WorldWideScience

Sample records for effectiveness allocative efficiency

  1. Efficient Metropolitan Resource Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Arnott

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 30 years Calgary has doubled in size, from a population of 640,645 in 1985 to 1,230,915 in 2015. During that time the City has had five different mayors, hosted the Winter Olympics, and expanded the C-Train from 25 platforms to 45. Calgary’s Metropolitan Area has grown too, with Airdrie, Chestermere, Okotoks and Cochrane growing into full-fledged cities, ripe with inter-urban commuters.* And with changes to provincial legislation in the mid-’90s, rural Rocky View County and the Municipal District of Foothills are now real competitors for residential, commercial and industrial development that in the past would have been considered urban. In this metropolitan system, where people live, their household structure, and their place of work informs the services they need to conduct their daily lives, and directly impacts the spatial character of the City and the broader region. In sum, Metropolitan Calgary is increasingly complex. Calgary and the broader metropolitan area will continue to grow, even with the current economic slowdown. Frictions within Calgary, between the various municipalities in the metropolitan area, and the priorities of other local authorities (such as the School Boards and Alberta Health Services will continue to impact the agendas of local politicians and their ability to answer to the needs of their residents. How resources – whether it is hard infrastructure, affordable housing, classrooms, or hospital beds – are allocated over space and how these resources are funded, directly impacts these relationships. This technical paper provides my perspective as an urban economist on the efficient allocation of resources within a metropolitan system in general, with reference to Calgary where appropriate, and serves as a companion to the previously released “Reflections on Calgary’s Spatial Structure: An Urban Economists Critique of Municipal Planning in Calgary.” It is hoped that the concepts reviewed

  2. Research on allocation efficiency of the daisy chain allocation algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jingping; Zhang, Weiguo

    2013-03-01

    With the improvement of the aircraft performance in reliability, maneuverability and survivability, the number of the control effectors increases a lot. How to distribute the three-axis moments into the control surfaces reasonably becomes an important problem. Daisy chain method is simple and easy to be carried out in the design of the allocation system. But it can not solve the allocation problem for entire attainable moment subset. For the lateral-directional allocation problem, the allocation efficiency of the daisy chain can be directly measured by the area of its subset of attainable moments. Because of the non-linear allocation characteristic, the subset of attainable moments of daisy-chain method is a complex non-convex polygon, and it is difficult to solve directly. By analyzing the two-dimensional allocation problems with a "micro-element" idea, a numerical calculation algorithm is proposed to compute the area of the non-convex polygon. In order to improve the allocation efficiency of the algorithm, a genetic algorithm with the allocation efficiency chosen as the fitness function is proposed to find the best pseudo-inverse matrix.

  3. Resource allocation based on cost efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehnokhalaji, Akram; Ghiyasi, Mojtaba; Korhonen, Pekka

    2017-01-01

    -objective linear programming problem using two different strategies. First, we propose an RA model which keeps the cost efficiencies of units unchanged. This is done assuming fixed technical and allocative efficiencies. The approach is based on the assumption that the decision maker (DM) may not have big changes......In this paper, we consider a resource allocation (RA) problem and develop an approach based on cost (overall) efficiency. The aim is to allocate some inputs among decision making units (DMUs) in such way that their cost efficiencies improve or stay unchanged after RA. We formulate a multi...... in the structure of DMUs within a short term. The second strategy does not impose any restrictions on technical and allocative efficiencies. It guarantees that none of the cost efficiencies of DMUs get worse after RA, and the improvement for units is possible if it is feasible and beneficial. Two numerical...

  4. Efficient Intra-Household Allocations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin

    demands must satisfy a symmetry and rank condition on the Slutsky matrix. We also present some further results on the effects on demands of variables that do nor modify preferences but that do affect how decisions are made. We apply our theory to a series of surveys of household expendityres from Canada......The neo-classical theory of demand applies to individuals yet in empirical work it is usually taken as valid for households with many members. This paper explores what the theory of individuals implies for households with many members. This paper explores what the theory of individuals implies...... for households which have more than one member. We make minimal assumptions about how the individual members of the household resolve conflicts. All we assume is that however decisions are made, outcomes are efficient. We refer to this as the collective setting. We show that in the collective setting household...

  5. Inverse Statistics and Asset Allocation Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolgorian, Meysam

    In this paper using inverse statistics analysis, the effect of investment horizon on the efficiency of portfolio selection is examined. Inverse statistics analysis is a general tool also known as probability distribution of exit time that is used for detecting the distribution of the time in which a stochastic process exits from a zone. This analysis was used in Refs. 1 and 2 for studying the financial returns time series. This distribution provides an optimal investment horizon which determines the most likely horizon for gaining a specific return. Using samples of stocks from Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE) as an emerging market and S&P 500 as a developed market, effect of optimal investment horizon in asset allocation is assessed. It is found that taking into account the optimal investment horizon in TSE leads to more efficiency for large size portfolios while for stocks selected from S&P 500, regardless of portfolio size, this strategy does not only not produce more efficient portfolios, but also longer investment horizons provides more efficiency.

  6. Adaptive resource allocation for efficient patient scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Ivan B.; Bohte, Sander M.; Elkhuizen, Sylvia G.; Lameris, Han; Bakker, Piet J. M.; La Poutré, Han

    2009-01-01

    Efficient scheduling of patient appointments on expensive resources is a complex and dynamic task. A resource is typically used by several patient groups. To service these groups, resource capacity is often allocated per group, explicitly or implicitly. Importantly, due to fluctuations in demand,

  7. Response efficiency during functional communication training: effects of effort on response allocation.

    OpenAIRE

    Richman, D M; Wacker, D P; Winborn, L

    2001-01-01

    An analogue functional analysis revealed that the problem behavior of a young child with developmental delays was maintained by positive reinforcement. A concurrent-schedule procedure was then used to vary the amount of effort required to emit mands. Results suggested that response effort can be an important variable when developing effective functional communication training programs.

  8. Chunk-Based Energy Efficient Resource Allocation in OFDMA Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency (EE capacity analysis of the chunk-based resource allocation is presented by considering the minimum spectrum efficiency (SE constraint in downlink multiuser orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM systems. Considering the minimum SE requirement, an optimization problem to maximize EE with limited transmit power is formulated over frequency selective channels. Based on this model, a low-complexity energy efficient resource allocation is proposed. The effects of system parameters, such as the average channel gain-to-noise ratio (CNR and the number of subcarriers per chunk, are evaluated. Numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme for balancing the EE and SE.

  9. Efficient Power Allocation for Video over Superposition Coding

    KAUST Repository

    Lau, Chun Pong; Jamshaid, K.; Shihada, Basem

    2013-01-01

    are conducted to gain a better understanding of its efficiency, specifically, the impact of the received signal due to different power allocation ratios. Our experimental results show that to maintain high video quality, the power allocated to the base layer

  10. Energy-Efficient Power Allocation for Cognitive MIMO Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Sboui, Lokman

    2017-03-20

    Due to the massive data traffic in wireless networks, energy consumption has become a crucial concern, especially with the limited power supply of the mobile terminals and the increasing CO2 emission of the cellular industry. In this context, we study the energy efficiency (EE) of MIMO spectrum sharing cognitive radio (CR) systems under power and interference constraints. We present an energy-efficient power allocation framework based on maximizing the average EE per parallel channel resulting from the singular value decomposition (SVD) eigenmode transmission. We also present a sub-optimal low-complexity power allocation scheme based on the water-filling power allocation. In the numerical results, we show that the sub-optimal power allocation achieves at least 95% of the optimal performance. In addition, we show that adopting more antennas is more energy efficient for a given power budget. Finally, we show that the interference threshold has a significant effect on both the EE and the spectral efficiency at high-power regime.

  11. Dynamic Asset Allocation and the Informational Efficiency of Markets.

    OpenAIRE

    Grossman, Sanford J

    1995-01-01

    Markets have an allocational role; even in the absence of news about payoffs, prices change to facilitate trade and allocate resources to their best use. Allocational price changes create noise in the signal extraction process, and markets where such trading is important are markets in which we may expect to find a failure of informational efficiency. An important source of allocational trading is the use of dynamic trading strategies caused by the incomplete equitization of risks. Incomplete...

  12. Effects of fishing effort allocation scenarios on energy efficiency and profitability: an individual-based model applied to Danish fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bastardie, Francois; Nielsen, J. Rasmus; Andersen, Bo Sølgaard

    2010-01-01

    to the harbour, and (C) allocating effort towards optimising the expected area-specific profit per trip. The model is informed by data from each Danish fishing vessel >15 m after coupling its high resolution spatial and temporal effort data (VMS) with data from logbook landing declarations, sales slips, vessel...... effort allocation has actually been sub-optimal because increased profits from decreased fuel consumption and larger landings could have been obtained by applying a different spatial effort allocation. Based on recent advances in VMS and logbooks data analyses, this paper contributes to improve...

  13. Energy-Efficient Power Allocation for MIMO-SVD Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Sboui, Lokman; Rezki, Zouheir; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we address the problem of energyefficient power allocation in MIMO systems. In fact, the widely adopted water-filling power allocation does not ensure the maximization of the energy efficiency (EE). Since the EE maximization is a non

  14. Welfare financing : Grant allocation and efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toolsema-Veldman, Linda; Allers, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Welfare is often administered locally, but financed through grants from the central government. This raises the question how the central government can prevent local governments from spending more than necessary. Block grants are more efficient than matching grants, because the latter reduce the

  15. Efficient Power Allocation for Video over Superposition Coding

    KAUST Repository

    Lau, Chun Pong

    2013-03-01

    In this paper we consider a wireless multimedia system by mapping scalable video coded (SVC) bit stream upon superposition coded (SPC) signals, referred to as (SVC-SPC) architecture. Empirical experiments using a software-defined radio(SDR) emulator are conducted to gain a better understanding of its efficiency, specifically, the impact of the received signal due to different power allocation ratios. Our experimental results show that to maintain high video quality, the power allocated to the base layer should be approximately four times higher than the power allocated to the enhancement layer.

  16. Energy Efficient Resource Allocation for Phantom Cellular Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelhady, Amr

    2016-04-01

    Multi-tier heterogeneous networks have become an essential constituent for next generation cellular networks. Meanwhile, energy efficiency (EE) has been considered a critical design criterion along with the traditional spectral efficiency (SE) metric. In this context, we study power and spectrum allocation for the recently proposed two-tier network architecture known as phantom cellular networks. The optimization framework includes both EE and SE. First, we consider sparsely deployed cells experiencing negligible interference and assume perfect channel state information (CSI). For this setting, we propose an algorithm that finds the SE and EE resource allocation strategies. Then, we compare the performance of both design strategies versus number of users, and phantom cells share of the total available resource units (RUs). We aim to investigate the effect of some system parameters to achieve improved SE performance at a non-significant loss in EE performance, or vice versa. It is found that increasing phantom cells share of RUs decreases the SE performance loss due to EE optimization when compared with the optimized SE performance. Second, we consider the densely deployed phantom cellular networks and model the EE optimization problem having into consideration the inevitable interference and imperfect channel estimation. To this end, we propose three resource allocation strategies aiming at optimizing the EE performance metric of this network. Furthermore, we investigate the effect of changing some of the system parameters on the performance of the proposed strategies, such as phantom cells share of RUs, number of deployed phantom cells within a macro cell coverage, number of pilots and the maximum power available for transmission by the phantom cells BSs. It is found that increasing the number of pilots deteriorates the EE performance of the whole setup, while increasing maximum power available for phantom cells transmissions reduces the EE of the whole setup in a

  17. Smart LED allocation scheme for efficient multiuser visible light communication networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewaiwar, Atul; Tiwari, Samrat Vikramaditya; Chung, Yeon Ho

    2015-05-18

    In a multiuser bidirectional visible light communication (VLC), a large number of LEDs or an LED array needs to be allocated in an efficient manner to ensure sustainable data rate and link quality. Moreover, in order to support an increasing or decreasing number of users in the network, the LED allocation is required to be performed dynamically. In this paper, a novel smart LED allocation scheme for efficient multiuser VLC networks is presented. The proposed scheme allocates RGB LEDs to multiple users in a dynamic and efficient fashion, while satisfying illumination requirements in an indoor environment. The smart LED array comprised of RGB LEDs is divided into sectors according to the location of the users. The allocated sectors then provide optical power concentration toward the users for efficient and reliable data transmission. An algorithm for the dynamic allocation of the LEDs is also presented. To verify its effective resource allocation feature of the proposed scheme, simulations were performed. It is found that the proposed smart LED allocation scheme provides the effect of optical beamforming toward individual users, thereby increasing the collective power concentration of the optical signals on the desirable users and resulting in significantly increased data rate, while ensuring sufficient illumination in a multiuser VLC environment.

  18. Optimized Energy Efficiency and Spectral Efficiency Resource Allocation Strategies for Phantom Cellular Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelhady, Amr, M.; Amin, Osama; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2016-01-01

    Multi-teir hetrogeneous networks have become an essential constituent for next generation cellular networks. Meanwhile, energy efficiency (EE) has been considered a critical design criterion along with the traditional spectral efficiency (SE) metric. In this context, we study power and spectrum allocation for the recently proposed two-teir architecture known as Phantom cellular networks. The optimization framework includes both EE and SE, where we propose an algorithm that computes the SE and EE resource allocation for Phantom cellular networks. Then, we compare the performance of both design strategies versus the number of users, and the ration of Phantom cellresource blocks to the total number or resource blocks. We aim to investigate the effect of some system parameters to acheive improved SE or EE performance at a non-significant loss in EE or SE performance, respectively. It was found that the system parameters can be tuned so that the EE solution does not yield a significant loss in the SE performance.

  19. Optimized Energy Efficiency and Spectral Efficiency Resource Allocation Strategies for Phantom Cellular Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelhady, Amr, M.

    2016-01-06

    Multi-teir hetrogeneous networks have become an essential constituent for next generation cellular networks. Meanwhile, energy efficiency (EE) has been considered a critical design criterion along with the traditional spectral efficiency (SE) metric. In this context, we study power and spectrum allocation for the recently proposed two-teir architecture known as Phantom cellular networks. The optimization framework includes both EE and SE, where we propose an algorithm that computes the SE and EE resource allocation for Phantom cellular networks. Then, we compare the performance of both design strategies versus the number of users, and the ration of Phantom cellresource blocks to the total number or resource blocks. We aim to investigate the effect of some system parameters to acheive improved SE or EE performance at a non-significant loss in EE or SE performance, respectively. It was found that the system parameters can be tuned so that the EE solution does not yield a significant loss in the SE performance.

  20. Modeling efficient resource allocation patterns for arable crop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    optimum plans. This should be complemented with strong financial support, farm advisory services and adequate supply of modern inputs at fairly competitive prices would enhance the prospects of the small holder farmers. Keywords: efficient, resource allocation, optimization, linear programming, gross margin ...

  1. Energy-Efficient Power Allocation for Underlay Cognitive Radio Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Sboui, Lokman

    2015-09-01

    We present a power allocation framework for spectrum sharing Cognitive Radio (CR) systems based on maximizing the energy efficiency (EE). First, we show that the relation between the EE and the spectral efficiency (SE) is strictly increasing in contrast with the SE-EE trade-off discussed in the literature. We also solve a non-convex problem and explicitly derive the optimal power for the proposed average EE under either a peak or an average power constraint. We apply our results to the underlay CR systems where the power is limited by an additional interference constraint. When the instantaneous channel is not available, we provide a necessary and sufficient condition for the optimal power and present a simple sub-optimal power. In the numerical results, we show that the proposed EE corresponds to a higher SE at mid-range and high power regime compared to the classical EE. We also show that the sup-optimal solution is very close to the optimal solution. In addition, we deduce that the absence of instantaneous CSI affects the EE and the SE at high power regime compared to full CSI. In the CR context, we show that the interference threshold has a minimal effect on the EE compared to the SE.

  2. Energy-Efficient Power Allocation for Underlay Cognitive Radio Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Sboui, Lokman; Rezki, Zouheir; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2015-01-01

    We present a power allocation framework for spectrum sharing Cognitive Radio (CR) systems based on maximizing the energy efficiency (EE). First, we show that the relation between the EE and the spectral efficiency (SE) is strictly increasing in contrast with the SE-EE trade-off discussed in the literature. We also solve a non-convex problem and explicitly derive the optimal power for the proposed average EE under either a peak or an average power constraint. We apply our results to the underlay CR systems where the power is limited by an additional interference constraint. When the instantaneous channel is not available, we provide a necessary and sufficient condition for the optimal power and present a simple sub-optimal power. In the numerical results, we show that the proposed EE corresponds to a higher SE at mid-range and high power regime compared to the classical EE. We also show that the sup-optimal solution is very close to the optimal solution. In addition, we deduce that the absence of instantaneous CSI affects the EE and the SE at high power regime compared to full CSI. In the CR context, we show that the interference threshold has a minimal effect on the EE compared to the SE.

  3. Energy Efficient Power Allocation for Cognitive MIMO Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Sboui, Lokman

    2016-01-06

    Two major issues are facing today s wireless communications evolution: -Spectrum scarcity: Need for more bandwidth. As a solution, the Cognitive Radio (CR) paradigm, where secondary users (unlicensed) share the spectrum with licensed users, was introduced. -Energy consumption and CO2 emission: The ICT produces 2% of global CO2 emission (equivalent to the aviation industry emission). The cellular networks produces 0.2%. As solution energy efficient systems should be designed rather than traditional spectral efficient systems. In this work, an energy efficient power allocation framework based on maximizing the average EE per parallel channel is presented.

  4. Research paper 2000-B-6: adjustments in the Dutch domestic waste incineration sector in the context of the European directive 89/429/EEC. A case study on national implementation, environmental effectiveness, allocative efficiency, productive efficiency and administrative costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lulofs, K. [Twente Univ., Center for Clean Technology and Environmental Policy, Enschede (Netherlands)

    2000-07-01

    Within the context of the IMPOL project several fields of European environmental policy are studied on aspects as national implementation and environmental and efficiency outcomes. For the IMPOL project a case study was done on the transformation of the Dutch sector of domestic waste incineration in the context of the European Directive Directives 89/369/EEC and 89/429/ EEC. The case study was done and indicators for environmental effectiveness, allocative efficiency, productive efficiency and administrative costs were chosen in line with a document to coordinate the efforts in the four IMPOL countries. The European Directives 89/369/EEC and 89/429/ EEC regulate Plants for Domestic waste Incineration on the emissions of several pollutants. These emissions are relevant for air quality in general, acidification and the spreading of toxic substances. In the empirical part of this report emphasis is laid on 'existing' incineration plants, being permitted before 1990. In chapter 2 of this report the implementation of the directives 89/369/EEC and 89/429/EEC in the Netherlands is described. In section 2.1 already existing 'older' Dutch policy and regulation is presented. In paragraph 2.2 the integration of the European Directives into Dutch national law is described. In chapter 2.3 the efforts and outcomes on monitoring and enforcement are presented. Chapter 3 goes into the environmental effectiveness. Section 3.1 describes the abatement performance of the whole municipal waste incineration sector during the period of research. Section 3.2 goes into factors that explain the environmental outcomes. Within the IMPOL research-team the decision was taken to concentrate on a number of pollutants of existing waste incinerators. In section 3.3 the data for the existing incinerators are given. In chapter 4 the allocative efficiency of adjustments is elaborated. In section 4.1 the abatement patterns of existing municipal waste incineration plants are presented

  5. Research paper 2000-B-4: adjustments in the Dutch electricity producing sector in the context of the European directive 88/609/EEC: a case study on national implementation, environmental effectiveness, allocative efficiency, productive efficiency and administrative costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lulofs, K. [Twente Univ., Center for Clean Technology and Environmental Policy, Enschede (Netherlands)

    2000-07-01

    Within the context of the IMPOL project several fields of European environmental policy are studied on aspects as national implementation and environmental and efficiency outcomes. For the IMPOL project a case study was done on the transformation of the Dutch electricity sector in the context of the European Directive 88/609/EEC. The indicators used in this report for environmental effectiveness, allocative efficiency, productive efficiency and administrative costs were chosen in line with a coordinating document (Eames, 1999). The European Directive 88/609/EEC regulates Large Combustion Plants on their SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions. These emissions are relevant for air quality and for the acidification problem. In the empirical part of this report emphasis is laid on the power plants as a specific sub-group of the large combustion plants. The report starts in chapter 2 with a description of the Dutch policy on acidification and regulation that existed when 88/609/EEC was issued. This way it is clarified that the formal implementation of the European Directive was done in the Netherlands with very little effort. In section 2.4 some major information on the structure of the electricity production sector is given as well as some insights into developments. In section 2.5 details on a covenant to reduce emissions from power plants is given. The electricity sector and the government agreed upon this document as a binding agenda for change. In section 2.6 information on monitoring and enforcement is given. In chapter 3, the environmental outcomes are discussed. First the emissions of all large combustion plants are presented in time series. Within the IMPOL research-team the decision was taken to concentrate on the SO{sub 2} emissions of power plants. Therefore, secondly the SO{sub 2} emissions of the power plants and the individual power plants are presented. This opens the possibility for an analysis of the found decrease of SO{sub 2} emissions. In section 3.3 the

  6. Research paper 2000-B-4: adjustments in the Dutch electricity producing sector in the context of the European directive 88/609/EEC: a case study on national implementation, environmental effectiveness, allocative efficiency, productive efficiency and administrative costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lulofs, K.

    2000-01-01

    Within the context of the IMPOL project several fields of European environmental policy are studied on aspects as national implementation and environmental and efficiency outcomes. For the IMPOL project a case study was done on the transformation of the Dutch electricity sector in the context of the European Directive 88/609/EEC. The indicators used in this report for environmental effectiveness, allocative efficiency, productive efficiency and administrative costs were chosen in line with a coordinating document (Eames, 1999). The European Directive 88/609/EEC regulates Large Combustion Plants on their SO 2 and NO x emissions. These emissions are relevant for air quality and for the acidification problem. In the empirical part of this report emphasis is laid on the power plants as a specific sub-group of the large combustion plants. The report starts in chapter 2 with a description of the Dutch policy on acidification and regulation that existed when 88/609/EEC was issued. This way it is clarified that the formal implementation of the European Directive was done in the Netherlands with very little effort. In section 2.4 some major information on the structure of the electricity production sector is given as well as some insights into developments. In section 2.5 details on a covenant to reduce emissions from power plants is given. The electricity sector and the government agreed upon this document as a binding agenda for change. In section 2.6 information on monitoring and enforcement is given. In chapter 3, the environmental outcomes are discussed. First the emissions of all large combustion plants are presented in time series. Within the IMPOL research-team the decision was taken to concentrate on the SO 2 emissions of power plants. Therefore, secondly the SO 2 emissions of the power plants and the individual power plants are presented. This opens the possibility for an analysis of the found decrease of SO 2 emissions. In section 3.3 the likely causes and their

  7. Energy-Efficient Power Allocation for MIMO-SVD Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Sboui, Lokman

    2017-05-24

    In this paper, we address the problem of energyefficient power allocation in MIMO systems. In fact, the widely adopted water-filling power allocation does not ensure the maximization of the energy efficiency (EE). Since the EE maximization is a non-convex problem, numerical methods based on fractional programming were introduced to find the optimal power solutions. In this paper, we present a novel and simple power allocation scheme based on the explicit expressions of the optimal power. We also present a low-complexity algorithm that complements the proposed scheme for low circuit-power regime. Furthermore, we analyze power-constrained and rate-constrained systems and present the corresponding optimal power control. In the numerical results, we show that the presented analytical expressions are accurate and that the algorithm converges within two iterations. We also show that as the number of antenna increases, the system becomes more energy-efficient. Also, a saturation of the EE is observed at high power budget and low minimal rate regimes.

  8. Efficient exact optimization of multi-objective redundancy allocation problems in series-parallel systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Dingzhou; Murat, Alper; Chinnam, Ratna Babu

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a decomposition-based approach to exactly solve the multi-objective Redundancy Allocation Problem for series-parallel systems. Redundancy allocation problem is a form of reliability optimization and has been the subject of many prior studies. The majority of these earlier studies treat redundancy allocation problem as a single objective problem maximizing the system reliability or minimizing the cost given certain constraints. The few studies that treated redundancy allocation problem as a multi-objective optimization problem relied on meta-heuristic solution approaches. However, meta-heuristic approaches have significant limitations: they do not guarantee that Pareto points are optimal and, more importantly, they may not identify all the Pareto-optimal points. In this paper, we treat redundancy allocation problem as a multi-objective problem, as is typical in practice. We decompose the original problem into several multi-objective sub-problems, efficiently and exactly solve sub-problems, and then systematically combine the solutions. The decomposition-based approach can efficiently generate all the Pareto-optimal solutions for redundancy allocation problems. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method over meta-heuristic methods on a numerical example taken from the literature.

  9. Resource allocation for phantom cellular networks: Energy efficiency vs spectral efficiency

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelhady, Amr Mohamed Abdelaziz; Amin, Osama; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2016-01-01

    Multi-tier heterogeneous networks have become an essential constituent for next generation cellular networks. Mean-while, energy efficiency (EE) has been considered a critical design criterion along with the traditional spectral efficiency (SE) metric. In this context, we study power and spectrum allocation for the recently proposed two-tier network architecture known as phantom cellular networks. The optimization framework includes both EE and SE, where we propose an algorithm that finds the SE and EE resource allocation strategies for phantom cellular networks. Then, we compare the performance of both design strategies versus the number of users, and phantom cells share of the total number of available resource blocks. We aim to investigate the effect of some system parameters to achieve improved SE performance at a non-significant loss in EE performance, or vice versa. It was found that increasing phantom cells share of resource blocks decreases the SE performance loss due to EE optimization when compared with the optimized SE performance. © 2016 IEEE.

  10. Resource allocation for phantom cellular networks: Energy efficiency vs spectral efficiency

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelhady, Amr M.

    2016-07-26

    Multi-tier heterogeneous networks have become an essential constituent for next generation cellular networks. Mean-while, energy efficiency (EE) has been considered a critical design criterion along with the traditional spectral efficiency (SE) metric. In this context, we study power and spectrum allocation for the recently proposed two-tier network architecture known as phantom cellular networks. The optimization framework includes both EE and SE, where we propose an algorithm that finds the SE and EE resource allocation strategies for phantom cellular networks. Then, we compare the performance of both design strategies versus the number of users, and phantom cells share of the total number of available resource blocks. We aim to investigate the effect of some system parameters to achieve improved SE performance at a non-significant loss in EE performance, or vice versa. It was found that increasing phantom cells share of resource blocks decreases the SE performance loss due to EE optimization when compared with the optimized SE performance. © 2016 IEEE.

  11. Energy-Efficient Resource and Power Allocation for Underlay Multicast Device-to-Device Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Jiang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present an energy-efficient resource allocation and power control scheme for D2D (Device-to-Device multicasting transmission. The objective is to maximize the overall energy-efficiency of D2D multicast clusters through effective resource allocation and power control schemes, while considering the quality of service (QoS requirements of both cellular users (CUs and D2D clusters. We first build the optimization model and a heuristic resource and power allocation algorithm is then proposed to solve the energy-efficiency problem with less computational complexity. Numerical results indicate that the proposed algorithm outperforms existing schemes in terms of throughput per energy consumption.

  12. Efficient resource allocation scheme for visible-light communication system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Woo-Chan; Bae, Chi-Sung; Cho, Dong-Ho; Shin, Hong-Seok; Jung, D. K.; Oh, Y. J.

    2009-01-01

    A visible-light communication utilizing LED has many advantagies such as visibility of information, high SNR (Signal to Noise Ratio), low installation cost, usage of existing illuminators, and high security. Furthermore, exponentially increasing needs and quality of LED have helped the development of visible-light communication. The visibility is the most attractive property in visible-light communication system, but it is difficult to ensure visibility and transmission efficiency simultaneously during initial access because of the small amount of initial access process signals. In this paper, we propose an efficient resource allocation scheme at initial access for ensuring visibility with high resource utilization rate and low data transmission failure rate. The performance has been evaluated through the numerical analysis and simulation results.

  13. Free allocation in the European Emissions Trading System (EU ETS): identifying efficient mechanisms through to 2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalard, Matthieu; Alberola, Emilie

    2015-11-01

    In a world with asymmetrical climate policies, the conclusions of the European Council of October 2014 agreed on continuing the allocation of free CO 2 emissions allowances beyond 2020 to industrial sectors in the EU ETS. This statement has been confirmed in the European Commission's proposal to revise EU ETS directive for phase IV disclosed in July 2015. The stated objective is to ensure that the most efficient industrial installations do not face undue carbon costs which would lead to carbon leakages. Furthermore, free allocations should not undermine the incentive to cut CO 2 emissions, lead to distortions or windfall profits and reduce the auctioning share of allowances. From 2013 to 2020, the allocation of free allowances has been defined according to harmonized European rules based on benchmarks (carbon intensity targets) and historical output adjusted to the free allocation cap by applying the Cross-Sectoral Correction Factor (CSCF). What would be the impact of pursuing the current mechanism through to 2030? Does the EU Commissions' proposal of 15 July respond to the Council's requirements? Which alternative mechanisms could do so? This study examines four scenarios and their potential consequences. - Scenario 1 continues the current free allocation mechanism until 2030. The volume of free allocations thus calculated would be higher than the available free allocation cap and would need to be reduced by a Cross-Sectoral Correction Factor (CSCF) of 66% in 2030. Carbon costs would thus increase for all installations, regardless their exposure to carbon leakages, reducing the protection of most exposed sectors, while widely allocating sectors with limited exposure. - Scenario 2 analyses the proposal to implement an allocation mechanism based on recent industrial output combined with appropriate updating of benchmarks. This allocation method is more effective in combating carbon leakage, as it gives clearer incentive to maintain domestic production

  14. Efficient Radio Resource Allocation in a GSM and GPRS Cellular Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Vannucci

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of various radio resource allocation strategies in a GSM/GPRS cellular network. The most efficient resource allocation is analysed as a function of the proportion of circuit switched voice and packet switched data load. The Grade of Service and average packet delay is investigated as a function of the load, packet size and call duration. Additionally, the feasibility of using voice over Internet Protocol as opposed to circuit switched voice is investigated as a means to increase subscriber capacity per base station. The work is motivated firstly by the complexity of having both circuit switched and packet switched connectivity on GSM/GPRS mobile cellular system and secondly that an exclusively packet based access on GSM/GPRS has the potential to increase the efficiency of resource utilisation by suitably varying the channel allocation to exploit the characteristics of voice and data traffic.

  15. Energy-Efficient Power Allocation for UAV Cognitive Radio Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Sboui, Lokman

    2018-02-12

    We study the deployment of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) based cognitive system in an area covered by the primary network (PN). An UAV shares the spectrum of the PN and aims to maximize its energy efficiency (EE) by optimizing the transmit power. We focus on the case where the UAV simultaneously communicates with the ground receiver (G), under interference limitation, and with another relaying UAV (A), with a minimal required rate. We analytically develop the power allocation framework that maximizes the EE subject to power budget, interference, and minimal rate constraints. In the numerical results, we show that the minimal rate may cause a transmission outage at low power budget values. We also highlighted the existence of optimal altitudes given the UAV location with respect to the different other terminals.

  16. Energy-Efficient Power Allocation for UAV Cognitive Radio Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Sboui, Lokman; Ghazzai, Hakim; Rezki, Zouheir; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2018-01-01

    We study the deployment of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) based cognitive system in an area covered by the primary network (PN). An UAV shares the spectrum of the PN and aims to maximize its energy efficiency (EE) by optimizing the transmit power. We focus on the case where the UAV simultaneously communicates with the ground receiver (G), under interference limitation, and with another relaying UAV (A), with a minimal required rate. We analytically develop the power allocation framework that maximizes the EE subject to power budget, interference, and minimal rate constraints. In the numerical results, we show that the minimal rate may cause a transmission outage at low power budget values. We also highlighted the existence of optimal altitudes given the UAV location with respect to the different other terminals.

  17. Capital Allocation Effects of Financial Reporting Regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenigsgruber, R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the effects of stricter financial reporting enforcement on capital allocation and reporting quality in a game-theoretic model and derives conclusions about optimal enforcement strictness. Analysis of the model shows that reporting quality strictly increases with tighter

  18. On energy efficient power allocation for power-constrained systems

    KAUST Repository

    Sboui, Lokman

    2014-09-01

    Recently, the energy efficiency (EE) has become an important factor when designing new wireless communication systems. Due to economic and environmental challenges, new trends and efforts are oriented toward “green” communication especially for energy-constrained applications such as wireless sensors network and cognitive radio. To this end, we analyze the power allocation scheme that maximizes the EE defined as rate over the total power including circuit power. We derive an explicit expression of the optimal power with instantaneous channel gain based on EE criterion. We show that the relation between the EE and the spectral efficiency (SE) when the optimal power is adopted is strictly increasing in contrast with the SE-EE trade-off discussed in the literature. We also solve a non-convex problem and compute explicitly the optimal power for ergodic EE under either a peak or an average power constraint. When the instantaneous channel is not available, we provide the optimal power equation and compute simple sub-optimal power. In the numerical results, we show that the sup-optimal solution is very close to the optimal solution. In addition, we show that the absence of the channel state information (CSI) only affects the EE and the SE performances at high power regime compared to the full CSI case.

  19. Processing speed training increases the efficiency of attentional resource allocation in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley K Burge

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive training has been shown to improve performance on a range of tasks. However, the mechanisms underlying these improvements are still unclear. Given the wide range of transfer effects, it is likely that these effects are due to a factor common to a wide range of tasks. One such factor is a participant’s efficiency in allocating limited cognitive resources. The impact of a cognitive training program, Processing Speed Training (PST, on the allocation of resources to a set of visual tasks was measured using pupillometry in 10 young adults as compared to a control group of a 10 young adults (n = 20. PST is a well-studied computerized training program that involves identifying simultaneously presented central and peripheral stimuli. As training progresses, the task becomes increasingly more difficult, by including peripheral distracting stimuli and decreasing the duration of stimulus presentation. Analysis of baseline data confirmed that pupil diameter reflected cognitive effort. After training, participants randomized to PST used fewer attentional resources to perform complex visual tasks as compared to the control group. These pupil diameter data indicated that PST appears to increase the efficiency of attentional resource allocation. Increases in cognitive efficiency have been hypothesized to underlie improvements following experience with action video games, and improved cognitive efficiency has been hypothesized to underlie the benefits of processing speed training in older adults. These data reveal that these training schemes may share a common underlying mechanism of increasing cognitive efficiency in younger adults.

  20. THE ALLOCATIVE EFFICIENCY OF LAND RENTAL MARKETS IN TRANSITION AGRICULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Vranken, Liesbet; Mathijs, Erik

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the functioning of the Hungarian land rental market. The allocative inefficiency of the land rental market is determined by calculating the marginal value productivity of land and using rental prices. Regional differences in allocative inefficiency are then correlated with demographic and socio-economic variables and with labor market-related factors.

  1. Energy Efficient Resource Allocation for Phantom Cellular Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelhady, Amr Mohamed Abdelaziz

    2016-01-01

    experiencing negligible interference and assume perfect channel state information (CSI). For this setting, we propose an algorithm that finds the SE and EE resource allocation strategies. Then, we compare the performance of both design strategies versus number

  2. Decentralizing constrained-efficient allocations in the Lagos–Wright pure currency economy

    OpenAIRE

    Bajaj, Ayushi; Hu, Tai Wei; Rocheteau, Guillaume; Silva, Mario Rafael

    2017-01-01

    This paper offers two ways to decentralize the constrained-efficient allocation of the Lagos–Wright (2005) pure currency economy. The first way has divisible money, take-it-or-leave-it offers by buyers, and a transfer scheme financed by money creation. If agents are sufficiently patient, the first best is achieved for finite money growth rates. If agents are impatient, the equilibrium allocation approaches the constrained-efficient allocation asymptotically as the money growth rate tends to i...

  3. Energy-Efficient Power Allocation for Cognitive MIMO Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Sboui, Lokman; Rezki, Zouheir; Salem, Ahmed Sultan; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    achieves at least 95% of the optimal performance. In addition, we show that adopting more antennas is more energy efficient for a given power budget. Finally, we show that the interference threshold has a significant effect on both the EE and the spectral

  4. Comparison of multinomial logistic regression and logistic regression: which is more efficient in allocating land use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yingzhi; Deng, Xiangzheng; Li, Xing; Ma, Enjun

    2014-12-01

    Spatially explicit simulation of land use change is the basis for estimating the effects of land use and cover change on energy fluxes, ecology and the environment. At the pixel level, logistic regression is one of the most common approaches used in spatially explicit land use allocation models to determine the relationship between land use and its causal factors in driving land use change, and thereby to evaluate land use suitability. However, these models have a drawback in that they do not determine/allocate land use based on the direct relationship between land use change and its driving factors. Consequently, a multinomial logistic regression method was introduced to address this flaw, and thereby, judge the suitability of a type of land use in any given pixel in a case study area of the Jiangxi Province, China. A comparison of the two regression methods indicated that the proportion of correctly allocated pixels using multinomial logistic regression was 92.98%, which was 8.47% higher than that obtained using logistic regression. Paired t-test results also showed that pixels were more clearly distinguished by multinomial logistic regression than by logistic regression. In conclusion, multinomial logistic regression is a more efficient and accurate method for the spatial allocation of land use changes. The application of this method in future land use change studies may improve the accuracy of predicting the effects of land use and cover change on energy fluxes, ecology, and environment.

  5. A Thrust Allocation Method for Efficient Dynamic Positioning of a Semisubmersible Drilling Rig Based on the Hybrid Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luman Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A thrust allocation method was proposed based on a hybrid optimization algorithm to efficiently and dynamically position a semisubmersible drilling rig. That is, the thrust allocation was optimized to produce the generalized forces and moment required while at the same time minimizing the total power consumption under the premise that forbidden zones should be taken into account. An optimization problem was mathematically formulated to provide the optimal thrust allocation by introducing the corresponding design variables, objective function, and constraints. A hybrid optimization algorithm consisting of a genetic algorithm and a sequential quadratic programming (SQP algorithm was selected and used to solve this problem. The proposed method was evaluated by applying it to a thrust allocation problem for a semisubmersible drilling rig. The results indicate that the proposed method can be used as part of a cost-effective strategy for thrust allocation of the rig.

  6. An efficient approach to enhance capacity allocation over Bluetooth network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Son, L.T.; Schiøler, Henrik; Madsen, Ole Brun

    2002-01-01

    quality of service requirements and topologically induced constraints in the Bluetooth network, such as node and link capacity limitations. The proposed scheme is decentralized and complies with frequent changes of topology as well as capacity limitations and flow requirements in the network. Simulation...... shows that the performance of Bluetooth network could be improved by applying the hybrid distributed iterative capacity allocation scheme....

  7. Energy-Efficient Resource Allocation for Phantom Cellular Networks with Imperfect CSI

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelhady, Amr Mohamed Abdelaziz

    2017-03-28

    Multi-tier heterogeneous networks have become an essential constituent for next generation cellular networks. Meanwhile, energy efficiency (EE) has been considered a critical design criterion along with the traditional spectral efficiency (SE) metric. In this context, we study power and spectrum allocation for a two-tier phantom cellular network, The optimization framework includes both EE and SE. We consider densely deployed phantom cellular networks and model the EE optimization problem taking into consideration the inevitable interference in this setup and imperfect channel estimation impairments. To this end, we propose three resource allocation strategies aiming at optimizing this network EE performance metric. Furthermore, we investigate the effect of changing some system parameters on the performance of these strategies, such as phantom cells resource units share, number of deployed phantom cells within a macro cell , number of pilots, and the phantom cells transmission power budget. It is found that increasing the number of pilots will deteriorate the EE performance of the whole setup, while increasing phantom cells transmission power budget will not affect the EE of the whole setup significantly. In addition, we observed that it is always useful to allocate most of the network resource units to the phantom cells tier.

  8. Energy-Efficient Resource Allocation for Phantom Cellular Networks with Imperfect CSI

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelhady, Amr Mohamed Abdelaziz; Amin, Osama; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    Multi-tier heterogeneous networks have become an essential constituent for next generation cellular networks. Meanwhile, energy efficiency (EE) has been considered a critical design criterion along with the traditional spectral efficiency (SE) metric. In this context, we study power and spectrum allocation for a two-tier phantom cellular network, The optimization framework includes both EE and SE. We consider densely deployed phantom cellular networks and model the EE optimization problem taking into consideration the inevitable interference in this setup and imperfect channel estimation impairments. To this end, we propose three resource allocation strategies aiming at optimizing this network EE performance metric. Furthermore, we investigate the effect of changing some system parameters on the performance of these strategies, such as phantom cells resource units share, number of deployed phantom cells within a macro cell , number of pilots, and the phantom cells transmission power budget. It is found that increasing the number of pilots will deteriorate the EE performance of the whole setup, while increasing phantom cells transmission power budget will not affect the EE of the whole setup significantly. In addition, we observed that it is always useful to allocate most of the network resource units to the phantom cells tier.

  9. Energy-efficient dynamic resource allocation with energy harvesting nodes

    OpenAIRE

    Rubio López, Javier

    2012-01-01

    The allocation of radio resources where nodes are battery constrained. [ANGLÈS] In wireless communications, there is a trend to deploy shorter-distance networks to cope with the high demanding necessities of bit-rate that current applications require. In such networks, the power needed for transmission is considerably low, due to proximity between base station and mobile terminals. As a consequence, complex baseband algorithms for signal processing and radio frequency circuitry require an ...

  10. An integrated framework for transmission cost allocation retaining efficiency concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, J.W. Marangon [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Gorenstin, B G; Vieira Filho, X [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Chipp, H J; Alvarenga Filho, S [ELETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Hirota, M [Companhia Energetica de Sao Paulo (CESP), SP (Brazil); Pereira, M V.F. [Power System Research, Inc., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes a methodology for allocating transmission costs among utilities and wheeling agents. The proposed approach is based on the extension of marginal cost theory to take into account discrete component sizes and economy of scale, while retaining desirable economic properties such as revenue reconciliation and incentives for all participants to remain in the pool. The methodology is illustrated in case studies with the Brazilian system. (author) 21 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  11. Biomass Allocation Patterns Are Linked to Genotypic Differences in Whole-Plant Transpiration Efficiency in Sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Velázquez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Increased transpiration efficiency (the ratio of biomass to water transpired, TE could lead to increased drought tolerance under some water deficit scenarios. Intrinsic (i.e., leaf-level TE is usually considered as the primary source of variation in whole-plant TE, but empirical data usually contradict this assumption. Sunflower has a significant variability in TE, but a better knowledge of the effect of leaf and plant-level traits could be helpful to obtain more efficient genotypes for water use. The objective of this study was, therefore, to assess if genotypic variation in whole-plant TE is better related to leaf- or plant-level traits. Three experiments were conducted, aimed at verifying the existence of variability in whole-plant TE and whole-plant and leaf-level traits, and to assess their correlation. Sunflower public inbred lines and a segregating population of recombinant inbred lines were grown under controlled conditions and subjected to well-watered and water-deficit treatments. Significant genotypic variation was found for TE and related traits. These differences in whole-plant transpiration efficiency, both between genotypes and between plants within each genotype, showed no association to leaf-level traits, but were significantly and negatively correlated to biomass allocation to leaves and to the ratio of leaf area to total biomass. These associations are likely of a physiological origin, and not only a consequence of genetic linkage in the studied population. These results suggest that genotypic variation for biomass allocation could be potentially exploited as a source for increased transpiration efficiency in sunflower breeding programmes. It is also suggested that phenotyping for TE in this species should not be restricted to leaf-level measurements, but also include measurements of plant-level traits, especially those related to biomass allocation between photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic organs.

  12. Biomass Allocation Patterns Are Linked to Genotypic Differences in Whole-Plant Transpiration Efficiency in Sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez, Luciano; Alberdi, Ignacio; Paz, Cosme; Aguirrezábal, Luis; Pereyra Irujo, Gustavo

    2017-01-01

    Increased transpiration efficiency (the ratio of biomass to water transpired, TE) could lead to increased drought tolerance under some water deficit scenarios. Intrinsic (i.e., leaf-level) TE is usually considered as the primary source of variation in whole-plant TE, but empirical data usually contradict this assumption. Sunflower has a significant variability in TE, but a better knowledge of the effect of leaf and plant-level traits could be helpful to obtain more efficient genotypes for water use. The objective of this study was, therefore, to assess if genotypic variation in whole-plant TE is better related to leaf- or plant-level traits. Three experiments were conducted, aimed at verifying the existence of variability in whole-plant TE and whole-plant and leaf-level traits, and to assess their correlation. Sunflower public inbred lines and a segregating population of recombinant inbred lines were grown under controlled conditions and subjected to well-watered and water-deficit treatments. Significant genotypic variation was found for TE and related traits. These differences in whole-plant transpiration efficiency, both between genotypes and between plants within each genotype, showed no association to leaf-level traits, but were significantly and negatively correlated to biomass allocation to leaves and to the ratio of leaf area to total biomass. These associations are likely of a physiological origin, and not only a consequence of genetic linkage in the studied population. These results suggest that genotypic variation for biomass allocation could be potentially exploited as a source for increased transpiration efficiency in sunflower breeding programmes. It is also suggested that phenotyping for TE in this species should not be restricted to leaf-level measurements, but also include measurements of plant-level traits, especially those related to biomass allocation between photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic organs.

  13. A comparison of carbon allocation schemes: On the equity-efficiency tradeoff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Xunzhang; Teng, Fei; Wang, Gehua

    2014-01-01

    In the long-term stabilization targets of greenhouse gases concentrations, various carbon emission rights allocation schemes have been proposed. To compare and evaluate them, the most essential is the equity-efficiency tradeoff. This paper measures the equity and the efficiency in the global rather than the narrower national perspective. Specifically, the equity of the first allocation is quantified by the carbon Gini coefficient defined by per capita cumulative emission, and the economic efficiency to accomplish obligations is described with the discounted global abatement costs. Under 20 key allocation schemes, the numerical comparison on the equity-efficiency tradeoff side is carried out through the Equitable Access to Sustainable Development model. Our studies indicate that the equity and the efficiency of future emission space allocation approximately show a three-stage relationship. - Highlights: • The equity-efficiency tradeoff among 20 key allocation schemes is carried out. • Both the equity and the efficiency are measured in the global perspective. • The Equitable Access to Sustainable Development model is adopted as the study tool. • A practical trade framework is indispensable to efficiently address climate change. • The equity and the efficiency generally show a three-stage tradeoff relationship

  14. A resource allocation model to support efficient air quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efficient implementation of policies and strategies require that ... †Graduate School of Business Leadership, University of South Africa, P.O. Box 392, Pretoria, 0003, .... and source, emissions, air quality and meteorological data reporting.

  15. Health resource allocation and productive efficiency of Chinese county hospitals: data from 1993 to 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gai, Ruoyan Y; Zhou, Chengchao C; Xu, Lingzhong Z; Zhu, Min; Wang, Xingzhou Z; Li, Shixue X; Zheng, Wengui G; Song, Peipei P; Yang, Xuelai L; Fang, Liyi Y; Zhen, Yancheng C; Tang, Wei

    2010-10-01

    This study aims to assess trends in the productive efficiency of China's county hospitals during the economic transition using data from 1993 to 2005. A data envelopment analysis (DEA) framework was used to calculate the efficiency score of county hospitals in all 31 provinces. A C²R model and a BC² model were devised to respectively calculate overall and scale efficiency and pure technical efficiency at the hospital's current scale. Models included four inputs (number of medical staff; number of beds; value of fixed capital; and hospital expenditures) and three outputs (outpatient and emergency visits, number of inpatients, and hospital revenue) in total. As the results, geographical disparities in health resource allocation and county hospital productivity were noted. From 1993 to 2005, the number of county hospitals increased and their inputs, e.g. fixed capital in particular, grew rapidly. However, the amount of both outpatient and inpatient services declined somewhat especially in the middle and the western regions. The overall efficiency at the national level decreased slightly. County hospitals in the eastern region tended to have better overall, scale, and technical efficiency in comparison to the middle and the western regions. In conclusion, county hospitals are inefficient due to their enlarged scale and the reduced amount of health care services they provide. This issue should be addressed especially in the middle and the western regions, where health resources are far more limited and yet wasted. The effects of ongoing health sector reform on the productivity of county hospitals must be monitored and evaluated.

  16. Distributed Bees Algorithm Parameters Optimization for a Cost Efficient Target Allocation in Swarms of Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Gutiérrez

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Swarms of robots can use their sensing abilities to explore unknown environments and deploy on sites of interest. In this task, a large number of robots is more effective than a single unit because of their ability to quickly cover the area. However, the coordination of large teams of robots is not an easy problem, especially when the resources for the deployment are limited. In this paper, the Distributed Bees Algorithm (DBA, previously proposed by the authors, is optimized and applied to distributed target allocation in swarms of robots. Improved target allocation in terms of deployment cost efficiency is achieved through optimization of the DBA’s control parameters by means of a Genetic Algorithm. Experimental results show that with the optimized set of parameters, the deployment cost measured as the average distance traveled by the robots is reduced. The cost-efficient deployment is in some cases achieved at the expense of increased robots’ distribution error. Nevertheless, the proposed approach allows the swarm to adapt to the operating conditions when available resources are scarce.

  17. Efficient Allocation of Reserve Costs in RTO Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirsch, Laurence D.; Morey, Mathew J.

    2006-10-15

    RTOs' make-whole payments for generation commitment are needed partly because of flaws in the design of reserve markets. Markets might be made more efficient with greater locational differentiation in reserve prices and incorporation of make-whole payments into reserve prices. (author)

  18. On energy efficient power allocation for power-constrained systems

    KAUST Repository

    Sboui, Lokman; Rezki, Zouheir; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2014-01-01

    of the optimal power with instantaneous channel gain based on EE criterion. We show that the relation between the EE and the spectral efficiency (SE) when the optimal power is adopted is strictly increasing in contrast with the SE-EE trade-off discussed

  19. Efficient Intra-household Allocations and Distribution Factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin; Bourguignon, François; Chiappori, Pierre-André

    and general test of the Pareto efficiency hypothesis, which is consistent with all possible assumptions on the private or public nature of goods, all possible consumption externalities between household members, and all types of interdependent individual preferences and domestic production technology...

  20. A resource allocation model to support efficient air quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research into management interventions that create the required enabling environment for growth and development in South Africa are both timely and appropriate. In the research reported in this paper, the authors investigated the level of efficiency of the Air Quality Units within the three spheres of government viz.

  1. Research on Evaluation of resource allocation efficiency of transportation system based on DEA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhehui; Du, Linan

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we select the time series data onto 1985-2015 years, construct the land (shoreline) resources, capital and labor as inputs. The index system of the output is freight volume and passenger volume, we use Quantitative analysis based on DEA method evaluated the resource allocation efficiency of railway, highway, water transport and civil aviation in China. Research shows that the resource allocation efficiency of various modes of transport has obvious difference, and the impact on scale efficiency is more significant. The most important two ways to optimize the allocation of resources to improve the efficiency of the combination of various modes of transport is promoting the co-ordination of various modes of transport and constructing integrated transportation system.

  2. Allocative and Technical Efficiency Analysis of Cassava Farming in Bitefa Village, East Miofamo District, Middle North Timor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Wahib Muhaimin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cassava is a food crop with great economic value since its cost is affordable and has been passed down to the generation.  People at Bitefa village are majority a farmer who depends their life on agriculture to meet the needs. Problems faced by farmers in farming cassava at Bitefa village are farming management that is not in accordance with the guidelines and the use of factors of production that is not suitable for the dose recommended. This suggests that the use of factors of production are not efficient. Research objectives are: (1 to analyze the factors that affect the production of cassava, (2 to analyze the level of allocative and technical efficiency, (3 to analyze factors that affect technical inefficiency. The efficient use of factors of production is expected to increase production and income for farmers of cassava. The result obtained using stochastic frontier production function analysis is that the influence of cassava farming real production is the production of land and seeds. Meanwhile, labor, cost factors and the use of manure have no effect on the real production of cassava. The technical efficiency level of cassava farming in the research area is the lowest by 0.80 of which amounted to 0.99. While the level of NPMxPx for land use allocative efficiency is 1 so that the allocation of land use in the area of research has not been efficient. NPMxPx for the use of seed allocation is 1 so that the use of seedlings is also not efficient. Nonformal education influence is real and marked positive effect against inefficiency. Formal education is marked negative but having a real effect against the inefficiency. Farmer's age is marked negative and not real, while the experience and the number of family members are marked positive but having no real effect on the production of cassava.

  3. Evaluation on equality and efficiency of health resources allocation and health services utilization in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jian; Luo, Hongye

    2017-07-14

    China is faced with a daunting challenge to equality and efficiency in health resources allocation and health services utilization in the context of rapid economic growth. This study sought to evaluate the equality and efficiency of health resources allocation and health services utilization in China. Demographic, economic, and geographic area data was sourced from China Statistical Yearbook 2012-2016. Data related to health resources and health services was obtained from China Health Statistics Yearbook 2012-2016. Furthermore, we evaluated the equality of health resources allocation based on Gini coefficient. Concentration index was used to measure the equality in utilization of health services. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) was employed to assess the efficiency of health resources allocation. From 2011 to 2015, the Gini coefficients for health resources by population ranged between 0.0644 and 0.1879, while the Gini coefficients for the resources by geographic area ranged from 0.6136 to 0.6568. Meanwhile, the concentration index values for health services utilization ranged from -0.0392 to 0.2110. Moreover, in 2015, 10 provinces (32.26%) were relatively efficient in terms of health resources allocation, while 7 provinces (22.58%) and 14 provinces (45.16%) were weakly efficient and inefficient, respectively. There exist distinct regional disparities in the distribution of health resources in China, which are mainly reflected in the geographic distribution of health resources. Furthermore, the people living in the eastern developed areas are more likely to use outpatient care, while the people living in western underdeveloped areas are more likely to use inpatient care. Moreover, the efficiency of health resources allocation in 21 provinces (67.74%) of China was low and needs to be improved. Thus, the government should pay more attention to the equality based on geographic area, guide patients to choose medical treatment rationally, and optimize the resource

  4. Energy Efficiency of Task Allocation for Embedded JPEG Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang-Hsin Fan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Embedded system works everywhere for repeatedly performing a few particular functionalities. Well-known products include consumer electronics, smart home applications, and telematics device, and so forth. Recently, developing methodology of embedded systems is applied to conduct the design of cloud embedded system resulting in the applications of embedded system being more diverse. However, the more energy consumes result from the more embedded system works. This study presents hyperrectangle technology (HT to embedded system for obtaining energy saving. The HT adopts drift effect to construct embedded systems with more hardware circuits than software components or vice versa. It can fast construct embedded system with a set of hardware circuits and software components. Moreover, it has a great benefit to fast explore energy consumption for various embedded systems. The effects are presented by assessing a JPEG benchmarks. Experimental results demonstrate that the HT, respectively, achieves the energy saving by 29.84%, 2.07%, and 68.80% on average to GA, GHO, and Lin.

  5. Energy efficiency of task allocation for embedded JPEG systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yang-Hsin; Wu, Jan-Ou; Wang, San-Fu

    2014-01-01

    Embedded system works everywhere for repeatedly performing a few particular functionalities. Well-known products include consumer electronics, smart home applications, and telematics device, and so forth. Recently, developing methodology of embedded systems is applied to conduct the design of cloud embedded system resulting in the applications of embedded system being more diverse. However, the more energy consumes result from the more embedded system works. This study presents hyperrectangle technology (HT) to embedded system for obtaining energy saving. The HT adopts drift effect to construct embedded systems with more hardware circuits than software components or vice versa. It can fast construct embedded system with a set of hardware circuits and software components. Moreover, it has a great benefit to fast explore energy consumption for various embedded systems. The effects are presented by assessing a JPEG benchmarks. Experimental results demonstrate that the HT, respectively, achieves the energy saving by 29.84%, 2.07%, and 68.80% on average to GA, GHO, and Lin.

  6. Efficient and equitable spatial allocation of renewable power plants at the country scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drechsler, Martin; Egerer, Jonas; Lange, Martin; Masurowski, Frank; Meyerhoff, Jürgen; Oehlmann, Malte

    2017-09-01

    Globally, the production of renewable energy is undergoing rapid growth. One of the most pressing issues is the appropriate allocation of renewable power plants, as the question of where to produce renewable electricity is highly controversial. Here we explore this issue through analysis of the efficient and equitable spatial allocation of wind turbines and photovoltaic power plants in Germany. We combine multiple methods, including legal analysis, economic and energy modelling, monetary valuation and numerical optimization. We find that minimum distances between renewable power plants and human settlements should be as small as is legally possible. Even small reductions in efficiency lead to large increases in equity. By considering electricity grid expansion costs, we find a more even allocation of power plants across the country than is the case when grid expansion costs are neglected.

  7. The net effect of alternative allocation ratios on recruitment time and trial cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vozdolska, Ralitza; Sano, Mary; Aisen, Paul; Edland, Steven D

    2009-04-01

    Increasing the proportion of subjects allocated to the experimental treatment in controlled clinical trials is often advocated as a method of increasing recruitment rates and improving the performance of trials. The presumption is that the higher likelihood of randomization to the experimental treatment will be perceived by potential study enrollees as an added benefit of participation and will increase recruitment rates and speed the completion of trials. However, studies with alternative allocation ratios require a larger sample size to maintain statistical power, which may result in a net increase in time required to complete recruitment and a net increase in total trial cost. To describe the potential net effect of alternative allocation ratios on recruitment time and trial cost. Models of recruitment time and trial cost were developed and used to compare trials with 1:1 allocation to trials with alternative allocation ratios under a range of per subject costs, per day costs, and enrollment rates. In regard to time required to complete recruitment, alternative allocation ratios are net beneficial if the recruitment rate improves by more than about 4% for trials with a 1.5:1 allocation ratio and 12% for trials with a 2:1 allocation ratio. More substantial improvements in recruitment rate, 13 and 47% respectively for scenarios we considered, are required for alternative allocation to be net beneficial in terms of tangible monetary cost. The cost models were developed expressly for trials comparing proportions or means across treatment groups. Using alternative allocation ratio designs to improve recruitment may or may not be time and cost-effective. Using alternative allocation for this purpose should only be considered for trial contexts where there is both clear evidence that the alternative design does improve recruitment rates and the attained time or cost efficiency justifies the added study subject burden implied by a larger sample size.

