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Sample records for effectively reinforcing roles

  1. Habituation of reinforcer effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R Lloyd

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose an integrative model of habituation of reinforcer effectiveness (HRE that links behavioral and neural based explanations of reinforcement. We argue that habituation of reinforcer effectiveness (HRE is a fundamental property of reinforcing stimuli. Most reinforcement models implicitly suggest that the effectiveness of a reinforcer is stable across repeated presentations. In contrast, an HRE approach predicts decreased effectiveness due to repeated presentation. We argue that repeated presentation of reinforcing stimuli decreases their effectiveness and that these decreases are described by the behavioral characteristics of habituation (McSweeney and Murphy, 2009;Rankin et al., 2009. We describe a neural model that postulates a positive association between dopamine neurotransmission and HRE. We present evidence that stimulant drugs, which artificially increase dopamine neurotransmission, disrupt (slow normally occurring HRE and also provide evidence that stimulant drugs have differential effects on operant responding maintained by reinforcers with rapid vs. slow HRE rates. We hypothesize that abnormal HRE due to genetic and/or environmental factors may underlie some behavioral disorders. For example, recent research indicates that slow-HRE is predictive of obesity. In contrast ADHD may reflect ‘accelerated-HRE’. Consideration of HRE is important for the development of effective reinforcement based treatments. Finally, we point out that most of the reinforcing stimuli that regulate daily behavior are non-consumable environmental/social reinforcers which have rapid-HRE. The almost exclusive use of consumable reinforcers with slow-HRE in pre-clinical studies with animals may have caused the importance of HRE to be overlooked. Further study of reinforcing stimuli with rapid-HRE is needed in order to understand how habituation and reinforcement interact and regulate behavior.

  2. Do establishing operations alter reinforcement effectiveness?

    OpenAIRE

    Cherpas, Chris

    1993-01-01

    Michael (this issue) defines an establishing operation (EO), such as food deprivation, as (a) altering the effectiveness of reinforcement as well as (b) evoking behavior. Although this dual role for EOs is compelling, it is possible that such operations have only evocative effects (i.e., function only in the form of antecedent control). The main question raised here is how the reinforcement-altering function can be experimentally analyzed. Evolutionary and conceptual implications of the two-f...

  3. Do establishing operations alter reinforcement effectiveness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherpas, C

    1993-01-01

    Michael (this issue) defines an establishing operation (EO), such as food deprivation, as (a) altering the effectiveness of reinforcement as well as (b) evoking behavior. Although this dual role for EOs is compelling, it is possible that such operations have only evocative effects (i.e., function only in the form of antecedent control). The main question raised here is how the reinforcement-altering function can be experimentally analyzed. Evolutionary and conceptual implications of the two-function EO are also considered.

  4. Response of Vocational Students to Supervision: Effects of Reinforcing Positive and Negative Attitudes Toward Different Supervisory Roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stogdill, Ralph M.; And Others

    This study was designed to determine whether student response to supervision would be affected by the reinforcement of positive (or negative) attitudes toward five patterns of supervisory behavior as shown in motion pictures. For one group of vocational high school students, attitudes toward the supervisory roles "Consideration" and "Tolerance of…

  5. Role of Instructions and Reinforcement in Behavior Changes in Token Reinforcement Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazdin, Alan E.

    1973-01-01

    Major findings were that: contingent reinforcement was effective in altering behavior; instructions did not augment the efficacy of contingent reinforcement; noncontingent reinforcement was effective for nondeviant students who were told that the reinforcement was actually contingent; and contingent reinforcement led to greater generalization than…

  6. Establishing operations and reinforcement effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, T R; Iwata, B A

    1991-01-01

    Positive reinforcement procedures have had a major impact on educational programs for the developmentally disabled; nevertheless, variation in reinforcer effectiveness both within and across individuals is a common phenomenon. This study examined one class of variables--establishing operations--that might influence the effectiveness of reinforcers. Five developmentally disabled adult males participated. Responding on one of two motor tasks--switch closure or block placement--was assessed during baseline, satiation, and deprivation conditions with respect to three classes of consequences: small food items, music, and social praise. Deprivation and satiation conditions were constructed so as not to alter significantly the normal course of events in a subject's day. For example, food deprivation entailed scheduling sessions just prior to a subject's regular lunch, and social deprivation involved limiting a subject's access to social interaction for 15 minutes, during which time the subject had access to an assortment of other activities. Results showed that each stimulus class functioned as reinforcement with different degrees of effectiveness during satiation versus deprivation conditions. These results are discussed in light of previous research on enhancement of reinforcer efficacy as well as the assessment and identification of functional reinforcers, and implications are presented for future research and client habilitation.

  7. Role of dopamine D2 receptors in human reinforcement learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenegger, Christoph; Naef, Michael; Linssen, Anke; Clark, Luke; Gandamaneni, Praveen K; Müller, Ulrich; Robbins, Trevor W

    2014-09-01

    Influential neurocomputational models emphasize dopamine (DA) as an electrophysiological and neurochemical correlate of reinforcement learning. However, evidence of a specific causal role of DA receptors in learning has been less forthcoming, especially in humans. Here we combine, in a between-subjects design, administration of a high dose of the selective DA D2/3-receptor antagonist sulpiride with genetic analysis of the DA D2 receptor in a behavioral study of reinforcement learning in a sample of 78 healthy male volunteers. In contrast to predictions of prevailing models emphasizing DA's pivotal role in learning via prediction errors, we found that sulpiride did not disrupt learning, but rather induced profound impairments in choice performance. The disruption was selective for stimuli indicating reward, whereas loss avoidance performance was unaffected. Effects were driven by volunteers with higher serum levels of the drug, and in those with genetically determined lower density of striatal DA D2 receptors. This is the clearest demonstration to date for a causal modulatory role of the DA D2 receptor in choice performance that might be distinct from learning. Our findings challenge current reward prediction error models of reinforcement learning, and suggest that classical animal models emphasizing a role of postsynaptic DA D2 receptors in motivational aspects of reinforcement learning may apply to humans as well.

  8. The role of GABAB receptors in human reinforcement learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ort, Andres; Kometer, Michael; Rohde, Judith; Seifritz, Erich; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2014-10-01

    Behavioral evidence from human studies suggests that the γ-aminobutyric acid type B receptor (GABAB receptor) agonist baclofen modulates reinforcement learning and reduces craving in patients with addiction spectrum disorders. However, in contrast to the well established role of dopamine in reinforcement learning, the mechanisms by which the GABAB receptor influences reinforcement learning in humans remain completely unknown. To further elucidate this issue, a cross-over, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was performed in healthy human subjects (N=15) to test the effects of baclofen (20 and 50mg p.o.) on probabilistic reinforcement learning. Outcomes were the feedback-induced P2 component of the event-related potential, the feedback-related negativity, and the P300 component of the event-related potential. Baclofen produced a reduction of P2 amplitude over the course of the experiment, but did not modulate the feedback-related negativity. Furthermore, there was a trend towards increased learning after baclofen administration relative to placebo over the course of the experiment. The present results extend previous theories of reinforcement learning, which focus on the importance of mesolimbic dopamine signaling, and indicate that stimulation of cortical GABAB receptors in a fronto-parietal network leads to better attentional allocation in reinforcement learning. This observation is a first step in our understanding of how baclofen may improve reinforcement learning in healthy subjects. Further studies with bigger sample sizes are needed to corroborate this conclusion and furthermore, test this effect in patients with addiction spectrum disorder. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  9. Applied Implications of Reinforcement History Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipkin, Claire St. Peter; Vollmer, Timothy R.

    2009-01-01

    Although the influence of reinforcement history is a theoretical focus of behavior analysis, the specific behavioral effects of reinforcement history have received relatively little attention in applied research and practice. We examined the potential effects of reinforcement history by reviewing nonhuman, human operant, and applied research and…

  10. Assessing preference and reinforcer effectiveness in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicars, Sara M; Miguel, Caio F; Sobie, Jennifer L

    2014-03-01

    The paired-stimulus (PS) preference assessment has been shown to be effective in assessing preference with animal subjects, including dogs; however, evaluations on whether preferred stimuli would also function as reinforcers are lacking. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the use of the PS preference assessment as a predictor of reinforcer effectiveness in eight dogs. The assessment was followed by concurrent and progressive ratio schedules to evaluate the reinforcer efficacy of food items. Results showed that the preference assessment predicted reinforcer efficacy for all subjects. Benefits of using this assessment with dogs are discussed. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. The "first hit" toward alcohol reinforcement: role of ethanol metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Yedy; Quintanilla, María Elena; Karahanian, Eduardo; Rivera-Meza, Mario; Herrera-Marschitz, Mario

    2015-05-01

    This review analyzes literature that describes the behavioral effects of 2 metabolites of ethanol (EtOH): acetaldehyde and salsolinol (a condensation product of acetaldehyde and dopamine) generated in the brain. These metabolites are self-administered into specific brain areas by animals, showing strong reinforcing effects. A wealth of evidence shows that EtOH, a drug consumed to attain millimolar concentrations, generates brain metabolites that are reinforcing at micromolar and nanomolar concentrations. Salsolinol administration leads to marked increases in voluntary EtOH intake, an effect inhibited by mu-opioid receptor blockers. In animals that have ingested EtOH chronically, the maintenance of alcohol intake is no longer influenced by EtOH metabolites, as intake is taken over by other brain systems. However, after EtOH withdrawal brain acetaldehyde has a major role in promoting binge-like drinking in the condition known as the "alcohol deprivation effect"; a condition seen in animals that have ingested alcohol chronically, are deprived of EtOH for extended periods, and are allowed EtOH re-access. The review also analyzes the behavioral effects of acetate, a metabolite that enters the brain and is responsible for motor incoordination at low doses of EtOH. Also discussed are the paradoxical effects of systemic acetaldehyde. Overall, evidence strongly suggests that brain-generated EtOH metabolites play a major role in the early ("first-hit") development of alcohol reinforcement and in the generation of relapse-like drinking. Copyright © 2015 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  12. [The influence of social stress on the reinforcing effect of ecstasy under the conditioned place preference paradigm: the role played by age, dose and type of stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Pardo, M P; de la Rubia, J E; Aguilar, M A

    2017-11-16

    Addiction to drugs is a chronic illness with severe repercussions for those that consume them and to date has no known cure. Psychostimulants, such as ecstasy, are the most widely consumed illegal drugs among adolescents and young adults. To describe and to analyse the different variables that can influence the effects of social stress and the reinforcing properties of ecstasy. Likewise, it also seeks to evaluate whether the effects of social stress on conditioned place preference (induced by ecstasy) are similar to those deriving from other psychostimulants, such as cocaine. Social defeat evaluated in the short term has an effect only on adult animals by diminishing sensitivity to the conditioned reinforcing effects of ecstasy. Conversely, long-term social stress increases the reinforcing effects of this drug in adolescent and adult animals. The dose of ecstasy employed has little influence on the effects of social defeat on conditioned place preference. In comparison to the effects of social stress on the reinforcing properties of cocaine, a different effect is only observed when defeat is evaluated in the short term. Different variables modulate the reinforcing effects of ecstasy, such as the age of the animals, the dose employed or exposure to stress. It is essential to study these variables in order to determine the neurobiological and environmental vulnerability factors that can have an influence on the development of addiction to ecstasy.

  13. Effect of Reinforcement Architecture on Fracture of Selectively Reinforced Metallic Compact Tension Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abada, Christopher H.; Farley, Gary L.; Hyer, Michael W.

    2006-01-01

    A computer-based parametric study of the effect of reinforcement architectures on fracture response of aluminum compact-tension (CT) specimens is performed. Eleven different reinforcement architectures consisting of rectangular and triangular cross-section reinforcements were evaluated. Reinforced specimens produced between 13 and 28 percent higher fracture load than achieved with the non-reinforced case. Reinforcements with blunt leading edges (rectangular reinforcements) exhibited superior performance relative to the triangular reinforcements with sharp leading edges. Relative to the rectangular reinforcements, the most important architectural feature was reinforcement thickness. At failure, the reinforcements carried between 58 and 85 percent of the load applied to the specimen, suggesting that there is considerable load transfer between the base material and the reinforcement.

  14. PARTIAL REINFORCEMENT (ACQUISITION) EFFECTS WITHIN SUBJECTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AMSEL, A; MACKINNON, J R; RASHOTTE, M E; SURRIDGE, C T

    1964-03-01

    Acquisition performance of 22 rats in a straight alley runway was examined. The animals were subjected to partial reinforcement when the alley was black (B+/-) and continuous reinforcement when it was white (W+). The results indicated (a) higher terminal performance, for partial as against continuous reinforcement conditions, for starting-time and running-time measures, and (b) lower terminal performance under partial conditions for a goal-entry-time measure. These results confirm within subjects an effect previously demonstrated, in the runway, only in between-groups tests, where one group is run under partial reinforcement and a separate group is run under continuous reinforcement in the presence of the same external stimuli. Differences between the runway situation, employing a discrete-trial procedure and performance measures at three points in the response chain, and the Skinner box situation, used in its free-operant mode with a single performance measure, are discussed in relation to the present findings.

  15. Simulating distributed reinforcement effects in concrete analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchertas, A.H.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of the bond slip is brought into the TEMP-STRESS finite element code by relaxing the equal strain condition between concrete and reinforcement. This is done for the elements adjacent to the element which is cracked. A parabolic differential strain variation is assumed along the reinforcement from the crack, which is taken to be at the centroid of the cracked element, to the point where perfect bonding exists. This strain relationship is used to increase the strain of the reinforcement in the as yet uncracked elements located adjacent to a crack. By the same token the corresponding concrete strain is decreased. This estimate is made assuming preservation of strain energy in the element. The effectiveness of the model is shown by examples. Comparison of analytical results is made with structural test data. The influence of the bonding model on cracking is portrayed pictorially. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  16. The Role of Emotions in Reinforcement: Response Selection in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overskeid, Geir

    2012-01-01

    Historically, researchers have never quite been able to agree as to the role of emotions, if any, when behavior is selected by its consequences. A brief review of findings from several fields suggests that in contingency-shaped behavior, motivating events, often unconscious, seem needed for reinforcement to select behavior. In rule-governed…

  17. On the role of CFRP reinforcement for wood beams stiffness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianasi, A. C.

    2015-11-01

    In recent years, carbon fiber composites have been increasingly used in different ways in reinforcing structural elements. Specifically, the use of composite materials as a reinforcement for wood beams under bending loads requires paying attention to several aspects of the problem such as the number of the composite layers applied on the wood beams. Study consolidation of composites revealed that they are made by bonding fibrous material impregnated with resin on the surface of various elements, to restore or increase the load carrying capacity (bending, cutting, compression or torque) without significant damage of their rigidity. Fibers used in building applications can be fiberglass, aramid or carbon. Items that can be strengthened are concrete, brick, wood, steel and stone, and in terms of structural beams, walls, columns and floors. This paper describes an experimental study which was designed to evaluate the effect of composite material on the stiffness of the wood beams. It proposes a summary of the fundamental principles of analysis of composite materials and the design and use. The type of reinforcement used on the beams is the carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) sheet and plates and also an epoxy resin for bonding all the elements. Structural epoxy resins remain the primary choice of adhesive to form the bond to fiber-reinforced plastics and are the generally accepted adhesives in bonded CFRP-wood connections. The advantages of using epoxy resin in comparison to common wood-laminating adhesives are their gap-filling qualities and the low clamping pressures that are required to form the bond between carbon fiber plates or sheets and the wood beams. Mechanical tests performed on the reinforced wood beams showed that CFRP materials may produce flexural displacement and lifting increases of the beams. Observations of the experimental load-displacement relationships showed that bending strength increased for wood beams reinforced with CFRP composite plates

  18. effects of flexural rigidity of reinforcement bars on the fundamental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NIJOTECH

    2009-09-02

    Sep 2, 2009 ... numerical method, and the results show that the flexural rigidity of the bars has significant effect on the fundamental natural frequency of heavily reinforced concrete sections. KEYWORDS: Fundamental Natural Frequency, Reinforced Concrete Slab, Flexural Rigidity,. Reinforcement Bars. INTRODUCTION.

