: Multidisciplinary rehabilitation is recommended in the management of fibromyalgia. Self...... coding. Results: Categories (in italics) were derived from data in which the explanatory core category was identified: Learning to accept and live with pain as a life condition, and linked to three categories mutually influencing each other: Increased self-acceptance of living with the illness...

  19. THE EFFECTS OF ELECTIVE COURSE DESIGNED WITH DIFFERENT CONTENTS ON PRE-SERVICE SCIENCE TEACHERS’ SELF-EFFICACY BELIEFS AND KNOWLEDGE ABOUT ORGANIZING CURRICULUM BASED FIELD TRIPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aykut Emre Bozdoğan

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This research examined the effect of a course designed with different content on pre-service science teachers’ self-efficacy beliefs and knowledge about organizing curriculum-based trips. A pre-test post-test quasi experimental design was used in the research. One-hundred and thirty pre-service science teachers participated in the research. The research was carried out within the context of an elective course called “Informal Learning Environments in Science Education” and was conducted over 14 weeks in total for two hours per week. The research data were obtained by means of a questionnaire, self–efficacy scale for designing curriculum-based field trips (CFTSES and semi-structured focus-group interviews. As a result of the research, it was found that the course content which included in-class and out-of-school setting practices in the 3rd group was the most effective. This was followed by the 2nd group which included only in-class implementations. The first group which was supported with visuals and theoretical related presented information was the group which was the least effected. The results of the research revealed that pre-service science teachers had mainly different concerns about safety, but that this did not deter them, as they still continued to design curriculum-based field trips for learners.

  20. Coverage, efficacy or dosing interval: which factor predominantly influences the impact of routine childhood vaccination for the prevention of varicella? A model-based study for Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsiaryna Holl

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Varicella is a highly infectious disease with a significant public health and economic burden, which can be prevented with childhood routine varicella vaccination. Vaccination strategies differ by country. Some factors are known to play an important role (number of doses, coverage, dosing interval, efficacy and catch-up programmes, however, their relative impact on the reduction of varicella in the population remains unclear. This paper aims to help policy makers prioritise the critical factors to achieve the most successful vaccination programme with the available budget. Methods Scenarios assessed the impact of different vaccination strategies on reduction of varicella disease in the population. A dynamic transmission model was used and adapted to fit Italian demographics and population mixing patterns. Inputs included coverage, number of doses, dosing intervals, first-dose efficacy and availability of catch-up programmes, based on strategies currently used or likely to be used in different countries. The time horizon was 30 years. Results Both one- and two-dose routine varicella vaccination strategies prevented a comparable number of varicella cases with complications, but two-doses provided broader protection due to prevention of a higher number of milder varicella cases. A catch-up programme in susceptible adolescents aged 10–14 years old reduced varicella cases by 27–43 % in older children, which are often more severe than in younger children. Coverage, for all strategies, sustained at high levels achieved the largest reduction in varicella. In general, a 20 % increase in coverage resulted in a further 27–31 % reduction in varicella cases. When high coverage is reached, the impact of dosing interval and first-dose vaccine efficacy had a relatively lower impact on disease prevention in the population. Compared to the long (11 years dosing interval, the short (5 months and medium (5 years interval schedules

  1. Short-Term Efficacy of an Innovative Mobile Phone Technology-Based Intervention for Weight Management for Overweight and Obese Adolescents: Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jyu-Lin; Guedes, Claudia M; Cooper, Bruce A; Lung, Audrey E

    2017-08-02

    In the United States, approximately one-third of adolescents are now overweight or obese, and one in six is obese. This financial cost and the larger nonfinancial costs of obesity make obesity prevention and management for adolescents imperative for the health of the nation. However, primary care visits are typically brief, and primary care providers may lack adequate resources to help overweight or obese adolescents to manage weight issues. To augment the efficacy of primary care visits for adolescent weight management, mobile phone technology can be used as an adjunct treatment that provides additional opportunities for encouraging improvement in lifestyle, attainment, and maintenance of healthy weight. The purposes of this study were to (1) measure effects of an innovative mobile phone technology-based intervention for overweight and obese adolescents and to (2) examine the intervention's feasibility for use in primary care clinics. The mobile phone-based intervention had three components: use of the Fitbit Flex, participation in an online educational program, and receipt of biweekly text messages during the maintenance phase. A randomized controlled study design was utilized. Data regarding anthropometrics (body mass index [BMI] and waist-to-hip ratio), blood pressure, levels of physical and sedentary activity, diet, and self-efficacy regarding physical activity and diet were collected at baseline and at 3 and 6 months after the baseline assessment. A total of 40 adolescents participated in the study. At the 6-month follow-up visit, compared to participants in the control group, the mobile phone-based intervention participants had significant improvement in BMI (z=-4.37, P=.001), diastolic blood pressure (z=-3.23, P=.001), physical activity days per week (z=2.58, P=.01), TV and computer time (z=-3.34, P=.001), servings of fruits and vegetables per day (z=2.74, P=.006), servings of soda and sweetened drinks (z=-3.19, P=.001), physical activity self-efficacy (z=2

  2. Systematic review of efficacy for manual lymphatic drainage techniques in sports medicine and rehabilitation: an evidence-based practice approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vairo, Giampietro L; Miller, Sayers John; McBrier, Nicole M; Buckley, William E

    2009-01-01

    Manual therapists question integrating manual lymphatic drainage techniques (MLDTs) into conventional treatments for athletic injuries due to the scarcity of literature concerning musculoskeletal applications and established orthopaedic clinical practice guidelines. The purpose of this systematic review is to provide manual therapy clinicians with pertinent information regarding progression of MLDTs as well as to critique the evidence for efficacy of this method in sports medicine. We surveyed English-language publications from 1998 to 2008 by searching PubMed, PEDro, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library, and SPORTDiscus databases using the terms lymphatic system, lymph drainage, lymphatic therapy, manual lymph drainage, and lymphatic pump techniques. We selected articles investigating the effects of MLDTs on orthopaedic and athletic injury outcomes. Nine articles met inclusion criteria, of which 3 were randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We evaluated the 3 RCTs using a validity score (PEDro scale). Due to differences in experimental design, data could not be collapsed for meta-analysis. Animal model experiments reinforce theoretical principles for application of MLDTs. When combined with concomitant musculoskeletal therapy, pilot and case studies demonstrate MLDT effectiveness. The best evidence suggests that efficacy of MLDT in sports medicine and rehabilitation is specific to resolution of enzyme serum levels associated with acute skeletal muscle cell damage as well as reduction of edema following acute ankle joint sprain and radial wrist fracture. Currently, there is limited high-ranking evidence available. Well-designed RCTs assessing outcome variables following implementation of MLDTs in treating athletic injuries may provide conclusive evidence for establishing applicable clinical practice guidelines in sports medicine and rehabilitation.

  3. Efficacy, safety and anticancer activity of protein nanoparticle-based delivery of doxorubicin through intravenous administration in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishore Golla

    Full Text Available Doxorubicin is a potent anticancer drug and a major limiting factor that hinders therapeutic use as its high levels of systemic circulation often associated with various off-target effects, particularly cardiotoxicity. The present study focuses on evaluation of the efficacy of doxorubicin when it is loaded into the protein nanoparticles and delivered intravenously in rats bearing Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. The proteins selected as carrier were Apotransferrin and Lactoferrin, since the receptors for these two proteins are known to be over expressed on cancer cells due to their iron transport capacity.Doxorubicin loaded apotransferrin (Apodoxonano and lactoferrin nanoparticles (Lactodoxonano were prepared by sol-oil chemistry. HCC in the rats was induced by 100 mg/l of diethylnitrosamine (DENA in drinking water for 8 weeks. Rats received 5 doses of 2 mg/kg drug equivalent nanoparticles through intravenous administration. Pharmacokinetics and toxicity of nanoformulations was evaluated in healthy rats and anticancer activity was studied in DENA treated rats. The anticancer activity was evaluated through counting of the liver nodules, H & E analysis and by estimating the expression levels of angiogenic and antitumor markers.In rats treated with nanoformulations, the numbers of liver nodules were found to be significantly reduced. They showed highest drug accumulation in liver (22.4 and 19.5 µg/g. Both nanoformulations showed higher localization compared to doxorubicin (Doxo when delivered in the absence of a carrier. Higher amounts of Doxo (195 µg/g were removed through kidney, while Apodoxonano and Lactodoxonano showed only a minimal amount of removal (<40 µg/g, suggesting the extended bioavailability of Doxo when delivered through nanoformulation. Safety analysis shows minimal cardiotoxicity due to lower drug accumulation in heart in the case of nanoformulation.Drug delivery through nanoformulations not only minimizes the cardiotoxicity of

  4. Web-based nutrition education intervention improves self-efficacy and self-regulation related to increased dairy intake in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poddar, Kavita H; Hosig, Kathy W; Anderson, Eileen S; Nickols-Richardson, Sharon M; Duncan, Susan E

    2010-11-01

    Dairy consumption declines substantially during young adulthood. Interventions that incorporate theory-based nutrition education can provide insight into factors associated with dietary choices. The aim of this experimental study was to improve outcome expectations, self-efficacy, self-regulation, and behavior related to dairy intake in college students using social cognitive theory. Students (n=294) enrolled in a personal health class were randomized to intervention (n=148) or comparison group (n=146). The 5-week intervention (March 2006 to April 2006) was conducted using an online course system; components included e-mail messages, posted information, and behavior checklists with tailored feedback. Multivariate analysis of covariance with age and sex as covariates (Pself-regulatory strategies (P=0.038) and self-efficacy for consuming three servings/day of dairy products (P=0.049), but not in outcome expectations or consumption of dairy products. A Web-based intervention designed to change dairy intake in college students was effective in modifying some social cognitive theory constructs; strategies that positively impact outcome expectations and social support through online interventions require further development. Copyright © 2010 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of the disinfection efficacy of chlorine-based products for inactivation of viral indicators and pathogenic bacteria in produce wash water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaidez, Cristobal; Moreno, Maria; Rubio, Werner; Angulo, Miguel; Valdez, Benigno

    2003-09-01

    Outbreaks of pathogenic bacteria infections associated with the consumption of fresh produce has occurred with increased frequency in recent years. This study was undertaken to determine the efficacy of three commonly used disinfectants in packing-houses of Culiacan, Mexico (sodium hypochlorite [NaOCl], trichlor-s-triazinetrione [TST] and thrichlormelamine [TCM]) for inactivation of viral indicators and pathogenic bacteria inoculated onto produce wash water. Each microbial challenge consisted of 2 L of water containing approximately 8 log10 bacterial CFU ml(-1), and 8 log10 viral PFU ml(-1) treated with 100 and 300 mg l(-1) of total chlorine with modified turbidity. Water samples were taken after 2 min of contact with chlorine-based products and assayed for the particular microorganisms. TST and NaOCl were found to effectively reduce for bacterial pathogens and viral indicators 8 log10 and 7 log10, respectively (alpha=0.05). The highest inactivation rate was observed when the turbidity was low and the disinfectant was applied at 300 mg l(-1). TCM did not show effective results when compared with the TST and NaOCl (Pturbidity created by the organic and inorganic material present in the water tanks carried by the fresh produce may affect the efficacy of the chlorine-based products.

  6. A web-based intervention to support self-management of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: effect on self-efficacy, self-care and diabetes distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Catherine H; Parsons, Janet A; Mamdani, Muhammad; Lebovic, Gerald; Hall, Susan; Newton, David; Shah, Baiju R; Bhattacharyya, Onil; Laupacis, Andreas; Straus, Sharon E

    2014-12-14

    Management of diabetes mellitus is complex and involves controlling multiple risk factors that may lead to complications. Given that patients provide most of their own diabetes care, patient self-management training is an important strategy for improving quality of care. Web-based interventions have the potential to bridge gaps in diabetes self-care and self-management. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of a web-based patient self-management intervention on psychological (self-efficacy, quality of life, self-care) and clinical (blood pressure, cholesterol, glycemic control, weight) outcomes. For this cohort study we used repeated-measures modelling and qualitative individual interviews. We invited patients with type 2 diabetes to use a self-management website and asked them to complete questionnaires assessing self-efficacy (primary outcome) every three weeks for nine months before and nine months after they received access to the website. We collected clinical outcomes at three-month intervals over the same period. We conducted in-depth interviews at study conclusion to explore acceptability, strengths and weaknesses, and mediators of use of the website. We analyzed the data using a qualitative descriptive approach and inductive thematic analysis. Eighty-one participants (mean age 57.2 years, standard deviation 12) were included in the analysis. The self-efficacy score did not improve significantly more than expected after nine months (absolute change 0.12; 95% confidence interval -0.028, 0.263; p = 0.11), nor did clinical outcomes. Website usage was limited (average 0.7 logins/month). Analysis of the interviews (n = 21) revealed four themes: 1) mediators of website use; 2) patterns of website use, including role of the blog in driving site traffic; 3) feedback on website; and 4) potential mechanisms for website effect. A self-management website for patients with type 2 diabetes did not improve self-efficacy. Website use was limited

  7. PNF 2.0? Initial evidence that gamification can increase the efficacy of brief, web-based personalized normative feedback alcohol interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Sarah C; Earle, Andrew M; LaBrie, Joseph W; Smith, Daniel J

    2017-04-01

    Gamified interventions exploit the motivational characteristics of a game in order to provide prevention information and promote behavior change. Despite the modest effect sizes observed in increasingly popular web-based personalized normative feedback (PNF) alcohol interventions for college students, previous research has yet to consider how gamification might be used to enhance efficacy. This study examines whether a novel, gamified PNF intervention format, which includes a point-based reward system, the element of chance, and personal icons to visually represent users, is more effective in reducing short-term alcohol use than the standard web-based style of PNF currently used on college campuses. Two-hundred and thirty-seven college students were randomly assigned to receive either a standard brief, web-based PNF alcohol intervention or the same alcohol intervention components delivered within a Facebook-connected social game called CampusGANDR (Gamified Alcohol Norm Discovery and Readjustment). In both study conditions participants answered identical questions about their perceptions of peer drinking norms and own drinking and then received the same PNF slides. Two weeks following PNF delivery, participants again reported their perceptions of peers' alcohol use and own drinking. Students in the CampusGANDR condition reported significantly reduced peer drinking norms and alcohol use at the two-week follow-up relative to students who received identical PNF delivered by standard online survey. Further, a mediation model demonstrated that this effect was driven by larger reductions in perceived drinking norms among participants assigned to receive CampusGANDR, relative to control. As web-based PNF is becoming an increasingly universal prevention strategy, findings from this study suggest gamification may represent one method by which intervention efficacy could be substantially improved. The potential methodological and economic benefits associated with gamified

  8. Efficacy of a task-based training approach in the rehabilitation of three children with poor handwriting quality: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, Silvia; Nunzi, Michela; Brina, Carlo Di

    2015-02-01

    Evidence suggests that task-based training approaches can improve the performance of children with handwriting difficulties. The present case study tests the efficacy of the Handwriting Task Program (HTP). Three male children (9-10 yr. old) with poor handwriting skills and different developmental disorders participated in the HTP, twice per week, for 13 wk. Handwriting legibility was assessed through the Concise Evaluation Scale for Children's Handwriting, and fine motor performance and handwriting speed were evaluated at pre- and post-treatment with the Visual Motor Integration Test and the Battery for the assessment of writing skills of children from 7 to 13 yr. old. The results showed that motor efficiency and global handwriting quality improved in all the children, although some handwriting difficulties still persisted in one child with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD). Further study may confirm on a larger sample that a visual-spatially based training may improve the handwriting legibility of children with DCD.

  9. Four-hour quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction-based comprehensive chromosome screening and accumulating evidence of accuracy, safety, predictive value, and clinical efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treff, Nathan R; Scott, Richard T

    2013-03-15

    Embryonic comprehensive chromosomal euploidy may represent a powerful biomarker to improve the success of IVF. However, there are a number of aneuploidy screening strategies to consider, including different technologic platforms with which to interrogate the embryonic DNA, and different embryonic developmental stages from which DNA can be analyzed. Although there are advantages and disadvantages associated with each strategy, a series of experiments producing evidence of accuracy, safety, clinical predictive value, and clinical efficacy indicate that trophectoderm biopsy and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)-based comprehensive chromosome screening (CCS) may represent a useful strategy to improve the success of IVF. This Biomarkers in Reproductive Medicine special issue review summarizes the accumulated experience with the development and clinical application of a 4-hour blastocyst qPCR-based CCS technology. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Efficacy of severe acute respiratory syndrome vaccine based on a nonhuman primate adenovirus in the presence of immunity against human adenovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Yan; Figueredo, Joanita; Kobinger, Gary P; Hagan, Heather; Calcedo, Roberto; Miller, James R; Gao, Guangping; Wilson, James M

    2006-05-01

    Replication-deficient human adenovirus type 5 (AdH5) vectors can induce strong transgene product-specific cellular and humoral responses. However, many adult humans have neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against AdH5 as a result of natural infection with this virus. Therefore, a chimpanzee adenovirus C7 (AdC7) vector was developed to circumvent interference by preexisting immunity to AdH5. This study evaluated the impact of preexisting immunity to human adenovirus on the efficacy of adenovirus-based vaccines against the coronavirus that causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV). Efficacy was assessed after intramuscular injection of the vector into mice and was measured as the frequency of SARS-CoV-specific T cells and NAbs against SARS-CoV. Immunogenicity of the AdH5-based vaccine was significantly attenuated or completely abolished when the preexisting anti-AdH5 NAb titer was higher than 40. Because 27% of human serum samples from the United States tested so far have an anti-AdH5 NAb titer higher than 40, our results suggested that a significant percentage of humans with preexisting anti-AdH5 immunity would not be candidates for vaccination with an AdH5-based genetic vaccine. In contrast, preexisting anti-AdH5 NAbs have a minimal effect on the potency of the AdC7-based genetic vaccine. Taken together, our studies warrant the further development of AdC7 as a vaccine carrier for human trials.

  11. The effects of reality-based television programming on diet and exercise motivation and self-efficacy in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabi, Robin L; Thomas, Jenna

    2013-01-01

    Grounded in social cognitive theory, this research examines the effects of reality entertainment programming and embedded commercials on viewers' perceived motivations and efficacy to exercise and consume a healthy diet as well as on food preference. In a 3 (program type) × 2 (advertisement type) study design, 253 female undergraduates were randomly assigned to watch an episode of a health-oriented reality program, a non-heath-oriented reality program, or a health-themed sitcom in which commercials for either healthy or unhealthy foods were embedded. Results indicated that perceived realism of the health-oriented reality program generated greater confidence to eat more healthily and exercise, as well as greater motivation to exercise. Additionally, program viewing differentially affected motivations to eat healthily and to exercise, but only when type of advertisement (high vs. low calorie food ads) was taken into consideration. Finally, women who watched the health-oriented reality program were more likely to choose a healthy snack at the conclusion of the experiment than those exposed to other programs, thus supporting the assertion that reality programming may potentiate positive health behaviors. The role of the embedded advertisements in altering the interpretation and health impact of the programming is also discussed.

  12. Relative efficacy of cash versus vouchers in engaging opioid substitution treatment clients in survey-based research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topp, Libby; Islam, M Mofizul; Day, Carolyn Ann

    2013-04-01

    Concerns that cash payments to people who inject drugs (PWID) to reimburse research participation will facilitate illicit drug purchases have led some ethical authorities to mandate department store/supermarket vouchers as research reimbursement. To examine the relative efficacy of the two forms of reimbursement in engaging PWID in research, clients of two public opioid substitution therapy clinics were invited to participate in a 20-30 min, anonymous and confidential interview about alcohol consumption on two separate occasions, 4 months apart. Under the crossover design, at Time 1, clients of Clinic 1 were offered $A20 cash as reimbursement, while clients of Clinic 2 were offered an $A20 voucher; at Time 2, the form of reimbursement was reversed. Using clinic records to determine the denominator (number of clients dosed), we found that compared with clients offered a voucher, a significantly higher proportion of clients who were offered cash participated in the survey (58% (139/241) vs 74% (186/252); χ(2)=14.27; p=0.0002). At first participation, respondents most commonly reported planning to purchase food/drinks/groceries (68%), cigarettes (21%) and transport/fuel (11%) with their payments, with those reimbursed in cash more likely to report planning to fund transport/fuel (19% vs 1%; ppayment. Results demonstrate that modest cash payments enhanced recruitment of this group, an important consideration given the challenges of delineating the parameters of a population defined by illegal activity, seemingly without promoting excessive additional drug use.

  13. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for wound healing in diabetic rats: Varying efficacy after a clinically-based protocol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan W van Neck

    Full Text Available Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT is a clinical treatment in which a patient breathes pure oxygen for a limited period of time at an increased pressure. Although this therapy has been used for decades to assist wound healing, its efficacy for many conditions is unproven and its mechanism of action is not yet fully clarified. This study investigated the effects of HBOT on wound healing using a diabetes-impaired pressure ulcer rat model. Seven weeks after streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats (n = 55, a pressure ulcer was created on dorsal skin. Subsequently, animals received HBOT during 6 weeks following a standard clinical protocol (HBOT group with varying endpoints up to 42 days post-wounding versus controls without HBOT. Capillary venous oxygen saturation (SO2 showed a significant increase in the HBOT group on day 24; however, this increase was significant at this time point only. The quantity of hemoglobin in the micro-blood vessels (rHB showed a significant decrease in the HBOT group on days 21 and 42, and showed a trend to decrease on day 31. Blood flow in the microcirculation showed a significant increase on days 17, 21 and 31 but a significant decrease on days 24 and 28. Inflammation scoring showed significantly decreased CD68 counts in the HBOT group on day 42, but not in the early stages of wound healing. Animals in the HBOT group showed a trend for an increase in mean wound breaking strength on day 42.