  8. Efficient Bandwidth Allocation for Integrated Services in Broadband Wireless ATM Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Hong; Dittmann, Lars; Gliese, Ulrik Bo

    1999-01-01

    An efficient bandwidth allocation scheme is proposed for supporting intergrated services in wireless ATM networks. These include CBR, VBR amd ABR types of traffic. The proposed scheme is based om A-PRMA for carrying ATM traffic in a dynamic TDMA type access system. It allows mobile users to adjust...

  9. Labour productivity in Europe: allocative efficiency of labour or performance of firms?

    OpenAIRE

    A. Berthou.; C. Sandoz.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of allocative efficiency of labour in firms and of individual firm performance on labour productivity at the sector level for several European countries. It uses data recently collected by the Competitiveness Research Network (CompNet).

  10. Collective Decision Mechanisms and Efficient Stock Market Allocations: Existence of a Participation Equilibrium.

    OpenAIRE

    Forsythe, Robert; Suchanek, Gerry L

    1984-01-01

    The recent literature on economies with an incomplete set of markets has been devoted to the study of the efficiency properties of collective stockholder decision mechanisms for guiding the behavior of firms when the restrictive Ekern-Wilson spanning condition is not satisfied. The results have been essentially negative; a majority voting rule and controlling interest rules will not yield efficient equilibrium allocations in general. However, in a recent paper, Helpman and Razin (1978) sugges...

  11. Energy Efficient Power Allocation in Multi-tier 5G Networks Using Enhanced Online Learning

    KAUST Repository

    Alqerm, Ismail

    2017-07-25

    The multi-tier heterogeneous structure of 5G with dense small cells deployment, relays, and device-to-device (D2D) communications operating in an underlay fashion is envisioned as a potential solution to satisfy the future demand for cellular services. However, efficient power allocation among dense secondary transmitters that maintains quality of service (QoS) for macro (primary) cell users and secondary cell users is a critical challenge for operating such radio. In this paper, we focus on the power allocation problem in the multi-tier 5G network structure using a non-cooperative methodology with energy efficiency consideration. Therefore, we propose a distributive intuition-based online learning scheme for power allocation in the downlink of the 5G systems, where each transmitter surmises other transmitters power allocation strategies without information exchange. The proposed learning model exploits a brief state representation to account for the problem of dimensionality in online learning and expedite the convergence. The convergence of the proposed scheme is proved and numerical results demonstrate its capability to achieve fast convergence with QoS guarantee and significant improvement in system energy efficiency.

  12. Transmission cost allocation for an efficient tariff action of electricity in a liberalised market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassi, C.; Caldon, R.; Lorenzoni, A.

    1999-01-01

    The work is focused on the evaluation of the costs of an electricity transmission system operator and on their allocation among the users of the grid in liberalized market. After a recall of the goals of an efficient tariff for transmission, an original method for the cost allocation is proposed called ZI. Based on the marginal cost approach, this method could be the base for setting an efficient transmission tariff that at the same time covers costs and stimulates efficient behaviours. The performances of such an approach have been tested on a real 47 bus grid and ZI tariffs have been compared to the traditional postage stamp ones, highlighting the strong differences between them [it

  13. Optimal Energy-Efficient Sensing and Power Allocation in Cognitive Radio Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a joint optimization of sensing parameter and power allocation for an energy-efficient cognitive radio network (CRN in which the primary user (PU is protected. The optimization problem to maximize the energy efficiency of CRN is formulated as a function of two variables, which are sensing time and transmit power, subject to the average interference power to the PU and the target detection probability. During the optimizing process, the quality of service parameter (the minimum rate acceptable to secondary users (SUs has also been taken into consideration. The optimal solutions are analyzed and an algorithm combined with fractional programming that maximizes the energy efficiency for CRN is presented. Numerical results show that the performance improvement is achieved by the joint optimization of sensing time and power allocation.

  14. Price and welfare effects of emission quota allocation

    OpenAIRE

    Golombek, Rolf; Kittelsen, Sverre A.C.; Rosendahl, Knut Einar

    2011-01-01

    Abstracts with downloadable Discussion Papers in PDF are available on the Internet: http://www.ssb.no Abstract: We analyze how different ways of allocating emission quotas may influence the electricity market. Using a large-scale numerical model of the Western European energy market, we show that different allocation mechanisms can have very different effects on the electricity market, even if the total emission target is fixed. This is particularly the case if output-based alloca...

  15. The use of resource allocation approach for hospitals based on the initial efficiency by using data envelopment analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Yazdian Hossein Abadi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recourse allocation is very important in today’s highly competitive environment to enhance the quality and reduce costs due to limited resources and unlimited needs of the society. The aim of this study was to implement resource allocation in order to improve the efficiency of hospital. Method: This is a mixed method study. The data used in this paper are secondary data related to the 30 large acute and general hospitals in the US. Bed, service mix, full-time equivalent (FTE, and operational expenses are input indicators in hospital, and adjusted admissions and outpatient visits are output indicators. Using goal programming (GP model and data envelopment analysis (DEA model with a common weights, we suggest three scenarios for resource allocation and budget allocation. “Resource allocation based on efficiency”, “budget allocation based on efficiency” and “two stage allocation of budget”. The first scenario was used for allocating the resources and the second and third ones for allocating budget to decision making units (DMUs. The data were analyzed by LINGO software. Results: Before the allocation, four hospitals were efficient and the efficiency of six hospitals was less than 50%, but after allocation, in the first case of the first scenario 14 hospitals, 11 hospitals in the second case of the first scenario, 24 hospitals in the second scenario and 17 hospitals in the third scenario were efficient, and it is an important point that after the allocation, efficiency of all hospitals increased. Conclusion: This study can be useful for hospital administrators; it can help them to allocate their resource and budget and increase the efficiency of their hospitals.

  16. Energy-Efficient Power Allocation of Cognitive Radio Systems without CSI at the Transmitter

    KAUST Repository

    Sboui, Lokman

    2015-01-07

    Two major issues are facing today’s wireless communications evolution: -Spectrum scarcity: Need for more bandwidth. As a solution, the Cognitive Radio (CR) paradigm, where secondary users (unlicensed) share the spectrum with licensed users, was introduced. -Energy consumption and CO2 emission: The ICT produce 2% of global CO2 emission (equivalent to the aviation industry emission). The cellular networks produces 0.2%. As solution energy efficient systems should be designed rather than traditional spectral efficient systems. In this work, we aim to determine the optimal energy efficient power allocation of CR when the channel state information at the transmitter CSI-T is not available.

  17. Energy-Efficient Power Allocation of Cognitive Radio Systems without CSI at the Transmitter

    KAUST Repository

    Sboui, Lokman; Rezki, Zouheir; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2015-01-01

    Two major issues are facing today’s wireless communications evolution: -Spectrum scarcity: Need for more bandwidth. As a solution, the Cognitive Radio (CR) paradigm, where secondary users (unlicensed) share the spectrum with licensed users, was introduced. -Energy consumption and CO2 emission: The ICT produce 2% of global CO2 emission (equivalent to the aviation industry emission). The cellular networks produces 0.2%. As solution energy efficient systems should be designed rather than traditional spectral efficient systems. In this work, we aim to determine the optimal energy efficient power allocation of CR when the channel state information at the transmitter CSI-T is not available.

  18. Adaptive Cross-Layer Distributed Energy-Efficient Resource Allocation Algorithms for Wireless Data Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Saturnino

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The issue of adaptive and distributed cross-layer resource allocation for energy efficiency in uplink code-division multiple-access (CDMA wireless data networks is addressed. The resource allocation problems are formulated as noncooperative games wherein each terminal seeks to maximize its own energy efficiency, namely, the number of reliably transmitted information symbols per unit of energy used for transmission. The focus of this paper is on the issue of adaptive and distributed implementation of policies arising from this approach, that is, it is assumed that only readily available measurements, such as the received data, are available at the receiver in order to play the considered games. Both single-cell and multicell networks are considered. Stochastic implementations of noncooperative games for power allocation, spreading code allocation, and choice of the uplink (linear receiver are thus proposed, and analytical results describing the convergence properties of selected stochastic algorithms are also given. Extensive simulation results show that, in many instances of practical interest, the proposed stochastic algorithms approach with satisfactory accuracy the performance of nonadaptive games, whose implementation requires much more prior information.

  19. Energy-Efficient Optimal Power Allocation in Integrated Wireless Sensor and Cognitive Satellite Terrestrial Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shengchao; Li, Guangxia; An, Kang; Gao, Bin; Zheng, Gan

    2017-09-04

    This paper proposes novel satellite-based wireless sensor networks (WSNs), which integrate the WSN with the cognitive satellite terrestrial network. Having the ability to provide seamless network access and alleviate the spectrum scarcity, cognitive satellite terrestrial networks are considered as a promising candidate for future wireless networks with emerging requirements of ubiquitous broadband applications and increasing demand for spectral resources. With the emerging environmental and energy cost concerns in communication systems, explicit concerns on energy efficient resource allocation in satellite networks have also recently received considerable attention. In this regard, this paper proposes energy-efficient optimal power allocation schemes in the cognitive satellite terrestrial networks for non-real-time and real-time applications, respectively, which maximize the energy efficiency (EE) of the cognitive satellite user while guaranteeing the interference at the primary terrestrial user below an acceptable level. Specifically, average interference power (AIP) constraint is employed to protect the communication quality of the primary terrestrial user while average transmit power (ATP) or peak transmit power (PTP) constraint is adopted to regulate the transmit power of the satellite user. Since the energy-efficient power allocation optimization problem belongs to the nonlinear concave fractional programming problem, we solve it by combining Dinkelbach's method with Lagrange duality method. Simulation results demonstrate that the fading severity of the terrestrial interference link is favorable to the satellite user who can achieve EE gain under the ATP constraint comparing to the PTP constraint.

  20. Energy-Efficient Power Allocation for Fixed-Gain Amplify-and-Forward Relay Networks with Partial Channel State Information

    KAUST Repository

    Zafar, Ammar; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Chen, Yunfei; Radaydeh, Redha M.

    2012-01-01

    In this letter, energy-efficient transmission and power allocation for fixed-gain amplify-and-forward relay networks with partial channel state information (CSI) are studied. In the energy-efficiency problem, the total power consumed is minimized

  1. Novel Machine Learning-Based Techniques for Efficient Resource Allocation in Next Generation Wireless Networks

    KAUST Repository

    AlQuerm, Ismail A.

    2018-02-21

    There is a large demand for applications of high data rates in wireless networks. These networks are becoming more complex and challenging to manage due to the heterogeneity of users and applications specifically in sophisticated networks such as the upcoming 5G. Energy efficiency in the future 5G network is one of the essential problems that needs consideration due to the interference and heterogeneity of the network topology. Smart resource allocation, environmental adaptivity, user-awareness and energy efficiency are essential features in the future networks. It is important to support these features at different networks topologies with various applications. Cognitive radio has been found to be the paradigm that is able to satisfy the above requirements. It is a very interdisciplinary topic that incorporates flexible system architectures, machine learning, context awareness and cooperative networking. Mitola’s vision about cognitive radio intended to build context-sensitive smart radios that are able to adapt to the wireless environment conditions while maintaining quality of service support for different applications. Artificial intelligence techniques including heuristics algorithms and machine learning are the shining tools that are employed to serve the new vision of cognitive radio. In addition, these techniques show a potential to be utilized in an efficient resource allocation for the upcoming 5G networks’ structures such as heterogeneous multi-tier 5G networks and heterogeneous cloud radio access networks due to their capability to allocate resources according to real-time data analytics. In this thesis, we study cognitive radio from a system point of view focusing closely on architectures, artificial intelligence techniques that can enable intelligent radio resource allocation and efficient radio parameters reconfiguration. We propose a modular cognitive resource management architecture, which facilitates a development of flexible control for

  2. Energy Efficient Multiresource Allocation of Virtual Machine Based on PSO in Cloud Data Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An-ping Xiong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Presently, massive energy consumption in cloud data center tends to be an escalating threat to the environment. To reduce energy consumption in cloud data center, an energy efficient virtual machine allocation algorithm is proposed in this paper based on a proposed energy efficient multiresource allocation model and the particle swarm optimization (PSO method. In this algorithm, the fitness function of PSO is defined as the total Euclidean distance to determine the optimal point between resource utilization and energy consumption. This algorithm can avoid falling into local optima which is common in traditional heuristic algorithms. Compared to traditional heuristic algorithms MBFD and MBFH, our algorithm shows significantly energy savings in cloud data center and also makes the utilization of system resources reasonable at the same time.

  3. Energy Efficient Resource Allocation for Cognitive Radios: A Generalized Sensing Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Alabbasi, Abdulrahman

    2014-12-31

    In this paper, two resource allocation schemes for energy efficient cognitive radio systems are proposed. Our design considers resource allocation approaches that adopt spectrum sharing combined with soft-sensing information, adaptive sensing thresholds, and adaptive power to achieve an energy efficient system. An energy per good-bit metric is considered as an energy efficient objective function. A multi-carrier system, such as, orthogonal frequency division multiplexing, is considered in the framework. The proposed resource allocation schemes, using different approaches, are designated as sub-optimal and optimal. The sub-optimal approach is attained by optimizing over a channel inversion power policy. The optimal approach utilizes the calculus of variation theory to optimize a problem of instantaneous objective function subject to average and instantaneous constraints with respect to functional optimization variables. In addition to the analytical results, selected numerical results are provided to quantify the impact of soft-sensing information and the optimal adaptive sensing threshold on the system performance.

  4. Energy Efficient Resource Allocation for Cognitive Radios: A Generalized Sensing Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Alabbasi, AbdulRahman; Rezki, Zouheir; Shihada, Basem

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, two resource allocation schemes for energy efficient cognitive radio systems are proposed. Our design considers resource allocation approaches that adopt spectrum sharing combined with soft-sensing information, adaptive sensing thresholds, and adaptive power to achieve an energy efficient system. An energy per good-bit metric is considered as an energy efficient objective function. A multi-carrier system, such as, orthogonal frequency division multiplexing, is considered in the framework. The proposed resource allocation schemes, using different approaches, are designated as sub-optimal and optimal. The sub-optimal approach is attained by optimizing over a channel inversion power policy. The optimal approach utilizes the calculus of variation theory to optimize a problem of instantaneous objective function subject to average and instantaneous constraints with respect to functional optimization variables. In addition to the analytical results, selected numerical results are provided to quantify the impact of soft-sensing information and the optimal adaptive sensing threshold on the system performance.

  5. Avoided cost estimation and post-reform funding allocation for California's energy efficiency programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baskette, C.; Horii, B.; Price, S.; Kollman, E.

    2006-01-01

    This paper summarizes the first comprehensive estimation of California's electricity avoided costs since the state reformed its electricity market. It describes avoided cost estimates that vary by time and location, thus facilitating targeted design, funding, and marketing of demand-side management (DSM) and energy efficiency (EE) programs that could not have occurred under the previous methodology of system average cost estimation. The approach, data, and results reflect two important market structure changes: (a) wholesale spot and forward markets now supply electricity commodities to load serving entities; and (b) the evolution of an emissions market that internalizes and prices some of the externalities of electricity generation. The paper also introduces the multiplier effect of a price reduction due to DSM/EE implementation on electricity bills of all consumers. It affirms that area- and time-specific avoided cost estimates can improve the allocation of the state's public funding for DSM/EE programs, a finding that could benefit other parts of North America (e.g. Ontario and New York), which have undergone electricity deregulation. (author)

  6. Fairness-Aware Energy-Efficient Resource Allocation for AF Co-Operative OFDMA Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Bedeer, Ebrahim; Alorainy, Abdulaziz; Hossain, Md. Jahangir; Amin, Osama; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we adopt an energy-efficiency (EE) metric, named worst-EE, that is suitable for EE fairness optimization in the uplink transmission of amplify-and-forward (AF) cooperative orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) networks. More specifically, we assign subcarriers and allocate powers for mobile and relay stations in order to maximize the worst-EE, i.e., to maximize the EE of the mobile station (MS) with the lowest EE value, subject to MSs transmit power, relay station (RS) transmit power, and MSs quality-of-service (QoS) constraints. The formulated primal max-min optimization problem is nonconvex fractional mixed integer nonlinear program, i.e., NP-hard to solve. We provide a novel optimization framework that studies the structure of the primal problem and prove that the dual min-max optimization problem attains the same optimal solution of the primal problem. Additionally, we propose a modified Dinkelbach algorithm, named dual Dinkelbach, to achieve the optimal solution of the dual problem in a polynomial time complexity. We further exploit the structure of the obtained optimal solution and develop a low complexity suboptimal heuristic. Numerical results show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm to improve the network performance in terms of fairness between MSs, worst-EE, and average network transmission rate when compared to traditional schemes that maximize the EE of the whole network. Presented results also show that the suboptimal heuristic balances the achieved performance and the computational complexity.

  7. Fairness-Aware Energy-Efficient Resource Allocation for AF Co-Operative OFDMA Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Bedeer, Ebrahim

    2015-09-23

    In this paper, we adopt an energy-efficiency (EE) metric, named worst-EE, that is suitable for EE fairness optimization in the uplink transmission of amplify-and-forward (AF) cooperative orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) networks. More specifically, we assign subcarriers and allocate powers for mobile and relay stations in order to maximize the worst-EE, i.e., to maximize the EE of the mobile station (MS) with the lowest EE value, subject to MSs transmit power, relay station (RS) transmit power, and MSs quality-of-service (QoS) constraints. The formulated primal max-min optimization problem is nonconvex fractional mixed integer nonlinear program, i.e., NP-hard to solve. We provide a novel optimization framework that studies the structure of the primal problem and prove that the dual min-max optimization problem attains the same optimal solution of the primal problem. Additionally, we propose a modified Dinkelbach algorithm, named dual Dinkelbach, to achieve the optimal solution of the dual problem in a polynomial time complexity. We further exploit the structure of the obtained optimal solution and develop a low complexity suboptimal heuristic. Numerical results show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm to improve the network performance in terms of fairness between MSs, worst-EE, and average network transmission rate when compared to traditional schemes that maximize the EE of the whole network. Presented results also show that the suboptimal heuristic balances the achieved performance and the computational complexity.

  8. Herbivory alters plant carbon assimilation, patterns of biomass allocation and nitrogen use efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peschiutta, María Laura; Scholz, Fabián Gustavo; Goldstein, Guillermo; Bucci, Sandra Janet

    2018-01-01

    Herbivory can trigger physiological processes resulting in leaf and whole plant functional changes. The effects of chronic infestation by an insect on leaf traits related to carbon and nitrogen economy in three Prunus avium cultivars were assessed. Leaves from non-infested trees (control) and damaged leaves from infested trees were selected. The insect larvae produce skeletonization of the leaves leaving relatively intact the vein network of the eaten leaves and the abaxial epidermal tissue. At the leaf level, nitrogen content per mass (Nmass) and per area (Narea), net photosynthesis per mass (Amass) and per area (Aarea), photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency (PNUE), leaf mass per area (LMA) and total leaf phenols content were measured in the three cultivars. All cultivars responded to herbivory in a similar fashion. The Nmass, Amass, and PNUE decreased, while LMA and total content of phenols increased in partially damaged leaves. Increases in herbivore pressure resulted in lower leaf size and total leaf area per plant across cultivars. Despite this, stem cumulative growth tended to increase in infected plants suggesting a change in the patterns of biomass allocation and in resources sequestration elicited by herbivory. A larger N investment in defenses instead of photosynthetic structures may explain the lower PNUE and Amass observed in damaged leaves. Some physiological changes due to herbivory partially compensate for the cost of leaf removal buffering the carbon economy at the whole plant level.

  9. Fairness-Aware and Energy Efficiency Resource Allocation in Multiuser OFDM Relaying System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangjun Liang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A fairness-aware resource allocation scheme in a cooperative orthogonal frequency division multiple (OFDM network is proposed based on jointly optimizing the subcarrier pairing, power allocation, and channel-user assignment. Compared with traditional OFDM relaying networks, the source is permitted to retransfer the same data transmitted by it in the first time slot, further improving the system capacity performance. The problem which maximizes the energy efficiency (EE of the system with total power constraint and minimal spectral efficiency constraint is formulated into a mixed-integer nonlinear programming (MINLP problem which has an intractable complexity in general. The optimization model is simplified into a typical fractional programming problem which is testified to be quasiconcave. Thus we can adopt Dinkelbach method to deal with MINLP problem proposed to achieve the optimal solution. The simulation results show that the joint resource allocation method proposed can achieve an optimal EE performance under the minimum system service rate requirement with a good global convergence.

  10. Energy-efficient two-hop LTE resource allocation in high speed trains with moving relays

    KAUST Repository

    Alsharoa, Ahmad M.

    2014-05-01

    High-speed railway system equipped with moving relay stations placed on the middle of the ceiling of each train wagon is investigated. The users inside the train are served in two hops via the 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) technology. The objective of this work is to maximize the number of served users by respecting a specific quality-of-service constraint while minimizing the total power consumption of the eNodeB and the moving relays. We propose an efficient algorithm based on the Hungarian method to find the optimal resource allocation over the LTE resource blocks in order to serve the maximum number of users with the minimum power consumption. Moreover, we derive a closed-form expression for the power allocation problem. Our simulation results illustrate the performance of the proposed scheme and compare it with various previously developed algorithms as well as with the direct transmission scenario. © 2014 IFIP.

  11. Medium Term Analysis of Technical and Allocative Efficiency in Romanian Farms Using FADN Dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola GALLUZZO

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Farm Accountancy Data Network is an annual survey proposed by the European Union in order to estimate the impact of the Common Agricultural Policy on farmers. Lots of scholars have investigated the technical, economical and allocative efficiency using a non parametric approach such as the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA in Romanian farms throughout the Farm Accountancy Data Network dataset pointing out poor levels of technical efficiency, which were lower than the average European value. The purpose of this study was to assess using DEA approach technical, economic and allocative efficiency in Romanian farms part of the FADN dataset over six year time from 2007 to 2012. Findings pointed out an increase of technical efficiency compared to previous studies, as a consequence of a significant turn over of a younger high skill and qualified farmers generation. Poor land capital, in terms of utilized agricultural areas, connected to an increase of new technologies, was the downside of Romanian farms and this implied that the National Rural Development Plan should  have taken into account financial subsides in order to implement agricultural areas scattered in Romanian rural space.

  12. Designing for multiple global user populations: increasing resource allocation efficiency for greater sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadadur, G; Parkinson, M B

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a method to identify opportunities for increasing the efficiency of raw material allocation decisions for products that are simultaneously targeted at multiple user populations around the world. The values of 24 body measures at certain key percentiles were used to estimate the best-fitting anthropometric distributions for female and male adults in nine national populations, which were selected to represent the diverse target markets multinational companies must design for. These distributions were then used to synthesize body measure data for combined populations with a 1:1 female:male ratio. An anthropometric range metric (ARM) was proposed for assessing the variation of these body measures across the populations. At any percentile, ARM values were calculated as the percentage difference between the highest and lowest anthropometric values across the considered user populations. Based on their magnitudes, plots of ARM values computed between the 1st and 99 th percentiles for each body measure were grouped into low, medium, and high categories. This classification of body measures was proposed as a means of selecting the most suitable strategies for designing raw material-efficient products. The findings in this study and the contributions of subsequent work along these lines are expected to help achieve greater efficiencies in resource allocation in global product development.

  13. Efficient, fair, and strategy-proof (re)allocation under network constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szwagrzak, Karol

    2017-01-01

    A resource available in different types is to be distributed or redistributed among agents differing in their ability to consume these types. Preferences over consumption levels are not observable but known to be single-peaked. We identify the only strategy-proof and efficient allocation rule...... to a new class of group strategy-proof rules. Our analysis provides a unified treatment of the applications in Bochet et al. (Theor Econ 7:395–423, 2012, J Econ Theory 148:535–562, 2013)....

  14. Investment incentives, corporate taxation, and efficiency in the allocation of capital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boadway, R

    1978-09-01

    The author shows that, within the strict confines of the neoclassical theory of investment, investment allowances and tax credits on gross investment over and above regular depreciation are efficient investment incentives in the sense that they do not distort the allocation of capital over investments of differing durabilities. Initial allowances, tax credits on net investments, tax credits on gross investment which are set against depreciation, and interest subsidies all distort investment decisions in favor of longer-lived investments. Accelerated depreciation schemes are generally distortionary as well, with the nature of the distortion depending upon how the tax depreciation rate is defined.

  15. Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation with Effective Utilization of Polling Interval over WDM/TDM PON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Cuiping; Gan, Chaoqin; Gao, Ziyue

    2014-12-01

    WDM/TDM (wavelength-division multiplexing/time-division multiplexing) PON (passive optical network) appears to be an attractive solution for the next generation optical access networks. Dynamic bandwidth allocation (DBA) plays a crucial role in efficiently and fairly allocating the bandwidth among all users in WDM/TDM PON. In this paper, two dynamic bandwidth allocation schemes (DBA1 and DBA2) are proposed to eliminate the idle time of polling cycles (i.e. polling interval), improve bandwidth utilization and make full use of bandwidth resources. The two DBA schemes adjust the time slot of sending request information and make fair scheduling among users to achieve the effective utilization of polling interval in WDM/TDM PON. The simulation and theoretical analyses verify that the proposed schemes outperform the conventional DBA scheme. We also make comparisons between the two schemes in terms of bandwidth utilization and average packet delay to further demonstrate the effectiveness of the scheme of DBA2.

  16. Efficient Allocation of Resources for Defense of Spatially Distributed Networks Using Agent-Based Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroshl, William M; Sarkani, Shahram; Mazzuchi, Thomas A

    2015-09-01

    This article presents ongoing research that focuses on efficient allocation of defense resources to minimize the damage inflicted on a spatially distributed physical network such as a pipeline, water system, or power distribution system from an attack by an active adversary, recognizing the fundamental difference between preparing for natural disasters such as hurricanes, earthquakes, or even accidental systems failures and the problem of allocating resources to defend against an opponent who is aware of, and anticipating, the defender's efforts to mitigate the threat. Our approach is to utilize a combination of integer programming and agent-based modeling to allocate the defensive resources. We conceptualize the problem as a Stackelberg "leader follower" game where the defender first places his assets to defend key areas of the network, and the attacker then seeks to inflict the maximum damage possible within the constraints of resources and network structure. The criticality of arcs in the network is estimated by a deterministic network interdiction formulation, which then informs an evolutionary agent-based simulation. The evolutionary agent-based simulation is used to determine the allocation of resources for attackers and defenders that results in evolutionary stable strategies, where actions by either side alone cannot increase its share of victories. We demonstrate these techniques on an example network, comparing the evolutionary agent-based results to a more traditional, probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) approach. Our results show that the agent-based approach results in a greater percentage of defender victories than does the PRA-based approach. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  17. Efficient Resource Allocation and Sectorization for Fractional Frequency Reuse (FFR in LTE Femtocell Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Kawser

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Fractional Frequency Reuse (FFR is a resource allocation technique that can effectively mitigate inter-cell interference (ICI in LTE based HetNets and it is a promising solution. Various FFR schemes have been suggested to address the challenge of interference in femtocell systems. In this paper, we study the scopes of interference mitigation and capacity improvement. We propose a resource allocation scheme that gradually varies frequency resource share with distance from the eNodeB for both macrocells and femtocells in order to attain better utilization of the resources. This is performed effectively using three layers in the cell. The proposal also employs high number sectors in a cell, low interference and good frequency reuse. Monte-Carlo simulations are performed, which show that the proposed scheme achieves significantly better throughput compared to the existing FFR schemes.

  18. Effective Loss Minimization and Allocation of Unbalanced Distribution Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manvir Kaur

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available An efficient distribution network must be able to supply power with good voltage profile. The main objective of the proposed work is to allocate losses of the unbalanced distribution network by the firefly algorithm in regulated and deregulated environments before and after loss minimization. Reconfiguration is one of the methods for loss reduction of unbalanced distribution network. Further, optimal placement of distributed generation and capacitor in the reconfigured unbalanced distribution network can further reduce the loss. The results of reconfigured unbalanced distribution network in regulated environment have already been reported. In this paper reconfiguration of an unbalanced distribution network in a deregulated environment is also carried out using an established Fuzzy Firefly algorithm. Loss sensitivity factor of unbalanced distribution networks is used to get the appropriate location of distributed generation and capacitor to be placed in the unbalanced distribution network. Their ratings have been found out by using bacteria foraging optimization algorithm (BFOA. The suggested loss allocation method using Firefly algorithm is implemented at first on 13 node unbalanced distribution network to check the performance of the proposed loss allocation method when compared to other available method. Finally the proposed method has been implemented on 25 node unbalanced distribution network. Both of the implementations are carried out under MATLAB environment.

  19. Computationally Efficient Power Allocation Algorithm in Multicarrier-Based Cognitive Radio Networks: OFDM and FBMC Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaat Musbah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive Radio (CR systems have been proposed to increase the spectrum utilization by opportunistically access the unused spectrum. Multicarrier communication systems are promising candidates for CR systems. Due to its high spectral efficiency, filter bank multicarrier (FBMC can be considered as an alternative to conventional orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM for transmission over the CR networks. This paper addresses the problem of resource allocation in multicarrier-based CR networks. The objective is to maximize the downlink capacity of the network under both total power and interference introduced to the primary users (PUs constraints. The optimal solution has high computational complexity which makes it unsuitable for practical applications and hence a low complexity suboptimal solution is proposed. The proposed algorithm utilizes the spectrum holes in PUs bands as well as active PU bands. The performance of the proposed algorithm is investigated for OFDM and FBMC based CR systems. Simulation results illustrate that the proposed resource allocation algorithm with low computational complexity achieves near optimal performance and proves the efficiency of using FBMC in CR context.

  20. An efficient simulated annealing algorithm for the redundancy allocation problem with a choice of redundancy strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambari, Amirhossain; Najafi, Amir Abbas; Rahmati, Seyed Habib A.; Karimi, Aida

    2013-01-01

    The redundancy allocation problem (RAP) is an important reliability optimization problem. This paper studies a specific RAP in which redundancy strategies are chosen. To do so, the choice of the redundancy strategies among active and cold standby is considered as decision variables. The goal is to select the redundancy strategy, component, and redundancy level for each subsystem such that the system reliability is maximized. Since RAP is a NP-hard problem, we propose an efficient simulated annealing algorithm (SA) to solve it. In addition, to evaluating the performance of the proposed algorithm, it is compared with well-known algorithms in the literature for different test problems. The results of the performance analysis show a relatively satisfactory efficiency of the proposed SA algorithm

  1. Efficient coding schemes with power allocation using space-time-frequency spreading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Haining; Luo Hanwen; Tian Jifeng; Song Wentao; Liu Xingzhao

    2006-01-01

    An efficient space-time-frequency (STF) coding strategy for multi-input multi-output orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM) systems is presented for high bit rate data transmission over frequency selective fading channels. The proposed scheme is a new approach to space-time-frequency coded OFDM (COFDM) that combines OFDM with space-time coding, linear precoding and adaptive power allocation to provide higher quality of transmission in terms of the bit error rate performance and power efficiency. In addition to exploiting the maximum diversity gain in frequency, time and space, the proposed scheme enjoys high coding advantages and low-complexity decoding. The significant performance improvement of our design is confirmed by corroborating numerical simulations.

  2. The effect of environmental information on investment allocation decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rikhardsson, Pall M.; Holm, Claus

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on the use of environmental information in investment decision making. The research approach employed is based on an experiment where three groups of final year finance students were asked to allocate investment funds between two companies based on financial accounts...... information categories affect their decision making. Hence, this has implications for how the potential value of environmental information is to be assessed. Finally, experimental studies as a methodology seem to be better suited to indicate actual effects of different types of information on decision making...... and information material from these companies in which environmental information was included in varying degrees. The overall conclusion is that the qualitative environmental information affects short term allocation decisions, hence indicating a risk reduction potential of environmental information comparable...

  3. Energy-efficient routing, modulation and spectrum allocation in elastic optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yanxia; Gu, Rentao; Ji, Yuefeng

    2017-07-01

    With tremendous growth in bandwidth demand, energy consumption problem in elastic optical networks (EONs) becomes a hot topic with wide concern. The sliceable bandwidth-variable transponder in EON, which can transmit/receive multiple optical flows, was recently proposed to improve a transponder's flexibility and save energy. In this paper, energy-efficient routing, modulation and spectrum allocation (EE-RMSA) in EONs with sliceable bandwidth-variable transponder is studied. To decrease the energy consumption, we develop a Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) model with corresponding EE-RMSA algorithm for EONs. The MILP model jointly considers the modulation format and optical grooming in the process of routing and spectrum allocation with the objective of minimizing the energy consumption. With the help of genetic operators, the EE-RMSA algorithm iteratively optimizes the feasible routing path, modulation format and spectrum resources solutions by explore the whole search space. In order to save energy, the optical-layer grooming strategy is designed to transmit the lightpath requests. Finally, simulation results verify that the proposed scheme is able to reduce the energy consumption of the network while maintaining the blocking probability (BP) performance compare with the existing First-Fit-KSP algorithm, Iterative Flipping algorithm and EAMGSP algorithm especially in large network topology. Our results also demonstrate that the proposed EE-RMSA algorithm achieves almost the same performance as MILP on an 8-node network.

  4. Energy-Efficient Power Allocation for Fixed-Gain Amplify-and-Forward Relay Networks with Partial Channel State Information

    KAUST Repository

    Zafar, Ammar

    2012-06-01

    In this report, energy-efficient transmission and power allocation for fixed-gain amplify-and-forward relay networks with partial channel state information (CSI) are studied. In the energy-efficiency problem, the total power consumed is minimized while keeping the signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) above a certain threshold. In the dual problem of power allocation, the end-to-end SNR is maximized under individual and global power constraints. Closed-form expressions for the optimal source and relay powers and the Lagrangian multiplier are obtained. Numerical results show that the optimal power allocation with partial CSI provides comparable performance as optimal power allocation with full CSI at low SNR.

  5. Energy-Efficient Power Allocation for Fixed-Gain Amplify-and-Forward Relay Networks with Partial Channel State Information

    KAUST Repository

    Zafar, Ammar

    2012-09-16

    In this letter, energy-efficient transmission and power allocation for fixed-gain amplify-and-forward relay networks with partial channel state information (CSI) are studied. In the energy-efficiency problem, the total power consumed is minimized while keeping the signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) above a certain threshold. In the dual problem of power allocation, the end-to-end SNR is maximized under individual and global power constraints. Closed-form expressions for the optimal source and relay powers and the Lagrangian multiplier are obtained. Numerical results show that the optimal power allocation with partial CSI provides comparable performance as optimal power allocation with full CSI at low SNR. © 2012 IEEE.

  6. Water balance analysis for efficient water allocation in agriculture. A case study: Balta Brailei, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitu, Zenaida; Villani, Giulia; Tomei, Fausto; Minciuna, Marian; Aldea, Adrian; Dumitrescu, Alexandru; Trifu, Cristina; Neagu, Dumitru

    2017-04-01

    Balta Brailei is one of the largest agriculture area in the Danube floodplain, located in SE of Romania. An impressive irrigation system, that covered about 53.500 ha and transferred water from the Danube River, was carried out in the period 1960-1980. Even if the water resources for agriculture in this area cover in most of the cases the volumes required by irrigation water users, the irrigation infrastructure issues as the position of the pumping stations against the river levels hinder the use of the water during low flows periods. An efficient optimization of water allocation in agriculture could avoid periods with water deficit in the irrigation systems. Hydrological processes are essentials in describing the mass and energy exchanges in the atmosphere-plant-soil system. Furthermore, the hydrological regime in this area is very dynamic with many feedback mechanisms between the various parts of the surface and subsurface water regimes. Agricultural crops depend on capillary rise from the shallow groundwater table and irrigation. For an effective optimization of irrigation water in Balta Brailei, we propose to analyse the water balance taking into consideration the water movement into the root zone and the influence of the Danube river, irrigation channel system and the shallow aquifer by combining the soil water balance model CRITERIA and GMS hydrogeological model. CRITERIA model is used for simulating water movement into the soil, while GMS model is used for simulating the shallow groundwater level variation. The understanding of the complex feedbacks between atmosphere, crops and the various parts of the surface and subsurface water regimes in the Balta Brailei will bring more insights for predicting crop water need and water resources for irrigation and it will represent the basis for implementing Moses Platform in this specific area. Moses Platform is a GIS based system devoted to water procurement and management agencies to facilitate planning of

  7. A resource allocation model to support efficient air quality management in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U Govender

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Research into management interventions that create the required enabling environment for growth and development in South Africa are both timely and appropriate. In the research reported in this paper, the authors investigated the level of efficiency of the Air Quality Units within the three spheres of government viz. National, Provincial, and Local Departments of Environmental Management in South Africa, with the view to develop a resource allocation model. The inputs to the model were calculated from the actual man-hours spent on twelve selected activities relating to project management, knowledge management and change management. The outputs assessed were aligned to the requirements of the mandates of these Departments. Several models were explored using multiple regressions and stepwise techniques. The model that best explained the efficiency of the organisations from the input data was selected. Logistic regression analysis was identified as the most appropriate tool. This model is used to predict the required resources per Air Quality Unit in the different spheres of government in an attempt at supporting and empowering the air quality regime to achieve improved output efficiency.

  8. Effect of optimum stratification on sampling with varying probabilities under proportional allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Ejaz Husain Rizvi

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The problem of optimum stratification on an auxiliary variable when the units from different strata are selected with probability proportional to the value of auxiliary variable (PPSWR was considered by Singh (1975 for univariate case. In this paper we have extended the same problem, for proportional allocation, when two variates are under study. A cum. 3 R3(x rule for obtaining approximately optimum strata boundaries has been provided. It has been shown theoretically as well as empirically that the use of stratification has inverse effect on the relative efficiency of PPSWR as compared to unstratified PPSWR method when proportional method of allocation is envisaged. Further comparison showed that with increase in number of strata the stratified simple random sampling is equally efficient as PPSWR.

  9. Effective Bandwidth Allocation for WiMAX Mesh Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Chin Jang

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to reduce the media access delay in a WiMAX mesh network. We observe that as the number of subscriber stations (SS in a neighborhood increases, the processes of transmission opportunity (TO competition and 3- way handshake are easy to fail. This may degrade transmission efficiency and increase packet transmission delay. Besides, the minislot allocation defined in the WiMAX mesh mode may cause many lower priority services reserve earlier minislots than that of higher priority services like rtPS. This may cause great negative impact on delay-sensitive traffic. In this paper, we design a QoS classifier to enqueue packets according to different QoS service classes, present a dynamic holdoff exponent mechanism to reduce control subframe delay, and propose a Neighborhood-Based Minislot Allocation (NBMA mechanism to reduce data subframe delay. Simulations show that the proposed methodology outperforms that of IEEE 802.16 and Baye's DynExp in delay, jitter and throughput.

  10. Asymmetric learning by doing and dynamically efficient policy: implications for domestic and international emissions permit trading of allocating permits usefully

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Read, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Learning by doing leads to cost reductions as suppliers move down the 'experience curve'. This results in a beneficial supply side inter-temporal externality that, for dynamic efficiency, requires a higher incentive for abatement innovations than the penalty on emissions. This effect can be achieved by a dedicated emissions tax or by a proportionate abatement obligation or by allocating permits usefully. The latter arrangement is compatible with the effective cap on emissions that is secured by an emissions trading scheme. Each of the three possibilities results in a reduced loss of international competitivity in policy-committed regions, in less 'leakage, and in more technology transfer. Implications for trading in emissions permits and in project-related credits are discussed. (Author)

  11. Dynamic water allocation policies improve the global efficiency of storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niayifar, Amin; Perona, Paolo

    2017-06-01

    Water impoundment by dams strongly affects the river natural flow regime, its attributes and the related ecosystem biodiversity. Fostering the sustainability of water uses e.g., hydropower systems thus implies searching for innovative operational policies able to generate Dynamic Environmental Flows (DEF) that mimic natural flow variability. The objective of this study is to propose a Direct Policy Search (DPS) framework based on defining dynamic flow release rules to improve the global efficiency of storage systems. The water allocation policies proposed for dammed systems are an extension of previously developed flow redistribution rules for small hydropower plants by Razurel et al. (2016).The mathematical form of the Fermi-Dirac statistical distribution applied to lake equations for the stored water in the dam is used to formulate non-proportional redistribution rules that partition the flow for energy production and environmental use. While energy production is computed from technical data, riverine ecological benefits associated with DEF are computed by integrating the Weighted Usable Area (WUA) for fishes with Richter's hydrological indicators. Then, multiobjective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs) are applied to build ecological versus economic efficiency plot and locate its (Pareto) frontier. This study benchmarks two MOEAs (NSGA II and Borg MOEA) and compares their efficiency in terms of the quality of Pareto's frontier and computational cost. A detailed analysis of dam characteristics is performed to examine their impact on the global system efficiency and choice of the best redistribution rule. Finally, it is found that non-proportional flow releases can statistically improve the global efficiency, specifically the ecological one, of the hydropower system when compared to constant minimal flows.

  12. Effects of space allocations and energy levels on growth performance and nutrient digestibility in growing and finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, X J; Yan, L; Kim, Y M; Kim, I H

    2018-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate effects of different space allocations and different dietary metabolizable energy (ME) levels on growth performance and nutrient digestibility in growing and finishing pigs. In experiment 1, a total of 84 growing pigs [(Yorkshire × Landrace) × Duroc] with an initial body weight (BW) of 27.10 ± 1.60 kg were used in a 5-week trial. Pigs were blocked based on initial BW into a 2 × 2 factorial design with the following factors: (i) 0.60 or 0.80 m 2 /pig space allocations; and (ii) 3,400 or 3,550 kcal/kg ME of diets. In experiment 2, a total of 84 finishing pigs with an initial BW of 67.43 ± 1.97 kg were used in a 10-week trial. Pigs were allotted based on initial BW into a 2 × 2 factorial design with the following factors: (i) 0.81 or 1.08 m 2 /pig space allocations; and (ii) 3,300 or 3,450 kcal/kg ME of diet. In experiment 1, high ME diet improved gain-to-feed ratio (G:F) in pigs with low space allocation but not in pigs in high space allocation (p space allocation but decreased ATTD of nitrogen in high space allocation (p space allocation but not in pigs with high space allocation (p space allocation but can improve feed efficiency in growing pigs and daily gain and feed efficiency early-finishing pigs. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF BUDGET ALLOCATION IN PUBLIC PROCUREMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Yu. Fedorova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the problem of budget allocation in the state order inRussia. Assesses the effectiveness of the financial mechanism of the public procurement business entities, purchasing activities are regulated by Federal Law №44-FZ and №223-FZ. The dynamics of financing the procurement process and reveal its features by using the most common methods of procurement through competitive bidding and without bidding. Identifies the causes of inefficient spending budget as a result of the non-competitive procurement methods by certain categories of business entities. 

  14. Sustainability in health care by allocating resources effectively (SHARE) 4: exploring opportunities and methods for consumer engagement in resource allocation in a local healthcare setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Claire; Ko, Henry; Waller, Cara; Sloss, Pamela; Williams, Pamela

    2017-05-05

    This is the fourth in a series of papers reporting a program of Sustainability in Health care by Allocating Resources Effectively (SHARE) in a local healthcare setting. Healthcare decision-makers have sought to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of services through removal or restriction of practices that are unsafe or of little benefit, often referred to as 'disinvestment'. A systematic, integrated, evidence-based program for disinvestment was being established within a large Australian health service network. Consumer engagement was acknowledged as integral to this process. This paper reports the process of developing a model to integrate consumer views and preferences into an organisation-wide approach to resource allocation. A literature search was conducted and interviews and workshops were undertaken with health service consumers and staff. Findings were drafted into a model for consumer engagement in resource allocation which was workshopped and refined. Although consumer engagement is increasingly becoming a requirement of publicly-funded health services and documented in standards and policies, participation in organisational decision-making is not widespread. Several consistent messages for consumer engagement in this context emerged from the literature and consumer responses. Opportunities, settings and activities for consumer engagement through communication, consultation and participation were identified within the resource allocation process. Sources of information regarding consumer values and perspectives in publications and locally-collected data, and methods to use them in health service decision-making, were identified. A model bringing these elements together was developed. The proposed model presents potential opportunities and activities for consumer engagement in the context of resource allocation.

  15. Energy-efficient power allocation of two-hop cooperative systems with imperfect channel estimation

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Osama

    2015-06-08

    Recently, much attention has been paid to the green design of wireless communication systems using energy efficiency (EE) metrics that should capture all energy consumption sources to deliver the required data. In this paper, we formulate an accurate EE metric for cooperative two-hop systems that use the amplify-and-forward relaying scheme. Different from the existing research that assumes the availability of perfect channel state information (CSI) at the communication cooperative nodes, we assume a practical scenario, where training pilots are used to estimate the channels. The estimated CSI can be used to adapt the available resources of the proposed system in order to maximize the EE. Two estimation strategies are assumed namely disintegrated channel estimation, which assumes the availability of channel estimator at the relay, and cascaded channel estimation, where the relay is not equipped with channel estimator and only forwards the received pilot(s) in order to let the destination estimate the cooperative link. The channel estimation cost is reflected on the EE metric by including the estimation error in the signal-to-noise term and considering the energy consumption during the estimation phase. Based on the formulated EE metric, we propose an energy-aware power allocation algorithm to maximize the EE of the cooperative system with channel estimation. Furthermore, we study the impact of the estimation parameters on the optimized EE performance via simulation examples.

  16. Cataloging Efficiency and Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCain, Cheryl; Shorten, Jay

    2002-01-01

    Reports on a survey of academic libraries that was conducted to supplement findings of cost studies by providing measures of efficiency and effectiveness for cataloging departments based on reported productivity, number of staff, task distribution, and quality measures including backlogs, authority control, and database maintenance. Identifies…

  17. Enhanced machine learning scheme for energy efficient resource allocation in 5G heterogeneous cloud radio access networks

    KAUST Repository

    Alqerm, Ismail

    2018-02-15

    Heterogeneous cloud radio access networks (H-CRAN) is a new trend of 5G that aims to leverage the heterogeneous and cloud radio access networks advantages. Low power remote radio heads (RRHs) are exploited to provide high data rates for users with high quality of service requirements (QoS), while high power macro base stations (BSs) are deployed for coverage maintenance and low QoS users support. However, the inter-tier interference between the macro BS and RRHs and energy efficiency are critical challenges that accompany resource allocation in H-CRAN. Therefore, we propose a centralized resource allocation scheme using online learning, which guarantees interference mitigation and maximizes energy efficiency while maintaining QoS requirements for all users. To foster the performance of such scheme with a model-free learning, we consider users\\' priority in resource blocks (RBs) allocation and compact state representation based learning methodology to enhance the learning process. Simulation results confirm that the proposed resource allocation solution can mitigate interference, increase energy and spectral efficiencies significantly, and maintain users\\' QoS requirements.

  18. Energy Efficient Power Allocation in Multi-tier 5G Networks Using Enhanced Online Learning

    KAUST Repository

    Alqerm, Ismail; Shihada, Basem

    2017-01-01

    of the 5G systems, where each transmitter surmises other transmitters power allocation strategies without information exchange. The proposed learning model exploits a brief state representation to account for the problem of dimensionality in online learning

  19. Allocating time to future tasks: the effect of task segmentation on planning fallacy bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, Darryl K; Burt, Christopher D B

    2008-06-01

    The scheduling component of the time management process was used as a "paradigm" to investigate the allocation of time to future tasks. In three experiments, we compared task time allocation for a single task with the summed time allocations given for each subtask that made up the single task. In all three, we found that allocated time for a single task was significantly smaller than the summed time allocated to the individual subtasks. We refer to this as the segmentation effect. In Experiment 3, we asked participants to give estimates by placing a mark on a time line, and found that giving time allocations in the form of rounded close approximations probably does not account for the segmentation effect. We discuss the results in relation to the basic processes used to allocate time to future tasks and the means by which planning fallacy bias might be reduced.

  20. Helper effects on breeder allocations to direct care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnick, Geoff

    2012-01-01

    Mothers receive childcare and productive assistance from allomaternal helpers in many societies. Although much effort has been aimed toward showing helper effects on maternal reproductive success, less has been directed toward highlighting the full range of potential effects on breeder behavior. I present a model of optimal maternal care with helpers, and tests of derived hypotheses with data collected among the Karo Batak-a group of Indonesian agriculturalists. To test the model's predictions I compared the effect of women receiving help from patrilateral versus matrilateral kin because those kin may provide help with different maternal responsibilities. The model predicts a decrease in maternal allocation to care that is substitutable with the helper contribution and the helper assists with that type of care; it predicts an increase in care that is nonsubstitutable with the helper contribution or substitutable care when the helper assists with other responsibilities. With the exception of one other, most models have failed to account for an increase. Analyses of time spent carrying children supported the model. With matrilateral helpers, women increased carrying; with patrilateral helpers, they decreased it. Time spent farmworking showed the opposite pattern, suggesting that matrilateral helpers effectively decrease costs, nudging optimal maternal care upward. Patterns of breastfeeding provided little support for the model. The results do, however, suggest potential proximate mechanisms by which helpers influence maternal reproductive success in cooperative breeding societies. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Light energy partitioning, photosynthetic efficiency and biomass allocation in invasive Prunus serotina and native Quercus petraea in relation to light environment, competition and allelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robakowski, Piotr; Bielinis, Ernest; Sendall, Kerrie

    2018-05-01

    This study addressed whether competition under different light environments was reflected by changes in leaf absorbed light energy partitioning, photosynthetic efficiency, relative growth rate and biomass allocation in invasive and native competitors. Additionally, a potential allelopathic effect of mulching with invasive Prunus serotina leaves on native Quercus petraea growth and photosynthesis was tested. The effect of light environment on leaf absorbed light energy partitioning and photosynthetic characteristics was more pronounced than the effects of interspecific competition and allelopathy. The quantum yield of PSII of invasive P. serotina increased in the presence of a competitor, indicating a higher plasticity in energy partitioning for the invasive over the native Q. petraea, giving it a competitive advantage. The most striking difference between the two study species was the higher crown-level net CO 2 assimilation rates (A crown ) of P. serotina compared with Q. petraea. At the juvenile life stage, higher relative growth rate and higher biomass allocation to foliage allowed P. serotina to absorb and use light energy for photosynthesis more efficiently than Q. petraea. Species-specific strategies of growth, biomass allocation, light energy partitioning and photosynthetic efficiency varied with the light environment and gave an advantage to the invader over its native competitor in competition for light. However, higher biomass allocation to roots in Q. petraea allows for greater belowground competition for water and nutrients as compared to P. serotina. This niche differentiation may compensate for the lower aboveground competitiveness of the native species and explain its ability to co-occur with the invasive competitor in natural forest settings.

  2. Efficient power allocation for fixed-gain amplify-and-forward relaying in rayleigh fading

    KAUST Repository

    Zafar, Ammar

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we study power allocation strategies for a fixed-gain amplify-and-forward relay network employing multiple relays. We consider two optimization problems for the relay network: 1) optimal power allocation to maximize the end-to-end signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and 2) minimizing the total consumed power while maintaining the end-to-end SNR over a threshold value. We assume that the relays have knowledge of only the channel statistics of all the links. We show that the SNR maximization problem is concave and the power minimization problem is convex. Hence, we solve the problems through convex programming. Numerical results show the benefit of allocating power optimally rather than uniformly. © 2013 IEEE.

  3. Fast SPT-Term Allocation and Efficient FPGA Implementation of FIR Filters for Software Defined Radio Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Bae, Choonghoon; Moteki, Takayuki; Kim, Minseok; Ichige, Koichi; Arai, Hiroyuki

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a fast SPT-term allocation scheme and an efficient FPGA implementation of FIR filters for Software Defined Radio (SDR) applications. Direct conversion method based on RF direct sampling is nowadays widely used in SDR applications. Fast and accurate digital filters are required for RF direct sampling and processing in direct conversion, however such filters often require large digital circuit area. Signed-Power-of-Two (SPT) terms will be suitable for fast processing and eff...

  4. Forecasting the Allocative Efficiency of Carbon Emission Allowance Financial Assets in China at the Provincial Level in 2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihong Zeng

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available As the result of climate change and deteriorating global environmental quality, nations are under pressure to reduce their emissions of greenhouse gases per unit of GDP. China has announced that it is aiming not only to reduce carbon emission per unit of GDP, but also to consume increased amounts of non-fossil energy. The carbon emission allowance is a new type of financial asset in each Chinese province and city that also affects individual firms. This paper attempts to examine the allocative efficiency of carbon emission reduction and non-fossil energy consumption by employing a zero sum gains data envelopment analysis (ZSG-DEA model, given the premise of fixed CO2 emissions as well as non-fossil energy consumption. In making its forecasts, the paper optimizes allocative efficiency in 2020 using 2010 economic and carbon emission data from 30 provinces and cities across China as its baseline. An efficient allocation scheme is achieved for all the provinces and cities using the ZSG-DEA model through five iterative calculations.

  5. Allocation of energy resources for power generation in India: Business as usual and energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallah, Subhash; Bansal, N.K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with MARKAL allocations for various energy sources, in India, for Business As Usual (BAU) scenario and for the case of exploitation of energy saving potential in various sectors of economy. In the BAU scenario, the electrical energy requirement will raise up to 5000 bKwh units per year or 752 GW of installed capacity with major consumers being in the industry, domestic and service sectors. This demand can be met by a mix of coal, hydro, nuclear and wind technologies. Other reneawbles i.e. solar and biomass will start contributing from the year 2040 onwards. By full exploitation of energy saving potential, the annual electrical energy demand gets reduced to 3061 bKwh (or 458 GW), a reduction of 38.9%.The green house gas emissions reduce correspondingly. In this scenario, market allocations for coal, gas and large hydro become stagnant after the year 2015.

  6. Sustainable and efficient allocation of limited blue and green water resources

    OpenAIRE

    Schyns, Joseph Franciscus

    2018-01-01

    Freshwater stems from precipitation over land, which differentiates into a blue water flow (groundwater and surface water) and a green water flow (evaporation). Both flows are partially allocated to serve the economy, resulting in blue and green water footprints (WF). There are maximum sustainable levels to the blue and green WF, since rainfall is limited and part of the flows need to be reserved for aquatic and terrestrial biodiversity. Water scarcity, the degree to which the actual approach...

  7. Maximizing the impact of malaria funding through allocative efficiency: using the right interventions in the right locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Nick; Hussain, S Azfar; Martin-Hughes, Rowan; Fowkes, Freya J I; Kerr, Cliff C; Pearson, Ruth; Kedziora, David J; Killedar, Madhura; Stuart, Robyn M; Wilson, David P

    2017-09-12

    The high burden of malaria and limited funding means there is a necessity to maximize the allocative efficiency of malaria control programmes. Quantitative tools are urgently needed to guide budget allocation decisions. A geospatial epidemic model was coupled with costing data and an optimization algorithm to estimate the optimal allocation of budgeted and projected funds across all malaria intervention approaches. Interventions included long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs), indoor residual spraying (IRS), intermittent presumptive treatment during pregnancy (IPTp), seasonal mass chemoprevention in children (SMC), larval source management (LSM), mass drug administration (MDA), and behavioural change communication (BCC). The model was applied to six geopolitical regions of Nigeria in isolation and also the nation as a whole to minimize incidence and malaria-attributable mortality. Allocative efficiency gains could avert approximately 84,000 deaths or 15.7 million cases of malaria in Nigeria over 5 years. With an additional US$300 million available, approximately 134,000 deaths or 37.3 million cases of malaria could be prevented over 5 years. Priority funding should go to LLINs, IPTp and BCC programmes, and SMC should be expanded in seasonal areas. To minimize mortality, treatment expansion is critical and prioritized over some LLIN funding, while to minimize incidence, LLIN funding remained a priority. For areas with lower rainfall, LSM is prioritized over IRS but MDA is not recommended unless all other programmes are established. Substantial reductions in malaria morbidity and mortality can be made by optimal targeting of investments to the right malaria interventions in the right areas.

  8. Effect of False Confidence on Asset Allocation Decisions of Households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swarn Chatterjee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates whether false confidence, as characterized by a high level of personal mastery and a low level of intelligence (IQ, results in frequent investor trading and subsequent investor wealth erosion across time. Using the National Longitudinal Survey (NLSY79, change in wealth and asset allocation across time is modeled as a function of various behavioral, socio-economic and demographic variables drawn from prior literature.  Findings of this research reveal that false confidence is indeed a predictor of trading activity in individual investment assets, and it also has a negative impact on individual wealth creation across time.

  9. A new reliability allocation weight for reducing the occurrence of severe failure effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyungmee O.; Yang, Yoonjung; Zuo, Ming J.