  19. Influence of reinforcer magnitude and nicotine amount on smoking's acute reinforcement enhancing effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Kenneth A; Karelitz, Joshua L

    2013-11-01

    Nicotine's acute effects on enhancing reinforcement from sensory rewards, shown in animal models, appear to occur with smoking in humans. These effects may vary due to reinforcer magnitude and amount of acute smoke intake (dose). In a fully within-subjects design, dependent smokers (n=23) participated in 3 sessions. Each session followed overnight abstinence and involved 4 trials to assess responding via progressive ratio (PR 50%) for sensory reinforcement from high, moderate, or low preference music, or no reward (counter-balanced, 30-s/reinforcer). Sessions differed in smoking prior to each trial: 8 puffs on arrival and 2 puffs/trial ("8+2″), 2 puffs/trial only ("0+2″), or no smoking. Puffs were consumed via CReSS (Clinical Research Support System) to control topography, and smoking involved own brand to ensure palatability and increase generalizability of results. Reinforced responding was influenced by main effects of smoking condition (preinforced responding only for the high preference music (p=.01), and not for moderate or low preference music, or for no reward. Withdrawal did not differ between the two smoking sessions, ruling out withdrawal relief as an explanation for differential reinforcement enhancement. Our findings confirm that just one cigarette after abstinence is sufficient for reinforcement enhancing effects and suggest that such enhancement is greater as magnitude of a reward's reinforcing efficacy increases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of discrete fibre reinforcement on soil tensile strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Li

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The tensile behaviour of soil plays a significantly important role in various engineering applications. Compacted soils used in geotechnical constructions such as dams and clayey liners in waste containment facilities can suffer from cracking due to tensile failure. In order to increase soil tensile strength, discrete fibre reinforcement technique was proposed. An innovative tensile apparatus was developed to determine the tensile strength characteristics of fibre reinforced soil. The effects of fibre content, dry density and water content on the tensile strength were studied. The results indicate that the developed test apparatus was applicable in determining tensile strength of soils. Fibre inclusion can significantly increase soil tensile strength and soil tensile failure ductility. The tensile strength basically increases with increasing fibre content. As the fibre content increases from 0% to 0.2%, the tensile strength increases by 65.7%. The tensile strength of fibre reinforced soil increases with increasing dry density and decreases with decreasing water content. For instance, the tensile strength at a dry density of 1.7 Mg/m3 is 2.8 times higher than that at 1.4 Mg/m3. It decreases by 30% as the water content increases from 14.5% to 20.5%. Furthermore, it is observed that the tensile strength of fibre reinforced soil is dominated by fibre pull-out resistance, depending on the interfacial mechanical interaction between fibre surface and soil matrix.

  1. Effect of Fiber Reinforcement on the Response of Structural Members

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Gregor; Li, Victor

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a series of investigations on the effect of fiber reinforcement on the response of structural members in direct tension and flexure under reversed cyclic loading conditions. The design approach of the fiber reinforced cementitious composite is based on fracture mechanics...... and an ultimate tensile strain capacity on the order of several percent. Subsequently, the synergistic effects of composite deformation mechanisms in the ECC and structural members subjected to large shear reversals are identified. Beneficial effects observed in the reinforced ECC structural members as compared...... to conventional reinforced concrete include improved composite integrity, energy dissipation, ductility, and damage tolerance....

  2. Parallel role for the dopamine D1 receptor in gambling and amphetamine reinforcement in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zack, Martin H; Lobo, Daniela S; Biback, Candice; Fang, Tim; Smart, Kelly; Tatone, Daniel; Kalia, Aditi; Digiacomo, Daniel; Kennedy, James L

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the role of dopamine, and specifically the D1 receptor (D1R), in the reinforcing effects of a slot-machine game in healthy volunteers ( n=30). To compare gambling and drug effects, subjects received the prototypic psychostimulant drug d-amphetamine (AMPH; 20 mg) in a multi-session, placebo-controlled design. To isolate D1R, half the subjects were pretreated with the preferential D2 receptor antagonist haloperidol (HAL; 3 mg), and the other half with the mixed D1-D2 antagonist fluphenazine (FLU; 3 mg) before the game (Phase I) and AMPH (Phase II). HAL decreased and FLU increased the post-game desire to gamble and post-AMPH desire to take AMPH again, as well as amphetamine scale ratings on the Addiction Research Center Inventory after gambling and AMPH. The effects of the antagonists on desire to gamble and to take AMPH again were significantly intercorrelated. HAL increased and FLU decreased the salience of negative affective words on a rapid reading task after both reinforcers. HAL also decreased the salience of gambling words after AMPH. Both reinforcers increased diastolic blood pressure equally under antagonists and placebo. Results indicate that D1R plays a parallel role in the psychostimulant-like, incentive-motivational, and salience-enhancing effects of gambling and AMPH. Moderate D1R activation appears to optimize these effects in healthy subjects.

  3. The Effects of Signaling Stimulus Presentation during Noncontingent Reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouboth, Djimir; Wilder, David A.; Booher, John

    2007-01-01

    The effects of signaling the return of items or attention during treatment with noncontingent reinforcement were examined. First, functional analyses showed that the problem behavior exhibited by 2 teenagers with developmental disabilities was sensitive to social positive reinforcement. Next, delivery of the stimulus that maintained problem…

  4. effect of uncertainty on the fatigue reliability of reinforced concrete ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2016-07-03

    Jul 3, 2016 ... The deterioration of reinforced concrete bridge deck that has been damaged as a result of load action can affect the durability, safety and function of the structure. In this paper, a reliability time-variant fatigue analysis and uncertainty effect on the serviceability of reinforced concrete bridge deck was carried ...

  5. The Effects of Token Reinforcement on Delinquents' Classroom Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Michael M.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    The effects of a token reinforcement program on the classroom behavior of 19 delinquent boys in a correctional institution were investigated. Findings suggest that the use of global, composite measures may mask program effects on important component behaviors. (Author)

  6. Origins of altered reinforcement effects in ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripp Gail

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, characterized by hyperactivity, impulsiveness and deficient sustained attention, is one of the most common and persistent behavioral disorders of childhood. ADHD is associated with catecholamine dysfunction. The catecholamines are important for response selection and memory formation, and dopamine in particular is important for reinforcement of successful behavior. The convergence of dopaminergic mesolimbic and glutamatergic corticostriatal synapses upon individual neostriatal neurons provides a favorable substrate for a three-factor synaptic modification rule underlying acquisition of associations between stimuli in a particular context, responses, and reinforcers. The change in associative strength as a function of delay between key stimuli or responses, and reinforcement, is known as the delay of reinforcement gradient. The gradient is altered by vicissitudes of attention, intrusions of irrelevant events, lapses of memory, and fluctuations in dopamine function. Theoretical and experimental analyses of these moderating factors will help to determine just how reinforcement processes are altered in ADHD. Such analyses can only help to improve treatment strategies for ADHD.

  7. The role of family planning communications--an agent of reinforcement or change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, E C

    1981-12-01

    Results are presented of a multiple classification analysis of responses to a 1972 KAP survey in Taiwan of 2013 married women aged 18-34 designed to determine whether family planning communication is primarily a reinforcement agent or a change agent. 2 types of independent variables, social demographic variables including age, number of children, residence, education, employment status, and duration of marriage; and social climate variables including ever receiving family planning information from mass media and ever discussing family planning with others, were used. KAP levels, the dependent variables, were measured by 2 variables each: awareness of effective methods and awareness of government supply of contraceptives for knowledge, wish for additional children and approve of 2-child family for attitude, and never use contraception and neither want children nor use contraception for practice. Social demographic and attitudinal variables were found to be the critical ones, while social climate and knowledge variables had only negligible effects on various stages of family planning adoption, indicating that family planning communications functioned primarily as a reinforcement agent. The effects of social demographic variables were prominent in all stages of contraceptive adoption. Examination of effects of individual variables on various stages of family planning adoption still supported the argument that family planning communications played a reinforcement role. Family planning communications functioned well in diffusing family planning knowledge and accessibility, but social demographic variables and desire for additional children were the most decisive influences on use of contraception.

  8. Effective Classroom Demonstration of Soil Reinforcing Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, John Wharton; Fox, Dennis James

    1986-01-01

    Presents a model for demonstrating soil mass stabilization. Explains how this approach can assist students in understanding the various types of soil reinforcement techniques, their relative contribution to increased soil strength, and some of their limitations. A working drawing of the model and directives for construction are included. (ML)

  9. Treatment of Escape-Maintained Behavior with Positive Reinforcement: The Role of Reinforcement Contingency and Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingvarsson, Einar T.; Hanley, Gregory P.; Welter, Katherine M.

    2009-01-01

    Functional analyses suggested that the disruptive behavior of three preschool children was maintained by escape from demands. While keeping the escape contingency intact, we conducted (a) a density analysis in which the children earned preferred items for task completion according to two schedules that varied in reinforcement density, and (b) a…

  10. Early role of the κ opioid receptor in ethanol-induced reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos; Nizhnikov, Michael E; Acevedo, Ma Belén; Spear, Norman E

    2012-03-20

    Effects of early ethanol exposure on later ethanol intake emphasize the importance of understanding the neurobiology of ethanol-induced reinforcement early in life. Infant rats exhibit ethanol-induced appetitive conditioning and ethanol-induced locomotor activation, which have been linked in theory and may have mechanisms in common. The appetitive effects of ethanol are significantly modulated by μ and δ opioid receptors, whereas μ but not δ receptors are involved in the motor stimulant effects of ethanol during early development. The involvement of the κ opioid receptor (KOR) system in the motivational effects of ethanol has been much less explored. The present study assessed, in preweanling (infant) rats, the modulatory role of the KOR system in several paradigms sensitive to ethanol-induced reinforcement. Kappa opioid activation and blockade were examined in second-order conditioned place preference with varied timing before conditioning and with varied ethanol doses. The role of KOR on ethanol-induced locomotion and ethanol-induced taste conditioning was also explored. The experiments were based on the assumption that ethanol concurrently induces appetitive and aversive effects and that the latter may be mediated by activation of kappa receptors. The main result was that blockade of kappa function facilitated the expression of appetitive ethanol reinforcement in terms of tactile and taste conditioning. The effects of kappa activation on ethanol conditioning seemed to be independent from ethanol's stimulant effects. Kappa opioid activation potentiated the motor depressing effects of ethanol but enhanced motor activity in control subjects. Overall, the results support the hypothesis that a reduced function of the KOR system in nondependent subjects should attenuate the aversive consequences of ethanol. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Army Profession: How Effective Leadership Reinforces an Ethos of Trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    personality and hone my leadership skills . This formative period of my life was very important in continuing to build the fundamental...ARMY PROFESSION: HOW EFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP REINFORCES AN ETHOS OF TRUST A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army...JUN 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Army Profession: How Effective Leadership Reinforces an Ethos of Trust 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER

  12. The Role of Reinforcement Sensitivity in the Development of Childhood Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slobodskaya, Helena R.; Kuznetsova, Valeriya B.

    2013-01-01

    The study examined the contribution of reinforcement sensitivity to childhood personality at three levels of the hierarchical structure, mid-level traits, the Big Five and two higher-order factors, and the moderating role of sex and age in a sample of 3-18-year-olds. The canonical correlation analyses indicated that reinforcement sensitivity and…

  13. Nanomorphology of graphene and CNT reinforced polymer and its effect on damage: Micromechanical numerical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontefisso, Alessandro; Mishnaevsky, Leon

    2016-01-01

    of nanocomposites with inclusions of arbitrary and complex shapes. The effect of curved, zigzagged, snakelike shapes of real carbon nanotubes, as well as re-stacking of graphene on the damage evolution was studied in the computational experiments based on the developed code. The potential of hybrid (carbon...... nanotubes and graphene) nanoscale reinforcement was studied with view on its effect of damage resistance. It was demonstrated that idealized, cylinder like models of carbon nanotubes in polymers lead to an underestimation of the stress concentration and damage likelihood in the nanocomposites. The main...... damage mechanisms in CNT reinforced polymers are debonding and pull-out/fiber bridging, while in graphene reinforced polymers the main role is played by crack deviation and stack splitting, with following micro-crack merging. The potential of hybrid (carbon nanotubes and graphene) nanoscale reinforcement...

  14. Effects of reinforcement value on instruction following under schedules of negative reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessandri, Jérôme; Cançado, Carlos R X; Abreu-Rodrigues, Josele

    2017-12-01

    The effects of reinforcement value and social control on instruction following under a negative-reinforcement (escape) schedule were studied. Initially, responding produced timeouts from pressing a force cell under a low and a high force requirement on a fixed-ratio 1 schedule of reinforcement. Next, participants were reexposed to the low and high force requirements, but were instructed that the experimenter expected them to decrease the number of timeouts relative to the previous exposures to the procedure. Even though following the instruction led to a decrease in number of timeouts and to an increase in effort (i.e., was non-efficient), instruction following occurred consistently for each participant and was modulated by reinforcement value. That is, the decrease in the number of timeouts (i.e., instruction following) was lower under the high force requirement than under the low force requirement. These results replicate and extend previous findings that instructions interact with social and nonsocial contingencies in controlling human behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Two functional serotonin polymorphisms moderate the effect of food reinforcement on BMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Katelyn A.; Lin, Henry; Fletcher, Kelly D.; Sucheston, Lara; Singh, Prashant K.; Salis, Robbert; Erbe, Richard; Faith, Myles; Allison, David; Stice, Eric; Epstein, Leonard H.

    2014-01-01

    Food reinforcement, or the motivation to eat, has been associated with increased energy intake, greater body weight and prospective weight gain. Much of the previous research on the reinforcing value of food has focused on the role of dopamine, but it may be worthwhile to examine genetic polymorphisms in the serotonin and opioid systems as these neurotransmitters have been shown to be related to reinforcement processes and to influence energy intake. We examined the relationship among 44 candidate genetic polymorphisms in the dopamine, serotonin and opioid systems, and food reinforcement and body mass index (BMI) in a sample of 245 individuals. Polymorphisms in the Monoamine oxidase A (MAOA-LPR) and serotonin receptor 2A genes (rs6314) moderated the effect of food reinforcement on BMI, accounting for an additional 5-10% variance and revealed a potential role of the single nucleotide polymorphism, rs6314 in the serotonin 2A receptor as a differential susceptibility factor for obesity. Differential susceptibility describes a factor that can confer either risk or protection depending on a second variable, such that rs6314 is predictive of both high and low BMI based on the level of food reinforcement, while the diathesis stress or dual-gain model influences only one end of the outcome measure. The interaction with MAOA-LPR better fit the dual-risk or diathesis stress model, with the 3.5R/4R allele conferring protection for individuals low in food reinforcement. These results provide new insight into genes theoretically involved in obesity and support the hypothesis that genetics moderate the association between food reinforcement on BMI. PMID:23544600

  16. Two functional serotonin polymorphisms moderate the effect of food reinforcement on BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Katelyn A; Lin, Henry; Fletcher, Kelly D; Sucheston, Lara; Singh, Prashant K; Salis, Robbert J; Erbe, Richard W; Faith, Myles S; Allison, David B; Stice, Eric; Epstein, Leonard H

    2013-06-01

    Food reinforcement, or the motivation to eat, has been associated with increased energy intake, greater body weight, and prospective weight gain. Much of the previous research on the reinforcing value of food has focused on the role of dopamine, but it may be worthwhile to examine genetic polymorphisms in the serotonin and opioid systems as these neurotransmitters have been shown to be related to reinforcement processes and to influence energy intake. We examined the relationship among 44 candidate genetic polymorphisms in the dopamine, serotonin, and opioid systems, as well as food reinforcement and body mass index (BMI) in a sample of 245 individuals. Polymorphisms in the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA-LPR) and serotonin receptor 2A genes (rs6314) moderated the effect of food reinforcement on BMI, accounting for an additional 5-10% variance and revealed a potential role of the single nucleotide polymorphism, rs6314, in the serotonin 2A receptor as a differential susceptibility factor for obesity. Differential susceptibility describes a factor that can confer either risk or protection depending on a second variable, such that rs6314 is predictive of both high and low BMI based on the level of food reinforcement, while the diathesis stress or dual-gain model only influences one end of the outcome measure. The interaction with MAOA-LPR better fits the diathesis stress model, with the 3.5R/4R allele conferring protection for individuals low in food reinforcement. These results provide new insight into genes theoretically involved in obesity, and support the hypothesis that genetics moderate the association between food reinforcement and BMI. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Size Effects on the Bending Behaviour of Reinforced Concrete Beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Henriksen, M. S.; Christensen, F. A.

    1999-01-01

    Load-deformation curves for reinforced concrete beams subjected to bending show size effects due to tensile failure of the concrete at early stages in the failure process and due to compression failure of the concrete when the final failure takes place. In this paper these effects are modelled...

  18. Strain gradient plasticity effects in whisker-reinforced metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    2002-01-01

    A metal reinforced by fibers in the micron range is studied using the strain gradient plasticity theory of Fleck and Hutchinson (2001). Cell-model analyzes are used to study the influence of the material length parameters numerically. Different higher order boundary conditions are considered...... at the fiber-matrix interface. The results are presented as overall stress-strain curves for the whisker-reinforced metal, and also contour plots of effective plastic strain are shown. The strain gradient plasticity theory predicts a significant stiffening effect when compared to conventional models...

  19. Rupture Directivity Effect on Seismic Vulnerability of Reinforced Concrete Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazian, Shadi; Nouri, Gholamreza; Ghayamghamian, Mohamadreza

    2017-04-01

    Earthquake catastrophes menace humans` lives and assets. Although earthquakes are inevitable, damage is not. To remedy this situation, significant amount of research is conducted in order to assess the performance of existent man-made structures, particularly infrastructures such as bridges which play a vital role in post earthquake services. The results can be used for assessing retrofit prioritization for structures and as a basis for economic loss estimations. The research presented here determines the vulnerability of a common typical two-span reinforced concrete bridge by generating fragility curves. Near-fault ground motions are different from ordinary ground motions, often containing strong coherent dynamic long-period pulses and permanent ground displacements. Here special attention is given to this type of ground motions, and their effects on the seismic behavior of structure are compared with ordinary motions. The results show near-fault ground motions exacerbate the seismic vulnerability of a bridge by about 68% in comparison with near-field ground motions. In other words, near-source ground motions with forward directivity effect are more dangerous.