  14. Evaluation of the antiseptic efficacy and local tolerability of a polihexanide-based antiseptic on resident skin flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egli-Gany, Dianne; Brill, Florian H H; Hintzpeter, Matthias; Andrée, Simone; Pavel, Viktoria

    2012-09-01

    The primary objective of this study was to compare the antimicrobial efficacy of polihexanide 0.02% and 0.04% with chlorhexidine 0.05% after 30 minutes of topical treatment on healthy intact skin. This study was performed as a double-blind, randomized, comparator-controlled, 3-arm, crossover study. : A phase I dermatological study unit. Twenty healthy volunteers with intact skin. : Test areas of 5 cm on the subjects' arms were treated with the investigational products using a polyurethane swab. Skin swabs were taken before and after treatment for quantitative microbial evaluation. The main outcome measure was the log reduction factor of colony-forming units on the skin after 30 minutes of treatment. No statistically significant difference was seen between both of the polihexanide test products (mean lgRF polihexanide 0.02%, 1.2251 [SD, 0.9399]; mean lgRF polihexanide 0.04%, 1.8991 [SD, 0.88]) and the comparator, chlorhexidine 0.05% (P > .1). The results of this study indicate that polihexanide is a suitable alternative to chlorhexidine for skin and wound antisepsis.

  15. An Evaluation on Iran International Public Health Summer School in Relation to its Efficacy Based on Participants' Experience and Opinions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnia, Aidin; Yamani, Nikoo; Zamani, Ahmadreza; Badihian, Shervin; Manouchehri, Navid; Fakhri, Maryam

    2017-01-01

    A serious challenge to educate health staff for public health is to appear encouraging enough to persuade them for learning issues on this field and implementing new educational methods and innovative ways. Iran International Public Health Summer School (IPHS) made an effort to provide medical sciences students with a fortune to get familiar with and involved in public health. This study intended to evaluate the efficacy of this event. This cross-sectional study was performed in March-April 2015 by the help of an electronic self-administered questionnaire filled out by 49 Iranian participants 6 months after IPHS2014. The questionnaire assessed the main goals in seven main domains: Interest, activities, and general knowledge in the field of public health, general skills, educational methods, educational and executive schedules, and general satisfaction. Average scores of all domains were >3 (the mean), and all were statistically significant. The highest average score belonged to educational methods (3.92) and the lowest was calculated for the item regarding participants' activities on public health (3.5). No significant difference was found between positive answers of individuals who were interested or active in public health prior to the event and those who had no background. We believe IPHS was a unique instance in Public Health Education in Iran. Considering the level of success of this program to reach its goals for both students' with or without any previous background on public health, it is recommended as a general model to be simulated in other developing countries.

  16. A randomized, controlled trial to test the efficacy of an online, parent-based intervention for reducing the risks associated with college-student alcohol use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Elizabeth; Wood, Mollie; Frayjo, Kezia; Black, Ryan A.; Surette, Daniel A.

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol consumption among college students remains a major public health concern. Universal, Web-based interventions to reduce risks associated with student alcohol consumption have been found to be effective in changing their alcohol-related behavior. Recent studies also indicate that parent-based interventions, delivered in booklet form, are effective. A parent-based intervention that is also Web-based may be well suited to a dispersed parent population; however, no such tool is currently available. The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of an online parent-based intervention designed to (1) increase communication between parents and students about alcohol and (2) reduce risks associated with alcohol use to students. A total of 558 participants, comprising 279 parent-teen dyads, were enrolled in the study. The findings suggested that parents who participated in the online intervention were more likely to discuss protective behavioral strategies, particularly those related to manner of drinking and stopping/limiting drinking, with their teens, as compared with parents in an e-newsletter control group. Moreover, students whose parents received the intervention were more likely to use a range of protective behavioral strategies, particularly those related to manner of drinking and stopping/limiting drinking, as compared with students whose parents did not receive the intervention. A universal, online, parent-based intervention to reduce risks associated with student alcohol consumption may be an efficient and effective component of a college’s overall prevention strategy. PMID:21963316

  17. A theranostic prodrug delivery system based on Pt(IV) conjugated nano-graphene oxide with synergistic effect to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of Pt drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingwen; Lyv, Zhonglin; Li, Yanli; Liu, Huan; Wang, Jinkui; Zhan, Wenjun; Chen, Hong; Chen, Huabing; Li, Xinming

    2015-05-01

    Due to their high NIR-optical absorption and high specific surface area, graphene oxide and graphene oxide-based nanocomposites have great potential in both drug delivery and photothermal therapy. In the work reported herein we successfully integrate a Pt(IV) complex (c,c,t-[Pt(NH3)2Cl2(OH)2]), PEGylated nano-graphene oxide (PEG-NGO), and a cell apoptosis sensor into a single platform to generate a multifunctional nanocomposite (PEG-NGO-Pt) which shows potential for targeted drug delivery and combined photothermal-chemotherapy under near infrared laser irradiation (NIR), and real-time monitoring of its therapeutic efficacy. Non-invasive imaging using a fluorescent probe immobilized on the GO shows an enhanced therapeutic effect of PEG-NGO-Pt in cancer treatment via apoptosis and cell death. Due to the enhanced cytotoxicity of cisplatin and the highly specific tumor targeting of PEG-NGO-Pt at elevated temperatures, this nanocomposite displays a synergistic effect in improving the therapeutic efficacy of the Pt drug with complete destruction of tumors, no tumor recurrence and minimal systemic toxicity in comparison with chemotherapy or photothermal treatment alone, highlighting the advantageous effects of integrating Pt(IV) with GO for anticancer treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Efficacy and Mediation of a Theory-Based Physical Activity Intervention for African American Men Who Have Sex with Men: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingwen; Jemmott, John B; O'Leary, Ann; Stevens, Robin; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet; Icard, Larry D; Hsu, Janet; Rutledge, Scott E

    2017-02-01

    Few trials have tested physical-activity interventions among sexual minorities, including African American men who have sex with men (MSM). We examined the efficacy and mediation of the Being Responsible for Ourselves (BRO) physical-activity intervention among African American MSM. African American MSM were randomized to the physical-activity intervention consisting of three 90-min one-on-one sessions or an attention-matched control intervention and completed pre-intervention, immediately post-intervention, and 6- and 12-month post-intervention audio computer-based surveys. Of the 595 participants, 503 completed the 12-month follow-up. Generalized estimating equation models revealed that the intervention increased self-reported physical activity compared with the control intervention, adjusted for pre-intervention physical activity. Mediation analyses suggested that the intervention increased reasoned action approach variables, subjective norm and self-efficacy, increasing intention immediately post-intervention, which increased physical activity during the follow-up period. Interventions targeting reasoned action approach variables may contribute to efforts to increase African American MSM's physical activity. The trial was registered with the ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT02561286 .

  19. The reliability of prayer-based self-efficacy scale to assess self-confidence of Muslims with low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Obaidi, Saud; Wall, James C; Mulekar, Madhuri S; Al-Mutairie, Rebecca

    2012-06-01

    Low back pain (LBP) may challenge an individual's self-confidence to perform usual daily activities such as Islamic daily prayer. Existing self-efficacy scales may not be appropriate to assess individual's self-confidence to perform Islamic prayers. This study aimed to develop a scale to assess self-confidence to prepare and perform Islamic prayer in the presence of LBP, the Islamic Prayer-based Self-efficacy Scale (IpbSeS), and to determine its consistency. The IpbSeS consists of three parts: pre-prayer preparation, getting to and from the mosque, and positions and movements during prayer. On a scale of 0 to 6, 0 indicates 'not at all confident' and 6 'fully confident'. Sixty individuals with LBP gave their responses on two different visits. Pain intensity was assessed by the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), and the pain intensity changes were assessed using a seven-point global patient rating scale. Descriptive statistics, Pearson's correlation coefficient, Wilcoxon test and t-test were used in the analysis (alpha set at 0.05). VAS scores did not differ significantly between visits. No association was found between VAS and age (r = 0.039, p = 0.77) and between VAS and body mass index (BMI; r = 0.06, p = 0. 67). All 28 questions have consistent responses on two visits (0.75 ≤ r ≤ 0.99, p Muslims in the presence of LBP to pray. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. MUD and Self Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwan Min

    2000-01-01

    Proposes a theoretical framework for analyzing the effect of MUD (Multi-User Dungeons) playing on users' self-efficacy by applying Bandura's social learning theory, and introduces three types of self-efficacy: computer self-efficacy; social self-efficacy; and generalized self-efficacy. Considers successful performance, vicarious experience,…

  1. Feasibility and efficacy of balloon-based neuroprotection during carotid artery stenting in a single-center setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlüter, Michael; Tübler, Thilo; Mathey, Detlef G; Schofer, Joachim

    2002-09-04

    We sought to prospectively assess the feasibility and in-hospital efficacy of the PercuSurge GuardWire temporary balloon-occlusive system for neuroprotection during carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS).Carotid angioplasty and stenting harbors a risk of distal embolization. Cerebral protection devices are currently under clinical investigation.Ninety-six consecutive patients with carotid bifurcation disease underwent a total of 102 CAS procedures with the intention to use the GuardWire for neuroprotection. GuardWire deployment was achieved in 99 procedures performed in 93 patients (97%). Device failure (n = 3) and severe neurologic responses to balloon occlusion of the targeted carotid artery (n = 2) accounted for five additional procedures that were essentially concluded without neuroprotection, for a total of 94 procedures completed as intended in 88 patients (92% procedural feasibility rate). Carotid angioplasty and stenting was performed successfully in 94 patients (100 procedures). There were no in-hospital deaths; but three patients (3.1%) sustained strokes, and two patients experienced transient ischemic attacks, for a total periprocedural complication rate of 5.2%. One major stroke occurred with the GuardWire in place, whereas two minor strokes were observed in patients in whom the device could not be deployed. Thus, successful neuroprotected CAS without major neurologic events was achieved in 87 patients (91%). The GuardWire temporary balloon-occlusive system is feasible as an adjunct to CAS in the majority of patients. It is associated with a 3.1% rate of major periprocedural neurologic complications. Adverse neurologic reactions to balloon occlusion may prohibit effective use of the system in about 2% of patients.

  2. Genotype-based ancestral background consistently predicts efficacy and side effects across treatments in CATIE and STAR*D.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel E Adkins

    Full Text Available Only a subset of patients will typically respond to any given prescribed drug. The time it takes clinicians to declare a treatment ineffective leaves the patient in an impaired state and at unnecessary risk for adverse drug effects. Thus, diagnostic tests robustly predicting the most effective and safe medication for each patient prior to starting pharmacotherapy would have tremendous clinical value. In this article, we evaluated the use of genetic markers to estimate ancestry as a predictive component of such diagnostic tests. We first estimated each patient's unique mosaic of ancestral backgrounds using genome-wide SNP data collected in the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE (n = 765 and the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D (n = 1892. Next, we performed multiple regression analyses to estimate the predictive power of these ancestral dimensions. For 136/89 treatment-outcome combinations tested in CATIE/STAR*D, results indicated 1.67/1.84 times higher median test statistics than expected under the null hypothesis assuming no predictive power (p<0.01, both samples. Thus, ancestry showed robust and pervasive correlations with drug efficacy and side effects in both CATIE and STAR*D. Comparison of the marginal predictive power of MDS ancestral dimensions and self-reported race indicated significant improvements to model fit with the inclusion of MDS dimensions, but mixed evidence for self-reported race. Knowledge of each patient's unique mosaic of ancestral backgrounds provides a potent immediate starting point for developing algorithms identifying the most effective and safe medication for a wide variety of drug-treatment response combinations. As relatively few new psychiatric drugs are currently under development, such personalized medicine offers a promising approach toward optimizing pharmacotherapy for psychiatric conditions.

  3. Efficacy of light based detection systems for early detection of oral cancer and oral potentially malignant disorders: Systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagi, R; Reddy-Kantharaj, Y-B; Rakesh, N; Janardhan-Reddy, S; Sahu, S

    2016-07-01

    Earlier detection of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) is essential for dental professionals to improve patient survival rates. The aim of this systematic review is to to evaluate the effectiveness of devices that utilise the principles of chemiluminescence and tissue autofluorescence as adjuncts in the detection of OSCC and OPMD. The electronic retrieval systems and databases searched for relevant articles were PubMed [MEDLINE] and Science direct. The search was for limited articles published in English or with an English abstract and articles published during the period from January 2005 to April 2014. Clinical trials utilized ViziLite, Microlux TM/DL and Visual Enhanced Light scope (VELscope) for early detection of OPMD and OSCC. Twenty primary studies published satisfied our criteria for selection - 10 utilised chemiluminescence and 10 tissue autofluorescence. Senstivity of Vizilite for detecting OSCC nad OPMD ranged from 77.1 % to 100% and specificity was low that ranged from 0% to 27.8%.Most have shown that chemiluminescence increases the brightness and margins of oral mucosal white lesions and thus assist in identification of mucosal lesions not considered under Conventional visual examination. However, it preferentially detects leukoplakia and may fail to spot red patches. Clinical trials demonstrated that sensitivity of VELscope in detecting malignancy and OPMD ranged from 22 % to 100 % and specificity ranged from 16 % to 100%. Most studies concluded that VELscope can help the experienced clinician to find oral precursor malignant lesions. But it couldnot differentiate between dysplasia and benign inflammatory conditions. Both devices are simple, non-invasive test of the oral mucosa but are suited for clinicians with sufficient experience and training. More clinical trials in future should be conducted to establish optical imaging as an efficacious adjunct tool in early diagnosis of OSCC and OPMD.

  4. Efficacy of human papillomavirus-based screen-and-treat for cervical cancer prevention among HIV-infected women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Louise; Wang, Chunhui; Tsai, Wei-Yann; Wright, Thomas C; Denny, Lynette

    2010-10-23

    Cervical cancer prevention should be provided as part of primary healthcare services for HIV-infected women but conventional screening programs are difficult to implement in low-resource settings. Here, we evaluate the efficacy among HIV-infected women of a simpler, screen-and-treat strategy in which all women with a positive screening test are treated with cryotherapy. We conducted a randomized clinical trial of two screen-and-treat strategies among 6555 women in Cape Town, South Africa, among whom 956 were HIV-positive. Women were randomized to screen-and-treat utilizing either human papillomavirus DNA testing or visual inspection with acetic acid as the screening method or to a control group. Women were followed for up to 36 months after randomization with colposcopy and biopsy to determine the study endpoint of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or higher. In the control group, HIV-positive women had higher rates of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or higher detected by 36 months (14.9%) than HIV-negative women (4.6%) (P = 0.0006). Screen-and-treat utilizing human papillomavirus DNA testing significantly reduced cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or higher through 36 months in both HIV-positive (relative risk = 0.20, 95% confidence interval 0.06-0.69) and HIV-negative women (relative risk = 0.31, 95% confidence interval 0.20-0.50). Reductions in the visual inspection with acetic acid-and-treat group were less marked. Complications of cryotherapy were mostly minor and did not differ in frequency between HIV-positive and HIV-negative women. Screen-and-treat using human papillomavirus testing is a simple and effective method to reduce high-grade cervical cancer precursors in HIV-infected women.

  5. Efficacy Of The Repetitions In Reserve-Based Rating Of Perceived Exertion For The Bench Press In Experienced And Novice Benchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormsbee, Michael J; Carzoli, Joseph P; Klemp, Alex; Allman, Brittany R; Zourdos, Michael C; Kim, Jeong-Su; Panton, Lynn B

    2017-03-13

    Autoregulation (AR) is the practice of adjusting training variables in response to athlete feedback. One component of AR postulated to enhance resistance training adaptations involves implementing a resistance training-specific rating of perceived exertion (RPE) scale measuring repetitions in reserve (RIR). The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of this method using the bench press exercise. Twenty-seven college-aged men were assigned to one of two groups based upon training age: experience benchers (EB) (n=14, training age: 4.7±2.0 yrs) and novice benchers (NB) (n=13, training age: 1.1±0.6 yrs). Subjects performed one-repetition maximum (1RM) followed by single-repetition sets with loads corresponding to 60, 75, and 90% of 1RM and an 8-repetition set at 70% 1RM. Subjects reported a corresponding RPE, based on RIR, for every set. Average velocity was recorded for each single-repetition set along with the first and last repetitions of the 8-repetition set at 70% 1RM. Average velocity at 100% of 1RM in EB was slower (0.14±0.04 m[BULLET OPERATOR]s) compared to NB (0.20±0.05 m[BULLET OPERATOR]s) (pvelocity or RPE at any other intensity. Both EB (r=0.85, pvelocity and RPE at all intensities. Our findings suggest that the RIR-based RPE scale may be an efficacious approach for AR of bench press training load and volume in college-aged men.

  6. A Plasmodium Promiscuous T Cell Epitope Delivered within the Ad5 Hexon Protein Enhances the Protective Efficacy of a Protein Based Malaria Vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Andres Fonseca

    Full Text Available A malaria vaccine is a public health priority. In order to produce an effective vaccine, a multistage approach targeting both the blood and the liver stage infection is desirable. The vaccine candidates also need to induce balanced immune responses including antibodies, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Protein-based subunit vaccines like RTS,S are able to induce strong antibody response but poor cellular reactivity. Adenoviral vectors have been effective inducing protective CD8+ T cell responses in several models including malaria; nonetheless this vaccine platform exhibits a limited induction of humoral immune responses. Two approaches have been used to improve the humoral immunogenicity of recombinant adenovirus vectors, the use of heterologous prime-boost regimens with recombinant proteins or the genetic modification of the hypervariable regions (HVR of the capsid protein hexon to express B cell epitopes of interest. In this study, we describe the development of capsid modified Ad5 vectors that express a promiscuous Plasmodium yoelii T helper epitope denominated PyT53 within the hexon HVR2 region. Several regimens were tested in mice to determine the relevance of the hexon modification in enhancing protective immune responses induced by the previously described protein-based multi-stage experimental vaccine PyCMP. A heterologous prime-boost immunization regime that combines a hexon modified vector with transgenic expression of PyCMP followed by protein immunizations resulted in the induction of robust antibody and cellular immune responses in comparison to a similar regimen that includes a vector with unmodified hexon. These differences in immunogenicity translated into a better protective efficacy against both the hepatic and red blood cell stages of P. yoelii. To our knowledge, this is the first time that a hexon modification is used to deliver a promiscuous T cell epitope. Our data support the use of such modification to enhance the immunogenicity

  7. Efficacy of triclosan-based toothpastes in the prevention and treatment of plaque-induced periodontal and peri-implant diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombelli, L; Farina, R

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of triclosan (T)-based toothpaste formulations in the prevention and treatment of plaque-induced periodontal and peri-implant diseases. A review of the existing literature was conducted with a systematic approach in order to retrieve pertinent articles. i) Compared with a control fluoride dentifrice, a fluoride dentifrice containing T formulations provides a more effective level of plaque control and gingival health in patients affected by gingivitis; ii) 0.3% T/2% copolymer/0.243% NaF formulation and 0.3% T/0.13% Ca glicerophosphate/1000 ppm F toothpaste in a natural Ca carbonate base seem the most effective T-based toothpaste formulations in controlling plaque and gingival inflammation in patients with gingivitis or mild/moderate periodontitis over a 6-month period; iii) 0.3% T/2% copolymer/0.243% NaF toothpaste formulation can reduce clinical attachment loss in young adolescents when compared with a 0.243% NaF toothpaste formulation, the magnitude of the difference being greater for patients with deep periodontal pockets at baseline; iv) 0.3% T/2% copolymer/0.243% NaF toothpaste formulation is either similarly or more efficacious in preventing the progression/recurrence of periodontal destruction when compared to a conventional fluoride toothpaste; v) 0.3% T/2% copolymer/0.243% NaF toothpaste formulation seems to be more effective than a fluoride toothpaste formulation in controlling the severity of mucosal inflammation, the incidence of mucosal bleeding as well as reducing probing pocket depth around dental implants.

  8. Efficacy of community-based physiotherapy networks for patients with Parkinson's disease: a cluster-randomised trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munneke, M.; Nijkrake, M.J.; Keus, S.H.J.; Kwakkel, G.; Berendse, H.W.; Roos, R.A.; Borm, G.F.; Adang, E.M.M.; Overeem, S.; Bloem, B.R.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many patients with Parkinson's disease are treated with physiotherapy. We have developed a community-based professional network (ParkinsonNet) that involves training of a selected number of expert physiotherapists to work according to evidence-based recommendations, and structured

  9. Efficacy of community-based physiotherapy networks for patients with Parkinson's disease: a cluster-randomised trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munneke, M.; Nijkrake, M.J.; Keus, S.H.; Kwakkel, G.; Berendse, H.W.; Roos, R.A.; Borm, G.F.; Adang, E.M.; Overeem, S.; Bloem, B.R.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Many patients with Parkinson's disease are treated with physiotherapy. We have developed a community-based professional network (ParkinsonNet) that involves training of a selected number of expert physiotherapists to work according to evidence-based recommendations, and structured

  10. A Preliminary Study on the Efficacy of a Community-Based Physical Activity Intervention on Physical Function-Related Risk Factors for Falls Among Breast Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C Ellen; Warden, Stuart J; Szuck, Beth; Lau, Y K James

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a 6-week community-based physical activity (PA) intervention on physical function-related risk factors for falls among 56 breast cancer survivors (BCS) who had completed treatments. This was a single-group longitudinal study. The multimodal PA intervention included aerobic, strengthening, and balance components. Physical function outcomes based on the 4-meter walk, chair stand, one-leg stance, tandem walk, and dynamic muscular endurance tests were assessed at 6-week pre-intervention (T1), baseline (T2), and post-intervention (T3). T1 to T2 and T2 to T3 were the control and intervention periods, respectively. All outcomes, except the tandem walk test, significantly improved after the intervention period (P control period (P > 0.05). Based on the falls risk criterion in the one-leg stance test, the proportion at risk for falls was significantly lower after the intervention period (P = 0.04), but not after the control period. A community-based multimodal PA intervention for BCS may be efficacious in improving physical function-related risk factors for falls, and lowering the proportion of BCS at risk for falls based on specific physical function-related falls criteria. Further larger trials are needed to confirm these preliminary findings.