    2013-01-01

    A reliability allocation weight is used during the early design stage of a system to apportion the system reliability requirement to its individual subsystems. Since some failures have serious effects on public safety, cost and environmental issues especially in a mission critical system, the failure effect must be considered as one of the important factors in determining the allocation weight. Previously, the risk priority number or the criticality number was used to consider the failure effect in the allocation weight. In this paper, we identify the limitations of the previous approach and propose a new allocation weight based on the subsystem failure severity and its relative frequency. An example is given to illustrate that the proposed method is more effective than the previous method for reducing the occurrence of the unacceptable failure effects in a newly designed system

  10. Physician Incentive Management in University Hospitals: Inducing Efficient Behavior Through the Allocation of Research Facilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.M. Glorie (Kristiaan); J.M. van Oostrum (Jeroen); A.J. Dur (Robert); G. Kazemier (Geert); A.P.M. Wagelmans (Albert)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe imperative to improve healthcare efficiency is now stronger than ever. Rapidly increasing healthcare demand and the prospect of healthcare cost exploding require that measures be taken to make healthcare organizations become more efficiency-aware. Alignment of organizational

  11. Integrating Heuristic and Machine-Learning Methods for Efficient Virtual Machine Allocation in Data Centers

    OpenAIRE

    Pahlevan, Ali; Qu, Xiaoyu; Zapater Sancho, Marina; Atienza Alonso, David

    2017-01-01

    Modern cloud data centers (DCs) need to tackle efficiently the increasing demand for computing resources and address the energy efficiency challenge. Therefore, it is essential to develop resource provisioning policies that are aware of virtual machine (VM) characteristics, such as CPU utilization and data communication, and applicable in dynamic scenarios. Traditional approaches fall short in terms of flexibility and applicability for large-scale DC scenarios. In this paper we propose a heur...

  12. Demand driven decision support for efficient water resources allocation in irrigated agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuetze, Niels; Grießbach, Ulrike Ulrike; Röhm, Patric; Stange, Peter; Wagner, Michael; Seidel, Sabine; Werisch, Stefan; Barfus, Klemens

    2014-05-01

    Due to climate change, extreme weather conditions, such as longer dry spells in the summer months, may have an increasing impact on the agriculture in Saxony (Eastern Germany). For this reason, and, additionally, declining amounts of rainfall during the growing season the use of irrigation will be more important in future in Eastern Germany. To cope with this higher demand of water, a new decision support framework is developed which focuses on an integrated management of both irrigation water supply and demand. For modeling the regional water demand, local (and site-specific) water demand functions are used which are derived from the optimized agronomic response at farms scale. To account for climate variability the agronomic response is represented by stochastic crop water production functions (SCWPF) which provide the estimated yield subject to the minimum amount of irrigation water. These functions take into account the different soil types, crops and stochastically generated climate scenarios. By applying mathematical interpolation and optimization techniques, the SCWPF's are used to compute the water demand considering different constraints, for instance variable and fix costs or the producer price. This generic approach enables the computation for both multiple crops at farm scale as well as of the aggregated response to water pricing at a regional scale for full and deficit irrigation systems. Within the SAPHIR (SAxonian Platform for High Performance Irrigation) project a prototype of a decision support system is developed which helps to evaluate combined water supply and demand management policies for an effective and efficient utilization of water in order to meet future demands. The prototype is implemented as a web-based decision support system and it is based on a service-oriented geo-database architecture.

  13. Efficient Nash Equilibrium Resource Allocation Based on Game Theory Mechanism in Cloud Computing by Using Auction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nezarat, Amin; Dastghaibifard, G H

    2015-01-01

    One of the most complex issues in the cloud computing environment is the problem of resource allocation so that, on one hand, the cloud provider expects the most profitability and, on the other hand, users also expect to have the best resources at their disposal considering the budget constraints and time. In most previous work conducted, heuristic and evolutionary approaches have been used to solve this problem. Nevertheless, since the nature of this environment is based on economic methods, using such methods can decrease response time and reducing the complexity of the problem. In this paper, an auction-based method is proposed which determines the auction winner by applying game theory mechanism and holding a repetitive game with incomplete information in a non-cooperative environment. In this method, users calculate suitable price bid with their objective function during several round and repetitions and send it to the auctioneer; and the auctioneer chooses the winning player based the suggested utility function. In the proposed method, the end point of the game is the Nash equilibrium point where players are no longer inclined to alter their bid for that resource and the final bid also satisfies the auctioneer's utility function. To prove the response space convexity, the Lagrange method is used and the proposed model is simulated in the cloudsim and the results are compared with previous work. At the end, it is concluded that this method converges to a response in a shorter time, provides the lowest service level agreement violations and the most utility to the provider.

  14. Entrepreneurship, technological progress and resource allocation efficiency: a case of China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, B.; Li, Z.; Vinig, T.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to present an analysis of the role of entrepreneurship in promoting China's technological progress and efficiency improvement during the economic reform process of the past two decades. The paper contributes to our understanding of the drivers of economic

  15. Energy-efficient two-hop LTE resource allocation in high speed trains with moving relays

    KAUST Repository

    Alsharoa, Ahmad M.; Ghazzai, Hakim; Yaacoub, Elias E.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2014-01-01

    of this work is to maximize the number of served users by respecting a specific quality-of-service constraint while minimizing the total power consumption of the eNodeB and the moving relays. We propose an efficient algorithm based on the Hungarian method

  16. Opening the "Black Box" of efficiency measurement : Input allocation in multi-output settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dierynck, B.; Cherchye, L.J.H.; Sabbe, J.; Roodhooft, F.; de Rock, B.

    2013-01-01

    We develop a new data envelopment analysis (DEA)-based methodology for measuring the efficiency of decision-making units (DMUs) characterized by multiple inputs and multiple outputs. The distinguishing feature of our method is that it explicitly includes information about output-specific inputs and

  17. Sustainability in Health care by Allocating Resources Effectively (SHARE) 10: operationalising disinvestment in a conceptual framework for resource allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Claire; Green, Sally; Elshaug, Adam G

    2017-09-08

    This is the tenth in a series of papers reporting a program of Sustainability in Health care by Allocating Resources Effectively (SHARE) in a local healthcare setting. After more than a decade of research, there is little published evidence of active and successful disinvestment. The paucity of frameworks, methods and tools is reported to be a factor in the lack of success. However there are clear and consistent messages in the literature that can be used to inform development of a framework for operationalising disinvestment. This paper, along with the conceptual review of disinvestment in Paper 9 of this series, aims to integrate the findings of the SHARE Program with the existing disinvestment literature to address the lack of information regarding systematic organisation-wide approaches to disinvestment at the local health service level. A framework for disinvestment in a local healthcare setting is proposed. Definitions for essential terms and key concepts underpinning the framework have been made explicit to address the lack of consistent terminology. Given the negative connotations of the word 'disinvestment' and the problems inherent in considering disinvestment in isolation, the basis for the proposed framework is 'resource allocation' to address the spectrum of decision-making from investment to disinvestment. The focus is positive: optimising healthcare, improving health outcomes, using resources effectively. The framework is based on three components: a program for decision-making, projects to implement decisions and evaluate outcomes, and research to understand and improve the program and project activities. The program consists of principles for decision-making and settings that provide opportunities to introduce systematic prompts and triggers to initiate disinvestment. The projects follow the steps in the disinvestment process. Potential methods and tools are presented, however the framework does not stipulate project design or conduct; allowing

  18. The most efficient critical vaccination coverage and its equivalence with maximizing the herd effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.E. Duijzer (Evelot); W.L. van Jaarsveld (Willem); J. Wallinga (Jacco); R. Dekker (Rommert)

    2016-01-01

    textabstract‘Critical vaccination coverages’ are vaccination allocations that result in an effective reproduction ratio of one. In a population with interacting subpopulations there are many different critical vaccination coverages. To find the most efficient critical vaccination coverage, we define

  19. Transmission Power and Antenna Allocation for Energy-Efficient RF Energy Harvesting Networks with Massive MIMO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Min Hwang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The optimum transmission strategy for maximizing energy efficiency (EE of a multi-user massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO system in radio frequency energy harvesting networks is investigated. We focus on dynamic time-switching (TS antennas, to avoid the practical problems of power-splitting antennas, such as complex architectures, power loss and signal distortion when splitting the power of the received signal into power for information decoding (ID and energy harvesting (EH. However, since a single TS antenna cannot serve ID and EH simultaneously, the MIMO system is considered in this paper. We thus formulate an EE optimization problem and propose an iterative algorithm as a tractable solution, including an antenna selection strategy to optimally switch each TS antenna between ID mode and EH mode using nonlinear fractional programming and the Lagrange dual method. Further, the problem is solved under practical constraints of maximum transmission power and outage probabilities for a minimum amount of harvested power and rate capacity for each user. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm is more energy-efficient than that of baseline schemes, and demonstrates the trade-off between the required amount of harvested power and energy efficiency.

  20. Modeling the Effect of Bandwidth Allocation on Network Performance

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... The proposed model showed improved performance for CDMA networks, but further increase in the bandwidth did not benefit the network; (iii) A reliability measure such as the spectral efficiency is therefore useful to redeem the limitation in (ii). Keywords: Coverage Capacity, CDMA, Mobile Network, Network Throughput ...

  1. Dynamic Allocation and Efficient Distribution of Data Among Multiple Clouds Using Network Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sipos, Marton A.; Fitzek, Frank; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani

    2014-01-01

    Distributed storage has attracted large interest lately from both industry and researchers as a flexible, cost-efficient, high performance, and potentially secure solution for geographically distributed data centers, edge caching or sharing storage among users. This paper studies the benefits...... of random linear network coding to exploit multiple commercially available cloud storage providers simultaneously with the possibility to constantly adapt to changing cloud performance in order to optimize data retrieval times. The main contribution of this paper is a new data distribution mechanisms...... that cleverly stores and moves data among different clouds in order to optimize performance. Furthermore, we investigate the trade-offs among storage space, reliability and data retrieval speed for our proposed scheme. By means of real-world implementation and measurements using well-known and publicly...

  2. Studying the effect on system preference by varying coproduct allocation in creating life-cycle inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Mary Ann

    2007-10-15

    How one models the input and output data for a life-cycle assessment (LCA) can greatly affect the results. Although much attention has been paid to allocation methodology by researchers in the field, specific guidance is still lacking: Earlier research focused on the effects of applying various allocation schemes to industrial processes when creating life-cycle inventories. To determine the impact of different allocation approaches upon product choice, this study evaluated the gas- and water-phase emissions during the production, distribution, and use of three hypothetical fuel systems (data that represent conventional gasoline and gasoline with 8.7 and 85% ethanol were used as the basis for modeling). This paper presents an explanation of the allocation issue and the results from testing various allocation schemes (weight, volume, market value, energy, and demand-based) when viewed across the entire system. Impact indicators for global warming, ozone depletion, and human health noncancer (water impact) were lower for the ethanol-containing fuels, while impact indicators for acidification, ecotoxicity, eutrophication, human health criteria, and photochemical smog were lower for conventional gasoline (impacts for the water-related human health cancer category showed mixed results). The relative ranking of conventional gasoline in relation to the ethanol-containing fuels was consistent in all instances, suggesting that, in this case study, the choice of allocation methodology had no impact on indicating which fuel has lower environmental impacts.

  3. The allocative efficiency of the formal versus the informal financial sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lensink, B.W.

    An important reason for the disappointing effects of the financial reform programmes, as part of the structural adjustment programmes in sub-Saharan Africa, stems from the strong focus of the adjustment programmes on the formal banking sector. A financial reform programme which does not explicitly

  4. Maternal effects and maternal selection arising from variation in allocation of free amino acid to eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcombe, Devi; Hunt, John; Mitchell, Christopher; Moore, Allen J

    2015-01-01

    Maternal provisioning can have profound effects on offspring phenotypes, or maternal effects, especially early in life. One ubiquitous form of provisioning is in the makeup of egg. However, only a few studies examine the role of specific egg constituents in maternal effects, especially as they relate to maternal selection (a standardized selection gradient reflecting the covariance between maternal traits and offspring fitness). Here, we report on the evolutionary consequences of differences in maternal acquisition and allocation of amino acids to eggs. We manipulated acquisition by varying maternal diet (milkweed or sunflower) in the large milkweed bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus. Variation in allocation was detected by examining two source populations with different evolutionary histories and life-history response to sunflower as food. We measured amino acids composition in eggs in this 2 × 2 design and found significant effects of source population and maternal diet on egg and nymph mass and of source population, maternal diet, and their interaction on amino acid composition of eggs. We measured significant linear and quadratic maternal selection on offspring mass associated with variation in amino acid allocation. Visualizing the performance surface along the major axes of nonlinear selection and plotting the mean amino acid profile of eggs from each treatment onto the surface revealed a saddle-shaped fitness surface. While maternal selection appears to have influenced how females allocate amino acids, this maternal effect did not evolve equally in the two populations. Furthermore, none of the population means coincided with peak performance. Thus, we found that the composition of free amino acids in eggs was due to variation in both acquisition and allocation, which had significant fitness effects and created selection. However, although there can be an evolutionary response to novel food resources, females may be constrained from reaching phenotypic optima with

  5. The effects of anxiety upon attention allocation to affective stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Allison M; Nitz, Ashley B; Craske, Michelle G; Johnson, Chris

    2007-04-01

    Pictures of emotionally aversive, neutral, and pleasant scenes were presented for 500 ms, followed by a probe presented in the same location (valid trials) or an alternate location (invalid trials) as the picture. Response-times to the probes were recorded in low (N=20) and high (N=27) trait anxious participants. Results revealed an overall negative cue validity effect of shorter reaction times (RTs) on invalid than valid trials, suggestive of an inhibition of return effect. Moreover, high trait anxious females showed a reduced negative cue validity effect for aversive pictures in comparison with neutral and pleasant pictures, suggestive of selective interference by the unpleasant material. By contrast, low trait anxious females showed an enhanced negative cue validity effect for aversive pictures relative to neutral and pleasant pictures, suggestive of attentional avoidance of the aversive content. The emotional content of picture cues did not significantly affect RTs in males, regardless of anxiety status. The results suggest that biased attention processes for aversive stimuli may contribute to the greater female propensity for anxiety disorders.

  6. The Effect of Corruption on Government Expenditure Allocation in OECD Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Jajkowicz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically examines the effect of corruption on the allocation of government expenditures by function. Equations using pooled panel dataset for 21 OECD countries between 1998 and 2011 were tested, and the findings show that government expenditure on defense and general public services increase, while government expenditures on education, health, recreation, culture and religion decline with higher levels of corruption. This paper presents new results and new evidence on the link between corruption and allocation of government expenditures in OECD countries.

  7. A note on resource allocation scheduling with group technology and learning effects on a single machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Ji-Bo; Ji, Ping; He, Hongyu

    2017-09-01

    In this article, single-machine group scheduling with learning effects and convex resource allocation is studied. The goal is to find the optimal job schedule, the optimal group schedule, and resource allocations of jobs and groups. For the problem of minimizing the makespan subject to limited resource availability, it is proved that the problem can be solved in polynomial time under the condition that the setup times of groups are independent. For the general setup times of groups, a heuristic algorithm and a branch-and-bound algorithm are proposed, respectively. Computational experiments show that the performance of the heuristic algorithm is fairly accurate in obtaining near-optimal solutions.

  8. THE EFFECT OF OZONE ON BELOW-GROUND CARBON ALLOCATION IN WHEAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short term 14CO2 pulse and chase experiments were conducted in order to investigate the effect ozone on below-ground carbon allocation in spring wheat seedlings (Triticum aestivumL. ?ANZA'). Wheat seedlings were grown in a sand-hydroponic system and exposed to either high ozone ...

  9. Costs of task allocation with local feedback: Effects of colony size and extra workers in social insects and other multi-agent systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radeva, Tsvetomira; Dornhaus, Anna; Lynch, Nancy; Nagpal, Radhika; Su, Hsin-Hao

    2017-12-01

    Adaptive collective systems are common in biology and beyond. Typically, such systems require a task allocation algorithm: a mechanism or rule-set by which individuals select particular roles. Here we study the performance of such task allocation mechanisms measured in terms of the time for individuals to allocate to tasks. We ask: (1) Is task allocation fundamentally difficult, and thus costly? (2) Does the performance of task allocation mechanisms depend on the number of individuals? And (3) what other parameters may affect their efficiency? We use techniques from distributed computing theory to develop a model of a social insect colony, where workers have to be allocated to a set of tasks; however, our model is generalizable to other systems. We show, first, that the ability of workers to quickly assess demand for work in tasks they are not currently engaged in crucially affects whether task allocation is quickly achieved or not. This indicates that in social insect tasks such as thermoregulation, where temperature may provide a global and near instantaneous stimulus to measure the need for cooling, for example, it should be easy to match the number of workers to the need for work. In other tasks, such as nest repair, it may be impossible for workers not directly at the work site to know that this task needs more workers. We argue that this affects whether task allocation mechanisms are under strong selection. Second, we show that colony size does not affect task allocation performance under our assumptions. This implies that when effects of colony size are found, they are not inherent in the process of task allocation itself, but due to processes not modeled here, such as higher variation in task demand for smaller colonies, benefits of specialized workers, or constant overhead costs. Third, we show that the ratio of the number of available workers to the workload crucially affects performance. Thus, workers in excess of those needed to complete all tasks

  10. Costs of task allocation with local feedback: Effects of colony size and extra workers in social insects and other multi-agent systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsvetomira Radeva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive collective systems are common in biology and beyond. Typically, such systems require a task allocation algorithm: a mechanism or rule-set by which individuals select particular roles. Here we study the performance of such task allocation mechanisms measured in terms of the time for individuals to allocate to tasks. We ask: (1 Is task allocation fundamentally difficult, and thus costly? (2 Does the performance of task allocation mechanisms depend on the number of individuals? And (3 what other parameters may affect their efficiency? We use techniques from distributed computing theory to develop a model of a social insect colony, where workers have to be allocated to a set of tasks; however, our model is generalizable to other systems. We show, first, that the ability of workers to quickly assess demand for work in tasks they are not currently engaged in crucially affects whether task allocation is quickly achieved or not. This indicates that in social insect tasks such as thermoregulation, where temperature may provide a global and near instantaneous stimulus to measure the need for cooling, for example, it should be easy to match the number of workers to the need for work. In other tasks, such as nest repair, it may be impossible for workers not directly at the work site to know that this task needs more workers. We argue that this affects whether task allocation mechanisms are under strong selection. Second, we show that colony size does not affect task allocation performance under our assumptions. This implies that when effects of colony size are found, they are not inherent in the process of task allocation itself, but due to processes not modeled here, such as higher variation in task demand for smaller colonies, benefits of specialized workers, or constant overhead costs. Third, we show that the ratio of the number of available workers to the workload crucially affects performance. Thus, workers in excess of those needed to

  11. Budgeting for Efficiency and Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereus, Steven C.

    2012-01-01

    For most districts, budgeting has become a cost-cutting exercise designed to close the gap between revenues and expenses. During this process, decision makers inherently assume that existing operations are efficient and effective--an assumption that is rarely validated by facts. Cutting programs and services balances budgets but does not…

  12. Cognitive radio networks efficient resource allocation in cooperative sensing, cellular communications, high-speed vehicles, and smart grid

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Tao; Cao, Yang

    2015-01-01

    PrefaceAcknowledgmentsAbout the AuthorsIntroductionCognitive Radio-Based NetworksOpportunistic Spectrum Access NetworksCognitive Radio Networks with Cooperative SensingCognitive Radio Networks for Cellular CommunicationsCognitive Radio Networks for High-Speed VehiclesCognitive Radio Networks for a Smart GridContent and OrganizationTransmission Slot Allocation in an Opportunistic Spectrum Access NetworkSingle-User Single-Channel System ModelProbabilistic Slot Allocation SchemeOptimal Probabilistic Slot AllocationBaseline PerformanceExponential DistributionHyper-Erlang DistributionPerformance An

  13. Assessing the effects of adaptation measures on optimal water resources allocation under varied water availability conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dedi; Guo, Shenglian; Shao, Quanxi; Liu, Pan; Xiong, Lihua; Wang, Le; Hong, Xingjun; Xu, Yao; Wang, Zhaoli

    2018-01-01

    Human activities and climate change have altered the spatial and temporal distribution of water availability which is a principal prerequisite for allocation of different water resources. In order to quantify the impacts of climate change and human activities on water availability and optimal allocation of water resources, hydrological models and optimal water resource allocation models should be integrated. Given that increasing human water demand and varying water availability conditions necessitate adaptation measures, we propose a framework to assess the effects of these measures on optimal allocation of water resources. The proposed model and framework were applied to a case study of the middle and lower reaches of the Hanjiang River Basin in China. Two representative concentration pathway (RCP) scenarios (RCP2.6 and RCP4.5) were employed to project future climate, and the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrological model was used to simulate the variability of flows under historical (1956-2011) and future (2012-2099) conditions. The water availability determined by simulating flow with the VIC hydrological model was used to establish the optimal water resources allocation model. The allocation results were derived under an extremely dry year (with an annual average water flow frequency of 95%), a very dry year (with an annual average water flow frequency of 90%), a dry year (with an annual average water flow frequency of 75%), and a normal year (with an annual average water flow frequency of 50%) during historical and future periods. The results show that the total available water resources in the study area and the inflow of the Danjiangkou Reservoir will increase in the future. However, the uneven distribution of water availability will cause water shortage problems, especially in the boundary areas. The effects of adaptation measures, including water saving, and dynamic control of flood limiting water levels (FLWLs) for reservoir operation, were

  14. Energy use in cropping systems: A regional long-term exploratory analysis of energy allocation and efficiency in the Inland Pampa (Argentina)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferraro, Diego Omar

    2012-01-01

    As agricultural system comprises natural processes that are ruled by thermodynamics, the energy utilization is well suited for assessing the sustainability in the management of natural resources. The goals of this paper are 1) to assess the energy use efficiency of the main crops during the 1992–2005 period in Inland Pampa (Argentina); 2) to evaluate the database structure in terms of energy allocation; 3) to assess the changes in technical efficiency using frontier analysis and 4) to identify the best explanatory variables for energy efficiency variability. Results showed an upward trend in productivity per unit area in the crops analyzed (excluding sunflower). Summer soybean and sunflower showed higher energy efficiency values by the end of time series. The main shift in the energy use pattern was the reduction of the energy allocated to tillage. The overall performance of the wheat and soybean crops in the study area appears to be closer to the energy usage pattern shown by the top 5% energy use efficiency crop fields. The exploratory analysis using classification and regression trees (CART) revealed that the energy allocation to tillage; and the crop specie were the attributes that mainly explained the energy efficiency changes. -- Highlights: ► Energy use efficiency (EUE) of main Pampean crops (Argentina) in the 1992–2005 period was analyzed. ► An upward trend in productivity per unit area was observed with the exception of sunflower crop. ► Summer soybean and sunflower showed higher energetic efficiencies by the end of the time series analyzed. ► Average wheat and soybean EUE were closer to the energy usage pattern of the top 5% EUE crop fields. ► Tillage energy and crop specie were the attributes that most strongly explain the EUE changes.

  15. Effect of applied environmental stress on growth, photosynthesis, carbon allocation, and hydrocarbon production in Euphorbia lathyris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, S.E.; Calvin, M.

    1988-01-01

    Photosynthetic activity was reduced by salinity stress, but is was found to be less sensitive than growth. Salinity stress also caused changes in the concentrations of specific cations. Moderate water stress had little effect on growth, but large changes in hydrocarbon production were still observed. Carbon allocation experiments with radiolabeled carbon indicated that carbon for latex production was supplied by nearby leaves, with some translocation down the stem also occurring

  16. The Cost Effectiveness of the U.S. Export Enhancement Program Bonus Allocation Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Humei Wang; Richard J. Sexton

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Export Enhancement Program is evaluated from the perspective of the cost effectiveness of its bonus allocation mechanism. The current mechanism resembles a discriminatory-price, common-value auction. However, auction theory suggests that a discriminatory auction may not be optimal in this setting for several reasons. This article evaluates the current format relative to an alternative, uniform-price auction. Estimation results reveal evidence of strategic bidder behavior under the cu...

  17. Energy-efficient orthogonal frequency division multiplexing-based passive optical network based on adaptive sleep-mode control and dynamic bandwidth allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chongfu; Xiao, Nengwu; Chen, Chen; Yuan, Weicheng; Qiu, Kun

    2016-02-01

    We propose an energy-efficient orthogonal frequency division multiplexing-based passive optical network (OFDM-PON) using adaptive sleep-mode control and dynamic bandwidth allocation. In this scheme, a bidirectional-centralized algorithm named the receiver and transmitter accurate sleep control and dynamic bandwidth allocation (RTASC-DBA), which has an overall bandwidth scheduling policy, is employed to enhance the energy efficiency of the OFDM-PON. The RTASC-DBA algorithm is used in an optical line terminal (OLT) to control the sleep mode of an optical network unit (ONU) sleep and guarantee the quality of service of different services of the OFDM-PON. The obtained results show that, by using the proposed scheme, the average power consumption of the ONU is reduced by ˜40% when the normalized ONU load is less than 80%, compared with the average power consumption without using the proposed scheme.

  18. Comprehensive reliability allocation method for CNC lathes based on cubic transformed functions of failure mode and effects analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhou; Zhu, Yunpeng; Ren, Hongrui; Zhang, Yimin

    2015-03-01

    Reliability allocation of computerized numerical controlled(CNC) lathes is very important in industry. Traditional allocation methods only focus on high-failure rate components rather than moderate failure rate components, which is not applicable in some conditions. Aiming at solving the problem of CNC lathes reliability allocating, a comprehensive reliability allocation method based on cubic transformed functions of failure modes and effects analysis(FMEA) is presented. Firstly, conventional reliability allocation methods are introduced. Then the limitations of direct combination of comprehensive allocation method with the exponential transformed FMEA method are investigated. Subsequently, a cubic transformed function is established in order to overcome these limitations. Properties of the new transformed functions are discussed by considering the failure severity and the failure occurrence. Designers can choose appropriate transform amplitudes according to their requirements. Finally, a CNC lathe and a spindle system are used as an example to verify the new allocation method. Seven criteria are considered to compare the results of the new method with traditional methods. The allocation results indicate that the new method is more flexible than traditional methods. By employing the new cubic transformed function, the method covers a wider range of problems in CNC reliability allocation without losing the advantages of traditional methods.

  19. Effect of regionalization on the allocation of third-party peace operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Zakopalová

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper “Effect of regionalization on the allocation of third-party peace operations” aims to discuss and then empirically test on large-N data what is the effect of the joint activity of the United Nations, regional organizations and ad hoc coalitions of states on the allocation of peace operations in the world. It is argued that after the end of the Cold War, all the actors have become much more active in organizing peace operations in intrastate armed conflicts, but it remains rather unclear to what extent they actually share the burden of peace operations at the macro level and especially whether the United Nations focuses on the regions that are rather overlooked by the other actors. The analysis shows that there are remarkable differences among various regions as regards the involvement of international actors and in fact, regional organizations as well as the ad hoc coalitions of states tend to follow similar patterns in allocation of peace operations as the United Nations.

  20. Effects of age and sex on developmental neural networks of visual-spatial attention allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubia, Katya; Hyde, Zoe; Halari, Rozmin; Giampietro, Vincent; Smith, Anna

    2010-06-01

    Compared to our understanding of the functional maturation of brain networks underlying complex cognitive abilities, hardly anything is known of the neurofunctional development of simpler cognitive abilities such as visuo-spatial attention allocation. Furthermore, nothing is known on the effect of gender on the functional development of attention allocation. This study employed event related functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate effects of age, sex, and sex by age interactions on the brain activation of 63 males and females, between 13 to 38years, during a visual-spatial oddball task. Behaviourally, with increasing age, speed was traded for accuracy, indicative of a less impulsive performance style in older subjects. Increasing age was associated with progressively increased activation in typical areas of selective attention of lateral fronto-striatal and temporo-parietal brain regions. Sex difference analysis showed enhanced activation in right-hemispheric inferior frontal and superior temporal regions in females, and in left-hemispheric inferior temporo-parietal regions in males. Importantly, the age by sex interaction findings showed that these sex-dimorphic patterns of brain activation may be the result of underlying sex differences in the functional maturation of these brain regions, as females had sex-specific progressive age-correlations in the same right inferior fronto-striato-temporal areas, while male-specific age-correlations were in left medial temporal and parietal areas. The findings demonstrate progressive functional maturation of fronto-striato-parieto-temporal networks of the relatively simple function of attention allocation between early adolescence and mid-adulthood. They furthermore show that sex-dimorphic patterns of enhanced reliance on right inferior frontal, striatal and superior temporal regions in females and of left temporo-parietal regions in males during attention allocation may be the result of underlying sex

  1. A Mixed Integer Efficient Global Optimization Framework: Applied to the Simultaneous Aircraft Design, Airline Allocation and Revenue Management Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Satadru

    Traditional approaches to design and optimize a new system, often, use a system-centric objective and do not take into consideration how the operator will use this new system alongside of other existing systems. This "hand-off" between the design of the new system and how the new system operates alongside other systems might lead to a sub-optimal performance with respect to the operator-level objective. In other words, the system that is optimal for its system-level objective might not be best for the system-of-systems level objective of the operator. Among the few available references that describe attempts to address this hand-off, most follow an MDO-motivated subspace decomposition approach of first designing a very good system and then provide this system to the operator who decides the best way to use this new system along with the existing systems. The motivating example in this dissertation presents one such similar problem that includes aircraft design, airline operations and revenue management "subspaces". The research here develops an approach that could simultaneously solve these subspaces posed as a monolithic optimization problem. The monolithic approach makes the problem a Mixed Integer/Discrete Non-Linear Programming (MINLP/MDNLP) problem, which are extremely difficult to solve. The presence of expensive, sophisticated engineering analyses further aggravate the problem. To tackle this challenge problem, the work here presents a new optimization framework that simultaneously solves the subspaces to capture the "synergism" in the problem that the previous decomposition approaches may not have exploited, addresses mixed-integer/discrete type design variables in an efficient manner, and accounts for computationally expensive analysis tools. The framework combines concepts from efficient global optimization, Kriging partial least squares, and gradient-based optimization. This approach then demonstrates its ability to solve an 11 route airline network

  2. Development of a cost efficient methodology to perform allocation of flammable and toxic gas detectors applying CFD tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storch, Rafael Brod; Rocha, Gean Felipe Almeida [Det Norske Veritas (DNV), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Nalvarte, Gladys Augusta Zevallos [Det Norske Veritas (DNV), Novik (Norway)

    2012-07-01

    This paper is aimed to present a computational procedure for flammable and toxic gas detector allocation and quantification developed by DNV. The proposed methodology applies Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations as well as operational and safety characteristics of the analyzed region to assess the optimal number of toxic and flammable gas detectors and their optimal location. A probabilistic approach is also used when applying the DNV software ThorEXPRESSLite, following NORSOK Z013 Annex G and presented in HUSER et al. 2000 and HUSER et al. 2001, when the flammable gas detectors are assessed. A DNV developed program, DetLoc, is used to run in an iterative way the procedure described above leading to an automatic calculation of the gas detectors location and number. The main advantage of the methodology presented above is the independence of human interaction in the gas detector allocation leading to a more precise and free of human judgment allocation. Thus, a reproducible allocation is generated when comparing several different analyses and a global criteria appliance is guaranteed through different regions in the same project. A case study is presented applying the proposed methodology. (author)

  3. Mean-downside risk versus mean-variance efficient asset class allocations in relation to the investment horizon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiter, de A.J.C.; Brouwer, F.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we examine the difference between a Mean-Downside Risk (MDR) based asset allocation decision and a Mean-Variance (MV) based decision. Using a vector autoregressive specification, future return series, trom 1 month up to 10 years, of several US stock and bond asset classes have been

  4. A decision model to allocate protective safety barriers and mitigate domino effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssens, Jochen; Talarico, Luca; Reniers, Genserik; Sörensen, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a model to support decision-makers about where to locate safety barriers and mitigate the consequences of an accident triggering domino effects. Based on the features of an industrial area that may be affected by domino accidents, and knowing the characteristics of the safety barriers that can be installed to stall the fire propagation between installations, the decision model can help practitioners in their decision-making. The model can be effectively used to decide how to allocate a limited budget in terms of safety barriers. The goal is to maximize the time-to-failure of a chemical installation ensuring a worst case scenario approach. The model is mathematically stated and a flexible and effective solution approach, based on metaheuristics, is developed and tested on an illustrative case study representing a tank storage area of a chemical company. We show that a myopic optimization approach, which does not take into account knock-on effects possibly triggered by an accident, can lead to a distribution of safety barriers that are not effective in mitigating the consequences of a domino accident. Moreover, the optimal allocation of safety barriers, when domino effects are considered, may depend on the so-called cardinality of the domino effects. - Highlights: • A model to allocate safety barriers and mitigate domino effects is proposed. • The goal is to maximize the escalation time of the worst case scenario. • The model provides useful recommendations for decision makers. • A fast metaheuristic approach is proposed to solve such a complex problem. • Numerical simulations on a realistic case study are shown

  5. Effect of long-term drought on carbon allocation and nitrogen uptake of Pinus sylvestris seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pumpanen, Jukka; Aaltonen, Heidi; Lindén, Aki; Köster, Kajar; Biasi, Christina; Heinonsalo, Jussi

    2015-04-01

    Weather extremes such as drought events are expected to increase in the future as a result of climate change. The drought affects the allocation of carbon assimilated by plants e.g. by modifying the root to shoot ratio, amount of fine roots and the amount of mycorrhizal fungal hyphae. We studied the effect of long term drought on the allocation of carbon in a common garden experiment with 4-year-old Pinus sylvestris seedlings. Half of the seedlings were exposed to long-term drought by setting the soil water content close to wilting point for over two growing seasons whereas the other half was grown in soil close to field capacity. We conducted a pulse labelling with 13CO2 in the end of the study by injecting a known amount of 13C enriched CO2 to the seedlings and measuring the CO2 uptake and distribution of 13C to the biomass of the seedlings and to the root and rhizosphere respiration. In addition, we studied the effect of drought on the decomposition of needle litter and uptake of nitrogen by 15N labelled needles buried in the soil in litter bags. The litterbags were collected and harvested in the end of the experiment and the changes in microbial community in the litterbags were studied from the phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) composition. We also determined the 15N isotope concentrations from the needles of the seedlings to study the effect of drought on the nitrogen uptake of the seedlings. Our results indicate that the drought had a significant effect both on the biomass allocation of the seedlings and on the microbial species composition. The amount of carbon allocated belowground was much higher in the seedlings exposed to drought compared to the control seedlings. The seedlings seemed to adapt their carbon allocation to long-term drought to sustain adequate needle biomass and water uptake. The seedlings also adapted their osmotic potential and photosynthesis capacity to sustain the long-term drought as was indicated by the measurements of osmotic potential

  6. Effect of individual thinking styles on item selection during study time allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiaoyu; Li, Weijian; Cao, Liren; Li, Ping; Shi, Meiling; Wang, Jingjing; Cao, Wei; Li, Xinyu

    2018-04-01

    The influence of individual differences on learners' study time allocation has been emphasised in recent studies; however, little is known about the role of individual thinking styles (analytical versus intuitive). In the present study, we explored the influence of individual thinking styles on learners' application of agenda-based and habitual processes when selecting the first item during a study-time allocation task. A 3-item cognitive reflection test (CRT) was used to determine individuals' degree of cognitive reliance on intuitive versus analytical cognitive processing. Significant correlations between CRT scores and the choices of first item selection were observed in both Experiment 1a (study time was 5 seconds per triplet) and Experiment 1b (study time was 20 seconds per triplet). Furthermore, analytical decision makers constructed a value-based agenda (prioritised high-reward items), whereas intuitive decision makers relied more upon habitual responding (selected items from the leftmost of the array). The findings of Experiment 1a were replicated in Experiment 2 notwithstanding ruling out the possible effects from individual intelligence and working memory capacity. Overall, the individual thinking style plays an important role on learners' study time allocation and the predictive ability of CRT is reliable in learners' item selection strategy. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  7. An Effective Scheduling-Based RFID Reader Collision Avoidance Model and Its Resource Allocation via Artificial Immune Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanjin Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Radio frequency identification, that is, RFID, is one of important technologies in Internet of Things. Reader collision does impair the tag identification efficiency of an RFID system. Many developed methods, for example, the scheduling-based series, that are used to avoid RFID reader collision, have been developed. For scheduling-based methods, communication resources, that is, time slots, channels, and power, are optimally assigned to readers. In this case, reader collision avoidance is equivalent to an optimization problem related to resource allocation. However, the existing methods neglect the overlap between the interrogation regions of readers, which reduces the tag identification rate (TIR. To resolve this shortage, this paper attempts to build a reader-to-reader collision avoidance model considering the interrogation region overlaps (R2RCAM-IRO. In addition, an artificial immune network for resource allocation (RA-IRO-aiNet is designed to optimize the proposed model. For comparison, some comparative numerical simulations are arranged. The simulation results show that the proposed R2RCAM-IRO is an effective model where TIR is improved significantly. And especially in the application of reader-to-reader collision avoidance, the proposed RA-IRO-aiNet outperforms GA, opt-aiNet, and PSO in the total coverage area of readers.

  8. Allocative Efficiency Analysys Production Function Of Cassava Farming (Manihot, Sp.) In Tenayan Raya Sub-District Of Pekanbaru City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizar, Rini; Nurwati, Niken; Amalia

    2017-12-01

    Cassava (Manihot sp) has long been known and cultivated by Indonesian farmers. The economic and social potential of cassava aside from foodstuffs can also be used as raw materials for industrial use and animal feed. In Riau Province, Cassva has the potential to be developed considering Cassva is a plant that can easily grow on low altitude to high altitude lands. Cassava does not need a complex maintenance. Conventionally, this plant can be planted and left alone by itself. Cassava roots can be developed to be a processed products that society needs as main foodstuffs ingredients. This research is done in three months and the purpose is to know the influence of input use (pesticide, seeds, fertilizers and labor) on cassava farming to cassava farming by the model of cobb-douglas. Other than that is also the effect on economical efficiency. The method used in this research is a quantitative research by using Cobb-Douglas Function Model. This research was done in the Tenayan Raya sub-district with 55 farmer samples. This research shows Cobb-Douglas Production Function can be used as the predictor for Cassava production function in Tenayan Raya Sub-district of Pekanbaru City. Altogether the production factor used by farmers influence production. Partially only usage of organic fertilizer that does not affect production, while other production factor such as, seeds, pesticides, an-organic fertilizer (urea) and labor affect production by quite a bit. Usage of production factor seeds, urea and pesticides is not yet efficient while usage of organic fertilizer is not efficient and usage of labor on cassava agriculture by respondent farmers is relatively efficient

  9. State-of-the-art on Virtualization and Software Defined Networking for Efficient Resource Allocation on Multi-tenant 5G Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsirakis Christos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Global data traffic explosion is expected to set stringent requirements for next generation networks in the next decades. Besides, very low latencies will have to be guaranteed for enabling new delay critical services. However, current Software Defined Networking (SDN solutions have limitations in terms of separating both data and control planes among tenants/operators, and the capability to adapt to new or changing requirements. Moreover, some virtualization schemes do not ensure isolation of resources and do not guarantee bandwidth across the entities. While some others fail to provide flexibility to the slices to customize the resource allocation across the users. Therefore, novel SDN and virtualization techniques should be implemented to realize the upcoming 5G network that will facilitate at least efficient resource allocation and multi-tenancy among the plethora of different requirements.

  10. Learning to multitask: effects of video game practice on electrophysiological indices of attention and resource allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclin, Edward L; Mathewson, Kyle E; Low, Kathy A; Boot, Walter R; Kramer, Arthur F; Fabiani, Monica; Gratton, Gabriele

    2011-09-01

    Changes in attention allocation with complex task learning reflect processing automatization and more efficient control. We studied these changes using ERP and EEG spectral analyses in subjects playing Space Fortress, a complex video game comprising standard cognitive task components. We hypothesized that training would free up attentional resources for a secondary auditory oddball task. Both P3 and delta EEG showed a processing trade-off between game and oddball tasks, but only some game events showed reduced attention requirements with practice. Training magnified a transient increase in alpha power following both primary and secondary task events. This contrasted with alpha suppression observed when the oddball task was performed alone, suggesting that alpha may be related to attention switching. Hence, P3 and EEG spectral data are differentially sensitive to changes in attentional processing occurring with complex task training. Copyright © 2011 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  11. In-Band Interference Effects on UTRA LTE Uplink Resource Block Allocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Priyanto, Basuki Endah; Sørensen, Troels Bundgaard; Jensen, Ole Kiel

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the impact of in-band interference on the uplink multiple access of UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access, long term evolution (UTRA LTE). In- band and out-of-band interference arise as a result of transmitter imperfections. Out-of- band, or adjacent channel, interference can......, and when the interfering signal is received at higher power spectral density (PSD). The effect of frequency offset and different PSD level from the UE interferers to a victim UE is studied. The impact on different UE resource block size allocation is also investigated. The results are obtained from an LTE...

  12. [Effects of N application on wheat powdery mildew occurrence, nitrogen accumulation and allocation in intercropping system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jin Hui; Dong, Yan; Xiao, Jing Xiu; Zheng, Yi; Tang, Li

    2017-12-01

    The main objective of this field experiment was to study the effects of wheat and faba bean intercropping on occurrence of wheat powdery mildew, nitrogen content, accumulation and allocation of wheat plant at 4 nitrogen levels of N 0 (0 kg·hm -2 ), N 1 (112.5 kg·hm -2 ), N 2 (225 kg·hm -2 ), N 3 (337.5 kg·hm -2 ), and to explore the relationship between N content, accumulation, allocation and the occurrence of wheat powdery mildew. The results showed that both monocropped and intercropped wheat yields increased with nitrogen application, with the highest yields of monocropped and intercropped wheat being 4146 kg·hm -2 and 4679 kg·hm -2 at N 2 le-vel, respectively. The occurrence and development of wheat powdery mildew become more severe with the increase of N application and area under disease progression curve (AUDPC) were averagely increased by 39.6%-55.6%(calculated with disease incidence, DI) and 92.5%-217.0% (calculated with disease severity index, DSI) with N 1 , N 2 and N 3 treatments. The disease severity index was more affected by nitrogen regulation than by disease incidence. The nitrogen content and accumulation of wheat plant were significantly increased by 8.4%-51.6% and 19.7%-133.7% with nitrogen application, but there was no significant effect on N allocation ratio. Compared with monocropped wheat, yield of intercropped wheat was averagely increased by 12%, whereas, the AUDPC(DI) and AUDPC(DSI) of intercropped wheat were averagely decreased by 11.5% and 30.7%, respectively. The control effect of the disease severity index by intercropping was better than disease incidence. The nitrogen content, accumulation and nitrogen allocation ratio in intercropped wheat leaves were significantly decreased by 6.6%-12.5%, 1.4%-6.9% and 9.0%-15.5% respectively at the peak infection stage of powdery mildew. Overall findings showed that the maximum rate of nitrogen application for wheat should not exceed 225 kg·hm -2 when taking into account both disease

  13. Kazakhstan can achieve ambitious HIV targets despite expected donor withdrawal by combining improved ART procurement mechanisms with allocative and implementation efficiencies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Shattock

    Full Text Available Despite a non-decreasing HIV epidemic, international donors are soon expected to withdraw funding from Kazakhstan. Here we analyze how allocative, implementation, and technical efficiencies could strengthen the national HIV response under assumptions of future budget levels.We used the Optima model to project future scenarios of the HIV epidemic in Kazakhstan that varied in future antiretroviral treatment unit costs and management expenditure-two areas identified for potential cost-reductions. We determined optimal allocations across HIV programs to satisfy either national targets or ambitious targets. For each scenario, we considered two cases of future HIV financing: the 2014 national budget maintained into the future and the 2014 budget without current international investment.Kazakhstan can achieve its national HIV targets with the current budget by (1 optimally re-allocating resources across programs and (2 either securing a 35% [30%-39%] reduction in antiretroviral treatment drug costs or reducing management costs by 44% [36%-58%] of 2014 levels. Alternatively, a combination of antiretroviral treatment and management cost-reductions could be sufficient. Furthermore, Kazakhstan can achieve ambitious targets of halving new infections and AIDS-related deaths by 2020 compared to 2014 levels by attaining a 67% reduction in antiretroviral treatment costs, a 19% [14%-27%] reduction in management costs, and allocating resources optimally.With Kazakhstan facing impending donor withdrawal, it is important for the HIV response to achieve more with available resources. This analysis can help to guide HIV response planners in directing available funding to achieve the greatest yield from investments. The key changes recommended were considered realistic by Kazakhstan country representatives.

  14. Effect of microbial enzyme allocation strategies on stoichiometry of soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wutzler, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    We explored different strategies of soil microbial community to invest resources into extracellular enzymes by conceptual modelling. Similar to the EEZY model by Moorhead et al. (2012), microbial community can invest into two separate pools of enzymes that depolymerize two different SOM pools. We show that with assuming that a fixed fraction of substrate uptake is allocated to enzymes, the microbial dynamics decouples from decomposition dynamics. We propose an alternative formulation where investment into enzymes is proportional to microbial biomass. Next, we show that the strategy of optimizing stoichiometry of decomposition flux according to microbial biomass stoichiometry yield less microbial growth than the strategy of optimizing revenue of the currently limiting element. However, both strategies result in better usage of the resources, i.e. less C overflow or N mineralization, than the strategy of equal allocation to both enzymes. Further, we discuss effects of those strategies on decomposition of SOM and priming at different time scales and discuss several abstractions from the detailed model dynamics for usage in larger scale models.

  15. Energy-efficient relay selection and optimal power allocation for performance-constrained dual-hop variable-gain AF relaying

    KAUST Repository

    Zafar, Ammar

    2013-12-01

    This paper investigates the energy-efficiency enhancement of a variable-gain dual-hop amplify-and-forward (AF) relay network utilizing selective relaying. The objective is to minimize the total consumed power while keeping the end-to-end signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) above a certain peak value and satisfying the peak power constraints at the source and relay nodes. To achieve this objective, an optimal relay selection and power allocation strategy is derived by solving the power minimization problem. Numerical results show that the derived optimal strategy enhances the energy-efficiency as compared to a benchmark scheme in which both the source and the selected relay transmit at peak power. © 2013 IEEE.

  16. A meta-analysis of development aid allocation:  The effects of income level and population size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Martin

    The effect on aid allocation of the income level and population size in the recipient country is  analyzed. The data show that both variables have a significant and robust negative effect, but  they explain only a small part of the variation. The main thrust of the paper is a meta-analysis of the......The effect on aid allocation of the income level and population size in the recipient country is  analyzed. The data show that both variables have a significant and robust negative effect, but  they explain only a small part of the variation. The main thrust of the paper is a meta...

  17. Speaking truth to power: the effect of candid feedback on how individuals with power allocate resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oc, Burak; Bashshur, Michael R; Moore, Celia

    2015-03-01

    Subordinates are often seen as impotent, able to react to but not affect how powerholders treat them. Instead, we conceptualize subordinate feedback as an important trigger of powerholders' behavioral self-regulation and explore subordinates' reciprocal influence on how powerholders allocate resources to them over time. In 2 experiments using a multiparty, multiround dictator game paradigm, we found that when subordinates provided candid feedback about whether they found prior allocations to be fair or unfair, powerholders regulated how self-interested their allocations were over time. However, when subordinates provided compliant feedback about powerholders' prior allocation decisions (offered consistently positive feedback, regardless of the powerholders' prior allocation), those powerholders made increasingly self-interested allocations over time. In addition, we showed that guilt partially mediates this relationship: powerholders feel more guilty after receiving negative feedback about an allocation, subsequently leading to a less self-interested allocation, whereas they feel less guilty after receiving positive feedback about an allocation, subsequently taking more for themselves. Our findings integrate the literature on upward feedback with theory about moral self-regulation to support the idea that subordinates are an important source of influence over those who hold power over them. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Solving binary-state multi-objective reliability redundancy allocation series-parallel problem using efficient epsilon-constraint, multi-start partial bound enumeration algorithm, and DEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalili-Damghani, Kaveh; Amiri, Maghsoud

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a procedure based on efficient epsilon-constraint method and data envelopment analysis (DEA) is proposed for solving binary-state multi-objective reliability redundancy allocation series-parallel problem (MORAP). In first module, a set of qualified non-dominated solutions on Pareto front of binary-state MORAP is generated using an efficient epsilon-constraint method. In order to test the quality of generated non-dominated solutions in this module, a multi-start partial bound enumeration algorithm is also proposed for MORAP. The performance of both procedures is compared using different metrics on well-known benchmark instance. The statistical analysis represents that not only the proposed efficient epsilon-constraint method outperform the multi-start partial bound enumeration algorithm but also it improves the founded upper bound of benchmark instance. Then, in second module, a DEA model is supplied to prune the generated non-dominated solutions of efficient epsilon-constraint method. This helps reduction of non-dominated solutions in a systematic manner and eases the decision making process for practical implementations. - Highlights: ► A procedure based on efficient epsilon-constraint method and DEA was proposed for solving MORAP. ► The performance of proposed procedure was compared with a multi-start PBEA. ► Methods were statistically compared using multi-objective metrics.

  19. Effective education for energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zografakis, Nikolaos; Menegaki, Angeliki N.; Tsagarakis, Konstantinos P.

    2008-01-01

    A lot of today's world vices can be eliminated if certain targeted modules and adapted curricula are introduced in the schooling system. One of these vices is energy squandering with all its negative consequences for the planet (e.g. depletion of finite energy sources and the subsequent climate change). This paper describes the results of an energy-thrift information and education project taking place in different levels of education in Crete-Greece, which records 321 students' and their parents' routine energy-related behavior and proves that this behavior changes to a more energy efficient one, after the dissemination of relevant information and the participation into the energy education projects. Namely, response percentages indicating the energy-efficient behavior increased after project participation while the ones indicating an energy-squandering behavior decreased. The Wilcoxon signed rank test was statistically significant in all energy behavior questions related to students and to most questions related to parents

  20. Allocation of Parental Time and the Long Term Effect on Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wurtz, Astrid

    seem to be an increasingly important part of their children's daily life, this study, opposite to most other studies within the child care literature, explicitly takes both parents' time spent on child care into account as well as child care bought in the market. It is shown that the quality of market...... provided child care vs. the quality of parental child care is crucial for the parents' time use decisions but the availability of paternal child care does not seem to affect the mother's child care decision. The effect of parental child care time on children's educational outcome is tested using Danish......This paper develops a structural model which links parental time use decisions to a child's development in a household with two parents and one child. Since the allocation of home time and market work has become more equally distributed within households during the latest decades and since fathers...

  1. Public and Private Hospital Services Reform Using Data Envelopment Analysis to Measure Technical, Scale, Allocative, and Cost Efficiencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Emrouznejad

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to suggest a suitable context to develop efficient hospitalsystems while maintaining the quality of care at minimum expenditures.Methods: This research aimed to present a model of efficiency for selected public and privatehospitals of East Azerbaijani Province of Iran by making use of Data Envelopment Analysis approachin order to recognize and suggest the best practice standards.Results: Among the six inefficient hospitals, 2 (33% had a technical efficiency score of lessthan 50% (both private, 2 (33% between 51 and 74% (one private and one public and the rest(2, 33% between 75 and 99% (one private and one public.Conclusion: In general, the public hospitals are relatively more efficient than private ones; it isrecommended for inefficient hospitals to make use of the followings: transferring, selling, orrenting idle/unused beds; transferring excess doctors and nurses to the efficient hospitals orother health centers; pensioning off, early retirement clinic officers, technicians/technologists,and other technical staff. The saving obtained from the above approaches could be used to improveremuneration for remaining staff and quality of health care services of hospitals, rural andurban health centers, support communities to start or sustain systematic risk and resource poolingand cost sharing mechanisms for protecting beneficiaries against unexpected health carecosts, compensate the capital depreciation, increasing investments, and improve diseases preventionservices and facilities in the provincial level.

  2. Public and private hospital services reform using data envelopment analysis to measure technical, scale, allocative, and cost efficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhzadeh, Yaghoub; Roudsari, Abdul V; Vahidi, Reza Gholi; Emrouznejad, Ali; Dastgiri, Saeed

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to suggest a suitable context to develop efficient hospital systems while maintaining the quality of care at minimum expenditures. This research aimed to present a model of efficiency for selected public and private hospitals of East Azerbaijani Province of Iran by making use of Data Envelopment Analysis approach in order to recognize and suggest the best practice standards. Among the six inefficient hospitals, 2 (33%) had a technical efficiency score of less than 50% (both private), 2 (33%) between 51 and 74% (one private and one public) and the rest (2, 33%) between 75 and 99% (one private and one public). In general, the public hospitals are relatively more efficient than private ones; it is recommended for inefficient hospitals to make use of the followings: transferring, selling, or renting idle/unused beds; transferring excess doctors and nurses to the efficient hospitals or other health centers; pensioning off, early retirement clinic officers, technicians/technologists, and other technical staff. The saving obtained from the above approaches could be used to improve remuneration for remaining staff and quality of health care services of hospitals, rural and urban health centers, support communities to start or sustain systematic risk and resource pooling and cost sharing mechanisms for protecting beneficiaries against unexpected health care costs, compensate the capital depreciation, increasing investments, and improve diseases prevention services and facilities in the provincial level.

  3. An alternative approach to indirect land use change: Allocating greenhouse gas effects among different uses of land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seungdo; Dale, Bruce E.; Ong, Rebecca G.

    2012-01-01

    Indirect land use change (iLUC) is hypothesized to occur when increasing demand for land due to bioenergy production displaces food and feed production onto new lands, thereby potentially producing large greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) during the land conversion event. Thus far, the totality of the projected iLUC effect has been assigned to biofuel production. In fact, multiple drivers of land use change exist and the resulting GHG releases should, in fairness, be allocated among these drivers. It seems more useful and intellectually rigorous to allocate potential land use change effects among these many drivers. This paper focuses on how to allocate the environmental consequences of iLUC to the multiple drivers through a function-oriented approach, namely human nutritional requirements for calories and protein. “Food versus Biofuel” issues can then be more usefully addressed as “Nutrition versus Biofuel” issues. Human beings actually have many choices in how we provide ourselves with adequate diets, and these choices have very different GHG and land use consequences. Therefore, in this paper, GHG assigned to iLUC is allocated between ethanol and human dietary preferences via a human nutrition-based method. Applying allocation approaches to iLUC lowers the estimated GHG of iLUC by up to 73% compared to GHG estimates in the GTAP model. For example, global warming intensity (GWI) of ethanol measured as CO 2 equivalent becomes 58.2 g MJ −1 , while GWI of ethanol calculated using GREET is 68.9 g MJ −1 . -- Highlights: ► Biofuel production is one of many factors driving indirect land use change (iLUC). ► A proper allocation of the consequences of iLUC among these drivers is required. ► There are many choices in how we provide ourselves nutritionally adequate diets. ► Greenhouse gas emissions of iLUC are allocated via a human nutrition-based method.

  4. Are wildfire management resources in the United States efficiently allocated to protect resources at risk? A case study from Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derek T. O' Donnell; Tyron J. Venna; David E. Calkin

    2014-01-01

    Federal wildfire management agencies in the United States are under substantial pressure to reduce and economically justify their expenditures. To support economically efficient management of wildfires, managers need better estimates of the resource benefits and avoided damage costs associated with alternative wildfire management strategies. This paper reports findings...

  5. Enhanced machine learning scheme for energy efficient resource allocation in 5G heterogeneous cloud radio access networks

    KAUST Repository

    Alqerm, Ismail; Shihada, Basem

    2018-01-01

    with high quality of service requirements (QoS), while high power macro base stations (BSs) are deployed for coverage maintenance and low QoS users support. However, the inter-tier interference between the macro BS and RRHs and energy efficiency are critical

  6. ESG Allocations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This report displays the Emergency Solutions Grants (ESG), formerly Emergency Shelter Grants, allocation by jurisdiction. The website allows users to look at...

  7. Incentives – Effectiveness and efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Hinderlich

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper covers the question if and how incentive schemes work evaluated by their impact on company performance (market capitalization and profit before tax. Based on a unique data set for German executive directors of DAX companies it can be proved that neither short (STI nor long term incentives (LTI plans necessarily support the company success. It rather depends on the efficiency of each plan, i. e. on its design. Special attention has to be paid on target setting. Short term focused objectives often miss their targets, whereas long term oriented objectives significantly support the company success. To solve the prisoner’s dilemma between employers and employees by a quasi-endless game, additional measures may be helpful, such as share ownership guidelines.

  8. Net primary productivity, allocation pattern and carbon use efficiency in an apple orchard assessed by integrating eddy covariance, biometric and continuous soil chamber measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Zanotelli

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Carbon use efficiency (CUE, the ratio of net primary production (NPP over gross primary production (GPP, is a functional parameter that could possibly link the current increasingly accurate global GPP estimates with those of net ecosystem exchange, for which global predictors are still unavailable. Nevertheless, CUE estimates are actually available for only a few ecosystem types, while information regarding agro-ecosystems is scarce, in spite of the simplified spatial structure of these ecosystems that facilitates studies on allocation patterns and temporal growth dynamics. We combined three largely deployed methods, eddy covariance, soil respiration and biometric measurements, to assess monthly values of CUE, NPP and allocation patterns in different plant organs in an apple orchard during a complete year (2010. We applied a measurement protocol optimized for quantifying monthly values of carbon fluxes in this ecosystem type, which allows for a cross check between estimates obtained from different methods. We also attributed NPP components to standing biomass increments, detritus cycle feeding and lateral exports. We found that in the apple orchard, both net ecosystem production and gross primary production on a yearly basis, 380 ± 30 g C m−2 and 1263 ± 189 g C m−2 respectively, were of a magnitude comparable to those of natural forests growing in similar climate conditions. The largest differences with respect to forests are in the allocation pattern and in the fate of produced biomass. The carbon sequestered from the atmosphere was largely allocated to production of fruit: 49% of annual NPP was taken away from the ecosystem through apple production. Organic material (leaves, fine root litter, pruned wood and early fruit falls contributing to the detritus cycle was 46% of the NPP. Only 5% was attributable to standing biomass increment, while this NPP component is generally the largest in forests. The CUE, with an annual average of 0.71

  9. Net primary productivity, allocation pattern and carbon use efficiency in an apple orchard assessed by integrating eddy-covariance, biometric and continuous soil chamber measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanotelli, D.; Montagnani, L.; Manca, G.; Tagliavini, M.