  20. a review of the effects of wastewater on reinforced concrete

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    This paper reviews the degradation mechanism of wastewater on reinforced concrete structures with a view to finding what needs to be done to salvage these structures. Potential disintegrating agents in wastewater generated in Nigeria were identified and common degradation effects were examined. Regeneration ...

  1. GLASS-FIBRE REINFORCED COMPOSITES: THE EFFECT OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The primary objective of this research work is to analyse the effect of fibre loading and orientation on the tensile and impact strength of the polymeric composite materials. Fibre reinforced composite materials have been reported to have attracted many applications in view of its low weight and superior strength when ...

  2. Effects of Music Notation Reinforcement on Aural Memory for Melodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonviri, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of music notation reinforcement on aural memory for melodies. Participants were 41 undergraduate and graduate music majors in a within-subjects design. Experimental trials tested melodic memory through a sequence of target melodies, distraction melodies, and matched and unmatched answer choices.…

  3. Reinforcement Delay Fading during Differential Reinforcement of Communication: The Effects of Signals on Response Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Michael E.; Lerman, Dorothea C.; Fisher, Wayne W.; Roane, Henry S.; Zangrillo, Amanda N.

    2011-01-01

    Signals during delays to reinforcement may lessen reductions in responding that typically occur when there is a delay between a response and its reinforcer. Sparse applied research has been devoted to understanding the conditions under which responding may be maintained when delays to reinforcement are introduced. We evaluated the extent to which…

  4. MODELING THE EFFECTS OF SENSORY REINFORCERS ON BEHAVIORAL PERSISTENCE WITH ALTERNATIVE REINFORCEMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Mary M.; Moore, Keira; Shahan, Timothy A.; Ahearn, William H.; Dube, William V.; Nevin, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Problem behavior often has sensory consequences that cannot be separated from the target response, even if external, social reinforcers are removed during treatment. Because sensory reinforcers that accompany socially mediated problem behavior may contribute to persistence and relapse, research must develop analog sensory reinforcers that can be experimentally manipulated. In this research, we devised analogs to sensory reinforcers in order to control for their presence and determine how sensory reinforcers may impact treatment efficacy. Experiments 1 and 2 compared the efficacy of differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) versus noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) with and without analog sensory reinforcers in a multiple schedule. Experiment 1 measured the persistence of key pecking in pigeons, whereas Experiment 2 measured the persistence of touchscreen responses in children with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Across both experiments, the presence of analog sensory reinforcers increased the levels, persistence, and variability of responding relative to when analog sensory reinforcers were absent. Also in both experiments, target responding was less persistent under conditions of DRA compared to NCR regardless of the presence or absence of analog sensory reinforcers. PMID:25130416

  5. Effectiveness of Fiber Reinforcement on the Mechanical Properties and Shrinkage Cracking of Recycled Fine Aggregate Concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Jeongsoo; Kim, Gyuyong; Yoo, Jaechul; Choe, Gyeongcheol; Kim, Hongseop; Choi, Hyeonggil; Kim, Youngduck

    2016-02-26

    This paper presents an experimental study conducted to investigate the effect of fiber reinforcement on the mechanical properties and shrinkage cracking of recycled fine aggregate concrete (RFAC) with two types of fiber-polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and nylon. A small fiber volume fraction, such as 0.05% or 0.1%, in RFAC with polyvinyl alcohol or nylon fibers was used for optimum efficiency in minimum quantity. Additionally, to make a comparative evaluation of the mechanical properties and shrinkage cracking, we examined natural fine aggregate concrete as well. The test results revealed that the addition of fibers and fine aggregates plays an important role in improving the mechanical performance of the investigated concrete specimens as well as controlling their cracking behavior. The mechanical properties such as compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, and flexural strength of fiber-reinforced RFAC were slightly better than those of non-fiber-reinforced RFAC. The shrinkage cracking behavior was examined using plat-ring-type and slab-type tests. The fiber-reinforced RFAC showed a greater reduction in the surface cracks than non-fiber-reinforced concrete. The addition of fibers at a small volume fraction in RFAC is more effective for drying shrinkage cracks than for improving mechanical performance.

  6. Effectiveness of Fiber Reinforcement on the Mechanical Properties and Shrinkage Cracking of Recycled Fine Aggregate Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Jeongsoo; Kim, Gyuyong; Yoo, Jaechul; Choe, Gyeongcheol; Kim, Hongseop; Choi, Hyeonggil; Kim, Youngduck

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental study conducted to investigate the effect of fiber reinforcement on the mechanical properties and shrinkage cracking of recycled fine aggregate concrete (RFAC) with two types of fiber—polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and nylon. A small fiber volume fraction, such as 0.05% or 0.1%, in RFAC with polyvinyl alcohol or nylon fibers was used for optimum efficiency in minimum quantity. Additionally, to make a comparative evaluation of the mechanical properties and shrinkage cracking, we examined natural fine aggregate concrete as well. The test results revealed that the addition of fibers and fine aggregates plays an important role in improving the mechanical performance of the investigated concrete specimens as well as controlling their cracking behavior. The mechanical properties such as compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, and flexural strength of fiber-reinforced RFAC were slightly better than those of non-fiber-reinforced RFAC. The shrinkage cracking behavior was examined using plat-ring-type and slab-type tests. The fiber-reinforced RFAC showed a greater reduction in the surface cracks than non-fiber-reinforced concrete. The addition of fibers at a small volume fraction in RFAC is more effective for drying shrinkage cracks than for improving mechanical performance. PMID:28773256

  7. The Central Reinforcing Properties of Ethanol Are Mediated by Endogenous Opioid Systems: Effects of Mu and Kappa Opioid Antagonists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman E. Spear

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous opioid systems are implicated in the reinforcing effects of ethanol and may play a substantial role in modulating the central reinforcing effects of ethanol early in ontogeny. This possibility was explored in the present study through the use of an olfactory conditioning paradigm with centrally administered ethanol serving as an unconditioned stimulus (US. In Experiment 1, newborn rat pups were treated with either a selective mu antagonist CTOP or kappa selective antagonist nor-BNI prior to olfactory conditioning. Experiment 2 tested the effectiveness of an alternative, shorter-duration kappa opioid antagonist GNTI in altering ethanol reinforcement. Experiment 3 investigated whether the effectiveness of pharmacological blockade of opioid receptors was due to the disruption of learning per se using an olfactory aversive conditioning paradigm with intraoral quinine serving as a US. Central administration of either mu or kappa opioid antagonists prior to conditioning disrupted the reinforcing effects of ethanol in newborn rats. The kappa opioid antagonist GNTI was as effective as nor-BNI. These effects of opioid antagonists on ethanol reinforcement are unlikely to be due to a disruption of all types of conditioning, since CTOP did not affect aversive reinforcement to intraoral infusions of quinine. The present results support the hypothesis that in newborn rats, the reinforcing properties of ethanol are mediated by the endogenous activity at mu and kappa opioid receptors.

  8. Effect of Steel Fibers on the Behavior of Over-Reinforced Beams Subjected to Pure Torsion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Warnitchai P; Rama Seshu D; Gunneswara Rao T.D

    2010-01-01

    .... Torsion tests on the 15 reinforced steel fiber reinforced concrete beams revealed that, fiber has noticeable effect on the cracking torque and very little effect on the ultimate torsional strength of the member...

  9. North Indian Weddings: Speech Events Reflecting and Reinforcing Women's Roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remlinger, Kathryn A.

    A study examined traditional Hindi songs typically sung by women during north Indian weddings, using pragmatic and semantic analysis. Some historical and cultural background for the practice of women's singing at weddings is offered. It is suggested that gender roles are defined and regulated through the language of this speech event, and that…

  10. REINFORCEMENT ENHANCING EFFECTS OF ACUTE NICOTINE VIA ELECTRONIC CIGARETTES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Kenneth A.; Karelitz, Joshua L.; Michael, Valerie C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent human studies confirm animal research showing that nicotine enhances reinforcement from rewards unrelated to nicotine. These effects of acute nicotine via tobacco smoking may also occur when consumed from non-tobacco products. Methods We assessed acute effects of nicotine via electronic cigarettes (“e-cigarettes”) on responding reinforced by music, video, or monetary rewards, or for no reward (control). In a fully within-subjects design, adult dependent smokers (N=28) participated in three similar experimental sessions, each following overnight abstinence (verified by CO≤10 ppm). Varying only in e-cigarette condition, sessions involved controlled exposure to a nicotine (labeled “36 mg/ml”) or placebo (“0”) e-cigarette, or no e-cigarette use. A fourth session involved smoking one’s own tobacco cigarette brand after no abstinence, specifically to compare responses under typical nicotine satiation with these acute e-cigarette conditions after abstinence. Results Reinforced responding for video reward, but not the other rewards, was greater due to use of the nicotine versus placebo e-cigarette (i.e., nicotine per se), while no differences were found between the placebo e-cigarette and no e-cigarette conditions (i.e., e-cigarette use per se). For nicotine via tobacco smoking, responding compared to the nicotine e-cigarette was similar for video but greater for music, while both video and music reward were enhanced relative to the non-nicotine conditions (placebo and no e-cigarette). Conclusions Acute nicotine from a non-tobacco product has some reinforcement enhancing effects in humans, in a manner partly consistent with nicotine via tobacco smoking and perhaps contributing to the rising popularity of nicotine e-cigarette use. PMID:26070455

  11. Reinforcement enhancing effects of acute nicotine via electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Kenneth A; Karelitz, Joshua L; Michael, Valerie C

    2015-08-01

    Recent human studies confirm animal research showing that nicotine enhances reinforcement from rewards unrelated to nicotine. These effects of acute nicotine via tobacco smoking may also occur when consumed from non-tobacco products. We assessed acute effects of nicotine via electronic cigarettes ("e-cigarettes") on responding reinforced by music, video, or monetary rewards, or for no reward (control). In a fully within-subjects design, adult dependent smokers (N=28) participated in three similar experimental sessions, each following overnight abstinence (verified by CO≤10ppm). Varying only in e-cigarette condition, sessions involved controlled exposure to a nicotine (labeled "36mg/ml") or placebo ("0″) e-cigarette, or no e-cigarette use. A fourth session involved smoking one's own tobacco cigarette brand after no abstinence, specifically to compare responses under typical nicotine satiation with these acute e-cigarette conditions after abstinence. Reinforced responding for video reward, but not the other rewards, was greater due to use of the nicotine versus placebo e-cigarette (i.e., nicotine per se), while no differences were found between the placebo e-cigarette and no e-cigarette conditions (i.e., e-cigarette use per se). For nicotine via tobacco smoking, responding compared to the nicotine e-cigarette was similar for video but greater for music, while both video and music reward were enhanced relative to the non-nicotine conditions (placebo and no e-cigarette). Acute nicotine from a non-tobacco product has some reinforcement enhancing effects in humans, in a manner partly consistent with nicotine via tobacco smoking and perhaps contributing to the rising popularity of nicotine e-cigarette use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of steel reinforcement with different degree of corrosion on degeneration of mechanical performance of reinforced concrete frame joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Xu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Beam-column joints which shoulders high-level and vertical shearing effect that maintains balance of beam and column end is the major component influencing the performance of the whole framework. Post earthquake investigation suggests that collapse of frame structure is induced by failure of joints in most cases. Thus, beam-column joints must have strong bearing capacity and good ductility, and reinforced concrete structure just meets the above requirement. But corrosion caused by long time use of reinforced concrete framework will lead to degeneration of mechanical performance of joints. To find out the rule of effect of steel reinforcement with different corrosion rate on degeneration of bearing capacity of reinforced concrete framework joints, this study made a nonlinear numerical analysis on fifteen models without stirrup in the core area of reinforced concrete frame joints using displacement method considering axial load ratio of column end and constraint condition. This work aims to find out the key factor that influences mechanical performance of joints, thus to provide a basis for repair and reinforcement of degenerated framework joints.

  13. Homogenization of long fiber reinforced composites including fiber bending effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulios, Konstantinos; Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a homogenization method, which accounts for intrinsic size effects related to the fiber diameter in long fiber reinforced composite materials with two independent constitutive models for the matrix and fiber materials. A new choice of internal kinematic variables allows...... to maintain the kinematics of the two material phases independent from the assumed constitutive models, so that stress-deformation relationships, can be expressed in the framework of hyper-elasticity and hyper-elastoplasticity for the fiber and the matrix materials respectively. The bending stiffness...... of the reinforcing fibers is captured by higher order strain terms, resulting in an accurate representation of the micro-mechanical behavior of the composite. Numerical examples show that the accuracy of the proposed model is very close to a non-homogenized finite-element model with an explicit discretization...

  14. Effect of the loading rate on fibre reinforced concrete beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhász, K. P.; Schaul, P.; Nagy, L.

    2017-09-01

    Fibre reinforced concrete has become a widely used material since the end of the 20th century. The uniformly distributed steel or macro synthetic fibres in the concrete structures can give the concrete a residual flexural strength after the first cracks. The different behaviour of materials subjected to different loading rates is a well-known phenomenon, both with steel, synthetic and concrete materials. Standards usually present a recommendation for the loading speed in for different tests. Concrete elements show higher performance due to the high speed of loading or impact loads, their fracture energy and therefore their overall capacity appears greater than the specimens loaded at standard speeds. Fibre reinforced concrete structures are widely used in tramlines and railways, where the speed of the loading is high and therefore of impact by nature. It is important to know what the effect of this high speed loading is for fibre reinforced concrete structures: do these structures have additional capacity, or has the designer overestimated their performance? This article will present an investigation into the effect of the loading rate on case of using fibres with different materials in concrete beams.

  15. Effects of orientation and differential reinforcement on transitive stimulus control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amd, Micah; de Almeida, João H; de Rose, Júlio C; Silveira, Carolina C; Pompermaier, Henrique M

    2017-11-01

    The emergence of transitive relations between stimuli that had never appeared together is a key process underlying concept formation. An unresolved theoretical issue with respect to transitive relations has been to determine whether differential reinforcement of stimulus-stimulus (S-S) relations though matching-to-sample, or contiguous S-S correlations/pairings, is more critical for producing transitivity. The current study inquired whether simple environmental S-S pairings, versus differential reinforcement of S-S relations, versus environmental S-S pairings with an orientation requirement, produced the greatest instances of transitivity. 12 groups of participants were parsed into one of four procedures (matching-to-sample, stimulus-paring, stimulus-pairing-w/response, stimulus-pairing-w/orientation) along one of three training structures (linear, many-to-one, one-to-many). All participants underwent a fixed number of training trials for establishing three, three-member stimulus sets (A1B1C1, A2B2C2, A3B3C3), followed by a single sorting test for AC transitivity. Our results demonstrate orienting towards environmental S-S pairings yield the greatest degree of transitivity. The effectivity of pairing procedures for establishing transitive relations, particularly when compared to matching-to-sample, can inform the development of educational interventions for individuals for whom the latter procedure (involving differential reinforcement) is ineffective. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of hybrid fiber reinforcement on the cracking process in fiber reinforced cementitious composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira, Eduardo B.; Fischer, Gregor; Barros, Joaquim A.O.

    2012-01-01

    The simultaneous use of different types of fibers as reinforcement in cementitious matrix composites is typically motivated by the underlying principle of a multi-scale nature of the cracking processes in fiber reinforced cementitious composites. It has been hypothesized that while undergoing...... tensile deformations in the composite, the fibers with different geometrical and mechanical properties restrain the propagation and further development of cracking at different scales from the micro- to the macro-scale. The optimized design of the fiber reinforcing systems requires the objective...... materials is carried out by assessing directly their tensile stress-crack opening behavior. The efficiency of hybrid fiber reinforcements and the multi-scale nature of cracking processes are discussed based on the experimental results obtained, as well as the micro-mechanisms underlying the contribution...

  17. The Effects of Constant versus Varied Reinforcers on Preference and Resistance to Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milo, Jessie-Sue; Mace, F. Charles; Nevin, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that factors such as reinforcer frequency, amount, and delay have similar effects on resistance to change and preference. In the present study, 4 boys with autism made choices between a constant reinforcer (one that was the same food item every trial) and a varied food reinforcer (one that varied randomly between…

  18. The effects of prior positive reinforcement contingency on shuttle-box avoidance learning in rats.

    OpenAIRE

    坂田, 省吾; 杉本, 助男

    1991-01-01

    Four groups of rats were exposed to response-reinforcement contingent, yoked reinforcement, or yoked stimulus reinforcement schedules in a Skinner box or to no experimental pretreatment. All groups were subsequently tested for transfer of the learned helplessness effect on a shuttle-box active avoidance task. The yoked stimulus reinforcement group showed some retardation of avoidance learning in comparison with the other three groups. Subjects were previously implanted electrodes into their b...