  11. A Preliminary Study on the Efficacy of a Community-Based Physical Activity Intervention on Physical Function-Related Risk Factors for Falls among Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C. Ellen; Warden, Stuart J.; Szuck, Beth; Lau, Y.K. James

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a 6-week community-based physical activity (PA) intervention on physical function-related risk factors for falls among 56 breast cancer survivors (BCS) who had completed treatments. Design This was a single-group longitudinal study. The multimodal PA intervention included aerobic, strengthening and balance components. Physical function outcomes based on the 4-meter walk, chair stand, one-leg stance, tandem walk, and dynamic muscular endurance tests were assessed at 6-week pre-intervention (T1), baseline (T2), and post-intervention (T3). T1-T2 and T2-T3 were the control and intervention periods, respectively. Results All outcomes, except the tandem walk test, significantly improved after the intervention period (p 0.05). Based on the falls risk criterion in the one-leg stance test, the proportion at risk for falls was significantly lower after the intervention period (p = 0.04), but not after the control period. Conclusions A community-based multimodal PA intervention for BCS may be efficacious in improving physical function-related risk factors for falls, and lowering the proportion of BCS at risk for falls based on specific physical function-related falls criteria. Further larger trials are needed to confirm these preliminary findings. PMID:26829081

  12. Influence of glycerol and an alternative humectant on the immediate and 3-hours bactericidal efficacies of two isopropanol-based antiseptics in laboratory experiments in vivo according to EN 12791

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda Suchomel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Guidelines for hand hygiene recommend the use of alcohol-based hand rubs containing humectants in order to improve dermal tolerance. However, the bactericidal efficacy of pre-surgical hand rubs is negatively affected by the WHO-recommended humectant glycerol, especially the 3-h efficacy. The aim of this study was to investigate whether replacing glycerol as humectant increases the bactericidal efficacy of surgical hand rubs based on isopropanol (75%, wt/wt. Material and methods The efficacy of 3 and 5 min applications of a modified WHO II-formulation (containing lower glycerol concentrations and the TPH 5766 hand rub which contains a new humectant (containing ethylhexylglycerin, dexpanthenol and a fatty alcohol were compared to the European Norm 12,791 reference (n-propanol, 60%, vol/vol immediately following and 3 h after application. Results Immediately after application both isopropanol-based surgical rubs approximated the performance of the reference. The 3-h effect of the modified WHO II-formulation was found to be less efficacious than the EN 12791, showing a 30% decrease in log10 reduction values. The 3-h post application effect for the TPH 5766 hand rub was found to not be different from EN 12791. Conclusion Based on our data, the bactericidal efficacy of isopropanol-based surgical hand rubs can best be obtained if glycerol is not used in the formulation. Unlike glycerol, a humectant comprised of ethylhexylglycerin, dexpanthenol and a fatty alcohol was found not to decrease hand rub effectiveness. Further investigation of the bactericidal efficacy of other humectants is necessary and may prove useful.

  13. [Antirheumatic substance and meridian tropism of Loranthus parasiticus based on "syndrome-efficacy-analysis of biological samples"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling-Ling; Wang, Jing; Cui, Ying; Wen, Pu; Guan, Jun; Yang, Shu; Ma, Kai

    2016-05-01

    To study the antirheumatic substance of Loranthus parasiticus and observe the relationship between its in vivo distribution and meridian tropism in rats by establishing adjuvant arthritis models corresponding to effectiveness. All rats except the negative control group were injected with 0.1 mL Freund's complete adjuvant on the left foot. After 8 days, the rats in negative control group and model group were given with normal saline while the rats in positive control group were given with tripterygium glycosides suspension 10 mg•kg-1, and the rats in L. parasiticus treatment groups were given with high(10 g•kg ⁻¹), medium(5 g•kg ⁻¹) and low(2.5 g•kg ⁻¹) dose decoction for 21 days. The left rear ankle joint diameter of rats were measured every 7 days from the 9th day of modeling. On the 22nd day, eyeball blood of part rats in L. parasiticus high-dose group was taken at different time points, and then they were sacrificed to take heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, stomach, large intestine, small intestine and brain tissues. For the remaining rats, eyeball blood was taken 30 min after drug treatment, and their left rear ankle joints were taken to detect interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels in serum by ELISA method; rutin, avicularin and quercitrin levels in the tissues of high-dose group were detected by HPLC; pharmacokinetic parameters were analyzed by using DAS 2.0. Our results showed that L. parasiticus decoction could significantly improve the paw edema situation of adjuvant arthritis model rats, and reduce IL-1β and TNF-α levels in rat serum. The in vivo efficacy substance analysis in rats showed that rutin was only present in the stomach with a small amount. AUC0-t of avicularin was stomach > small intestine > kidney, and the duration time in vivo was kidney=stomach > small intestine > lung > heart. AUC0-t of quercitrin was stomach > kidney > liver > heart > lung > spleen > small intestine > brain > large intestine

  14. Safety and efficacy of E coli enterotoxin adjuvant for urease-based rectal immunization against Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sougioultzis, Stavros; Lee, Cynthia K; Alsahli, Mazen; Banerjee, Subhas; Cadoz, Michel; Schrader, Robert; Guy, Bruno; Bedford, Philip; Monath, Thomas P; Kelly, Ciaran P; Michetti, Pierre

    2002-12-13

    Low dose E. coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT), delivered orally or enterically, has been used as an adjuvant for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) urease in healthy adults. In this study we aim to test the safety and adjuvant efficacy of LT delivered rectally together with recombinant H. pylori urease. Eighteen healthy adults without present or past H. pylori infection were enrolled in a double blind, randomized, ascending dose study to receive either urease (60 mg), or urease (60 mg) + LT (5 or 25 microg). The immunization preparation was administered per rectum on days 0, 14 and 28. Serum, stool and saliva anti-urease and anti-LT IgG and IgA antibodies (Abs) were measured and urease-specific and LT-specific antigen secreting cells (ASCs) were counted in peripheral blood at baseline and 7 (ASC counts) or 14 days (antibody levels) after each dosing. Peripheral blood lymphoproliferation assays were also performed at baseline and at the end of the study. Rectally delivered urease and LT were well tolerated. Among the 12 subjects assigned to urease+LT, 2 (16.7%) developed anti-urease IgG Abs, 1 (8.3%) developed anti-urease IgA Abs, and 3 (25%) showed urease-specific IgA(+) ASCs. Immune responses to LT were more vigorous, especially in subjects exposed to 5 microg LT. In the urease+ 5 microg LT group, anti-LT IgG and IgA Abs developed in 60 and 80% of the subjects, respectively, while LT-specific IgG(+) and IgA(+) ASCs were detected in all subjects. The magnitude of the anti-LT response was much higher than the response to urease. No IgA anti-urease or anti-LT Abs were detected in stool or saliva and lymphocyte proliferative responses to urease were unsatisfactory. In conclusion, rectal delivery of 5 microg LT is safe and induces vigorous systemic anti-LT immune responses. Further studies are needed to determine if LT can be an effective adjuvant for rectally delivered antigens.

  15. Development of Mathematics Learning Strategy Module, Based on Higher Order Thinking Skill (Hots) To Improve Mathematic Communication And Self Efficacy On Students Mathematics Department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriani, Ade; Dewi, Izwita; Halomoan, Budi

    2018-03-01

    In general, this research is conducted to improve the quality of lectures on mathematics learning strategy in Mathematics Department. The specific objective of this research is to develop learning instrument of mathematics learning strategy based on Higher Order Thinking Skill (HOTS) that can be used to improve mathematical communication and self efficacy of mathematics education students. The type of research is development research (Research & Development), where this research aims to develop a new product or improve the product that has been made. This development research refers to the four-D Model, which consists of four stages: defining, designing, developing, and disseminating. The instrument of this research is the validation sheet and the student response sheet of the instrument.

  16. The Relationship Between Teachers' Self-efficacy Perception of Application-Based Educational Technology and Material Development Skills and Their Students' Level Certifying Exam Scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlhan Varank

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to investigate the relationship between 6th., 7th., and 8th grade Turkish, math, science and technology, social sciences and foreign language teachers' self-efficacy perception of application-based educational technology and material development skills and their students' Level Certifying Exam scores. A total of 256 Turkish, math, science and technology, social sciences and foreign language teachers and their students from 48 elementary schools located in a city and one of its close districts in Inner Aegean area participated in the study. The significance levels of the models established to explain students' Level Certifying Exam performance show differences from subject to subject and from grade to grade. Similar results were found for the significance levels of the variables used in the models

  17. The efficacy of early initiated, supervised, progressive resistance training compared to unsupervised, home-based exercise after unicompartmental knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Bo; Bogh, Søren B; Kierkegaard, Signe

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine if supervised progressive resistance training was superior to home-based exercise in rehabilitation after unicompartmental knee arthroplasty. DESIGN: Single blinded, randomized clinical trial. SETTING: Surgery, progressive resistance training and testing was carried out...

  18. Short- and medium-term efficacy of a Web-based computer-tailored nutrition education intervention for adults including cognitive and environmental feedback: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springvloet, Linda; Lechner, Lilian; de Vries, Hein; Candel, Math J J M; Oenema, Anke

    2015-01-19

    Web-based, computer-tailored nutrition education interventions can be effective in modifying self-reported dietary behaviors. Traditional computer-tailored programs primarily targeted individual cognitions (knowledge, awareness, attitude, self-efficacy). Tailoring on additional variables such as self-regulation processes and environmental-level factors (the home food environment arrangement and perception of availability and prices of healthy food products in supermarkets) may improve efficacy and effect sizes (ES) of Web-based computer-tailored nutrition education interventions. This study evaluated the short- and medium-term efficacy and educational differences in efficacy of a cognitive and environmental feedback version of a Web-based computer-tailored nutrition education intervention on self-reported fruit, vegetable, high-energy snack, and saturated fat intake compared to generic nutrition information in the total sample and among participants who did not comply with dietary guidelines (the risk groups). A randomized controlled trial was conducted with a basic (tailored intervention targeting individual cognition and self-regulation processes; n=456), plus (basic intervention additionally targeting environmental-level factors; n=459), and control (generic nutrition information; n=434) group. Participants were recruited from the general population and randomly assigned to a study group. Self-reported fruit, vegetable, high-energy snack, and saturated fat intake were assessed at baseline and at 1- (T1) and 4-months (T2) postintervention using online questionnaires. Linear mixed model analyses examined group differences in change over time. Educational differences were examined with group×time×education interaction terms. In the total sample, the basic (T1: ES=-0.30; T2: ES=-0.18) and plus intervention groups (T1: ES=-0.29; T2: ES=-0.27) had larger decreases in high-energy snack intake than the control group. The basic version resulted in a larger decrease in

  19. Validation of the Falls Efficacy Scale and Falls Efficacy Scale International in geriatric patients with and without cognitive impairment: results of self-report and interview-based questionnaires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauer, Kristiane; Yardley, L; Beyer, N

    2010-01-01

    Frail, old patients with and without cognitive impairment are at high risk of falls and associated medical and psychosocial issues. The lack of adequate, validated instruments has partly hindered research in this field. So far no questionnaire documenting fall-related self-efficacy/fear of falling...

  20. Validation of the Falls Efficacy Scale and Falls Efficacy Scale International in geriatric patients with and without cognitive impairment: results of self-report and interview-based questionnaires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauer, Kristiane; Yardley, L; Beyer, N

    2010-01-01

    Frail, old patients with and without cognitive impairment are at high risk of falls and associated medical and psychosocial issues. The lack of adequate, validated instruments has partly hindered research in this field. So far no questionnaire documenting fall-related self-efficacy/fear of fallin...

  1. Influence of an Intensive, Field-Based Life Science Course on Preservice Teachers' Self-Efficacy for Environmental Science Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trauth-Nare, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Personal and professional experiences influence teachers' perceptions of their ability to implement environmental science curricula and to positively impact students' learning. The purpose of this study was twofold: to determine what influence, if any, an intensive field-based life science course and service learning had on preservice teachers'…

  2. Assessing Gains in Science Teaching Self-Efficacy after Completing an Inquiry-Based Earth Science Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Kyle

    2017-01-01

    Preservice elementary teachers are often required to take an Earth Science content course as part of their teacher education program but typically enter the course with little knowledge of key Earth Science concepts and are uncertain in their ability to teach science. This study investigated whether completing an inquiry-based Earth Science course…

  3. Efficacy of tegafur-uracil in advanced urothelial cancer patients after the treatment failure of platinum-based chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maolake, Aerken; Izumi, Kouji; Takahashi, Rie; Itai, Shingo; Machioka, Kazuaki; Yaegashi, Hiroshi; Nohara, Takahiro; Kitagawa, Yasuhide; Kadono, Yoshifumi; Konaka, Hiroyuki; Mizokami, Atsushi; Namiki, Mikio

    2015-03-01

    Platinum-based chemotherapy is the first-line treatment for advanced urinary tract urothelial cancers. However, the optimal second-line treatment is unclear. Although tegafur-uracil is sometimes used for advanced urothelial cancer patients after the treatment failure of platinum-based chemotherapy, there is little evidence regarding its use as a second-line treatment. Advanced urothelial cancer patients previously treated with platinum-based chemotherapy were retrospectively analyzed. Overall survival (OS) was compared between patients with and without tegafur-uracil treatment. Thirty-one patients (27 and 4 patients with and without tegafur-uracil treatment, respectively) were analyzed. OS from the last day of the final chemotherapy course was better in patients with tegafur-uracil treatment than in those without (p<0.001, 358 and 66.5 days of the median survival time, respectively). Tegafur-uracil may be a candidate for the secondary treatment of advanced urothelial cancer patients after the treatment failure of platinum-based chemotherapy. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  4. Clinical efficacy and safety of surface imaging guided radiosurgery (SIG-RS) in the treatment of benign skull base tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Steven K M; Patel, Kunal; Kim, Teddy; Knipprath, Erik; Kim, Gwe-Ya; Cerviño, Laura I; Lawson, Joshua D; Murphy, Kevin T; Sanghvi, Parag; Carter, Bob S; Chen, Clark C

    2017-04-01

    Frameless, surface imaging guided radiosurgery (SIG-RS) is a novel platform for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) wherein patient positioning is monitored in real-time through infra-red camera tracking of facial topography. Here we describe our initial clinical experience with SIG-RS for the treatment of benign neoplasms of the skull base. We identified 48 patients with benign skull base tumors consecutively treated with SIG-RS at a single institution between 2009 and 2011. Patients were diagnosed with meningioma (n = 22), vestibular schwannoma (n = 20), or nonfunctional pituitary adenoma (n = 6). Local control and treatment-related toxicity were retrospectively assessed. Median follow-up was 65 months (range 61-72 months). Prescription doses were 12-13 Gy in a single fraction (n = 18), 8 Gy × 3 fractions (n = 6), and 5 Gy × 5 fractions (n = 24). Actuarial tumor control rate at 5 years was 98%. No grade ≥3 treatment-related toxicity was observed. Grade ≤2 toxicity was associated with symptomatic lesions (p = 0.049) and single fraction treatment (p = 0.005). SIG-RS for benign skull base tumors produces clinical outcomes comparable to conventional frame-based SRS techniques while enhancing patient comfort.

  5. NutriChem 2.0: exploring the effect of plant-based foods on human health and drug efficacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ni, Yueqiong; Jensen, Kasper; Kouskoumvekaki, Eirini

    2017-01-01

    NutriChem is a database generated by text mining of 21 million MEDLINE abstracts that links plant-based foods with their small molecule components and human health effect. In this new, second release of NutriChem (NutriChem 2.0) we have integrated information on overlapping protein targets between...

  6. Impact of a University-Based Program on Obese College Students' Physical Activity Behaviors, Attitudes, and Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ickes, Melinda J.; McMullen, Jennifer; Pflug, Courtney; Westgate, Philip M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: More than one third of college students are either overweight or obese, making college campuses an ideal setting to target at risk behaviors while tailoring programs to the evolving lifestyle of college students. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of a 15-week, campus-based lifestyle modification program on…

  7. Developing Students' Creative Self-Efficacy Based on Design-Thinking: Evaluation of an Elective University Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohly, Sandra; Plückthun, Laura; Kissel, Dorothea

    2017-01-01

    The development of novel and useful ideas is a process that can be described in multiple steps, including information gathering, generating ideas and evaluating ideas. We evaluated a university course that was developed based on design thinking principles which employ similar steps. Our results show that the course was not effective in enhancing…

  8. A Study on the Efficacy of Project-Based Learning Approach on Social Studies Education: Conceptual Achievement and Academic Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilter, Ilhan

    2014-01-01

    In this research, an experimental study was carried out in social studies 4th grade students to develop students' conceptual achievement and motivation to succeed academically. The study aims to investigate the effectiveness of project-based learning (PBL) in social studies. A quasi-experimental research design (pre- and posttest) was used in the…

  9. Perhaps More Consideration of Pavlovian-Operant Interaction May Improve the Clinical Efficacy of Behaviorally Based Drug Treatment Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troisi, Joseph R

    2013-01-01

    Drug abuse remains costly. Drug-related cues can evoke cue-reactivity and craving, contributing to relapse. The Pavlovian extinction-based cue-exposure therapy (CET) has not been very successful in treating drug abuse. A functional operant analysis of complex rituals involved in CET is outlined and reinterpreted as an operant heterogeneous chain maintained by observing responses, conditioned reinforcers, and discriminative stimuli. It is further noted that operant functions are not predicated on Pavlovian processes but can be influenced by them in contributing to relapse; several empirical studies from the animal and human literature highlight this view. Cue-reactivity evoked by Pavlovian processes is conceptualized as an operant establishing/motivating operation. CET may be more effective in incorporating an operant-based approach that takes into account the complexity of Pavlovian-operant interaction. Extinction of the operant chain coupled with the shaping of alternative behaviors is proposed as an integrated therapy. It is proposed that operant-based drug abuse treatments (contingency management, voucher programs, and the therapeutic work environment) might consider incorporating cue-reactivity, as establishing/motivating operations, to increase long-term success-a hybrid approach based on Pavlovian-operant interaction.

  10. Mechanisms, safety and efficacy of a B cell epitope-based vaccine for immunotherapy of grass pollen allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Zieglmayer

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: The B cell epitope-based recombinant grass pollen allergy vaccine BM32 is well tolerated and few doses are sufficient to suppress immediate allergic reactions as well as allergen-specific T cell responses via a selective induction of allergen-specific IgG antibodies. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01445002.

  11. Perhaps More Consideration of Pavlovian–Operant Interaction May Improve the Clinical Efficacy of Behaviorally Based Drug Treatment Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troisi, Joseph R.

    2014-01-01

    Drug abuse remains costly. Drug-related cues can evoke cue-reactivity and craving, contributing to relapse. The Pavlovian extinction-based cue-exposure therapy (CET) has not been very successful in treating drug abuse. A functional operant analysis of complex rituals involved in CET is outlined and reinterpreted as an operant heterogeneous chain maintained by observing responses, conditioned reinforcers, and discriminative stimuli. It is further noted that operant functions are not predicated on Pavlovian processes but can be influenced by them in contributing to relapse; several empirical studies from the animal and human literature highlight this view. Cue-reactivity evoked by Pavlovian processes is conceptualized as an operant establishing/motivating operation. CET may be more effective in incorporating an operant-based approach that takes into account the complexity of Pavlovian–operant interaction. Extinction of the operant chain coupled with the shaping of alternative behaviors is proposed as an integrated therapy. It is proposed that operant-based drug abuse treatments (contingency management, voucher programs, and the therapeutic work environment) might consider incorporating cue-reactivity, as establishing/motivating operations, to increase long-term success—a hybrid approach based on Pavlovian–operant interaction. PMID:25346551

  12. Performance of medical residents in sterile techniques during central vein catheterization: randomized trial of efficacy of simulation-based training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khouli, Hassan; Jahnes, Katherine; Shapiro, Janet; Rose, Keith; Mathew, Joseph; Gohil, Amit; Han, Qifa; Sotelo, Andre; Jones, James; Aqeel, Adnan; Eden, Edward; Fried, Ethan

    2011-01-01

    Catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) is a preventable cause of a potentially lethal ICU infection. The optimal method to teach health-care providers correct sterile techniques during central vein catheterization (CVC) remains unclear. We randomly assigned second- and third-year internal medicine residents trained by a traditional apprenticeship model to simulation-based plus video training or video training alone from December 2007 to January 2008, with a follow-up period to examine CRBSI ending in July 2009. During the follow-up period, a simulation-based training program in sterile techniques during CVC was implemented in the medical ICU (MICU). A surgical ICU (SICU) where no residents received study interventions was used for comparison. The primary outcome measures were median residents' scores in sterile techniques and rates of CRBSI per 1,000 catheter-days. Of the 47 enrolled residents, 24 were randomly assigned to the simulation-based plus video training group and 23 to the video training group. Median baseline scores in both groups were equally poor: 12.5 to 13 (52%-54%) out of maximum score of 24 (P = .95; median difference, 0; 95% CI, 0.2-2.0). After training, median score was significantly higher for the simulation-based plus video training group: 22 (92%) vs 18 (75%) for the video training group (P training in sterile techniques during CVC is superior to traditional training or video training alone and is associated with decreased rate of CRBSI. Simulation-based training in CVC should be routinely used to reduce iatrogenic risk. ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT00612131; URL: clinicaltrials.gov.