    2012-10-01

    Carbon use efficiency (CUE) is a functional parameter that could possibly link the current increasingly accurate global estimates of gross primary production with those of net ecosystem exchange, for which global predictors are still unavailable. Nevertheless, CUE estimates are actually available for only a few ecosystem types, while information regarding agro-ecosystems is scarce, in spite of the simplified spatial structure of these ecosystems that facilitates studies on allocation patterns and temporal growth dynamics. We combined three largely deployed methods, eddy covariance, soil respiration and biometric measurements, to assess monthly values of CUE, net primary production (NPP) and allocation patterns in different plant organs in an apple orchard during a complete year (2010). We applied a~measurement protocol optimized for quantifying monthly values of carbon fluxes in this ecosystem type, which allows for a cross-check between estimates obtained from different methods. We also attributed NPP components to standing biomass increments, detritus cycle feeding and lateral exports. We found that in the apple orchard both net ecosystem production and gross primary production on yearly basis, 380 ± 30 g C m-2 and 1263 ± 189 g C m-2 respectively, were of a magnitude comparable to those of natural forests growing in similar climate conditions. The largest differences with respect to forests are in the allocation pattern and in the fate of produced biomass. The carbon sequestered from the atmosphere was largely allocated to production of fruits: 49% of annual NPP was taken away from the ecosystem through apple production. Organic material (leaves, fine root litter, pruned wood and early fruit falls) contributing to the detritus cycle was 46% of the NPP. Only 5% was attributable to standing biomass increment, while this NPP component is generally the largest in forests. The CUE, with an annual average of 0.71 ± 0.09, was higher than the previously suggested

  10. Net primary productivity, allocation pattern and carbon use efficiency in an apple orchard assessed by integrating eddy covariance, biometric and continuous soil chamber measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanotelli, D.; Montagnani, L.; Manca, G.; Tagliavini, M.

    2013-05-01

    Carbon use efficiency (CUE), the ratio of net primary production (NPP) over gross primary production (GPP), is a functional parameter that could possibly link the current increasingly accurate global GPP estimates with those of net ecosystem exchange, for which global predictors are still unavailable. Nevertheless, CUE estimates are actually available for only a few ecosystem types, while information regarding agro-ecosystems is scarce, in spite of the simplified spatial structure of these ecosystems that facilitates studies on allocation patterns and temporal growth dynamics. We combined three largely deployed methods, eddy covariance, soil respiration and biometric measurements, to assess monthly values of CUE, NPP and allocation patterns in different plant organs in an apple orchard during a complete year (2010). We applied a measurement protocol optimized for quantifying monthly values of carbon fluxes in this ecosystem type, which allows for a cross check between estimates obtained from different methods. We also attributed NPP components to standing biomass increments, detritus cycle feeding and lateral exports. We found that in the apple orchard, both net ecosystem production and gross primary production on a yearly basis, 380 ± 30 g C m-2 and 1263 ± 189 g C m-2 respectively, were of a magnitude comparable to those of natural forests growing in similar climate conditions. The largest differences with respect to forests are in the allocation pattern and in the fate of produced biomass. The carbon sequestered from the atmosphere was largely allocated to production of fruit: 49% of annual NPP was taken away from the ecosystem through apple production. Organic material (leaves, fine root litter, pruned wood and early fruit falls) contributing to the detritus cycle was 46% of the NPP. Only 5% was attributable to standing biomass increment, while this NPP component is generally the largest in forests. The CUE, with an annual average of 0.71 ± 0.12, was higher

  11. Adaptive Allocation of Attention: Effects of Sex and Sociosexuality on Visual Attention to Attractive Opposite-Sex Faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Lesley A; Park, Justin H; Faulkner, Jason; Schaller, Mark; Neuberg, Steven L; Kenrick, Douglas T

    2007-09-01

    We tested the hypothesis that, compared with sociosexually restricted individuals, those with an unrestricted approach to mating would selectively allocate visual attention to attractive opposite-sex others. We also tested for sex differences in this effect. Seventy-four participants completed the Sociosexual Orientation Inventory, and performed a computer-based task that assessed the speed with which they detected changes in attractive and unattractive male and female faces. Differences in reaction times served as indicators of selective attention. Results revealed a Sex X Sociosexuality interaction: Compared with sociosexually restricted men, unrestricted men selectively allocated attention to attractive opposite-sex others; no such effect emerged among women. This finding was specific to opposite-sex targets and did not occur in attention to same-sex others. These results contribute to a growing literature on the adaptive allocation of attention in social environments.

  12. Effects of aspect on clonal reproduction and biomass allocation of layering modules of Nitraria tangutorum in nebkha dunes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghe Li

    Full Text Available The formation of many nebkha dunes relies on the layering of clonal plants. The microenvironmental conditions of such phytogenic nebkha are heterogeneous depending on the aspect and slope. Exploring the effects of aspect on clonal reproduction and biomass allocation can be useful in understanding the ecological adaptation of species. We hypothesized that on the windward side layering propagation would be promoted, that biomass allocation to leaves and stems of ramets would increase, and that the effects of aspect would be greater in the layering with larger biomass. To test these hypotheses, we surveyed the depth of germination points of axillary buds, the rate of ramet sprouting, the density of adventitious root formation points, and the biomass of modules sprouting from layering located on the NE, SE, SW and NW, aspects of Nitraria tangutorum nebkhas. The windward side was located on the NW and SW aspects. The results indicated that conditions of the NW aspect were more conducive to clonal reproduction and had the highest rate of ramet sprouting and the highest density of adventitious formation points. For the modules sprouting from layering on the SW aspect, biomass allocation to leaves and stems was greatest with biomass allocation to adventitious roots being lowest. This result supported our hypothesis. Contrary to our hypothesis, the effects of aspect were greater in layering of smaller biomass. These results support the hypothesis that aspect does affect layering propagation capacity and biomass allocation in this species. Additionally, clonal reproduction and biomass allocation of modules sprouting from layering with smaller biomass was more affected by aspect. These results suggest that the clonal growth of N. tangutorum responses to the microenvironmental heterogeneity that results from aspect of the nebkha.

  13. Effects of aspect on clonal reproduction and biomass allocation of layering modules of Nitraria tangutorum in nebkha dunes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qinghe; Xu, Jun; Li, Huiqing; Wang, Saixiao; Yan, Xiu; Xin, Zhiming; Jiang, Zeping; Wang, Linlong; Jia, Zhiqing

    2013-01-01

    The formation of many nebkha dunes relies on the layering of clonal plants. The microenvironmental conditions of such phytogenic nebkha are heterogeneous depending on the aspect and slope. Exploring the effects of aspect on clonal reproduction and biomass allocation can be useful in understanding the ecological adaptation of species. We hypothesized that on the windward side layering propagation would be promoted, that biomass allocation to leaves and stems of ramets would increase, and that the effects of aspect would be greater in the layering with larger biomass. To test these hypotheses, we surveyed the depth of germination points of axillary buds, the rate of ramet sprouting, the density of adventitious root formation points, and the biomass of modules sprouting from layering located on the NE, SE, SW and NW, aspects of Nitraria tangutorum nebkhas. The windward side was located on the NW and SW aspects. The results indicated that conditions of the NW aspect were more conducive to clonal reproduction and had the highest rate of ramet sprouting and the highest density of adventitious formation points. For the modules sprouting from layering on the SW aspect, biomass allocation to leaves and stems was greatest with biomass allocation to adventitious roots being lowest. This result supported our hypothesis. Contrary to our hypothesis, the effects of aspect were greater in layering of smaller biomass. These results support the hypothesis that aspect does affect layering propagation capacity and biomass allocation in this species. Additionally, clonal reproduction and biomass allocation of modules sprouting from layering with smaller biomass was more affected by aspect. These results suggest that the clonal growth of N. tangutorum responses to the microenvironmental heterogeneity that results from aspect of the nebkha.

  14. Environment assessment: allocation of petroleum feedstock, Algonquin SNG Inc. , Freetown SNG Plant, Bristol County, MA. [Effects of 100, 78, 49% allocations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The proposed administrative action to deny, grant or modify the Algonquin SNG, Inc. (Algonquin) petition for an adjusted allocation of naphtha feedstock may significantly affect the ehuman environment. The volume of feedstock requested is 4,425,571 barrels per year of naphtha to be used in Algonquin's Freetown, MA synthetic natural gas (SNG) plant. Environmental impacts of 100, 78, and 49% allocations were evaluated.

  15. Genotypic variation in transpiration efficiency, carbon-isotope discrimination and carbon allocation during early growth in sunflower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virgona, J.M.; Farquhar, G.D.; Hubick, K.T.; Rawson, H.M.; Downes, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    Transpiration efficiency of dry matter production (W), carbon-isotope discrimination (Δ) and dry matter partitioning were measured on six sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) genotypes grown for 32 days in a glasshouse. Two watering regimes, one well watered (HW) and the other delivering half the water used by the HW plants (LW), were imposed. Four major results emerged from this study: Three was significant genotypic variation in W in sunflower and this was closely reflected in Δ for both watering treatments; the low watering regime caused a decrease in Δ but no change in W; nonetheless the genotypic ranking for either Δ or W was not significantly altered by water stress; a positive correlation between W and biomass accumulation occurred among genotypes of HW plants; ρ, the ratio of total plant carbon content to leaf area, was positively correlated with W and negatively correlated with Δ. These results are discussed with reference to the connection between transpiration efficiency and plant growth, indicating that Δ can be used to select for W among young sunflower plants. However, selection for W may be accompanied by changes in other important plant growth characteristics such as ρ. 19 refs., 4 figs

  16. The Effects of Knowledge Accumulation on Intergenerational Allocation of an Exhaustible Resource with Amenity Value

    OpenAIRE

    CAI, Dapeng

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyzes equilibrium intergenerational allocation of an exhaustible resource with amenity value in an overlapping generations (OLG) economy. The paper first reviews two allocation schemes and concludes the ‘trust fund’ scheme, which is deemed to be ‘intergenerationally democratic’, is preferred to the ‘grandfathering’ scheme, which represents the business-as usual practice of resource use. It then introduces knowledge accumulation into the model by imposing a public R&D sector th...

  17. Two mire species respond differently to enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation: effects on biomass allocation and root exudation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rinnan, Riikka Tiivi Mariisa; Gehrke, Carola; Michelsen, Anders

    2006-01-01

    •  Increased ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation arising from stratospheric ozone depletion may influence soil microbial communities via effects on plant carbon allocation and root exudation. •  Eriophorum angustifolium and Narthecium ossifragum plants, grown in peatland mesocosms consisting of Sphagnum...

  18. 26 CFR 1.1446-2 - Determining a partnership's effectively connected taxable income allocable to foreign partners...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... section 754 (see § 1.743-1(j)). The character of effectively connected partnership items (capital versus... of a partner's basis in the partnership, see section 704(d)) or any capital loss carrybacks or... A's allocable share of partnership ECTI, the amount of the long-term capital loss that may be taken...

  19. Adaptive allocation of attention : effects of sex and sociosexuality on visual attention to attractive opposite-sex faces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duncan, Lesley A.; Park, Justin H.; Faulkner, Jason; Schaller, Mark; Neuberg, Steven L.; Kenrick, Douglas T.

    We tested the hypothesis that, compared with sociosexually restricted individuals, those with an unrestricted approach to mating would selectively allocate visual attention to attractive opposite-sex others. We also tested for sex differences in this effect. Seventy-four participants completed the

  20. Effect of temperature on biomass allocation in seedlings of two contrasting genotypes of the oilseed crop Ricinus communis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribeiro de Jesus, P.R.; Zanotti, R.F.; Deflers, C.; Fernandez, L.G.; Castro, De R.D.; Ligterink, W.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.

    2015-01-01

    Ricinus communis is becoming an important crop for oil production, and studying the physiological and biochemical aspects of seedling development may aid in the improvement of crop quality and yield. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of temperature on biomass allocation in two R.

  1. A Cost-Effectiveness Evaluation Approach to Improving Resource Allocations for School Systems. Administering for Change Program. A Professional Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temkin, Sanford

    This dissertation begins with a description of some methods employed in making public-sector resource-allocation decisions, with conclusions on the appropriateness of each method for evaluating the ongoing programs of a school system. The second section has been rewritten and published as "A Comprehensive Theory of Cost-Effectiveness" (EA 002…

  2. Coordinating energy allocation and process performance using an agent-based approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Umair, Aisha; Clausen, Anders; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2015-01-01

    Energy efficient systems are receiving worldwide attention in response to the negative effects of global warming. Energy efficient systems are concerned with allocation of adequate resources in the energy domain to meet the energy demand in the process domain. In allocation, a balancing problem a...

  3. Effects of heterogeneity on bank efficiency scores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J. W. B.; Koetter, M.; Kolari, J. W.; Kool, C. J. M.

    2009-01-01

    Bank efficiency estimates often serve as a proxy of managerial skill since they quantify sub-optimal production choices. But such deviations can also be due to omitted systematic differences among banks. In this study, we examine the effects of heterogeneity on bank efficiency scores. We compare

  4. Understanding the Uncertainty of an Effectiveness-Cost Ratio in Educational Resource Allocation: A Bayesian Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yilin

    2016-01-01

    Given the necessity to bridge the gap between what happened and what is likely to happen, this paper aims to explore how to apply Bayesian inference to cost-effectiveness analysis so as to capture the uncertainty of a ratio-type efficiency measure. The first part of the paper summarizes the characteristics of the evaluation data that are commonly…

  5. On the Efficient Broadcasting of Heterogeneous Services over Band-Limited Channels: Unequal Power Allocation for Wavelet Packet Division Multiplexing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Murroni

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple transmission of heterogeneous services is a central aspect of broadcasting technology. Often, in this framework, the design of efficient communication systems is complicated by stringent bandwidth constraint. In wavelet packet division multiplexing (WPDM, the message signals are waveform coded onto wavelet packet basis functions. The overlapping nature of such waveforms in both time and frequency allows improving the performance over the commonly used FDM and TDM schemes, while their orthogonality properties permit to extract the message signals by a simple correlator receiver. Furthermore, the scalable structure of WPDM makes it suitable for broadcasting heterogeneous services. This work investigates unequal error protection (UEP of data which exhibit different sensitivities to channel errors to improve the performance of WPDM for transmission over band-limited channels. To cope with bandwidth constraint, an appropriate distribution of power among waveforms is proposed which is driven by the channel error sensitivities of the carried message signals in case of Gaussian noise. We address this problem by means of the genetic algorithms (GAs, which allow flexible suboptimal solution with reduced complexity. The mean square error (MSE between the original and the decoded message, which has a strong correlation with subjective perception, is used as an optimization criterion.

  6. The Impact of Balanced Skills, Working Time Allocation and Peer Effects on the Entrepreneurial Intentions of Scientists

    OpenAIRE

    Petra Moog; Arndt Werner; Stefan Houweling; Uschi Backes-Gellner

    2012-01-01

    To date, little is known about the effects of the composition of skills on academic entrepreneurship. Therefore, in this paper, following Lazear’s (2005) jack-of-all-trades approach, we study how his or her composition of skills affects a scientist’s intention of becoming an entrepreneur. Extending Lazear, we examine how the effect of balanced entrepreneurial skills is moderated by a balanced working time allocations and peer effects. Using unique data collected from 480 life sciences researc...

  7. Maintainability allocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guyot, Christian.

    1980-06-01

    The author gives the general lines of a method for the allocation and for the evaluation of maintainability of complex systems which is to be developed during the conference. The maintainability objective is supposed to be formulated under the form of a mean time to repair (M.T.T.R.) [fr

  8. Physician and Patient and Caregiver Health Attitudes and Their Effect on Medicare Resource Allocation for Patients With Advanced Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocke, Daniel J; Beumer, Halton W; Taylor, Donald H; Thomas, Steven; Puscas, Liana; Lee, Walter T

    2014-06-01

    Physicians must participate in end-of-life discussions, but they understand poorly their patients' end-of-life values and preferences. A better understanding of these preferences and the effect of baseline attitudes will improve end-of-life discussions. To determine how baseline attitudes toward quality vs quantity of life affect end-of-life resource allocation. Otolaryngology-head and neck surgery (OHNS) physicians were recruited to use a validated online tool to create a Medicare health plan for advanced cancer patients. During the exercise, participants allocated a limited pool of resources among 15 benefit categories. These data were compared with preliminary data from patients with cancer and their caregivers obtained from a separate study using the same tool. Attitudes toward quality vs quantity of life were assessed for both physicians and patients and caregivers. Participation in online assessment exercise. Medicare resource allocation. Of 9120 OHNS physicians e-mailed, 767 participated. Data collected from this group were compared with data collected from 146 patients and 114 caregivers. Compared with patients and caregivers, OHNS physician allocations differed significantly in all 15 benefit categories except home care. When stratified by answers to 3 questions about baseline attitudes toward quality vs quantity of life, there were 3 categories in which allocations of patients and caregivers differed significantly from the group with the opposite attitude for at least 2 questions: other medical care (question 1, P attitude question: cash (question 1, P = .02), drugs (question 2, P = .03), and home care (question 3, P = .048). Patients with cancer and their caregivers have different preferences from physicians. These preferences are, for these patients and their caregivers, affected by their baseline health attitudes, but physician preferences are not. Understanding the effect of baseline attitudes is important for effective end

  9. Effect of social influence on effort-allocation for monetary rewards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, Jodi M; Treadway, Michael T; Curran, Max T; Calderon, Vanessa; Evins, A Eden

    2015-01-01

    Though decades of research have shown that people are highly influenced by peers, few studies have directly assessed how the value of social conformity is weighed against other types of costs and benefits. Using an effort-based decision-making paradigm with a novel social influence manipulation, we measured how social influence affected individuals' decisions to allocate effort for monetary rewards during trials with either high or low probability of receiving a reward. We found that information about the effort-allocation of peers modulated participant choices, specifically during conditions of low probability of obtaining a reward. This suggests that peer influence affects effort-based choices to obtain rewards especially under conditions of risk. This study provides evidence that people value social conformity in addition to other costs and benefits when allocating effort, and suggests that neuroeconomic studies that assess trade-offs between effort and reward should consider social environment as a factor that can influence decision-making.

  10. The fundamental optimal relations of the allocation, cost and effectiveness of the heat exchangers of a Carnot-like power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aragon-Gonzalez, G; Canales-Palma, A; Leon-Galicia, A; Rivera-Camacho, J M [PDPA, UAM-Azcapotzalco, Av San Pablo 180, Col. Reynosa, Azcapotzalco, 02200 Mexico, DF (Mexico)], E-mail: gag@correo.azc.uam.mx

    2009-10-23

    A stationary Carnot-like power plant model, with three sources of irreversibilities (the finite rate of heat transfers, heat leak and internal dissipations of the working fluid), is analyzed by a criterion of partial optimization for five objective functions (power, efficiency, ecological function, efficient power and {omega}-dot criterion). A remarkable result is that if two constraints (design rules) are applied alternatively: constrained internal thermal conductance or fixed total area of the heat exchangers from hot and cold sides; the optimal allocation, cost and effectiveness of the heat exchangers are the same for all these objective functions independently of the transfer heat law used. Thus, it is enough to find these optimal relations for only one, maximum power, when all heat transfers are linear. In particular, for the Curzon-Albhorn-like model (without heat leak), the criterion for the so-called ecological function, including other variables (the internal isentropic temperature ratio), becomes total.

  11. The fundamental optimal relations of the allocation, cost and effectiveness of the heat exchangers of a Carnot-like power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aragon-Gonzalez, G; Canales-Palma, A; Leon-Galicia, A; Rivera-Camacho, J M

    2009-01-01

    A stationary Carnot-like power plant model, with three sources of irreversibilities (the finite rate of heat transfers, heat leak and internal dissipations of the working fluid), is analyzed by a criterion of partial optimization for five objective functions (power, efficiency, ecological function, efficient power and Ω-dot criterion). A remarkable result is that if two constraints (design rules) are applied alternatively: constrained internal thermal conductance or fixed total area of the heat exchangers from hot and cold sides; the optimal allocation, cost and effectiveness of the heat exchangers are the same for all these objective functions independently of the transfer heat law used. Thus, it is enough to find these optimal relations for only one, maximum power, when all heat transfers are linear. In particular, for the Curzon-Albhorn-like model (without heat leak), the criterion for the so-called ecological function, including other variables (the internal isentropic temperature ratio), becomes total.

  12. Resource allocation in networks via coalitional games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shams, F.

    2016-01-01

    The main goal of this dissertation is to manage resource allocation in network engineering problems and to introduce efficient cooperative algorithms to obtain high performance, ensuring fairness and stability. Specifically, this dissertation introduces new approaches for resource allocation in

  13. Endogeneously arising network allocation rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slikker, M.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we study endogenously arising network allocation rules. We focus on three allocation rules: the Myerson value, the position value and the component-wise egalitarian solution. For any of these three rules we provide a characterization based on component efficiency and some balanced

  14. Allocation of authority in European health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolph, Christopher; Greer, Scott L; Massard da Fonseca, Elize

    2012-11-01

    Although many study the effects of different allocations of health policy authority, few ask why countries assign responsibility over different policies as they do. We test two broad theories: fiscal federalism, which predicts rational governments will concentrate information-intensive operations at lower levels, and redistributive and regulatory functions at higher levels; and "politicized federalism", which suggests a combination of systematic and historically idiosyncratic political variables interfere with efficient allocation of authority. Drawing on the WHO Health in Transition country profiles, we present new data on the allocation of responsibility for key health care policy tasks (implementation, provision, finance, regulation, and framework legislation) and policy areas (primary, secondary and tertiary care, public health and pharmaceuticals) in the 27 EU member states and Switzerland. We use a Bayesian multinomial mixed logit model to analyze how different countries arrive at different allocations of authority over each task and area of health policy, and find the allocation of powers broadly follows fiscal federalism. Responsibility for pharmaceuticals, framework legislation, and most finance lodges at the highest levels of government, acute and primary care in the regions, and provision at the local and regional levels. Where allocation does not follow fiscal federalism, it appears to reflect ethnic divisions, the population of states and regions, the presence of mountainous terrain, and the timing of region creation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Parental self-feeding effects on parental care levels and time allocation in Palestine sunbirds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shai Markman

    Full Text Available The trade-off between parents feeding themselves and their young is an important life history problem that can be considered in terms of optimal behavioral strategies. Recent studies on birds have tested how parents allocate the food between themselves and their young. Until now the effect of food consumption by parent birds on their food delivery to their young as well as other parental activities has rarely been studied. I have previously shown that parent Palestine sunbirds (Nectarinia osea will consume nectar and liquidized arthropods from artificial feeders. However, they will only feed their young with whole arthropods. This provided a unique opportunity to experimentally manipulate the food eaten by parents independent of that fed to their offspring. Here, I hypothesized that parents invest in their current young according to the quality of food that they themselves consume. Breeding pairs with two or three nestlings were provided with feeders containing water (control, sucrose solution (0.75 mol or liquidized mealworms mixed with sucrose solution (0.75 mol. As food quality in feeders increased (from water up to liquidized mealworms mixed with sucrose solution: 1 Parents (especially females increased their food delivery of whole arthropod prey to their young. 2 Only males increased their nest guarding effort. Nestling food intake and growth rate increased with increasing food quality of parents and decreasing brood size. These results imply that increasing the nutrient content of foods consumed by parent sunbirds allow them to increase the rate at which other foods are delivered to their young and to increase the time spent on other parental care activities.

  16. Adaptive Attention Allocation Support: Effects of System Conservativeness and Human Competence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Maanen, Peter-Paul; Lucassen, Teun; van Dongen, Kees; Schmorrow, Dylan D.; Fidopiastis, Cali M.

    2011-01-01

    Naval tactical picture compilation is a task for which allocation of attention to the right information at the right time is crucial. Performance on this task can be improved if a support system assists the human operator. However, there is evidence that benefits of support systems are highly

  17. Allocation of Talent in Society and Its Effect on Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strenze, Tarmo

    2013-01-01

    Several studies in psychology and economics have demonstrated that the average cognitive ability (talent) of people living in a society affects the economic development of the society. There is, however, reason to expect that the economic development of societies depends not just on the average level of talent but also on the allocation of talent…

  18. Perceived Human Resource Management Practices: Their Effect on Employee Absenteeism and Time Allocation at Work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, C.; Belschak, F.D.; den Hartog, D.N.; Pijnenburg, M.

    2014-01-01

    How employees spend their work time can have important consequences for organizations. Although some research has examined the relationship between human resource management (HRM) and employee absence, we know less about whether HRM also affects employees’ time allocation at work. This study

  19. Faculty Time Allocations and Research Productivity: Gender, Race, and Family Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellas, Marcia L.; Toutkoushian, Robert K.

    1999-01-01

    A study using data from 14,614 full-time faculty examined total work hours, research productivity, and allocation of work time among teaching, research, and service. The study found variation in time expenditures and research output influenced by gender, race/ethnicity, and marital/parental status, but findings were also sensitive to definitions…

  20. The effect of locational factors on task and time allocation in households

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ettema, D.F.; Schwanen, T.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of locational factors on task and time allocation on the household level. It is hypothesized that, if time constraints are less binding as a result of living in an urban area or owning more cars, spouses engage more often and longer in out-of-home activities and

  1. Cost-effectiveness analysis and efficient use of the pharmaceutical budget: the key role of clinical pharmacologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlin, Richard; Round, Jeff; Hulme, Claire; McCabe, Christopher

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide information about cost-effectiveness analysis and the roles of clinical pharmacologists generally in providing efficient health care. The paper highlights the potential consequences of 'off-label prescribing' and 'indication creep' behaviour given slower growth (or potential cuts) in the NHS budget. This paper highlights the key roles of clinical pharmacologists in delivering an efficient health care system when resources are allocated using cost-effectiveness analyses. It describes what cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) is and how incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) are used to identify efficient options. After outlining the theoretical framework within which using CEA can promote the efficient allocation of the health care budget, it considers the place of disinvestment within achieving efficient resource allocation. Clinical pharmacologists are argued to be critical to providing improved population health under CEA-based resource allocation processes because of their roles in implementation and disinvestment. Given that the challenges facing the United Kingdom National Health Service (NHS) are likely to increase, this paper sets out the stark choices facing clinical pharmacologists.

  2. Adaptive Allocation of Attention: Effects of Sex and Sociosexuality on Visual Attention to Attractive Opposite-Sex Faces

    OpenAIRE

    DUNCAN, LESLEY A.; PARK, JUSTIN H.; FAULKNER, JASON; SCHALLER, MARK; NEUBERG, STEVEN L.; KENRICK, DOUGLAS T.

    2007-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that, compared with sociosexually restricted individuals, those with an unrestricted approach to mating would selectively allocate visual attention to attractive opposite-sex others. We also tested for sex differences in this effect. Seventy-four participants completed the Sociosexual Orientation Inventory, and performed a computer-based task that assessed the speed with which they detected changes in attractive and unattractive male and female faces. Differences in r...

  3. Nitrogen nutrition of Canna indica: Effects of ammonium versus nitrate on growth, biomass allocation, photosynthesis, nitrate reductase activity and N uptake rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konnerup, Dennis; Brix, Hans

    2010-01-01

    The effects of inorganic nitrogen (N) source (NH4+, NO3- or both) on growth, biomass allocation, photosynthesis, N uptake rate, nitrate reductase activity and mineral composition of Canna indica were studied in hydroponic culture. The relative growth rates (0.05-0.06 g g-1 d-1), biomass allocation...

  4. Effect of optimum stratification on sampling with varying probabilities under proportional allocation

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Ejaz Husain Rizvi; Jaj P. Gupta; Manoj Bhargava

    2007-01-01

    The problem of optimum stratification on an auxiliary variable when the units from different strata are selected with probability proportional to the value of auxiliary variable (PPSWR) was considered by Singh (1975) for univariate case. In this paper we have extended the same problem, for proportional allocation, when two variates are under study. A cum. 3 R3(x) rule for obtaining approximately optimum strata boundaries has been provided. It has been shown theoretically as well as empiricall...

  5. SPECIFIC ALLOCATION FUND FOR ENERGY EFFICIENCY TO INCREASE QUALITY OF THE ENVIRONMENT IN INDONESIA (Mekanisme Dana Alokasi Khusus Efisiensi Energi dalam Mendukung Perbaikan Lingkungan di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Tri Haryanto

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Related to the climate change and economic development of environmentally friendly (green economy issues, the President has committed to reducing emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG by 26% on their own sources (BAU, and up to 41% with international support in 2020 through Presidential Decree No. 61 in 2011 about the National Action Plan for Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction (RAN-GRK. In addition to regulating the sectors that are considered to be the largest contributor to GHG emissions, the regulation also establishes funding sources RAN-GRK either through the APBN, APBD, as well as a variety of other sources constituted under the legislation. The main research question are; Is specific allocation fund (DAK can be used to fund energy efficiency?; if so, what procedure should be done? and how monitoring and evaluating of the energy efficiency of the use of DAK ? To answer those questions, researcher using qualitative library research, cross sectional collection of data for intensive analysis, interviews to some leading experts in the field and a number of Focused Group Discussions were also conducted to construct the policy analysis. Based on the analysis of the mechanism of transfer to the regions in Indonesia, it is possible to enlarge of DAK field for energy efficiency by asking Line Minister to proposed mechanism and send to the Ministry of Finance. This can be addressed to support the achievement of environmental friendly activities and reduce the burden of state budget subsidies. Some of things that must be done is to propose the allocation of DAK EE into government programs and to develop a variety of specificized and technical indicators related. ABSTRAK Terkait dengan komitmen dalam mengatasi dampak perubahan iklim serta isu pengembangan ekonomi rendah karbon, Pemerintah telah mengesahkan Peraturan Presiden (Perpres Nomor 61 Tahun 2011 tentang rencana Aksi Nasional Penurunan Emisi Gas Rumah Kaca Nasional (RAN-GRK tahun 2020

  6. Effect of social influence on effort-allocation for monetary rewards.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi M Gilman

    Full Text Available Though decades of research have shown that people are highly influenced by peers, few studies have directly assessed how the value of social conformity is weighed against other types of costs and benefits. Using an effort-based decision-making paradigm with a novel social influence manipulation, we measured how social influence affected individuals' decisions to allocate effort for monetary rewards during trials with either high or low probability of receiving a reward. We found that information about the effort-allocation of peers modulated participant choices, specifically during conditions of low probability of obtaining a reward. This suggests that peer influence affects effort-based choices to obtain rewards especially under conditions of risk. This study provides evidence that people value social conformity in addition to other costs and benefits when allocating effort, and suggests that neuroeconomic studies that assess trade-offs between effort and reward should consider social environment as a factor that can influence decision-making.

  7. Proposal Allocation Ratio as a Moderator of Interpersonal Responsibility Effects on Hostile Decision-Making in the Ultimatum Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyu Gong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Interpersonal responsibility is an indigenous Chinese personality construct, which is regarded to have positive social functions. Two studies were designed to explore the relationship among interpersonal responsibility, proposal allocation ratio, and responders’ hostile decisions in an ultimatum game. Study 1 was a scenario study using a hypothetical ultimatum game with a valid sample of 551 high school students. Study 2 was an experimental study which recruited 54 undergraduate students to play the incentivized ultimatum game online. The results of the two studies showed a significantly negative correlation between interpersonal responsibility and responders’ rejection responses only when the proposal allocation ratio was 3:7. In addition, in Study 2, interpersonal responsibility had negative effects on responders’ rejection responses under the offer of 3:7, even after controlling for the Big Five personality traits. Taken together, proposal allocation ratio might moderate the effects of interpersonal responsibility on hostile decision-making in the ultimatum game. The social function of interpersonal responsibility might be beyond the Big Five.

  8. Proposal Allocation Ratio as a Moderator of Interpersonal Responsibility Effects on Hostile Decision-Making in the Ultimatum Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xinyu; Xia, Ling-Xiang; Sun, Yanlin; Guo, Lei; Carpenter, Vanessa C.; Fang, Yuan; Chen, Yunli

    2017-01-01

    Interpersonal responsibility is an indigenous Chinese personality construct, which is regarded to have positive social functions. Two studies were designed to explore the relationship among interpersonal responsibility, proposal allocation ratio, and responders’ hostile decisions in an ultimatum game. Study 1 was a scenario study using a hypothetical ultimatum game with a valid sample of 551 high school students. Study 2 was an experimental study which recruited 54 undergraduate students to play the incentivized ultimatum game online. The results of the two studies showed a significantly negative correlation between interpersonal responsibility and responders’ rejection responses only when the proposal allocation ratio was 3:7. In addition, in Study 2, interpersonal responsibility had negative effects on responders’ rejection responses under the offer of 3:7, even after controlling for the Big Five personality traits. Taken together, proposal allocation ratio might moderate the effects of interpersonal responsibility on hostile decision-making in the ultimatum game. The social function of interpersonal responsibility might be beyond the Big Five. PMID:29184518

  9. Efficiency Effects of Bank Mergers and Acquisitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.P. Huizinga; J.H.M. Nelissen (Jan); R. Vander Vennet

    2001-01-01

    textabstractNext to technological progress and deregulation, the introduction of the euro is widely considered to be an important catalyst for bank consolidation in Europe. In order to assess the public policy issues surrounding bank mergers, this paper analyzes the efficiency effects of 52

  10. Is REDD+ effective, efficient, and equitable?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nathan, Iben; Pasgaard, Maya

    2017-01-01

    economic (efficiency), environmental (effectiveness), and social (equity) concerns at the same time by drawing on own field results from a REDD+ project in Cambodia. The paper follows three tracks. The first is to develop and explain the conceptual and analytical framework for our empirical investigations...

  11. Safeguards effectiveness criteria and safeguards efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, G.; Canty, M.J.; Knapp, U.; Munch, E.

    1983-01-01

    A critical examination of current tendencies in quantification, assessment and enhancement of the effectiveness of international safeguards is undertaken. It is suggested that the present narrow and overly technical interpretation of some elements of international safeguards is both impractical and detrimental. A pragmatic, case-bycase approach is called for to implement the provisions of safeguards agreements in a more balanced, efficient way

  12. Applied cost allocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogetoft, Peter; Hougaard, Jens Leth; Smilgins, Aleksandrs

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with empirical computation of Aumann–Shapley cost shares for joint production. We show that if one uses a mathematical programing approach with its non-parametric estimation of the cost function there may be observations in the data set for which we have multiple Aumann–Shapley p...... of assumptions concerning firm behavior. These assumptions enable us to connect inefficient with efficient production and thereby provide consistent ways of allocating the costs arising from inefficiency....

  13. The effect of water availability on plastic responses and biomass allocation in early growth traits of Pinus radiata D. Don

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinoza, S. E.; Magni, C. R.; Martinez, V. A.; Ivkovic, M.

    2013-05-01

    Aim of study: The aim of the study was to assess the effect of water availability on plastic responses and biomass allocation in early growth traits of Pinus radiata D. Don. Area of study: Seedlings of 69 families of P. radiata belonging to five different sites in Central Chile, ranging from coastal range to fothills of the Andes, were grown in controlled conditions to evaluate differences in response to watering. Material and methods: The seedlings were subjected to two watering regimes: well-watered treatment, in which seedlings were watered daily, and water stress treatment in which seedlings were subjected to three cyclic water deficits by watering to container capacity on 12 days cycles each. After twenty-eight weeks root collar diameter, height, shoot dry weight (stem + needles), root dry weight, total dry weight, height/diameter ratio and root/shoot ratio were recorded. Patterns and amounts of phenotypic changes, including changes in biomass allocation, were analyzed. Main results: Families from coastal sites presented high divergence for phenotypic changes, allocating more biomass to shoots, and those families from interior sites presented low phenotypic plasticity, allocating more biomass to roots at the expense of shoots. These changes are interpreted as a plastic response and leads to the conclusion that the local land race of P. radiata in Chile originating from contrasting environments possess distinct morphological responses to water deficit which in turn leads to phenotypic plasticity. Research highlights: Families belonging to sandy soil sites must be considered for tree breeding in dry areas, selecting those with high root: shoot ratio. (Author) 46 refs.

  14. The Ground Rules for Effective OBAs: Principles for Addressing Carbon-Pricing Competitiveness Concerns through the Use of Output-Based Allocations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Dobson

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The federal government’s decision to impose a minimum national price on carbon emissions has the potential to make certain businesses in the country less competitive. Specifically, there are emissions-intensive and trade-exposed industries across Canada that compete against producers from other jurisdictions where governments do not put a price on carbon. For these industries, the obligation to pay a carbon price creates a competitive disadvantage. Specifically, these businesses will face higher costs and may encounter a loss of market share to international competitors from jurisdictions that lack the same emission-control measures. That not only hurts Canadian businesses, it could also negate any emissions reductions that carbon pricing in Canada achieves on a global scale. The federal government has opted to protect such emissions-intensive, tradeexposed businesses using subsidies called output-based allocations (OBAs. This is the same system that Alberta is introducing through its forthcoming Carbon Competiveness Regulation. It also shares certain similarities with cap-and-trade programs, such as those in Ontario and Quebec, which provide free allocations of emissions permits to certain firms. OBAs are a desirable complementary policy to a carbon price as they maintain the incentive for producers to invest in production methods and facilities that are less emissions intensive. So while producers are still, nevertheless, subsidized to offset the tax burden of the carbon price, they will, under an OBA system, see greater benefits the more they work to reduce their emissions intensity. Still, to function most effectively and most efficiently, an OBA policy should follow certain key principles. The most critical principle in the design of an OBA policy is ensuring that OBAs are allocated to facilities independent of their individual emission levels, and allocated equally (on a per unit basis to facilities producing the same product. One of the

  15. The effect of temperate or tropical pasture grazing state and grain-based concentrate allocation on dairy cattle production and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, C E F; Kaur, R; Millapan, L O; Golder, H M; Thomson, P C; Horadagoda, A; Islam, M R; Kerrisk, K L; Garcia, S C

    2018-06-01

    yield, in line with greater pasture intakes, compared with fresh-depleted and depleted-depleted pasture states. Dairy cattle offered fresh-fresh kikuyu grass had 8% more milk yield and 14% more milk protein yield than other pastures states, but there was no effect of pasture state on milk composition. Milk yield increased with GBC level for both pasture species (∼0.7-0.8 kg of milk/kg of DM GBC) as GBC level increased from 2.5 to 5.4 kg of DM/cow per day. There was a poor response (0.3 kg of milk/kg of DM GBC), and no response, when GBC levels increased from 5.4 to 8.1 kg of DM/cow per day for kikuyu grass and ryegrass, respectively, in line with pasture DMD. Time spent grazing, lying, and ruminating were not associated with kikuyu grass pasture state, GBC, or their interaction. Despite this, there was a linear increase in grazing time in the afternoon coinciding with a linear decrease in lying and rumination time for both kikuyu grass and ryegrass pasture. Together these findings reveal the effect of pasture state and GBC allocation on dairy cattle production and behavior. Tailoring GBC allocation to the state of pasture accessed by cattle appears unwarranted, but there is an opportunity to alter the timing of pasture access to increase herd-level milk production efficiency. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effective, Efficient Online Training in Cooperative Extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Chin Young

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to keep pace with media and communications trends in education, Cooperative Extension (CE faces the need to shift from traditional face-to-face delivery to online alternatives. This exploratory study focused on evaluating the effectiveness of on-demand, interactive online training compared to its face-to-face counterpart. Targeted for CE staff and volunteers whose work impacts youth, families and communities, the design centered on the university’s cost-effective in-house technology tools. The study results make the case for online delivery as effective and efficient. Strategies for developing a process for online delivery in CE are also offered.

  17. Importance measures and resource allocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guey, C.N.; Morgan, T.; Hughes, E.A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses various importance measures and their practical relevance to allocating resources. The characteristics of importance measures are illustrated through simple examples. Important factors associated with effectively allocating resources to improve plant system performance or to prevent system degradation are discussed. It is concluded that importance measures are only indicative of and not equal to the risk significance of a component, system, or event. A decision framework is suggested to provide a comprehensive basis for resource allocation

  18. Time pressure and attention allocation effect on upper limb motion steadiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sicong; Eklund, Robert C; Tenenbaum, Gershon

    2015-01-01

    Following ironic process theory (IPT), the authors aimed at investigating how attentional allocation affects participants' upper limb motion steadiness under low and high levels of mental load. A secondary purpose was to examine the validity of skin conductance level in measuring perception of pressure. The study consisted of 1 within-participant factor (i.e., phase: baseline, test) and 4 between-participant factors (i.e., gender: male, female; mental load: fake time constraints, no time constraints; attention: positive, suppressive; order: baseline → → → test, test → → baseline). Eighty college students (40 men and 40 women, Mage = 20.20 years, SD(age) = 1.52 years) participated in the study. Gender-stratified random assignment was employed in a 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 mixed experimental design. The findings generally support IPT but its predictions on motor performance under mental load may not be entirely accurate. Unlike men, women's performance was not susceptible to manipulations of mental load and attention allocation. The validity of skin conductance readings as an index of pressure perception was called into question.

  19. Modelling the effect of environmental factors on resource allocation in mixed plants systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayler, Sebastian; Priesack, Eckart

    2010-05-01

    In most cases, growth of plants is determined by competition against neighbours for the local resources light, water and nutrients and by defending against herbivores and pathogens. Consequently, it is important for a plant to grow fast without neglecting defence. However, plant internal substrates and energy required to support maintenance, growth and defence are limited and the total demand for these processes cannot be met in most cases. Therefore, allocation of carbohydrates to growth related primary metabolism or to defence related secondary metabolism can be seen as a trade-off between the demand of plants for being competitive against neighbours and for being more resistant against pathogens. A modelling approach is presented which can be used to simulate competition for light, water and nutrients between plant individuals in mixed canopies. The balance of resource allocation between growth processes and synthesis of secondary compounds is modelled by a concept originating from different plant defence hypothesis. The model is used to analyse the impact of environmental factors such as soil water and nitrogen availability, planting density and atmospheric concentration of CO2 on growth of plant individuals within mixed canopies and variations in concentration of carbon-based secondary metabolites in plant tissues.

  20. Effects of plant sex on range distributions and allocation to reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Marc T J; Smith, Stacey D; Rausher, Mark D

    2010-05-01

    Despite an abundance of theory, few empirical studies have explored the ecological and evolutionary consequences of sex. We used a comparative phylogenetic approach to examine whether transitions between sexual and asexual reproduction are associated with changes in the size and distribution of species' geographical ranges, and their investment in reproduction. Here, we reconstructed the phylogeny of the genus Oenothera sections Oenothera and Calylophus (Onagraceae), which contain 35 sexual and 30 functionally asexual species. From each species, we collected data on the geographical distribution and variation in plant traits related to reproduction. Functionally asexual species occurred at higher latitudes, but did not differ in range size, compared with sexual species. Transitions to asexuality were associated with decreased investment in floral structures, including the length of petals, floral tubes and styles. Decreased anther size and increased seed size within asexual species also suggest altered allocation to male and female fitness. The observed range shifts are consistent with superior colonization of environments by asexual species following glaciation, and the observed changes in reproductive allocation support predictions made by models relating to the evolution of selfing. Our results suggest that the evolutionary consequences of asexual reproduction might be less restrictive than previously thought.

  1. Renewable portfolio standards and cost-effective energy-efficiency investment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahone, A.; Woo, C.K.; Williams, J.; Horowitz, I.

    2009-01-01

    Renewable portfolio standards (RPSs) and mandates to invest in cost-effective energy efficiency (EE) are increasingly popular policy tools to combat climate change and dependence on fossil fuels. These supply-side and demand-side policies, however, are often uncoordinated. Using California as a case in point, this paper demonstrates that states could improve resource allocation if these two policies were coordinated by incorporating renewable-energy procurement cost into the cost-effectiveness determination for EE investment. In particular, if renewable energy is relatively expensive when compared to conventional energy, increasing the RPS target raises the cost-effective level of EE investment

  2. Effects of Tidal Action on Pollination and Reproductive Allocation in an Estuarine Emergent Wetland Plant–Sagittaria graminea (Alismataceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanwen; Zhang, Lihui; Zhao, Xingnan; Huang, Shengjun; Zhao, Jimin

    2013-01-01

    In estuarine wetlands, the daily periodic tidal activity has a profound effect on plant growth and reproduction. We studied the effects of tidal action on pollination and reproductive allocation of Sagittaria graminea. Results showed that the species had very different reproductive allocation in tidal and non-tidal habitats. In the tidal area, seed production was only 9.7% of that in non-tidal habitat, however, plants produced more male flowers and nearly twice the corms compared to those in non-tidal habitat. An experiment showed that the time available for effective pollination determined the pollination rate and pollen deposition in the tidal area. A control experiment suggested that low pollen deposition from low visitation frequency is not the main cause of very low seed sets or seed production in this plant in tidal habitat. The negative effects of tides (water) on pollen germination may surpass the influence of low pollen deposition from low visitation frequency. The length of time from pollen deposition to flower being submerged by water affected pollen germination rate on stigmas; more than three hours is necessary to allow pollen germination and complete fertilization to eliminate the risk of pollen grains being washed away by tidal water. PMID:24244393

  3. Effects of tidal action on pollination and reproductive allocation in an estuarine emergent wetland plant-Sagittaria graminea (Alismataceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanwen Zhang

    Full Text Available In estuarine wetlands, the daily periodic tidal activity has a profound effect on plant growth and reproduction. We studied the effects of tidal action on pollination and reproductive allocation of Sagittaria graminea. Results showed that the species had very different reproductive allocation in tidal and non-tidal habitats. In the tidal area, seed production was only 9.7% of that in non-tidal habitat, however, plants produced more male flowers and nearly twice the corms compared to those in non-tidal habitat. An experiment showed that the time available for effective pollination determined the pollination rate and pollen deposition in the tidal area. A control experiment suggested that low pollen deposition from low visitation frequency is not the main cause of very low seed sets or seed production in this plant in tidal habitat. The negative effects of tides (water on pollen germination may surpass the influence of low pollen deposition from low visitation frequency. The length of time from pollen deposition to flower being submerged by water affected pollen germination rate on stigmas; more than three hours is necessary to allow pollen germination and complete fertilization to eliminate the risk of pollen grains being washed away by tidal water.

  4. Relationship Reciprocation Modulates Resource Allocation in Adolescent Social Networks: Developmental Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett Heyes, Stephanie; Jih, Yeou-Rong; Block, Per; Hiu, Chii-Fen; Holmes, Emily A; Lau, Jennifer Y F

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is characterized as a period of social reorientation toward peer relationships, entailing the emergence of sophisticated social abilities. Two studies (Study 1: N = 42, ages 13-17; Study 2: N = 81, ages 13-16) investigated age group differences in the impact of relationship reciprocation within school-based social networks on an experimental measure of cooperation behavior. Results suggest development between mid- and late adolescence in the extent to which reciprocation of social ties predicted resource allocation. With increasing age group, investment decisions increasingly reflected the degree to which peers reciprocated feelings of friendship. This result may reflect social-cognitive development, which could facilitate the ability to navigate an increasingly complex social world in adolescence and promote positive and enduring relationships into adulthood. © 2015 The Authors. Child Development published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Research in Child Development.

  5. The effect of carbon supply on allocation to allelochemicals and caterpillar consumption of peppermint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, D E; Couvet, D

    1989-01-01

    The carbon supply of peppermint plants was manipulated by growing clonal propagules under three carbon dioxide regimes (350, 500 and 650 μl l -1 ). Feeding by fourth instar caterpillars of Spodoptera eridania increased with elevated CO 2 hostplant regime, as well as with low leaf nitrogen content and by a high proportion of leaf volatile terpenoids. Leaf weight increased significantly with the increased carbon supply, but the amount of nitrogen per leaf did not change. The amount of volatile leaf mono-and sesquiterpenes increased proportionately with total leaf dry weight and hence was not influenced by CO 2 supply. These results are consistent with ecological hypotheses which assume that allocation to defense is closely regulated and not sensitive to carbon supply per se.

  6. Allocation of Parental Time and the Long Term Effect on Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wurtz, Astrid

    to the child's development, and it is shown that the quality of market provided childcare vs. the quality of parental childcare is crucial for the parents' decisions. The availability of paternal childcare does not seem to affect the mother's labor supply decision, though. Several different policy scenarios......This paper develops a structural model which links parental time use to a child's development in a household with two parents and one child. Since the allocation of home time and market work has become more equally distributed within households during the latest decades and since fathers seem...... to be an increasingly important part of their children's daily life, this study, opposite of most other studies within the childcare literature, explicitly takes both parents' time spent on childcare into account as well as childcare bought in the market. The parents' optimal labor supply decisions are linked...

  7. INFLUENCE OF SUBJECTIVISM ON THE EFFECTIVENESS OF STATE FINANCIAL CONTROL IN THE AREA OF BUDGET ALLOCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana Mishchenko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to study the impact of subjects of state financial control, primarily internal, over the budget on all levels of executive power, in order to eliminate subjectivity in their actions and increase the efficiency of public finances in general. Method. The study, which requires a deeper consideration of the issue of transformation of the content of the role performed by subjects of state financial control, primarily internal, in the presence of crisis phenomena in the economy. Methodology. The study of this issue is based on the analysis of the performance of the State Audit Service of Ukraine in identifying violations that led to losses of financial and material resources for the period of 2011–2017. Results. In our opinion, the dynamics of a constant decrease in the size of eliminated financial violations testifies to the insignificant effectiveness of the implemented control measures. The lowest, according to statistical indicators, is an indicator of elimination of financial violations in recent years, as well, the number of financial audits has also decreased significantly. Moreover, the number of inspections in individual cases had no effect on the final result. At the same time, the transition to new standards of inspections, with a view to deregulating and reducing the level of subjectivism, is less effective, but more transparent, which is positive in a slowdown of the economy, despite a certain reduction, but there is a significant level of corruption. Subjectivity in the actions of the controlling bodies can exert significant pressure on the entities subject to their supervision. Therefore, in order to achieve an optimal balance between the effectiveness of control measures and the reduction of pressure on economic entities, it is necessary to bring the existing system to standards that correspond to the level of developed countries. Currently, the process of changing approaches to inspections is based on

  8. Cognitive radio networks dynamic resource allocation schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Shaowei

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief presents a survey of dynamic resource allocation schemes in Cognitive Radio (CR) Systems, focusing on the spectral-efficiency and energy-efficiency in wireless networks. It also introduces a variety of dynamic resource allocation schemes for CR networks and provides a concise introduction of the landscape of CR technology. The author covers in detail the dynamic resource allocation problem for the motivations and challenges in CR systems. The Spectral- and Energy-Efficient resource allocation schemes are comprehensively investigated, including new insights into the trade-off

  9. Research advances on thereasonable water resources allocation in irrigation district

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xuebin, Qi; Zhongdong, Huang; Dongmei, Qiao

    2015-01-01

    The rational allocation of water resources for irrigation is important to improve the efficiency in utilization of water resources and ensuring food security, but also effective control measures need to be in place for the sustainable utilization of water resources in an irrigation area. The prog......The rational allocation of water resources for irrigation is important to improve the efficiency in utilization of water resources and ensuring food security, but also effective control measures need to be in place for the sustainable utilization of water resources in an irrigation area...... mechanism of water resources is not perfect, the model for optimal water resources allocation is not practical, and the basic conditions for optimal allocation of water resources is relatively weak. In order to solve those problems in water resources allocation practice, six important as?pects must...... in irrigation districts, studying the water resources control technology in irrigation districts by hydrology ecological system, studying the technologies of real?time risk dispatching and intelligent management in irrigation districts, and finally studying the technology of cou?pling optimal allocation...

  10. Value allocation to stakeholder employees and its effect on the competitiveness of the banking sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isac de Freitas Brandão

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – This paper investigates the relationship between corporate social responsibility practices geared towards stakeholder employees and the competitiveness and productivity of Brazilian banks. Design/methodology/approach – We carried out two association statistical analyses between the proxies of competitiveness and the variables that indicated of internal social responsibility: the JonckheereTerpstra test and regression analysis with Feasible Generalized Least Squares (FGLS modeling. The sample is made up of 21 banks listed in BM&FBovespa over the 2010-2014 period. Findings – The survey shows that corporate social responsibility practices geared towards employees impact the financial performance of banks. Employees’ salaries positively affected financial performance,and the latter was negatively affected by the rate of outsourcing, both explained by greater employee productivity. Employee turnover and female participation in management and governance bodies are directly related to competitiveness indicators, in a negative and positive way, respectively, with no regard to employee productivity. Originality/value – Banks that offer better CSR practices to their employees present greater financial gains and increased employee productivity. There are specific items that have the potential to lead to a competitive status, adding value to businesses and employees. This research argues that managers should identify the CSR practices that add value to their companies and the benefits derived from value allocation to employees.

  11. Effect of regulated deficit irrigation on the morphology, physiology, carbon allocation and nonstructural carbohydrates of three Kentucky bluegrasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, J. R.; Ma, L.; Liu, Y. K.; Liu, T. J.; Lu, J. N.; Wang, D. N.

    2015-01-01

    Regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) has been assessed in a wide number of field and fruit crops. However, few are the studies dealing with turfgrass. This study was conducted to investigate the morphology, physiology and carbon metabolic responses to regulated deficit irrigation for three Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) cultivars. Three Kentucky bluegrass cultivars were grown in PVC (polyvinyl chloride) tubes in a greenhouse and subjected to three soil water treatments in a growth chamber: 1) full irrigation; 2) drought stress, 21 days without water after full irrigation; and 3) drought recovery, stressed plants were re-watered for an additional 21 d. The present study indicated that drought resulted in a decline in turf quality (TQ), leaf relative water content (RWC), and photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm) and an increase in electrolyte leakage (EL) for the cultivars. The turf quality, RWC, and Fv/Fm of the three Kentucky bluegrass cultivars increased with re-watering. The allocation of /sup 14/ C increased in the roots of these cultivars during the initial phase of drought stress, where a /sup 14/ C distribution shift from the roots to the stem and leaves appeared with further drought stress. Moreover, there was a significant accumulation of total nonstructural carbohydrates (TNC) in the leaves and stem. The TNC content in the leaves, stem, and roots did not completely return to the control levels following 21 d of re-watering, which was consistent with the recovery of TQ, RWC, Fv/Fm, and EL. In addition, during the re-watering treatment, the reduction in the TNC content may be due to increases in the demand or usage as a result of a rapid recovery in the growth and physiological activities as shown by increased TQ, RWC, and Fv/Fm and decreased EL. Our results suggested that the changes in the carbon allocation model and the accumulation and storage of TNC, as well as the changes in TQ, RWC, Fv/Fm, and EL, for the three cultivars are an adaptive reaction to

  12. Effects of different irrigation regimes on fruit production, oil quality, water use efficiency and agronomic nitrogen use efficiency of pumpkin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Hamzei

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Effect of different irrigation regimes and nitrogen fertilizer on percentage of grain fatty acids, yield, water and nitrogen use efficiency of pumpkin was studies as split plot based on complete randomized block design with three replications in growing season of 2013. Irrigation treatments (320, 420, 600 and 900 mm ha-1 were se as main plots and nitrogen fertilizer (0, 130, 260, 390 and 520 kg urea ha-1 were allocated in subplots. The effect of irrigation and nitrogen on all traits was significant. Also, interaction of irrigation × nitrogen had significant effect on all traits except WUE and NUE. The Highest values of linoleic fatty acid (33.99%, fruit yield (4.40 kg m-2, grain yield (1.53 kg m-2 and agronomic nitrogen use efficiency (32.27 kg fruit/kg urea were achieved at consumption of 600 mm water ha-1 and application of 390 kg urea ha-1. The highest water use efficiency for fruit and grain yield; 56.61 and 1.10 kg mm-1, were revealed at 600 mm irrigation water ha-1. Between nitrogen levels, maximum and minimum WUE for fruit and grain yield were achieved at 390 kg urea and non application of urea treatments, respectively. Also, maximum agronomic nitrogen efficiency belonged to 390 kg urea and minimum this trait with 33 reductions was revealed at 520 kg urea. Based on the results of this research and with considering of water and nitrogen use efficiency, irrigation of pumpkin plants with 600 mm water ha-1 and consumption of 390 kg urea ha-1 was identified as a suitable treatment.

  13. The effects of prior knowledge on study-time allocation and free recall: investigating the discrepancy reduction model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkoeijen, Peter P J L; Rikers, Remy M J P; Schmidt, Henk G

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined the influence of prior knowledge activation on information processing by means of a prior knowledge activation procedure adopted from the read-generate paradigm. On the basis of cue-target pairs, participants in the experimental groups generated two different sets of items before studying a relevant list. Subsequently, participants were informed that they had to study the items in the list and that they should try to remember as many items as possible. The authors assessed the processing time allocated to the items in the list and free recall of those items. The results revealed that the experimental groups spent less time on items that had already been activated. In addition, the experimental groups outperformed the control group in overall free recall and in free recall of the activated items. Between-group comparisons did not demonstrate significant effects with respect to the processing time and free recall of nonactivated items. The authors interpreted these results in terms of the discrepancy reduction model of regulating the amount of processing time allocated to different parts of the list.

  14. Residency Allocation Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Residency Allocation Database is used to determine allocation of funds for residency programs offered by Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCs). Information...