  19. Behavioral momentum theory fails to account for the effects of reinforcement rate on resurgence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Andrew R; Shahan, Timothy A

    2016-05-01

    The behavioral-momentum model of resurgence predicts reinforcer rates within a resurgence preparation should have three effects on target behavior. First, higher reinforcer rates in baseline (Phase 1) produce more persistent target behavior during extinction plus alternative reinforcement. Second, higher rate alternative reinforcement during Phase 2 generates greater disruption of target responding during extinction. Finally, higher rates of either reinforcement source should produce greater responding when alternative reinforcement is suspended in Phase 3. Recent empirical reports have produced mixed results in terms of these predictions. Thus, the present experiment further examined reinforcer-rate effects on persistence and resurgence. Rats pressed target levers for high-rate or low-rate variable-interval food during Phase 1. In Phase 2, target-lever pressing was extinguished, an alternative nose-poke became available, and nose-poking produced either high-rate variable-interval, low-rate variable-interval, or no (an extinction control) alternative reinforcement. Alternative reinforcement was suspended in Phase 3. For groups that received no alternative reinforcement, target-lever pressing was less persistent following high-rate than low-rate Phase-1 reinforcement. Target behavior was more persistent with low-rate alternative reinforcement than with high-rate alternative reinforcement or extinction alone. Finally, no differences in Phase-3 responding were observed for groups that received either high-rate or low-rate alternative reinforcement, and resurgence occurred only following high-rate alternative reinforcement. These findings are inconsistent with the momentum-based model of resurgence. We conclude this model mischaracterizes the effects of reinforcer rates on persistence and resurgence of operant behavior. © 2016 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  20. Debonding failure and size effects in micro reinforced composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Brian Nyvang; Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    2010-01-01

    Failure in micro-reinforced composites is investigated numerically using the strain-gradient plasticity theory of Gudmundson [Gudmundson, P., 2004. A unified treatment of strain gradient plasticity. Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids 52 (6) 1379–1406] in a plane strain visco-plastic...... a smaller void having a sharp tip nucleates if strain-gradient effects are excluded. Using orthogonalization of the plastic strain gradient with three corresponding material length scales it is found that, the first length scale dominates the evaluated overall average stress–strain response, the second one...

  1. Effects of Video Games as Reinforcers for Computerized Addition Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelrod, Saul; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Four 2nd-grade students completed addition problems on a computer, using video games as reinforcers. Two variable ratio schedules of reinforcement failed to increase student accuracy or the rate of correct responses. In a no-games reinforcement condition, students had more opportunities to respond and had a greater number of correct answers.…

  2. Effects of Material And Non-Material Reinforcers On Academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some of these findings were made; that the mean scores of students materially reinforced and students that were non-materially reinforced differ significantly, meaning that the former had higher achievement score more than the later and the mean scores of students taught using material reinforcement differ significantly ...

  3. The role of multiple neuromodulators in reinforcement learning that is based on competition between eligibility traces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A Huertas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability to maximize reward and avoid punishment is essential for animal survival. Reinforcement learning (RL refers to the algorithms used by biological or artificial systems to learn how to maximize reward or avoid negative outcomes based on past experiences. While RL is also important in machine learning, the types of mechanistic constraints encountered by biological machinery might be different than those for artificial systems. Two major problems encountered by RL are how to relate a stimulus with a reinforcing signal that is delayed in time (temporal credit assignment, and how to stop learning once the target behaviors are attained (stopping rule. To address the first problem, synaptic eligibility traces were introduced, bridging the temporal gap between a stimulus and its reward. Although these were mere theoretical constructs, recent experiements have provided evidence of their existence. These experiments also reveal that the presence of specific neuromodulators converts the traces into changes in synaptic efficacy. A mechanistic implementation of the stopping rule usually assumes the inhibition of the reward nucleus; however, recent experimental results have shown that learning terminates at the appropriate network state even in setups where the reward cannot be inhibited. In an effort to describe a learning rule that solves the temporal credit assignment problem and implements a biologically plausible stopping rule, we proposed a model based on two separate synaptic eligibility traces, one for long-term potentiation (LTP and one for long-term depression (LTD, each obeying different dynamics and having different effective magnitudes. The model has been shown to successfully generate stable learning in recurrent networks. Although the model assumes the presence of a single neuromodulator, evidence indicates that there are different neuromodulators for expressing the different traces. What could be the role of different

  4. The Effect of Externally Retrofitted Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites on the Ductility of Reinforced Concrete Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-05-04

    conducted in accordance with the specifications on steel tensile tests in ASTM A370 11.4.1 and 11.4.3. 5.4 Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics The laminates...provided by manufacturer Tensile tests on samples of both the S512 and the S812 in accordance with ASTM D3039 . The S512 test coupon was 20 in (500mm...A TRIDENT SCHOLAR PROJECT REPORT NO. 268 The Effect of Externally Retrofitted Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites on the Ductility of

  5. Does pimozide block the reinforcing effect of brain stimulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallistel, C R; Boytim, M; Gomita, Y; Klebanoff, L

    1982-10-01

    The neuroleptic pimozide produces an extinction-like decline in the runway and Skinner box performance of rats rewarded with electrical stimulation of the medial forebrain bundle (MFB) in the lateral and posterior hypothalamus. The required dose is an order of magnitude less than the dose that incapacitates. The extinction-like decline is seen even when the drug treated rats run and receive brain stimulation in a running wheel prior to runway testing. The decline is also task-specific: after extinguishing in the Skinner box, rats readily perform in the runway, but soon show extinction in this task, too. The characteristics of pimozide's effects on rewarded behavior imply that the drug, whatever other effects it may have, does block the reinforcing effect of the brain stimulation reward.

  6. Attenuation of cocaine's reinforcing and discriminative stimulus effects via muscarinic M1 acetylcholine receptor stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Morgane; Conn, P Jeffrey; Lindsley, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Muscarinic cholinergic receptors modulate dopaminergic function in brain pathways thought to mediate cocaine's abuse-related effects. Here, we sought to confirm and extend in the mouse species findings that nonselective muscarinic receptor antagonists can enhance cocaine's discriminative stimulus....... More importantly, we tested the hypothesis that muscarinic receptor agonists with varied receptor subtype selectivity can blunt cocaine's discriminative stimulus and reinforcing effects; we hypothesized a critical role for the M(1) and/or M(4) receptor subtypes in this modulation. Mice were trained...

  7. Role of the dorsal medial habenula in the regulation of voluntary activity, motor function, hedonic state, and primary reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yun-Wei A; Wang, Si D; Wang, Shirong; Morton, Glenn; Zariwala, Hatim A; de la Iglesia, Horacio O; Turner, Eric E

    2014-08-20

    The habenular complex in the epithalamus consists of distinct regions with diverse neuronal populations. Past studies have suggested a role for the habenula in voluntary exercise motivation and reinforcement of intracranial self-stimulation but have not assigned these effects to specific habenula subnuclei. Here, we have developed a genetic model in which neurons of the dorsal medial habenula (dMHb) are developmentally eliminated, via tissue-specific deletion of the transcription factor Pou4f1 (Brn3a). Mice with dMHb lesions perform poorly in motivation-based locomotor behaviors, such as voluntary wheel running and the accelerating rotarod, but show only minor abnormalities in gait and balance and exhibit normal levels of basal locomotion. These mice also show deficits in sucrose preference, but not in the forced swim test, two measures of depression-related phenotypes in rodents. We have also used Cre recombinase-mediated expression of channelrhodopsin-2 and halorhodopsin to activate dMHb neurons or silence their output in freely moving mice, respectively. Optical activation of the dMHb in vivo supports intracranial self-stimulation, showing that dMHb activity is intrinsically reinforcing, whereas optical silencing of dMHb outputs is aversive. Together, our findings demonstrate that the dMHb is involved in exercise motivation and the regulation of hedonic state, and is part of an intrinsic reinforcement circuit. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3411366-19$15.00/0.

  8. Role of cannabinoid CB2 receptor in the reinforcing actions of ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Álvaro, Antonio; Ternianov, Alexander; Aracil-Fernández, Auxiliadora; Navarrete, Francisco; García-Gutiérrez, Maria Salud; Manzanares, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the role of the cannabinoid CB2 receptor (CB2 r) on the vulnerability to ethanol consumption. The time-related and dose-response effects of ethanol on rectal temperature, handling-induced convulsions (HIC) and blood ethanol concentrations were evaluated in CB2 KO and wild-type (WT) mice. The reinforcing properties of ethanol were evaluated in conditioned place preference (CPP), preference and voluntary ethanol consumption and oral ethanol self-administration. Water-maintained behavior schedule was performed to evaluate the degree of motivation induced by a natural stimulus. Preference for non-alcohol tastants assay was performed to evaluate the differences in taste sensitivity. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and μ-opioid receptor gene expressions were also measured in the ventral tegmental area and nucleus accumbens (NAcc), respectively. CB2 KO mice presented increased HIC score, ethanol-CPP, voluntary ethanol consumption and preference, acquisition of ethanol self-administration, and increased motivation to drink ethanol compared with WT mice. No differences were found between genotypes in the water-maintained behavior schedule or preference for non-alcohol tastants. Naïve CB2 KO mice presented increased μ-opioid receptor gene expression in NAcc. Acute ethanol administration (1-2 g/kg) increased TH and μ-opioid receptor gene expressions in CB2 KO mice, whereas the lower dose of ethanol decreased TH gene expression in WT mice. These results suggest that deletion of the CB2 r gene increased preference for and vulnerability to ethanol consumption, at least in part, by increased ethanol-induced sensitivity of the TH and μ-opioid receptor gene expressions in mesolimbic neurons. Future studies will determine the role of CB2 r as a target for the treatment of problems related with alcohol consumption. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  9. The effects of steel fibre reinforced concrete on system ductility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilmaz, U. S.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Steel fibre-reinforced concrete is being used extensively today in both field applications and experimental studies on concrete strength and ductility. The state of passive confinement generated by the fibre delays cracking and enhances ductility. The present paper reports on both experimental and analytical studies. In the former, a series of 16 steel-fibre reinforced concrete prismatic specimens were subjected to axial loads and the respective axial load-unit strain diagrams were subsequently plotted to determine the effect of steel fibres on reinforced concrete column ductility. Secondly, an analytical study was run to determine the additional ductility accruing to a frame system when steel fibres are included in the concrete. Analytical models were generated for 16 two-storey, single-span reinforced concrete frames. The columns in these frames were designed to the same characteristics as the specimens used in the experimental tests. Non-linear static (pushover analyses were performed for each frame to obtain load-displacement curves and determine the effect of steel fibres on reinforced concrete column ductility.El hormigón reforzado con fibra de acero se emplea actualmente tanto en obra como en los trabajos experimentales para estudiar la resistencia mecánica y ductilidad del hormigón. El estado de confinamiento pasivo producido por la fibra retrasa la fisuración y aumenta la ductilidad. El presente trabajo es de índole tanto experimental como analítica. En primer lugar, en la parte experimental se aplica una fuerza axial a 16 probetas prismáticas (160 x 160 x 840 mm de hormigón reforzado con fibra de acero para determinar su comportamiento, obteniéndose las curvas de fuerza axial-deformación unitaria correspondientes a partir de los resultados observados. A partir de una evaluación de dichos resultados experimentales, se determina el efecto que ejercen las fibras de acero sobre la ductilidad de las probetas de hormigón armado

  10. Effectiveness of Fiber Reinforcement on the Mechanical Properties and Shrinkage Cracking of Recycled Fine Aggregate Concrete

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jeongsoo Nam; Gyuyong Kim; Jaechul Yoo; Gyeongcheol Choe; Hongseop Kim; Hyeonggil Choi; Youngduck Kim

    2016-01-01

      This paper presents an experimental study conducted to investigate the effect of fiber reinforcement on the mechanical properties and shrinkage cracking of recycled fine aggregate concrete (RFAC...

  11. Effect Of Age And Concrete Cover Thickness On Steel Reinforcement Corrosion At Splash Zone In Reinforced Concrete Hydraulic Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada M. Al- Galawi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion of reinforcing steel bars in reinforced concrete is considered as one of the biggest problems that face countries overlooking to the Arabian Gulf including Iraq. The research aims to study the effect of the corrosion of steel bars in concrete structures that are exposed to wetting and drying via waves. Reinforced concrete samples were exposed to marine simulated environment for 90 days using prepared system for this purpose. At the end of exposure period polarization test was implemented to measure the actual corrosion rate in each sample. After that the corrosion process was accelerated using impressed current technique by applying a constant electric current DC to the reinforcing bars. Depending on the corrosion current in natural conditions which was measured in polarization test periods of exposing samples to accelerated corrosion current so as to maintain virtual exposure ages of 5 and 25 years of exposure to natural corrosion were calculated. The results showed a remarkable increase in the corrosion current of steel bars in samples that had lower concrete cover thickness. The increase in the cover thickness from 20mm to 40 and 65 mm had a significant effect on reducing the corrosion current at the age of 90 days to about 70 of its original value in both cases. At the virtual exposure age of 5 years the reduction percentage in the corrosion current resulted from increasing cover thickness from 20mm to 40 and 65 mm were 43 and 79 respectively.

  12. The Effects of Added Reinforcers on Resistance to Change

    OpenAIRE

    Podlesnik, Christopher A.

    2005-01-01

    The fundamental unit of behavior, defined by the discriminated operant, can be reduced to the three-term contingency, which includes an antecedent stimulus, a response, and a reinforcing consequence. Behavioral momentum theory suggests that resistance to disruption (i.e., resistance to change) of operant behavior is governed by the relation between the antecedent stimulus context and the rate of reinforcement within that context (i.e., Pavlovian stimulus-reinforcer relation). Further, behavio...

  13. Effects of high, low, and thinning rates of alternative reinforcement on response elimination and resurgence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Mary M; Shahan, Timothy A

    2013-07-01

    A common treatment for operant problem behavior is alternative reinforcement. When alternative reinforcement is removed or reduced, however, resurgence of the target behavior can occur. Shahan and Sweeney (2011) developed a quantitative model of resurgence based on behavioral momentum theory that suggests higher rates of alternative reinforcement result in faster response elimination and greater resurgence when removed, whereas lower rates of alternative reinforcement result in slower response elimination but are followed by less resurgence. Thus, the present study was designed to examine whether faster target response elimination and less resurgence could be achieved by beginning with a high rate of alternative reinforcement and gradually thinning it such that a low rate is ultimately removed during a simulated treatment lapse. Results showed that high rates of alternative reinforcement were more effective than low or thinning rates at target response suppression but resulted in resurgence when discontinued. Low and thinning rates, on the other hand, were less effective at response suppression but target responding did not increase when alternative reinforcement was discontinued. The quantitative model cannot currently account for the finding that lower-rate alternative reinforcement may not effectively disrupt behavior relative to an extinction only control. Relative advantages of high, low, thinning, or no alternative reinforcement are discussed with respect to suppression of target response rate during treatment, resurgence when alternative reinforcement is removed, and alternative response persistence, while taking into account differences between this animal model and modern applied behavior analytic treatments. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  14. Effect of Moisture Absorption Behavior on Mechanical Properties of Basalt Fibre Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composites

    OpenAIRE

    Amuthakkannan Pandian; Manikandan Vairavan; Winowlin Jappes Jebbas Thangaiah; Marimuthu Uthayakumar

    2014-01-01

    The study of mechanical properties of fibre reinforced polymeric materials under different environmental conditions is much important. This is because materials with superior ageing resistance can be satisfactorily durable. Moisture effects in fibre reinforced plastic composites have been widely studied. Basalt fibre reinforced unsaturated polyester resin composites were subjected to water immersion tests using both sea and normal water in order to study the effects of water absorption behavi...

  15. Evaluating the Separate and Combined Effects of Positive and Negative Reinforcement on Task Compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouxsein, Kelly J.; Roane, Henry S.; Harper, Tara

    2011-01-01

    Positive and negative reinforcement are effective for treating escape-maintained destructive behavior. The current study evaluated the separate and combined effects of these contingencies to increase task compliance. Results showed that a combination of positive and negative reinforcement was most effective for increasing compliance. (Contains 1…

  16. Algorithms for Reinforcement Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Szepesvari, Csaba

    2010-01-01

    Reinforcement learning is a learning paradigm concerned with learning to control a system so as to maximize a numerical performance measure that expresses a long-term objective. What distinguishes reinforcement learning from supervised learning is that only partial feedback is given to the learner about the learner's predictions. Further, the predictions may have long term effects through influencing the future state of the controlled system. Thus, time plays a special role. The goal in reinforcement learning is to develop efficient learning algorithms, as well as to understand the algorithms'

  17. GLASS-FIBRE REINFORCED COMPOSITES: THE EFFECT OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    tensile strength when compared with the neat resin and other oriented (G10E30) fibre reinforced composite. Similar observations were also noticed on the impact strength of these composites which signify the improved mechanical properties of oriented reinforced composite materials. Keywords: glass fibre, orientation, fibre ...