  13. A brain-computer interface based cognitive training system for healthy elderly: a randomized control pilot study for usability and preliminary efficacy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tih-Shih Lee

    Full Text Available Cognitive decline in aging is a pressing issue associated with significant healthcare costs and deterioration in quality of life. Previously, we reported the successful use of a novel brain-computer interface (BCI training system in improving symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Here, we examine the feasibility of the BCI system with a new game that incorporates memory training in improving memory and attention in a pilot sample of healthy elderly. This study investigates the safety, usability and acceptability of our BCI system to elderly, and obtains an efficacy estimate to warrant a phase III trial. Thirty-one healthy elderly were randomized into intervention (n = 15 and waitlist control arms (n = 16. Intervention consisted of an 8-week training comprising 24 half-hour sessions. A usability and acceptability questionnaire was administered at the end of training. Safety was investigated by querying users about adverse events after every session. Efficacy of the system was measured by the change of total score from the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS before and after training. Feedback on the usability and acceptability questionnaire was positive. No adverse events were reported for all participants across all sessions. Though the median difference in the RBANS change scores between arms was not statistically significant, an effect size of 0.6SD was obtained, which reflects potential clinical utility according to Simon's randomized phase II trial design. Pooled data from both arms also showed that the median change in total scores pre and post-training was statistically significant (Mdn = 4.0; p<0.001. Specifically, there were significant improvements in immediate memory (p = 0.038, visuospatial/constructional (p = 0.014, attention (p = 0.039, and delayed memory (p<0.001 scores. Our BCI-based system shows promise in improving memory and attention in healthy

  14. The safety and efficacy of EGF-based cream for the prevention of radiotherapy-induced skin injury: results from a multicenter observational study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Hyun Cheol [Dept.of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Seung Do [Dept.of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Doo Ho [Dept.of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Min Kyu [Dept.of Radiation Oncology, eungnam University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Wu, Hong Gyun [Dept.of Radiation Oncology, Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital, Huasun (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of topically applied recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) for the prevention of radiation-induced dermatitis in cancer patients. From December 2010 to April 2012, a total of 1,172 cancer patients who received radiotherapy (RT) of more than 50 Gy were prospectively enrolled and treated with EGF-based cream. An acute skin reaction classified according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 6-point rating scale was the primary end point and we also assessed the occurrence of edema, dry skin, or pruritus. The percentage of radiation dermatitis with maximum grade 0 and grade 1 was 19% and 58% at the time of 50 Gy, and it became 29% and 47% after completion of planned RT. This increment was observed only in breast cancer patients (from 18%/62% to 32%/49%). Adverse events related to the EGF-based cream developed in 49 patients (4%) with mild erythema the most common. Skin toxicity grade >2 was observed in 5% of the patients. Edema, dry skin, and pruritus grade > or =3 developed in 9%, 9%, and 1% of the patients, respectively. Prophylactic use of an EGF-based cream is effective in preventing radiation dermatitis with tolerable toxicity. Further studies comparing EGF cream with other topical agents may be necessary.

  15. Efficacy of alginate-based reflux suppressant and magnesium-aluminium antacid gel for treatment of heartburn in pregnancy: a randomized double-blind controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meteerattanapipat, Pontip; Phupong, Vorapong

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the therapeutic efficacy of alginate-based reflux suppressant and magnesium-aluminium antacid gel for treatment of heartburn in pregnancy. A double-blinded, randomized, controlled trial was conducted. One hundred pregnant women at less than 36 weeks gestation with heartburn at least twice per week were randomized to either alginate-based reflux suppressant or to magnesium-aluminium antacid gel. Details of heartburn were recorded before beginning the treatment and the second week of study. Primary outcome measure was the improvement of heartburn frequency after treatment and secondary outcome were the improvement of heartburn intensity, quality of life, maternal satisfaction, maternal side effects, pregnancy and neonatal outcomes. There was no difference between treatment and control groups in improvement of heartburn frequency (80% vs 88%, p = 0.275), 50% reduction of frequency of heartburn (56% vs 52%, p = 0.688), improvement of heartburn intensity (92% vs 92%, p = 1.000) and 50% reduction of heartburn intensity (68% vs 80% cases, p = 0.075). There were also no significant differences in quality of life, maternal satisfaction, maternal side effects, pregnancy and neonatal outcomes. Alginate-based reflux suppressant was not different from magnesium-aluminium antacid gel in the treatment of heartburn in pregnancy. PMID:28317885

  16. The safety and efficacy of EGF-based cream for the prevention of radiotherapy-induced skin injury: results from a multicenter observational study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Hyun Cheol; Ahn, Seung Do; Choi, Doo Ho; Kang, Min Kyu; Wu, Hong Gyun

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of topically applied recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) for the prevention of radiation-induced dermatitis in cancer patients. From December 2010 to April 2012, a total of 1,172 cancer patients who received radiotherapy (RT) of more than 50 Gy were prospectively enrolled and treated with EGF-based cream. An acute skin reaction classified according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 6-point rating scale was the primary end point and we also assessed the occurrence of edema, dry skin, or pruritus. The percentage of radiation dermatitis with maximum grade 0 and grade 1 was 19% and 58% at the time of 50 Gy, and it became 29% and 47% after completion of planned RT. This increment was observed only in breast cancer patients (from 18%/62% to 32%/49%). Adverse events related to the EGF-based cream developed in 49 patients (4%) with mild erythema the most common. Skin toxicity grade >2 was observed in 5% of the patients. Edema, dry skin, and pruritus grade > or =3 developed in 9%, 9%, and 1% of the patients, respectively. Prophylactic use of an EGF-based cream is effective in preventing radiation dermatitis with tolerable toxicity. Further studies comparing EGF cream with other topical agents may be necessary.

  17. A short-term, comprehensive, yoga-based lifestyle intervention is efficacious in reducing anxiety, improving subjective well-being and personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Kumar Yadav

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the efficacy of a short-term comprehensive yoga-based lifestyle intervention in reducing anxiety, improving subjective well-being and personality. Materials and Methods: The study is a part of an ongoing larger study at a tertiary care hospital. Participants (n=90 included patients with chronic diseases attending a 10-day, yoga-based lifestyle intervention program for prevention and management of chronic diseases, and healthy controls (n=45 not attending any such intervention. Primary Outcome Measures: Change in state and trait anxiety questionnaire (STAI-Y; 40 items, subjective well-being inventory (SUBI; 40 items, and neuroticism extraversion openness to experience five factor personality inventory revised (NEO-FF PI-R; 60 items at the end of intervention. Results: Following intervention, the STAI-Y scores reduced significantly (P0.01 at Day 10 versus Day 1. Similarly NEO-FF PI-R scores improved significantly (P<0.001 at Day 10 versus Day 1. Control group showed an increase in STAI-Y while SUBI and NEO-FF PI-R scores remained comparable at Day 10 versus Day 1. Conclusions: The observations suggest that a short-term, yoga-based lifestyle intervention may significantly reduce anxiety and improve subjective well-being and personality in patients with chronic diseases.

  18. Prevention of depression and anxiety in adolescents: A randomized controlled trial testing the efficacy and mechanisms of Internet-based self-help problem-solving therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schuurmans Josien

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Even though depression and anxiety are highly prevalent in adolescence, youngsters are not inclined to seek help in regular healthcare. Therapy through the Internet, however, has been found to appeal strongly to young people. The main aim of the present study is to examine the efficacy of preventive Internet-based guided self-help problem-solving therapy with adolescents reporting depressive and anxiety symptoms. A secondary objective is to test potential mediating and moderating variables in order to gain insight into how the intervention works and for whom it works best. Methods/design This study is a randomized controlled trial with an intervention condition group and a wait-list control group. The intervention condition group receives Internet-based self-help problem-solving therapy. Support is provided by a professional and delivered through email. Participants in the wait-list control group receive the intervention four months later. The study population consists of adolescents (12-18-year-olds from the general population who report mild to moderate depressive and/or anxiety symptoms and are willing to complete a self-help course. Primary outcomes are symptoms of depression and anxiety. Secondary outcomes are quality of life, social anxiety, and cost-effectiveness. The following variables are examined for their moderating role: demographics, motivation, treatment credibility and expectancy, externalizing behaviour, perceived social support from parents and friends, substance use, the experience of important life events, physical activity, the quality of the therapeutic alliance, and satisfaction. Mediator variables include problem-solving skills, worrying, mastery, and self-esteem. Data are collected at baseline and at 3 weeks, 5 weeks, 4 months, 8 months, and 12 months after baseline. Both intention-to-treat and completer analyses will be conducted. Discussion This study evaluates the efficacy and mechanisms of

  19. The clinical efficacy of a clarithromycin-based regimen for Mycobacterium avium complex disease: A nationwide post-marketing study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadota, Jun-Ichi; Kurashima, Atsuyuki; Suzuki, Katsuhiro

    2017-05-01

    The revised 2007 American Thoracic Society/Infectious Diseases Society of America statement recommend clarithromycin-based combination therapy for treatment of Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease and stipulates approximately 1 year of continuous treatment after bacilli negative conversion. However, supporting data are insufficient. Our objective was to obtain data on the clinical outcome of clarithromycin-based daily regimens by conducting a nationwide retrospective post-marketing study of M. avium complex lung disease. In accordance with the Japanese guidelines, patients were enrolled in this survey according to their chest radiographic findings and microbiologic test results. They were treated with a multidrug regimen including clarithromycin, rifampicin, and ethambutol (clarithromycin-based regimen) until bacilli negative conversion, and the treatment was continued for approximately 1 year after the initial conversion. Data were collected before administration, at the time of bacilli negative conversion, at the end of treatment, and at 6 months after the end of treatment. Of the 466 subjects enrolled in the study, 271 patients who received clarithromycin at 800 mg/day underwent evaluation for M. avium complex disease. The final bacilli negative conversion rate in those patients was 94.7%. The bacteriological relapse rate was 5.0% (5/100 patients). Bacteriological relapse was noted in patients treated for less than 15 months after conversion. No life-threatening or serious adverse drug reactions were observed. This study demonstrated that a clarithromycin-based daily regimen can yield a high bacteriological conversion rate in M. avium complex disease. After conversion, treatment for less than 15 months might be insufficient to prevent bacteriological relapse. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Pre-Clinical Efficacy and Safety of Experimental Vaccines Based on Non-Replicating Vaccinia Vectors against Yellow Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Birgit; Holzer, Georg W.; Joachimsthaler, Alexandra; Coulibaly, Sogue; Schwendinger, Michael; Crowe, Brian A.; Kreil, Thomas R.; Barrett, P. Noel; Falkner, Falko G.

    2011-01-01

    Background Currently existing yellow fever (YF) vaccines are based on the live attenuated yellow fever virus 17D strain (YFV-17D). Although, a good safety profile was historically attributed to the 17D vaccine, serious adverse events have been reported, making the development of a safer, more modern vaccine desirable. Methodology/Principal Findings A gene encoding the precursor of the membrane and envelope (prME) protein of the YFV-17D strain was inserted into the non-replicating modified vaccinia virus Ankara and into the D4R-defective vaccinia virus. Candidate vaccines based on the recombinant vaccinia viruses were assessed for immunogenicity and protection in a mouse model and compared to the commercial YFV-17D vaccine. The recombinant live vaccines induced γ-interferon-secreting CD4- and functionally active CD8-T cells, and conferred full protection against lethal challenge already after a single low immunization dose of 105 TCID50. Surprisingly, pre-existing immunity against wild-type vaccinia virus did not negatively influence protection. Unlike the classical 17D vaccine, the vaccinia virus-based vaccines did not cause mortality following intracerebral administration in mice, demonstrating better safety profiles. Conclusions/Significance The non-replicating recombinant YF candidate live vaccines induced a broad immune response after single dose administration, were effective even in the presence of a pre-existing immunity against vaccinia virus and demonstrated an excellent safety profile in mice. PMID:21931732

  1. Pre-clinical efficacy and safety of experimental vaccines based on non-replicating vaccinia vectors against yellow fever.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Schäfer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Currently existing yellow fever (YF vaccines are based on the live attenuated yellow fever virus 17D strain (YFV-17D. Although, a good safety profile was historically attributed to the 17D vaccine, serious adverse events have been reported, making the development of a safer, more modern vaccine desirable. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A gene encoding the precursor of the membrane and envelope (prME protein of the YFV-17D strain was inserted into the non-replicating modified vaccinia virus Ankara and into the D4R-defective vaccinia virus. Candidate vaccines based on the recombinant vaccinia viruses were assessed for immunogenicity and protection in a mouse model and compared to the commercial YFV-17D vaccine. The recombinant live vaccines induced γ-interferon-secreting CD4- and functionally active CD8-T cells, and conferred full protection against lethal challenge already after a single low immunization dose of 10(5 TCID(50. Surprisingly, pre-existing immunity against wild-type vaccinia virus did not negatively influence protection. Unlike the classical 17D vaccine, the vaccinia virus-based vaccines did not cause mortality following intracerebral administration in mice, demonstrating better safety profiles. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The non-replicating recombinant YF candidate live vaccines induced a broad immune response after single dose administration, were effective even in the presence of a pre-existing immunity against vaccinia virus and demonstrated an excellent safety profile in mice.

  2. Efficacy of an oral and tropically stable lipid-based formulation of Amphotericin B (iCo-010) in an experimental mouse model of systemic candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Fady; Sivak, Olena; Wasan, Ellen K; Bartlett, Karen; Wasan, Kishor M

    2013-10-29

    An oral lipid based formulation that exhibits tropical stability (iCo-010) was developed to enhance the absorption of orally administered amphotericin B (AmB). iCo-010 has previously shown high efficacy in an acute model of systemic candidiasis in rats, directing the focus of this study to be its efficacy in a chronic model of systemic candidiasis in mice. Mice were infected with 0.6 to 1×108 CFUs of Candida albicans ATCC 18804 strain by tail vein injection and were left for three days to develop the infection after which time treatment was initiated. The infected animals were assigned to the following treatment groups: no treatment (control) or iCo-010 at 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg administered by oral gavage once daily (QD) for 5 consecutive days. The animals were sacrificed 7 days after the last dose and the concentration of AmB and the fungal burden were assessed within the liver, kidneys, heart, lungs, spleen and brain. Although the infection was relatively low (~ 60-100 CFUs/ 1 ml tissue homogenate) in the liver, lungs and heart, the infection level was very high (70 000 CFUs / 1 ml tissue homogenate) in the kidney tissues for the control group. The highest concentrations of AmB were recovered in the kidneys and the spleen. The fungal burden in the tissues was lowered by 69-96% in the treatment groups when compared to the control group. Oral iCo-010 is an effective treatment of systemic candidiasis in the mouse model.

  3. Exploring the efficacy of an acceptance, mindfulness & compassionate-based group intervention for women struggling with their weight (Kg-Free): A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmeira, Lara; Pinto-Gouveia, José; Cunha, Marina

    2017-05-01

    This randomized-controlled trial aims to test the efficacy of a group intervention (Kg-Free) for women with overweight or obesity based on mindfulness, ACT and compassion approaches. The intervention aimed to reduce weight self-stigma and unhealthy eating patterns and increase quality-of-life (QoL). Seventy-three women, aged between 18 and 55 years old, with BMI ≥25 without binge-eating seeking weight loss treatment were randomly assigned to intervention or control groups. Kg-Free comprises 10 weekly group sessions plus 2 booster fortnightly sessions, of 2h30 h each. The control group maintained Treatment as Usual (TAU). Data was collected at baseline and at the end of the Kg-Free intervention. Overall, participants enrolled in Kg-Free found the intervention to be very important and helpful when dealing with their weight-related unwanted internal experiences. Moreover, when compared with TAU, the Kg-Free group revealed a significant increased health-related QoL and physical exercise and a reduction of weight self-stigma, unhealthy eating behaviors, BMI, self-criticism, weight-related experiential avoidance and psychopathological symptoms at post-treatment. Results for self-compassion showed a trend towards significance, whereas no significant between-groups differences were found for mindfulness. Taken together, evidence was found for Kg-Free efficacy in reducing weight-related negative experiences and promoting healthy behaviors, psychological functioning, and QoL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. NEW NATURAL SUGAR-BASED SURFACTANTS INTENDED FOR STABILIZATION OF COSMETIC/DERMOPHARMACEUTICAL VEHICLES – SAFETY AND EFFICACY ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Tasić-Kostov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite a large number of different vehicles available nowadays, conventional emulsion systems remain one of the most commonly used for cosmetic and dermatological preparations. Popularly labelled as skin- and environmentally-friendly, alkyl polyglucoside (APG sugar-based emulsifiers have attracted considerable interest with regard to their dermatological properties, since irritation potential of commonly used emulsifiers could affect the functionality and safety of dermopharmaceutics. The aim of this study was to promote the emulsion based on C16/18 APG as a prospective vehicle for topical drugs and cosmetic actives assessing the safety for use and skin hydration capacity. In accordance with the requirements of newer legislation in vitro, acute skin irritation test was performed using cytotoxicity assay on artificial skin. The results were compared with in vivo data obtained by measuring the skin biophysical parameters, such as: stratum corneum hydration (SCH, erythema index (EI, and transepidermal water loss (TEWL. Parameters were measured prior to (baseline values and upon cessation of a 24-h occlusive treatment in 14 healthy human volunteers. In vivo moisturizing capacity of the emulsions was assessed in 16 healthy volunteers in a long-term trial measuring of SCH. This study showed, investigating the most frequently used APG, that emulsions based on these emulsifiers could probably be promoted as safe cosmetic/ dermopharmaceutical vehicles. Prospective safety for human use with the correlation between in vivo and in vitro findings was shown. In addition, the investigated vehicle per se showed an excellent skin moisturizing capacity which is essential in maintaining healthy skin, but also in improving dermatitis, which follows most pathological skin conditions.

  5. Development of a Physical Education Teaching Efficacy Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Charlotte A.; Hebert, Edward; Daigle, Kay; Martin, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Relationships have been found between teacher efficacy and many teaching and learning variables, but few researchers have examined teaching efficacy in physical education. The instrument reported here, the Physical Education Teaching Efficacy Scale, was developed based on the teaching efficacy literature, existing scales, and National Association…

  6. Reflective Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Bagnoli

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to highlight some difficulties of Neil Sinhababu’s Humean theory of agency, which depend on his radically reductivist approach, rather than to his Humean sympathies. The argument is that Sinhababu’s theory builds upon a critique of reflective agency which is based on equivocation and misunderstandings of the Kantian approach. Ultimately, the objection is that his reductivist view is unequipped to address the rclassical problems of rational deliberation and agential authority.

  7. Efficacy of an Attachment-Based Intervention Model on Health Indices in Children with Chronic Disease and Their Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani-Arani, Fateme; Besharat, Mohammad Ali; Fitton, Victoria A; Aghamohammadi, Asghar

    2018-05-07

    Studies have shown significant relationship between health conditions and attachment. This study aimed to examine an attachment-based intervention model named mother-child-disease triangle (MCDT) on health indices in children with chronic disease and their mothers. This randomized trial study included 22 volunteer children aged 12-18 years undergoing medical treatment for a chronic disease and their mothers. After evaluation by 28-form General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), inventory of parent and peer attachment (IPPA), 28-form Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ-28) and Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ), the mother-child dyads were paired on the basis of IPPA scores. These pairs were then randomly assigned to an experimental or control group. The experimental group received ten 90-min sessions of MCDT over a 7-week period. Meanwhile, the control group received ten simple conversational sessions as a dummy intervention. In accordance with this study's pre-test/post-test design, both groups were evaluated once again after completing their respective treatment. Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) showed members of the experimental group to have significantly stronger attachment and better physiological and psychosocial health than those in the control group. These findings suggest that attachment-based interventions can be used to improve the effectiveness of treatment among children with chronic disease and their mothers.

  8. Efficacy and safety of bortezomib-based retreatment at the first relapse in multiple myeloma patients: A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriol, Albert; Giraldo, Pilar; Kotsianidis, Ioannis; Couturier, Catherine; Olie, Robert; Angermund, Ralf; Corso, Alessandro

    2015-08-01

    Multiple myeloma remains incurable and retreatment with available therapies is of substantial interest. This retrospective observational study included data from 35 patients treated initially and at the first relapse with bortezomib-containing regimens. Bortezomib retreatment provided a similar depth and time to response as first-line therapy; however, as could be expected, the duration of response was shorter with retreatment. The tolerability profile was similar with bortezomib as the first- and second-line therapy, with no evidence of cumulative toxicity. These findings support bortezomib retreatment after a treatment-free interval of ≥6 months in patients who achieved at least a partial response to the first-line bortezomib-based therapy.

  9. Nanoparticle-based drug delivery to improve the efficacy of antiretroviral therapy in the central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomes MJ

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Maria João Gomes,1 José das Neves,1,2 Bruno Sarmento1,2 1Instituto de Engenharia Biomédica (INEB, Porto, Portugal; 2Instituto de Investigação e Formação Avançada em Ciências e Tecnologias da Saúde (IINFACTS, Instituto Superior de Ciências da Saúde-Norte, CESPU, Gandra, Portugal Abstract: Antiretroviral drug therapy plays a cornerstone role in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients. Despite obvious advances over the past 3 decades, new approaches toward improved management of infected individuals are still required. Drug distribution to the central nervous system (CNS is required in order to limit and control viral infection, but the presence of natural barrier structures, in particular the blood–brain barrier, strongly limits the perfusion of anti-HIV compounds into this anatomical site. Nanotechnology-based approaches may help providing solutions for antiretroviral drug delivery to the CNS by potentially prolonging systemic drug circulation, increasing the crossing and reducing the efflux of active compounds at the blood–brain barrier, and providing cell/tissue-targeting and intracellular drug delivery. After an initial overview on the basic features of HIV infection of the CNS and barriers to active compound delivery to this anatomical site, this review focuses on recent strategies based on antiretroviral drug-loaded solid nanoparticles and drug nanosuspensions for the potential management of HIV infection of the CNS. Keywords: HIV/AIDS, blood–brain barrier, protease inhibitors, efflux transporters, drug targeting

  10. Efficacy of “Attachment-Based Compassion Therapy” in the Treatment of Fibromyalgia: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Montero-Marín

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveThere is a growing interest in evaluating the effectiveness of compassion interventions for treating psychological disorders. The present study evaluated the effectiveness of “attachment-based compassion therapy” (ABCT in the treatment of fibromyalgia (FM, and the role of psychological flexibility as a mediator of improvements.MethodsA total of 42 patients with FM were randomly assigned to ABCT or relaxation (active control group. Both the intervention and control condition were combined with treatment as usual (TAU. The primary outcome was functional status (FIQ, and the secondary outcomes were clinical severity (CGI-S, pain catastrophizing (PCS, anxiety (HADS-A, depression (HADS-D, quality of life (EQ-5D, and psychological flexibility (AAQ-II. Differences between the groups were estimated using mixed-effects models, and mediation assessments were conducted using path analyses.ResultsThe ABCT group demonstrated superior outcomes compared to the relaxation group, including better FIQ values after treatment (B = −3.01; p = 0.003. Differences in FIQ were maintained at 3-month follow-up (B = −3.33; p = 0.001. The absolute risk reduction in ABCT compared to relaxation increased by 40.0%, with an NNT = 3 based on criteria of ≥50% FIQ reduction after treatment. Psychological flexibility had a significant mediating effect on improvements.ConclusionThese results suggest that ABCT combined with TAU appears to be effective in the treatment of FM symptoms.Clinical Trial Registrationhttp://ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier NCT02454244.