  15. Effects of simulated root herbivory and fertilizer application on growth and biomass allocation in the clonal perennialSolidago canadensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, B; Miao, S L; Bazzaz, F A

    1990-08-01

    Compensatory growth in response to simulated belowground herbivory was studied in the old-field clonal perennialSolidago canadensis. We grew rootpruned plants and plants with intact root systems in soil with or without fertilizer. For individual current shoots (aerial shoot with rhizome and roots) and for whole clones the following predictions were tested: a) root removal is compensated by increased root growth, b) fertilizer application leads to increased allocation to aboveground plant organs and increased leaf turnover, c) effects of fertilizer application are reduced in rootpruned plants. When most roots (90%) were removed current shoots quickly restored equilibrium between above-and belowground parts by compensatory belowground growth whereas the whole clone responded with reduced aboveground growth. This suggests that parts of a clone which are shared by actively growing shoots act as a buffer that can be used as source of material for compensatory growth in response to herbivory. Current shoots increased aboveground mass and whole clones reduced belowground mass in response to fertilizer application, both leading to increased allocation to aboverground parts. Also with fertilizer application both root-pruned and not root-pruned plants increased leaf and shoot turnover. Unfertilized plants, whether rootpruned or not, showed practically no aboveground growth and very little leaf and shoot turnover. Effects of root removal were as severe or more severe under conditions of high as under conditions of low nutrients, suggesting that negative effects of belowground herbivory are not ameliorated by abundant nutrients. Root removal may negate some effects of fertilizer application on the growth of current shoots and whole clones.

  16. Cellular energy allocation in zebra mussels exposed along a pollution gradient: linking cellular effects to higher levels of biological organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolders, R.; Bervoets, L.; Coen, W. de; Blust, R.

    2004-01-01

    Organisms exposed to suboptimal environments incur a cost of dealing with stress in terms of metabolic resources. The total amount of energy available for maintenance, growth and reproduction, based on the biochemical analysis of the energy budget, may provide a sensitive measure of stress in an organism. While the concept is clear, linking cellular or biochemical responses to the individual and population or community level remains difficult. The aim of this study was to validate, under field conditions, using cellular energy budgets [i.e. changes in glycogen-, lipid- and protein-content and mitochondrial electron transport system (ETS)] as an ecologically relevant measurement of stress by comparing these responses to physiological and organismal endpoints. Therefore, a 28-day in situ bioassay with zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) was performed in an effluent-dominated stream. Five locations were selected along the pollution gradient and compared with a nearby (reference) site. Cellular Energy Allocation (CEA) served as a biomarker of cellular energetics, while Scope for Growth (SFG) indicated effects on a physiological level and Tissue Condition Index and wet tissue weight/dry tissue weight ratio were used as endpoints of organismal effects. Results indicated that energy budgets at a cellular level of biological organization provided the fastest and most sensitive response and energy budgets are a relevant currency to extrapolate cellular effects to higher levels of biological organization within the exposed mussels. - Exposure of zebra mussels along a pollution gradient has adverse effects on the cellular energy allocation, and results can be linked with higher levels of biological organization

  17. Cellular energy allocation in zebra mussels exposed along a pollution gradient: linking cellular effects to higher levels of biological organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smolders, R.; Bervoets, L.; Coen, W. de; Blust, R

    2004-05-01

    Organisms exposed to suboptimal environments incur a cost of dealing with stress in terms of metabolic resources. The total amount of energy available for maintenance, growth and reproduction, based on the biochemical analysis of the energy budget, may provide a sensitive measure of stress in an organism. While the concept is clear, linking cellular or biochemical responses to the individual and population or community level remains difficult. The aim of this study was to validate, under field conditions, using cellular energy budgets [i.e. changes in glycogen-, lipid- and protein-content and mitochondrial electron transport system (ETS)] as an ecologically relevant measurement of stress by comparing these responses to physiological and organismal endpoints. Therefore, a 28-day in situ bioassay with zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) was performed in an effluent-dominated stream. Five locations were selected along the pollution gradient and compared with a nearby (reference) site. Cellular Energy Allocation (CEA) served as a biomarker of cellular energetics, while Scope for Growth (SFG) indicated effects on a physiological level and Tissue Condition Index and wet tissue weight/dry tissue weight ratio were used as endpoints of organismal effects. Results indicated that energy budgets at a cellular level of biological organization provided the fastest and most sensitive response and energy budgets are a relevant currency to extrapolate cellular effects to higher levels of biological organization within the exposed mussels. - Exposure of zebra mussels along a pollution gradient has adverse effects on the cellular energy allocation, and results can be linked with higher levels of biological organization.

  18. Why does primary angioplasty not work in registries? Quantifying the susceptibility of real-world comparative effectiveness data to allocation bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Sayan; Davies, Justin E; Malik, Iqbal S; Foale, Rodney A; Mikhail, Ghada W; Hadjiloizou, Nearchos; Hughes, Alun; Mayet, Jamil; Francis, Darrel P

    2012-11-01

    Meta-analysis of registries (comparative effectiveness research) shows that primary angioplasty and fibrinolysis have equivalent real-world survival. Yet, randomized, controlled trials consistently find primary angioplasty superior. Can unequal allocation of higher-risk patients in registries have masked primary angioplasty benefit? First, we constructed a model to demonstrate the potential effect of allocation bias. We then analyzed published registries (55022 patients) for allocation of higher-risk patients (Killip class ≥1) to determine whether the choice of reperfusion therapy was affected by the risk level of the patient. Meta-regression was used to examine the relationship between differences in allocation of high-risk patient to primary angioplasty or fibrinolysis and mortality. Initial modeling suggested that registry outcomes are sensitive to allocation bias of high-risk patients. Across the registries, the therapy receiving excess high-risk patients had worse mortality. Unequal distribution of high-risk status accounted for most of the between-registry variance (adjusted R(2)(meta)=83.1%). Accounting for differential allocation of higher-risk patients, primary angioplasty gave 22% lower mortality (odds ratio, 0.78; 95% confidence interval, 0.64-0.97; P=0.029). We derive a formula, called the number needed to abolish, highlighting situations in which comparative effectiveness studies are particularly vulnerable to this bias. In ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, clinicians' preference for management of a few high-risk patients can shift mortality substantially. Comparative effectiveness research in any disease is vulnerable to this, especially diseases with an immediately identifiable high-risk subgroup that clinicians prefer to allocate to 1 therapy. For this reason, preliminary indications from registry-based comparative effectiveness research should be definitively tested by randomized, controlled trials.

  19. Optimal Register Allocation by Augmented Left-Edge Algorithm on Arbitrary Control-Flow Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruvald Pedersen, Mark; Madsen, Jan

    2012-01-01

    for allocation to be done using only quasi-local and local allocation - avoiding the complexity of true global allocation. As local allocation is much simpler than global allocation, this approach emphasizes efficiency and ease of implementation - at a cost of an increased number of register transfers compared...... to other allocators. Experiments show that runtime is linear for all practical purposes....

  20. Understanding Cost-Effectiveness of Energy Efficiency Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Discusses the five standard tests used to assess the cost-effectiveness of energy efficiency, how states are using these tests, and how the tests can be used to determine the cost-effectiveness of energy efficiency measures.

  1. Transport Infrastructure Slot Allocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolstra, K.

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis, transport infrastructure slot allocation has been studied, focusing on selection slot allocation, i.e. on longer-term slot allocation decisions determining the traffic patterns served by infrastructure bottlenecks, rather than timetable-related slot allocation problems. The

  2. Efficiency and cavitation effects of hydroturbine venting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.K.; March, P.A.

    1991-01-01

    In many hydropower reservoirs, organic material washes into the reservoir during spring rains and settles to the bottom. During the summer moths, thermal stratification of the reservoir produces a surface layer of less dense, warm water with relatively high dissolved oxygen (DO) levels. The dissolved oxygen in the colder water on the bottom react with organic sediments to create a layer with reduced DO levels. Hydroturbine intakes typically withdraw water from this oxygen-depleted layer. Seasonally low DO levels in turbine discharges are the most significant environmental problem for many hydroelectric facilities. It has been summarized that much of the past work on aeration of hydroturbine releases to improve downstream water quality. Conventional alternatives for increasing dissolved oxygen levels in hydropower releases include selective withdrawal intakes, weirs, surface pumps, diffusers, and compressors. Alabama Power Company pioneered the use of draft tube baffles to pull air directly into hydroturbines and increase aeration over a wider range of operating conditions. At its Norris Hydro plant, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) has installed hub baffles which create localized low pressure areas and aspirate air into the turbine discharge. This paper describes test conducted to evaluate the effect of these hub baffles on hydroturbine efficiency and cavitation

  3. Cellular Energy Allocation to Assess the Impact of Nanomaterials on Soil Invertebrates (Enchytraeids: The Effect of Cu and Ag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana I. L. Gomes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of several copper (Cu and silver (Ag nanomaterials were assessed using the cellular energy allocation (CEA, a methodology used to evaluate the energetic status and which relates with organisms’ overall condition and response to toxic stress. Enchytraeus crypticus (Oligochatea, was exposed to the reproduction effect concentrations EC20/50 of several Cu and Ag materials (CuNO3, Cu-Field, Cu-Nwires and Cu-NPs; AgNO3, Ag NM300K, Ag-NPs Non-coated and Ag-NPs PVP-coated for 7 days (0-3-7d. The parameters measured were the total energy reserves available (protein, carbohydrate and lipid budgets and the energy consumption (Ec integrated to obtain the CEA. Results showed that these parameters allowed a clear discrimination between Cu and Ag, but less clearly within each of the various materials. For Cu there was an increase in Ec and protein budget, while for Ag a decrease was observed. The results corroborate known mechanisms, e.g., with Cu causing an increase in metabolic rate whereas Ag induces mitochondrial damage. The various Cu forms seem to activate different mechanisms with size and shape (e.g., Cu-NPs versus Cu-Nwires, causing clearly different effects. For Ag, results are in line with a slower oxidation rate of Ag-NMs in comparison with Ag-salt and hence delayed effects.

  4. Cellular energy allocation in zebra mussels exposed along a pollution gradient: linking cellular effects to higher levels of biological organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolders, R; Bervoets, L; De Coen, W; Blust, R

    2004-05-01

    Organisms exposed to suboptimal environments incur a cost of dealing with stress in terms of metabolic resources. The total amount of energy available for maintenance, growth and reproduction, based on the biochemical analysis of the energy budget, may provide a sensitive measure of stress in an organism. While the concept is clear, linking cellular or biochemical responses to the individual and population or community level remains difficult. The aim of this study was to validate, under field conditions, using cellular energy budgets [i.e. changes in glycogen-, lipid- and protein-content and mitochondrial electron transport system (ETS)] as an ecologically relevant measurement of stress by comparing these responses to physiological and organismal endpoints. Therefore, a 28-day in situ bioassay with zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) was performed in an effluent-dominated stream. Five locations were selected along the pollution gradient and compared with a nearby (reference) site. Cellular Energy Allocation (CEA) served as a biomarker of cellular energetics, while Scope for Growth (SFG) indicated effects on a physiological level and Tissue Condition Index and wet tissue weight/dry tissue weight ratio were used as endpoints of organismal effects. Results indicated that energy budgets at a cellular level of biological organization provided the fastest and most sensitive response and energy budgets are a relevant currency to extrapolate cellular effects to higher levels of biological organization within the exposed mussels.

  5. Establishing Cost-Effective Allocation of Proton Therapy for Breast Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mailhot Vega, Raymond B.; Ishaq, Omar; Raldow, Ann; Perez, Carmen A.; Jimenez, Rachel; Scherrer-Crosbie, Marielle; Bussiere, Marc; Taghian, Alphonse; Sher, David J.; MacDonald, Shannon M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Cardiac toxicity due to conventional breast radiation therapy (RT) has been extensively reported, and it affects both the life expectancy and quality of life of affected women. Given the favorable oncologic outcomes in most women irradiated for breast cancer, it is increasingly paramount to minimize treatment side effects and improve survivorship for these patients. Proton RT offers promise in limiting heart dose, but the modality is costly and access is limited. Using cost-effectiveness analysis, we provide a decision-making tool to help determine which breast cancer patients may benefit from proton RT referral. Methods and Materials: A Markov cohort model was constructed to compare the cost-effectiveness of proton versus photon RT for breast cancer management. The model was analyzed for different strata of women based on age (40 years, 50 years, and 60 years) and the presence or lack of cardiac risk factors (CRFs). Model entrants could have 1 of 3 health states: healthy, alive with coronary heart disease (CHD), or dead. Base-case analysis assumed CHD was managed medically. No difference in tumor control was assumed between arms. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis was performed to test model robustness and the influence of including catheterization as a downstream possibility within the health state of CHD. Results: Proton RT was not cost-effective in women without CRFs or a mean heart dose (MHD) <5 Gy. Base-case analysis noted cost-effectiveness for proton RT in women with ≥1 CRF at an approximate minimum MHD of 6 Gy with a willingness-to-pay threshold of $100,000/quality-adjusted life-year. For women with ≥1 CRF, probabilistic sensitivity analysis noted the preference of proton RT for an MHD ≥5 Gy with a similar willingness-to-pay threshold. Conclusions: Despite the cost of treatment, scenarios do exist whereby proton therapy is cost-effective. Referral for proton therapy may be cost-effective for patients with ≥1 CRF in cases for which

  6. Establishing Cost-Effective Allocation of Proton Therapy for Breast Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mailhot Vega, Raymond B.; Ishaq, Omar [Department of Radiation Oncology, NYU School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States); Raldow, Ann [Radiation Oncology Program, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Perez, Carmen A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, NYU School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States); Jimenez, Rachel [Department of Radiation Oncology, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Scherrer-Crosbie, Marielle [Cardiovascular Research Center, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Bussiere, Marc; Taghian, Alphonse [Department of Radiation Oncology, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Sher, David J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, San Antonio, Texas (United States); MacDonald, Shannon M., E-mail: smacdonald@partners.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Purpose: Cardiac toxicity due to conventional breast radiation therapy (RT) has been extensively reported, and it affects both the life expectancy and quality of life of affected women. Given the favorable oncologic outcomes in most women irradiated for breast cancer, it is increasingly paramount to minimize treatment side effects and improve survivorship for these patients. Proton RT offers promise in limiting heart dose, but the modality is costly and access is limited. Using cost-effectiveness analysis, we provide a decision-making tool to help determine which breast cancer patients may benefit from proton RT referral. Methods and Materials: A Markov cohort model was constructed to compare the cost-effectiveness of proton versus photon RT for breast cancer management. The model was analyzed for different strata of women based on age (40 years, 50 years, and 60 years) and the presence or lack of cardiac risk factors (CRFs). Model entrants could have 1 of 3 health states: healthy, alive with coronary heart disease (CHD), or dead. Base-case analysis assumed CHD was managed medically. No difference in tumor control was assumed between arms. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis was performed to test model robustness and the influence of including catheterization as a downstream possibility within the health state of CHD. Results: Proton RT was not cost-effective in women without CRFs or a mean heart dose (MHD) <5 Gy. Base-case analysis noted cost-effectiveness for proton RT in women with ≥1 CRF at an approximate minimum MHD of 6 Gy with a willingness-to-pay threshold of $100,000/quality-adjusted life-year. For women with ≥1 CRF, probabilistic sensitivity analysis noted the preference of proton RT for an MHD ≥5 Gy with a similar willingness-to-pay threshold. Conclusions: Despite the cost of treatment, scenarios do exist whereby proton therapy is cost-effective. Referral for proton therapy may be cost-effective for patients with ≥1 CRF in cases for which

  7. Emergent Leadership and Team Effectiveness on a Team Resource Allocation Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-01

    ship rather than socioemotional leadership (Bales & Slater, 1955) and since task- oriented behavior is more likely to occur during the trials (when...Self-attention theory (Mullen, 1983) suggests that sex composition would have other effects on behavior in the group. Mullen argues that self...likely to lead. That firjug is consistent with self-attention theory (Mullen, 1963), which indicates that individuals in a minority are nmore self

  8. Bounds in the location-allocation problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Henrik

    1981-01-01

    Develops a family of stronger lower bounds on the objective function value of the location-allocation problem. Solution methods proposed to solve problems in location-allocation; Efforts to develop a more efficient bound solution procedure; Determination of the locations of the sources....

  9. Directed networks, allocation properties and hierarchy formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slikker, M.; Gilles, R.P.; Norde, H.W.; Tijs, S.H.

    2005-01-01

    We investigate properties for allocation rules on directed communication networks and the formation of such networks under these payoff properties. We study allocation rules satisfying two appealing properties, Component Efficiency (CE) and the Hierarchical Payoff Property (HPP). We show that such

  10. Nash social welfare in multiagent resource allocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramezani, S.; Endriss, U.; David, E.; Gerding, E.; Sarne, D.; Shehory, O.

    2010-01-01

    We study different aspects of the multiagent resource allocation problem when the objective is to find an allocation that maximizes Nash social welfare, the product of the utilities of the individual agents. The Nash solution is an important welfare criterion that combines efficiency and fairness

  11. Bidding for surplus in network allocation problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slikker, M.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we study non-cooperative foundations of network allocation rules. We focus on three allocation rules: the Myerson value, the position value and the component-wise egalitarian solution. For any of these three rules we provide a characterization based on component efficiency and some

  12. Simulating long-term effectiveness and efficiency of management scenarios for an invasive grass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Holcombe, Tracy R.; Cullinane Thomas, Catherine; Frid, Leonardo; Olsson, Aaryn D.

    2015-01-01

    Resource managers are often faced with trade-offs in allocating limited resources to manage plant invasions. These decisions must often be made with uncertainty about the location of infestations, their rate of spread and effectiveness of management actions. Landscape level simulation tools such as state-and-transition simulation models (STSMs) can be used to evaluate the potential long term consequences of alternative management strategies and help identify those strategies that make efficient use of resources. We analyzed alternative management scenarios for African buffelgrass (Pennisetum ciliare syn. Cenchrus ciliaris) at Ironwood Forest National Monument, Arizona using a spatially explicit STSM implemented in the Tool for Exploratory Landscape Scenario Analyses (TELSA). Buffelgrass is an invasive grass that is spreading rapidly in the Sonoran Desert, affecting multiple habitats and jurisdictions. This invasion is creating a novel fire risk and transforming natural ecosystems. The model used in this application incorporates buffelgrass dispersal and establishment and management actions and effectiveness including inventory, treatment and post-treatment maintenance. We simulated 11 alternative scenarios developed in consultation with buffelgrass managers and other stakeholders. The scenarios vary according to the total budget allocated for management and the allocation of that budget between different kinds of management actions. Scenario results suggest that to achieve an actual reduction and stabilization of buffelgrass populations, management unconstrained by fiscal restrictions and across all jurisdictions and private lands is required; without broad and aggressive management, buffelgrass populations are expected to increase over time. However, results also suggest that large upfront investments can achieve control results that require relatively minimal spending in the future. Investing the necessary funds upfront to control the invasion results in the most

  13. Simulating long-term effectiveness and efficiency of management scenarios for an invasive grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine S. Jarnevich

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Resource managers are often faced with trade-offs in allocating limited resources to manage plant invasions. These decisions must often be made with uncertainty about the location of infestations, their rate of spread and effectiveness of management actions. Landscape level simulation tools such as state-and-transition simulation models (STSMs can be used to evaluate the potential long term consequences of alternative management strategies and help identify those strategies that make efficient use of resources. We analyzed alternative management scenarios for African buffelgrass (Pennisetum ciliare syn. Cenchrus ciliaris at Ironwood Forest National Monument, Arizona using a spatially explicit STSM implemented in the Tool for Exploratory Landscape Scenario Analyses (TELSA. Buffelgrass is an invasive grass that is spreading rapidly in the Sonoran Desert, affecting multiple habitats and jurisdictions. This invasion is creating a novel fire risk and transforming natural ecosystems. The model used in this application incorporates buffelgrass dispersal and establishment and management actions and effectiveness including inventory, treatment and post-treatment maintenance. We simulated 11 alternative scenarios developed in consultation with buffelgrass managers and other stakeholders. The scenarios vary according to the total budget allocated for management and the allocation of that budget between different kinds of management actions. Scenario results suggest that to achieve an actual reduction and stabilization of buffelgrass populations, management unconstrained by fiscal restrictions and across all jurisdictions and private lands is required; without broad and aggressive management, buffelgrass populations are expected to increase over time. However, results also suggest that large upfront investments can achieve control results that require relatively minimal spending in the future. Investing the necessary funds upfront to control the invasion

  14. Peripheral visual feedback: a powerful means of supporting effective attention allocation in event-driven, data-rich environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolic, M I; Sarter, N B

    2001-01-01

    Breakdowns in human-automation coordination in data-rich, event-driven domains such as aviation can be explained in part by a mismatch between the high degree of autonomy yet low observability of modern technology. To some extent, the latter is the result of an increasing reliance in feedback design on foveal vision--an approach that fails to support pilots in tracking system-induced changes and events in parallel with performing concurrent flight-related tasks. One possible solution to the problem is the distribution of tasks and information across sensory modalities and processing channels. A simulator study is presented that compared the effectiveness of current foveal feedback and two implementations of peripheral visual feedback for keeping pilots informed about uncommanded changes in the status of an automated cockpit system. Both peripheral visual displays resulted in higher detection rates and faster response times, without interfering with the performance of concurrent visual tasks any more than does currently available automation feedback. Potential applications include improved display designs that support effective attention allocation in a variety of complex dynamic environments, such as aviation, process control, and medicine.

  15. Allocation of Parental Time and the Long-Term Effect on Children´s Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    of market-provided childcare vs. the quality of parental childcare is crucial for parents´ time use decisions but availability of paternal childcare does not directly affect the mother´s childcare decision. The effect of parental childcare time on children´s educational outcome is tested using Danish time......This paper empirically and theoretically links parental time use decisions to child development in a household with two full-time employed parents. Both parents. time spent on childcare is explicitly taken into account as well as childcare bought in the market. It is shown that the quality...... use data combined with administrative register data. I find a statistically signi.cant positive association between mothers´ childcare time on weekdays and children´s outcomes as well as a positive association between fathers´ childcare time on weekends and children´s outcomes. Parents.time spent...

  16. Size-dependent sex allocation in Aconitum gymnandrum (Ranunculaceae): physiological basis and effects of maternal family and environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Z-G; Meng, J-L; Fan, B-L; Du, G-Z

    2008-11-01

    Theory predicts size-dependent sex allocation (SDS): flowers on plants with a high-resource status should have larger investment in females than plants with a low-resource status. Through a pot experiment with Aconitum gymnandrum (Ranunculaceae) in the field, we examined the relationship between sex allocation of individual flowers and plant size for different maternal families under different environmental conditions. We also determined the physiological base of variations in plant size. Our results support the prediction of SDS, and show that female-biased allocation with plant size is consistent under different environmental conditions. Negative correlations within families showed a plastic response of sex allocation to plant size. Negative genetic correlations between sex allocation and plant size at the family level indicate a genetic cause of the SDS pattern, although genetic correlation was influenced by environmental factors. Hence, the size-dependency of sex allocation in this species had both plastic and genetic causes. Furthermore, genotypes that grew large also had higher assimilation ability, thus showing a physiological basis for SDS.

  17. Effect of culture and density on aboveground biomass allocation of 12 years old loblolly pine trees in the upper coastal plain and piedmont of Georgia and Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santosh Subedi; Dr. Michael Kane; Dr. Dehai Zhao; Dr. Bruce Borders; Dr. Dale Greene

    2012-01-01

    We destructively sampled a total of 192 12-year-old loblolly pine trees from four installations established by the Plantation Management Research Cooperative (PMRC) to analyze the effects of planting density and cultural intensity on tree level biomass allocation in the Piedmont and Upper Coastal Plain of Georgia and Alabama. Each installation had 12 plots, each plot...

  18. Measuring the Socioeconomic and Environmental Effects of Energy Efficiency Investments for a More Sustainable Spanish Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Medina

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We present here an application of a multisector economic model to simulate the impact of investing in energy-efficiency-related sectors. Given the value chain of energy production shows several aspects to be improved, this paper intends to identify the economic sectors where investment should be allocated in order to reach the targeted energy efficiency levels in the overall economic system. We expect that an improvement in energy efficiency will bring a fall in electricity demand. Simulating these impacts will enable an assessment of the macroeconomic effects of such demand-side changes in Spain. For simulation purposes, we will use input–output methodology, based on data from a Spanish input–output table from the year 2012 that we have constructed. The scenario used for modeling has been obtained from the objectives proposed by the European Union for 2030, specifically the one promoting an increase to at least a 27% increase in energy efficiency compared with the business-as-usual scenario. This demand-side model enables us to measure the potential sector-by-sector growth of the Spanish economy and to calculate households’ expected savings in energy bills due to the implementation of energy efficiency measures. The impacts of employment and CO2 emissions are also quantified as a result of the investments aimed at improving energy efficiency.

  19. Effect of health expenses on household capabilities and resource allocation in a rural commune in Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Thuy Nguyen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Significant health expenses can force households to reduce consumption of items required for daily living and long-term well-being, depriving them of the capability to lead economically stable and healthy lives. Previous studies of out-of-pocket (OOP and other health expenses have typically characterized them as "catastrophic" in terms of a threshold level or percentage of household income. We aim to re-conceptualize the impact of health expenses on household "flourishing" in terms of "basic capabilities." METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a 2008 survey covering 697 households, on consumption patterns and health treatments for the previous 12 months. We compare consumption patterns between households with and without inpatient treatment, and between households with different levels of outpatient treatment, for the entire study sample as well as among different income quartiles. We find that compared to households without inpatient treatment and with lower levels of outpatient treatment, households with inpatient treatment and higher levels of outpatient treatment reduced investments in basic capabilities, as evidenced by decreased consumption of food, education and production means. The lowest income quartile showed the most significant decrease. No quartile with inpatient or high-level outpatient treatment was immune to reductions. CONCLUSIONS: The effects of health expenses on consumption patterns might well create or exacerbate poverty and poor health, particularly for low income households. We define health expenditures as catastrophic by their reductions of basic capabilities. Health policy should reform the OOP system that causes this economic and social burden.

  20. SSC accelerator availability allocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, K.T.; Franciscovich, J.

    1991-03-01

    Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) operational availability is an area of major concern, judged by the Central Design Group to present such risk that use of modern engineering tools would be essential to program success. Experience has shown that as accelerator beam availability falls below about 80%, efficiency of physics experiments degrades rapidly due to inability to maintain adequate coincident accelerator and detector operation. For this reason, the SSC availability goal has been set at 80%, even though the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory accelerator, with a fraction of the SSC's complexity, has only recently approached that level. This paper describes the allocation of the top-level goal to part-level reliability and maintainability requirements, and it gives the results of parameter sensitivity studies designed to help identify the best approach to achieve the needed system availability within funding and schedule constraints. 1 ref., 12 figs., 4 tabs

  1. Salinity Effects on Photosynthesis, Carbon Allocation, and Nitrogen Assimilation in the Red Alga, Gelidium coulteri1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macler, Bruce A.

    1988-01-01

    The long-term effects of altered salinities on the physiology of the intertidal red alga Gelidium coulteri Harv. were assessed. Plants were transfered from 30 grams per liter salinity to media with salinities from 0 to 50 grams per liter. Growth rate, agar, photosynthesis, respiration, and various metabolites were quantified after 5 days and 5 weeks adaptation. After 5 days, growth rates were lower for plants at all altered salinities. Growth rates recovered from these values with 5 weeks adaptation, except for salinities of 10 grams per liter and below, where tissues bleached and died. Photosynthetic O2 evolution was lower than control values at both higher and lower salinities after 5 days and did not change over time. Carbon fixation at the altered salinities was unchanged after 5 days, but decreased below 25 grams per liter and above 40 grams per liter after 5 weeks. Respiration increased at lower salinities. Phycobili-protein and chlorophyll were lower for all altered salinities after 5 days. These decreases continued at lower salinities, then were stable after 5 weeks. Chlorophyll recovered over time at higher salinities. Decreases in protein at lower salinities were quantitatively attributable to phycobili-protein loss. Total N levels and C:N ratios were nearly constant across all salinities tested. Carbon flow into glutamate and aspartate decreased with both decreasing and increasing salinities. Glycine, serine, and glycolate levels increased with both increasing and decreasing salinity, indicating a stimulation of photorespiration. The cell wall component agar increased with decreasing salinity, although biosynthesis was inhibited at both higher and lower salinities. The storage compound floridoside increased with increasing salinity. The evidence suggests stress responses to altered salinities that directly affected photosynthesis, respiration, and nitrogen assimilation and indirectly affected photosynthate flow. At low salinities, respiration and

  2. Salinity Effects on Photosynthesis, Carbon Allocation, and Nitrogen Assimilation in the Red Alga, Gelidium coulteri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macler, B A

    1988-11-01

    The long-term effects of altered salinities on the physiology of the intertidal red alga Gelidium coulteri Harv. were assessed. Plants were transfered from 30 grams per liter salinity to media with salinities from 0 to 50 grams per liter. Growth rate, agar, photosynthesis, respiration, and various metabolites were quantified after 5 days and 5 weeks adaptation. After 5 days, growth rates were lower for plants at all altered salinities. Growth rates recovered from these values with 5 weeks adaptation, except for salinities of 10 grams per liter and below, where tissues bleached and died. Photosynthetic O(2) evolution was lower than control values at both higher and lower salinities after 5 days and did not change over time. Carbon fixation at the altered salinities was unchanged after 5 days, but decreased below 25 grams per liter and above 40 grams per liter after 5 weeks. Respiration increased at lower salinities. Phycobili-protein and chlorophyll were lower for all altered salinities after 5 days. These decreases continued at lower salinities, then were stable after 5 weeks. Chlorophyll recovered over time at higher salinities. Decreases in protein at lower salinities were quantitatively attributable to phycobili-protein loss. Total N levels and C:N ratios were nearly constant across all salinities tested. Carbon flow into glutamate and aspartate decreased with both decreasing and increasing salinities. Glycine, serine, and glycolate levels increased with both increasing and decreasing salinity, indicating a stimulation of photorespiration. The cell wall component agar increased with decreasing salinity, although biosynthesis was inhibited at both higher and lower salinities. The storage compound floridoside increased with increasing salinity. The evidence suggests stress responses to altered salinities that directly affected photosynthesis, respiration, and nitrogen assimilation and indirectly affected photosynthate flow. At low salinities, respiration and

  3. The effect of current flow direction on motor hot spot allocation by transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephani, Caspar; Paulus, Walter; Sommer, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the significance of pulse configurations and current direction for corticospinal activation using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). In 11 healthy subjects (8 female), a motor map for the motor evoked potentials (MEPs) recorded from the first dorsal interosseus (FDI), abductor digiti minimi (ADM), extensor carpi radialis, and biceps brachii (BB) muscles of the dominant side was established. Starting from a manually determined hot spot of the FDI representation, we measured MEPs at equal oriented points on an hexagonal grid, with 7 MEPs recorded at each point, using the following pulse configurations: posteriorly directed monophasic (Mo-P), anteriorly directed monophasic (Mo-A), biphasic with the more relevant second cycle oriented posteriorly (Bi-P) as well as a reversed biphasic condition (Bi-A). For each pulse configuration, a hot spot was determined and a center of gravity (CoG) was calculated. We found that the factor current direction had an effect on location of the CoG-adjusted hot spot in the cranio-caudal axis but not in the latero-medial direction with anteriorly directed pulses locating the CoG more anteriorly and vice versa. In addition, the CoG for the FDI was more laterally than the cortical representations for the abductor digiti minimi (ADM) and extensor carpi radialis (ECR) which were registered as well. The results indicate that direction of the current pulse should be taken into account for determination of the motor representation of a muscle by TMS. © 2015 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  4. Cue Effectiveness in Communicatively Efficient Discourse Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Ting; Jaeger, T. Florian

    2012-01-01

    Recent years have seen a surge in accounts motivated by information theory that consider language production to be partially driven by a preference for communicative efficiency. Evidence from discourse production (i.e., production beyond the sentence level) has been argued to suggest that speakers distribute information across discourse so as to…

  5. The effect of rounding on payment efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijwaard, G.E.; Franses, P.H.

    2009-01-01

    Theory predicts that dismissing the 1 and 2 euro cent coins from the denominational range of the euro facilitates payment efficiency. To examine whether this theory holds true in practice, data were collected for the Netherlands before and after September 2004, which marks the day that retail stores

  6. Effect of Minimalist Footwear on Running Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillinov, Stephen M.; Laux, Sara; Kuivila, Thomas; Hass, Daniel; Joy, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although minimalist footwear is increasingly popular among runners, claims that minimalist footwear enhances running biomechanics and efficiency are controversial. Hypothesis: Minimalist and barefoot conditions improve running efficiency when compared with traditional running shoes. Study Design: Randomized crossover trial. Level of Evidence: Level 3. Methods: Fifteen experienced runners each completed three 90-second running trials on a treadmill, each trial performed in a different type of footwear: traditional running shoes with a heavily cushioned heel, minimalist running shoes with minimal heel cushioning, and barefoot (socked). High-speed photography was used to determine foot strike, ground contact time, knee angle, and stride cadence with each footwear type. Results: Runners had more rearfoot strikes in traditional shoes (87%) compared with minimalist shoes (67%) and socked (40%) (P = 0.03). Ground contact time was longest in traditional shoes (265.9 ± 10.9 ms) when compared with minimalist shoes (253.4 ± 11.2 ms) and socked (250.6 ± 16.2 ms) (P = 0.005). There was no difference between groups with respect to knee angle (P = 0.37) or stride cadence (P = 0.20). When comparing running socked to running with minimalist running shoes, there were no differences in measures of running efficiency. Conclusion: When compared with running in traditional, cushioned shoes, both barefoot (socked) running and minimalist running shoes produce greater running efficiency in some experienced runners, with a greater tendency toward a midfoot or forefoot strike and a shorter ground contact time. Minimalist shoes closely approximate socked running in the 4 measurements performed. Clinical Relevance: With regard to running efficiency and biomechanics, in some runners, barefoot (socked) and minimalist footwear are preferable to traditional running shoes. PMID:26131304

  7. The Identification of Filters and Interdependencies for Effective Resource Allocation: Coupling the Mitigation of Natural Hazards to Economic Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agar, S. M.; Kunreuther, H.

    2005-12-01

    social benefits and costs. For example, spending after the 1992 Erzincan earthquake targeted local businesses but limited alternative employment, labor losses and diminished local markets all contributed to economic stagnation. Spending after the 1995 Dinar earthquake provided rent subsidies, supporting a major exodus from the town. Consequently many local people were excluded from reconstruction decisions and benefits offered by reconstruction funds. After the 1999 Marmara earthquakes, a 3-year economic decline in Yalova illustrates the vulnerability of local economic stability to weak regulation enforcement by a few agents. A resource allocation framework indicates that government-community relations, lack of economic diversification, beliefs, and compensation are weak links for effective spending. Stronger positive benefits could be achieved through spending to target land-use regulation enforcement, labor losses, time-critical needs of small businesses, and infrastructure. While the impacts of the Marmara earthquakes were devastating, strong commercial networks and international interests helped to re-establish the regional economy. Interdependencies may have helped to drive a recovery. Smaller events in eastern Turkey, however, can wipe out entire communities and can have long-lasting impacts on economic development. These differences may accelerate rural to urban migration and perpetuate regional economic divergence in the country. 1: Research performed in the Wharton MBA Program, Univ. of Pennsylvania.

  8. Evolution of sex-biased maternal effects in birds: I. Sex-specific resource allocation among simultaneously growing oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, R L; Badyaev, A V

    2004-11-01

    Females in species that produce broods of multiple offspring need to partition resources among simultaneously growing ova, embryos or neonates. In birds, the duration of growth of a single egg exceeds the ovulation interval, and when maternal resources are limited, a temporal overlap among several developing follicles in the ovary might result in a trade-off of resources among them. We studied growth of oocytes in relation to their future ovulation order, sex, and overlap with other oocytes in a population of house finches (Carpodacus mexicanus) where strongly sex-biased maternal effects are favoured by natural selection. We found pronounced differences in growth patterns between oocytes that produced males and females. Male oocytes grew up to five times faster and reached their ovulation size earlier than female oocytes. Early onset and early termination of male oocytes' growth in relation to their ovulation resulted in their lesser temporal overlap with other growing ova compared with female oocytes. Consequently, ovulation mass of female but not male oocytes was strongly negatively affected by temporal overlap with other oocytes. In turn, mass of male oocytes was mostly affected by the order of ovulation and by maternal incubation strategy. These results provide a mechanism for sex-biased allocation of maternal resources during egg formation and provide insights into the timing of the sex-determining meiotic division in relation to ovulation in this species.

  9. U.S. Army Recruiter Allocation Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brence, John

    2004-01-01

    .... Our methodology will build on both the new and old schools of recruiting by conducting stakeholder interviews that will lead us to a model that is an efficient starting point for the Recruiter Mission Allocation (RMA...

  10. Impacts of alternative allowance allocation methods under a cap-and-trade program in power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Beibei; He Pan; Zhang Bing; Bi Jun

    2012-01-01

    Emission trading is considered to be a cost-effective environmental economic instrument for pollution control. However, the policy design of an emission trading program has a decisive impact on its performance. Allowance allocation is one of the most important policy design issues in emission trading, not only for equity but also for policy performance. In this research, an artificial market for sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) emission trading was constructed by applying an agent-based model. The performance of the Jiangsu SO 2 emission trading market was examined under different allowance allocation methods and transaction costs. The results showed that the market efficiency of emission trading would be affected by the allocation methods when the transaction costs are positive. The auction allowance allocation method was more efficient and had the lowest total emission control costs than the other three allocation methods examined. However, the use of this method will require that power plants pay for all of their allowance, and doing so will increase the production costs of power plants. On the other hand, output-based allowance allocation is the second best method. - Highlights: ► The impact of allowance allocation methods is examined for a cap-and-trade program. ► The market efficiency would be distinct when the transaction costs are positive. ► The auction method would have lowest total emission control costs.

  11. An efficient subband adaptive bit and power allocation algorithm for MIMO-OFDM systems%MIMO-OFDM系统中一种高效的分子带自适应比特功率分配算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张世超; 季仲梅; 崔维嘉

    2012-01-01

    自适应比特、功率分配(ABPA)可根据各子载波在频率选择性衰落信道中不同的瞬时增益,动态地分配数据比特和发射功率,从而达到优化系统性能,提高频率效率的目的.针对MIMO-OFDM系统中ABPA算法计算复杂度高的问题,本文提出了一种高效分子带ABPA算法,该算法采用新颖的分簇随机选取的方式进行子带划分及等效,将以子载波为分配单元的Fischer算法扩展为以子带为分配单元的ABPA算法,并对此算法进行改进,使其可在一次迭代过程中剔除多个比特数小于等于0的不可用簇.仿真结果表明,该算法能够在保持系统性能不变的前提下,提高筛选效率,同时可通过选择不同的簇宽度,进一步灵活地调整算法的复杂度,使其在性能与计算量之间取得良好的折衷.%According to each subcarrier's different instantaneous gain in the frequency selective channel, adaptive bit and power allocation (ABPA) can allocate data bits and transmit power dynamically, which can optimize the system performance and improve the frequency spectrum efficiency. Conventional ABPA algorithms in MIMO-OFDM systems have many problems, including high computational complexity, time consuming etc. The paper proposes an efficient sub-band ABPA algorithm, which extends the Fischer algorithm to set the sub-bands as the allocation unit instead of sub-carriers with a novel cluster randomly selecting method, at the same time enhances it by eliminating multiple un-applicable clusters during one iterative process. The simulation results show that the algorithm can increase the screening efficiency while ensure the system performance, at the same time can neatly adjust the computational complexity with choose different bandwidth of cluster, which can realize a good trade off between performance and complexity.

  12. Energy-efficient relay selection and optimal power allocation for performance-constrained dual-hop variable-gain AF relaying

    KAUST Repository

    Zafar, Ammar; Radaydeh, Redha Mahmoud Mesleh; Chen, Yunfei; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the energy-efficiency enhancement of a variable-gain dual-hop amplify-and-forward (AF) relay network utilizing selective relaying. The objective is to minimize the total consumed power while keeping the end-to-end signal

  13. An Effective Channel Allocation Scheme to Reduce Co-Channel and Adjacent Channel Interference for WMN Backhaul

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, S.; Ismaili, I.A.; Khuhawar, F.Y.

    2016-01-01

    Two folded work presents channel allocation scheme sustaining channel orthogonality and channel spacing to reduce CCI (Co-Channel Interference) and ACI (Adjacent Channel Interference) for inter flow of an intra-flow link. Proposed scheme as a part of radio resource allocation is applied on infrastructure based backhaul of wireless mesh network using directional antennas. The proposed approach is applied separately on 2.4 and 5GHz bands. Interference of connectivity graph is modelled by strongly connected directed graph and greedy algorithms are used for channel allocation. We have used OPNET Modeller suite to simulate network models for this research. The proposed arrangement reduces the channel interference and increases system throughput. In this research, the influence of channel is computed in terms of network throughput and delay. (author)

  14. Photoperiodic effects on short-pulse 14C assimilation and overall carbon and nitrogen allocation patterns in contrasting quinoa cultivars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendevis, Mira Arpe; Sun, Yujie; Rosenqvist, Eva

    2014-01-01

    ' and photoperiod neutral cv. 'Titicaca' were studied under short (10h) and long (17.5h) days, with respect to C and N distribution as well as partitioning of newly assimilated C to plant organs. An extended photoperiod resulted in 14C decreasingly being allocated to stem growth and lower leaves in 'Titicaca...... with an immediate increase in carbon allocation to upper leaves, and over time to the reproductive structures, resulting in a more than 50% increase in final yield. Collectively the results indicate that even though the photoperiod sensitive cultivar flowered under long photoperiod it did not develop seeds, whereas...

  15. 17 CFR 256.01-11 - Methods of allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... applicable and currently effective methods of allocation filed with the Commission. Both direct and allocated... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methods of allocation. 256.01... HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 General Instructions § 256.01-11 Methods of allocation. Indirect costs and...

  16. Solution of resource allocation problem for identification of cost-effective measures to reduce nuclear proliferation risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrianov, A.; Kuptsov, I.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents a methodology of selection of cost-effective measures to reduce nuclear proliferation risks. The methodology relies on a graded security model used in practice in different applications. The method is based on the controlled finite Markov chain approach set in combination with discrete dynamic programming and MCDM (Multi Criteria Decision Making) techniques that enables the expert to select the cost-effective measures to reduce nuclear proliferation risks depending on availability of resources. The analysis performed with different number of possible measures confirms the conclusions that the implementation of extra-large costs may not produce the required effect, and the increase in resources above a certain level does not appear sensitive. Diversification in improving the effectiveness of other measures seems more rational and efficient for the whole system than the unlimited improvement of the effectiveness of only one measure

  17. Solution of resource allocation problem for identification of cost-effective measures to reduce nuclear proliferation risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrianov, A.; Kuptsov, I. [Obninsk Institute for Nuclear Power Engineering, Studgorodok 1, Obninsk, Kaluga region 249030 (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-01

    This report presents a methodology of selection of cost-effective measures to reduce nuclear proliferation risks. The methodology relies on a graded security model used in practice in different applications. The method is based on the controlled finite Markov chain approach set in combination with discrete dynamic programming and MCDM (Multi Criteria Decision Making) techniques that enables the expert to select the cost-effective measures to reduce nuclear proliferation risks depending on availability of resources. The analysis performed with different number of possible measures confirms the conclusions that the implementation of extra-large costs may not produce the required effect, and the increase in resources above a certain level does not appear sensitive. Diversification in improving the effectiveness of other measures seems more rational and efficient for the whole system than the unlimited improvement of the effectiveness of only one measure.

  18. Effective public resource allocation to escape lock-in: the case of infrastructure-dependent vehicle technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vooren, A. van der; Alkemade, F.; Hekkert, M.P.

    2012-01-01

    A multi-stage technological substitution model of infrastructure-dependent vehicle technologies is developed. This is used to examine how the allocation of public, financial resources to RD&D support and infrastructure development affects the replacement of a locked-in vehicle technology by more

  19. The effect of location, mobility and socio-demographic factors on task and time allocation of households

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ettema, D.F.; Schwanen, T.; Timmermans, Harry

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of location factors in task and time allocation at the household level. It is hypothesized that, if time constraints are less binding as a result of living in an urban area or owning more cars, spouses engage more often and longer in out-of-home activities and

  20. The contrasting effects of nutrient enrichment on growth, biomass allocation and decomposition of plant tissue in coastal wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hayes, Matthew A.; Jesse, Amber; Tabet, Basam; Reef, Ruth; Keuskamp, Joost A.; Lovelock, Catherine E.

    2017-01-01

    Eutrophication of coastal waters can have consequences for the growth, function and soil processes of coastal wetlands. Our aims were to assess how nutrient enrichment affects growth, biomass allocation and decomposition of plant tissues of a common and widespread mangrove, Avicennia marina, and how

  1. Efficient nonparametric estimation of causal mediation effects

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, K. C. G.; Imai, K.; Yam, S. C. P.; Zhang, Z.

    2016-01-01

    An essential goal of program evaluation and scientific research is the investigation of causal mechanisms. Over the past several decades, causal mediation analysis has been used in medical and social sciences to decompose the treatment effect into the natural direct and indirect effects. However, all of the existing mediation analysis methods rely on parametric modeling assumptions in one way or another, typically requiring researchers to specify multiple regression models involving the treat...

  2. Income and irrigation water use efficiency under climate change: An application of spatial stochastic crop and water allocation model to Western Uzbekistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihtiyor Bobojonov

    2016-01-01

    Results show farmers’ income could fall by as much as 25% with a 3.2 °C temperature increase and a 15% decline in irrigation. Farmers located in the tail end of the irrigation system could lose an even greater share of their revenues. A more conservative increase in temperature could increase farmer income by as much as 46% with a 2.2° temperature increase and only 8% decline in irrigation water since some crops benefit from extended vegetation periods. Under both pessimistic and optimistic scenarios, environmental challenges due to shallow groundwater tables may improve associated with enhanced water use efficiency.

  3. Effects of two iron sources on iron and cadmium allocation in poplar (populus alba) plants exposed to cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fodor, F.; Gaspar, L.; Cseh, E.; Sarvari, E. [Eotvos Univ., Budapest (Hungary). Dept. of Plant Physiology; Morales, F.; Gogorcena, Y.; Abadia, J. [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Zaragoza (Spain). Dept. de Nutricion Vegetal; Lucena, J.J. [Madrid Univ., Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Quimica Agricola; Kropfl, K. [Eotvos Univ., Budapest (Hungary). Dept. of Technology and Environmental Chemistry

    2005-09-01

    The phytotoxicity of heavy metals is often manifested as inhibition of plant growth, nitrate assimilation and photosynthesis, as well as disturbances in plant ion and water balances. Many of these plant responses are a result of inhibition of enzyme activity caused by the binding of heavy metal ions to sulfhydryl groups in the active sites of enzymes and by substitution of essential metals. This study investigated the effects of cadmium (Cd) nitrate on the utilization and allocation of iron (Fe) in poplar plants grown in a nutrient solution with Fe(III)-EDTA or Fe(III)-citrate as the Fe source. The effects of Cd were also compared with those of Fe deprivation. Results indicated that the accumulation of Fe in roots was 10-fold higher in plants grown with Fe-citrate than with Fe-ETDA. In addition, cadmium increased leaf chlorophyll concentrations and photosynthetic rates, and these decreases were more marked in plants grown with Fe-citrate than with Fe-EDTA. In both treatments, addition of Cd caused large increases in root and shoot apoplasmic and non-apoplasmic Cd contents and increases in root Fe content. However, Cd decreased shoot Fe content, especially in plants grown with Fe-citrate. New leaves of plants grown with Fe-citrate had small cellular Fe pools, whereas these pools were large in new leaves of plants grown with Fe-EDTA. Non-apoplasmic Cd pools in new leaves were smaller in plants grown with Fe-citrate than with Fe-EDTA, which indicated that inactivation of non-apoplasmic Cd pools is facilitated more by Fe-EDTA than by Fe-citrate. In the presence of Cd, Fe-EDTA was also superior to Fe-citrate in maintaining an adequate Fe supply to poplar shoots. It was concluded that because the amount of non-apoplasmic root Fe was higher in plants grown with Fe-citrate than with Fe-EDTA, the observed differences in plant responses to Fe-EDTA and Fe-citrate may reflect distances in long-distance transport of Fe rather than its acquisition of Fe by roots. 42 refs., 6

  4. Army Materiel Requirements Documents: Qualitative Analysis of Efficiency and Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    focuses on the program’s time to execute their mission based off the MRDs/MCDs. We measure efficiency based on two BPP initiatives: (1) Build...definitions of each BPP initiative during our interviews. A poor rating indicates the requirement documents did not sufficiently support the program...in terms of efficiency and effectiveness according to BPP initiatives. For efficiency, we assign a qualitative measure based on SME responses across

  5. Environmental control of reproductive phenology and the effect of pollen supplementation on resource allocation in the cleistogamous weed, Ruellia nudiflora (Acanthaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munguía-Rosas, Miguel A; Parra-Tabla, Victor; Ollerton, Jeff; Cervera, J Carlos

    2012-02-01

    Mixed reproductive strategies may have evolved as a response of plants to cope with environmental variation. One example of a mixed reproductive strategy is dimorphic cleistogamy, where a single plant produces closed, obligately self-pollinated (CL) flowers and open, potentially outcrossed (CH) flowers. Frequently, optimal environmental conditions favour production of more costly CH structures whilst economical and reliable CL structures are produced under less favourable conditions. In this study we explore (1) the effect of light and water on the reproductive phenology and (2) the effect of pollen supplementation on resource allocation to seeds in the cleistogamous weed Ruellia nudiflora. Split-plot field experiments were carried out to assess the effect of shade (two levels: ambient light vs. a reduction of 50 %) and watering (two levels: non-watered vs. watered) on the onset, end and duration of the production of three reproductive structures: CH flowers, CH fruit and CL fruit. We also looked at the effect of these environmental factors on biomass allocation to seeds (seed weight) from obligately self-pollinated flowers (CL), open-pollinated CH flowers and pollen-supplemented CH flowers. CH structures were produced for a briefer period and ended earlier under shaded conditions. These conditions also resulted in an earlier production of CL fruit. Shaded conditions also produced greater biomass allocation to CH seeds receiving extra pollen. Sub-optimal (shaded) conditions resulted in a briefer production period of CH structures whilst these same conditions resulted in an earlier production of CL structures. However, under sub-optimal conditions, plants also allocated more resources to seeds sired from CH flowers receiving large pollen loads. Earlier production of reproductive structures and relatively larger seed might improve subsequent success of CL and pollen-supplemented CH seeds, respectively.

  6. Sustainability in Health care by allocating resources effectively (SHARE) 1: introducing a series of papers reporting an investigation of disinvestment in a local healthcare setting

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Claire; Green, Sally; Ramsey, Wayne; Allen, Kelly; King, Richard

    2017-01-01

    This is the first in a series of papers reporting Sustainability in Health care by Allocating Resources Effectively (SHARE). The SHARE Program is an investigation of concepts, opportunities, methods and implications for evidence-based investment and disinvestment in health technologies and clinical practices in a local healthcare setting. The papers in this series are targeted at clinicians, managers, policy makers, health service researchers and implementation scientists working in this cont...

  7. Analyses of Blood Bank Efficiency, Cost-Effectiveness and Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Hwai-Tai Chen

    In view of the increasing costs of hospital care, it is essential to investigate methods to improve the labor efficiency and the cost-effectiveness of the hospital technical core in order to control costs while maintaining the quality of care. This study was conducted to develop indices to measure efficiency, cost-effectiveness, and the quality of blood banks; to identify factors associated with efficiency, cost-effectiveness, and quality; and to generate strategies to improve blood bank labor efficiency and cost-effectiveness. Indices developed in this study for labor efficiency and cost-effectiveness were not affected by patient case mix and illness severity. Factors that were associated with labor efficiency were identified as managerial styles, and organizational designs that balance workload and labor resources. Medical directors' managerial involvement was not associated with labor efficiency, but their continuing education and specialty in blood bank were found to reduce the performance of unnecessary tests. Surprisingly, performing unnecessary tests had no association with labor efficiency. This suggested the existence of labor slack in blood banks. Cost -effectiveness was associated with workers' benefits, wages, and the production of high-end transfusion products by hospital-based donor rooms. Quality indices used in this study included autologous transfusion rates, platelet transfusion rates, and the check points available in an error-control system. Because the autologous transfusion rate was related to patient case mix, severity of illness, and possible inappropriate transfusion, it was not recommended to be used for quality index. Platelet-pheresis transfusion rates were associated with the transfusion preferences of the blood bank medical directors. The total number of check points in an error -control system was negatively associated with government ownership and workers' experience. Recommendations for improving labor efficiency and cost-effectiveness

  8. Is prevention of acute pesticide poisoning effective and efficient, with Locally Adapted Personal Protective Equipment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varma, Anshu; Neupane, Dinesh; Ellekilde Bonde, Jens Peter

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Farmers' risk of pesticide poisoning can be reduced with personal protective equipment but in low-income countries farmers' use of such equipment is limited. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effectiveness and efficiency of Locally Adapted Personal Protective Equipment to reduce organophosphate...... exposure among farmers. METHODS: In a crossover study, 45 male farmers from Chitwan, Nepal, were randomly allocated to work as usual applying organophosphate pesticides wearing Locally Adapted Personal Protective Equipment or Daily Practice Clothing. For seven days before each experiment, each farmer.......08;0.06]. Wearing the Locally Adapted Personal Protective Equipment versus Daily Practice Clothing gave the following results, respectively: comfort 75.6% versus 100%, sense of heat 64.4% versus 31.3%, other problems 44.4% versus 33.3%, likeability 95.6% versus 77.8%. CONCLUSION: We cannot support the expectation...

  9. Allometric analysis of the effects of density on reproductive allocation and Harvest Index in 6 varieties of wheat (Triticum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Xiao-liang; Weiner, Jacob; Qi, Lin

    2013-01-01

    allocation should be analyzed and interpreted allometrically because ratios or fractions such as Reproductive Effort or Harvest Index are size dependent. We investigated reproductive allocation of individuals in 6 varieties of Triticum (wheat) grown at a wide range of densities. We harvested leaves, stems...... size. There were significant differences among the varieties in the allometric exponent (slope of log–log relationship) of grain versus vegetative mass, such that some varieties produced higher yield (and therefore had a higher Harvest Index) than others when plants were small, while others had higher...... yield at larger sizes. Thus, the Harvest Index and its rank among varieties changed with plant size, which puts into question the practice of selecting for Harvest Index when crop performance varies greatly among individuals, years or environments. Selection for a high Harvest Index when individuals...

  10. Sustainability in Health care by Allocating Resources Effectively (SHARE) 2: identifying opportunities for disinvestment in a local healthcare setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Claire; Allen, Kelly; King, Richard; Ramsey, Wayne; Kelly, Cate; Thiagarajan, Malar

    2017-05-05

    This is the second in a series of papers reporting a program of Sustainability in Health care by Allocating Resources Effectively (SHARE) in a local healthcare setting. Rising healthcare costs, continuing advances in health technologies and recognition of ineffective practices and systematic waste are driving disinvestment of health technologies and clinical practices that offer little or no benefit in order to maximise outcomes from existing resources. However there is little information to guide regional health services or individual facilities in how they might approach disinvestment locally. This paper outlines the investigation of potential settings and methods for decision-making about disinvestment in the context of an Australian health service. Methods include a literature review on the concepts and terminology relating to disinvestment, a survey of national and international researchers, and interviews and workshops with local informants. A conceptual framework was drafted and refined with stakeholder feedback. There is a lack of common terminology regarding definitions and concepts related to disinvestment and no guidance for an organisation-wide systematic approach to disinvestment in a local healthcare service. A summary of issues from the literature and respondents highlight the lack of theoretical knowledge and practical experience and provide a guide to the information required to develop future models or methods for disinvestment in the local context. A conceptual framework was developed. Three mechanisms that provide opportunities to introduce disinvestment decisions into health service systems and processes were identified. Presented in order of complexity, time to achieve outcomes and resources required they include 1) Explicit consideration of potential disinvestment in routine decision-making, 2) Proactive decision-making about disinvestment driven by available evidence from published research and local data, and 3) Specific exercises in

  11. A Concept for Optimizing Behavioural Effectiveness & Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barca, Jan Carlo; Rumantir, Grace; Li, Raymond

    Both humans and machines exhibit strengths and weaknesses that can be enhanced by merging the two entities. This research aims to provide a broader understanding of how closer interactions between these two entities can facilitate more optimal goal-directed performance through the use of artificial extensions of the human body. Such extensions may assist us in adapting to and manipulating our environments in a more effective way than any system known today. To demonstrate this concept, we have developed a simulation where a semi interactive virtual spider can be navigated through an environment consisting of several obstacles and a virtual predator capable of killing the spider. The virtual spider can be navigated through the use of three different control systems that can be used to assist in optimising overall goal directed performance. The first two control systems use, an onscreen button interface and a touch sensor, respectively to facilitate human navigation of the spider. The third control system is an autonomous navigation system through the use of machine intelligence embedded in the spider. This system enables the spider to navigate and react to changes in its local environment. The results of this study indicate that machines should be allowed to override human control in order to maximise the benefits of collaboration between man and machine. This research further indicates that the development of strong machine intelligence, sensor systems that engage all human senses, extra sensory input systems, physical remote manipulators, multiple intelligent extensions of the human body, as well as a tighter symbiosis between man and machine, can support an upgrade of the human form.