  18. Reinforcement effect of biomass carbon and protein in elastic biocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biomass carbon and soy protein were used to reinforce natural rubber biocomposites. The particle size of biomass carbon were reduced and characterized with elemental analysis, x-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, and particle size analysis. The rubber composite reinforced with the biomass carbo...

  19. Effect of increasingly metallized hybrid reinforcement on the wear ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Strength and ductility of pure magnesium have experienced simultaneous improvement due to the pres- ence of nanosize hybrid (yttria and copper) reinforcement. Increasing the vol% (i.e., 0.3–1.0) of ductile metallic copper particles in reinforcement has further enhanced the strength of magnesium. Wear behaviour ...

  20. Effect of reinforcement volume fraction on the density & elastic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was found the elastic moduli of high volume fraction composites are improved with the introduction of certain materials reinforcement such as Mo, Pt, Cr, Fe, U, etc. However, they decrease with some other materials reinforcements, as in the case of glass E and Cd. Moreover, we showed that the densities and elastic ...

  1. Lack of reinforcement enhancing effects of nicotine in non-dependent smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Kenneth A; Grottenthaler, Amy; Wilson, Annette S

    2009-09-01

    Recent animal research has shown that, aside from its primary and secondary reinforcing effects, nicotine may enhance reinforcement from stimuli unrelated to nicotine intake. Little human research has directly examined this potentially important influence of nicotine. We report two virtually identical studies examining the influence of nicotine, via nasal spray (study 1) and cigarettes (study 2), on the reinforcing effects of rewards unrelated to nicotine intake. Both studies involved young adults with some past smoking exposure but no history of nicotine dependence. Reinforcement was assessed by responses on a simple operant computer task reinforced by: money, music, the termination of aversive noise, or no reward (control). Participants responded for rewards on three separate sessions, involving intermittent dosing of 0, 5, or 10 microg/kg nicotine via nasal spray (study 1) or the smoking of 0.05 or 0.6 mg nicotine cigarettes or no smoking (study 2). Results showed no effects of nicotine, by nasal spray or cigarette smoking, on reinforced responses, although nicotine increased some subjective responses (e.g. head rush/buzzed, liking). Nicotine via smoking also did not influence affect or hedonic ratings of slides varying in mood valence in an exploratory trial in study 2. These results do not support the notion that nicotine per se enhances the reinforcing value of other reinforcers in humans. Any reinforcement enhancing effects of nicotine in humans may be specific to dependent smokers or may be relatively narrow and dependent upon procedural conditions different from those in the current studies.

  2. A model of toughening effects in whisker-reinforced composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoagland, R.G. (Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Materials Engineering); Henager, C.H. Jr. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))

    1991-01-01

    A numerical approach is presented that lends itself to modeling the screening or antiscreening effects due solely to modulus differences of a discrete array of whiskers in an elastic matrix. The method is applied to single whiskers, and to examining the issue of whisker orientation of the toughness of ceramic composites. The model results indicate that crack-tip shielding due to modulus defect interactions occurs when the reinforcement has a higher modulus than the matrix material, and that anti-shielding occurs for the opposite case. Results for a single whisker located at the crack-tip (maximum effect) indicate that the crack-tip stress intensity is reduced by about 10% when a modulus ratio of four is assumed. Calculations performed with whisker arrays demonstrate pronounced effects of whisker orientation on the crack-tip screening, being larger for whiskers oriented perpendicular to the crack plane, as expected. Ordered whisker arrays produce larger and more uniform screening than do random whisker arrays. 16 refs., 10 figs.

  3. Modelling Blast Effects on a Reinforced Concrete Bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markellos Andreou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The detailed investigation of blast phenomena and their catastrophic effects on existing structures are the main objectives of the present paper. It is well known that blast phenomena may be characterized by significant complexity, often involving complicated wave propagation effects as well as distinguishable material behaviors. Considering the above and in an attempt to provide a simplified modelling approach for the simulation of blast effects, a novel procedure is presented herein based on well-established methodologies and common engineering practices. In the above framework, firstly, the “predominant” deformation shape of the structure is estimated based on elastic finite element simulations under blast loads and then the structural response of the system is evaluated as a result of common computational beam-element tools such as displacement-based pushover analysis. The proposed methodology provides an immediate first estimation of the structural behavior under blast loads, based on familiar engineering procedures. A two-span reinforced concrete bridge was thoroughly investigated and the results provide insightful information regarding the damage patterns and localization.

  4. Effects of Reinforcement Geometry on Strength and Stiffness in Adhesively Bonded Steel-Timber Flexural Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave Smedley

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A finite element model is developed to analyse, as a function of volume fraction, the effects of reinforcement geometry and arrangement within a timber beam. The model is directly validated against experimental equivalents and found to never be mismatched by more than 8% in respect to yield strength predictions. Yield strength increases linearly as a function of increasing reinforcement volume fraction, while the flexural modulus follows more closely a power law regression fit. Reinforcement geometry and location of reinforcement are found to impact both the flexural properties of timber-steel composite beams and the changes due to an increase in volume fraction.

  5. Are positive and negative reinforcement "different"? Insights from a free-operant differential outcomes effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magoon, Michael A; Critchfield, Thomas S; Merrill, Dustin; Newland, M Christopher; Schneider, W Joel

    2017-01-01

    Although theoretical discussions typically assume that positive and negative reinforcement differ, the literature contains little unambiguous evidence that they produce differential behavioral effects. To test whether the two types of consequences control behavior differently, we pitted money-gain positive reinforcement and money-loss-avoidance negative reinforcement, scheduled through identically programmed variable-cycle schedules, against each other in concurrent schedules. Contingencies of response-produced feedback, normally different in positive and negative reinforcement, were made symmetrical. Steeper matching slopes were produced compared to a baseline consisting of all positive reinforcement. This free-operant differential outcomes effect supports the notion that that stimulus-presentation positive reinforcement and stimulus-elimination negative reinforcement are functionally "different." However, a control experiment showed that the feedback asymmetry of more traditional positive and negative reinforcement schedules also is sufficient to create a "difference" when the type of consequence is held constant. We offer these findings as a small step in meeting the very large challenge of moving negative reinforcement theory beyond decades of relative quiescence. © 2017 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  6. GLASS-FIBRE REINFORCED COMPOSITES: THE EFFECT OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    materials in many engineering application have enhanced the corrosion resistance and improved strength of ... glass fibre in various engineering practises, only restricted information is available on the application of ..... fiber reinforced polymer composites for automobile accessories," American Journal of Environmental.

  7. Effects of Fiber Reinforcement on Clay Aerogel Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine A. Finlay

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Novel, low density structures which combine biologically-based fibers with clay aerogels are produced in an environmentally benign manner using water as solvent, and no additional processing chemicals. Three different reinforcing fibers, silk, soy silk, and hemp, are evaluated in combination with poly(vinyl alcohol matrix polymer combined with montmorillonite clay. The mechanical properties of the aerogels are demonstrated to increase with reinforcing fiber length, in each case limited by a critical fiber length, beyond which mechanical properties decline due to maldistribution of filler, and disruption of the aerogel structure. Rather than the classical model for reinforced composite properties, the chemical compatibility of reinforcing fibers with the polymer/clay matrix dominated mechanical performance, along with the tendencies of the fibers to kink under compression.

  8. Effects of Fiber Reinforcement on Clay Aerogel Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlay, Katherine A.; Gawryla, Matthew D.; Schiraldi, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Novel, low density structures which combine biologically-based fibers with clay aerogels are produced in an environmentally benign manner using water as solvent, and no additional processing chemicals. Three different reinforcing fibers, silk, soy silk, and hemp, are evaluated in combination with poly(vinyl alcohol) matrix polymer combined with montmorillonite clay. The mechanical properties of the aerogels are demonstrated to increase with reinforcing fiber length, in each case limited by a critical fiber length, beyond which mechanical properties decline due to maldistribution of filler, and disruption of the aerogel structure. Rather than the classical model for reinforced composite properties, the chemical compatibility of reinforcing fibers with the polymer/clay matrix dominated mechanical performance, along with the tendencies of the fibers to kink under compression. PMID:28793515

  9. Effect of reinforcement volume fraction on the density & elastic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    unidirectional Zr41.2Ti13.8Cu12.5Ni10Be22.5, Vit.1, Bulk metallic glass matrix composites, reinforced with glass E,. Fe, Mo, Ni, Cr, Mn, Nb, Cd, Pt, U, Cu or Zr fibers, has been investigated. It was found the elastic moduli of high volume fraction composites are improved with the introduction of certain materials reinforcement ...

  10. The effect of varied reinforcement on acquisition and extinction speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polín, Eduardo; Pérez, Vicente

    2017-02-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare both the acquisition speed and the resistance to extinction of a simple discrimination in pigeons, depending on whether the reinforcing consequence included different conditioned reinforcer stimuli or always the same. The study was conducted with four experimentally naive female pigeons, which were trained to respond to a “go-no go” procedure in four Skinner boxes with coupled touchscreens. The subjects were divided into two conditions with two subjects each. In the Experimental condition, the reinforcement of correct trials was performed by the presentation of one of four previously trained conditioned reinforcers followed by food, while in the Control condition the conditioned reinforcer stimulus was always the same. After acquiring the discrimination, all the subjects were exposed to the extinction phase. The subjects of the Experimental condition needed about half of the sessions that the subjects of the Control condition needed to acquire the discrimination. In addition, subjects of the Experimental condition continued responding for more sessions than Control subjects in the extinction phase, although there were no differences in the resistance to extinction. Acquisition speed is greater when a variety of conditioned reinforcers is applied.

  11. Context-Outcome Associations Underlie Context-Switch Effects after Partial Reinforcement in Human Predictive Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Fernandez, Maria M.; Abad, Maria J. F.; Ramos-Alvarez, Manuel M.; Rosas, Juan M.

    2011-01-01

    Predictive value for continuously reinforced cues is affected by context changes when they are trained within a context in which a different cue undergoes partial reinforcement. An experiment was conducted with the goal of exploring the mechanisms underlying this context-switch effect. Human participants were trained in a predictive learning…

  12. The Effect of Three Reinforcement Systems on Spelling Achievement Among Disadvantaged and Non-Disadvantaged Pupils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, Custer R., Jr.

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relative effectiveness of three different types of reinforcement strategies on spelling achievement among a sample of disadvantaged and non-disadvantaged fourth grade public school pupils. The three reinforcement strategies employed involved a concrete reward (candy), a token or symbolic reward…

  13. The Effects of Reinforcement Magnitude on Skill Acquisition for Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paden, Amber R.; Kodak, Tiffany

    2015-01-01

    We examined the effects of reinforcement magnitude on skill acquisition during discrete-trial training. After conducting a magnitude preference assessment, we compared acquisition during conditions with large and small magnitudes of edible reinforcement to a praise-only condition. Although all participants showed a preference for the…

  14. Corrosion and protection in reinforced concrete : Pulse cathodic protection: an improved cost-effective alternative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koleva, D.A.

    2007-01-01

    Corrosion and protection in reinforced concrete. Pulse cathodic protection: an improved cost-effective alternative. The aim of the research project was to study the possibilities for establishing a new or improved electrochemical method for corrosion prevention/protection for reinforced concrete.

  15. The Effects of Prompting and Reinforcement on Safe Behavior of Bicycle and Motorcycle Riders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okinaka, Takeru; Shimazaki, Tsuneo

    2011-01-01

    A reversal design was used to evaluate the effects of vocal and written prompts as well as reinforcement on safe behavior (dismounting and walking bicycles or motorcycles on a sidewalk) on a university campus. Results indicated that an intervention that consisted of vocal and written prompts and reinforcement delivered by security guards was…

  16. Effect of Tensile Reinforcement Ratio on the Effective Moment of Inertia of Reinforced Lightweight Concrete Beams for Short Term Deflection Calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akmaluddin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an improvement model of the effective moment of inertia to predict the short term deflection of reinforced lightweight concrete beam. The models were developed using 9 beams of reinforced pumice-lightweight concrete tested under two symmetrical-point loads. The presence of steel reinforcement in the beam was taken into consideration in the developed model. The models were verified by test carried out on other 9 beams. Those beams subjected to various-point loads and compressive strength. The results of investigation revealed that crack moment of inertia increased with the increased tensile reinforcement ratio. Thus, the reinforcement ratio significantly affects the value of effective moment of inertia of reinforced lightweight concrete beam. All the beam test results produced considerable deflection in comparison to that obtained using current Codes either ACI or SNI. The proposed model demonstrated a good agreement to the experimental results and in some cases have similar trend to that of the ACI or SNI prediction.

  17. Temperature effects on bond between concrete and reinforcing steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lublóy Éva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bond behaviour between concrete and reinforcing bars was observed under elevated temperatures. Five different concrete compositions were used. Hundred five pull-out specimens (Ø120 mm, 100 mm were prepared. After removing the specimens from the formwork, they were stored in water for seven days then kept at laboratory conditions until testing. The specimens were 28 days old by testing. After heating up the specimens, they were kept for two hours at these maximum temperatures (20 °C, 150 °C, 300 °C, 400 °C, 500 °C, 800 °C. Specimens were then cooled down in laboratory conditions. Finally the specimens were tested at room temperature. In order to check the compressive strength standard cubes were cast, cured, and heat treated, then tested to compressive strength. The results showed reduction in residual compressive strength and considerable changes in steel-concrete bond under high temperatures. Based on test results, a proposal is presented for the modification of MC2010 bond-ship formula in order to consider temperature effect.

  18. Size effect of concrete column retrofitted by fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pengpeng; Xu, Xinsheng

    2017-04-01

    At present, the research on the size effect of fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) reinforced concrete members is not enough, besides the conclusions about size effect are different. It is of great theoretical significance and engineering application value to study the size effect of FRP reinforced concrete members in this field. In this paper, the study status from two aspects containing plain concrete columns and reinforced concrete columns for the retrofitted effect were analyzed and some new problems were put forward in this field. Also the paper mainly discussed the size effect of FRP constraint ratio and column slenderness ratio on FRP retrofitted concrete columns, and the effects of different load forms of FRP reinforced concrete columns under eccentric loading, repeated loading and unloading, and horizontal cyclic loading on the size effect of FRP reinforced concrete columns, and the influence of the single factor change of FRP paste way, type, package type and the concrete strength on the FRP reinforced concrete column. Besides, the changing tendency and regularity of the size effect of FRP strengthened concrete columns under the condition of muti-factors were given.

  19. Effect of Reinforcement on Early-Age Concrete Temperature Stress: Preliminary Experimental Investigation and Analytical Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianda Xin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For concrete under short-term loading, effect of reinforcement on concrete crack resistance capability is usually negligible; however, recent research results show that extension of this viewpoint to concrete under long-term loading (temperature variation may be unsuitable. In order to investigate this phenomenon, this paper presents the experimental and analytical results of early-age reinforced concrete temperature stress development under uniaxial restraint. The experiments were carried out on a temperature stress testing machine (TSTM. Experimental results show that the coupling of reinforcement and concrete creep behavior influenced the concrete temperature stress development, and nearly 16% of concrete stress was reduced in the current research. Moreover, the cracking time of reinforced concrete was also delayed. Finally, based on the principle of superposition, analytical simulations of effect of reinforcement on concrete temperature stress have been performed.

  20. Experimental Analysis of Dynamic Effects of FRP Reinforced Masonry Vaults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Corradi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available An increasing interest in the preservation of historic structures has produced a need for new methods for reinforcing curved masonry structures, such as arches and vaults. These structures are generally very ancient, have geometries and materials which are poorly defined and have been exposed to long-term historical movements and actions. Consequently, they are often in need of repair or reinforcement. This article presents the results of an experimental study carried out in the laboratory and during on-site testing to investigate the behaviour of brick masonry vaults under dynamic loading strengthened with FRPs (Fiber Reinforced Polymers. For the laboratory tests, the brick vaults were built with solid sanded clay bricks and weak mortar and were tested under dynamic loading. The experimental tests were designed to facilitate analysis of the dynamic behaviour of undamaged, damaged and reinforced vaulted structures. On-site tests were carried out on an earthquake-damaged thin brick vault of an 18th century aristocratic residence in the city of L’Aquila, Italy. The provision of FRP reinforcement is shown to re-establish elastic behavior previously compromised by time induced damage in the vaults.