  11. Efficacy of cognitive behavioral internet-based therapy in parents after the loss of a child during pregnancy: pilot data from a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersting, Anette; Kroker, Kristin; Schlicht, Sarah; Baust, Katja; Wagner, Birgit

    2011-12-01

    The loss of a child during pregnancy can be a traumatic event associated with long-lasting grief and psychological distress. This study examined the efficacy of an internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy program for mothers after pregnancy loss. In a randomized controlled trial with a waiting list control group, 83 participants who had lost a child during pregnancy were randomly allocated either to 5 weeks of internet therapy or to a 5-week waiting condition. Within a manualized cognitive behavioral treatment program, participants wrote ten essays on loss-specific topics. Posttraumatic stress, grief, and general psychopathology, especially depression, were assessed pretreatment, posttreatment, and at 3-month follow-up. Intention-to-treat analyses and completer analyses were performed. Relative to controls, participants in the treatment group showed significant improvements in posttraumatic stress, grief, depression, and overall mental health, but not in anxiety or somatization. Medium to large effect sizes were observed, and the improvement was maintained at 3-month follow-up. This internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy program represents an effective treatment approach with stable effects for women after pregnancy loss. Implementation of the program can thus help to improve the health care provision for mothers in this traumatic loss situation.

  12. Efficacy of infant simulator programmes to prevent teenage pregnancy: a school-based cluster randomised controlled trial in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkman, Sally A; Johnson, Sarah E; Codde, James P; Hart, Michael B; Straton, Judith A; Mittinty, Murthy N; Silburn, Sven R

    2016-11-05

    Infant simulator-based programmes, which aim to prevent teenage pregnancy, are used in high-income as well as low-income and middle-income countries but, despite growing popularity, no published evidence exists of their long-term effect. The aim of this trial was to investigate the effect of such a programme, the Virtual Infant Parenting (VIP) programme, on pregnancy outcomes of birth and induced abortion in Australia. In this school-based pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial, eligible schools in Perth, Western Australia, were enrolled and randomised 1:1 to the intervention and control groups. Randomisation using a table of random numbers without blocking, stratification, or matching was done by a researcher who was masked to the identity of the schools. Between 2003 and 2006, the VIP programme was administered to girls aged 13-15 years in the intervention schools, while girls of the same age in the control schools received the standard health education curriculum. Participants were followed until they reached 20 years of age via data linkage to hospital medical and abortion clinic records. The primary endpoint was the occurrence of pregnancy during the teenage years. Binomial and Cox proportional hazards regression was used to test for differences in pregnancy rates between study groups. This study is registered as an international randomised controlled trial, number ISRCTN24952438. 57 (86%) of 66 eligible schools were enrolled into the trial and randomly assigned 1:1 to the intervention (28 schools) or the control group (29 schools). Then, between Feb 1, 2003, and May 31, 2006, 1267 girls in the intervention schools received the VIP programme while 1567 girls in the control schools received the standard health education curriculum. Compared with girls in the control group, a higher proportion of girls in the intervention group recorded at least one birth (97 [8%] of 1267 in the intervention group vs 67 [4%] of 1567 in the control group) or at least one

  13. Efficacy of psychological pain theory-based cognitive therapy in suicidal patients with major depressive disorder: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yingmin; Li, Huanhuan; Shi, Chuan; Lin, Yixuan; Zhou, Hanyu; Zhang, Jiaqi

    2017-03-01

    The present study aimed to explore the effects of psychological pain theory-based cognitive therapy (PPTBCT) on suicide among depressed patients, compared with a control group who received usual psychological care (UPC). The sample consisted of 32 depressed patients and 32 healthy control subjects. All participants completed the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (BSI), Beck Depression Inventory, Three-Dimensional Psychological Pain Scale (TDPPS), and Problem Solving Inventory(PSI), and Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire (ATQ). All measures differed significantly between depressed patients and healthy controls. Then clinical participants were assigned randomly to the PPTBCT (n=19) and control (n=13) groups. During the 8-week intervention, scores related to depression, suicidal ideation, psychological pain, and automatic thoughts were decreased in both groups at the post-intervention and 4-week follow-up time points, compared with pre-intervention scores. BSI scores remained low at follow up and did not differ significantly from post-intervention scores in the PPTBCT group, but were significantly higher at follow up than at post-intervention in the control group. PPTBCT may effectively reduce suicide risk in patients with major depressive disorder, although the effects of its application need to be confirmed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Efficacy of Evidence Based Care on Care Quality of Mother and Infant in 3 Teaching Hospitals: A Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davoodi R

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Reducing infant mortality rate during delivery is a priority in the world. Even with the existing activities that take place in hospitals, due to a lack of simple and effective methods, this mortality reduction trend is slow. The objects of this study were to apply and investigate the effects of WHO evidence-based guidelines for safe delivery on the quality of maternal and neonatal support. Materials and Methods: This is a semi-experimental study with external control. After forward and backward translation of WHO safe childbirth checklist, in an expert meeting irrelevant/infeasible items in the checklist were omitted or modified. Personnel performance on checklist items was evaluated by researchers who were present in the whole period of mother and neonate hospitalization in two phases. Intervention was done in two hospitals and one hospital was considered as control. At first, the instructions were provided for all the collaborating personnel in forms of pamphlets, posters and booklets and after two weeks second phase began by arranging an educational session for personnel. The data of these two phases is being compared. Discussion: If our prior assumption be proved, we anticipate improvements in some items of checklist .Some of these items are skin contact, breast feeding rate in first hour postpartum, hand hygiene, and mother's knowledge regarding the parturition during the time in which they are hospitalized together with a decrease in episiotomy infection/dehiscence prevalence. These changes can be regarded as an overall promotion in maternal/neonatal support.

  15. Bioflavonoid Fisetin Loaded α-Tocopherol-Poly(lactic acid)-Based Polymeric Micelles for Enhanced Anticancer Efficacy in Breast Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Zhang, De-Zhong; Wang, Yu-Xia

    2017-02-01

    In this study, tocopherol based polymeric micelles were successfully prepared to enhance the anticancer effect of fisetin (FIS) in breast cancer cells. The drug-loaded carrier was characterized in terms of physicochemical and in vivo parameters. Compared to FIS, FIS-TPN showed higher cellular uptake in MCF-7 breast cancer cells as revealed by CLSM and flow cytometry. The cytotoxicity assay results clearly showed that the free FIS and FIS-TPN exhibited a typical dose-dependent toxic effect in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Especially, enhanced cytotoxic effect of FIS was observed when loaded in a nanocarrier. Free FIS induced a ~11% apoptosis whereas FIS-TPN induced a significantly greater apoptosis of ~20% by the end of 24 h. At 48 h, similar trend continued and free FIS showed ~30% of apoptosis whereas ~42% cell apoptosis was observed in FIS-TPN treated group. Notably, migration of cancer cell was significantly inhibited when treated with FIS-TPN formulations. The FIS-TPN significantly reduced to tumor burden and H&E staining showed the lowest tumor volume and higher cell apoptosis. All the findings suggest that the fisetin-loaded TPGS-PLA polymeric micelles serve as a potential candidate and promising alternative for the effective treatment of breast cancers.

  16. Development of a serology-based assay for efficacy evaluation of a lactococcicosis vaccine in Seriola fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Nao; Kawanishi, Michiko; Imamura, Saiki; Hirano, Fumiya; Uchiyama, Mariko; Yamamoto, Kinya; Nagai, Hidetaka; Futami, Kunihiko; Katagiri, Takayuki; Maita, Masashi; Kijima, Mayumi

    2014-05-01

    Lactococcicosis is an infection caused by the bacterium Lactococcus garvieae and creates serious economic damage to cultured marine and fresh water fish industries. The use of the assay currently applied to evaluate the potency of the lactococcicosis vaccine is contingent upon meeting specific parameters after statistical analysis of the percent survival of the vaccinated yellowtail or greater amberjack fish after challenge with a virulent strain of L. garvieae. We found that measuring the serological response with a quantitative agglutinating antibody against the L. garvieae antigen (phenotype KG+) was an effective method of monitoring the potency of lactococcicosis vaccines. Vaccinated fish had significantly higher antibody titers than control fish when the L. garvieae Lg2-S strain was used as an antigen. Furthermore, the titer of the KG + agglutinating antibody was correlated with vaccine potency, and the cut-off titer was determined by comparing the data with those from the challenge test. An advantage of the proposed serology-based potency assay is that it will contribute to reduced numbers of animal deaths during vaccine potency evaluations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Nano-self-assemblies based on synthetic analogues of mycobacterial monomycoloyl glycerol and DDA: Supramolecular structure and adjuvant efficacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin-Bertelsen, Birte; Korsholm, Karen Smith; Christensen, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    responses. In the present study, we investigated the supramolecular structure and in vivo adjuvant activity of dispersions based on binary mixtures of DDA and an array of synthetic MMG-1 analogues (MMG- 2/3/5/6) displaying longer (MMG-2) or shorter (MMG-3) alkyl chain lengths, or polar headgroup (MMG-5...... for DDA:MMG-3, depending on the DDA:MMG molar ratio. The studies also showed that ULVs were formed, regardless of the structural characteristics of the neat MMG analogues in excess buffer [lamellar (MMG-1/2/5) or inverse hexagonal (MMG-3/6) phases]. Immunization of mice with a chlamydia antigen surface......-adsorbed to DDA:MMG-1/3/6 dispersions revealed that all tested adjuvants were immunoactive and induced strong Th1 and Th17 responses with a potential for a central effector memory profile. The MMG-1 and MMG-6 analogues were equally immunoactive in vivo upon incorporation into DDA liposomes, despite the reported...

  18. Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of Semliki forest virus replicon-based DNA vaccines encoding goatpox virus structural proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Min; Jin Ningyi; Liu Qi; Huo Xiaowei; Li Yang; Hu Bo; Ma Haili; Zhu Zhanbo; Cong Yanzhao; Li Xiao; Jin Minglan; Zhu Guangze

    2009-01-01

    Goatpox, caused by goatpox virus (GTPV), is an acute feverish and contagious disease in goats often associated with high morbidity and high mortality. To resolve potential safety risks and vaccination side effects of existing live attenuated goatpox vaccine (AV41), two Semliki forest virus (SFV) replicon-based bicistronic expression DNA vaccines (pCSm-AAL and pCSm-BAA) which encode GTPV structural proteins corresponding to the Vaccinia virus proteins A27, L1, A33, and B5, respectively, were constructed. Then, theirs ability to induce humoral and cellular response in mice and goats, and protect goats against virulent virus challenge were evaluated. The results showed that, vaccination with pCSm-AAL and pCSm-BAA in combination could elicit strong humoral and cellular responses in mice and goats, provide partial protection against viral challenge in goats, and reduce disease symptoms. Additionally, priming vaccination with the above-mentioned DNA vaccines could significantly reduce the goats' side reactions from boosting vaccinations with current live vaccine (AV41), which include skin lesions at the inoculation site and fevers. Data obtained in this study could not only facilitate improvement of the current goatpox vaccination strategy, but also provide valuable guidance to suitable candidates for evaluation and development of orthopoxvirus vaccines.

  19. Time-dependent pharmacokinetics of dexamethasone and its efficacy in human breast cancer xenograft mice: a semi-mechanism-based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Chen, Rong; Yao, Qing-Yu; Liu, Sheng-Jun; Tian, Xiu-Yun; Hao, Chun-Yi; Lu, Wei; Zhou, Tian-Yan

    2018-03-01

    Dexamethasone (DEX) is the substrate of CYP3A. However, the activity of CYP3A could be induced by DEX when DEX was persistently administered, resulting in auto-induction and time-dependent pharmacokinetics (pharmacokinetics with time-dependent clearance) of DEX. In this study we investigated the pharmacokinetic profiles of DEX after single or multiple doses in human breast cancer xenograft nude mice and established a semi-mechanism-based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) model for characterizing the time-dependent PK of DEX as well as its anti-cancer effect. The mice were orally given a single or multiple doses (8 mg/kg) of DEX, and the plasma concentrations of DEX were assessed using LC-MS/MS. Tumor volumes were recorded daily. Based on the experimental data, a two-compartment model with first order absorption and time-dependent clearance was established, and the time-dependence of clearance was modeled by a sigmoid E max equation. Moreover, a semi-mechanism-based PK/PD model was developed, in which the auto-induction effect of DEX on its metabolizing enzyme CYP3A was integrated and drug potency was described using an E max equation. The PK/PD model was further used to predict the drug efficacy when the auto-induction effect was or was not considered, which further revealed the necessity of adding the auto-induction effect into the final PK/PD model. This study established a semi-mechanism-based PK/PD model for characterizing the time-dependent pharmacokinetics of DEX and its anti-cancer effect in breast cancer xenograft mice. The model may serve as a reference for DEX dose adjustments or optimization in future preclinical or clinical studies.

  20. Measuring the efficacy of flunixin meglumine and meloxicam for lame sows using a GAITFour pressure mat and an embedded microcomputer-based force plate system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pairis-Garcia, M D; Johnson, A K; Abell, C A; Coetzee, J F; Karriker, L A; Millman, S T; Stalder, K J

    2015-05-01

    Pain associated with lameness on farm is a negative affective state and has a detrimental impact on individual farm animal welfare. Animal pain can be managed utilizing husbandry tools and through pharmacological approaches. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs including meloxicam and flunixin meglumine are compounds used in many species for pain management because they are easy to administer, long lasting, and cost-effective. Assessing an animal's biomechanical parameters using such tools as the embedded microcomputer-based force plate system and GAITFour pressure mat gait analysis walkway system provides an objective, sensitive, and precise means to detect animals in lame states. The objectives of this study were to determine the efficacy of meloxicam and flunixin meglumine for pain mitigation in lame sows using the embedded microcomputer-based force plate system and GAITFour pressure mat gait analysis walkway system. Lameness was induced in 24 mature mixed-parity sows using a chemical synovitis model and compared 3 treatments: meloxicam (1.0 mg/kg per os), flunixin meglumine (2.2 mg/kg intramuscular) and sterile saline (intramuscular). Weight distribution (kg) for each foot was collected twice per second for a total of 5 min for each time point using the embedded microcomputer-based force plate system. Stride time, stride length, maximum pressure, activated sensors, and stance time were collected using 3 quality walks (readings) for each time point using the GAITFour pressure mat gait analysis walkway system. Sows administered flunixin meglumine or meloxicam tolerated more weight on their lame leg compared with saline sows (P embedded microcomputer-based force plate system and GAITFour pressure mat gait analysis walkway system. Analgesic drugs may be a key tool to manage negative pain affective states associated with lameness.

  1. Mediation and moderation of an efficacious theory-based abstinence-only intervention for African American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingwen; Jemmott, John B; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet

    2015-12-01

    This secondary data analysis sought to determine what mediated reductions in self-reported sexual initiation over the 24-month postintervention period in early adolescents who received "Promoting Health among Teens," a theory-based, abstinence-only intervention (Jemmott, Jemmott, & Fong, 2010). African American Grade 6 and 7 students at inner-city public middle schools were randomized to 1 of 5 interventions grounded in social-cognitive theory and the theory of reasoned action: 8-hr abstinence-only targeting reduced sexual intercourse; 8-hr safer-sex-only targeting increased condom use; 8-hr and 12-hr comprehensive interventions targeting sexual intercourse and condom use; 8-hr control intervention targeting physical activity and diet. Primary outcome was self-report of vaginal intercourse by 24 months postintervention. Potential mediators, assessed immediately postintervention, were theory-of-reasoned-action variables, including behavioral beliefs about positive consequences of abstinence and negative consequences of sex, intention to have sex, normative beliefs about sex, and HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) knowledge. We tested single and serial mediation models using the product-of-coefficients approach. Of 509 students reporting never having vaginal intercourse at baseline (324 girls and 185 boys; mean age = 11.8 years, SD = 0.8), 500 or 98.2% were included in serial mediation analyses. Consistent with the theory of reasoned action, the abstinence-only intervention increased positive behavioral beliefs about abstinence, which reduced intention to have sex, which in turn reduced sexual initiation. Negative behavioral beliefs about sex, normative beliefs about sex, and HIV/STI knowledge were not mediators. Abstinence-only interventions should stress the gains to be realized from abstinence rather than the deleterious consequences of sexual involvement. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. The efficacy of internet-based cognitive behavior therapy on blood pressure for comorbid hypertension and insomnia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-ju YANG

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of internet-based cognitive behavior therapy (CBT-I on blood pressure in patients with hypertension comorbid with insomnia. Methods One hundred and six patients met the JNC-8 diagnostic criteria for hypertension and DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for insomnia were selected, and randomly assigned to CBT-I group (n=53 and regular treatment group (n=53. All the patients accepted relevant treatment for 8 consecutive weeks. Changes of systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, the sleep parameters and the anxiety and depression levels were observed between baseline and 8 weeks of follow-up. Results Compared with pre-treatment, SBP and DBP decreased significantly in both CBT-I group and regular treatment group (P<0.01, the decrease was more significant in CBT-I group than in regular treatment group (P<0.01. The sleep latency, sleep efficiency, bed time and rating anxiety scale were improved more significantly in CBT-I group than in regular treatment group (44.49±22.75min vs. 55.50±34.96min; 72.31%±9.15% vs. 57.70%±11.53%; 302.65±43.76min vs. 262.70±50.64min and 17.14±6.45 vs. 21.02±6.64, respectively, the differences were of statistical significance (P<0.05. In addition, no significant difference was found in the level of depression between CBT-I group and regular treatment group. Conclusion CBT-I can effectively shorten sleep latency, improve sleep efficiency, extend bed time and improve anxiety, meanwhile effectively lower the blood pressure of patients with hypertension comorbid with insomnia by optimizing sleep quality. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2017.04.11

  3. Comparative evaluation of the remineralizing efficacy of calcium sodium phosphosilicate agent and fluoride based on quantitative and qualitative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saranya Mony

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calcium sodium phosphosilicate (NovaMin is an agent that is claimed to release calcium and phosphate ions intraorally to help the self-repair process of enamel. It is used extensively as a desensitizing agent, but the chemical reactions that occur may promote apatite formation enhancing remineralization. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the ability of NovaMin to remineralize an experimentally induced demineralized lesion. The evaluation was done based on the quantitative and qualitative analysis of enamel over the period of 15 and 30 days. Materials and Methods: A sample of 120 noncarious premolar teeth extracted for orthodontic reasons were used for the study. Baseline data for hardness, Ca/PO 4 , and surface characteristics before and after demineralization process was obtained. All the teeth were brushed twice daily at 12 h interval with the test agents using a powered toothbrush for 2 min. The samples were tested on the 15 th and 30 th day. Results: Calcium phosphate ratio and hardness in both the groups improved during the study period. Fluoride group showed higher values for Ca/PO 4 and hardness but was not statistically significant with the P > 0.05. Scanning electron microscope pictures showed that the deposition of the material over the decalcified enamel is more smoother and uniform with NovaMin and more irregular with fluoride. Relevance: NovaMin is found to be as effective in improving the Ca/PO 4 ratio and hardness in a demineralized enamel as fluoride. Hence, it can be a new alternate material for remineralization of enamel with less toxic effects compared to fluorides.

  4. The nature and combination of subunits used in epitope-based Schistosoma japonicum vaccine formulations affect their efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Feng

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schistosomiasis remains a major public health problem in endemic countries and is caused by infections with any one of three primary schistosome species. Although there are no vaccines available to date, this strategy appears feasible since natural immunity develops in individuals suffering from repeated infection during a lifetime. Since vaccinations resulting in both Th1- and Th2-type responses have been shown to contribute to protective immunity, a vaccine formulation with the capacity for stimulating multiple arms of the immune response will likely be the most effective. Previously we developed partially protective, single Th- and B cell-epitope-based peptide-DNA dual vaccines (PDDV (T3-PDDV and B3-PDDV, respectively capable of eliciting immune responses against the Schistosoma japonicum 22.6 kDa tegument antigen (Sj22.6 and a 62 kDa fragment of myosin (Sj62, respectively. Results In this study, we developed PDDV cocktails containing multiple epitopes of S. japonicum from Sj22.6, Sj62 and Sj97 antigens by predicting cytotoxic, helper, and B-cell epitopes, and evaluated vaccine potential in vivo. Results showed that mice immunized with a single-epitope PDDV elicited either Tc, Th, or B cell responses, respectively, and mice immunized with either the T3- or B3- single-epitope PDDV formulation were partially protected against infection. However, mice immunized with a multicomponent (3 PDDV components formulation elicited variable immune responses that were less immunoprotective than single-epitope PDDV formulations. Conclusions Our data show that combining these different antigens did not result in a more effective vaccine formulation when compared to each component administered individually, and further suggest that immune interference resulting from immunizations with antigenically distinct vaccine targets may be an important consideration in the development of multicomponent vaccine preparations.