  12. Cost effectiveness and efficiency in assistive technology service delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, C G

    1993-01-01

    In order to develop and maintain a viable service delivery program, the realities of cost effectiveness and cost efficiency in providing assistive technology must be addressed. Cost effectiveness relates to value of the outcome compared to the expenditures. Cost efficiency analyzes how a provider uses available resources to supply goods and services. This paper describes how basic business principles of benefit/cost analysis can be used to determine cost effectiveness. In addition, basic accounting principles are used to illustrate methods of evaluating a program's cost efficiency. Service providers are encouraged to measure their own program's effectiveness and efficiency (and potential viability) in light of current trends. This paper is meant to serve as a catalyst for continued dialogue on this topic.

  13. Effectiveness and efficiency of certain mutagens in Linum usitatissimum L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lateef, M.A.; Nizam, J.

    1985-01-01

    The effectiveness and efficiency of gamma rays, hydrazine, hydroxylamine, ethylmethane sulphonate and mitomycin-C. mutagens were studied on the basis of chlorophyll mutations in Linum usitatissimum L. (author)

  14. Effective and efficient implementation of alternative project delivery : research summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Alternative project delivery (APD) methods such as Design Build (DB) and Construction Manager at Risk (CMAR), are used by state departments of transportation to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of project delivery. The Maryland Department of ...

  15. Cost allocation. Combined heat and power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidzikauskas, V.

    2002-01-01

    The benefits of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) generation are discussed. The include improvement in energy intensity of 1% by 2010, 85-90% efficiency versus 40-50% of condensation power and others. Share of CHP electricity production in ERRA countries is presented.Solutions for a development CHP cost allocation are considered. Conclusion are presented for CHP production cost allocation. (R.P.)

  16. The effect of concentrate allocation on traffic and milk production of pasture-based cows milked by an automatic milking system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessire, F; Froidmont, E; Shortall, J; Hornick, J L; Dufrasne, I

    2017-11-01

    Increased economic, societal and environmental challenges facing agriculture are leading to a greater focus on effective way to combine grazing and automatic milking systems (AMS). One of the fundamental aspects of robotic milking is cows' traffic to the AMS. Numerous studies have identified feed provided, either as fresh grass or concentrate supplement, as the main incentive for cows to return to the robot. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of concentrate allocation on voluntary cow traffic from pasture to the robot during the grazing period, to highlight the interactions between grazed pasture and concentrate allocation in terms of substitution rate and the subsequent effect on average milk yield and composition. Thus, 29 grazing cows, milked by a mobile robot, were monitored for the grazing period (4 months). They were assigned to two groups: a low concentrate (LC) group (15 cows) and a high concentrate (HC) group (14 cows) receiving 2 and 4 kg concentrate/cow per day, respectively; two allocations per day of fresh pasture were provided at 0700 and 1600 h. The cows had to go through the AMS to receive the fresh pasture allocation. The effect of concentrate level on robot visitation was calculated by summing milkings, refusals and failed milkings/cow per day. The impact on average daily milk yield and composition was also determined. The interaction between lactation number and month was used as an indicator of pasture availability. Concentrate allocation increased significantly robot visitations in HC (3.60±0.07 visitations/cow per day in HC and 3.10±0.07 visitations/cow per day in LC; Pcow per day were similar in both groups (LC: 2.37±0.02/day and HC: 2.39±0.02/day; Ns). The average daily milk yield over the grazing period was enhanced in HC (22.39±0.22 kg/cow per day in HC and 21.33±0.22 kg/cow per day in LC; Pcows.

  17. The rebound effect of resource efficiency; Het reboundeffect bij resource efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oosterhuis, F.; Bouma, J. [Instituut voor Milieuvraagstukken IVM, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hanemaaijer, A. [Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving PBL, Den Haag (Netherlands)

    2013-12-15

    As a result of efficient use of natural resources production and use of goods and services can be made cheaper, which increases demand. However, that might partially offset savings in energy and other natural resources. This so-called 'rebound effect' can not be ignored. It is therefore worthwhile to keep that in formulating 'resource efficiency' policy [Dutch] Door efficienter om te gaan met natuurlijke hulpbronnen kunnen de productie en het gebruik van goederen en diensten goedkoper worden, waardoor de vraag ernaar toeneemt. Dat kan de besparingen op energie en andere natuurlijke hulpbronnen deels weer teniet doen. Dit 'rebound-effect' is niet verwaarloosbaar. Het is zinvol om hier bij beleid gericht op 'resource efficiency' rekening mee te houden.

  18. Storage Space Allocation of Inbound Container in Railway Container Terminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficient storage strategy of railway container terminals is important in balancing resource utilization, reducing waiting time, and improving handling efficiency. In this paper, we consider the formulation and solution algorithm for storage space allocation problem of inbound containers in railway container terminal. The problem is formulated as two-stage optimization models, whose objectives are balancing the workload of inbound containers and reducing the overlapping amounts. An algorithm implement process based on rolling horizon approach is designed to solve the proposed models. Computational experiments on an actual railway container terminal show that the proposed approach is effective to solve space allocation problem of inbound container and is significant for the operation and organization of railway container terminals.

  19. Out of Lust or Jealousy: The Effects of Mate-Related Motives on Study-Time Allocation to Faces Varying in Attractiveness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijian Li

    Full Text Available Although a growing number of empirical studies have revealed that activating mate-related motives might exert a specific set of consequences for human cognition and behaviors, such as attention and memory, little is known about whether mate-related motives affect self-regulated learning. The present study examined the effects of mate-related motives (mate-search and mate-guarding on study-time allocation to faces varying in attractiveness. In two experiments, participants in mate-related priming conditions (Experiment 1: mate-search; Experiment 2: mate-guarding or control conditions studied 20 female faces (10 highly attractive, 10 less attractive during a self-paced study task, and then were given a yes/no face recognition task. The finding of Experiment 1 showed that activating a mate-search motive led the male participants to allocate more time to highly attractive female faces (i.e., perceived potential mates than to less attractive ones. In Experiment 2, female participants in the mate-guarding priming condition spent more time studying highly attractive female faces (i.e., perceived potential rivals than less attractive ones, compared to participants in the control condition. These findings illustrate the highly specific consequences of mate-related motives on study-time allocation, and highlight the value of exploring human cognition and motivation within evolutionary and self-regulated learning frameworks.

  20. Out of Lust or Jealousy: The Effects of Mate-Related Motives on Study-Time Allocation to Faces Varying in Attractiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fengying; Li, Xinyu; Li, Ping; Jia, Xiaoyu; Chen, Haide; Ji, Haojie

    2015-01-01

    Although a growing number of empirical studies have revealed that activating mate-related motives might exert a specific set of consequences for human cognition and behaviors, such as attention and memory, little is known about whether mate-related motives affect self-regulated learning. The present study examined the effects of mate-related motives (mate-search and mate-guarding) on study-time allocation to faces varying in attractiveness. In two experiments, participants in mate-related priming conditions (Experiment 1: mate-search; Experiment 2: mate-guarding) or control conditions studied 20 female faces (10 highly attractive, 10 less attractive) during a self-paced study task, and then were given a yes/no face recognition task. The finding of Experiment 1 showed that activating a mate-search motive led the male participants to allocate more time to highly attractive female faces (i.e., perceived potential mates) than to less attractive ones. In Experiment 2, female participants in the mate-guarding priming condition spent more time studying highly attractive female faces (i.e., perceived potential rivals) than less attractive ones, compared to participants in the control condition. These findings illustrate the highly specific consequences of mate-related motives on study-time allocation, and highlight the value of exploring human cognition and motivation within evolutionary and self-regulated learning frameworks. PMID:26121131

  1. Out of Lust or Jealousy: The Effects of Mate-Related Motives on Study-Time Allocation to Faces Varying in Attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weijian; Zhang, Yuchi; Li, Fengying; Li, Xinyu; Li, Ping; Jia, Xiaoyu; Chen, Haide; Ji, Haojie

    2015-01-01

    Although a growing number of empirical studies have revealed that activating mate-related motives might exert a specific set of consequences for human cognition and behaviors, such as attention and memory, little is known about whether mate-related motives affect self-regulated learning. The present study examined the effects of mate-related motives (mate-search and mate-guarding) on study-time allocation to faces varying in attractiveness. In two experiments, participants in mate-related priming conditions (Experiment 1: mate-search; Experiment 2: mate-guarding) or control conditions studied 20 female faces (10 highly attractive, 10 less attractive) during a self-paced study task, and then were given a yes/no face recognition task. The finding of Experiment 1 showed that activating a mate-search motive led the male participants to allocate more time to highly attractive female faces (i.e., perceived potential mates) than to less attractive ones. In Experiment 2, female participants in the mate-guarding priming condition spent more time studying highly attractive female faces (i.e., perceived potential rivals) than less attractive ones, compared to participants in the control condition. These findings illustrate the highly specific consequences of mate-related motives on study-time allocation, and highlight the value of exploring human cognition and motivation within evolutionary and self-regulated learning frameworks.

  2. An intelligent allocation algorithm for parallel processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Chester C.; Homaifar, Abdollah; Ananthram, Kishan G.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of allocating nodes of a program graph to processors in a parallel processing architecture is considered. The algorithm is based on critical path analysis, some allocation heuristics, and the execution granularity of nodes in a program graph. These factors, and the structure of interprocessor communication network, influence the allocation. To achieve realistic estimations of the executive durations of allocations, the algorithm considers the fact that nodes in a program graph have to communicate through varying numbers of tokens. Coarse and fine granularities have been implemented, with interprocessor token-communication duration, varying from zero up to values comparable to the execution durations of individual nodes. The effect on allocation of communication network structures is demonstrated by performing allocations for crossbar (non-blocking) and star (blocking) networks. The algorithm assumes the availability of as many processors as it needs for the optimal allocation of any program graph. Hence, the focus of allocation has been on varying token-communication durations rather than varying the number of processors. The algorithm always utilizes as many processors as necessary for the optimal allocation of any program graph, depending upon granularity and characteristics of the interprocessor communication network.

  3. Evaluation of energy efficiency policy instruments effectiveness : case study Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukarica, V.

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposed a theoretical basis for evaluating energy efficiency policy in the Republic of Croatia and corroborated it with the analysis of energy efficiency market development and transformation. The current status of the market was evaluated and policy instruments were adapted to achieve optimal results. In particular, the energy efficiency market in Croatia was discussed in terms of micro and macro environment factors that influence policy making processes and the choice of policy instruments. The macro environment for energy efficiency market in Croatia is the process of European Union pre-integration with all related national and international legislation, political and economical factors and potential to use financial funds. The micro environment consists of government institutions, local financing institutions and a range of market players on the supply and demand side. Energy efficiency is the most powerful and cost-effective way for achieving goals of sustainable development. Policy instruments developed to improve energy efficiency are oriented towards a cleaner environment, better standard of living, more competitive industry and improved security of energy supply. Energy efficiency is much harder to implement and requires policy interventions. In response to recent trends in the energy sector, such as deregulation and open competition, policy measures aimed at improving energy efficiency should shift from an end-users oriented approach towards a whole market approach. The optimal policy instruments mix should be designed to meet defined targets. However, market dynamics must be taken into consideration. 9 refs., 4 figs

  4. Effect of temperature increments in septic tank efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi-Tec, M.; Caballero-Arzapalo, N.; Giacoman Vallejo, G.; Mendez-Novelo, R.; Quintal-Franco, C.

    2009-01-01

    Septic tanks are the main sewage disposal system used in Yucatan, Mexico. Septic tank content is stabilized under anaerobic conditions and is considered the temperature has a significant effect on the efficiency. This work was developed in order asses the feasibility to improve communal septic tanks efficiency by increasing content temperature. Temperatures inside the tank were increased using a hybrid heater system (solar and electricity). (Author)

  5. Risk capital allocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Smilgins, Aleksandrs

    Risk capital allocation problems have been widely discussed in the academic literature. We consider a company with multiple subunits having individual portfolios. Hence, when portfolios of subunits are merged, a diversification benefit arises: the risk of the company as a whole is smaller than...... the sum of the risks of the individual sub-units. The question is how to allocate the risk capital of the company among the subunits in a fair way. In this paper we propose to use the Lorenz set as an allocation method. We show that the Lorenz set is operational and coherent. Moreover, we propose a set...... of new axioms related directly to the problem of risk capital allocation and show that the Lorenz set satisfies these new axioms in contrast to other well-known coherent methods. Finally, we discuss how to deal with non-uniqueness of the Lorenz set....

  6. CPD Allocations and Awards

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The CPD Allocation and Award database provides filterable on-screen and exportable reports on select programs, such as the Community Development Block Grant Program,...

  7. Effectiveness and efficiency of chemical mutagens in cowpea (Vigna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-19

    Nov 19, 2008 ... A study was undertaken in a cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) variety CO 6 to assess the efficiency and effectiveness of chemical mutagens; ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS), diethyl sulphate (DES) and sodium azide (SA). EMS treatments were found highly effective than the other chemicals.

  8. Studies on mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency in Fenugreek ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    shagufta

    2013-05-01

    May 1, 2013 ... improvement, the basic studies on effectiveness and efficiency of a mutagen in a crop are necessary to recover high frequency of desirable mutations (Kumar and Mani, 1997; Badere and Chaudhary, 2007). Mutagenic effectiveness is an index of the response of a genotype to the increasing doses of the ...

  9. Efficiency vs Effectiveness: a Benchmarking Study on European Healthcare Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrado lo Storto

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. This paper illustrates a benchmarking study concerning the healthcare systems in 32 European countries as of 2011 and 2014. Particularly, this study proposes a two-dimensional approach (efficiency/effectiveness models to evaluate the performance of national healthcare systems. Data Envelopment Analysis has been adopted to compute two performance indices, measuring efficiency and effectiveness of these healthcare systems. The results of the study emphasize that the national healthcare systems achieve different efficiency and effectiveness levels. Their performance indices are uncorrelated and behave differently over time, suggesting that there might be no real trade-off between them. The healthcare systems’ efficiencies remain generally stable, while the effectiveness values significantly improved from 2011 to 2014. However, comparing the efficiency and effectiveness scores, the authors identified a group of countries with the lowest performing healthcare systems that includes Ukraine, Bulgaria, Switzerland, Lithuania, and Romania. These countries need to implement healthcare reforms aimed at reducing resource intensity and increasing the quality of medical services. The results also showed the benefits of the proposed approach, which can help policy makers to identify shortcomings in national healthcare systems and justify the need for their reform.

  10. Identifying Memory Allocation Patterns in HEP Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kama, S.; Rauschmayr, N.

    2017-10-01

    HEP applications perform an excessive amount of allocations/deallocations within short time intervals which results in memory churn, poor locality and performance degradation. These issues are already known for a decade, but due to the complexity of software frameworks and billions of allocations for a single job, up until recently no efficient mechanism has been available to correlate these issues with source code lines. However, with the advent of the Big Data era, many tools and platforms are now available to do large scale memory profiling. This paper presents, a prototype program developed to track and identify each single (de-)allocation. The CERN IT Hadoop cluster is used to compute memory key metrics, like locality, variation, lifetime and density of allocations. The prototype further provides a web based visualization back-end that allows the user to explore the results generated on the Hadoop cluster. Plotting these metrics for every single allocation over time gives a new insight into application’s memory handling. For instance, it shows which algorithms cause which kind of memory allocation patterns, which function flow causes how many short-lived objects, what are the most commonly allocated sizes etc. The paper will give an insight into the prototype and will show profiling examples for the LHC reconstruction, digitization and simulation jobs.

  11. Welfare Financing : Grant Allocation and Efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toolsema, L.A.; Allers, Maarten A.

    Welfare is often administered locally, but financed through grants from the central government. This raises the question how the central government can prevent local governments from spending more than necessary. We analyze block grants used in The Netherlands, which depend on exogenous spending

  12. A Bio-inspired Approach for Power and Performance Aware Resource Allocation in Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to cope with increasing demand, cloud market players such as Amazon, Microsoft, Google, Gogrid, Flexiant, etc. have set up large sized data centers. Due to monotonically increasing size of data centers and heterogeneity of resources have made resource allocation a challenging task. A large percentage of total energy consumption of the data centers gets wasted because of under-utilization of resources. Thus, there is a need of resource allocation technique that improves the utilization of resources with effecting performance of services being delivered to end users. In this work, a bio-inspired resource allocation approach is proposed with the aim to improve utilization and hence the energy efficiency of the cloud infrastructure. The proposed approach makes use of Cuckoo search for power and performance aware allocation of resources to the services hired by the end users. The proposed approach is implemented in CloudSim. The simulation results have shown approximately 12% saving in energy consumption.

  13. Sustainability in Health care by allocating resources effectively (SHARE) 1: introducing a series of papers reporting an investigation of disinvestment in a local healthcare setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Claire; Green, Sally; Ramsey, Wayne; Allen, Kelly; King, Richard

    2017-05-04

    This is the first in a series of papers reporting Sustainability in Health care by Allocating Resources Effectively (SHARE). The SHARE Program is an investigation of concepts, opportunities, methods and implications for evidence-based investment and disinvestment in health technologies and clinical practices in a local healthcare setting. The papers in this series are targeted at clinicians, managers, policy makers, health service researchers and implementation scientists working in this context. This paper presents an overview of the organisation-wide, systematic, integrated, evidence-based approach taken by one Australian healthcare network and provides an introduction and guide to the suite of papers reporting the experiences and outcomes.

  14. Effect of task complexity on intelligence and neural efficiency in children: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiong; Shi, Jiannong; Luo, Yuejia; Liu, Sainan; Yang, Jie; Shen, Mowei

    2007-10-08

    The present study investigates the effects of task complexity, intelligence and neural efficiency on children's performance on an Elementary Cognitive Task. Twenty-three children were divided into two groups on the basis of their Raven Progressive Matrix scores and were then asked to complete a choice reaction task with two test conditions. We recorded the electroencephalogram and calculated the peak latencies and amplitudes for anteriorly distributed P225, N380 and late positive component. Our results suggested shorter late positive component latencies in brighter children, possibly reflecting a higher processing speed in these individuals. Increased P225 amplitude and increased N380 amplitudes for brighter children may indicate a more efficient allocation of attention for brighter children. No moderating effect of task complexity on brain-intelligence relationship was found.

  15. Fund allocation using capacitated vehicle routing problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamat, Nur Jumaadzan Zaleha; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Ahmad, Rokiah Rozita; Darus, Maslina

    2014-09-01

    In investment fund allocation, it is unwise for an investor to distribute his fund into several assets simultaneously due to economic reasons. One solution is to allocate the fund into a particular asset at a time in a sequence that will either maximize returns or minimize risks depending on the investor's objective. The vehicle routing problem (VRP) provides an avenue to this issue. VRP answers the question on how to efficiently use the available fleet of vehicles to meet a given service demand, subjected to a set of operational requirements. This paper proposes an idea of using capacitated vehicle routing problem (CVRP) to optimize investment fund allocation by employing data of selected stocks in the FTSE Bursa Malaysia. Results suggest that CRVP can be applied to solve the issue of investment fund allocation and increase the investor's profit.

  16. Effect of Antenna Type on the Capacity of Body-to-Body Capacity When Using Uniform Power Allocation

    KAUST Repository

    Ghanem, Khalida; Al-Quwaiee, Hessa; Khan, Imdad; Hall, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Body-area networks are led to target multimedia applications where high-data rate is involved. In this paper, the characterization of the measured body-to-body channels and the ergodic capacity with uniform power allocation is discussed when using multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) PIFA and IFA antenna systems. This capacity is compared to the measured belt-head and belt-chest on-body channels using PIFA antennas in the same environment. It is shown that body channels reach less ergodic capacity than the equivalent Rayleigh channel because of the presence of a LOS component. The capacity is the same for the body-to-body case regardless of the antenna and the on-body channels reach better capacity values compared to these former. © 2012 IEEE.

  17. Effect of Antenna Type on the Capacity of Body-to-Body Capacity When Using Uniform Power Allocation

    KAUST Repository

    Ghanem, Khalida

    2012-09-01

    Body-area networks are led to target multimedia applications where high-data rate is involved. In this paper, the characterization of the measured body-to-body channels and the ergodic capacity with uniform power allocation is discussed when using multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) PIFA and IFA antenna systems. This capacity is compared to the measured belt-head and belt-chest on-body channels using PIFA antennas in the same environment. It is shown that body channels reach less ergodic capacity than the equivalent Rayleigh channel because of the presence of a LOS component. The capacity is the same for the body-to-body case regardless of the antenna and the on-body channels reach better capacity values compared to these former. © 2012 IEEE.

  18. The Effect of 2 Types of Dual-Task Training on the Balance of Older Adults: Allocated Attention Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesam Iranmanesh

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: The superiority of training with dual-task over single one and the superiority of dual-task training with variable priority over the fixed one (under dual-task condition may be due to the “limited capacity of attention” theory, which explains the reduction in performance when performing imultaneous tasks. This difference and dominance may also be explained by other mechanisms, such as the capability of attention and focus on doing tasks simultaneously, involved in this process. Therefore, by designing balance training based on dual-task methods, especially training based on the ability to turn the focus of cognitive capabilities and their suitable allocation, the attention to these tasks improves and consequently, the risk of falling decreases in the older adults.

  19. Finite-size effect on optimal efficiency of heat engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, Hiroyasu; Hayashi, Masahito

    2017-07-01

    The optimal efficiency of quantum (or classical) heat engines whose heat baths are n-particle systems is given by the strong large deviation. We give the optimal work extraction process as a concrete energy-preserving unitary time evolution among the heat baths and the work storage. We show that our optimal work extraction turns the disordered energy of the heat baths to the ordered energy of the work storage, by evaluating the ratio of the entropy difference to the energy difference in the heat baths and the work storage, respectively. By comparing the statistical mechanical optimal efficiency with the macroscopic thermodynamic bound, we evaluate the accuracy of the macroscopic thermodynamics with finite-size heat baths from the statistical mechanical viewpoint. We also evaluate the quantum coherence effect on the optimal efficiency of the cycle processes without restricting their cycle time by comparing the classical and quantum optimal efficiencies.

  20. Optimal allocation of resources for suppressing epidemic spreading on networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hanshuang; Li, Guofeng; Zhang, Haifeng; Hou, Zhonghuai

    2017-07-01

    Efficient allocation of limited medical resources is crucial for controlling epidemic spreading on networks. Based on the susceptible-infected-susceptible model, we solve the optimization problem of how best to allocate the limited resources so as to minimize prevalence, providing that the curing rate of each node is positively correlated to its medical resource. By quenched mean-field theory and heterogeneous mean-field (HMF) theory, we prove that an epidemic outbreak will be suppressed to the greatest extent if the curing rate of each node is directly proportional to its degree, under which the effective infection rate λ has a maximal threshold λcopt=1 / , where is the average degree of the underlying network. For a weak infection region (λ ≳λcopt ), we combine perturbation theory with the Lagrange multiplier method (LMM) to derive the analytical expression of optimal allocation of the curing rates and the corresponding minimized prevalence. For a general infection region (λ >λcopt ), the high-dimensional optimization problem is converted into numerically solving low-dimensional nonlinear equations by the HMF theory and LMM. Counterintuitively, in the strong infection region the low-degree nodes should be allocated more medical resources than the high-degree nodes to minimize prevalence. Finally, we use simulated annealing to validate the theoretical results.

  1. Human-Automation Allocations for Current Robotic Space Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez, Jessica J.; Chang, Mai L.; Beard, Bettina L.; Kim, Yun Kyung; Karasinski, John A.

    2018-01-01

    Within the Human Research Program, one risk delineates the uncertainty surrounding crew working with automation and robotics in spaceflight. The Risk of Inadequate Design of Human and Automation/Robotic Integration (HARI) is concerned with the detrimental effects on crew performance due to ineffective user interfaces, system designs and/or functional task allocation, potentially compromising mission success and safety. Risk arises because we have limited experience with complex automation and robotics. One key gap within HARI, is the gap related to functional allocation. The gap states: We need to evaluate, develop, and validate methods and guidelines for identifying human-automation/robot task information needs, function allocation, and team composition for future long duration, long distance space missions. Allocations determine the human-system performance as it identifies the functions and performance levels required by the automation/robotic system, and in turn, what work the crew is expected to perform and the necessary human performance requirements. Allocations must take into account each of the human, automation, and robotic systems capabilities and limitations. Some functions may be intuitively assigned to the human versus the robot, but to optimize efficiency and effectiveness, purposeful role assignments will be required. The role of automation and robotics will significantly change in future exploration missions, particularly as crew becomes more autonomous from ground controllers. Thus, we must understand the suitability of existing function allocation methods within NASA as well as the existing allocations established by the few robotic systems that are operational in spaceflight. In order to evaluate future methods of robotic allocations, we must first benchmark the allocations and allocation methods that have been used. We will present 1) documentation of human-automation-robotic allocations in existing, operational spaceflight systems; and 2) To

  2. Examining Police Strategic Resource Allocation in a Time of Austerity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garth den Heyer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The increasing importance of proactive policing has highlighted the need to ensure that the police utilise their resources both efficiently and effectively. Traditionally, police agencies have allocated resources in response to their operational demands or requirements, with the majority of resources being distributed in response to political demands and public calls for service. In recent years there has been a greater emphasis by police to deliver services proactively, and to direct resources to specific geographic areas of high crime or to specific crimes, and to apply intelligence led targeted policing initiatives. The changing operating environment to a public service ethos of accountability and ‘do more with less’ means that historical methods of allocating police officers may not meet an agency's strategic goals. This paper examines if an economic approach to allocating police strategic resources is an appropriate and equitable method in a time of austerity. This greater emphasis on proactive, rather than reactive policing, which also represents a shift from centralised control, underlines the need to ensure the efficient and effective use of resources.

  3. INTERACTIVE EFFECT OF CAGE DENSITY AND DIETARY BLACK CUMIN LEVEL ON PRODUCTIVE EFFICIENCY IN BROILER CHICKENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. D. Mahfudz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present research was aimed to evaluate an interactive effect of cage density and level ofdietary black cumin (BC on productive efficiency of broiler chickens. A total of 270 broiler chickens(initial body weight of 163.12 ± 8.10g were allocated into a completely randomized design with a 3 x 3factorial pattern. The first factor was the cage density (bird/m2 namely, D1 = 8; D2 = 10, and D3 = 12.The second factor was BC level (%, namely, B1 = 1; B2 = 2, and B3 = 3. Feed consumption, bodyweight gain (BWG, feed conversion ratio (FCR, protein digestibility, and income over feed cost(IOFC were the parameters measured. Data were subjected to ANOVA and continued to Duncan test.No interaction between cage density and black cumin on all parameters was observed. Feedconsumption and FCR were increased, but BWG was lowered significantly (P<0.05 due to the cagedensities of 10 and 12 birds/m2 on weeks 2 and 3. Protein digestibility was significantly increased byfeeding 2 and 3% BC. IOFC decreased significantly (P<0.05 when cage densities were 10 and 12birds/m2. In conclusion, the improvement of productive efficiency of broiler chicken reared at the cagedensity of 12 birds /m2 can be sufficiently achieved by feeding 1% black cumin.

  4. Telecommunications Circuit Allocation Programs - Kansas City Area

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thomas, William

    1994-01-01

    The overall objective of the audit was to determine whether DoD circuit allocation programs identified and used the most effective configurations for leased long-haul, special-purpose telecommunications circuits...

  5. The Effects of Nitrogen Addition on the Uptake and Allocation of Macro- and Micronutrients in Bothriochloa ischaemum on Loess Plateau in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zemin Ai

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of nitrogen (N addition on the macro- and micronutrient concentrations, storage, and allocation of Bothriochloa ischaemum (L. Keng, a native forage plant on the Loess Plateau in China remain unclear. We studied the effects of N addition at 0 (CK, 2.5 (N1, 5.0 (N2, and 10.0 (N3 g N m-2 y-1. N addition significantly decreased the available copper (Cu, zinc (Zn, and total Cu concentration, but significantly increased the available iron concentration in the soil. Cu, manganese (Mn, and sodium (Na concentrations in aboveground tissues and potassium (K, magnesium, and Zn concentrations in belowground tissues significantly increased with N addition. Calcium (Ca concentrations in belowground tissues decreased significantly. The ratios of above- to belowground Ca, Cu, Zn, and Mn significantly increased with N addition. The maximum ratios appeared at N2 for Cu, Zn, and Mn. The aboveground, belowground, and total biomass storage of studied nutrients significantly changed with N addition, and most attained maximum values under N2 treatment. The storage ratios of above- to belowground Cu, Zn, Mn, and Na attained maximum values at N2. We conclude that N addition significantly, but differentially influence the macro- and micronutrient concentrations and storage in B. ischaemum. B. ischaemum allocated and accumulated increased macro- and micronutrients to its aboveground tissues and exhibited high total storage when the amount of N addition reached 5 g N m-2 y-1.

  6. Effective and Efficient Stand Magnifier Use in Visually Impaired Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liebrand-Schurink, Joyce; Cox, Ralf F. A.; van Rens, Ger H. M. B.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Meulenbroek, Ruud G. J.; Boonstra, Frouke N.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The main objective of this study was to analyze the effectiveness and efficiency of magnifier use in children with visual impairment who did not use a low vision aid earlier, in an ecologically valid goal-directed perceptuomotor task. Methods: Participants were twenty-nine 4- to 8-year-old

  7. The effectiveness and efficiency of model driven game design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dormans, Joris

    2012-01-01

    In order for techniques from Model Driven Engineering to be accepted at large by the game industry, it is critical that the effectiveness and efficiency of these techniques are proven for game development. There is no lack of game design models, but there is no model that has surfaced as an industry

  8. Efficiency, Effectiveness and Productivity: The Abstract Measures of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper makes a case for reviving the system. Efficiency, effectiveness and productivity which are all quality indices are carefully discussed and synthesized into management techniques that will create in the staff and management officials the culture of excellent performance in our higher educational system.

  9. Origin of size effect on efficiency of organic photovoltaics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manor, Assaf; Katz, Eugene A.; Tromholt, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    It is widely accepted that efficiency of organic solar cells could be limited by their size. However, the published data on this effect are very limited and none of them includes analysis of light intensity dependence of the key cell parameters. We report such analysis for bulk heterojunction sol...

  10. Effect of handrim velocity on mechanical efficiency in wheelchair propulsion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeger, DirkJan (H. E. J.); van der Woude, L H; Rozendal, R H

    To study the effect of tangential speed of the handrims independent of external power output on gross mechanical efficiency (ME), nine able-bodied subjects performed wheelchair exercise tests on a stationary ergometer. The ergometer allowed for measurement of torque and three-dimensional forces on

  11. Taxing energy to improve the environment : Efficiency and distributional effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijdra, BJ; van der Horst, A

    We study the effects of environmental tax policy in a dynamic overlapping generations model of a small open economy with environmental quality incorporated as a durable consumption good. Raising the energy tax may yield an efficiency gain if agents care enough about the environment. The benefits are

  12. Efficient and Effective Change Principles in Active Videogames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straker, Leon M; Fenner, Ashley A; Howie, Erin K; Feltz, Deborah L; Gray, Cindy M; Lu, Amy Shirong; Mueller, Florian Floyd; Simons, Monique; Barnett, Lisa M

    Active videogames have the potential to enhance population levels of physical activity but have not been successful in achieving this aim to date. This article considers a range of principles that may be important to the design of effective and efficient active videogames from diverse discipline

  13. Efficient and Effective Change Principles in Active Videogames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straker, L.M.; Fenner, A.A.; Howie, E.K.; Feltz, D.L.; Gray, C.M.; Lu, A.S.; Mueller, F.F.; Simons, M.; Barnett, L.M.

    2015-01-01

    Active videogames have the potential to enhance population levels of physical activity but have not been successful in achieving this aim to date. This article considers a range of principles that may be important to the design of effective and efficient active videogames from diverse discipline

  14. A data envelope analysis to assess factors affecting technical and economic efficiency of individual broiler breeder hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, L F; Zuidhof, M J; Jeffrey, S R; Naeima, A; Renema, R A; Robinson, F E

    2010-08-01

    This study evaluated the effect of feed allocation and energetic efficiency on technical and economic efficiency of broiler breeder hens using the data envelope analysis methodology and quantified the effect of variables affecting technical efficiency. A total of 288 Ross 708 pullets were placed in individual cages at 16 wk of age and assigned to 1 of 4 feed allocation groups. Three of them had feed allocated on a group basis with divergent BW targets: standard, high (standard x 1.1), and low (standard x 0.9). The fourth group had feed allocated on an individual bird basis following the standard BW target. Birds were classified in 3 energetic efficiency categories: low, average, and high, based on estimated maintenance requirements. Technical efficiency considered saleable chicks as output and cumulative ME intake and time as inputs. Economic efficiency of feed allocation treatments was analyzed under different cost scenarios. Birds with low feed allocation exhibited a lower technical efficiency (69.4%) than standard (72.1%), which reflected a reduced egg production rate. Feed allocation of the high treatment could have been reduced by 10% with the same chick production as the standard treatment. The low treatment exhibited reduced economic efficiency at greater capital costs, whereas high had reduced economic efficiency at greater feed costs. The average energetic efficiency hens had a lower technical efficiency in the low compared with the standard feed allocation. A 1% increment in estimated maintenance requirement changed technical efficiency by -0.23%, whereas a 1% increment in ME intake had a -0.47% effect. The negative relationship between technical efficiency and ME intake was counterbalanced by a positive correlation of ME intake and egg production. The negative relationship of technical efficiency and maintenance requirements was synergized by a negative correlation of hen maintenance and egg production. Economic efficiency methodologies are effective

  15. Achieving Efficiency and Effectiveness in Purchasing and Supply Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bals, Lydia; Turkulainen, Virpi

    2017-01-01

    of the most prevalent business practices in various areas, many businesses fail to realize the benefits anticipated from their outsourcing initiatives. Research reports that one major reason for these outsourcing challenges lies in the design of the focal organization. In this paper, we take an organization......As a function with a strategic role, Purchasing and Supply Management (PSM) needs to continuously find ways to improve its efficiency and effectiveness. One potential way to specifically addressing efficiency targets is to outsource parts of the purchasing process. While outsourcing remains one...

  16. A Dynamic Pricing Reverse Auction-Based Resource Allocation Mechanism in Cloud Workflow Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuejun Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Market-oriented reverse auction is an efficient and cost-effective method for resource allocation in cloud workflow systems since it can dynamically allocate resources depending on the supply-demand relationship of the cloud market. However, during the auction the price of cloud resource is usually fixed, and the current resource allocation mechanisms cannot adapt to the changeable market properly which results in the low efficiency of resource utilization. To address such a problem, a dynamic pricing reverse auction-based resource allocation mechanism is proposed. During the auction, resource providers can change prices according to the trading situation so that our novel mechanism can increase the chances of making a deal and improve efficiency of resource utilization. In addition, resource providers can improve their competitiveness in the market by lowering prices, and thus users can obtain cheaper resources in shorter time which would decrease monetary cost and completion time for workflow execution. Experiments with different situations and problem sizes are conducted for dynamic pricing-based allocation mechanism (DPAM on resource utilization and the measurement of Time⁎Cost (TC. The results show that our DPAM can outperform its representative in resource utilization, monetary cost, and completion time and also obtain the optimal price reduction rates.

  17. Allocating multiple units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranæs, Torben; Krishna, Kala

    2002-01-01

    This paper studies the allocation and rent distribution in multi-unit, combinatorial-bid auctions under complete information. We focus on the natural multi-unit analogue of the first-price auction, where buyers bid total payments, pay their bids, and where the seller allocates goods to maximize his...... auction, which is the multi unit analogue of a second-price auction. Furthermore, we characterize these equilibria when valuations take a number of different forms: diminishing marginal valuations, increasing average valuations, and marginal valuations with single turning points...

  18. Placement and efficiency effects on radiative forcing of solar installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burg, Brian R.; Ruch, Patrick; Paredes, Stephan; Michel, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    The promise for harnessing solar energy being hampered by cost, triggered efforts to reduce them. As a consequence low-efficiency, low-cost photovoltaics (PV) panels prevail. Conversely, in the traditional energy sector efficiency is extremely important due to the direct costs associated to fuels. This also affects solar energy due to the radiative forcing caused by the dark solar panels. In this paper we extend the concept of energy payback time by including the effect of albedo change, which gives a better assessment of the system sustainability. We present an analysis on the short and medium term climate forcing effects of different solar collectors in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia and demonstrate that efficiency is important to reduce the collector area and cost. This also influences the embodied energy and the global warming potential. We show that a placement of a high concentration photovoltaic thermal solar power station outside of the city using a district cooling system has a double beneficial effect since it improves the solar conversion efficiency and reduces the energy demand for cooling in the city. We also explain the mechanisms of the current economic development of solar technologies and anticipate changes

  19. Placement and efficiency effects on radiative forcing of solar installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burg, Brian R.; Ruch, Patrick; Paredes, Stephan; Michel, Bruno, E-mail: bmi@zurich.ibm.com [IBM Research - Zurich, Säumerstrasse 4, CH-8803 Rüschlikon (Switzerland)

    2015-09-28

    The promise for harnessing solar energy being hampered by cost, triggered efforts to reduce them. As a consequence low-efficiency, low-cost photovoltaics (PV) panels prevail. Conversely, in the traditional energy sector efficiency is extremely important due to the direct costs associated to fuels. This also affects solar energy due to the radiative forcing caused by the dark solar panels. In this paper we extend the concept of energy payback time by including the effect of albedo change, which gives a better assessment of the system sustainability. We present an analysis on the short and medium term climate forcing effects of different solar collectors in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia and demonstrate that efficiency is important to reduce the collector area and cost. This also influences the embodied energy and the global warming potential. We show that a placement of a high concentration photovoltaic thermal solar power station outside of the city using a district cooling system has a double beneficial effect since it improves the solar conversion efficiency and reduces the energy demand for cooling in the city. We also explain the mechanisms of the current economic development of solar technologies and anticipate changes.

  20. Intelligent Continuous Double Auction method For Service Allocation in Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nima Farajian

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Market-oriented approach is an effective method for resource management because of its regulation of supply and demand and is suitable for cloud environment where the computing resources, either software or hardware, are virtualized and allocated as services from providers to users. In this paper a continuous double auction method for efficient cloud service allocation is presented in which i enables consumers to order various resources (services for workflows and coallocation, ii consumers and providers make bid and request prices based on deadline and workload time and in addition providers can tradeoff between utilization time and price of bids, iii auctioneers can intelligently find optimum matching by sharing and merging resources which result more trades. Experimental results show that proposed method is efficient in terms of successful allocation rate and resource utilization.

  1. Sustainable packaging: from eco-efficiency to eco-effectiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niero, Monia; Boas, Simon H.; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2014-01-01

    According to Verghese et al (2012) sustainable packaging should be: effective in delivering its functional requirements, efficient in its use of materials, energy, and water throughout its life cycle, cyclic in its use of renewable materials and recoverability at end-of-life, and safe for people...... and the natural environment. Companies in the packaging sector have traditionally been using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology to fulfill these requirements. However, being inspired by the eco-efficiency principle, LCA aims to reduce the negative environmental footprint of human activities by optimizing...... and emissions can be taken up as nutrients by other processes instead of reducing the amount of waste as eco-efficiency advocates. From a company point of view, LCA and C2C are complementary approaches to develop sustainable andinnovative solutions for packaging, see Figure 1. We will illustrate the challenges...

  2. The effect of water availability on stand-level productivity, transpiration, water use efficiency and radiation use efficiency of field-grown willow clones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linderson, Maj-Lena; Iritz, Zinaida; Lindroth, Anders

    2007-01-01

    The effect of water availability on stand-level productivity, transpiration, water use efficiency (WUE) and radiation use efficiency (RUE) is evaluated for different willow clones at stand level. The measurements were made during the growing season 2000 in a 3-year-old plantation in Scania, southernmost Sweden. Six willow clones were included in the study: L78183, SW Rapp, SW Jorunn, SW Jorr, SW Tora and SW Loden. All clones were exposed to two water treatments: rain-fed, non-irrigated treatment and reduced water availability by reduced soil water recharge. Field measurements of stem sap-flow and biometry are up-scaled to stand transpiration and stand dry substance production and used to assess WUE. RUE is estimated from the ratio between the stand dry substance production and the accumulated absorbed photosynthetic active radiation over the growing season. The total stand transpiration rate for the 5 months lies between 100 and 325 mm, which is fairly low compared to the Penman-Monteith transpiration for willow, reaching 400-450 mm for the same period. Mean WUE of all clones and treatments is 5.3 g/kg, which is high compared to earlier studies, while average RUE is 0.31 g/mol, which is slightly low compared to other results. Generally, all clones, except for Jorunn, seem to be better off concerning biomass production, WUE and RUE than the reference clone. Jorr, Jorunn and Loden also seem to be able to cope with the reduced water availability with increase in the water use efficiency. Tora performs significantly better than the other clones concerning both growth and efficiency in light and water use, but the effect of the dry treatment on stem growth shows sensitivity to water availability. The reduced stem growth could be due to a change in allocation patterns

  3. Rebound Effects in the Context of Developing Country Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McNeil, Michael A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Leventis, Greg [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-08-30

    Energy efficiency-related “rebound effects” usually refer to the tendency of most consumers to increase their use of energy services in response to efficiency measures that have reduced their energy costs. This phenomenon is one reason why energy efficiency policies often result in lower energy savings than engineering-based estimates predict. Rebound effects have been the subject of intense debate in the field of energy efficiency policy for many years.1 In the past, the focus of this debate has been on the perceived loss of the expected energy savings and related benefits resulting from the rebound effects. However, more recently, there has been a growing recognition that policymakers need to consider the health, economic and other non-energy benefits that often result from the increase in energy services represented by user “rebound effects”. This is especially true in developing countries where basic energy service demands—such as lighting, heating, cooling, and refrigeration of food—are often not being met. As economic conditions improve and household incomes increase, demand for increased energy services (such as space conditioning and appliances) tends to rise rapidly. Improving energy efficiency reduces the amount of energy needed to produce one unit of energy service output (for example an hour of cooling at 21°C delivered for X vs Y kWh). Greater efficiency therefore often enables more rapid increased in energy services (and sometimes access), expanding the amount of services that can be provided by a fixed amount (or cost) of energy.

  4. High efficiency Lifter based on the Biefeld-Brown effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshe Einat

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Biefeld-Brown is a fascinating effect with which levitation can be reached without moving or rotating elements. Static voltage is applied between asymmetric electrodes and a force towards the small electrode is generated. This effect is studied experimentally in this paper. Using this effect a set of experiments is conducted trying to clarify the relation of the model geometry to the induced force. The results show clear relations of the generated force to the model structure and dimensions. As the asymmetry is stronger, the force is stronger. According to the experimental results, a set of preferred parameters is given to strength the effect. Choosing the geometrical properties properly led to improvement of factor ∼9 in the generated force and efficiency. Nevertheless, some results provides contradictions to earlier models of electrohydrodynamicmic (EHD describing the effect and reveal unresolved questions regarding this effect.

  5. Multimedia transmission in MC-CDMA using adaptive subcarrier power allocation and CFO compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitra, S.; Kumaratharan, N.

    2018-02-01

    Multicarrier code division multiple access (MC-CDMA) system is one of the most effective techniques in fourth-generation (4G) wireless technology, due to its high data rate, high spectral efficiency and resistance to multipath fading. However, MC-CDMA systems are greatly deteriorated by carrier frequency offset (CFO) which is due to Doppler shift and oscillator instabilities. It leads to loss of orthogonality among the subcarriers and causes intercarrier interference (ICI). Water filling algorithm (WFA) is an efficient resource allocation algorithm to solve the power utilisation problems among the subcarriers in time-dispersive channels. The conventional WFA fails to consider the effect of CFO. To perform subcarrier power allocation with reduced CFO and to improve the capacity of MC-CDMA system, residual CFO compensated adaptive subcarrier power allocation algorithm is proposed in this paper. The proposed technique allocates power only to subcarriers with high channel to noise power ratio. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated using random binary data and image as source inputs. Simulation results depict that the bit error rate performance and ICI reduction capability of the proposed modified WFA offered superior performance in both power allocation and image compression for high-quality multimedia transmission in the presence of CFO and imperfect channel state information conditions.

  6. Strategy Implementation Style and Public Service Effectiveness, Efficiency, and Equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhys Andrews

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Strategic decision-making theories suggest that organizations that combine rational and incremental strategy implementation styles are likely to perform better than those that emphasize a single style. To assess whether these arguments apply to the public sector; we explore the strategy implementation style and perceived service effectiveness, efficiency and equity of Turkish municipal government departments. Using fuzzy cluster analysis, we identify four distinctive though inter-related styles of strategy implementation in our sample organizations: logical-incremental; mostly rational; mostly incremental; and no clear approach. A logical-incremental and mostly rational style of implementation are associated with better effectiveness, efficiency and equity; with the absence of an implementation style associated with worse performance. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  7. OPORTUNITIES PROGRAM IN MEXICO AND SONORA: IMPACT, EFFICIENCY AND EFFECTIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irasema Lilian Mancillas-Alvarez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The concept of poverty is based on the monetary approach, which is measured by the method of poverty lines (Foster, Greer and Thoerbecke, 1984; Sen, 1976; while the static microsimulation technique (Bourguignon and Spadaro, 2006 helps quantify the impact of Oportunities in reducing poverty in Mexico and Sonora during the years 2010-2012. The information for this study is obtained from the National Survey of Income and Expenditure Household INEGI (2010, 2012.Lower percentages of poverty were found in Sonora in comparison with the country and no significant impact from the program; the greatest impact was seen in the country since food poverty was reduced (-2.14%, capabilities poverty (- 1.86% and patrimonial poverty (-0.81%. In regards to targeting of the program, in the country there is a slight improvement in efficiency but not in effectiveness and Sonora experienced a significant improvement in efficiency and effectiveness.

  8. From effective accounting and reporting to efficient outsourcing

    OpenAIRE

    Meyr, Daria

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to identify an effective management accounting and reporting concept for efficient outsourcing performance in sustainable organizations. Existing reporting norms of the “Systemanalyse und Programmentwicklung (SAP)” platform, used in JSC "Russian Railways" (further Russian Railways) were analysed. Thereby, in the paper a method of the formation of internal management accounting and reporting on the costs of outsourcing were developed. Currently, the analysis of the reports and ...

  9. Macroeconomic influences on optimal asset allocation

    OpenAIRE

    Flavin, Thomas; Wickens, M.R.

    2003-01-01

    We develop a tactical asset allocation strategy that incorporates the effects of macroeconomic variables. The joint distribution of financial asset returns and the macroeconomic variables is modelled using a VAR with a multivariate GARCH (M-GARCH) error structure. As a result, the portfolio frontier is time varying and subject to contagion from the macroeconomic variable. Optimal asset allocation requires that this be taken into account. We illustrate how to do this using three ri...

  10. Social dominance in prepubertal dairy heifers allocated in continuous competitive dyads: Effects on body growth, metabolic status, and reproductive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiol, C; Carriquiry, M; Ungerfeld, R

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the body weight (BW) and size, metabolic status, and reproductive development of dominant and subordinate prepubertal dairy heifers allocated in competitive dyads. Sixteen Holstein and Jersey × Holstein prepubertal heifers (means ± SEM; 250.8 ± 9.8 d; 208.5 ± 13.9 kg of BW) were assigned to 8 homogeneous dyads according to breed, age, and BW. Dyads were housed in pens separated 1 m from each other during 120 d, receiving a total mixed ration on a 5% restriction of their potential dry matter intake, and had access to the same feeder (60 cm) throughout the experiment. Dominant and subordinate heifers were defined based on the winning agonistic interactions in each dyad. Body development was recorded every 20 d in all heifers, and blood samples were collected on the same days to determine endocrine and metabolic status. The maximum follicle diameter, number of follicles >6 mm, and the presence of corpus luteum were observed weekly by ultrasound. Heifer BW (269.3 vs. 265.3 ± 1.5 kg) and average daily gains (0.858 vs. 0.770 ± 0.02 kg/d) were greater in dominant than subordinate heifers. On d 30, 37, and 53, dominant heifers had more follicles than subordinate heifers, and maximum follicle diameter was greater in dominant than in subordinate heifers (10.0 vs. 9.0 ± 0.3 mm). Dominant heifers achieved puberty earlier than subordinate heifers (313.9 ± 4.9 vs. 329.6 ± 5.7 d) with similar BW (279.4 ± 2.6 vs. 277.4 ± 5.8 kg). Glucose concentrations were greater in dominant than subordinate heifers (89.2 vs. 86.8 ± 1.2 mg/dL), but cholesterol concentrations were greater in subordinate than dominant heifers (86.1 vs. 90.2 ± 2.6 mg/dL). We concluded that, under continuous competitive situations, dominant heifers were more precocious than subordinate ones, achieving an earlier puberty. Dominant heifers had greater body growth and glucose concentrations than subordinate heifers, which may be responsible, at least in part, for

  11. The ASCENT (Allocation System Changes for Equity in Kidney Transplantation) Study: a Randomized Effectiveness-Implementation Study to Improve Kidney Transplant Waitlisting and Reduce Racial Disparity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patzer, Rachel E; Smith, Kayla; Basu, Mohua; Gander, Jennifer; Mohan, Sumit; Escoffery, Cam; Plantinga, Laura; Melanson, Taylor; Kalloo, Sean; Green, Gary; Berlin, Alex; Renville, Gary; Browne, Teri; Turgeon, Nicole; Caponi, Susan; Zhang, Rebecca; Pastan, Stephen

    2017-05-01

    The United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) implemented a new Kidney Allocation System (KAS) in December 2014 that is expected to substantially reduce racial disparities in kidney transplantation among waitlisted patients. However, not all dialysis facility clinical providers and end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients are aware of how the policy change could improve access to transplant. We describe the ASCENT (Allocation System Changes for Equity in KidNey Transplantation) study, a randomized controlled effectiveness-implementation study designed to test the effectiveness of a multicomponent intervention to improve access to the early steps of kidney transplantation among dialysis facilities across the United States. The multicomponent intervention consists of an educational webinar for dialysis medical directors, an educational video for patients and an educational video for dialysis staff, and a dialysis-facility specific transplant performance feedback report. Materials will be developed by a multidisciplinary dissemination advisory board and will undergo formative testing in dialysis facilities across the United States. This study is estimated to enroll ~600 U.S. dialysis facilities with low waitlisting in all 18 ESRD Networks. The co-primary outcomes include change in waitlisting, and waitlist disparity at 1 year; secondary outcomes include changes in facility medical director knowledge about KAS, staff training regarding KAS, patient education regarding transplant, and a medical director's intent to refer patients for transplant evaluation. The results from the ASCENT study will demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of a multicomponent intervention designed to increase access to the deceased-donor kidney waitlist and reduce racial disparities in waitlisting.

  12. Allocation of scarce resources during mass casualty events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timbie, Justin W; Ringel, Jeanne S; Fox, D Steven; Waxman, Daniel A; Pillemer, Francesca; Carey, Christine; Moore, Melinda; Karir, Veena; Johnson, Tiffani J; Iyer, Neema; Hu, Jianhui; Shanman, Roberta; Larkin, Jody Wozar; Timmer, Martha; Motala, Aneesa; Perry, Tanja R; Newberry, Sydne; Kellermann, Arthur L

    2012-06-01

    review (CER); we ultimately included 170 in the review. Twenty-seven studies focus on strategies for policymakers. Among this group were studies that examined various ways to distribute biological countermeasures more efficiently during a bioterror attack or influenza pandemic. They provided modest evidence that the way these systems are organized influences the speed of distribution. The review includes 119 studies that address strategies for providers. A number of these studies provided evidence suggesting that commonly used triage systems do not perform consistently in actual MCEs. The number of high-quality studies addressing other specific strategies was insufficient to support firm conclusions about their effectiveness. Only 10 studies included strategies that consider the public's perspective. However, these studies were consistent in their findings. In particular, the public believes that resource allocation guidelines should be simple and consistent across health care facilities but should allow facilities some flexibility to make allocation decisions based on the specific demand and supply situation. The public also believes that a successful allocation system should balance the goals of ensuring the functioning of society, saving the greatest number of people, protecting the most vulnerable people, reducing deaths and hospitalizations, and treating people fairly and equitably. The remaining 14 studies provided strategies for engaging providers in discussions about allocating and managing scarce medical resources. These studies did not identify one engagement approach as clearly superior; however, they consistently noted the importance of a broad, inclusive, and systematic engagement process. Scientific research to identify the most effective adaptive strategies to implement during MCEs is an emerging area. While it remains unclear which of the many options available to policymakers and providers will be most effective, ongoing efforts to develop a focused

  13. An Effective Scheduling-Based RFID Reader Collision Avoidance Model and Its Resource Allocation via Artificial Immune Network

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Shanjin; Li, Zhonghua; He, Chunhui; Li, Jianming

    2016-01-01

    Radio frequency identification, that is, RFID, is one of important technologies in Internet of Things. Reader collision does impair the tag identification efficiency of an RFID system. Many developed methods, for example, the scheduling-based series, that are used to avoid RFID reader collision, have been developed. For scheduling-based methods, communication resources, that is, time slots, channels, and power, are optimally assigned to readers. In this case, reader collision avoidance is equ...

  14. Long term effects of an energy efficiency advertising campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wortmann, Klaus; Moehring-Hueser, Werner [Energiestiftung Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    A professional marketing approach should support a transformation of the market towards more energy efficient decisions not only of consumers, but also of retailers and producers. The state-wide energy efficiency advertising campaign 'Aus. Wirklich aus?' (off. really off?) against pointless stand-by consumption took place in Schleswig-Holstein (Northern Germany) from November 2000 until June 2001 followed by reminder ads in autumn 2001 and spring 2002. Extraordinary efforts were undertaken to evaluate the effects of the campaign, because it served as a pilot project for an approach on the national level. Two representative samples of the population and specialist dealers for electrical equipment in two German states (one as 'control group') were interviewed by phone before the launch of the campaign, at the peak of the advertising pressure and one year after. The results are presented with special emphasis on sustainable effects with respect to energy awareness and interest of the consumers as well as on their intention to act and on specific actions like switching the TV (really) off. For most of these criteria long lasting effects could be observed. Also the retailers steadily increased their own (additional) activities to profit from the campaign. The results are discussed with respect to economical cost-benefit-arguments and in the light of psychological theories of information processing in order to describe the essential lessons learned for successful energy efficiency campaigns in the future.

  15. Effect of Energy Efficiency Standards on Natural Gas Prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnall, Michael; Dale, Larry; Lekov, Alex

    2011-07-26

    in its price as seen at the wellhead (Wiser 2007). The magnitude of the effect on price relative to the demand reduction, and the mechanism through which it occurs, is less well established. This report attempts to quantify the potential effects of reduced demand for natural gas in the residential sector, in response to the implementation of an energy efficiency standard for water heaters.

  16. The effect of mouth breathing on chewing efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaiwa, Miho; Gunjigake, Kaori; Yamaguchi, Kazunori

    2016-03-01

    To examine the effect of mouth breathing on chewing efficiency by evaluating masticatory variables. Ten adult nasal breathers with normal occlusion and no temporomandibular dysfunction were selected. Subjects were instructed to bite the chewing gum on the habitual side. While breathing through the mouth and nose, the glucide elution from the chewing gum, number of chewing strokes, duration of chewing, and electromyography (EMG) activity of the masseter muscle were evaluated as variables of masticatory efficiency. The durations required for the chewing of 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, and 250 strokes were significantly (P chewing stroke between nose and mouth breathings. The glucide elution rates for 1- and 3-minute chewing were significantly (P chewing between nose and mouth breathings. While chewing for 1, 3, and 5 minutes, the chewing stroke and EMG activity of the masseter muscle were significantly (P chewing to obtain higher masticatory efficiency when breathing through the mouth. Therefore, mouth breathing will decrease the masticatory efficiency if the duration of chewing is restricted in everyday life.

  17. Allocation decisions in network industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolle, Friedel [Europa-Universitaet Viadrina Frankfurt, Lehrstuhl Volkswirtschaftslehre, insbesondere Wirtschaftstheorie (Mikrooekonomie), Postfach 1786 15207 Frankfurt (Germany)

    2008-01-15

    In this paper, I want to propagate a new analytical tool: The usage of Menu Auctions for modelling complicated auctions, negotiations, rent seeking, etc. is advocated, because, contrary to 'normal' auctions and bargaining models, an arbitrary number of additional aspects can be taken into account. After concentrating on 'Truthful Equilibria' [Bernheim, B.D., Whinston, M.D., 1986. Menu auctions, resource allocation, and economic influence, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 1-31.] a certain broad class of Menu Auctions show unique and efficient allocations. Under an additional concavity condition even the equilibrium bids are unique. Two examples are discussed: the privatisation of a state-owned industry and the buying of wholesale electricity (concluding contracts with a number of producers) by a utility. These examples also serve to trace the sources of 'non-concavities' which can prevent the uniqueness of bids and can provide the auctioneer with incentives to exclude bidders from the competition. (author)

  18. The effect of limited availability of N or water on C allocation to fine roots and annual fine root turnover in Alnus incana and Salix viminalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rytter, Rose-Marie

    2013-09-01

    The effect of limited nitrogen (N) or water availability on fine root growth and turnover was examined in two deciduous species, Alnus incana L. and Salix viminalis L., grown under three different regimes: (i) supply of N and water in amounts which would not hamper growth, (ii) limited N supply and (iii) limited water supply. Plants were grown outdoors during three seasons in covered and buried lysimeters placed in a stand structure and filled with quartz sand. Computer-controlled irrigation and fertilization were supplied through drip tubes. Production and turnover of fine roots were estimated by combining minirhizotron observations and core sampling, or by sequential core sampling. Annual turnover rates of fine roots water availability. Fine root production (treatments in Salix; i.e., absolute length and biomass production increased in the order: water limited treatment effects were detected for fine roots 1-2 mm. Proportionally more C was allocated to fine roots (≤2 mm) in N or water-limited Salix; 2.7 and 2.3 times the allocation to fine roots in the unlimited regime, respectively. Estimated input to soil organic carbon increased by ca. 20% at N limitation in Salix. However, future studies on fine root decomposition under various environmental conditions are required. Fine root growth responses to N or water limitation were less pronounced in Alnus, thus indicating species differences caused by N-fixing capacity and slower initial growth in Alnus, or higher fine root plasticity in Salix. A similar seasonal growth pattern across species and treatments suggested the influence of outer stimuli, such as temperature and light.