  1. Experimental Analysis of Dynamic Effects of FRP Reinforced Masonry Vaults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradi, Marco; Borri, Antonio; Castori, Giulio; Coventry, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    An increasing interest in the preservation of historic structures has produced a need for new methods for reinforcing curved masonry structures, such as arches and vaults. These structures are generally very ancient, have geometries and materials which are poorly defined and have been exposed to long-term historical movements and actions. Consequently, they are often in need of repair or reinforcement. This article presents the results of an experimental study carried out in the laboratory and during on-site testing to investigate the behaviour of brick masonry vaults under dynamic loading strengthened with FRPs (Fiber Reinforced Polymers). For the laboratory tests, the brick vaults were built with solid sanded clay bricks and weak mortar and were tested under dynamic loading. The experimental tests were designed to facilitate analysis of the dynamic behaviour of undamaged, damaged and reinforced vaulted structures. On-site tests were carried out on an earthquake-damaged thin brick vault of an 18th century aristocratic residence in the city of L’Aquila, Italy. The provision of FRP reinforcement is shown to re-establish elastic behavior previously compromised by time induced damage in the vaults. PMID:28793697

  2. Modulation of the conflict monitoring intensity: the role of aversive reinforcement, cognitive demand, and trait-BIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leue, Anja; Lange, Sebastian; Beauducel, André

    2012-06-01

    According to Botvinick's (2007) integrative account, conflict monitoring is aversive because individuals anticipate cognitive demand, whereas the revised reinforcement sensitivity theory (rRST) predicts that conflict processing is aversive because individuals anticipate aversive reinforcement of erroneous responses. Because these accounts give different reasons for the aversive aspects of conflict, we manipulated cognitive demand and the aversive reinforcement as a consequence of wrong choices in a go/no-go task. Thereby, we also aimed to investigate whether individual differences in conflict sensitivity (i.e., in trait anxiety, linked to high sensitivity of the behavioral inhibition system [trait-BIS]) represent the effects of aversive reinforcement and cognitive demand in conflict tasks. We expected that these manipulations would have effects on the frontal N2 component representing activity of the anterior cingulate cortex. Moreover, higher-trait-BIS individuals should be more sensitive than lower-trait-BIS individuals to aversive effects in conflict situations, resulting in a more negative frontal N2 for higher-trait-BIS individuals. In Study 1, with N = 104 students, and Study 2, with N = 47 students, aversive reinforcement was manipulated in three levels (within-subjects factor) and cognitive demand in two levels (between-subjects factor). The behavioral findings from the go/no-go task with noncounterbalanced reinforcement levels (Study 1) could be widely replicated in a task with counterbalanced reinforcement levels (Study 2). The frontal mean no-go N2 amplitude and the frontal no-go N2 dipole captured predicted reinforcement-related variations of conflict monitoring, indicating that the anticipation of aversive reinforcement induces variations in conflict monitoring intensity in frontal brain areas. The aversive nature of conflict was underlined by the more pronounced conflict monitoring in higher- than in lower-trait-BIS individuals.

  3. Cost Effectiveness of Precast Reinforced Concrete Roof Slabs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parskiy, N. D.; Molodtsov, M. V.; Molodtsova, V. E.

    2017-11-01

    Engineers always seek to free interior space from intermediate supporting elements. Nowadays plants, being at the forefront of technology, produce a new generation of exclusive patented prefabricated reinforced concrete elements with a high load-bearing capacity, excellent heat resistance characteristics combined with the aesthetics and beauty. It is a system of Seagull Gabbiano prestressed roof slabs for the spans of 12m - 40m. The article shows the advantages of the Seagull slabs over conventional precast reinforced concrete and metal roof trusses. It also gives the analysis of the technical and economic indices of design and construction of a building with the Seagull slabs depending on the size of spans to cover. The use of structural systems with increased spans allows for the modern buildings and structures of prefabricated reinforced concrete with enhanced functionality and aesthetics alongside with a wide range of planning solutions.

  4. Effects of Reinforcement Configuration on Reserve Capacity of Concrete Slabs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-01

    Reinforced concreted Tensile membrane,, Buried shelters/ Shelters/ ..i, Civil defense, Slab capacity, 120. A34TlRACT rCcnhma in~ r aidit noe..era aad...CHAPTER 1 I XTPODLCT, CI At the- iiti it io., of this Study civil d~efense plwlgcalled for the .;evacuation of nonessenrt*I51 pezrsonnel to safe (lower...lqbal and Derecho (Reference 10). The reinforcement ratio, p , was 0.0062 in "Christianscn’s te,;tts and varied from 0.0023 to 0.0093 in Roberts’ tests

  5. Effect of sucrose availability on wheel-running as an operant and as a reinforcing consequence on a multiple schedule: Additive effects of extrinsic and automatic reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belke, Terry W; Pierce, W David

    2015-07-01

    As a follow up to Belke and Pierce's (2014) study, we assessed the effects of repeated presentation and removal of sucrose solution on the behavior of rats responding on a two-component multiple schedule. Rats completed 15 wheel turns (FR 15) for either 15% or 0% sucrose solution in the manipulated component and lever pressed 10 times on average (VR 10) for an opportunity to complete 15 wheel turns (FR 15) in the other component. In contrast to our earlier study, the components advanced based on time (every 8min) rather than completed responses. Results showed that in the manipulated component wheel-running rates were higher and the latency to initiate running longer when sucrose was present (15%) compared to absent (0% or water); the number of obtained outcomes (sucrose/water), however, did not differ with the presentation and withdrawal of sucrose. For the wheel-running as reinforcement component, rates of wheel turns, overall lever-pressing rates, and obtained wheel-running reinforcements were higher, and postreinforcement pauses shorter, when sucrose was present (15%) than absent (0%) in manipulated component. Overall, our findings suggest that wheel-running rate regardless of its function (operant or reinforcement) is maintained by automatically generated consequences (automatic reinforcement) and is increased as an operant by adding experimentally arranged sucrose reinforcement (extrinsic reinforcement). This additive effect on operant wheel-running generalizes through induction or arousal to the wheel-running as reinforcement component, increasing the rate of responding for opportunities to run and the rate of wheel-running per opportunity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of Glass Reinforced Epoxy (GRE pipe filled with Geopolymer Materials for Piping Application: Compression Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Hashim Mohammad Firdaus

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to achieve the highest compressive strength of glass reinforced epoxy pipe with the geopolymer filler content of weight percentage that were used in glass reinforced epoxy pipe. The samples were prepared by using the filament winding method. The effect of weight percentage of geopolymer materials in epoxy hardener was studied under mechanical testing, which is using the compression test. A series of glass reinforced epoxy pipe and glass reinforced epoxy pipe filled with 10 – 40 weight percentage geopolymer filler which is white clay were prepared. The compression strength of the glass reinforced epoxy pipe filled geopolymer materials is determined using Instron Universal Testing under compression mode. It was found that compressive strength for samples with white clay geopolymer filler are much higher compare to glass reinforced epoxy pipe without geopolymer filler. Moreover, the compressive strength of glass reinforced epoxy pipe filled with white clay geopolymer filler was increased from 10 wt% to 30 wt% of geopolymer content. However, the compressive strength of glass reinforced epoxy pipe with white clay geopolymer filler suddenly decreased when added to 40 wt%. The results indicated that the blending of geopolymer materials in epoxy system can be obtained in this study.

  7. Buspirone maintenance does not alter the reinforcing, subjective, and cardiovascular effects of intranasal methamphetamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Anna R; Strickland, Justin C; Stoops, William W; Lile, Joshua A; Rush, Craig R

    2017-12-01

    Medications development efforts for methamphetamine-use disorder have targeted central monoamines because these systems are directly involved in the effects of methamphetamine. Buspirone is a dopamine autoreceptor and D3 receptor antagonist and partial agonist at serotonin 1A receptors, making it a logical candidate medication for methamphetamine-use disorder. Buspirone effects on abuse-related behaviors of methamphetamine have been mixed in clinical and preclinical studies. Experimental research using maintenance dosing, which models therapeutic use, is limited. This study evaluated the influence of buspirone maintenance on the reinforcing effects of methamphetamine using a self-administration procedure, which has predictive validity for clinical efficacy. The impact of buspirone maintenance on the subjective and cardiovascular response to methamphetamine was also determined. Eight research participants (1 female) reporting recent illicit stimulant use completed a placebo-controlled, crossover, double-blind protocol in which the pharmacodynamic effects of intranasal methamphetamine (0, 15, and 30mg) were assessed after at least 6days of buspirone (0 and 45mg/day) maintenance. Intranasal methamphetamine functioned as a reinforcer and produced prototypical stimulant-like subjective (e.g., increased ratings of Good Effects and Like Drug) and cardiovascular (e.g., elevated blood pressure) effects. These effects of methamphetamine were similar under buspirone and placebo maintenance conditions. Maintenance on buspirone was well tolerated and devoid of effects when administered alone. These data suggest that buspirone is unlikely to be an effective pharmacotherapy for methamphetamine-use disorder. Given the central role of monoamines in methamphetamine-use disorder, it is reasonable for future studies to continue to target these systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Attenuation of cocaine's reinforcing and discriminative stimulus effects via muscarinic M1 acetylcholine receptor stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Morgane; Conn, P Jeffrey; Lindsley, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Muscarinic cholinergic receptors modulate dopaminergic function in brain pathways thought to mediate cocaine's abuse-related effects. Here, we sought to confirm and extend in the mouse species findings that nonselective muscarinic receptor antagonists can enhance cocaine's discriminative stimulus....... More importantly, we tested the hypothesis that muscarinic receptor agonists with varied receptor subtype selectivity can blunt cocaine's discriminative stimulus and reinforcing effects; we hypothesized a critical role for the M(1) and/or M(4) receptor subtypes in this modulation. Mice were trained...... to discriminate cocaine from saline, or to self-administer intravenous cocaine chronically. The nonselective muscarinic antagonists scopolamine and methylscopolamine, the nonselective muscarinic agonists oxotremorine and pilocarpine, the M(1)/M(4)-preferring agonist xanomeline, the putative M(1)-selective agonist...

  9. The role of meals as a reinforcing event in a token economy programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higson, P J; Woods, P A; Tannahill, M M; Ellis, N C

    1985-08-01

    Items such as meals have frequently been used as back-up events in Token Economy Programmes (TEPs) because of their supposed reinforcing effectiveness. However, despite the dubious ethical questions that this raises, there is little research evidence to support the necessity for their use in TEP's with hospitalised chronic mentally ill patients. The effects of introducing meals as a 'free' item on patients' performance of a number of target behaviours were investigated in a TEP where they had previously been scheduled as a back-up event. While 'free' meals produced a slight increase in the actual number of meals eaten, there were no systematic effects on patients' performance of the target behaviours.

  10. Effect of Moisture on Natural Fibre Reinforced Plastics.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-12-01

    Dec 1, 2016 ... which include bagasse, cereal straw, corn stalk, cotton stalk, banana fibres, rice husk / rice straw [4]. The renewed interest resulted in new ways of natural fibre modifications and use and brought them to be superior to synthetic fibres. Composites (reinforced with natural fibres) – the wonder material, with ...

  11. effect of reinforcements combination on the mechanical strength of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    ABSTRACT. A number of hand lay-up GRP laminates of E-glass are produced in various reinforcements combinations. Careful record of their strength tested under room temperature is tabulated against each corresponding laminate. A close study of these results show that their laminate strength varied considerably from ...

  12. Effect of Reinforcements Combination on the Mechanical Strength of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A number of hand lay-up GRP laminates of E-glass are produced in various reinforcements combinations. Careful record of their strength tested under room temperature is tabulated against each corresponding laminate. A close study of these results show that their laminate strength varied considerably from initial values, ...

  13. Strain gradient plasticity effects in whisker-reinforced metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    2003-01-01

    A metal reinforced by fibers in the micron range is studied using the strain gradient plasticity theory of Fleck and Hutchinson (J. Mech. Phys. Solids 49 (2001) 2245). Cell-model analyses are used to study the influence of the material length parameters numerically, for both a single parameter...

  14. Effect of moisture on natural fibre reinforced plastics | Ogakwu | West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this research, the rate of moisture absorption of the composites reinforced with natural fibres – Ukam plant fibres (chochlostermum placoni) were studied and determined.Composite cubes and plates of different sizes were prepared, then immersed in water for 24 hours at room temperature in order to determine the extent ...

  15. The role of short- and long-term cognitive empathy activation in preventing cyberbystander reinforcing cyberbullying behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlińska, Julia; Szuster, Anna; Winiewski, Mikołaj

    2015-04-01

    The long- versus short-term effectiveness of empathy activation on reducing bystander behavior reinforcing cyberbullying was tested. The focus was on limiting the frequency of forwarding a message ridiculing a peer. Experimental research on adolescent students was conducted in conditions simulating online contact. The results confirmed the significance of cognitive empathy activated immediately prior to decision making on limiting involvement in reinforcing cyberbullying behavior. The long-term impact of empathy was markedly limited.

  16. Reinforced concrete bridges: effects due to corrosion and concrete young modulus variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. T. C. Mendes

    Full Text Available Most of the Brazilian bridges of federal road network are made of reinforced concrete and are more than 30 years old, with little information about the mechanical properties of their constitutive materials. Along the service life of these bridges much modification occurred on vehicles load and geometry and in design standard. Many of them show signs of concrete and steel deterioration and their stability conditions are unknown. With the aim of contributing to the structural evaluation of reinforced concrete bridges it was decided to analyze the stresses in reinforced concrete bridge sections to verify the effects due to reinforcement corrosion and variation of the concrete Young modulus on the stress distribution regarding several load patterns and cracking effects in a representative bridge of the Brazilian road network with different longitudinal reinforcement taxes and two concrete Young modulus, Ec and 0.5Ec, and with different percentage of reinforcement corrosion. The analysis considered two finite element models: frame and shell elements as well as solid elements. The results indicate that these variation effects are more significant in reinforcement bars than in concrete.

  17. The potential role of cattail-reinforced clay plaster in sustainable building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Georgiev

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development is a key goal in town and country planning, as well as in the building industry. The main aims are to avoid inefficient land use, to improve the energy efficiency of buildings and, thus, to move towards meeting the challenges of climate change. In this article we consider how the use of a traditional low-energy building material, namely clay, might contribute. Recent research has identified a promising connection between the reinforcement of clay for internal wall plastering with fibres from the wetland plant Typha latifolia (cattail and the positive environmental effects of cultivating this species. If large quantities of Typha fibres were to be used in building, the need for cultivation of the plant would increase and create new possibilities for the renaturalisation of polluted or/and degraded peatlands. We explore the topic first on the basis of literature, considering the suitability of Typha for this application and possibilities for its sustainable cultivation, as well as implications for the life cycle analyses of buildings in which it is used. We then report (qualitatively the results of testing different combinations of clay with natural plant (straw and cattail fibres for their suitability as a universal plaster, which demonstrate clearly the superior properties of Typha fibres as a reinforcement material for clay plaster mortars.

  18. The effect of social and token economy reinforcements on academic achievement of students with intellectual disabilities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mirzamani, S Mahmood; Ashoori, Mohammad; Sereshki, Narges Adib

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of social and token economy reinforcements on academic achievement of 9th grade boy students with intellectual disabilities in an experimental science class in Tehran Province...

  19. Effects of a history of differential reinforcement on preference for choice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Karsina, Allen; Thompson, Rachel H; Rodriguez, Nicole M

    2011-01-01

    The effects of a history of differential reinforcement for selecting a free-choice versus a restricted-choice stimulus arrangement on the subsequent responding of 7 undergraduates in a computer-based...

  20. Examining the reinforcement-enhancement effects of phencyclidine and its interactions with nicotine on lever-pressing for a visual stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swalve, Natashia; Barrett, Scott T; Bevins, Rick A; Li, Ming

    2015-09-15

    Nicotine is a widely-abused drug, yet its primary reinforcing effect does not seem potent as other stimulants such as cocaine. Recent research on the contributing factors toward chronic use of nicotine-containing products has implicated the role of reinforcement-enhancing effects of nicotine. The present study investigates whether phencyclidine (PCP) may also possess a reinforcement-enhancement effect and how this may interact with the reinforcement-enhancement effect of nicotine. PCP was tested for two reasons: (1) it produces discrepant results on overall reward, similar to that seen with nicotine and (2) it may elucidate how other compounds may interact with the reinforcement-enhancement of nicotine. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to lever press for brief visual stimulus presentations under fixed-ratio (FR) schedules of reinforcement and then were tested with nicotine (0.2 or 0.4 mg/kg) and/or PCP (2.0mg/kg) over six increasing FR values. A selective increase in active lever-pressing for the visual stimulus with drug treatment was considered evidence of a reinforcement-enhancement effect. PCP and nicotine separately increased active lever pressing for a visual stimulus in a dose-dependent manner and across the different FR schedules. The addition of PCP to nicotine did not increase lever-pressing for the visual stimulus, possibly due to a ceiling effect. The effect of PCP may be driven largely by its locomotor stimulant effects, whereas the effect of nicotine was independent of locomotor stimulation. This dissociation emphasizes that distinct pharmacological properties contribute to the reinforcement-enhancement effects of substances. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Neurotoxic lesions of basolateral, but not central, amygdala interfere with Pavlovian second-order conditioning and reinforcer devaluation effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, T; Han, J S; Conley, M; Gallagher, M; Holland, P

    1996-08-15

    Considerable evidence suggests that various discrete nuclei within the amygdala complex are critically involved in the assignment of emotional significance or value to events through associative learning. Much of this evidence comes from aversive conditioning procedures. For example, lesions of either basolateral amygdala (ABL) or the central nucleus (CN) interfere with the acquisition or expression of conditioned fear. The present study examined the effects of selective neurotoxic lesions of either ABL or CN on the acquisition of positive incentive value by a conditioned stimulus (CS) with two appetitive Pavlovian conditioning procedures. In second-order conditioning experiments, rats first received light-food pairings intended to endow the light with reinforcing power. The acquired reinforcing power of the light was then measured by examining its ability to serve as a reinforcer for second-order conditioning of a tone when tone-light pairings were given in the absence of food. Acquisition of second-order conditioning was impaired in rats with ABL lesions but not in rats with CN lesions. In reinforcer devaluation procedures, conditioned responding of rats with ABL lesions was insensitive to postconditioning changes in the value of the reinforcer, whereas rats with CN lesions, like normal rats, were able to spontaneously adjust their CRs to the current value of the reinforcer. The results of both test procedures indicate that ABL, but not CN, is part of a system involved in CSs' acquisition of positive incentive value. Together with evidence that identifies a role for CN in certain changes in attentional processing of CSs in conditioning, these results suggest that separate amygdala subsystems contribute to a variety of processes inherent in associative learning.