  5. Efficacy of ginger-based treatments against infection with Gyrodactylus turnbulli in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata (Peters)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, G; Zilberg, D; Paladini, G; Fridman, S

    2015-04-30

    Monogenean infections of commercially farmed fishes are responsible for significant economic losses and existing chemical therapeutants, often stressful to the fish, pose associated risks. As part of a recent trend to move towards the use of alternative, plant-based remedies for commonly occurring aquaculture-related diseases, the efficiency of ginger (Zingiber officinale) was investigated against the monogenean parasite Gyrodactylus turnbulli in the guppy. In vitro trials revealed the clear anti-parasitic effects of ginger. Ethanolic and aqueous extracts, prepared from freeze dried ginger, were tested. An increase in extract concentration was associated with reduced time to parasite immobilisation, with ethanolic extract being more efficient; at 75 and 200ppt aqueous ginger extract parasites died at 65.6±2.8 and 1.8±0.2min, respectively, whereas at 5 and 40ppt ethanolic extract parasites died at 26.1±0.7 and 4.9±0.3min, respectively. Bathing G. turnbulli-infected fish in ethanolic ginger extract (i.e. 5 and 7.5ppt for 90 and 30min, respectively) significantly reduced infection prevalence and intensity when compared to the water and ethanol controls. The higher concentration (i.e. 7.5ppt) proved as equally effective as Praziquantel, the conventionally used chemical treatment for gyrodactylosis, with the fish appearing to be completely cleared of the infection in both cases. Oral treatments of G. turnbulli-infected guppies with diets supplemented with 10 and 20% ginger powder proved to be ineffective in decreasing parasite load. These findings demonstrate that immersion in ginger extract offers an effective, alternative treatment against monogenean infection in fish. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Efficacy of integrated school based de-worming and prompt malaria treatment on helminths -Plasmodium falciparum co-infections: A 33 months follow up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chadukura Vivian

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The geographical congruency in distribution of helminths and Plasmodium falciparum makes polyparasitism a common phenomenon in Sub Saharan Africa. The devastating effects of helminths-Plasmodium co-infections on primary school health have raised global interest for integrated control. However little is known on the feasibility, timing and efficacy of integrated helminths-Plasmodium control strategies. A study was conducted in Zimbabwe to evaluate the efficacy of repeated combined school based antihelminthic and prompt malaria treatment. Methods A cohort of primary schoolchildren (5-17 years received combined Praziquantel, albendazole treatment at baseline, and again during 6, 12 and 33 months follow up surveys and sustained prompt malaria treatment. Sustained prompt malaria treatment was carried out throughout the study period. Children's infection status with helminths, Plasmodium and helminths-Plasmodium co-infections was determined by parasitological examinations at baseline and at each treatment point. The prevalence of S. haematobium, S. mansoni, STH, malaria, helminths-Plasmodium co-infections and helminths infection intensities before and after treatment were analysed. Results Longitudinal data showed that two rounds of combined Praziquantel and albendazole treatment for schistosomiasis and STHs at 6 monthly intervals and sustained prompt malaria treatment significantly reduced the overall prevalence of S. haematobium, S. mansoni, hookworms and P. falciparum infection in primary schoolchildren by 73.5%, 70.8%, 67.3% and 58.8% respectively (p P. f + schistosomes, and P. f + STHs + schistosomes co-infections were reduced by 68.0%, 84.2%, and 90.7%, respectively. The absence of anti-helminthic treatment between the 12 mth and 33 mth follow-up surveys resulted in the sharp increase in STHs + schistosomes co-infection from 3.3% at 12 months follow up survey to 10.7%, slightly more than the baseline level (10.3% while other

  7. Effect of a Website That Presents Patients' Experiences on Self-Efficacy and Patient Competence of Colorectal Cancer Patients: Web-Based Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesler, Jürgen M; Keller, Bettina; Repke, Tim; Leonhart, Rainer; Weis, Joachim; Muckelbauer, Rebecca; Rieckmann, Nina; Müller-Nordhorn, Jacqueline; Lucius-Hoene, Gabriele; Holmberg, Christine

    2017-10-13

    Patients often seek other patients' experiences with the disease. The Internet provides a wide range of opportunities to share and learn about other people's health and illness experiences via blogs or patient-initiated online discussion groups. There also exists a range of medical information devices that include experiential patient information. However, there are serious concerns about the use of such experiential information because narratives of others may be powerful and pervasive tools that may hinder informed decision making. The international research network DIPEx (Database of Individual Patients' Experiences) aims to provide scientifically based online information on people's experiences with health and illness to fulfill patients' needs for experiential information, while ensuring that the presented information includes a wide variety of possible experiences. The aim is to evaluate the colorectal cancer module of the German DIPEx website krankheitserfahrungen.de with regard to self-efficacy for coping with cancer and patient competence. In 2015, a Web-based randomized controlled trial was conducted using a two-group between-subjects design and repeated measures. The study sample consisted of individuals who had been diagnosed with colorectal cancer within the past 3 years or who had metastasis or recurrent disease. Outcome measures included self-efficacy for coping with cancer and patient competence. Participants were randomly assigned to either an intervention group that had immediate access to the colorectal cancer module for 2 weeks or to a waiting list control group. Outcome criteria were measured at baseline before randomization and at 2 weeks and 6 weeks. The study randomized 212 persons. On average, participants were 54 (SD 11.1) years old, 58.8% (124/211) were female, and 73.6% (156/212) had read or heard stories of other patients online before entering the study, thus excluding any influence of the colorectal cancer module on

  8. Efficacy of Internet-Based Guided Treatment for Genito-Pelvic Pain/Penetration Disorder: Rationale, Treatment Protocol, and Design of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Carlotta Zarski

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionGenito-pelvic pain/penetration disorder (GPPPD not only adversely affects women’s sexuality and sexual satisfaction but is also associated with a wide range of psychosocial consequences such as reduced quality of life and well-being, mental health comorbidities, and relationship distress. Evidence for effective treatment options is scarce.AimThis article describes the rationale, treatment protocol, and study design for a randomized controlled trial examining the efficacy of an Internet-based guided intervention for GPPPD.MethodTwo hundred women who meet the criteria for GPPPD and have not been able to experience sexual intercourse for at least the last 6 months will be recruited and randomly assigned either to the intervention group (IG or a 6-month waitlist control group. Assessments take place at baseline (T1, peritreatment after completion of Session 5 in IG (T2, after completion of Session 8 or 12 weeks after randomization (T3, and after 6 months (T4. Data will be analyzed on an intention-to-treat and a completer basis.Main outcome measuresThe primary outcome will be sexual intercourse involving the insertion of the partner’s penis at posttreatment. Secondary outcomes include, e.g., improved non-intercourse penetration, sexual functioning, dyadic stress coping, reduced fear of sexuality and negative penetration-related cognitions. Fear of sexuality, penetration-related cognitions, and exercise intensity will be assessed as mediators of intercourse in the IG. Sexual dysfunctions of partners will be measured at baseline (T1 and investigated as a potential moderator of the primary treatment outcome.DiscussionGiven the burden associated with GPPPD and the need for specialized treatment, there is a surprising lack of evidence-based treatment options. This study aims to assess whether Internet-based interventions could contribute to closing this treatment gap.Clinical Trial RegistrationGerman Register of Clinical Studies (DRKS

  9. Efficacy of gamification-based smartphone application for weight loss in overweight and obese adolescents: study protocol for a phase II randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timpel, Patrick; Cesena, Fernando Henpin Yue; da Silva Costa, Christiane; Soldatelli, Matheus Dorigatti; Gois, Emanuel; Castrillon, Eduardo; Díaz, Lina Johana Jaime; Repetto, Gabriela M; Hagos, Fanah; Castillo Yermenos, Raul E; Pacheco-Barrios, Kevin; Musallam, Wafaa; Braid, Zilda; Khidir, Nesreen; Romo Guardado, Marcela; Roepke, Roberta Muriel Longo

    2018-06-01

    Overweight and obesity are significant public health concerns that are prevalent in younger age cohorts. Preventive or therapeutic interventions are difficult to implement and maintain over time. On the other hand, the majority of adolescents in the United States have a smartphone, representing a huge potential for innovative digitized interventions, such as weight loss programs delivered via smartphone applications. Although the number of available smartphone applications is increasing, evidence for their effectiveness in weight loss is insufficient. Therefore, the proposed study aims to assess the efficacy of a gamification-based smartphone application for weight loss in overweight and obese adolescents. The trial is designed to be a phase II, single-centre, two-arm, triple-blinded, randomized controlled trial (RCT) with a duration of 6 months. The intervention consists of a smartphone application that provides both tracking and gamification elements, while the control arm consists of an identically designed application solely with tracking features of health information. The proposed trial will be conducted in an urban primary care clinic of an academic centre in the United States of America, with expertise in the management of overweight and obese adolescents. Eligible adolescents will be followed for 6 months. Changes in body mass index z score from baseline to 6 months will be the primary outcome. Secondary objectives will explore the effects of the gamification-based application on adherence, as well as anthropometric, metabolic and behavioural changes. A required sample size of 108 participants (54 participants per group) was calculated. The benefits of the proposed study include mid-term effects in weight reduction for overweight and obese adolescents. The current proposal will contribute to fill a gap in the literature on the mid-term effects of gamification-based interventions to control weight in adolescents. This trial is a well-designed RCT that is in

  10. Efficacy of Internet-Based Guided Treatment for Genito-Pelvic Pain/Penetration Disorder: Rationale, Treatment Protocol, and Design of a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarski, Anna-Carlotta; Berking, Matthias; Ebert, David Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Genito-pelvic pain/penetration disorder (GPPPD) not only adversely affects women's sexuality and sexual satisfaction but is also associated with a wide range of psychosocial consequences such as reduced quality of life and well-being, mental health comorbidities, and relationship distress. Evidence for effective treatment options is scarce. This article describes the rationale, treatment protocol, and study design for a randomized controlled trial examining the efficacy of an Internet-based guided intervention for GPPPD. Two hundred women who meet the criteria for GPPPD and have not been able to experience sexual intercourse for at least the last 6 months will be recruited and randomly assigned either to the intervention group (IG) or a 6-month waitlist control group. Assessments take place at baseline (T1), peritreatment after completion of Session 5 in IG (T2), after completion of Session 8 or 12 weeks after randomization (T3), and after 6 months (T4). Data will be analyzed on an intention-to-treat and a completer basis. The primary outcome will be sexual intercourse involving the insertion of the partner's penis at posttreatment. Secondary outcomes include, e.g., improved non-intercourse penetration, sexual functioning, dyadic stress coping, reduced fear of sexuality and negative penetration-related cognitions. Fear of sexuality, penetration-related cognitions, and exercise intensity will be assessed as mediators of intercourse in the IG. Sexual dysfunctions of partners will be measured at baseline (T1) and investigated as a potential moderator of the primary treatment outcome. Given the burden associated with GPPPD and the need for specialized treatment, there is a surprising lack of evidence-based treatment options. This study aims to assess whether Internet-based interventions could contribute to closing this treatment gap. German Register of Clinical Studies (DRKS): DRKS00010228.

  11. Bounce Back Now! Protocol of a population-based randomized controlled trial to examine the efficacy of a Web-based intervention with disaster-affected families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggiero, Kenneth J; Davidson, Tatiana M; McCauley, Jenna; Gros, Kirstin Stauffacher; Welsh, Kyleen; Price, Matthew; Resnick, Heidi S; Danielson, Carla Kmett; Soltis, Kathryn; Galea, Sandro; Kilpatrick, Dean G; Saunders, Benjamin E; Nissenboim, Josh; Muzzy, Wendy; Fleeman, Anna; Amstadter, Ananda B

    2015-01-01

    Disasters have far-reaching and potentially long-lasting effects on youth and families. Research has consistently shown a clear increase in the prevalence of several mental health disorders after disasters, including depression and posttraumatic stress disorder. Widely accessible evidence-based interventions are needed to address this unmet need for youth and families, who are underrepresented in disaster research. Rapid growth in Internet and Smartphone access, as well as several Web based evaluation studies with various adult populations has shown that Web-based interventions are likely to be feasible in this context and can improve clinical outcomes. Such interventions also are generally cost-effective, can be targeted or personalized, and can easily be integrated in a stepped care approach to screening and intervention delivery. This is a protocol paper that describes an innovative study design in which we evaluate a self-help Web-based resource, Bounce Back Now, with a population-based sample of disaster affected adolescents and families. The paper includes description and justification for sampling selection and procedures, selection of assessment measures and methods, design of the intervention, and statistical evaluation of critical outcomes. Unique features of this study design include the use of address-based sampling to recruit a population-based sample of disaster-affected adolescents and parents, telephone and Web-based assessments, and development and evaluation of a highly individualized Web intervention for adolescents. Challenges related to large-scale evaluation of technology-delivered interventions with high-risk samples in time-sensitive research are discussed, as well as implications for future research and practice. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Network Pharmacology-Based Approach to Investigate the Analgesic Efficacy and Molecular Targets of Xuangui Dropping Pill for Treating Primary Dysmenorrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihan Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the clinical analgesic efficacy and identify the molecular targets of XGDP for treating primary dysmenorrhea (PD by a network pharmacology approach. Analysis of pain disappearance rate of XGDP in PD treatment was conducted based on data from phase II and III randomized, double-blind, double-simulation, and positive parallel controlled clinical trials. The bioactive compounds were obtained by the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion processes with oral bioavailability (OB and drug-likeness (DL evaluation. Subsequently, target prediction, pathway identification, and network construction were employed to clarify the mechanisms of the analgesic effect of XGDP on PD. The pain disappearance rates in phase II and III clinical trials of XGDP in PD treatment were 62.5% and 55.8%, respectively, yielding a significant difference (P<0.05 when compared with the control group using Tongjingbao granules (TJBG. Among 331 compounds, 53 compounds in XGDP were identified as the active compounds related to PD through OB, DL, and target prediction. The active compounds and molecular targets of XGDP were identified, and our study showed that XGDP may exert its therapeutic effects on PD through the regulation of the targets related to anti-inflammation analgesia and central analgesia and relieving smooth muscle contraction.

  13. Efficacy of intra-articular hyaluronic acid injections and exercise-based rehabilitation programme, administered as isolated or integrated therapeutic regimens for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccomanno, Maristella F; Donati, Fabrizio; Careri, Silvia; Bartoli, Matteo; Severini, Gabriele; Milano, Giuseppe

    2016-05-01

    To assess the efficacy of intra-articular hyaluronic acid (HA) injections and exercise-based rehabilitation (EBR) programme, administered as isolated or integrated for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis. One hundred sixty-five patients affected by moderate degrees of knee OA were randomly divided into three groups. Group 1 (HA) underwent three HA injections (one every 2 weeks); group 2 (EBR) underwent 20 treatment sessions in a month of an individualized programme; and group 3 (HA + EBR) received both treatments simultaneously. Primary outcome was the Italian version of the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC) Osteoarthritis Index; secondary outcome was the evaluation of active range of movement (AROM). All patients were evaluated before and 1, 3 and 6 months after treatment. Significance was set at p injections and individualized rehabilitation programmes administered in isolation or in combination are effective in improving knee function and pain relief. The combined treatment showed the greatest pain relief at 1-month follow-up compared to either in isolation. Compared to the previous studies, this is the first study, which proposed an EBR programme tailored to the compartment of the knee joint most involved in the degenerative process. I.

  14. The Efficacy of Three Learning Methods Collaborative, Context-Based Learning and Traditional, on Learning, Attitude and Behaviour of Undergraduate Nursing Students: Integrating Theory and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanpour-Dehkordi, Ali; Solati, Kamal

    2016-04-01

    Communication skills training, responsibility, respect, and self-awareness are important indexes of changing learning behaviours in modern approaches. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of three learning approaches, collaborative, context-based learning (CBL), and traditional, on learning, attitude, and behaviour of undergraduate nursing students. This study was a clinical trial with pretest and post-test of control group. The participants were senior nursing students. The samples were randomly assigned to three groups; CBL, collaborative, and traditional. To gather data a standard questionnaire of students' behaviour and attitude was administered prior to and after the intervention. Also, the rate of learning was investigated by a researcher-developed questionnaire prior to and after the intervention in the three groups. In CBL and collaborative training groups, the mean score of behaviour and attitude increased after the intervention. But no significant association was obtained between the mean scores of behaviour and attitude prior to and after the intervention in the traditional group. However, the mean learning score increased significantly in the CBL, collaborative, and traditional groups after the study in comparison to before the study. Both CBL and collaborative approaches were useful in terms of increased respect, self-awareness, self-evaluation, communication skills and responsibility as well as increased motivation and learning score in comparison to traditional method.

  15. Mindfulness-based stress reduction and cognitive behavioral therapy for chronic low back pain: similar effects on mindfulness, catastrophizing, self-efficacy, and acceptance in a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Judith A; Anderson, Melissa L; Balderson, Benjamin H; Cook, Andrea J; Sherman, Karen J; Cherkin, Daniel C

    2016-11-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is believed to improve chronic pain problems by decreasing patient catastrophizing and increasing patient self-efficacy for managing pain. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) is believed to benefit patients with chronic pain by increasing mindfulness and pain acceptance. However, little is known about how these therapeutic mechanism variables relate to each other or whether they are differentially impacted by MBSR vs CBT. In a randomized controlled trial comparing MBSR, CBT, and usual care (UC) for adults aged 20 to 70 years with chronic low back pain (N = 342), we examined (1) baseline relationships among measures of catastrophizing, self-efficacy, acceptance, and mindfulness and (2) changes on these measures in the 3 treatment groups. At baseline, catastrophizing was associated negatively with self-efficacy, acceptance, and 3 aspects of mindfulness (nonreactivity, nonjudging, and acting with awareness; all P values pain.

  16. Impact of gender on efficacy and acute toxicity of alkylating agent -based chemotherapy in Ewing sarcoma: secondary analysis of the Euro-Ewing99-R1 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Henk; Paulussen, Michael; Le Teuff, Gwénaël; Judson, Ian; Gelderblom, Hans; Dirksen, Uta; Brennan, Bernadette; Whelan, Jeremy; Ladenstein, Ruth Lydia; Marec-Berard, Perrine; Kruseova, Jarmila; Hjorth, Lars; Kühne, Thomas; Brichard, Benedicte; Wheatley, Keith; Craft, Alan; Juergens, Heribert; Gaspar, Nathalie; Le Deley, Marie-Cécile

    2015-11-01

    Based on the randomised Euro-EWING99-R1 trial, vincristine, adriamycin, cyclophosphamide (VAC) may be able to replace vincristine, adriamycin, ifosfamide (VAI) in the treatment of standard-risk Ewing sarcoma. However some heterogeneity of treatment effect by gender was observed. The current exploratory study aimed at investigating the influence of gender on treatment efficacy and acute toxicity. Impact of gender on event-free survival (EFS), acute toxicity by course, switches between treatment arms and cumulative dose of alkylating agents was evaluated in multivariable models adjusted for age including terms to test for heterogeneity of treatment effect by gender. The analysis of the EFS was performed on the intention-to-treat population. EFS did not significantly differ between the 509 males and 347 females (p=0.33), but an interaction in terms of efficacy was suspected between treatment and gender (p=0.058): VAC was associated with poorer EFS than VAI in males, hazard ratio (HR) (VAC/VAI)=1.37 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.98-1.90], contrasting with HR=0.81 [95%CI, 0.53-1.24] in females. Severe toxicity was more frequent in females, whatever the toxicity type. Thirty patients switched from VAI to VAC (9/251 males, 4%, and 21/174 females, 12%) mostly due to renal toxicity, and three from VAC to VAI (2/258 males, 0.8%, and 1/173 females, 0.6%). A reduction of alkylating agent cumulative dose >20% was more frequent in females (15% versus 9%, p=0.005), with no major difference between VAC and VAI (10% versus 13%, p=0.15). Differences of acute toxicity rate and cumulative doses of alkylating agents could not explain the marginal interaction observed in the Euro-EWING99-R1 trial data. Effects of gender-dependent polymorphism/activity of metabolic enzymes (e.g. known for CYP2B6) of ifosfamide versus cyclophosphamide should be explored. External data are required to further evaluate whether there is heterogeneity of alkylating agent effect by gender. NCT00987636 and

  17. Efficacy of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy on Late Post-Treatment Pain in Women Treated for Primary Breast Cancer: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannsen, Maja; O'Connor, Maja; O'Toole, Mia Skytte; Jensen, Anders Bonde; Højris, Inger; Zachariae, Robert

    2016-10-01

    To assess the efficacy of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) for late post-treatment pain in women treated for primary breast cancer. A randomized wait list-controlled trial was conducted with 129 women treated for breast cancer reporting post-treatment pain (score ≥ 3 on pain intensity or pain burden assessed with 10-point numeric rating scales). Participants were randomly assigned to a manualized 8-week MBCT program or a wait-list control group. Pain was the primary outcome and was assessed with the Short Form McGill Pain Questionnaire 2 (SF-MPQ-2), the Present Pain Intensity subscale (the McGill Pain Questionnaire), and perceived pain intensity and pain burden (numeric rating scales). Secondary outcomes were quality of life (World Health Organization-5 Well-Being Index), psychological distress (the Hospital Depression and Anxiety Scale), and self-reported use of pain medication. All outcome measures were assessed at baseline, postintervention, and 3-month and 6-month follow-up. Treatment effects were evaluated with mixed linear models. Statistically significant time × group interactions were found for pain intensity (d = 0.61; P = .002), the Present Pain Intensity subscale (d = 0.26; P = .026), the SF-MPQ-2 neuropathic pain subscale (d = 0.24; P = .036), and SF-MPQ-2 total scores (d = 0.23; P = .036). Only pain intensity remained statistically significant after correction for multiple comparisons. Statistically significant effects were also observed for quality of life (d = 0.42; P = .028) and nonprescription pain medication use (d = 0.40; P = .038). None of the remaining outcomes reached statistical significance. MBCT showed a statistically significant, robust, and durable effect on pain intensity, indicating that MBCT may be an efficacious pain rehabilitation strategy for women treated for breast cancer. In addition, the effect on neuropathic pain, a pain type reported by women treated for breast cancer, further suggests the potential of MBCT but