  19. Market Efficiency and Real Efficiency: The Connect and Disconnect via Feedback Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Liyan Yang; Itay Goldstein

    2014-01-01

    We study a model to explore the (dis)connect between market efficiency and real efficiency when real decision makers learn information from the market to guide their actions. We emphasize two channels that determine whether the two efficiency concepts are aligned. The "externality channel" says that individual learning outcomes may not always map into real efficiency because the presence of externality causes real decision makers to overuse the price information. The "(mis)match channel" emph...

  20. Effects of surface tension on tray point efficiencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, G.X.; Afacan, A.; Chuang, K.T. (Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada))

    1994-08-01

    Sieve tray efficiencies for the distillation of methanol/water, acetic acid/water, and cyclohexane/n-heptane mixtures were measured as a function of composition under fixed vapor and liquid rates in a 0.15 m diameter distillation column. The three binary distillation systems used in the study had a wide range of surface tensions measured as a function of composition. From the efficiencies measured, the number of vapor- and liquid-phase transfer units (Ng and Nl) was determined and the effects of surface tension on Ng and Nl were identified. To further verify the results obtained from the distillation column, bubble sizes in froths for air/water, air/methanol, and air/(water + surfactant) systems with different surface tensions were measured. The results show that surface tension has a significant effect on tray efficiency and the number of transfer units. Bubble sizes in the tray froths were mainly determined by surface tension, and bubble breakup and coalescence occur in the froths. 45 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  1. The Effect of Salicylic Acid and Chelated Magnesium Sulfate on Matters Allocation in Vegetative and Reproductive Parts in Pear cv. Louise Bonne Infected to Fire Blight Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mahjabin adel

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Distribution of photosynthetic substances between vegetative and reproductive parts is influenced by the environmental factors as well as plant nutrition status. Therefore, application of nutrient substances (such as chelated magnesium sulfate and salicylic acid combination can influence the distribution of photosynthetic substances which in turn result in changes in allocation of photo-assimilates between vegetative and reproductive parts. Since the investigation of partitioning of photo- assimilates is complex and the interpretation of treatments effects on partitioning of substances is difficult in garden plants, this examination has been focused on external application of nutritional treatments on different organs growth by comparing the effects of salicylic acid and chelated magnesium sulfate on the allocation of photo- assimilates. Materials and Methods: This experiment was performed in a commercial 10-year old orchard of Qazvin in 2013. Initially, 60 uniform pears (cv. Louise Bonne which were infected to fire blight disease were selected. Before treatment imposing, agronomic practices such as removing and pruning infected shoots were applied. Treatments were combination of salicylic acid and chelated magnesium sulfate at different levels, which were applied on foliage under the conditions of neutral pollution to fire blight. In the present research, vegetative parameters (current shoot growth, leaf weight, leaf area, relative water content and so on and reproductive parameters (length: diameter ratio and density of fruit and so on were measured. The fully expanded leaves were collected randomly from each replicate. After washing the samples were weighed and these values referred to as initial readings (fresh weight. Then, the leaf samples were placed in distilled water for 24 h in the dark at room temperature. The turgid leaves were blotted dry and weighed (saturation weight. After weighing, the material was oven-dried at 70

  2. EU ETS Allocation. Evaluation of present system and options beyond 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sijm, J.P.M. (ed.) [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands); Berk, M.M.; Den Elzen, M.G.J.; Van den Wijngaart, R.A. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency NMP, Bilthoven (Netherlands)

    2007-03-15

    This study assesses various options for EU (European Union) burden sharing and EU ETS (Emissions Trading System) allocation beyond 2012, based on a sample of policy evaluation criteria and a review of the literature on (1) international and EU burden sharing of future GHG mitigation commitments, and (2) allocation of GHG emission allowances among countries, sectors and emitting installations. It shows that these options score differently with regard to a variety of individual evaluation criteria (such as environmental effectiveness, economic efficiency, social equity or political acceptability), while the overall performance of these options depends on both the selection, interpretation, weighing and adding of these criteria.

  3. Elevated CO{sub 2} does not ameliorate effects of ozone on carbon allocation in Pinus halepensis and Betula pendula in symbiosis with Paxillus involutus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kytoeviita, M.M. [Oulu Univ., Dept. of Biology, Oulu (Finland); Pelloux, J.; Fontaine, V.; Botton, B.; Dizengremel, P. [Univ. Henri Poincare-Nancy, Lab. de Biologie Forestiere Associe INRA, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    1999-07-01

    The effect of 700 {mu}mol CO{sub 2} mol{sup -1}, 200 nmol ozone mol{sup -1} and a combination of the two on carbon allocation was examined in Pinus halepensis co-cultured with Betula pendula in symbiosis with the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus. The results show that under low nutrient and ozone levels, elevated CO{sub 2} has no effect on the growth of B. pendula or P. halepensis seedlings nor on net carbon partitioning between plant parts. Elevated CO{sub 2} did not enhance the growth of the fungus in symbiosis with the birch. On the other hand, ozone had a strong negative effect on the growth of the birch, which corresponded with the significantly reduced growth rates of the fungus. Exposure to elevated CO{sub 2} did not ameliorate the negative effects of ozone on birch; in contrast, it acted as an additional stress factor. Neither ozone nor CO{sub 2} had significant effects on biomass accumulation in the pine seedlings. Ozone stimulated the spread of mycorrhizal infection from the birch seedlings to neighbouring pines and had no statistically significant effects on phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) or ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) activity in the pine needles or on PEPC activity in pine roots. (au)

  4. Efficient estimation of feedback effects with application to climate models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cacugi, D.G.; Hall, M.C.G.

    1984-01-01

    This work presents an efficient method for calculating the sensitivity of a mathematical model's result to feedback. Feedback is defined in terms of an operator acting on the model's dependent variables. The sensitivity to feedback is defined as a functional derivative, and a method is presented to evaluate this derivative using adjoint functions. Typically, this method allows the individual effect of many different feedbacks to be estimated with a total additional computing time comparable to only one recalculation. The effects on a CO 2 -doubling experiment of actually incorporating surface albedo and water vapor feedbacks in radiative-convective model are compared with sensivities calculated using adjoint functions. These sensitivities predict the actual effects of feedback with at least the correct sign and order of magnitude. It is anticipated that this method of estimation the effect of feedback will be useful for more complex models where extensive recalculations for each of a variety of different feedbacks is impractical

  5. Railway Track Allocation: Models and Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper; Ehrgott, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Efficiently coordinating the movement of trains on a railway network is a central part of the planning process for a railway company. This paper reviews models and methods that have been proposed in the literature to assist planners in finding train routes. Since the problem of routing trains......, and train routing problems, group them by railway network type, and discuss track allocation from a strategic, tactical, and operational level....... on a railway network entails allocating the track capacity of the network (or part thereof) over time in a conflict-free manner, all studies that model railway track allocation in some capacity are considered relevant. We hence survey work on the train timetabling, train dispatching, train platforming...

  6. Emergency material allocation with time-varying supply-demand based on dynamic optimization method for river chemical spills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Guo, Liang; Jiang, Jiping; Jiang, Dexun; Wang, Peng

    2018-04-13

    Aiming to minimize the damage caused by river chemical spills, efficient emergency material allocation is critical for an actual emergency rescue decision-making in a quick response. In this study, an emergency material allocation framework based on time-varying supply-demand constraint is developed to allocate emergency material, minimize the emergency response time, and satisfy the dynamic emergency material requirements in post-accident phases dealing with river chemical spills. In this study, the theoretically critical emergency response time is firstly obtained for the emergency material allocation system to select a series of appropriate emergency material warehouses as potential supportive centers. Then, an enumeration method is applied to identify the practically critical emergency response time, the optimum emergency material allocation and replenishment scheme. Finally, the developed framework is applied to a computational experiment based on south-to-north water transfer project in China. The results illustrate that the proposed methodology is a simple and flexible tool for appropriately allocating emergency material to satisfy time-dynamic demands during emergency decision-making. Therefore, the decision-makers can identify an appropriate emergency material allocation scheme in a balance between time-effective and cost-effective objectives under the different emergency pollution conditions.

  7. The Social Power of Regret : The Effect of Social Appraisal and Anticipated Emotions on Fair and Unfair Allocations in Resource Dilemmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schalk, Job; Kuppens, Toon; Bruder, Martin; Manstead, Antony S. R.

    We investigated how another person's emotions about resource allocation decisions influence observers' resource allocations by influencing the emotions that observers anticipate feeling if they were to act in the same way. Participants were exposed to an exemplar who made a fair or unfair division

  8. Reducing LTE Uplink Transmission Energy by Allocating Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Mads; Jensen, Anders Riis; Mogensen, Preben

    2011-01-01

    The effect of physical resource block (PRB) allocation on an LTE modem's transmit power and total modem energy consumption is examined. In this paper the uplink resource blocks are scheduled in either a Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) or Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) manner......, to determine if low transmission power & long transmission time or high transmission power & short transmission time is most energy efficient. It is important to minimize the LTE modem's energy consumption caused by uplink transmission because it affects phone battery time, and because researchers rarely focus...

  9. Financial Resources Allocation of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeil Afiyan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ​ Background and Objectives : According to complexity of resource allocation, issue about how to allocate health care resources in an accurate and fair manner has become the subject of discussions and decisions of related groups. Therefore, in this research we aim to study the methods of financial resource allocation of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences in order to identify its strengths and weaknesses for its promotion. Material and Methods : This study is a descriptive, qualitative sectional research and all comments have been collected by focus group discussions with experts and managers involved in the allocation of financial resources of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. All factors affecting the process of allocation have been reviewd carefully. Results : Results suggested that except the health sector, none of the other sectors use the formulated  and scientific methods for allocating financial resources and despite the emphasize in the 4th development plan for operating funding, the final cost of the services, has no role in allocating financial resources. Conclusion : Regarding to judgmental and subjective method of financial resources allocation of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences and lack of documented and formulated methods, there is an essential need for developing an appropriate and formulated model for scientific allocation of financial resources in order to improve the efficiency and fairness of the allocation.

  10. Economic principles for resource allocation decisions at national level to mitigate the effects of disease in farm animal populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, K S; Häsler, B; Stärk, K D C

    2013-01-01

    This paper originated in a project to develop a practical, generic tool for the economic evaluation of surveillance for farm animal diseases at national level by a state veterinary service. Fundamental to that process is integration of epidemiological and economic perspectives. Using a generalized example of epidemic disease, we show that an epidemic curve maps into its economic equivalent, a disease mitigation function, that traces the relationship between value losses avoided and mitigation resources expended. Crucially, elementary economic principles show that mitigation, defined as loss reduction achieved by surveillance and intervention, must be explicitly conceptualized as a three-variable process, and the relative contributions of surveillance and intervention resources investigated with regard to the substitution possibilities between them. Modelling the resultant mitigation surfaces for different diseases should become a standard approach to animal health policy analysis for economic efficiency, a contribution to the evolving agenda for animal health economics research.

  11. SOME NOTES ON COST ALLOCATION IN MULTICASTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Skorin-Kapov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the cost allocation strategies with the problef of broadcasting information from some source to a number of communication network users. A multicast routing chooses a minimum cost tree network that spans the source and all the receivers. The cost of such a network is distributed among its receivers who may be individuals or organizations with possibly conflicting interests. Providing network developers, users and owners with practical computable 'fair' cost allocation solution procedures is of great importance for network mamagement. Consequently, this multidisciplinary problem was extensively studied by Operational Researchers, Economists, Mathematicians and Computer Scientists. The fairness of various proposed solutions was even argued in US courts. This presentation overviews some previously published, as well as some recent results, in the development of algorithmic mechanisms to efficiently compute 'attractive' cost allocation solutions for multicast networks. Specifically, we will analyze cooperative game theory based cost allocation models that avoid cross subsidies and/or are distance and population monotonic. We will also present some related open cost allocation problems and the potential contribution that such models might make to this problem in the future.

  12. Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis for US Army Recruiting Input Allocation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brence, John

    2004-01-01

    .... Our methodology will build on both the new and old schools of recruiting by conducting stakeholder interviews that will lead us to a model that is an efficient starting point for the Recruiter Mission Allocation (RMA...

  13. Two's a crowd? Crowding effect in a parasitic castrator drives differences in reproductive resource allocation in single vs double infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Caitlin R; Moron, Nancy A; Kuris, Armand M

    2017-04-01

    The 'crowding effect' is a result of competition by parasites within a host for finite resources. Typically, the severity of this effect increases with increasing numbers of parasites within a host and manifests in reduced body size and thus fitness. Evidence for the crowding effect is mixed - while some have found negative effects, others have found a positive effect of increased parasite load on parasite fitness. Parasites are consumers with diverse trophic strategies reflected in their life history traits. These distinctions are useful to predict the effects of crowding. We studied a parasitic castrator, a parasite that usurps host reproductive energy and renders the host sterile. Parasitic castrators typically occur as single infections within hosts. With multiple parasitic castrators, we expect strong competition and evidence of crowding. We directly assess the effect of crowding on reproductive success in a barnacle population infected by a unique parasitic castrator, Hemioniscus balani, an isopod parasite that infects and blocks reproduction of barnacles. We find (1) strong evidence of crowding in double infections, (2) increased frequency of double infections in larger barnacle hosts with more resources and (3) perfect compensation in egg production, supporting strong space limitation. Our results document that the effects of crowding are particularly severe for this parasitic castrator, and may be applicable to other castrators that are also resource or space limited.

  14. Emissions allocation in transportation routes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenders, B.P.J.; Velázquez Martínez, J.; Fransoo, J.C.

    2017-01-01

    This article studies the allocation of CO2 emissions to a specific shipment in routing transportation. The authors show that this problem differs from a cost allocation problem specifically because the concavity condition does not hold necessarily in the CO2 allocation problem. This implies that a

  15. Roughness effect on the efficiency of dimer antenna based biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Barchiesi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The fabrication process of nanodevices is continually improved. However, most of the nanodevices, such as biosensors present rough surfaces with mean roughness of some nanometers even if the deposition rate of material is more controlled. The effect of roughness on performance of biosensors was fully addressed for plane biosensors and gratings, but rarely addressed for biosensors based on Local Plasmon Resonance. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate numerically the influence of nanometric roughness on the efficiency of a dimer nano-biosensor (two levels of roughness are considered. Therefore, we propose a general numerical method, that can be applied to any other nanometric shape, to take into account the roughness in a three dimensional model. The study focuses on both the far-field, which corresponds to the experimental detected data, and the near-field, responsible for exciting and then detecting biological molecules. The results suggest that the biosensor efficiency is highly sensitive to the surface roughness. The roughness can produce important shifts of the extinction efficiency peak and a decrease of its amplitude resulting from changes in the distribution of near-field and absorbed electric field intensities.

  16. The greenhouse effect and energy efficiency: some facts and figures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Human activities are changing the composition of the atmosphere. In particular the burning of fossil fuels emits carbon dioxide, one of the so-called ''greenhouse gases'' that help maintain the Earth's surface at a temperature suitable for life. They transmit incoming sunlight but trap outgoing radiated heat. Levels of greenhouse gases are increasing, giving rise to concern that the world may warm further, leading to climate change. Energy efficiency can make an important contribution to controlling the greenhouse effect, and brings further benefits for industry and commerce through cost savings. 17 figs

  17. An Optimization Algorithm for Multipath Parallel Allocation for Service Resource in the Simulation Task Workflow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiteng Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Service oriented modeling and simulation are hot issues in the field of modeling and simulation, and there is need to call service resources when simulation task workflow is running. How to optimize the service resource allocation to ensure that the task is complete effectively is an important issue in this area. In military modeling and simulation field, it is important to improve the probability of success and timeliness in simulation task workflow. Therefore, this paper proposes an optimization algorithm for multipath service resource parallel allocation, in which multipath service resource parallel allocation model is built and multiple chains coding scheme quantum optimization algorithm is used for optimization and solution. The multiple chains coding scheme quantum optimization algorithm is to extend parallel search space to improve search efficiency. Through the simulation experiment, this paper investigates the effect for the probability of success in simulation task workflow from different optimization algorithm, service allocation strategy, and path number, and the simulation result shows that the optimization algorithm for multipath service resource parallel allocation is an effective method to improve the probability of success and timeliness in simulation task workflow.

  18. Pollution permits allocation and imperfect competition; Allocation de permis de pollution et concurrence imparfaite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, S.

    2004-12-15

    The aim of this thesis is to highlight the imperfections on the permits markets and to analyze their consequences on markets' efficiency. More precisely, we try to identify the implications of the initial allocation of permits when such imperfections are present. We try to draw some conclusions for the regulator concerning the different forms of the permits' allocation. After having described and compared these forms, we define in which circumstances the initial allocation matters in terms of efficiency. Then, we study different forms of imperfections. First, we take into account the information asymmetry between firms and the regulator and we define an optimal mechanism to sell pollution permits. Then, we analyze a market power on a differentiated pollution permits market. At last, we study the exclusionary manipulation of pollution permits market. (author)

  19. Cost allocation with limited information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Tind, Jørgen

    This article investigates progressive development of Aumann-Shapley cost allocation in a multilevel organizational or production structure. In particular, we study a linear parametric programming setup utilizing the Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition procedure. Typically cost allocation takes place after...... all activities have been performed, for example by finishing all outputs. Here the allocation is made progressively with suggestions for activities. I other words cost allocation is performed in parallel for example with a production planning process. This development does not require detailed...... information about some technical constraints in order to make the cost allocation....

  20. Evaluating Heuristics for Planning Effective and Efficient Inspections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shull, Forrest J.; Seaman, Carolyn B.; Diep, Madeline M.; Feldmann, Raimund L.; Godfrey, Sara H.; Regardie, Myrna

    2010-01-01

    A significant body of knowledge concerning software inspection practice indicates that the value of inspections varies widely both within and across organizations. Inspection effectiveness and efficiency can be measured in numerous ways, and may be affected by a variety of factors such as Inspection planning, the type of software, the developing organization, and many others. In the early 1990's, NASA formulated heuristics for inspection planning based on best practices and early NASA inspection data. Over the intervening years, the body of data from NASA inspections has grown. This paper describes a multi-faceted exploratory analysis performed on this · data to elicit lessons learned in general about conducting inspections and to recommend improvements to the existing heuristics. The contributions of our results include support for modifying some of the original inspection heuristics (e.g. Increasing the recommended page rate), evidence that Inspection planners must choose between efficiency and effectiveness, as a good tradeoff between them may not exist, and Identification of small subsets of inspections for which new inspection heuristics are needed. Most Importantly, this work illustrates the value of collecting rich data on software Inspections, and using it to gain insight into, and Improve, inspection practice.

  1. Efficient Energy Consumption Scheduling: Towards Effective Load Leveling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Hong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Different agents in the smart grid infrastructure (e.g., households, buildings, communities consume energy with their own appliances, which may have adjustable usage schedules over a day, a month, a season or even a year. One of the major objectives of the smart grid is to flatten the demand load of numerous agents (viz. consumers, such that the peak load can be avoided and power supply can feed the demand load at anytime on the grid. To this end, we propose two Energy Consumption Scheduling (ECS problems for the appliances held by different agents at the demand side to effectively facilitate load leveling. Specifically, we mathematically model the ECS problems as Mixed-Integer Programming (MIP problems using the data collected from different agents (e.g., their appliances’ energy consumption in every time slot and the total number of required in-use time slots, specific preferences of the in-use time slots for their appliances. Furthermore, we propose a novel algorithm to efficiently and effectively solve the ECS problems with large-scale inputs (which are NP-hard. The experimental results demonstrate that our approach is significantly more efficient than standard benchmarks, such as CPLEX, while guaranteeing near-optimal outputs.

  2. Effects of Vicarious Experiences of Nature, Environmental Attitudes, and Outdoor Recreation Benefits on Support for Increased Funding Allocations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kil, Namyun

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of vicarious experiences of nature, environmental attitudes, and recreation benefits sought by participants on their support for funding of natural resources and alternative energy options. Using a national scenic trail user survey, results demonstrated that vicarious experiences of nature influenced environmental…

  3. Identifying Effective Design Approaches to Allocate Genotypes in Two-Phase Designs: A Case Study in Pelargonium zonale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike Molenaar

    2018-01-01

    separated with a single pseudo-level. The joint optimization ensured that treatment concurrences were equally balanced across pairs, one of the prerequisites for an efficient design. The proposed alternative approaches can be implemented with any model-based design packages with facilities to formulate linear models for treatment and block structures.

  4. Identifying Effective Design Approaches to Allocate Genotypes in Two-Phase Designs: A Case Study in Pelargonium zonale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Heike; Boehm, Robert; Piepho, Hans-Peter

    2017-01-01

    single pseudo-level. The joint optimization ensured that treatment concurrences were equally balanced across pairs, one of the prerequisites for an efficient design. The proposed alternative approaches can be implemented with any model-based design packages with facilities to formulate linear models for treatment and block structures.

  5. A dynamic allocation mechanism of delivering capacity in coupled networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Wen-Bo; Zhou, Xing-Lian; Zhu, Yan-Bo; Zheng, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Traffic process is ubiquitous in many critical infrastructures. In this paper, we introduce a mechanism to dynamically allocate the delivering capacity into the data-packet traffic model on the coupled Internet autonomous-system-level network of South Korea and Japan, and focus on its effect on the transport efficiency. In this mechanism, the total delivering capacity is constant and the lowest-load node will give one unit delivering capacity to the highest-load node at each time step. It is found that the delivering capacity of busy nodes and non-busy nodes can be well balanced and the effective betweenness of busy nodes with interconnections is significantly reduced. Consequently, the transport efficiency such as average traveling time and packet arrival rate is remarkably improved. Our work may shed some light on the traffic dynamics in coupled networks.

  6. Tracking Control Based on Control Allocation with an Innovative Control Effector Aircraft Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoyang Dong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a control allocation method for the tracking control problem of a class of morphing aircraft with special actuators which are different from the conventional actuation surfaces. This design of actuators can bring about some potential advantages to the flight vehicles; however, due to the integral constraints, the desired control cannot be performed accurately; therefore, it leads to undesirable tracking errors, so influencing the performance of the system. Because the system could be control allocated, based on the designed cost function that describes the tracking errors, the cuckoo search algorithm (CSA is introduced to search for the optimum solution within the calculated actuator execution commands that are equivalent to the desired commands. Several improvement measures are proposed for boosting the efficiency of the CSA and ensuring reasonable solutions. Simulation results show that the proposed control allocation method is necessary and effective, and the improvement measures are helpful in obtaining the optimum solution.

  7. An Optimal Joint User Association and Power Allocation Algorithm for Secrecy Information Transmission in Heterogeneous Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Chai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, heterogeneous radio access technologies have experienced rapid development and gradually achieved effective coordination and integration, resulting in heterogeneous networks (HetNets. In this paper, we consider the downlink secure transmission of HetNets where the information transmission from base stations (BSs to legitimate users is subject to the interception of eavesdroppers. In particular, we stress the problem of joint user association and power allocation of the BSs. To achieve data transmission in a secure and energy efficient manner, we introduce the concept of secrecy energy efficiency which is defined as the ratio of the secrecy transmission rate and power consumption of the BSs and formulate the problem of joint user association and power allocation as an optimization problem which maximizes the joint secrecy energy efficiency of all the BSs under the power constraint of the BSs and the minimum data rate constraint of user equipment (UE. By equivalently transforming the optimization problem into two subproblems, that is, power allocation subproblem and user association subproblem of the BSs, and applying iterative method and Kuhn-Munkres (K-M algorithm to solve the two subproblems, respectively, the optimal user association and power allocation strategies can be obtained. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm outperforms previously proposed algorithms.

  8. Effect of facade components on energy efficiency in office buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihara, Takeshi; Gustavsen, Arild; Jelle, Bjørn Petter

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Investigation of facade properties for energy efficiency of Tokyo office buildings. • Higher reflectance for opaque parts may slightly reduce energy demand. • Lower window U-value and solar heat gain coefficient are potential solutions. • Decreased heating due to insulation did not always compensate increased cooling. • Fundamental data for adjustment of facade properties of buildings are provided. - Abstract: Properties of facade materials should be considered to determine which of them strongly affect building energy performance, regardless of the building shapes, scales, ideal locations, and building types, and thus may be able to promote energy efficiency in buildings. In this study, the effects of four fundamental facade properties related to the energy efficiency of office buildings in Tokyo, Japan, were investigated with the purpose of reducing the heating and cooling energy demands. Some fundamental design factors such as volume and shape were also considered. It was found that the reduction in both the solar heat gain coefficient and window U-value and increase in the solar reflectance of the opaque parts are promising measures for reducing the energy demand. Conversely, the reduction in the U-value of the opaque parts decreased the heating energy demand, and this was accompanied by an increase in the cooling energy demand in some cases because the total energy demands were predominantly for cooling. The above-mentioned promising measures for reducing building energy demands are thus recommended for use, and an appropriate U-value should be applied to the opaque parts based on careful considerations. This study provides some fundamental ideas to adjust the facade properties of buildings.

  9. Dissociation of the role of the prelimbic cortex in interval timing and resource allocation: beneficial effect of norepinephrine and dopamine reuptake inhibitor nomifensine on anxiety-inducing distraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander R Matthews

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Emotional distracters impair cognitive function. Emotional processing is dysregulated in affective disorders such as depression, phobias, schizophrenia, and PTSD. Among the processes impaired by emotional distracters, and whose dysregulation is documented in affective disorders, is the ability to time in the seconds-to-minutes range, i.e. interval timing. Presentation of task-irrelevant distracters during a timing task results in a delay in responding suggesting a failure to maintain subjective time in working memory, possibly due to attentional and working memory resources being diverted away from timing, as proposed by the Relative Time-Sharing model. We investigated the role of the prelimbic cortex in the detrimental effect of anxiety-inducing task-irrelevant distracters on the cognitive ability to keep track of time, using local infusions of norepinephrine and dopamine reuptake inhibitor nomifensine in a modified peak-interval procedure with neutral and anxiety-inducing distracters. Given that some antidepressants have beneficial effects on attention and working memory, e.g., decreasing emotional response to negative events, we hypothesized that nomifensine would improve maintenance of information in working memory in trials with distracters, resulting in a decrease of the disruptive effect of emotional events on the timekeeping abilities. Our results revealed a dissociation of the effects of nomifensine infusion in prelimbic cortex between interval timing and resource allocation, and between neutral and anxiety-inducing distraction. Nomifensine was effective only during trials with distracters, but not during trials without distracters. Nomifensine reduced the detrimental effect of the distracters only when the distracters were anxiety-inducing, but not when they were neutral. Results are discussed in relation to the brain circuits involved in Relative Time-Sharing of resources, and the pharmacological management of affective disorders.

  10. Effects of mobile phone distraction on pedestrians' crossing behavior and visual attention allocation at a signalized intersection: An outdoor experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Kang; Ling, Feiyang; Feng, Zhongxiang; Ma, Changxi; Kumfer, Wesley; Shao, Chen; Wang, Kun

    2018-06-01

    With the rapid growth in mobile phone use worldwide, traffic safety experts have begun to consider the impact of mobile phone distractions on pedestrian crossing safety. This study sought to investigate how mobile phone distractions (music distraction, phone conversation distraction and text distraction) affect the behavior of pedestrians while they are crossing the street. An outdoor-environment experiment was conducted among 28 college student pedestrians. Two HD videos and an eye tracker were employed to record and analyze crossing behavior and visual attention allocation. The results of the research showed that the three mobile phone distractions cause different levels of impairment to pedestrians' crossing performance, with the greatest effect from text distraction, followed by phone conversation distraction and music distraction. Pedestrians distracted by music initiate crossing later, have increased pupil diameter, and reduce their scanning frequency, fixation points and fixation times toward traffic signal area priorities. In addition to the above effects, pedestrians distracted by phone conversation cross the street more slowly, direct fewer fixation points to the right traffic area, and spend less fixation time and lower average fixation duration on the left traffic area. Moreover, pedestrians distracted by texting look left and right less often and switch, distribute and maintain less visual attention on the traffic environment. These findings may inform researchers, policy makers, and pedestrians. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Long-term effects of elevated carbon dioxide concentration and provenance on four clones of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis). I. Plant growth, allocation and ontogeny

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Centritto, M. [Inst. di Biochimica ed Ecofisiologia Vegetale, Rome (Italy); Lee, H.S.J.; Jarvis, P.G. [Univ. Edinburgh, Inst. of Ecology and Resource Management, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    1999-09-01

    An investigation was carried out to determine the effects of elevated CO(2) concentration on the long-term growth and carbon allocation of four clones of Sitka spruce taken from two provenances under conditions of non-limiting water and nutrient supply. The use of clones from different provenances provided a unique way of examining effects of elevated CO(2) concentration on competitiveness of saplings adapted to climates with different temperature and day length. The saplings were fertilized following the Ingestad approach to yield a supply of mineral nutrients at free access in order to maintain nutrient uptake proportional to plant growth, and rule out undefined variability in sink strength that might have been caused by water and nutrient deficiencies. There was considerable variation in growth responses among clones. Across all four clones there was a 40% increase in total dry mass of the saplings growth in elevated CO(2) concentration, but the genetic differences in the growth response to elevated CO(2) concentration were significant. The clones originated from different latitudinal provenances, and were acclimated to different temperatures and day length climates, and so had different abilities to acclimate to their new environment. Some Sitka spruce clones may grow better in lowland Scotland as climate change occurs. Genetic differences in the growth response to elevated CO(2) concentration may be exploited through the assessment of nursery stock for future forest planning. 33 refs., 5 figs.

  12. 77 FR 29705 - Program for Allocation of Regulatory Responsibilities Pursuant to Rule 17d-2; Notice of Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    .... Generally, under the plan, the SRO participant responsible for conducting options-related sales practice... sales practice matters that would otherwise be performed by multiple SROs. The plan promotes efficiency... Declaring Effective an Amendment to the Plan for the Allocation of Regulatory Responsibilities Among the...

  13. Characterizing contract-based multiagent resource allocation in networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Bo; Lesser, Victor

    2010-06-01

    We consider a multiagent resource allocation problem where individual users intend to route traffic by requesting the help of entities across a network, and a cost is incurred at each network node that depends on the amount of traffic to be routed. We propose to study contract-based network resource allocation. In our model, users and nodes in the network make contracts before nodes route traffic for the users. The problem is an interesting self-interested negotiation problem because it requires the complete assembly of a set of distinct resources, and there are multiple combinations of distinct resources that could satisfy the goal of negotiation. First, we characterize the network allocation problem and show that finding optimal allocations is NP-complete and is inapproximable. We take both Nash equilibrium and pairwise Nash equilibrium as the solution concepts to characterize the equilibrium allocations. We find that, for any resource allocation game, Nash equilibrium and pairwise Nash equilibrium always exist. In addition, socially optimal allocations are always supported by Nash equilibrium and pairwise Nash equilibrium. We introduce best-response dynamics in which each agent takes a myopic best-response strategy and interacts with each other to dynamically form contracts. We analyze the convergence of the dynamics in some special cases. We also experimentally study the convergence rate of the dynamics and how efficient the evolved allocation is as compared with the optimal allocation in a variety of environments.

  14. Impacts of optimum cost effective energy efficiency standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brancic, A.B.; Peters, J.S.; Arch, M.

    1991-01-01

    Building Codes are increasingly required to be responsive to social and economic policy concerns. In 1990 the State of Connecticut passes An Act Concerning Global Warming, Public Act 90-219, which mandates the revision of the state building code to require that buildings and building elements be designed to provide optimum cost-effective energy efficiency over the useful life of the building. Further, such revision must meet the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 90.1 - 1989. As the largest electric energy supplier in Connecticut, Northeast Utilities (NU) sponsored a pilot study of the cost effectiveness of alternative building code standards for commercial construction. This paper reports on this study which analyzed design and construction means, building elements, incremental construction costs, and energy savings to determine the optimum cost-effective building code standard. Findings are that ASHRAE 90.1 results in 21% energy savings and alternative standards above it result in significant additional savings. Benefit/cost analysis showed that both are cost effective

  15. From effective accounting and reporting to efficient outsourcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyr Daria

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify an effective management accounting and reporting concept for efficient outsourcing performance in sustainable organizations. Existing reporting norms of the “Systemanalyse und Programmentwicklung (SAP” platform, used in JSC "Russian Railways" (further Russian Railways were analysed. Thereby, in the paper a method of the formation of internal management accounting and reporting on the costs of outsourcing were developed. Currently, the analysis of the reports and effectiveness of outsourcing is based on the technique comparison “costs on outsourcing should be less than the cost of own units”. Effective analysis should include not one, but several factors and be based on multi-criteria approach. The main influence on the variation of such determinants as cost, productivity and staff members outsourcing has when the volume of production and prices are constant. According to the features of railway transport enterprises, existing method has been completed with statistical. It shows how outsourcing changed the performance of the company and by what factors - the average cost, or productivity, or staffing or due to variations of all three factors simultaneously. Further, the results of quantitative data analysis will be used to identify an effective management accounting in sustainable organizations while supporting the development of outsourcing.

  16. The Effects of Commercial Airline Traffic on LSST Observing Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Rose; Claver, Charles; Stubbs, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is a ten-year survey that will map the southern sky in six different filters 800 times before the end of its run. In this paper, we explore the primary effect of airline traffic on scheduling the LSST observations in addition to the secondary effect of condensation trails, or contrails, created by the presence of the aircraft. The large national investment being made in LSST implies that small improvments observing efficiency through aircraft and contrail avoidance can result in a significant improvement in the quality of the survey and its science. We have used the Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) signals received from commercial aircraft to monitor and record activity over the LSST site. We installed a ADS-B ground station on Cerro Pachón, Chile consiting of a1090Mhz antenna on the Andes Lidar Observatory feeding a RTL2832U software defined radio. We used dump1090 to convert the received ADS-B telementry into Basestation format, where we found that during the busiest time of the night there were only 4 signals being received each minute on average, which will have very small direct effect, if any, on the LSST observing scheduler. As part of future studies we will examin the effects of contrals on LSST observations. Gibson was supported by the NOAO/KPNO Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) Program which is funded by the National Science Foundation Research Experience for Undergraduates Program (AST-1262829).

  17. Effects of inorganic nitrogen form on growth, morphology, N uptake, and nutrient allocation in hybrid Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum × Pennisetum americanum cv. Pakchong1)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jampeetong, Arunothai; Brix, Hans; Kantawanichkul, Suwasa

    2014-01-01

    in such systems. We studied the effects of inorganic nitrogen form (NH4 +, NH4NO3 or NO3 -) on growth, morphology, N uptake, water content and mineral allocation in this species under hydroponic conditions at equimolar concentrations (500μmolNL-1). Generally, the N-form significantly affected growth, biomass...

  18. Evaluating Value Chain Development Programs: Assessing Effectiveness, Efficiency, and Equity Effects of Contract Choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruben, R.

    2015-01-01

    Provides insights regarding the possible procedures for assessing welfare, efficiency, and equity effects of value chain development (VCD) programs, taking advantage of available analytical tools derived from impact analysis, transaction cost theory, and contract choice approaches and briefly

  19. Emergency preparedness planning: A process to insure effectiveness and efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, A.J. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Prevention is undoubtedly the preferred policy regarding emergency response. Unfortunately, despite best intentions, emergencies do occur. It is the prudent operator that has well written and exercised plans in place to respond to the full suite of possible situations. This paper presents a planning process to help personnel develop and/or maintain emergency management capability. It is equally applicable at the field location, the district/regional office, or the corporate headquarters. It is not limited in scope and can be useful for planners addressing incidents ranging from fires, explosions, spills/releases, computer system failure, terrorist threats and natural disasters. By following the steps in the process diagram, the planner will document emergency management capability in a logical and efficient manner which should result in effective emergency response and recovery plans. The astute planner will immediately see that the process presented is a continuing one, fully compatible with the principles of continuous improvement

  20. Taxing energy to improve the environment. Efficiency and distributional effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heijdra, B.J.; Van der Horst, A.

    1998-02-01

    The effects of environmental tax policy in a dynamic overlapping-generations model of a small open economy with environmental quality incorporated as a durable consumption good have been studied. Raising the energy tax may deliver an efficiency gain if agents care enough about the environment. The benefits are unevenly distributed across generations since capital ownership, and the capital loss induced by a tax increase, rises with age. A suitable egalitarian bond policy can be employed in order to ensure everybody gains to the same extent. With this additional instrument the optimal energy tax can be computed. The authors further considered a tax reform that simultaneously lowers labour taxation and raises the energy tax. This policy delivers qualitatively similar consequences as the first scenario, though all changes are less pronounced. A double dividend may appear soon after the reform but vanishes in the course of the transition. 22 refs

  1. Taxing energy to improve the environment. Efficiency and distributional effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heijdra, B.J.; Van der Horst, A. [Faculty of Economics and Econometrics, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1998-02-01

    The effects of environmental tax policy in a dynamic overlapping-generations model of a small open economy with environmental quality incorporated as a durable consumption good have been studied. Raising the energy tax may deliver an efficiency gain if agents care enough about the environment. The benefits are unevenly distributed across generations since capital ownership, and the capital loss induced by a tax increase, rises with age. A suitable egalitarian bond policy can be employed in order to ensure everybody gains to the same extent. With this additional instrument the optimal energy tax can be computed. The authors further considered a tax reform that simultaneously lowers labour taxation and raises the energy tax. This policy delivers qualitatively similar consequences as the first scenario, though all changes are less pronounced. A double dividend may appear soon after the reform but vanishes in the course of the transition. 22 refs.

  2. Business Process Design Of An Efficient And Effective Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayuthi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this articleis to design business processesan organization efficiently and effectively. Based on our literature review the design of business processes that is best suitable for an organization belongs to Harrington 1992 namely the concept of Business Process Improvement BPI which is a systematic framework that helps organizations in making significant progress in the implementation of business processes. BPI provides a system that will simplify or streamline business processes to provide an assurance that the internal and external customers of the organization will get a better output. One advantage of BPI concept suggested by Harrington is the continuous improvement whereas the other authorsor experts of BPI have not recognize the idea of continuous improvement. With thisidea the products services offered by organization becomes more innovative.

  3. Efficient and Effective Change Principles in Active Videogames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straker, Leon M; Fenner, Ashley A; Howie, Erin K; Feltz, Deborah L; Gray, Cindy M; Lu, Amy Shirong; Mueller, Florian Floyd; Simons, Monique; Barnett, Lisa M

    2015-02-01

    Active videogames have the potential to enhance population levels of physical activity but have not been successful in achieving this aim to date. This article considers a range of principles that may be important to the design of effective and efficient active videogames from diverse discipline areas, including behavioral sciences (health behavior change, motor learning, and serious games), business production (marketing and sales), and technology engineering and design (human-computer interaction/ergonomics and flow). Both direct and indirect pathways to impact on population levels of habitual physical activity are proposed, along with the concept of a game use lifecycle. Examples of current active and sedentary electronic games are used to understand how such principles may be applied. Furthermore, limitations of the current usage of theoretical principles are discussed. A suggested list of principles for best practice in active videogame design is proposed along with suggested research ideas to inform practice to enhance physical activity.

  4. Efficient and Effective Change Principles in Active Videogames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenner, Ashley A.; Howie, Erin K.; Feltz, Deborah L.; Gray, Cindy M.; Lu, Amy Shirong; Mueller, Florian “Floyd”; Simons, Monique; Barnett, Lisa M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Active videogames have the potential to enhance population levels of physical activity but have not been successful in achieving this aim to date. This article considers a range of principles that may be important to the design of effective and efficient active videogames from diverse discipline areas, including behavioral sciences (health behavior change, motor learning, and serious games), business production (marketing and sales), and technology engineering and design (human–computer interaction/ergonomics and flow). Both direct and indirect pathways to impact on population levels of habitual physical activity are proposed, along with the concept of a game use lifecycle. Examples of current active and sedentary electronic games are used to understand how such principles may be applied. Furthermore, limitations of the current usage of theoretical principles are discussed. A suggested list of principles for best practice in active videogame design is proposed along with suggested research ideas to inform practice to enhance physical activity. PMID:26181680

  5. Judgments at Gaze Value: Gaze Cuing in Banner Advertisements, Its Effect on Attention Allocation and Product Judgments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Palcu

    2017-06-01

    visual attention, gaze cuing can be an effective tool for driving viewers’ attention toward specific elements in the advertisement and even shaping consumers’ intentions to purchase the advertised product.

  6. Judgments at Gaze Value: Gaze Cuing in Banner Advertisements, Its Effect on Attention Allocation and Product Judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palcu, Johanna; Sudkamp, Jennifer; Florack, Arnd

    2017-01-01

    cuing can be an effective tool for driving viewers' attention toward specific elements in the advertisement and even shaping consumers' intentions to purchase the advertised product.

  7. Comparing effectiveness and efficiency in technical specifications and maintenance optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martorell, Sebastian; Sanchez, Ana; Carlos, Sofia; Serradell, Vicente

    2002-01-01

    Optimization of technical specification requirements and maintenance (TS and M) has been found interesting from the very beginning at Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). However, the resolution of such a kind of optimization problem has been limited often to focus only on individual TS and M-related parameters (STI, AOT, PM frequency, etc.) and/or adopting an individual optimization criterion (availability, costs, plant risks, etc.). Nevertheless, a number of reasons exist (e.g. interaction, similar scope, etc.) that justify the interest to focus on the coordinated optimization of all of the relevant TS and M-related parameters based on multiple criteria. The purpose of this paper is on signifying benefits and improvement areas in performing the coordinated optimization of TS and M through reviewing the effectiveness and efficiency of common strategies for optimizing TS and M at system level. A case of application is provided for a stand-by safety-related system to demonstrate the basic procedure and to extract a number of conclusions and recommendations from the results achieved. Thus, it is concluded that the optimized values depend on the particular TS and M-related parameters being involved and the solutions with the largest benefit (minimum risk or minimum cost) are achieved when considering the simultaneous optimization of all of them, although increased computational resources are also required. Consequently, it is necessary to analyze not only the value reached but also the performance of the optimization procedure through effectiveness and efficiency measures which lead to recommendations on potential improvement areas

  8. Theory of stable allocations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelić Svetlana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Swedish Royal Academy awarded the 2012 Nobel Prize in Economics to Lloyd Shapley and Alvin Roth, for the theory of stable allocations and the practice of market design. These two American researchers worked independently from each other, combining basic theory and empirical investigations. Through their experiments and practical design they generated a flourishing field of research and improved the performance of many markets. Born in 1923 in Cambridge, Massachusetts, Shapley defended his doctoral thesis at Princeton University in 1953. For many years he worked at RAND, and for more than thirty years he was a professor at UCLA University. He published numerous scientific papers, either by himself or in cooperation with other economists.

  9. Top-down impact through a bottom-up mechanism: the effect of limpet grazing on growth, productivity and carbon allocation of Zostera marina L. (eelgrass).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Richard C; Kohrs, Donald G; Alberte, Randall S

    1996-09-01

    The unusual appearance of a commensal eelgrass limpet [Tectura depicta (Berry)] from southern California at high density (up to 10 shoot -1 ) has coincided with the catastrophic decline of a subtidal Zostera marina L. meadow in Monterey Bay, California. Some commensal limpets graze the chloroplast-rich epidermis of eelgrass leaves, but were not known to affect seagrass growth or productivity. We evaluated the effect on eelgrass productivity of grazing by limpets maintained at natural densities (8±2 shoot -1 ) in a natural light mesocosm for 45 days. Growth rates, carbon reserves, root proliferation and net photosynthesis of grazed plants were 50-80% below those of ungrazed plants, but biomass-specific respiration was unaffected. The daily period of irradiance-saturated photosynthesis (H sat ) needed to maintain positive carbon balance in grazed plants approached 13.5 h, compared with 5-6 h for ungrazed plants. The amount of carbon allocated to roots of ungrazed plants was 800% higher than for grazed plants. By grazing the chlorophyll-rich epidermis, T. depicta induced carbon limitation in eelgrass growing in an other-wise light-replete environment. Continued northward movement of T. depicta, may have significant impacts on eelgrass production and population dynamics in the northeast Pacific, even thought this limpet consumes very little plant biomass. This interaction is a dramatic example of top-down control (grazing/predation) of eelgrass productivity and survival operating via a bottom-up mechanism (photosynthesis limitation).

  10. Establishment of Alleycropped Hybrid Aspen “Crandon” in Central Iowa, USA: Effects of Topographic Position and Fertilizer Rate on Aboveground Biomass Production and Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard B. Hall

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid poplars have demonstrated high productivity as short rotation woody crops (SRWC in the Midwest USA, and the hybrid aspen “Crandon” (Populus alba L. × P. grandidenta Michx. has exhibited particularly promising yields on marginal lands. However, a key obstacle for wider deployment is the lack of economic returns early in the rotation. Alleycropping has the potential to address this issue, especially when paired with crops such as winter triticale which complete their growth cycle early in the summer and therefore are expected to exert minimal competition on establishing trees. In addition, well-placed fertilizer in low rates at planting has the potential to improve tree establishment and shorten the rotation, which is also economically desirable. To test the potential productivity of “Crandon” alleycropped with winter triticale, plots were established on five topographic positions with four different rates of fertilizer placed in the planting hole. Trees were then harvested from the plots after each of the first three growing seasons. Fertilization resulted in significant increases in branch, stem, and total aboveground biomass across all years, whereas the effects of topographic position varied by year. Allocation between branches and stems was found to be primarily a function of total aboveground biomass.

  11. Effect of pump limiter throat on pumping efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghendrih, P.; Grosman, A.; Samain, A.; Capes, H.; Morera, J.P.

    1988-01-01

    The necessary control of plasma edge density has led to the development of pump limiters to achieve this task. On Tore Supra, where a large part of the program is devoted to plasma edge studies, two types of such density control apparatus have been implemented, a set of pump limiters and the pumps associated to the ergodic divertor (magnetically assisted pump limiters). Generally two different kinds of pump limiters can be used, those with a throat which drives the plasma from the open edge plasma (SOL) to the neutralizer plate, and those without or with a very short throat. We are interested here in this aspect of the pump limiter concept, i.e. on the throat effect on neutral density build-up in the vicinity of the pumping plates (and hence on pumping efficieny). The underlying idea of this throat effect can be readily understood; indeed while the neutral capture in pump limiters without throats is only a ballistic effect, on expects the plasma to improve the efficiency of pump-limiters via plasma-neutral-sidewall interactions in the throat. This problem has been studied both numerically and analytically. The paper is divided as follows. In section 2, we describe the basic features of pump-limiters which are modelized by the numerical code Cezanne. Section 3 is devoted to the throat length effect considering in particular the neutral density profile in the throat and the neutral density buil-up as a function of the throat lenght. In section 4, we show that the plugging effect occurs for reasonnable values of throat lengths. An analytical value of the plugging length is discussed and compared to the values obtained numerically

  12. Indirect risk effects reduce feeding efficiency of ducks during spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behney, Adam C; O'Shaughnessy, Ryan; Eichholz, Michael W; Stafford, Joshua D

    2018-01-01

    Indirect risk effects of predators on prey behavior can have more of an impact on prey populations than direct consumptive effects. Predation risk can elicit more vigilance behavior in prey, reducing the amount of time available for other activities, such as foraging, which could potentially reduce foraging efficiency. Understanding the conditions associated with predation risk and the specific effects predation risk have on prey behavior is important because it has direct influences on the profitability of food items found under various conditions and states of the forager. The goals of this study were to assess how ducks perceived predation risk in various habitat types and how strongly perceived risk versus energetic demand affected foraging behavior. We manipulated food abundance in different wetland types in Illinois, USA to reduce confounding between food abundance and vegetation structure. We conducted focal-animal behavioral samples on five duck species in treatment and control plots and used generalized linear mixed-effects models to compare the effects of vegetation structure versus other factors on the intensity with which ducks fed and the duration of feeding stints. Mallards fed more intensively and, along with blue-winged teal, used longer feeding stints in open habitats, consistent with the hypothesis that limited visibility was perceived to have a greater predation risk than unlimited visibility. The species temporally nearest to nesting, wood ducks, were willing to take more risks for a greater food reward, consistent with an increase in a marginal value of energy as they approached nesting. Our results indicate that some duck species value energy differently based on the surrounding vegetation structure and density. Furthermore, increases in the marginal value of energy can be more influential than perceived risk in shaping foraging behavior patterns. Based on these findings, we conclude that the value of various food items is not solely

  13. Developing Subdomain Allocation Algorithms Based on Spatial and Communicational Constraints to Accelerate Dust Storm Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Zhipeng; Yu, Manzhu; Yang, Chaowei; Jiang, Yunfeng; Chen, Songqing; Xia, Jizhe; Huang, Qunying; Liu, Kai; Li, Zhenlong; Hassan, Mohammed Anowarul; Jin, Baoxuan

    2016-01-01

    Dust storm has serious disastrous impacts on environment, human health, and assets. The developments and applications of dust storm models have contributed significantly to better understand and predict the distribution, intensity and structure of dust storms. However, dust storm simulation is a data and computing intensive process. To improve the computing performance, high performance computing has been widely adopted by dividing the entire study area into multiple subdomains and allocating each subdomain on different computing nodes in a parallel fashion. Inappropriate allocation may introduce imbalanced task loads and unnecessary communications among computing nodes. Therefore, allocation is a key factor that may impact the efficiency of parallel process. An allocation algorithm is expected to consider the computing cost and communication cost for each computing node to minimize total execution time and reduce overall communication cost for the entire simulation. This research introduces three algorithms to optimize the allocation by considering the spatial and communicational constraints: 1) an Integer Linear Programming (ILP) based algorithm from combinational optimization perspective; 2) a K-Means and Kernighan-Lin combined heuristic algorithm (K&K) integrating geometric and coordinate-free methods by merging local and global partitioning; 3) an automatic seeded region growing based geometric and local partitioning algorithm (ASRG). The performance and effectiveness of the three algorithms are compared based on different factors. Further, we adopt the K&K algorithm as the demonstrated algorithm for the experiment of dust model simulation with the non-hydrostatic mesoscale model (NMM-dust) and compared the performance with the MPI default sequential allocation. The results demonstrate that K&K method significantly improves the simulation performance with better subdomain allocation. This method can also be adopted for other relevant atmospheric and numerical

  14. IPO Allocations: Discriminatory or Discretionary?

    OpenAIRE

    William Wilhelm; Alexander Ljungqvist

    2001-01-01

    We estimate the structural links between IPO allocations, pre-market information production, and initial underpricing returns, within the context of theories of bookbuilding. Using a sample of both US and international IPOs we find evidence of the following: ? IPO allocation policies favour institutional investors, both in the US and worldwide. ? Increasing institutional allocations results in offer prices that deviate more from the indicative price range established prior to bankers’ efforts...

  15. CO2 emissions accounting: Whether, how, and when different allocation methods should be used

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levihn, Fabian

    2014-01-01

    CO 2 abatement and the transition to sustainable energy systems are of great concern, calling for investments in both old and new technologies. There are many perspectives on how to account for these emissions, not least when it comes to how the roles of different alternative energy production options should be emphasized. Confusion and conflicting interests regarding the appropriate accounting methods for allocating CO 2 emissions interfere with effective energy policy and the efficient use of corporate and national resources. Possible investments in the Stockholm district heating network and how they interact with the electric power grid illustrate the influence of different accounting methods on alternative energy production options. The results indicate that, for several abatement options, performance in terms of reduced CO 2 emissions might be either improved or degraded depending on whether or how alternative electricity production is accounted for. The results provide guidelines for whether, how, and when different allocation methods are appropriate, guidelines relevant to academia, industrial leaders, and policymakers in multiple areas related to power production and consumption. - Highlights: • Involvement in the discussion of CO 2 emission allocation is needed from academia. • Abatement options for the district heating in Stockholm were analyzed in relation to power production and the EU ETS. • Implications of different allocation methods are discussed in relation to different analytical purposes and boundaries. • Conclusions are made on when the different allocation methods are appropriate

  16. Optimized Power Allocation and Relay Location Selection in Cooperative Relay Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianrong Bao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An incremental selection hybrid decode-amplify forward (ISHDAF scheme for the two-hop single relay systems and a relay selection strategy based on the hybrid decode-amplify-and-forward (HDAF scheme for the multirelay systems are proposed along with an optimized power allocation for the Internet of Thing (IoT. Given total power as the constraint and outage probability as an objective function, the proposed scheme possesses good power efficiency better than the equal power allocation. By the ISHDAF scheme and HDAF relay selection strategy, an optimized power allocation for both the source and relay nodes is obtained, as well as an effective reduction of outage probability. In addition, the optimal relay location for maximizing the gain of the proposed algorithm is also investigated and designed. Simulation results show that, in both single relay and multirelay selection systems, some outage probability gains by the proposed scheme can be obtained. In the comparison of the optimized power allocation scheme with the equal power allocation one, nearly 0.1695 gains are obtained in the ISHDAF single relay network at a total power of 2 dB, and about 0.083 gains are obtained in the HDAF relay selection system with 2 relays at a total power of 2 dB.

  17. Downlink resource allocation for multichannel TDMA visible light communications

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelhady, Amr Mohamed Abdelaziz

    2017-05-12

    Optical wireless communications (OWC) in general and resource allocation in OWC networks particularly have gained lots of attention recently. In this work, we consider the resource allocation problem of a visible light communication downlink transmission system based on time division multiple access with the objective of maximizing spectral efficiency (SE). As for the operational conditions, we impose constraints on the average optical intensity, the energy consumption and the quality-of-service. To solve the non-convex problem, we transform the objective function into a difference of concave functions by solving a second order differential inequality. Then, we propose a low-complexity algorithm to solve the resource allocation problem. Finally, we show by simulations the SE performance gains achieved by optimizing the power allocation over equal power allocation in the considered system. Numerical results show the SE gains achieved by using this solution.

  18. Downlink resource allocation for multichannel TDMA visible light communications

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelhady, Amr Mohamed Abdelaziz; Amin, Osama; Chaaban, Anas; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    Optical wireless communications (OWC) in general and resource allocation in OWC networks particularly have gained lots of attention recently. In this work, we consider the resource allocation problem of a visible light communication downlink transmission system based on time division multiple access with the objective of maximizing spectral efficiency (SE). As for the operational conditions, we impose constraints on the average optical intensity, the energy consumption and the quality-of-service. To solve the non-convex problem, we transform the objective function into a difference of concave functions by solving a second order differential inequality. Then, we propose a low-complexity algorithm to solve the resource allocation problem. Finally, we show by simulations the SE performance gains achieved by optimizing the power allocation over equal power allocation in the considered system. Numerical results show the SE gains achieved by using this solution.

  19. Function allocation in distributed safeguards and security systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlich, G.L.

    1991-01-01

    Computerized distributed systems are being used to collect and manage data for activities such as nuclear materials accounting, process control, laboratory coordination, and security. Poor choices made in allocating functions to individual processors can make a system unusable by burdening machines with excessive network retrievals and updates. During system design phases, data allocation algorithms based on operation frequencies, field sizes, security information, and reliability requirements can be applied in sensitivity studies to mathematically ensure processor efficiency. The Los Alamos Network Design System (NDS) implements such an allocation algorithm. The authors analyzed a large, existing distributed system to test the cost functions and to compare actual network problems with NDS results. Several common configurations were also designed and studied using the software. From these studies, some basic principles for allocating functions emerged. In this paper recommendations for function allocation in generic systems and related design options are discussed

  20. Zinc allocation and re-allocation in rice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stomph, T.J.; Jiang, W.; Putten, van der P.E.L.; Struik, P.C.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Agronomy and breeding actively search for options to enhance cereal grain Zn density. Quantifying internal (re-)allocation of Zn as affected by soil and crop management or genotype is crucial. We present experiments supporting the development of a conceptual model of whole plant Zn allocation

  1. Corruption and the Efficiency of Capital Investment in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O’Toole, Conor M.; Tarp, Finn

    2014-01-01

    This paper tests the effect of corruption on the efficiency of capital investment. Using firm-level data from the World Bank Enterprise Surveys, covering 90 developing and transition economies, we consider whether the cost of informal bribe payments distorts the efficient allocation of capital...

  2. Efficiency and Effectiveness in Higher Education: A Report by the Universities UK Efficiency and Modernisation Task Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Universities UK, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Effectiveness, efficiency and value for money are central concerns for the higher education sector. In England, decisions made by the current Government will effect a radical change in the funding for teaching. Institutions will be managing a reduction in public funding for teaching and the transition to the new system of graduate contributions,…

  3. Optimal allocation of reviewers for peer feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wind, David Kofoed; Jensen, Ulf Aslak; Jørgensen, Rasmus Malthe

    2017-01-01

    feedback to be effective students should give and receive useful feedback. A key challenge in peer feedback is allocating the feedback givers in a good way. It is important that reviewers are allocated to submissions such that the feedback distribution is fair - meaning that all students receive good......Peer feedback is the act of letting students give feedback to each other on submitted work. There are multiple reasons to use peer feedback, including students getting more feedback, time saving for teachers and increased learning by letting students reflect on work by others. In order for peer...... indicated the quality of the feedback. Using this model together with historical data we calculate the feedback-giving skill of each student and uses that as input to an allocation algorithm that assigns submissions to reviewers, in order to optimize the feedback quality for all students. We test...