  2. Effect of alkaline treatment on mechanical properties of woven ramie reinforced thermoset composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, M. H. M.; Siregar, J. P.; Bachtiar, D.; Rejab, M. R. M.; Samykano, M.; Agung, E. H.; Tezara, C.; Jaafar, J.

    2017-10-01

    Ramie fibres are one of the strongest bast fibres with valuable potential as reinforcement in a composite. In this study, the laminated composite of ramie reinforced plain woven was prepared through hand lay-up process. Prior to moulding, the ramie reinforced woven fabric was treated by soaking the fabric in 5% NaOH solution for 1 hour at room temperature. The effects of alkaline treatment on ramie reinforced woven epoxy resin and ramie reinforced woven unsaturated polyester (UPE) resin were investigated in terms of tensile, flexural, and impact properties. Five samples of both treated ramie (TR) composite and untreated ramie (UR) composite were tested and the results were averaged for comparison with one another. Based on the results obtained, the effects of 5% (w/w) concentration of alkaline solution treatment for 1 hour at room temperature are insignificant to the tensile, flexural, and impact properties. The result of UR and TR composite was compared to the composite for pure epoxy resin and UPE resin. Based on the finding, the data obtained shown no improvement in tensile properties. However, in the case of the flexural properties are enhanced except flexural modulus of the TR-epoxy composite. Impact strength only gets better when reinforcing with the untreated ramie. On overall, the TR ramie have an admirable mechanical when reinforced with the epoxy resin than UPE resin

  3. Assessing the role of alternative response rates and reinforcer rates in resistance to extinction of target responding when combining stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podlesnik, Christopher A; Bai, John Y H; Skinner, Katherine A

    2016-05-01

    Studies of behavioral momentum reveal that reinforcing an alternative response in the presence of a target response reduces the rate of target responding but increases its persistence, relative to training the target response on its own. Because of the parallels between these studies and differential-reinforcement techniques to reduce problem behavior in clinical settings, alternative techniques to reduce problem behavior without enhancing its persistence are being explored. One potential solution is to train an alternative response in a separate stimulus context from problem behavior before combining the alternative stimulus with the target stimulus. The present study assessed how differences in reinforcement contingencies and rate for alternative responding influenced resistance to extinction of target responding when combining alternative and target stimuli in pigeons. Across three experiments, alternative stimuli signaling a response-reinforcer dependency and greater reinforcer rates more effectively decreased the persistence of target responding when combining alternative and target stimuli within the same extinction tests, but not when compared across separate extinction tests. Overall, these findings reveal that differences in competition between alternative and target responding produced by contingencies of alternative reinforcement could influence the effectiveness of treating problem behavior through combining stimulus contexts. © 2016 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  4. Probing the Behavioral and Neurophysiological Effects of Acute Smoking Abstinence on Drug and Nondrug Reinforcement During a Cognitive Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlienz, Nicolas J; Hawk, Larry W

    2017-06-01

    Smoking abstinence is theorized to increase smoking reinforcement and decrease nondrug reinforcement. A separate literature demonstrates the detrimental effects of abstinence on cognition. The present study integrates these two areas by examining the separate and combined effects of reinforcement and smoking abstinence on behavior and a neurophysiological index of response monitoring (ie, error-related negativity [ERN]) during a cognitive task. After a screening visit, adult smokers attended two laboratory visits, once while smoking and once while abstinent. Participants completed a flanker task under cigarette-, money-, and no-reinforcement conditions. The initial 15 participants had an easier reaction time (RT) requirement; to ensure sufficient error rates for ERN computation, a harder RT deadline was employed for the remaining 21 participants. Smoking abstinence reduced speeded accuracy and ERN amplitude only among participants tested with the harder RT deadline. Cigarette and money reinforcement each increased speeded accuracy and ERN amplitude compared to no reinforcement. The effect of cigarette reinforcement tended to be greater during abstinence for speeded accuracy but not the ERN. The effect of money reinforcement was unaffected by abstinence. The impact of smoking abstinence on reinforcement may depend on task demands. However, the effects of cigarette and money reinforcement generalize well from operant paradigms to cognitive tasks, fostering integration between the two literatures. Results provided modest evidence of abstinence-induced increases in smoking reinforcement; the absence of abstinence-induced reductions in nondrug reinforcement is consistent with recent work in suggesting that such effects are limited to a subset of sensory reinforcers. This study draws attention to the need for greater integration of reinforcement and cognition to better understand the mechanisms that contribute to smoking relapse. Results emphasize thoughtful

  5. The contribution of aromatic components in Katsuobushi to preference formation and reinforcement effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amitsuka, Takahiko; Okamura, Maya; Mukuta, Kei; Shiibashi, Hiroko; Haraguchi, Kenji; Saito, Tsukasa; Inoue, Kazuo; Fushiki, Tohru

    2017-08-01

    Katsuodashi, a dried bonito broth, is very basic and indispensable in Japanese cuisine and contains taste-exhibiting components and unique aroma. We previously reported that its unique aroma contributes to the preference and reinforcement effect associated with dried bonito. This study aims to elucidate the contribution of aromatic components in Katsuobushi to preference formation and reinforcement effect. Volatile components obtained from dried bonito were fractionated and the fractions were subjected to two-bottle choice test. The fractionation test suggested that the component responsible for the preference is not one but comprises multiple components. In the GC-MS analysis/reconstruction test, solution with aromatic flavor narrowed down to 125 compounds had preference, and also had reinforcement effect. Moreover, GC-MS-olfactometry analysis narrowed down the candidate components to 28 out of 125. Mice showed preference for the test solution with aromatic flavor reconstructed with 28 components but did not show reinforcement behavior.

  6. Reinforcer magnitude affects delay discounting and influences effects of d-amphetamine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Christopher A; Reilly, William J; Anderson, Karen G

    2016-09-01

    Impulsive choice in humans can be altered by changing reinforcer magnitude; however, this effect has not been found in rats. Current levels of impulsive choice can also influence effects of d-amphetamine. This study used a within-subject assessment to determine if impulsive choice is sensitive to changes in reinforcer magnitude, and whether effects of d-amphetamine are related to current levels of impulsive choice. A discounting procedure in which choice was for a smaller reinforcer available immediately or a larger reinforcer available after a delay that increased within session was used. Reinforcer magnitude was manipulated between conditions and impulsive choice was quantified using area under the curve (AUC). In the Smaller-Magnitude (SM) Condition, choice was between one food pellet and three food pellets. In the Larger-Magnitude (LM) Condition, choice was between two food pellets and six food pellets. Impulsive choice was greater in the SM Condition compared to the LM Condition. Further, effects of d-amphetamine (0.1-1.8mg/kg) were related to differences in impulsive choice. d-Amphetamine increased impulsive choice in the LM Condition, but had no effect on impulsive choice in the SM Condition. Overall, these results show that impulsive choice in rats is sensitive to changes in reinforcer magnitude, and that effects of d-amphetamine are influenced by current levels of impulsive choice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Carbon fiber/carbon nanotube reinforced hierarchical composites: Effect of CNT distribution on shearing strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, H. W.; Mishnaevsky, Leon; Yi, H. Y.

    2016-01-01

    The strength and fracture behavior of carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites with carbon nanotube (CNT) secondary reinforcement are investigated experimentally and numerically. Short Beam Shearing tests have been carried out, with SEM observations of the damage evolution in the composites. 3D...... multiscale computational (FE) models of the carbon/polymer composite with varied CNT distributions have been developed and employed to study the effect of the secondary CNT reinforcement, its distribution and content on the strength and fracture behavior of the composites. It is shown that adding secondary...

  8. The role of ethics and deontology is essential must be reinforced in geosciences. Focus natural hazards and catastrophic risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zango-Pascual, Marga

    2016-04-01

    Marga Zango-Pascual Area: Environmental Technologies. Department: Chemical, Physical and Natural Systems. Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Seville, Spain. mzanpas@upo.es In todaýs globalized and changing world, Natural Hazard Management is becoming a priority. It is essential for us to combine both global and interdisciplinary approaches with in-depth knowledge about the natural hazards that may cause damage to both people and property. Many catastrophic events have to see with geological hazards. Science and technology, and particularly geosciences, play an essential role. But this role is often not used, because it is not integrated into the legislation or public policy enacted by those who must manage risk to prevent disasters from occurring. Not only here and now, but also everywhere, whenever decisions are made on disaster risk reduction, we must call for the role of geology to be taken into account. And we must note that in several countries including Spain, the study of geology is being slighted in both universities and secondary education. If the discipline of geology disappears from formal education, there would be serious consequences. This warning has already been issued once and again, for instance in the 2007 Quarterly Natural Sciences Newsletter in relation to Katrina and The Tsunami in the Indian Ocean. There, the fact that knowledge of geoscience may be indispensable for attenuating the effects of natural disasters and that knowledge of geoscience benefits society always is clearly stated. And this necessarily includes generating and makings the best possible use of legislation and public policy where daily decisions are made both on risk management and everything that managing threats involves. The role of geology and geologists is essential and must be reinforced. But, we cannot forgive that is necessary to form of the professional of geology in law and ethical principles. And of course a deontological approach should be maintained. The role of

  9. Simulating the effect of reinforcement learning on neuronal synchrony and periodicity in the striatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastien eHelie

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The study of rhythms and oscillations in the brain is gaining attention. While it is unclear exactly what the role of oscillation, synchrony, and rhythm is, it appears increasingly likely that synchrony is related to normal and abnormal brain states and possibly cognition. In this article, we explore the relationship between basal ganglia (BG synchrony and reinforcement learning. We simulate a biologically-realistic model of the striatum initially proposed by Ponzi and Wickens (2010 and enhance the model by adding plastic cortico-BG synapses that can be modified using reinforcement learning. The effect of reinforcement learning on striatal rhythmic activity is then explored, and disrupted using simulated deep brain stimulation (DBS. The stimulator injects current in the brain structure to which it is attached, which affects neuronal synchrony. The results show that training the model without DBS yields a high accuracy in the learning task and reduced the number of active neurons in the striatum, along with an increased firing periodicity and a decreased firing synchrony between neurons in the same assembly. In addition, a spectral decomposition shows a stronger signal for correct trials than incorrect trials in high frequency bands. If the DBS is ON during the training phase, but not the test phase, the amount of learning in the model is reduced, along with firing periodicity. Similar to when the DBS is OFF, spectral decomposition shows a stronger signal for correct trials than for incorrect trials in high frequency domains, but this phenoemenon happens in higher frequency bands than when the DBS is OFF. Synchrony between the neurons is not affected. Finally, the results show that turning the DBS ON at test increases both firing periodicity and striatal synchrony, and spectral decomposition of the signal show that neural activity synchronizes with the DBS fundamental frequency (and its harmonics. Turning the DBS ON during the test phase results

  10. The Effectiveness of Using Reinforcements in the Classroom on the Academic Achievement of Students with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adibsereshki, Narges; Abkenar, Somaye Jalil; Ashoori, Mohammad; Mirzamani, Mahmood

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of two kinds of reinforcements, tangible reinforcements and social reinforcements, on the academic achievement of eighth-grade female students with intellectual disabilities in the science subject. The study was an experimental method by pretest, with a control group. The participants of…

  11. Effect of Geopolymer filler in Glass Reinforced Epoxy (GRE) Pipe for Piping Application: Mechanical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdaus Abu Hashim, Mohammad; Bakri Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al; Mohd Ruzaidi Ghazali, Che; Hussin, Kamarudin; Binhussain, Mohammed

    2016-06-01

    The present work is aimed to carry out the effect of geopolymer material which is fly ash as filler in the glass reinforced epoxy pipe on the micro structure of fly ash geopolymer, compression properties, and bulk density using the filament winding method. Conventional glass reinforced epoxy pipes has its own disadvantages such as high corrosion resistance at acidic environment and low strength which can be replaced by the composite pipes. Geopolymer is a type of amorphous alumino-silicate and can be synthesized by geopolymerization process. A series of glass reinforced epoxy pipe and glass reinforced epoxy pipe filled with 10 - 40 weight percentage geopolymer filler which is fly ash with 4 Molarity were prepared. Morphology of the raw material fly ash and fly ash based-geopolymer surface was characterized using scanning electron microscopy. It was found that the additions of fly ash at the beginning with 10 wt% are showing higher compressive strength than glass reinforced epoxy pipe without fly ash geopolymer filler. The compressive test of these series of samples was determined using Instron Universal Testing under compression mode. It was found that compressive strength for samples fly ash based-geopolymer filler are higher as compared to glass reinforced epoxy pipe without geopolymer filler. However, the compressive strength of glass reinforced epoxy pipe with fly ash geopolymer filler continues to decline when added to 20 wt% - 40 wt% of geopolymer filler loading. The results showed that the mixing of geopolymer materials in epoxy system can be obtained in this study.

  12. Effect of nanoclay on durability and mechanical properties of flax fabric reinforced geopolymer composites

    OpenAIRE

    H. Assaedi; Shaikh, F.U.A.; Low, I.M.

    2017-01-01

    The main concern of using natural fibres as reinforcement in geopolymer composites is the durability of the fibres. Geopolymers are alkaline in nature because of the alkaline solution that is required for activating the geopolymer reaction. The alkalinity of the matrix, however, is the key reason of the degradation of natural fibres. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of nanoclay (NC) loading on the mechanical properties and durability of flax fabric (FF) reinforced geopolym...

  13. Effects of Ventral Striatum Lesions on Stimulus-Based versus Action-Based Reinforcement Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenhoefer, Kathryn M; Costa, Vincent D; Bartolo, Ramón; Vicario-Feliciano, Raquel; Murray, Elisabeth A; Averbeck, Bruno B

    2017-07-19

    Learning the values of actions versus stimuli may depend on separable neural circuits. In the current study, we evaluated the performance of rhesus macaques with ventral striatum (VS) lesions on a two-arm bandit task that had randomly interleaved blocks of stimulus-based and action-based reinforcement learning (RL). Compared with controls, monkeys with VS lesions had deficits in learning to select rewarding images but not rewarding actions. We used a RL model to quantify learning and choice consistency and found that, in stimulus-based RL, the VS lesion monkeys were more influenced by negative feedback and had lower choice consistency than controls. Using a Bayesian model to parse the groups' learning strategies, we also found that VS lesion monkeys defaulted to an action-based choice strategy. Therefore, the VS is involved specifically in learning the value of stimuli, not actions. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Reinforcement learning models of the ventral striatum (VS) often assume that it maintains an estimate of state value. This suggests that it plays a general role in learning whether rewards are assigned based on a chosen action or stimulus. In the present experiment, we examined the effects of VS lesions on monkeys' ability to learn that choosing a particular action or stimulus was more likely to lead to reward. We found that VS lesions caused a specific deficit in the monkeys' ability to discriminate between images with different values, whereas their ability to discriminate between actions with different values remained intact. Our results therefore suggest that the VS plays a specific role in learning to select rewarded stimuli. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/376902-13$15.00/0.