  18. High treatment efficacy by dual targeting of Burkitt's lymphoma xenografted mice with a {sup 177}Lu-based CD22-specific radioimmunoconjugate and rituximab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Tobias; Boetticher, Benedikt; Keller, Armin; Schlegelmilch, Anne; Jaeger, Dirk; Krauss, Juergen [Heidelberg University Hospital, Department of Medical Oncology, National Center for Tumor Diseases, Heidelberg (Germany); Mier, Walter; Kraemer, Susanne; Leotta, Karin [Heidelberg University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Heidelberg (Germany); Sauter, Max; Haberkorn, Uwe [Heidelberg University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Heidelberg (Germany); German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Clinical Cooperation Unit Nuclear Medicine, Heidelberg (Germany); Grosse-Hovest, Ludger [University of Tuebingen, Department of Immunology, Tuebingen (Germany); Arndt, Michaela A.E. [Heidelberg University Hospital, Department of Medical Oncology, National Center for Tumor Diseases, Heidelberg (Germany); German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Immunotherapy Program, National Center for Tumor Diseases, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-03-15

    Dual-targeted therapy has been shown to be a promising treatment option in recurrent and/or refractory B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (B-NHL). We generated radioimmunoconjugates (RICs) comprising either a novel humanized anti-CD22 monoclonal antibody, huRFB4, or rituximab, and the low-energy β-emitter {sup 177}Lu. Both RICs were evaluated as single agents in a human Burkitt's lymphoma xenograft mouse model. To increase the therapeutic efficacy of the anti-CD22 RIC, combination therapy with unlabelled anti-CD20 rituximab was explored. The binding activity of CHX-A''-DTPA-conjugated antibodies to target cells was analysed by flow cytometry. To assess tumour targeting of {sup 177}Lu-labelled antibodies, in vivo biodistribution experiments were performed. For radioimmunotherapy (RIT) studies, non-obese diabetic recombination activating gene-1 (NOD-Rag1{sup null}) interleukin-2 receptor common gamma chain (IL2r γ {sup null}) null mice (NRG mice) were xenografted subcutaneously with Raji Burkitt's lymphoma cells. {sup 177}Lu-conjugated antibodies were administered at a single dose of 9.5 MBq per mouse. For dual-targeted therapy, rituximab was injected at weekly intervals (0.5 - 1.0 mg). Tumour accumulation of RICs was monitored by planar scintigraphy. Conjugation of CHX-A''-DTPA resulted in highly stable RICs with excellent antigen-binding properties. Biodistribution experiments revealed higher tumour uptake of the {sup 177}Lu-labelled anti-CD22 IgG than of {sup 177}Lu-labelled rituximab. Treatment with {sup 177}Lu-conjugated huRFB4 resulted in increased tumour growth inhibition and significantly longer survival than treatment with {sup 177}Lu-conjugated rituximab. The therapeutic efficacy of the anti-CD22 RIC could be markedly enhanced by combination with unlabelled rituximab. These findings suggest that dual targeting with {sup 177}Lu-based CD22-specific RIT in combination with rituximab is a promising new treatment option for

  19. Efficacy of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy in Prevention of Depressive Relapse: An Individual Patient Data Meta-analysis From Randomized Trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuyken, W.; Warren, F.C.; Taylor, R.S.; Whalley, B.; Crane, C.; Bondolfi, G.; Hayes, R.; Huijbers, M.J.; Ma, H.; Schweizer, S.; Segal, Z.; Speckens, A.E.M.; Teasdale, J.D.; Heeringen, K. Van; Williams, M.; Byford, S.; Byng, R.; Dalgleish, T.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: Relapse prevention in recurrent depression is a significant public health problem, and antidepressants are the current first-line treatment approach. Identifying an equally efficacious nonpharmacological intervention would be an important development. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a

  20. Characterization and implementation of OSL dosimeters for use in evaluating the efficacy of organ-based tube current modulation for CT scans of the face and orbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsh, R. M.; Silosky, M., E-mail: michael.silosky@ucdenver.edu [Department of Radiology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado 80045 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to characterize commercially available optically stimulated luminescent (OSL) dosimeters for general clinical applications and apply the results to the development of a method to evaluate the efficacy of a vendor-specific organ-based tube current modulation application for both phantom and clinical computed tomography (CT) scans of the face and orbits. Methods: This study consisted of three components: (1) thorough characterization of the dosimeters for CT scans in phantom, including evaluations of depletion, fading, angular dependence, and conversion from counts to absorbed dose; (2) evaluation of the efficacy of using plastic glasses to position the dosimeters over the eyes in both phantom and clinical studies; and (3) preliminary dosimetry measurements made using organ-based tube current modulation in computed tomography dose index (CTDI) and anthropomorphic phantom studies. Results: (1) Depletion effects were found to have a linear relationship with the output of the OSL dosimeters (R{sup 2} = 0.96). Fading was found to affect dosimeter readings during the first two hours following exposure but had no effect during the remaining 60-h period observed. No significant angular dependence was observed for the exposure conditions used in this study (with p-values ranging from 0.9 to 0.26 for all t-tests). Dosimeter counts varied linearly with absorbed dose when measured in the center and 12 o’clock positions of the CTDI phantoms. These linear models of counts versus absorbed dose had overlapping 95% confidence intervals for the intercepts but not for the slopes. (2) When dosimeters were positioned using safety glasses, there was no adverse effect on image quality, and there was no statistically significant difference between this placement and placement of the dosimeters directly on the eyes of the phantom (p = 0.24). (3) When using organ-based tube current modulation, the dose to the lens of the eye was reduced between 19% and

  1. Characterization and implementation of OSL dosimeters for use in evaluating the efficacy of organ-based tube current modulation for CT scans of the face and orbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, R. M.; Silosky, M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to characterize commercially available optically stimulated luminescent (OSL) dosimeters for general clinical applications and apply the results to the development of a method to evaluate the efficacy of a vendor-specific organ-based tube current modulation application for both phantom and clinical computed tomography (CT) scans of the face and orbits. Methods: This study consisted of three components: (1) thorough characterization of the dosimeters for CT scans in phantom, including evaluations of depletion, fading, angular dependence, and conversion from counts to absorbed dose; (2) evaluation of the efficacy of using plastic glasses to position the dosimeters over the eyes in both phantom and clinical studies; and (3) preliminary dosimetry measurements made using organ-based tube current modulation in computed tomography dose index (CTDI) and anthropomorphic phantom studies. Results: (1) Depletion effects were found to have a linear relationship with the output of the OSL dosimeters (R 2 = 0.96). Fading was found to affect dosimeter readings during the first two hours following exposure but had no effect during the remaining 60-h period observed. No significant angular dependence was observed for the exposure conditions used in this study (with p-values ranging from 0.9 to 0.26 for all t-tests). Dosimeter counts varied linearly with absorbed dose when measured in the center and 12 o’clock positions of the CTDI phantoms. These linear models of counts versus absorbed dose had overlapping 95% confidence intervals for the intercepts but not for the slopes. (2) When dosimeters were positioned using safety glasses, there was no adverse effect on image quality, and there was no statistically significant difference between this placement and placement of the dosimeters directly on the eyes of the phantom (p = 0.24). (3) When using organ-based tube current modulation, the dose to the lens of the eye was reduced between 19% and 43

  2. Fludarabine-based versus CHOP-like regimens with or without rituximab in patients with previously untreated indolent lymphoma: a retrospective analysis of safety and efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu XX

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Xiao-xiao Xu,1 Bei Yan,2 Zhen-xing Wang,3 Yong Yu,1 Xiao-xiong Wu,2 Yi-zhuo Zhang11Department of Hematology, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Tianjin, 2Department of Hematology, First Affiliated Hospital of Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital, Beijing, 3Department of Stomach Oncology, TianJin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Tianjin, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: Fludarabine-based regimens and CHOP (doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, prednisone-like regimens with or without rituximab are the most common treatment modalities for indolent lymphoma. However, there is no clear evidence to date about which chemotherapy regimen should be the proper initial treatment of indolent lymphoma. More recently, the use of fludarabine has raised concerns due to its high number of toxicities, especially hematological toxicity and infectious complications. The present study aimed to retrospectively evaluate both the efficacy and the potential toxicities of the two main regimens (fludarabine-based and CHOP-like regimens in patients with previously untreated indolent lymphoma. Among a total of 107 patients assessed, 54 patients received fludarabine-based regimens (FLU arm and 53 received CHOP or CHOPE (doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, prednisone, or plus etoposide regimens (CHOP arm. The results demonstrated that fludarabine-based regimens could induce significantly improved progression-free survival (PFS compared with CHOP-like regimens. However, the FLU arm showed overall survival, complete response, and overall response rates similar to those of the CHOP arm. Grade 3–4 neutropenia occurred in 42.6% of the FLU arm and 7.5% of the CHOP arm (P 60 years and presentation of grade 3–4 myelosuppression were the independent factors to infection, and the FLU arm had significantly

  3. Antiaging efficacy of melatonin-based day and night creams: a randomized, split-face, assessor-blinded proof-of-concept trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Massimo; Sparavigna, Adele

    2018-01-01

    Skin is a complete and independent melatoninergic system. At the skin level, melatonin (Mel) acts as a relevant antioxidant and cytoprotective substance. Topical application of Mel is considered meaningful, since it can easily penetrate the stratum corneum. Exogenous Mel can be expected to represent a potent antioxidative defense system against skin aging mechanisms. Day and night creams containing Mel, carried in lipospheres (Melatosphere™), have been developed (Nutriage SPF 30 day cream and Nutriage night cream). The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a Mel-based cream as antiaging treatment. In a randomized, split-face, assessor-blinded, prospective 3-month study, 22 women (mean age 55 years) with moderate-severe skin aging were enrolled (clinical trial registration number: NCT03276897). Study products were applied in the morning (Nutriage day cream) and evening (Nutriage night cream) on the right or left side of the face. Primary outcomes were: 1) clinical evaluation of wrinkles' grade (crow's feet and nasolabial folds), surface microrelief, skin tonicity (resistance to pinching and traction, recovery after pinching) and skin dryness and 2) instrumental evaluation of skin roughness and 3D photographic documentation (Vectra H1 images system). Assessments of both clinical and instrumental evaluations were performed at baseline and after 1, 2 and 3 months of treatment by an investigator unaware of treatment allocation. All the subjects completed the study. Crow's feet was reduced significantly ( p =0.05) by -15% with the creams in comparison with the non-treated side after 3 months. At the end of the study, surface microrelief (-26.5%), skin profilometry (-13%), skin tonicity (+30%) and skin dryness (-59.5%) significantly improved with active treatment. Both products were well tolerated. In women with skin aging, Mel-based creams improved significantly skin tonicity and skin hydration with a significant reduction in skin roughness, supporting the

  4. Diagnostic efficacy of monoclonal antibody based sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for detection of Fasciola gigantica excretory/secretory antigens in both serum and stool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoheiry Mona K

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This research was carried out to develop a reliable monoclonal antibody (MoAb-based sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for the diagnosis of active Fasciola gigantica infection in both serum and stool for comparative purposes. Methods From a panel of MoAbs raised against F. gigantica excretory/secretory antigens (ES Ags, a pair (12B/11D/3F and 10A/9D/10G was chosen due to its high reactivity and strict specificity to F. gigantica antigen by indirect ELISA. Results The two MoAbs were of the IgG1 and IgG2a subclasses, respectively. Using SDS-PAGE and EITB, the selected MoAbs recognized 83, 64, 45 and 26 kDa bands of ES Ags. The lower detection limit of ELISA assay was 3 ng/ml. In stool, the sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic efficacy of ELISA was 96%, 98.2 and 97.1%; while in serum they were 94%, 94.6% and 94.3%, respectively. Moreover, a positive correlation was found between ova count in stool of F. gigantica infected patients and the OD readings of ELISA in both stool and serum samples (r = 0.730, p Conclusions These data showed that the use of MoAb-based sandwich ELISA for the detection of F. gigantica coproantigens in stool specimens was superior to serum samples; it provides a highly efficient, non-invasive technique for the diagnosis of active F. gigantica infection.

  5. The method and efficacy of support vector machine classifiers based on texture features and multi-resolution histogram from 18F-FDG PET-CT images for the evaluation of mediastinal lymph nodes in patients with lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Xuan; Chu, Chunyu; Li, Yingci; Lu, Peiou; Wang, Wenzhi; Liu, Wanyu; Yu, Lijuan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Three support vector machine classifiers were constructed from PET-CT images. • The areas under the ROC curve for SVM1, SVM2, and SVM3 were 0.689, 0.579, and 0.685, respectively. • The areas under curves for maximum short diameter and SUV max were 0.684 and 0.652, respectively. • The algorithm based on SVM was potential in the diagnosis of mediastinal lymph nodes. - Abstract: Objectives: In clinical practice, image analysis is dependent on simply visual perception and the diagnostic efficacy of this analysis pattern is limited for mediastinal lymph nodes in patients with lung cancer. In order to improve diagnostic efficacy, we developed a new computer-based algorithm and tested its diagnostic efficacy. Methods: 132 consecutive patients with lung cancer underwent 18 F-FDG PET/CT examination before treatment. After all data were imported into the database of an on-line medical image analysis platform, the diagnostic efficacy of visual analysis was first evaluated without knowing pathological results, and the maximum short diameter and maximum standardized uptake value (SUV max ) were measured. Then lymph nodes were segmented manually. Three classifiers based on support vector machine (SVM) were constructed from CT, PET, and combined PET-CT images, respectively. The diagnostic efficacy of SVM classifiers was obtained and evaluated. Results: According to ROC curves, the areas under curves for maximum short diameter and SUV max were 0.684 and 0.652, respectively. The areas under the ROC curve for SVM1, SVM2, and SVM3 were 0.689, 0.579, and 0.685, respectively. Conclusion: The algorithm based on SVM was potential in the diagnosis of mediastinal lymph nodes

  6. Efficacy and cost-effectiveness of a web-based and mobile stress-management intervention for employees: design of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heber, Elena; Ebert, David Daniel; Lehr, Dirk; Nobis, Stephanie; Berking, Matthias; Riper, Heleen

    2013-07-15

    Work-related stress is associated with a variety of mental and emotional problems and can lead to substantial economic costs due to lost productivity, absenteeism or the inability to work. There is a considerable amount of evidence on the effectiveness of traditional face-to-face stress-management interventions for employees; however, they are often costly, time-consuming, and characterized by a high access threshold. Web-based interventions may overcome some of these problems yet the evidence in this field is scarce. This paper describes the protocol for a study that will examine the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of a web-based guided stress-management training which is based on problem solving and emotion regulation and aimed at reducing stress in adult employees. The study will target stressed employees aged 18 and older. A randomized controlled trial (RCT) design will be applied. Based on a power calculation of d=.35 (1-β of 80%, α = .05), 264 participants will be recruited and randomly assigned to either the intervention group or a six-month waitlist control group. Inclusion criteria include an elevated stress level (Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale-10 ≥ 22) and current employment. Exclusion criteria include risk of suicide or previously diagnosed psychosis or dissociative symptoms. The primary outcome will be perceived stress, and secondary outcomes include depression and anxiety. Data will be collected at baseline and seven weeks and six months after randomization. An extended follow up at 12 months is planned for the intervention group. Moreover, a cost-effectiveness analysis will be conducted from a societal perspective and will include both direct and indirect health care costs. Data will be analyzed on an intention-to-treat basis and per protocol. The substantial negative consequences of work-related stress emphasize the necessity for effective stress-management trainings. If the proposed internet intervention proves to be (cost-) effective, a

  7. Nodal Clearance Rate and Long-Term Efficacy of Individualized Sentinel Node–Based Pelvic Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy for High-Risk Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Müller, Arndt-Christian, E-mail: arndt-christian.mueller@med.uni-tuebingen.de [Department of Radiation Oncology, Eberhard Karls University, Tübingen (Germany); Eckert, Franziska; Paulsen, Frank; Zips, Daniel [Department of Radiation Oncology, Eberhard Karls University, Tübingen (Germany); Stenzl, Arnulf; Schilling, David [Department of Urology, Eberhard Karls University, Tübingen (Germany); Alber, Markus [Department of Oncology, Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark); Bares, Roland [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Molecular Imaging, Eberhard Karls University, Tübingen (Germany); Martus, Peter [Institute for Clinical Epidemiology and Applied Biometry, Eberhard Karls University, Tübingen (Germany); Weckermann, Dorothea [Department of Urology, Klinikum Augsburg, Augsburg (Germany); Belka, Claus; Ganswindt, Ute [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich (Germany)

    2016-02-01

    Purpose: To assess the efficacy of individual sentinel node (SN)-guided pelvic intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) by determining nodal clearance rate [(n expected nodal involvement − n observed regional recurrences)/n expected nodal involvement] in comparison with surgically staged patients. Methods and Materials: Data on 475 high-risk prostate cancer patients were examined. Sixty-one consecutive patients received pelvic SN-based IMRT (5 × 1.8 Gy/wk to 50.4 Gy [pelvic nodes + individual SN] and an integrated boost with 5 × 2.0 Gy/wk to 70.0 Gy to prostate + [base of] seminal vesicles) and neo-/adjuvant long-term androgen deprivation therapy; 414 patients after SN–pelvic lymph node dissection were used to calculate the expected nodal involvement rate for the radiation therapy sample. Biochemical control and overall survival were estimated for the SN-IMRT patients using the Kaplan-Meier method. The expected frequency of nodal involvement in the radiation therapy group was estimated by imputing frequencies of node-positive patients in the surgical sample to the pattern of Gleason, prostate-specific antigen, and T category in the radiation therapy sample. Results: After a median follow-up of 61 months, 5-year OS after SN-guided IMRT reached 84.4%. Biochemical control according to the Phoenix definition was 73.8%. The nodal clearance rate of SN-IMRT reached 94%. Retrospective follow-up evaluation is the main limitation. Conclusions: Radiation treatment of pelvic nodes individualized by inclusion of SNs is an effective regional treatment modality in high-risk prostate cancer patients. The pattern of relapse indicates that the SN-based target volume concept correctly covers individual pelvic nodes. Thus, this SN-based approach justifies further evaluation, including current dose-escalation strategies to the prostate in a larger prospective series.

  8. Evaluation of the efficacy of animal-assisted therapy based on the reality orientation therapy protocol in Alzheimer's disease patients: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menna, Lucia Francesca; Santaniello, Antonio; Gerardi, Federica; Di Maggio, Annamaria; Milan, Graziella

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of animal-assisted therapy (AAT) in elderly patients affected by Alzheimer's disease based on the formal reality orientation therapy (ROT) protocol. Our study was carried out at an Alzheimer's centre for 6 months. A homogeneous sample (age, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS)) of 50 patients was selected at random and successively. Patients were divided into three groups: (i) 20 patients received a course of AAT (AAT group) based on the ROT protocol; (ii) 20 patients were engaged exclusively in activities based on the ROT group; and (iii) 10 patients (control group) participated in no stimulations. MMSE and GDS were administered at time 0 (T0 ) and time 1 (T1 ) to all three groups. Differences within groups between T0 and T1 for GDS and MMSE scores were analyzed by Student's t-test. Differences between group means were analyzed using an anova test with the Bonferroni-Dunn test for post-hoc comparisons. Both the AAT group and ROT group had improved GDS scores and showed a slight improvement in terms of mood. On the GDS, the AAT group improved from 11.5 (T0 ) to 9.5 (T1 ), and the ROT group improved from 11.6 (T0 ) to 10.5 (T1 ). At the same time, a slight improvement in cognitive function, as measured by the MMSE, was observed. In the AAT group, mean MMSE was 20.2 at T0 and 21.5 at T1 , and in the ROT group, it was 19.9 at T0 and 20.0 at T1 . In the control group, the average values of both the GDS and MMSE remained unchanged. The Bonferroni-Dunn results showed statistically significant differences between groups, particularly between the AAT group and the other two (P therapy interventions based on the formal ROT protocol were effective and, compared to the ROT, provided encouraging and statistically significant results. © 2015 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics © 2015 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  9. Therapeutic Efficacy Comparison of 5 Major EGFR-TKIs in Advanced EGFR-positive Non-Small-cell Lung Cancer: A Network Meta-analysis Based on Head-to-Head Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaxiong; Zhang, Zhonghan; Huang, Xiaodan; Kang, Shiyang; Chen, Gang; Wu, Manli; Miao, Siyu; Huang, Yan; Zhao, Hongyun; Zhang, Li

    2017-09-01

    Five major first- and second-generation epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs), including erlotinib, gefitinib, icotinib, afatinib, and dacomitinib, are currently optional for patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who harbor EGFR mutations. However, there was no head-to-head-based network meta-analysis among all the TKIs in EGFR-mutated populations. Eligible literature was searched from an electronic database. Data of objective response rate, disease control rate, progression-free survival, and overall survival were extracted from enrolled studies. Multiple treatment comparisons based on Bayesian network integrated the efficacy of all included treatments. Six phase III randomized trials involving 1055 EGFR-mutated patients with advanced NSCLC were enrolled. Multiple treatment comparisons showed that 5 different EGFR-TKIs shared equivalent therapeutic efficacy in terms of all outcome measures. Rank probabilities indicated that dacomitinib and afatinib had potentially better efficacy compared with erlotinib, gefitinib, and icotinib in the EGFR-mutated patients. When compared with other agents, potential survival benefits (progression-free and overall survival) were observed in dacomitinib, whereas afatinib showed a better rank probability in overall response rate and disease control rate. Our study indicated a preferable therapeutic efficacy in the second-generation TKIs (dacomitinib and afatinib) when compared with the first-generation TKIs (erlotinib, gefitinib, and icotinib). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Efficacy and Safety of Adjuvant Proton Therapy Combined With Surgery for Chondrosarcoma of the Skull Base: A Retrospective, Population-Based Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feuvret, Loïc, E-mail: loic.feuvret@psl.aphp.fr [Department of Radiation Oncology, Groupe Hospitalier La Pitié-Salpêtrière–Charles Foix (Assistance Publique–Hôpitaux de Paris), Paris (France); Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Curie–Centre de protonthérapie d' Orsay (CPO), Orsay (France); Bracci, Stefano [Institute of Radiation Oncology, Sapienza University, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Rome (Italy); Calugaru, Valentin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Curie–Centre de protonthérapie d' Orsay (CPO), Orsay (France); Bolle, Stéphanie [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Mammar, Hamid; De Marzi, Ludovic [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Curie–Centre de protonthérapie d' Orsay (CPO), Orsay (France); Bresson, Damien [Department of Neurosurgery, Hôpital Lariboisière (Assistance Publique–Hôpitaux de Paris), Paris (France); Habrand, Jean-Louis [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre François Baclesse, Caen (France); Mazeron, Jean-Jacques [Department of Radiation Oncology, Groupe Hospitalier La Pitié-Salpêtrière–Charles Foix (Assistance Publique–Hôpitaux de Paris), Paris (France); Dendale, Rémi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Curie–Centre de protonthérapie d' Orsay (CPO), Orsay (France); and others

    2016-05-01

    Purpose: Chondrosarcoma is a rare malignant tumor of the cartilage affecting young adults. Surgery, followed by charged-particle irradiation, is considered the reference standard for the treatment of patients with grade I to II skull base chondrosarcoma. The present study was conducted to assess the effect of the quality of surgery and radiation therapy parameters on local control (LC) and overall survival (OS). Methods and Materials: From 1996 to 2013, 159 patients (median age 40 years, range 12-83) were treated with either protons alone or a combination of protons and photons. The median total dose delivered was 70.2 Gy (relative biologic effectiveness [RBE]; range 67-71). Debulking and biopsy were performed in 133 and 13 patients, respectively. Results: With a median follow-up of 77 months (range 2-214), 5 tumors relapsed based on the initial gross tumor volume. The 5- and 10-year LC rates were 96.4% and 93.5%, respectively, and the 5- and 10-year OS rates were 94.9% and 87%, respectively. A total of 16 patients died (13 of intercurrent disease, 3 of disease progression). On multivariate analysis, age <40 years and primary disease status were independent favorable prognostic factors for progression-free survival and OS, and local tumor control was an independent favorable predictor of OS. In contrast, the extent of surgery, dosimetric parameters, and adjacent organs at risk were not prognostic factors for LC or OS. Conclusions: Systematic high-dose postoperative proton therapy for skull base chondrosarcoma can achieve a high LC rate with a low toxicity profile. Maximal safe surgery, followed by high-dose conformal proton therapy, is therefore recommended.