  4. Resource allocation using ANN in LTE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigit, Tuncay; Ersoy, Mevlut

    2017-07-01

    LTE is the 4th generation wireless network technology, which provides flexible bandwidth, higher data speeds and lower delay. Difficulties may be experienced upon an increase in the number of users in LTE. The objective of this study is to ensure a faster solution to any such resource allocation problems which might arise upon an increase in the number of users. A fast and effective solution has been obtained by making use of Artificial Neural Network. As a result, fast working artificial intelligence methods may be used in resource allocation problems during operation.

  5. Comprehensive effective and efficient global public health surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNabb Scott JN

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract At a crossroads, global public health surveillance exists in a fragmented state. Slow to detect, register, confirm, and analyze cases of public health significance, provide feedback, and communicate timely and useful information to stakeholders, global surveillance is neither maximally effective nor optimally efficient. Stakeholders lack a globa surveillance consensus policy and strategy; officials face inadequate training and scarce resources. Three movements now set the stage for transformation of surveillance: 1 adoption by Member States of the World Health Organization (WHO of the revised International Health Regulations (IHR[2005]; 2 maturation of information sciences and the penetration of information technologies to distal parts of the globe; and 3 consensus that the security and public health communities have overlapping interests and a mutual benefit in supporting public health functions. For these to enhance surveillance competencies, eight prerequisites should be in place: politics, policies, priorities, perspectives, procedures, practices, preparation, and payers. To achieve comprehensive, global surveillance, disparities in technical, logistic, governance, and financial capacities must be addressed. Challenges to closing these gaps include the lack of trust and transparency; perceived benefit at various levels; global governance to address data power and control; and specified financial support from globa partners. We propose an end-state perspective for comprehensive, effective and efficient global, multiple-hazard public health surveillance and describe a way forward to achieve it. This end-state is universal, global access to interoperable public health information when it’s needed, where it’s needed. This vision mitigates the tension between two fundamental human rights: first, the right to privacy, confidentiality, and security of personal health information combined with the right of sovereign, national entities

  6. Comprehensive effective and efficient global public health surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNabb, Scott J N

    2010-12-03

    At a crossroads, global public health surveillance exists in a fragmented state. Slow to detect, register, confirm, and analyze cases of public health significance, provide feedback, and communicate timely and useful information to stakeholders, global surveillance is neither maximally effective nor optimally efficient. Stakeholders lack a globa surveillance consensus policy and strategy; officials face inadequate training and scarce resources.Three movements now set the stage for transformation of surveillance: 1) adoption by Member States of the World Health Organization (WHO) of the revised International Health Regulations (IHR[2005]); 2) maturation of information sciences and the penetration of information technologies to distal parts of the globe; and 3) consensus that the security and public health communities have overlapping interests and a mutual benefit in supporting public health functions. For these to enhance surveillance competencies, eight prerequisites should be in place: politics, policies, priorities, perspectives, procedures, practices, preparation, and payers.To achieve comprehensive, global surveillance, disparities in technical, logistic, governance, and financial capacities must be addressed. Challenges to closing these gaps include the lack of trust and transparency; perceived benefit at various levels; global governance to address data power and control; and specified financial support from globa partners.We propose an end-state perspective for comprehensive, effective and efficient global, multiple-hazard public health surveillance and describe a way forward to achieve it. This end-state is universal, global access to interoperable public health information when it's needed, where it's needed. This vision mitigates the tension between two fundamental human rights: first, the right to privacy, confidentiality, and security of personal health information combined with the right of sovereign, national entities to the ownership and stewardship

  7. Sustainability in Health care by Allocating Resources Effectively (SHARE) 6: investigating methods to identify, prioritise, implement and evaluate disinvestment projects in a local healthcare setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Claire; Allen, Kelly; Brooke, Vanessa; Dyer, Tim; Waller, Cara; King, Richard; Ramsey, Wayne; Mortimer, Duncan

    2017-05-25

    This is the sixth in a series of papers reporting Sustainability in Health care by Allocating Resources Effectively (SHARE) in a local healthcare setting. The SHARE program was established to investigate a systematic, integrated, evidence-based approach to disinvestment within a large Australian health service. This paper describes the methods employed in undertaking pilot disinvestment projects. It draws a number of lessons regarding the strengths and weaknesses of these methods; particularly regarding the crucial first step of identifying targets for disinvestment. Literature reviews, survey, interviews, consultation and workshops were used to capture and process the relevant information. A theoretical framework was adapted for evaluation and explication of disinvestment projects, including a taxonomy for the determinants of effectiveness, process of change and outcome measures. Implementation, evaluation and costing plans were developed. Four literature reviews were completed, surveys were received from 15 external experts, 65 interviews were conducted, 18 senior decision-makers attended a data gathering workshop, 22 experts and local informants were consulted, and four decision-making workshops were undertaken. Mechanisms to identify disinvestment targets and criteria for prioritisation and decision-making were investigated. A catalogue containing 184 evidence-based opportunities for disinvestment and an algorithm to identify disinvestment projects were developed. An Expression of Interest process identified two potential disinvestment projects. Seventeen additional projects were proposed through a non-systematic nomination process. Four of the 19 proposals were selected as pilot projects but only one reached the implementation stage. Factors with potential influence on the outcomes of disinvestment projects are discussed and barriers and enablers in the pilot projects are summarised. This study provides an in-depth insight into the experience of disinvestment

  8. FUN-LDA: A Latent Dirichlet Allocation Model for Predicting Tissue-Specific Functional Effects of Noncoding Variation: Methods and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backenroth, Daniel; He, Zihuai; Kiryluk, Krzysztof; Boeva, Valentina; Pethukova, Lynn; Khurana, Ekta; Christiano, Angela; Buxbaum, Joseph D; Ionita-Laza, Iuliana

    2018-05-03

    We describe a method based on a latent Dirichlet allocation model for predicting functional effects of noncoding genetic variants in a cell-type- and/or tissue-specific way (FUN-LDA). Using this unsupervised approach, we predict tissue-specific functional effects for every position in the human genome in 127 different tissues and cell types. We demonstrate the usefulness of our predictions by using several validation experiments. Using eQTL data from several sources, including the GTEx project, Geuvadis project, and TwinsUK cohort, we show that eQTLs in specific tissues tend to be most enriched among the predicted functional variants in relevant tissues in Roadmap. We further show how these integrated functional scores can be used for (1) deriving the most likely cell or tissue type causally implicated for a complex trait by using summary statistics from genome-wide association studies and (2) estimating a tissue-based correlation matrix of various complex traits. We found large enrichment of heritability in functional components of relevant tissues for various complex traits, and FUN-LDA yielded higher enrichment estimates than existing methods. Finally, using experimentally validated functional variants from the literature and variants possibly implicated in disease by previous studies, we rigorously compare FUN-LDA with state-of-the-art functional annotation methods and show that FUN-LDA has better prediction accuracy and higher resolution than these methods. In particular, our results suggest that tissue- and cell-type-specific functional prediction methods tend to have substantially better prediction accuracy than organism-level prediction methods. Scores for each position in the human genome and for each ENCODE and Roadmap tissue are available online (see Web Resources). Copyright © 2018 American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluating the effect of alternative carbon allocation schemes in a land surface model (CLM4.5 on carbon fluxes, pools, and turnover in temperate forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Montané

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available How carbon (C is allocated to different plant tissues (leaves, stem, and roots determines how long C remains in plant biomass and thus remains a central challenge for understanding the global C cycle. We used a diverse set of observations (AmeriFlux eddy covariance tower observations, biomass estimates from tree-ring data, and leaf area index (LAI measurements to compare C fluxes, pools, and LAI data with those predicted by a land surface model (LSM, the Community Land Model (CLM4.5. We ran CLM4.5 for nine temperate (including evergreen and deciduous forests in North America between 1980 and 2013 using four different C allocation schemes: i. dynamic C allocation scheme (named "D-CLM4.5" with one dynamic allometric parameter, which allocates C to the stem and leaves to vary in time as a function of annual net primary production (NPP; ii. an alternative dynamic C allocation scheme (named "D-Litton", where, similar to (i, C allocation is a dynamic function of annual NPP, but unlike (i includes two dynamic allometric parameters involving allocation to leaves, stem, and coarse roots; iii.–iv. a fixed C allocation scheme with two variants, one representative of observations in evergreen (named "F-Evergreen" and the other of observations in deciduous forests (named "F-Deciduous". D-CLM4.5 generally overestimated gross primary production (GPP and ecosystem respiration, and underestimated net ecosystem exchange (NEE. In D-CLM4.5, initial aboveground biomass in 1980 was largely overestimated (between 10 527 and 12 897 g C m−2 for deciduous forests, whereas aboveground biomass accumulation through time (between 1980 and 2011 was highly underestimated (between 1222 and 7557 g C m−2 for both evergreen and deciduous sites due to a lower stem turnover rate in the sites than the one used in the model. D-CLM4.5 overestimated LAI in both evergreen and deciduous sites because the leaf C–LAI relationship in the model did not match the

  10. Evaluating the effect of alternative carbon allocation schemes in a land surface model (CLM4.5) on carbon fluxes, pools, and turnover in temperate forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montané, Francesc; Fox, Andrew M.; Arellano, Avelino F.; MacBean, Natasha; Alexander, M. Ross; Dye, Alex; Bishop, Daniel A.; Trouet, Valerie; Babst, Flurin; Hessl, Amy E.; Pederson, Neil; Blanken, Peter D.; Bohrer, Gil; Gough, Christopher M.; Litvak, Marcy E.; Novick, Kimberly A.; Phillips, Richard P.; Wood, Jeffrey D.; Moore, David J. P.

    2017-09-01

    How carbon (C) is allocated to different plant tissues (leaves, stem, and roots) determines how long C remains in plant biomass and thus remains a central challenge for understanding the global C cycle. We used a diverse set of observations (AmeriFlux eddy covariance tower observations, biomass estimates from tree-ring data, and leaf area index (LAI) measurements) to compare C fluxes, pools, and LAI data with those predicted by a land surface model (LSM), the Community Land Model (CLM4.5). We ran CLM4.5 for nine temperate (including evergreen and deciduous) forests in North America between 1980 and 2013 using four different C allocation schemes: i. dynamic C allocation scheme (named "D-CLM4.5") with one dynamic allometric parameter, which allocates C to the stem and leaves to vary in time as a function of annual net primary production (NPP); ii. an alternative dynamic C allocation scheme (named "D-Litton"), where, similar to (i), C allocation is a dynamic function of annual NPP, but unlike (i) includes two dynamic allometric parameters involving allocation to leaves, stem, and coarse roots; iii.-iv. a fixed C allocation scheme with two variants, one representative of observations in evergreen (named "F-Evergreen") and the other of observations in deciduous forests (named "F-Deciduous"). D-CLM4.5 generally overestimated gross primary production (GPP) and ecosystem respiration, and underestimated net ecosystem exchange (NEE). In D-CLM4.5, initial aboveground biomass in 1980 was largely overestimated (between 10 527 and 12 897 g C m-2) for deciduous forests, whereas aboveground biomass accumulation through time (between 1980 and 2011) was highly underestimated (between 1222 and 7557 g C m-2) for both evergreen and deciduous sites due to a lower stem turnover rate in the sites than the one used in the model. D-CLM4.5 overestimated LAI in both evergreen and deciduous sites because the leaf C-LAI relationship in the model did not match the observed leaf C

  11. Effectiveness and cost-efficiency of phosphate binders in hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsifkovits, Johannes

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Health political background: In 2006, the prevalence of chronic renal insufficiency in Germany was 91,718, of which 66,508 patients were on dialysis. The tendency is clearly growing. Scientific background: Chronic renal insufficiency results in a disturbance of the mineral balance. It leads to hyperphosphataemia, which is the strongest independent risk factor for mortality in renal patients. Usually, a reduction in the phosphate intake through nutrition and the amount of phosphate filtered out during dialysis are not sufficient to reduce the serum phosphate values to the recommended value. Therefore, phosphate binders are used to bind ingested phosphate in the digestive tract in order to lower the phosphate concentration in the serum. Four different groups of phosphate binders are available: calcium- and aluminium salts are the traditional therapies. Sevelamer and Lanthanum are recent developments on the market. In varying doses, all phosphate binders are able to effectively lower phosphate concentrations. However, drug therapies have achieved recommended phosphate levels in only 50 percent of patients during the last years. Research questions: How effective and efficient are the different phosphate binders in chronic renal insufficient patients? Methods: The systematic literature search yielded 1,251 abstracts. Following a two-part selection process with predefined criteria 18 publications were included in the assessment. Results: All studies evaluated conclude that serum phosphate, serum calcium and intact parathyroid hormone can be controlled effectively with all phosphate binders. Only the number of episodes of hypercalcaemia is higher when using calcium-containing phosphatebinders compared to Sevelamer and Lanthanum. Regarding the mortality rate, the cardiovascular artery calcification and bone metabolism no definite conclusions can be drawn. In any case, the amount of calcification at study start seems to be crucial for the further

  12. An Empirical Study on the Driving Path of Optimizing the Resources Allocation of Foreign Trade Enterprises from the Perspective of Energy Supply-side Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Yu-cong; Yi, Lu-xia

    2017-11-01

    From the perspective of energy supply-side reform, this paper, by conducting an empirical study on foreign trade enterprises, conducts a research on the cross-role effect of optimizing the resources allocation and enhancing the energy efficiency. Methodologically, this paper creatively introduces the HILE's probabilistic structured property into Granger causality test analysis, forming an HILE-Granger (H-G) model, so as to empirically estimate both the short-term and long-term causal relationship effects between the energy efficiency and resources allocation. Conclusion is drawn that optimization of resources allocation is positively proportional with the energy efficiency enhancement. This paper is to provide a decision-making reference for the supply side reform strategy of foreign trade enterprises under the background of green energy economy.

  13. A model to improve efficiency and effectiveness of safeguards measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Amato, Eduardo; Llacer, Carlos; Vicens, Hugo

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The main purpose of our current studies is to analyse the measures to be adopted tending to integrate the traditional safeguard measures to the ones stated in the Additional Protocol (AP). A simplified nuclear fuel cycle model is considered to draw some conclusions on the application of integrated safeguard measures. This paper includes a briefing, describing the historical review that gave birth to the A.P. and proposes a model to help the control bodies in the making decision process. In May 1997, the Board of Governors approved the Model Additional Protocol (MAP) which aimed at strengthening the effectiveness and improving the efficiency of safeguard measures. For States under a comprehensive safeguard agreement the measures adopted provide credible assurance on the absence of undeclared nuclear material and activities. In September 1999, the governments of Argentina and Brazil formally announced in the Board of Governors that both countries would start preliminary consultations on one adapted MAP applied to the Agreement between the Republic of Argentina, the Federative Republic of Brazil, the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards (Quatripartite Agreement/INFCIRC 435). In December 1999, a first draft of the above mentioned document was provided as a starting point of discussion. During the year 2000 some modifications to the original draft took place. These were the initial steps in the process aiming at reaching the adequate conditions to adhere to the A.P. in each country in a future Having in mind the future AP implementation, the safeguards officers of the Regulatory Body of Argentina (ARN) began to think about the future simultaneous application of the two types of safeguards measures, the traditional and the non traditional ones, what should converge in an integrated system. By traditional safeguards it is understood quantitative

  14. Dynamic resource allocation using performance forecasting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moura, Paulo; Kon, Fabio; Voulgaris, Spyros; Van Steen, Maarten

    2016-01-01

    To benefit from the performance gains and cost savings enabled by elasticity in cloud IaaS environments, effective automated mechanisms for scaling are essential. This automation requires monitoring system status and defining criteria to trigger allocation and deallocation of resources. While these

  15. Effect of timber supplies on the efficiency of coal mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulish, S A; Ponikarov, V D

    1977-01-01

    An analysis is made of the system of supplying coal mining production associations with timber materials. The potential for greater efficiency in the use and processing of timber is indicated. The possibility of using methods of mathematical modelling and forecasting to improve the efficiency of supplying timber to coal associations is demonstrated. 1 table.

  16. Effects of image processing on the detective quantum efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hye-Suk; Kim, Hee-Joung; Cho, Hyo-Min; Lee, Chang-Lae; Lee, Seung-Wan; Choi, Yu-Na [Yonsei University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    The evaluation of image quality is an important part of digital radiography. The modulation transfer function (MTF), the noise power spectrum (NPS), and the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) are widely accepted measurements of the digital radiographic system performance. However, as the methodologies for such characterization have not been standardized, it is difficult to compare directly reported the MTF, NPS, and DQE results. In this study, we evaluated the effect of an image processing algorithm for estimating the MTF, NPS, and DQE. The image performance parameters were evaluated using the international electro-technical commission (IEC 62220-1)-defined RQA5 radiographic techniques. Computed radiography (CR) posterior-anterior (PA) images of a hand for measuring the signal to noise ratio (SNR), the slit images for measuring the MTF, and the white images for measuring the NPS were obtained, and various multi-Scale image contrast amplification (MUSICA) factors were applied to each of the acquired images. All of the modifications of the images obtained by using image processing had a considerable influence on the evaluated image quality. In conclusion, the control parameters of image processing can be accounted for evaluating characterization of image quality in same way. The results of this study should serve as a baseline for based on evaluating imaging systems and their imaging characteristics by MTF, NPS, and DQE measurements.

  17. Effects of image processing on the detective quantum efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hye-Suk; Kim, Hee-Joung; Cho, Hyo-Min; Lee, Chang-Lae; Lee, Seung-Wan; Choi, Yu-Na

    2010-01-01

    The evaluation of image quality is an important part of digital radiography. The modulation transfer function (MTF), the noise power spectrum (NPS), and the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) are widely accepted measurements of the digital radiographic system performance. However, as the methodologies for such characterization have not been standardized, it is difficult to compare directly reported the MTF, NPS, and DQE results. In this study, we evaluated the effect of an image processing algorithm for estimating the MTF, NPS, and DQE. The image performance parameters were evaluated using the international electro-technical commission (IEC 62220-1)-defined RQA5 radiographic techniques. Computed radiography (CR) posterior-anterior (PA) images of a hand for measuring the signal to noise ratio (SNR), the slit images for measuring the MTF, and the white images for measuring the NPS were obtained, and various multi-Scale image contrast amplification (MUSICA) factors were applied to each of the acquired images. All of the modifications of the images obtained by using image processing had a considerable influence on the evaluated image quality. In conclusion, the control parameters of image processing can be accounted for evaluating characterization of image quality in same way. The results of this study should serve as a baseline for based on evaluating imaging systems and their imaging characteristics by MTF, NPS, and DQE measurements.

  18. Effects of cetane number on HCCI combustion efficiency and emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseini, V.; Neill, W.S.; Guo, H.; Chippior, W.L. [National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Fairbridge, C. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Mitchell, K. [Shell Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) is a form of internal combustion in which well-mixed fuel and oxidizer are compressed to the point of auto-ignition. This exothermic reaction releases chemical energy into a sensible form that can be transformed in an engine into work and heat. The effects of cetane number on HCCI combustion efficiency and emissions were examined in this presentation. The presentation discussed the experimental setup, fuels, experimental procedures, and results. The setup included an enhanced fuel injector/vaporizer consisting of an OEM gasoline port fuel injector, air blast for improved atomization, and heated section to improved vaporization. A minimally processed and low cetane number fuel derived from oil sands was used as the base fuel in the study. Two sets of experiments were devised and described to evaluate each test fuel. One set used controlled input conditions exhaust gas recirculation (EGR)-air-fuel ratio (AFR) while the other set employed controlled engine outputs (such as speed and load). Results were presented for hydroprocessing; cetane improver addition; blending with supercetane renewable diesel; and a comparison of fuels with similar cetane numbers. It was concluded that increasing the fuel cetane number shifted the AFR-EGR operating window for HCCI combustion towards higher AFT (leaner mixtures) and reduced the cyclic variations. tabs., figs.

  19. Carbon allocation in forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creighton M. Litton; James W. Raich; Michael G. Ryan

    2007-01-01

    Carbon allocation plays a critical role in forest ecosystem carbon cycling. We reviewed existing literature and compiled annual carbon budgets for forest ecosystems to test a series of hypotheses addressing the patterns, plasticity, and limits of three components of allocation: biomass, the amount of material present; flux, the flow of carbon to a component per unit...

  20. Risk allocation under liquidity constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Csóka, P.; Herings, P.J.J.

    2013-01-01

    Risk allocation games are cooperative games that are used to attribute the risk of a financial entity to its divisions. In this paper, we extend the literature on risk allocation games by incorporating liquidity considerations. A liquidity policy specifies state-dependent liquidity requirements that

  1. Effects of Ownership on Hospital Efficiency in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Schreyögg

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of our study was to evaluate the efficiency of public, private for-profit, and private non-profit hospitals in Germany. First, bootstrapped data envelopment analysis (DEA was used to evaluate the efficiency of a panel (n = 1,046 of public, private for-profit, and private non-profit hospitals between 2002 and 2006. This was followed by a second-step truncated linear regression model with bootstrapped DEA efficiency scores as dependent variable. The results show that public hospitals performed significantly better than their private for-profit and non-profit counterparts. In addition, we found a significant positive association between hospital size and efficiency, and that competitive pressure had a significant negative impact on hospital efficiency.

  2. Effect of thickness on silicon solar cell efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sah, C.-T.; Yamakawa, K. A.; Lutwack, R.

    1982-01-01

    A computer-aided-design study on the dependence of the efficiency peak of a back-surface field solar cell on the concentrations of the recombination and dopant impurities is presented. The illuminated current-voltage characteristics of more than 100 cell designs are obtained using the transmission line circuit model to numerically solve the Shockley equations. Using an AM 1 efficiency of 17% as a target value, it is shown that the efficiency versus thickness dependence has a broad maximum which varies by less than 1% over more than a three-to-one range of cell thicknesses from 30 to 100 microns. An optically reflecting back surface will give only a slight improvement of AM 1 efficiency, about 0.7%, in this thickness range. Attention is given to the dependence of the efficiency on patchiness across the back-surface field low-high junction in thin cells.

  3. Resource Allocation of Agricultural Science and Technology R&D

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xian-song; Bai, Li; Zhang, Li-ming

    2011-01-01

    The status quo of resource allocation of agricultural science and technology R&D (research and development)both at home and abroad,including the amount and function of agricultural science and technology research funds, human resources in the resources of agricultural science and technology R&D , the efficiency of resource allocation of agricultural science and technology R&D, the management system of agricultural scientific innovation and the operation status of scientific funds, is analyz...

  4. Rent distribution effect of a price reduction in the Dutch gas transport market. A scenario analysis of regulatory policy, market form and rent allocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Witteloostuijn, A.; Brakman, S.; Van Marrewijk, C.

    2005-09-01

    As part of the larger energy market deregulation program, the Dutch Office of Energy Regulation (DTe) has developed the habit to force the Dutch gas transport enterprise (Gas Transport Services GTS) to lower its prices. In this report, we simulate the welfare effects of a five per cent transport price reduction. DTe's key argument is that lower gas transport prices will benefit the end-user. Indeed, that might well be the case. However, at least three observations complicate matters substantially: Observation 1: government ownership. GTS is government -owned, and the dominant shipper (Gasunie Trade and Supply) is partly so (50 %). Hence, lost revenues from the gas transport business will all emerge at the debit side of the government's budget, and part of the shippers' rent returns in the government's pockets. Observation 2: imperfect competition. Firms enter into the competitive game to make profits. Shippers are not different. So, apart from in the extreme case of perfect competition (or, more generally, perfect contestability), part of the rents will end up in the pockets of the shippers, rather than the endconsumers. Observation 3: rent export. The Netherlands are not an isolated island in the European gas ocean. Not only is the majority of gas transported in the Netherlands exported to foreign end-users, but apart from that have foreign owners a large stake in Dutch shippers. As a result, given the fact that the Dutch industry is not autarktic, part of the rents will always be distributed, or will always 'leak' away, to foreign consumers and shippers (or their shareholders). These three observations together have three important implications. First, state ownership implies that much rent allocation is simply a matter of circulating money from one government sub-budget to the other (Observation 1). Second, given that the industry is imperfectly competitive, part of the rents will not be passed on to the endconsumers (Observation 2). Third, it is unavoidable

  5. Welfare distribution effect of a price reduction in the Dutch gas transport market: A scenario analysis of regulatory policy, market form and rent allocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Witteloostuijn, Arjen; Van Marrewijk, Charles

    2007-01-01

    As part of the larger energy market deregulation program, the Dutch energy authority - DTe - has developed the habit to force the Dutch gas transport enterprise - Gas Transport Services, or GTS - to lower its prices. DTe's key argument is that lower gas transport prices will benefit the end-user. Indeed, that might well be the case. This policy, in general, is in line with European legislation on the liberalization of the gas market. We model and simulate the (domestic) welfare effects of a 5 percent transport price reduction. From this, we conclude that at least three observations complicate matters substantially. First, GTS is government-owned, and the dominant shipper - Gasunie Trade and Supply (or GasTerra, as it was recoined recently) - is partly so (50%). Second, shippers enter into the competitive game to make profits. Third, not only is the majority of gas transported in the Netherlands exported to foreign end-users, but also foreign owners have a large stake in Dutch shippers. As a result, part of the rents will always be distributed, or will 'leak' away, to foreign consumers and shippers (or their shareholders). These three observations together have three important implications. First, state ownership implies that much rent allocation is simply a matter of circulating money from one government sub-budget to the other. Second, given that the industry is imperfectly competitive, part of the rents will not be passed on to the end-consumers. Third, it is unavoidable that a substantial part of the rents are transferred abroad. A general conclusion for policy-makers is that market liberalization might not bring ex post what they expected ex ante. (author)

  6. Risk allocation in independent power supply contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willrich, M.; Campbell, W.L.

    1992-01-01

    Congress has made significant progress in recent months toward amending the Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935 (PUHCA). The purposes of such amendment are to broaden power supply options for electric utilities and expand competition in whole-sale power generation markets. PUHCA reform is an integral part of President Bush's National Energy Strategy and has been included in legislation pending in both Houses of Congress. Congress will, hopefully, approve energy legislation that includes PUHCA reform before it adjourns this year. PUHCA reform has, however, stimulated heated debate within the power industry itself as well as among various consumer interest groups. One important issue in the public debate concerns risk allocation. If PUHCA is reformed, will risk be allocated efficiently and equitably between independent power producers and electric utility buyers? This article addresses that important question

  7. Using contests to allocate pollution rights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKenzie, Ian A.; Hanley, Nick; Kornienko, Tatiana

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we advocate a new initial allocation mechanism for a tradable pollution permit market. We outline a Permit Allocation Contest (PAC) that distributes permits to firms based on their rank relative to other firms. This ranking is achieved by ordering firms based on an observable 'external action' where the external action is an activity or characteristic of the firm that is independent of their choice of emissions in the tradable permit market. We argue that this mechanism has a number of benefits over auctioning and grandfathering. Using this mechanism efficiently distributes permits, allows for the attainment of a secondary policy objective and has the potential to be more politically appealing than existing alternatives.

  8. Commentary on fair, effective and efficient REDD mechanism design

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Obersteiner, M

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available two key requirements of any potential REDD mechanism: first, the generation of measurable, reportable and verifiable (MRV) REDD credits; and secondly, the sustainable and efficient provision of emission reductions under a robust financing regime...

  9. On fair, effective and efficient REDD mechanism design

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Obersteiner, M

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available two key requirements of any potential REDD mechanism: first, the generation of measurable, reportable and verifiable (MRV) REDD credits; and secondly, the sustainable and efficient provision of emission reductions under a robust financing regime...

  10. Efficient anisotropic wavefield extrapolation using effective isotropic models

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali; Ma, X.; Waheed, Umair bin; Zuberi, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Isotropic wavefield extrapolation is more efficient than anisotropic extrapolation, and this is especially true when the anisotropy of the medium is tilted (from the vertical). We use the kinematics of the wavefield, appropriately represented

  11. The fight against the greenhouse effect. Equity and efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallee, A.

    2003-01-01

    The author discusses the definition of an equitable division rule of the global effort of greenhouse gases emissions decrease, the research of the economic efficiency, the flexibility mechanisms and the emissions trading. (A.L.B.)

  12. Age, lighting treatment, feed allocation and feed form influence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During a broiler breeder trial with 3200 Cobb 500 hens, the effects of lighting treatment after 20 weeks' feed allocation and of feed form on the length of time taken to consume the daily allocation of feed were measured. Pullets were reared on 8-hour photoperiods to 20 weeks, then transferred to one of four lighting ...

  13. An efficient and effective teaching model for ambulatory education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan-Smith, Martha; Young, William W; Keller, Adam M

    2002-07-01

    Teaching and learning in the ambulatory setting have been described as inefficient, variable, and unpredictable. A model of ambulatory teaching that was piloted in three settings (1973-1981 in a university-affiliated outpatient clinic in Portland, Oregon, 1996-2000 in a community outpatient clinic, and 2000-2001 in an outpatient clinic serving Dartmouth Medical School's teaching hospital) that combines a system of education and a system of patient care is presented. Fully integrating learners into the office practice using creative scheduling, pre-rotation learning, and learner competence certification enabled the learners to provide care in roles traditionally fulfilled by physicians and nurses. Practice redesign made learners active members of the patient care team by involving them in such tasks as patient intake, histories and physicals, patient education, and monitoring of patient progress between visits. So that learners can be active members of the patient care team on the first day of clinic, pre-training is provided by the clerkship or residency so that they are able to competently provide care in the time available. To assure effective education, teaching and learning times are explicitly scheduled by parallel booking of patients for the learner and the preceptor at the same time. In the pilot settings this teaching model maintained or improved preceptor productivity and on-time efficiency compared with these outcomes of traditional scheduling. The time spent alone with patients, in direct observation by preceptors, and for scheduled case discussion was appreciated by learners. Increased satisfaction was enjoyed by learners, teachers, clinic staff, and patients. Barriers to implementation include too few examining rooms, inability to manipulate patient appointment schedules, and learners' not being present in a teaching clinic all the time.

  14. Two-stage simplified swarm optimization for the redundancy allocation problem in a multi-state bridge system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Chyh-Ming; Yeh, Wei-Chang

    2016-01-01

    The redundancy allocation problem involves configuring an optimal system structure with high reliability and low cost, either by alternating the elements with more reliable elements and/or by forming them redundantly. The multi-state bridge system is a special redundancy allocation problem and is commonly used in various engineering systems for load balancing and control. Traditional methods for redundancy allocation problem cannot solve multi-state bridge systems efficiently because it is impossible to transfer and reduce a multi-state bridge system to series and parallel combinations. Hence, a swarm-based approach called two-stage simplified swarm optimization is proposed in this work to effectively and efficiently solve the redundancy allocation problem in a multi-state bridge system. For validating the proposed method, two experiments are implemented. The computational results indicate the advantages of the proposed method in terms of solution quality and computational efficiency. - Highlights: • Propose two-stage SSO (SSO_T_S) to deal with RAP in multi-state bridge system. • Dynamic upper bound enhances the efficiency of searching near-optimal solution. • Vector-update stages reduces the problem dimensions. • Statistical results indicate SSO_T_S is robust both in solution quality and runtime.

  15. Zinc allocation and re-allocation in rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stomph, Tjeerd Jan; Jiang, Wen; Van Der Putten, Peter E. L.; Struik, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Agronomy and breeding actively search for options to enhance cereal grain Zn density. Quantifying internal (re-)allocation of Zn as affected by soil and crop management or genotype is crucial. We present experiments supporting the development of a conceptual model of whole plant Zn allocation and re-allocation in rice. Methods: Two solution culture experiments using 70Zn applications at different times during crop development and an experiment on within-grain distribution of Zn are reported. In addition, results from two earlier published experiments are re-analyzed and re-interpreted. Results: A budget analysis showed that plant zinc accumulation during grain filling was larger than zinc allocation to the grains. Isotope data showed that zinc taken up during grain filling was only partly transported directly to the grains and partly allocated to the leaves. Zinc taken up during grain filling and allocated to the leaves replaced zinc re-allocated from leaves to grains. Within the grains, no major transport barrier was observed between vascular tissue and endosperm. At low tissue Zn concentrations, rice plants maintained concentrations of about 20 mg Zn kg−1 dry matter in leaf blades and reproductive tissues, but let Zn concentrations in stems, sheath, and roots drop below this level. When plant zinc concentrations increased, Zn levels in leaf blades and reproductive tissues only showed a moderate increase while Zn levels in stems, roots, and sheaths increased much more and in that order. Conclusions: In rice, the major barrier to enhanced zinc allocation towards grains is between stem and reproductive tissues. Enhancing root to shoot transfer will not contribute proportionally to grain zinc enhancement. PMID:24478788

  16. S4HARA: System for HIV/AIDS resource allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carter Michael W

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV/AIDS resource allocation decisions are influenced by political, social, ethical and other factors that are difficult to quantify. Consequently, quantitative models of HIV/AIDS resource allocation have had limited impact on actual spending decisions. We propose a decision-support System for HIV/AIDS Resource Allocation (S4HARA that takes into consideration both principles of efficient resource allocation and the role of non-quantifiable influences on the decision-making process for resource allocation. Methods S4HARA is a four-step spreadsheet-based model. The first step serves to identify the factors currently influencing HIV/AIDS allocation decisions. The second step consists of prioritizing HIV/AIDS interventions. The third step involves allocating the budget to the HIV/AIDS interventions using a rational approach. Decision-makers can select from several rational models of resource allocation depending on availability of data and level of complexity. The last step combines the results of the first and third steps to highlight the influencing factors that act as barriers or facilitators to the results suggested by the rational resource allocation approach. Actionable recommendations are then made to improve the allocation. We illustrate S4HARA in the context of a primary healthcare clinic in South Africa. Results The clinic offers six types of HIV/AIDS interventions and spends US$750,000 annually on these programs. Current allocation decisions are influenced by donors, NGOs and the government as well as by ethical and religious factors. Without additional funding, an optimal allocation of the total budget suggests that the portion allotted to condom distribution be increased from 1% to 15% and the portion allotted to prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections be increased from 43% to 71%, while allocation to other interventions should decrease. Conclusion Condom uptake at the clinic should be increased by

  17. S4HARA: System for HIV/AIDS resource allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasry, Arielle; Carter, Michael W; Zaric, Gregory S

    2008-03-26

    HIV/AIDS resource allocation decisions are influenced by political, social, ethical and other factors that are difficult to quantify. Consequently, quantitative models of HIV/AIDS resource allocation have had limited impact on actual spending decisions. We propose a decision-support System for HIV/AIDS Resource Allocation (S4HARA) that takes into consideration both principles of efficient resource allocation and the role of non-quantifiable influences on the decision-making process for resource allocation. S4HARA is a four-step spreadsheet-based model. The first step serves to identify the factors currently influencing HIV/AIDS allocation decisions. The second step consists of prioritizing HIV/AIDS interventions. The third step involves allocating the budget to the HIV/AIDS interventions using a rational approach. Decision-makers can select from several rational models of resource allocation depending on availability of data and level of complexity. The last step combines the results of the first and third steps to highlight the influencing factors that act as barriers or facilitators to the results suggested by the rational resource allocation approach. Actionable recommendations are then made to improve the allocation. We illustrate S4HARA in the context of a primary healthcare clinic in South Africa. The clinic offers six types of HIV/AIDS interventions and spends US$750,000 annually on these programs. Current allocation decisions are influenced by donors, NGOs and the government as well as by ethical and religious factors. Without additional funding, an optimal allocation of the total budget suggests that the portion allotted to condom distribution be increased from 1% to 15% and the portion allotted to prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections be increased from 43% to 71%, while allocation to other interventions should decrease. Condom uptake at the clinic should be increased by changing the condom distribution policy from a pull system to a push

  18. Sustainability in Health care by Allocating Resources Effectively (SHARE) 8: developing, implementing and evaluating an evidence dissemination service in a local healthcare setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Claire; Garrubba, Marie; Melder, Angela; Voutier, Catherine; Waller, Cara; King, Richard; Ramsey, Wayne

    2018-03-02

    This is the eighth in a series of papers reporting Sustainability in Health care by Allocating Resources Effectively (SHARE) in a local healthcare setting. The SHARE Program was a systematic, integrated, evidence-based program for disinvestment within a large Australian health service. One of the aims was to explore methods to deliver existing high quality synthesised evidence directly to decision-makers to drive decision-making proactively. An Evidence Dissemination Service (EDS) was proposed. While this was conceived as a method to identify disinvestment opportunities, it became clear that it could also be a way to review all practices for consistency with current evidence. This paper reports the development, implementation and evaluation of two models of an in-house EDS. Frameworks for development of complex interventions, implementation of evidence-based change, and evaluation and explication of processes and outcomes were adapted and/or applied. Mixed methods including a literature review, surveys, interviews, workshops, audits, document analysis and action research were used to capture barriers, enablers and local needs; identify effective strategies; develop and refine proposals; ascertain feedback and measure outcomes. Methods to identify, capture, classify, store, repackage, disseminate and facilitate use of synthesised research evidence were investigated. In Model 1, emails containing links to multiple publications were sent to all self-selected participants who were asked to determine whether they were the relevant decision-maker for any of the topics presented, whether change was required, and to take the relevant action. This voluntary framework did not achieve the aim of ensuring practice was consistent with current evidence. In Model 2, the need for change was established prior to dissemination, then a summary of the evidence was sent to the decision-maker responsible for practice in the relevant area who was required to take appropriate action and

  19. Simultaneous evaluation of efficiency, input effectiveness, and output effectiveness : An application in after sales services agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shabani, Amir; Faramarzi, Gholam Reza; Farzipoor Saen, Reza; Khodakarami, Mohsen

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a data envelopment analysis (DEA) technique that simultaneously measures efficiency and effectiveness to provide a comprehensive appraisal of the productivity. Additionally, an algorithm is recommended to determine targets that are used for measuring

  20. Impurity effects in silicon for high efficiency solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, R. H.; Rohatgi, A.

    1986-01-01

    Model analyses indicate that sophisticated solar cell designs including, e.g., back surface fields, optical reflectors, surface passivation, and double layer antireflective coatings can produce devices with conversion efficiencies above 20 percent (AM1). To realize this potential, the quality of the silicon from which the cells are made must be improved; and these excellent electrical properties must be maintained during device processing. As the cell efficiency rises, the sensitivity to trace contaminants also increases. For example, the threshold Ti impurity concentration at which cell performance degrades is more than an order of magnitude lower for an 18-percent cell. Similar behavior occurs for numerous other metal species which introduce deep level traps that stimulate the recombination of photogenerated carriers in silicon. Purification via crystal growth in conjunction with gettering steps to preserve the large diffusion length of the as-grown material can lead to the production of devices with efficiencies aboved 18 percent, as has been verified experimentally.

  1. Optimal allocation of conservation effort among subpopulations of a threatened species: how important is patch quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvenet, Aliénor L M; Baxter, Peter W J; McDonald-Madden, Eve; Possingham, Hugh P

    2010-04-01

    Money is often a limiting factor in conservation, and attempting to conserve endangered species can be costly. Consequently, a framework for optimizing fiscally constrained conservation decisions for a single species is needed. In this paper we find the optimal budget allocation among isolated subpopulations of a threatened species to minimize local extinction probability. We solve the problem using stochastic dynamic programming, derive a useful and simple alternative guideline for allocating funds, and test its performance using forward simulation. The model considers subpopulations that persist in habitat patches of differing quality, which in our model is reflected in different relationships between money invested and extinction risk. We discover that, in most cases, subpopulations that are less efficient to manage should receive more money than those that are more efficient to manage, due to higher investment needed to reduce extinction risk. Our simple investment guideline performs almost as well as the exact optimal strategy. We illustrate our approach with a case study of the management of the Sumatran tiger, Panthera tigris sumatrae, in Kerinci Seblat National Park (KSNP), Indonesia. We find that different budgets should be allocated to the separate tiger subpopulations in KSNP. The subpopulation that is not at risk of extinction does not require any management investment. Based on the combination of risks of extinction and habitat quality, the optimal allocation for these particular tiger subpopulations is an unusual case: subpopulations that occur in higher-quality habitat (more efficient to manage) should receive more funds than the remaining subpopulation that is in lower-quality habitat. Because the yearly budget allocated to the KSNP for tiger conservation is small, to guarantee the persistence of all the subpopulations that are currently under threat we need to prioritize those that are easier to save. When allocating resources among subpopulations

  2. Time allocation of disabled individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagán, Ricardo

    2013-05-01

    Although some studies have analysed the disability phenomenon and its effect on, for example, labour force participation, wages, job satisfaction, or the use of disability pension, the empirical evidence on how disability steals time (e.g. hours of work) from individuals is very scarce. This article examines how disabled individuals allocate their time to daily activities as compared to their non-disabled counterparts. Using time diary information from the Spanish Time Use Survey (last quarter of 2002 and the first three quarters of 2003), we estimate the determinants of time (minutes per day) spent on four aggregate categories (market work, household production, tertiary activities and leisure) for a sample of 27,687 non-disabled and 5250 disabled individuals and decompose the observed time differential by using the Oaxaca-Blinder methodology. The results show that disabled individuals devote less time to market work (especially females), and more time to household production (e.g. cooking, cleaning, child care), tertiary activities (e.g., sleeping, personal care, medical treatment) and leisure activities. We also find a significant effect of age on the time spent on daily activities and important differences by gender and disability status. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that disability steals time, and reiterate the fact that more public policies are needed to balance working life and health concerns among disabled individuals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of combustion efficiency on a Dual cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozsoysal, Osman Azmi

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies a Dual cycle model containing irreversibilities coming exclusively from expansion and compression processes. It is assumed that any fraction of the fuel's chemical energy can not fully released inside the engine because of the incomplete combustion. Utilizing the combustion efficiency is found to be more useful to realize the cycle feasibility. Amount of the released energy from fuel into the cylinder restricts the compression ratio. It is presented how the upper limit of compression ratio is evaluated by means of using some constraints for realizing a Dual cycle. Valid ranges of the constraints given in literature seriously affect the feasibility of cycle. Developed mathematical model leads to a qualitative understanding of how engine loss can be reduced. Thermal efficiency-work curves cannot have a closed loop shape because there is a close relationship between the fuel energy, air-fuel mass ratio, combustion efficiency, maximum cycle temperature and the heat losses into the cylinder wall. If these are all omitted, while heat losses are determined independently without establishing any relationship between the released fuel energy, the thermal efficiency versus work curves will just be able to have a closed loop shape. This is the original perspective and contribution of paper.

  4. Toward effective strategies for energy efficient network management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeswijk, Jacob Dirk; van Berkum, Eric C.; van Arem, Bart; van Vliet, H.; Abadi, A.; Bauer e.a., D.

    2010-01-01

    Trade-offs in efficiency, equity and acceptability arise as a central feature in traffic management. Today's urban traffic network management strategies focus on overall system performance and often overlook the interests of the individual road user. In addition, the emphasis is on travel time

  5. Sports sponsorship effectiveness : investigating awareness, sponsor equity and efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walraven, Merel

    2013-01-01

    Een sporter en een commerciële organisatie hebben diverse eigenschappen gemeen: dynamiek, resultaatgerichtheid en het doel om zo efficiënt en effectief mogelijk te presteren. Het komt dan ook steeds vaker voor dat een bedrijf investeert in de associatie met een bekend en geliefd sportobject, zoals

  6. Effect Of Credit Constraint On Production Efficiency Of Farm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Credit constraint in agriculture affects not only the purchasing power of producers to procure farm inputs and to cover operating costs in the short run, but also their capacity to make farm-related investments as well as risk behavior in technology choice and adoption. These, in turn, influence technical efficiencies of the ...

  7. Improving efficiency and effectiveness in natural gas regulation : discussion paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rounding, M.C.

    2004-11-01

    Energy market liberalization is a world trend that has prompted the deregulation of natural gas and electricity over the past twenty years in North America. The Ontario Energy Board and the National Energy Board are conducting public hearings on natural gas regulation in response to the request by Canadian energy industries for better regulatory streamlining. The following 5 issues regarding natural gas regulation in Canada have been examined: (1) system gas in a regulated market, (2) natural gas infrastructure investments and capital renewal, (3) improving efficiency in gas regulation, (4) expectations of performance-based regulation (PBR) in the natural gas industry, and (5) the debate whether further deregulation of the natural gas industry is beneficial. This paper discusses the impact that natural gas regulation has had on the efficiency and competitiveness of the industry and its affect on customers and other stakeholders. It focuses on the efficiency of the regulatory process and examines regulatory objectives, best practices and performance indicators. The factors that determine the efficiency of natural gas regulation include alternative regulatory models, structure of the regulatory agency, regulatory framework approaches, and outcomes for the natural gas industry. The relationship between the government and the regulator was also examined in terms of their abilities to implement policy. A comparative evaluation between energy regulators in Canada, the United States, Australia and the United Kingdom was presented. The balancing of short-term and long-term objectives for gas supply and planning issues was also addressed. 17 refs

  8. Is effective force application in handrim wheelchair propulsion also efficient?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bregman, D.J.J.; van Drongelen, S.V.; Veeger, H.E.J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Efficiency in manual wheelchair propulsion is low, as is the fraction of the propulsion force that is attributed to the moment of propulsion of the wheelchair. In this study we tested the hypothesis that a tangential propulsion force direction leads to an increase in physiological cost,

  9. Irrational time allocation in decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oud, Bastiaan; Krajbich, Ian; Miller, Kevin; Cheong, Jin Hyun; Botvinick, Matthew; Fehr, Ernst

    2016-01-13

    Time is an extremely valuable resource but little is known about the efficiency of time allocation in decision-making. Empirical evidence suggests that in many ecologically relevant situations, decision difficulty and the relative reward from making a correct choice, compared to an incorrect one, are inversely linked, implying that it is optimal to use relatively less time for difficult choice problems. This applies, in particular, to value-based choices, in which the relative reward from choosing the higher valued item shrinks as the values of the other options get closer to the best option and are thus more difficult to discriminate. Here, we experimentally show that people behave sub-optimally in such contexts. They do not respond to incentives that favour the allocation of time to choice problems in which the relative reward for choosing the best option is high; instead they spend too much time on problems in which the reward difference between the options is low. We demonstrate this by showing that it is possible to improve subjects' time allocation with a simple intervention that cuts them off when their decisions take too long. Thus, we provide a novel form of evidence that organisms systematically spend their valuable time in an inefficient way, and simultaneously offer a potential solution to the problem. © 2016 The Author(s).

  10. Optimal allocation of trend following strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebenkov, Denis S.; Serror, Jeremy

    2015-09-01

    We consider a portfolio allocation problem for trend following (TF) strategies on multiple correlated assets. Under simplifying assumptions of a Gaussian market and linear TF strategies, we derive analytical formulas for the mean and variance of the portfolio return. We construct then the optimal portfolio that maximizes risk-adjusted return by accounting for inter-asset correlations. The dynamic allocation problem for n assets is shown to be equivalent to the classical static allocation problem for n2 virtual assets that include lead-lag corrections in positions of TF strategies. The respective roles of asset auto-correlations and inter-asset correlations are investigated in depth for the two-asset case and a sector model. In contrast to the principle of diversification suggesting to treat uncorrelated assets, we show that inter-asset correlations allow one to estimate apparent trends more reliably and to adjust the TF positions more efficiently. If properly accounted for, inter-asset correlations are not deteriorative but beneficial for portfolio management that can open new profit opportunities for trend followers. These concepts are illustrated using daily returns of three highly correlated futures markets: the E-mini S&P 500, Euro Stoxx 50 index, and the US 10-year T-note futures.

  11. International Development Aid Allocation Determinants

    OpenAIRE

    Tapas Mishra; Bazoumana Ouattara; Mamata Parhi

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the factors explaining aid allocation by bilateral and multilateral donors. We use data for 146 aid recipient countries over the period 1990-2007 and employ Bayesian Averaging of Classical Estimates Approach (BACE) approach and find that both the recipient need and donor interest motives are `significant' determinants of bilateral and multilateral aid allocation process. Our results also indicate that the measures for recipient need and donor interests vary from bilate...

  12. Application of an allocation methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youngblood, R.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents a method for allocating resources to elements of a system for the purpose of achieving prescribed levels of defense-in-depth at minimal cost. The method makes extensive use of logic modelling. An analysis of a simplified high-level waste repository is used as an illustrative application of the method. It is shown that it is possible to allocate quality control costs (or demonstrate performance) in an optimal way over elements of a conceptual design

  13. Effects of fertilization and competition on plant biomass allocation and internal resources: Does Plantago lanceolata follow the rules of economic theory?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janeček, Štěpán; Patáčová, E.; Klimešová, Jitka

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 1 (2014), s. 49-64 ISSN 1211-9520 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/09/0963; GA ČR GA526/07/0808 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : allocation * Plantago lanceolata * plasticity Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.778, year: 2014

  14. The Impact of the Availability of Resources, the Allocation of Buffers and Number of Workers on the Effectiveness of an Assembly Manufacturing System

    OpenAIRE

    Kłos Sławomir; Trebuna Peter

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes the application of computer simulation methods in order to analyse the availability of resources, buffers and the impact of the allocation of workers on the throughput and work-in-progress of a manufacturing system. The simulation model of the production system is based on an existing example of a manufacturing company in the automotive industry. The manufacturing system includes both machining and assembly operations. Simulation experiments were conducted vis-à-vis the av...

  15. Partitioning between primary and secondary metabolism of carbon allocated to roots in four maize genotypes under water deficit and its effects on productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyne Oliveira Lavinsky

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Plants may respond to drought by altering biomass allocation to shoots and roots or by changing the metabolic activities in these organs. To determine how drought changes the partitioning of carbon allocated to growth and secondary metabolism in maize roots and how it affects photosynthesis (A and productivity in maize, we evaluated leaf gas exchange, yield componentes, root morphology, and primary and secondary metabolites including total soluble sugars (TSS, starch (S, phenolics (PHE, and lignin (LIG. Data were collected from pot-grown plants of four maize genotypes: BRS 1010 and 2B710 (sensitive genotypes and DKB390 and BRS1055 (tolerant genotypes under two soil water tensions: field capacity (FC, − 18 kPa and water deficit (WD, − 138 kPa. WD was applied at the pre-flowering stage for 12 days and then the water supply was restored and maintained at optimum levels until the end of the cycle. For genotype BRS 1055 under FC, the greatest A did not result in greater grain biomass (DGB because the accumulated photoassimilates had already filled the cells, and thus the excessive TSS synthesized in leaves was allocated to roots in large amounts. However, the sharp decrease in A caused by WD imposition in this genotype did not affect the influx pressure of leaf TSS, which was due largely to conversion of primary metabolites to PHE compounds to increase the length of fine roots. In leaves of DKB390 under WD, both S and TSS were reduced, whereas PHE were increased to prevent excessive water loss and xylem cavitation. Under WD, both BRS1010 and 2B710 genotypes displayed reduced allocation of biomass to shoots and roots and LIG content in leaves, as well as lower A and DGB values. In BRS1010 this response was coupled to S decrease in leaves and TSS increase in roots, whereas in 2B710 there was a concomitant S increase in roots.

  16. CO_2 emissions and energy intensity reduction allocation over provincial industrial sectors in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jie; Zhu, Qingyuan; Liang, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • DEA is used to evaluate the energy and environmental efficiency of 30 provincial industrial sector in China. • A new DEA-based model is proposed to allocate the CO_2 emissions and energy intensity reduction targets. • The context-dependent DEA is used to characterize the production plans. - Abstract: High energy consumption by the industry of developing countries has led to the problems of increasing emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) (primarily CO_2) and worsening energy shortages. To address these problems, many mitigation measures have been utilized. One major measure is to mandate fixed reductions of GHG emission and energy consumption. Therefore, it is important for each developing country to disaggregate their national reduction targets into targets for various geographical parts of the country. In this paper, we propose a DEA-based approach to allocate China’s national CO_2 emissions and energy intensity reduction targets over Chinese provincial industrial sectors. We firstly evaluate the energy and environmental efficiency of Chinese industry considering energy consumption and GHG emissions. Then, considering the necessity of mitigating GHG emission and energy consumption, we develop a context-dependent DEA technique which can better characterize the changeable production with reductions of CO_2 emission and energy intensity, to help allocate the national reduction targets over provincial industrial sectors. Our empirical study of 30 Chinese regions for the period 2005–2010 shows that the industry of China had poor energy and environmental efficiency. Considering three major geographical areas, eastern China’s industrial sector had the highest efficiency scores while in this aspect central and western China were similar to each other at a lower level. Our study shows that the most effective allocation of the national reduction target requires most of the 30 regional industrial to reduce CO_2 emission and energy intensity, while a

  17. How should INGOs allocate resources?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Wisor

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available International Non-governmental Organizations (INGOs face difficult choices when choosing to allocate resources. Given that the resources made available to INGOs fall far short of what is needed to reduce massive human rights deficits, any chosen scheme of resource allocation requires failing to reach other individuals in great need. Facing these moral opportunity costs, what moral reasons should guide INGO resource allocation? Two reasons that clearly matter, and are recognized by philosophers and development practitioners, are the consequences (or benefit or harm reduction of any given resource allocation and the need (or priority of individual beneficiaries. If accepted, these reasons should lead INGOs to allocate resources to a limited number of countries where the most prioritarian weighted harm reduction will be achieved. I make three critiques against this view. First, on grounds the consequentialist accepts, I argue that INGOs ought to maintain a reasonably wide distribution of resources. Second, I argue that even if one is a consequentialist, consequentialism ought not act as an action guiding principle for INGOs. Third, I argue that additional moral reasons should influence decision making about INGO resource allocation. Namely, INGO decision making should attend to relational reasons, desert, respect for agency, concern for equity, and the importance of expressing a view of moral wrongs.

  18. Using benchmarking for the primary allocation of EU allowances. An application to the German power sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleich, J.; Cremer, C.

    2007-07-01

    Basing allocation of allowances for existing installations under the EU Emissions Trading Scheme on specific emission values (benchmarks) rather than on historic emissions may have several advantages. Benchmarking may recognize early ac-tion, provide higher incentives for replacing old installations and result in fewer distortions in case of updating, facilitate EU-wide harmonization of allocation rules or allow for simplified and more efficient closure rules. Applying an optimization model for the German power sector, we analyze the distributional effects of vari-ous allocation regimes across and within different generation technologies. Re-sults illustrate that regimes with a single uniform benchmark for all fuels or with a single benchmark for coal- and lignite-fired plants imply substantial distributional effects. In particular, lignite- and old coal-fired plants would be made worse off. Under a regime with fuel-specific benchmarks for gas, coal, and lignite 50 % of the gas-fired plants and 4 % of the lignite and coal-fired plants would face an allow-ance deficit of at least 10 %, while primarily modern lignite-fired plants would benefit. Capping the surplus and shortage of allowances would further moderate the distributional effects, but may tarnish incentives for efficiency improvements and recognition of early action. (orig.)

  19. A note on mate allocation for dominance handling in genomic selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toro Miguel A

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Estimation of non-additive genetic effects in animal breeding is important because it increases the accuracy of breeding value prediction and the value of mate allocation procedures. With the advent of genomic selection these ideas should be revisited. The objective of this study was to quantify the efficiency of including dominance effects and practising mating allocation under a whole-genome evaluation scenario. Four strategies of selection, carried out during five generations, were compared by simulation techniques. In the first scenario (MS, individuals were selected based on their own phenotypic information. In the second (GSA, they were selected based on the prediction generated by the Bayes A method of whole-genome evaluation under an additive model. In the third (GSD, the model was expanded to include dominance effects. These three scenarios used random mating to construct future generations, whereas in the fourth one (GSD + MA, matings were optimized by simulated annealing. The advantage of GSD over GSA ranges from 9 to 14% of the expected response and, in addition, using mate allocation (GSD + MA provides an additional response ranging from 6% to 22%. However, mate selection can improve the expected genetic response over random mating only in the first generation of selection. Furthermore, the efficiency of genomic selection is eroded after a few generations of selection, thus, a continued collection of phenotypic data and re-evaluation will be required.

  20. Influence of allocation concealment and intention-to-treat analysis on treatment effects of physical therapy interventions in low back pain randomised controlled trials: a protocol of a meta-epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Matheus Oliveira; Saragiotto, Bruno T; Maher, Chris G; Pena Costa, Leonardo Oliveira

    2017-09-27

    Meta-epidemiological studies examining the influence of methodological characteristics, such as allocation concealment and intention-to-treat analysis have been performed in a large number of healthcare areas. However, there are no studies investigating these characteristics in physical therapy interventions for patients with low back pain. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of allocation concealment and the use of intention-to-treat analysis on estimates of treatment effects of physical therapy interventions in low back pain clinical trials. Searches on PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) and CINAHL databases will be performed. We will search for systematic reviews that include a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials that compared physical therapy interventions in patients with low back pain with placebo or no intervention, and have pain intensity or disability as the primary outcomes. Information about selection (allocation concealment) and attrition bias (intention-to-treat analysis) will be extracted from the PEDro database for each included trial. Information about bibliographic data, study characteristics, participants' characteristics and study results will be extracted. A random-effects model will be used to provide separate estimates of treatment effects for trials with and without allocation concealment and with and without intention-to-treat analysis (eg, four estimates). A meta-regression will be performed to measure the association between methodological features and treatment effects from each trial. The dependent variable will be the treatment effect (the mean between-group differences) for the primary outcomes (pain or disability), while the independent variables will be the methodological features of interest (allocation concealment and intention-to-treat analysis). Other covariates will include sample size and sequence generation. No ethical approval will be