  11. The efficacy of unsupervised home-based exercise regimens in comparison to supervised lab-based exercise training upon cardio-respiratory health facets

    OpenAIRE

    Blackwell, J.; Atherton, Philip J.; Smith, Kenneth; Doleman, Brett; Williams, John P.; Lund, Jonathan N.; Phillips, Bethan E.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Supervised high?intensity interval training (HIIT) can rapidly improve cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). However, the effectiveness of time?efficient unsupervised home?based interventions is unknown. Eighteen volunteers completed either: laboratory?HIIT (L?HIIT); home?HIIT (H?HIIT) or home?isometric hand?grip training (H?IHGT). CRF improved significantly in L?HIIT and H?HIIT groups, with blood pressure improvements in the H?IHGT group only. H?HIIT offers a practical, time?efficient ex...

  12. Efficacy and Safety of Adjuvant Proton Therapy Combined With Surgery for Chondrosarcoma of the Skull Base: A Retrospective, Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuvret, Loïc; Bracci, Stefano; Calugaru, Valentin; Bolle, Stéphanie; Mammar, Hamid; De Marzi, Ludovic; Bresson, Damien; Habrand, Jean-Louis; Mazeron, Jean-Jacques; Dendale, Rémi; Noël, Georges

    2016-05-01

    Chondrosarcoma is a rare malignant tumor of the cartilage affecting young adults. Surgery, followed by charged-particle irradiation, is considered the reference standard for the treatment of patients with grade I to II skull base chondrosarcoma. The present study was conducted to assess the effect of the quality of surgery and radiation therapy parameters on local control (LC) and overall survival (OS). From 1996 to 2013, 159 patients (median age 40 years, range 12-83) were treated with either protons alone or a combination of protons and photons. The median total dose delivered was 70.2 Gy (relative biologic effectiveness [RBE]; range 67-71). Debulking and biopsy were performed in 133 and 13 patients, respectively. With a median follow-up of 77 months (range 2-214), 5 tumors relapsed based on the initial gross tumor volume. The 5- and 10-year LC rates were 96.4% and 93.5%, respectively, and the 5- and 10-year OS rates were 94.9% and 87%, respectively. A total of 16 patients died (13 of intercurrent disease, 3 of disease progression). On multivariate analysis, age chondrosarcoma can achieve a high LC rate with a low toxicity profile. Maximal safe surgery, followed by high-dose conformal proton therapy, is therefore recommended. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Microemulsion-based oxyresveratrol for topical treatment of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection: physicochemical properties and efficacy in cutaneous HSV-1 infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasivimolphan, Pattaraporn; Lipipun, Vimolmas; Ritthidej, Garnpimol; Chitphet, Khanidtha; Yoshida, Yoshihiro; Daikoku, Tohru; Sritularak, Boonchoo; Likhitwitayawuid, Kittisak; Pramyothin, Pornpen; Hattori, Masao; Shiraki, Kimiyasu

    2012-12-01

    The physicochemical properties of the optimized microemulsion and the permeating ability of oxyresveratrol in microemulsion were evaluated, and the efficacy of oxyresveratrol microemulsion in cutaneous herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection in mice was examined. The optimized microemulsion was composed of 10% w/w of isopropyl myristate, 35% w/w of Tween 80, 35% w/w of isopropyl alcohol, and 20% w/w of water. The mean particle diameter was 9.67 ± 0.58 nm, and the solubility of oxyresveratrol in the microemulsion was 196.34 ± 0.80 mg/ml. After accelerated and long-term stability testing, the microemulsion base and oxyresveratrol-loaded microemulsion were stable. The cumulative amount of oxyresveratrol permeating through shed snake skin from microemulsion at 6 h was 93.04 times compared to that of oxyresveratrol from Vaseline, determined at 20% w/w concentration. In cutaneous HSV-1 infection in mice, oxyresveratrol microemulsion at 20%, 25%, and 30% w/w, topically applied five times daily for 7 days after infection, was significantly effective in delaying the development of skin lesions and protecting from death (p microemulsion at 25% and 30% w/w was significantly more effective than that of 30% w/w of oxyresveratrol in Vaseline (p  0.05). These results demonstrated that topical oxyresveratrol microemulsion at 20-30% w/w was suitable for cutaneous HSV-1 mouse infection.

  14. The 'Cancer Home-Life Intervention': A randomised controlled trial evaluating the efficacy of an occupational therapy-based intervention in people with advanced cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilegaard, Marc Sampedro; la Cour, Karen; Gregersen Oestergaard, Lisa; Johnsen, Anna Thit; Lindahl-Jacobsen, Line; Højris, Inger; Brandt, Åse

    2018-04-01

    People with advanced cancer face difficulties with their everyday activities at home that may reduce their health-related quality of life. To address these difficulties, we developed the 'Cancer Home-Life Intervention'. To evaluate the efficacy of the 'Cancer Home Life-Intervention' compared with usual care with regard to patients' performance of, and participation in, everyday activities, and their health-related quality of life. A randomised controlled trial ( ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02356627). The 'Cancer Home-Life Intervention' is a brief, tailored, occupational therapy-based and adaptive programme for people with advanced cancer targeting the performance of their prioritised everyday activities. Home-living adults diagnosed with advanced cancer experiencing functional limitations were recruited from two Danish hospitals. They were assessed at baseline, and at 6 and 12 weeks of follow-up. The primary outcome was activities of daily living motor ability. Secondary outcomes were activities of daily living process ability, difficulty performing prioritised everyday activities, participation restrictions and health-related quality of life. A total of 242 participants were randomised either to the intervention group ( n = 121) or the control group ( n = 121). No effect was found on the primary outcome (between-group mean change: -0.04 logits (95% confidence interval: -0.23 to 0.15); p = 0.69). Nor was any effect on the secondary outcomes observed. In most cases, the 'Cancer Home-Life Intervention' was delivered through only one home visit and one follow-up telephone contact, which not was effective in maintaining or improving participants' everyday activities and health-related quality of life. Future research should pay even more attention to intervention development and feasibility testing.

  15. Efficacy and Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Evidence-Based Nursing Interventions to Maintain Tissue Integrity to Prevent Pressure Ulcers and Incontinence-Associated Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avşar, Pınar; Karadağ, Ayişe

    2018-02-01

    A reduction in tissue tolerance promotes the development of pressure ulcers (PUs) and incontinence-associated dermatitis (IAD). To determine the cost-effectiveness and efficacy of evidence-based (EB) nursing interventions on increasing tissue tolerance by maintaining tissue integrity. The study involved 154 patients in two intensive care units (77 patients, control group; 77 patients, intervention group). Data were collected using the following: patient characteristics form, Braden PU risk assessment scale, tissue integrity monitoring form, PU identification form, IAD and severity scale, and a cost table of the interventions. Patients in the intervention group were cared for by nurses trained in the use of the data collection tools and in EB practices to improve tissue tolerance. Routine nursing care was given to the patients in the control group. The researcher observed all patients in terms of tissue integrity and recorded the care-related costs. Deterioration of tissue integrity was observed in 18.2% patients in the intervention group compared to 54.5% in the control group (p cost to increase tissue tolerance prevention in the intervention and control groups was X¯ = $204.34 ± 41.07 and X¯ = $138.90 ± 1.70, respectively. It is recommended that EB policies and procedures are developed to improve tissue tolerance by maintaining tissue integrity. Although the cost of EB preventive initiatives is relatively high compared to those that are not EB, the former provide a significant reduction in the prevalence of tissue integrity deterioration. © 2017 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  16. Study Protocol for a Randomized, Double-Blind, Community-Based Efficacy Trial of Various Doses of Zinc in Micronutrient Powders or Tablets in Young Bangladeshi Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Munirul Islam

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Zinc is essential to supporting growth in young children especially for tissues undergoing rapid cellular differentiation and turnover, such as those in the immune system and gastrointestinal tract. Therapeutic zinc supplementation has been initiated in low-income countries as part of diarrhea treatment programs to support these needs for young children, but the effects of preventive supplemental zinc as a tablet or as a multiple micronutrient powder (MNP on child growth and diarrheal disease are mixed and pose programmatic uncertainties. Thus, a randomized, double-blind community-based efficacy trial of five different doses, forms, and frequencies of preventive zinc supplementation vs. a placebo was designed for a study in children aged 9–11 months in an urban community in Dhaka, Bangladesh. The primary outcomes of this 24-week study are incidence of diarrheal disease and linear growth. Study workers will conduct in-home morbidity checks twice weekly; anthropometry will be measured at baseline, 12 weeks and 24 weeks. Serum zinc and other related biomarkers will be measured in a subsample along with an estimate of the exchangeable zinc pool size using stable isotope techniques in a subgroup. Therapeutic zinc will be provided as part of diarrhea treatment, in accordance with Bangladesh’s national policy. Therefore, the proposed study will determine the additional benefit of a preventive zinc supplementation intervention. The protocol has been approved by the Institutional Review Boards (IRBs of icddr,b and Children’s Hospital Oakland Research Institute (CHORI. The IRB review process is underway at the University of Colorado Denver as well.

  17. Efficacy of oral immunotherapy with a rice-based edible vaccine containing hypoallergenic Japanese cedar pollen allergens for treatment of established allergic conjunctivitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Ken; Ishida, Waka; Harada, Yosuke; Wakasa, Yuhya; Takagi, Hidenori; Takaiwa, Fumio; Fukushima, Atsuki

    2018-01-01

    We have previously shown that prophylactic oral administration of transgenic rice seeds expressing hypoallergenic modified antigens suppressed the development of allergic conjunctivitis induced by Japanese cedar pollen. We have now investigated the efficacy of oral immunotherapy with such transgenic rice for established allergic conjunctivitis in mice. BALB/c mice were sensitized with two intraperitoneal injections of Japanese cedar pollen in alum, challenged with pollen in eyedrops, and then fed for 16 days with transgenic rice seeds expressing modified Japanese cedar pollen allergens Cry j 1 and Cry j 2 or with nontransgenic rice seeds as a control. They were then challenged twice with pollen in eyedrops, with clinical signs being evaluated at 15 min after the first challenge and the eyes, blood, spleen, and lymph nodes being isolated at 24 h after the second challenge. The number of eosinophils in the conjunctiva and the clinical score for conjunctivitis were both significantly lower in mice fed the transgenic rice than in those fed nontransgenic rice. Oral vaccination with transgenic rice seeds also resulted in a significant increase in the production of IFN-γ by splenocytes, whereas it had no effect on the number of CD4 + CD25 + Foxp3 + regulatory T cells in the spleen or submandibular or mesenteric lymph nodes. Oral administration of transgenic rice seeds expressing hypoallergenic allergens ameliorated allergic conjunctivitis in the established setting. Such a rice-based edible vaccine is potentially both safe and effective for oral immunotherapy in individuals with allergic conjunctivitis. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The Efficacy of a Universal School-Based Prevention Program for Eating Disorders among German Adolescents: Results from a Randomized-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warschburger, Petra; Zitzmann, Jana

    2018-04-10

    Disordered eating is highly prevalent during adolescence and has a detrimental effect on further development. Effective prevention programs are needed to prevent unhealthy developmental trajectories. This study evaluated the efficacy of the POPS-program (POtsdam Prevention at Schools), a universal school-based eating disorder prevention program for adolescents. In a cluster-randomized design, we compared the intervention group receiving the prevention program to a waiting control group. Outcomes included indicators of disordered eating and relevant risk factors for eating disorders (body dissatisfaction, internalization of the thin ideal, perceived media pressure, perfectionism, emotional element of exercise, social comparison, and perceived teasing). Questionnaires were administered at the start of the intervention, 3 and 12 months post intervention. At baseline, 1112 adolescents aged 10 to 16 years participated (49% girls; 51% intervention group). Intention-to-treat analyses with the complete data set and per-protocol analyses as a completer analysis were performed. The intervention group showed a more favorable course compared to the control group regarding all observed risk factors for eating disorders except for perceived teasing. Effect sizes were small but comparable to other primary prevention programs. At 1-year follow-up, a small but significant effect on disordered eating was observed. Results of the per-protocol analyses were mostly confirmed by the intention-to-treat analyses. Results were promising for both genders although girls benefited more regarding disordered eating and internalization of the thin ideal. Further studies are warranted examining successful program elements and whether gender-specific programs are needed.

  19. Evaluation of the therapeutic efficacy of high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma by three-dimensional sonography with a perflubutane-based contrast agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numata, Kazushi; Fukuda, Hiroyuki; Ohto, Masao; Itou, Ryu; Nozaki, Akito; Kondou, Masaaki; Morimoto, Manabu; Karasawa, Eii; Tanaka, Katsuaki

    2010-01-01

    Objective: We performed contrast-enhanced three-dimensional sonography (CE 3D US) with a perflubutane-based contrast agent to immediately evaluate the completeness of ablation of small hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) lesions by extracorporeal high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). Subjects and methods: Twenty-one HCC lesions were treated by a single ultrasound-guided HIFU ablation session, and CE 3D US was performed before, immediately after, and 1 week, and 1 month after HIFU, and contrast-enhanced CT (CE CT) or contrast-enhanced MRI (CE MRI) was performed before HIFU, 1 week and 1 month after HIFU, and during the follow-up period. Results: Immediately and 1 month after HIFU, 17 lesions were evaluated as adequately ablated by CE 3D US, and the other 4 lesions as residual tumors. One month after HIFU, 18 were evaluated as adequately ablated by CE CT or CE MRI, and the other 3 as residual tumors. The evaluation by CE 3D US immediately after HIFU and by CE CT or CE MRI 1 month after HIFU was concordant with 20 lesions. The kappa value for agreement between the findings of CE 3D US and other modalities by two blinded observers was 0.83. When the 1-month CE CT or CE MRI findings were used as the reference standard, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of CE 3D US immediately after HIFU for the diagnosis of the adequate ablation were 100%, 75%, and 95%, respectively. Conclusion: CE 3D US appears to be a useful method for immediate evaluation of therapeutic efficacy of HIFU ablation of HCC lesions.

  20. Evaluation of the therapeutic efficacy of high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma by three-dimensional sonography with a perflubutane-based contrast agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Numata, Kazushi, E-mail: kz-numa@urahp.yokohama-cu.ac.j [Gastroenterological Center, Yokohama City University Medical Center, 4-57 Urafune-cho, Minami-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 232-0024 (Japan); Fukuda, Hiroyuki; Ohto, Masao; Itou, Ryu [Department of Internal Medicine, Naruto General Hospital, 167 Naruto, Sanbu, Chiba 289-1326 (Japan); Nozaki, Akito; Kondou, Masaaki; Morimoto, Manabu [Gastroenterological Center, Yokohama City University Medical Center, 4-57 Urafune-cho, Minami-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 232-0024 (Japan); Karasawa, Eii [Department of Gastroenterology, International University of Health and Welfare Atami Hospital, 13-1 Higashi Kaigan-cho, Atami, Shizuoka 413-0012 (Japan); Tanaka, Katsuaki [Gastroenterological Center, Yokohama City University Medical Center, 4-57 Urafune-cho, Minami-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 232-0024 (Japan)

    2010-08-15

    Objective: We performed contrast-enhanced three-dimensional sonography (CE 3D US) with a perflubutane-based contrast agent to immediately evaluate the completeness of ablation of small hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) lesions by extracorporeal high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). Subjects and methods: Twenty-one HCC lesions were treated by a single ultrasound-guided HIFU ablation session, and CE 3D US was performed before, immediately after, and 1 week, and 1 month after HIFU, and contrast-enhanced CT (CE CT) or contrast-enhanced MRI (CE MRI) was performed before HIFU, 1 week and 1 month after HIFU, and during the follow-up period. Results: Immediately and 1 month after HIFU, 17 lesions were evaluated as adequately ablated by CE 3D US, and the other 4 lesions as residual tumors. One month after HIFU, 18 were evaluated as adequately ablated by CE CT or CE MRI, and the other 3 as residual tumors. The evaluation by CE 3D US immediately after HIFU and by CE CT or CE MRI 1 month after HIFU was concordant with 20 lesions. The kappa value for agreement between the findings of CE 3D US and other modalities by two blinded observers was 0.83. When the 1-month CE CT or CE MRI findings were used as the reference standard, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of CE 3D US immediately after HIFU for the diagnosis of the adequate ablation were 100%, 75%, and 95%, respectively. Conclusion: CE 3D US appears to be a useful method for immediate evaluation of therapeutic efficacy of HIFU ablation of HCC lesions.

  1. Efficacy of soap and water and alcohol-based hand-rub preparations against live H1N1 influenza virus on the hands of human volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, M Lindsay; Melvani, Sharmila; Druce, Julian; Barr, Ian G; Ballard, Susan A; Johnson, Paul D R; Mastorakos, Tasoula; Birch, Christopher

    2009-02-01

    Although pandemic and avian influenza are known to be transmitted via human hands, there are minimal data regarding the effectiveness of routine hand hygiene (HH) protocols against pandemic and avian influenza. Twenty vaccinated, antibody-positive health care workers had their hands contaminated with 1 mL of 10(7) tissue culture infectious dose (TCID)(50)/0.1 mL live human influenza A virus (H1N1; A/New Caledonia/20/99) before undertaking 1 of 5 HH protocols (no HH [control], soap and water hand washing [SW], or use of 1 of 3 alcohol-based hand rubs [61.5% ethanol gel, 70% ethanol plus 0.5% chlorhexidine solution, or 70% isopropanol plus 0.5% chlorhexidine solution]). H1N1 concentrations were assessed before and after each intervention by viral culture and real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The natural viability of H1N1 on hands for >60 min without HH was also assessed. There was an immediate reduction in culture-detectable and PCR-detectable H1N1 after brief cutaneous air drying--14 of 20 health care workers had H1N1 detected by means of culture (mean reduction, 10(3-4) TCID(50)/0.1 mL), whereas 6 of 20 had no viable H1N1 recovered; all 20 health care workers had similar changes in PCR test results. Marked antiviral efficacy was noted for all 4 HH protocols, on the basis of culture results (14 of 14 had no culturable H1N1; (P< .002) and PCR results (P< .001; cycle threshold value range, 33.3-39.4), with SW statistically superior (P< .001) to all 3 alcohol-based hand rubs, although the actual difference was only 1-100 virus copies/microL. There was minimal reduction in H1N1 after 60 min without HH. HH with SW or alcohol-based hand rub is highly effective in reducing influenza A virus on human hands, although SW is the most effective intervention. Appropriate HH may be an important public health initiative to reduce pandemic and avian influenza transmission.

  2. Efficacy of a web-based intervention with and without guidance for employees with risky drinking: results of a three-arm randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boß, Leif; Lehr, Dirk; Schaub, Michael Patrick; Paz Castro, Raquel; Riper, Heleen; Berking, Matthias; Ebert, David Daniel

    2018-04-01

    To test the efficacy of a web-based alcohol intervention with and without guidance. Three parallel groups with primary end-point after 6 weeks. Open recruitment in the German working population. Adults (178 males/256 females, mean age 47 years) consuming at least 21/14 weekly standard units of alcohol (SUA) and scoring ≥ 8/6 on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test. Five web-based modules including personalized normative feedback, motivational interviewing, goal setting, problem-solving and emotion regulation during 5 weeks. One intervention group received an unguided self-help version (n=146) and the second received additional adherence-focused guidance by eCoaches (n=144). Controls were