  14. The Effect of Social and Token Economy Reinforcements on Academic Achievement of Students with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashoori, Mohammad; Sereshki, Narges Adib

    2011-01-01

    Objective This study investigates the effect of social and token economy reinforcements on academic achievement of 9th grade boy students with intellectual disabilities in an experimental science class in Tehran Province. Method The method used for this study was experimental by pre-test, post- test with a control group. The boy students with intellectual disabilities from three junior high schools participated in this study. The sample consisted of thirty, 9th grade boy students with intellectual disabilities in the selected schools; the schools were chosen by the multi-stage cluster method. To measure the progress of students in the science class, a teacher made test and the Wechsler intelligence test for matching the groups for IQ were used. To ensure validity, the content validity criteria depended tests calculated by the Lashe method and teachers' perspective were used. The reliability coefficient was obtained by the reliability coefficient of related tests; the percent agreement method and the obtained data were analyzed using one-way variance analysis and Shefe prosecution test. Results The results showed that there was a significant increase in academic achievement of students with intellectual disabilities when using token economy than using social reinforcements compared with the control group. Also, when using social reinforcements, the academic achievement of students was more than the control group. Conclusion Token economy and social reinforcements increased the academic achievement of students with intellectual disabilities in the science class; and also the effect of token economy reinforcements was more than social reinforcements on the subjects. PMID:22952517

  15. Synthetic Cathinones and Their Rewarding and Reinforcing Effects in Rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas R. Watterson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic cathinones, colloquially referred to as “bath salts,” are derivatives of the psychoactive alkaloid cathinone found in Catha edulis (Khat. Since the mid-to-late 2000s, these amphetamine-like psychostimulants have gained popularity amongst drug users due to their potency, low cost, ease of procurement, and constantly evolving chemical structures. Concomitant with their increased use is the emergence of a growing collection of case reports of bizarre and dangerous behaviors, toxicity to numerous organ systems, and death. However, scientific information regarding the abuse liability of these drugs has been relatively slower to materialize. Recently we have published several studies demonstrating that laboratory rodents will readily self-administer the “first generation” synthetic cathinones methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV and methylone via the intravenous route, in patterns similar to those of methamphetamine. Under progressive ratio schedules of reinforcement, the rank order of reinforcing efficacy of these compounds is MDPV ≥ methamphetamine > methylone. MDPV and methylone, as well as the “second generation” synthetic cathinones α-pyrrolidinovalerophenone (α-PVP and 4-methylethcathinone (4-MEC, also dose-dependently increase brain reward function. Collectively, these findings indicate that synthetic cathinones have a high abuse and addiction potential and underscore the need for future assessment of the extent and duration of neurotoxicity induced by these emerging drugs of abuse.

  16. Characterization of attenuated food motivation in high-fat diet-induced obesity: Critical roles for time on diet and reinforcer familiarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Andrea L; Wee, Colin J M; Hazeltine, Grace E; Carter, Rebecca A

    2015-03-15

    Prior work using animal models to study the effects of obesogenic diets on food motivation have generated inconsistent results, with some reporting increases and others reporting decreases in responding on food-reinforced tasks. Here, we identified two specific variables that may account for these discrepant outcomes - the length of time on the obesigenic diet and the familiarity of the food reinforcer - and examined the independent roles of these factors. Time on diet was found to be inversely related to food motivation, as rats consuming a 40% high-fat diet (HFD) for only 3weeks did not differ from chow-fed rats when responding for a sucrose reinforcer on a progressive ratio (PR) schedule, but responding was suppressed after 6weeks of ad lib HFD consumption. Explicitly manipulating experience with the sucrose reinforcer by pre-exposing half the rats prior to 10weeks of HFD consumption attenuated the motivational deficit seen in the absence of this familiarity, resulting in obese rats performing at the same level as lean rats. Finally, after 8weeks on a HFD, rats did not express a conditioned place preference for sucrose, indicating a decrement in reward value independent of motivation. These findings are consistent with prior literature showing an increase in food motivation for rats with a shorter time consuming the obesigenic diet, and for those with more prior experience with the reinforcer. This account also helps reconcile these findings with increased food motivation in obese humans due to extensive experience with palatable food and suggests that researchers engaging in non-human animal studies of obesity would better model the conditions under which human obesity develops by using a varied, cafeteria-style diet to increase the breadth of food experiences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Hypocretin-1 receptors regulate the reinforcing and reward-enhancing effects of cocaine: Pharmacological and behavioral genetics evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan eHollander

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Considerable evidence suggests that transmission at hypocretin-1 (orexin-1 receptors (Hcrt-R1 plays an important role in the reinstatement of extinguished cocaine-seeking behaviors in rodents. However, far less is known about the role for hypocretin transmission in regulating ongoing cocaine-taking behavior. Here, we investigated the effects of the selective Hcrt-R1 antagonist SB-334867 on cocaine intake, as measured by intravenous (IV cocaine self-administration in rats. The stimulatory effects of cocaine on brain reward systems contribute to the establishment and maintenance of cocaine-taking behaviors. Therefore, we also assessed the effects of SB-334867 on the reward-enhancing properties of cocaine, as measured by cocaine-induced lowering of intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS thresholds. Finally, to definitively establish a role for Hcrt-R1 in regulating cocaine intake, we assessed IV cocaine self-administration in Hcrt-R1 knockout mice. We found that SB-334867 (1-4 mg/kg dose-dependently decreased cocaine (0.5 mg/kg/infusion self-administration in rats but did not alter responding for food rewards under the same schedule of reinforcement. This suggests that SB-334867 decreased cocaine reinforcement without negatively impacting operant performance. SB-334867 (1-4 mg/kg also dose-dependently attenuated the stimulatory effects of cocaine (10 mg/kg on brain reward systems, as measured by reversal of cocaine-induced lowering of ICSS thresholds in rats. Finally, we found that Hcrt-R1 knockout mice self-administered far less cocaine than wildtype mice across the entire dose-response function. These data demonstrate that Hcrt-R1 play an important role in regulating the reinforcing and reward-enhancing properties of cocaine, and suggest that hypocretin transmission is likely essential for establishing and maintaining the cocaine habit in human addicts.

  18. The Reinforcement Effect of Nano-Zirconia on the Transverse Strength of Repaired Acrylic Denture Base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Gad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of incorporation of glass fiber, zirconia, and nano-zirconia on the transverse strength of repaired denture base. Materials and Methods. Eighty specimens of heat polymerized acrylic resin were prepared and randomly divided into eight groups (n=10: one intact group (control and seven repaired groups. One group was repaired with autopolymerized resin while the other six groups were repaired using autopolymerized resin reinforced with 2 wt% or 5 wt% glass fiber, zirconia, or nano-zirconia particles. A three-point bending test was used to measure the transverse strength. The results were analyzed using SPSS and repeated measure ANOVA and post hoc least significance (LSD test (P≤0.05. Results. Among repaired groups it was found that autopolymerized resin reinforced with 2 or 5 wt% nano-zirconia showed the highest transverse strength (P≤0.05. Repairs with autopolymerized acrylic resin reinforced with 5 wt% zirconia showed the lowest transverse strength value. There was no significant difference between the groups repaired with repair resin without reinforcement, 2 wt% zirconia, and glass fiber reinforced resin. Conclusion. Reinforcing of repair material with nano-zirconia may significantly improve the transverse strength of some fractured denture base polymers.

  19. Load eccentricity effects on behavior of circular footings reinforced with geogrid sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Badakhshan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an experimental study for an eccentrically loaded circular footing, resting on a geogrid reinforced sand bed, is performed. To achieve this aim, the steel model footing of 120 mm in diameter and sand in relative density of 60% are used. Also, the effects of depth of first and second geogrid layers and number of reinforcement layers (1–4 on the settlement-load response and tilt of footing under various load eccentricities (0 cm, 0.75 cm, 1.5 cm, 2.25 cm and 3 cm are investigated. Test results indicate that ultimate bearing capacity increases in comparison with unreinforced condition. It is observed that when the reinforcements are placed in the optimum embedment depth (u/D = 0.42 and h/D = 0.42, the bearing capacity ratio (BCR increases with increasing load eccentricity to the core boundary of footing, and that with further increase of load eccentricity, the BCR decreases. Besides, the tilt of footing increases linearly with increasing settlement. Finally, by reinforcing the sand bed, the tilt of footing decreases at 2 layers of reinforcement and then increases by increasing the number of reinforcement layers.

  20. Caffeine, a common active adulterant of cocaine, enhances the reinforcing effect of cocaine and its motivational value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, José Pedro; Scorza, Cecilia; Serra, Gian Pietro; Perra, Valentina; Galvalisi, Martín; Abin-Carriquiry, Juan Andrés; Piras, Giovanna; Valentini, Valentina

    2016-08-01

    Caffeine is one of the psychoactive substances most widely used as an adulterant in illicit drugs, such as cocaine. Animal studies have demonstrated that caffeine is able to potentiate several cocaine actions, although the enhancement of the cocaine reinforcing property by caffeine is less reported, and the results depend on the paradigms and experimental protocols used. We examined the ability of caffeine to enhance the motivational and rewarding properties of cocaine using an intravenous self-administration paradigm in rats. Additionally, the role of caffeine as a primer cue during extinction was evaluated. In naïve rats, we assessed (1) the ability of the cocaine (0.250-0.125 mg/kg/infusion) and caffeine (0.125-0.0625 mg/kg/infusion) combination to maintain self-administration in fixed ratio (FR) and progressive ratio (PR) schedules of reinforcement compared with cocaine or caffeine alone and (2) the effect of caffeine (0.0625 mg/kg/infusion) in the maintenance of responding in the animals exposed to the combination of the drugs during cocaine extinction. Cocaine combined with caffeine and cocaine alone was self-administered on FR and PR schedules of reinforcement. Interestingly, the breaking point determined for the cocaine + caffeine group was significantly higher than the cocaine group. Moreover, caffeine, that by itself did not maintain self-administration behavior in naïve rats, maintained drug-seeking behavior of rats previously exposed to combinations of cocaine + caffeine. Caffeine enhances the reinforcing effects of cocaine and its motivational value. Our results highlight the role of active adulterants commonly used in cocaine-based illicit street drugs.

  1. Numerical Evaluation of Size Effect on the Stress-Strain Behaviour of Geotextile-Reinforced Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosseinpour, I.; Mirmoradi, S.H.; Barari, Amin

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of sample size on the stress-strain behavior and strength characteristics of geotextile reinforced sand using the finite element numerical analysis. The effect of sample size was investigated by studying the effects of varying the number of geotextile layers...

  2. Effects of moisture on glass fiber-reinforced polymer composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alzamora Guzman, Vladimir Joel; Brøndsted, Povl

    2015-01-01

    Glass fiber polymer composites are used in wind turbine blades because of their high-specific strength and stiffness, good fatigue properties, and low cost. The wind industry is moving offshore to satisfy economies of scale with larger turbines. High humidity in this environment degrades mechanical...... performance of wind turbine blades over their lifetime. Here, environmental moisture conditions were simulated by immersing glass fiber-reinforced polymer specimens in salt water for a period of up to 8 years. The mechanical properties of specimens were analyzed before and after immersion to evaluate...... the degradation mechanisms. Single-fiber tensile testing was also performed at different moisture conditions. The water-diffusion mechanism was studied to quantify the diffusion coefficients as a function of salt concentration, sample geometry, and fiber direction. Three degradation mechanisms were observed...

  3. EFFECTS OF TREATMENT INTEGRITY FAILURES DURING DIFFERENTIAL REINFORCEMENT OF ALTERNATIVE BEHAVIOR: A TRANSLATIONAL MODEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Pipkin, Claire St; Vollmer, Timothy R; Sloman, Kimberly N

    2010-01-01

    Differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) is used frequently as a treatment for problem behavior. Previous studies on treatment integrity failures during DRA suggest that the intervention is robust, but research has not yet investigated the effects of different types of integrity failures. We examined the effects of two types of integrity failures on DRA, starting with a human operant procedure and extending the results to children with disabilities in a school setting. Human operant results (Experiment 1) showed that conditions involving reinforcement for problem behavior were more detrimental than failing to reinforce appropriate behavior alone, and that condition order affected the results. Experiments 2 and 3 replicated the effects of combined errors and sequence effects during actual treatment implementation. PMID:20808495

  4. The role of delamination in failure of fibre-reinforced composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisnom, M R

    2012-04-28

    The mechanisms by which delamination contributes to the failure of fibre-reinforced composites are reviewed. Through-thickness failure owing to interlaminar stresses is considered first, and the effect of delamination in impact and compression after impact. The way in which in-plane failure can occur by delamination and matrix cracks joining up to produce a fracture surface without the need to break fibres is considered next. Examples of quasi-isotropic laminates loaded at different off-axis angles, and with different numbers and thicknesses of ply blocks show large differences in unnotched tensile strength controlled by delamination from the free edge. Similar mechanisms determine the strength of notched specimens and give rise to the hole size effect, whereby tensile strength increases with decreasing hole diameter owing to increased delamination and splitting. Open hole tension and over-height compact tension tests with constant in-plane dimensions show a transition in failure mode with increasing ply block thickness from fibre-dominated fracture to complete delamination. In all these cases, the critical factor controlling strength is the relative propensity to delaminate.

  5. The effect of reinforcement volume ratio on porosity and thermal conductivity in Al-Mgo composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recep Calin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of reinforcement volume ratios (RVR on composite structure and thermal conductivity were examined in Al-MgO reinforced metal matrix composites (MMCs of 5%, 10% and 15% RVR produced by melt stirring. In the production of composites, EN AW 1050A aluminum alloy was used as the matrix material and MgO powders with particle size of -105 µm were used as the reinforcement material. For every composite specimen was produced at 500 rev/min stirring speed, at 750 °C liquid matrix temperature and 4 minutes stirring time. Composite samples were cooled under normal atmosphere. Then, microstructures of the samples were determined and evaluated by using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS analysis. In general, it was observed that the reinforcement exhibited a homogeneous distribution. Furthermore, it was determined that the increase in the RVR increased porosity. From the Scanning Electron Microscope images, a thermal Ansys model was generated to determine effective thermal conductivity. Effective thermal conductivity of Al-MgO composites increased with the decrease in reinforcement volume ratio.

  6. Behavioral effects of microwave reinforcement schedules and variations in microwave intensity on albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitulli, W F; Lambert, J K; Brown, S W; Quinn, J M

    1987-12-01

    The objective of this exploratory investigation was to determine the interactive effects of fixed-ratio scheduling of microwave reinforcement in tandem with changes in microwave intensity. Nine albino rats were conditioned to regulate their thermal environment with microwave radiation while living in a Skinner (operant conditioning) Box in which the ambient temperature was about 27.13 degrees F at the beginning of the session. Each rat obtained a 6-sec. exposure of microwave radiation on a fixed-ratio schedule of MW reinforcement, the values of which varied from FR-1 to FR-30. Intensities of MW radiation were 62.5 W, 125 W, 250 W, and 437.5 W. Sessions lasted for 8 to 9 hr. over an approximate 13-mo. period. The effects of the intensity of microwave reinforcement varied as a function of the ratio value of the schedule used. Continuous reinforcement (FR-1) produced the lowest over-all rates, whereas FR-15, and FR-25 produced the highest over-all rates. Relatively higher thermal-behavior rates occurred under 62.5 W than under any of the other MW intensities for FR-1, FR-15, and FR-25, whereas FR-10 and FR-30 ratios produced intermediate rates of thermal responding which were constant for all values of MW intensity. These data are explained in terms of interactive effects between the "local" satiation or deprivation properties of the MW intensity and the ratio requirements of the schedule of MW reinforcement.

  7. Behavioral effects of microwave reinforcement schedules and variations in microwave intensity on albino rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitulli, W.F.; Lambert, J.K.; Brown, S.W.; Quinn, J.M.

    1987-12-01

    The objective of this exploratory investigation was to determine the interactive effects of fixed-ratio scheduling of microwave reinforcement in tandem with changes in microwave intensity. Nine albino rats were conditioned to regulate their thermal environment with microwave radiation while living in a Skinner (operant conditioning) Box in which the ambient temperature was about 27.13 degrees F at the beginning of the session. Each rat obtained a 6-sec. exposure of microwave radiation on a fixed-ratio schedule of MW reinforcement, the values of which varied from FR-1 to FR-30. Intensities of MW radiation were 62.5 W, 125 W, 250 W, and 437.5 W. Sessions lasted for 8 to 9 hr. over an approximate 13-mo. period. The effects of the intensity of microwave reinforcement varied as a function of the ratio value of the schedule used. Continuous reinforcement (FR-1) produced the lowest over-all rates, whereas FR-15, and FR-25 produced the highest over-all rates. Relatively higher thermal-behavior rates occurred under 62.5 W than under any of the other MW intensities for FR-1, FR-15, and FR-25, whereas FR-10 and FR-30 ratios produced intermediate rates of thermal responding which were constant for all values of MW intensity. These data are explained in terms of interactive effects between the local satiation or deprivation properties of the MW intensity and the ratio requirements of the schedule of MW reinforcement.

  8. Study of the Effect of Reinforced Glass Fibers on Fatigue Properties for Composite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed G. Hamad

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This  research  included  the  study of  the effect  of  reinforced  glass fibers  on  fatigue  properties  for composite materials. Polyester  resin  is used  as  connective  material(matrix in two types  of  glass  fibers  for reinforced. The  first  type  is regular  glass fibers  (woven  roving with the  directional(0-90, the second  is  glass  fibers  with  the  random  direction. The first type is the panels with regular reinforced (0-90, and with number of layer (1,2.The  second  type  is  the  panels with random  reinforced  and  with  number  of  layers (1,2. The  results  and  the  laboratory  examinations  for  the samples  reinforce  with  fibers  have  manifested (0-90  that there  is  a decrease  in the number  of  cycles  to the  fatigue  limit  when  the  number  of  reinforce  layers  have  increased . And  an elasticity of this  type  of  samples  are decreased  by  increasing  the number  of  reinforced  layers  with  fiber  .We  find  the  random  reinforced  number  of  fatigue  cycles  for the samples  with  two  layers  of  random  reinforced  are  decreased  more  than the samples  with  one  layer of random  reinforced .

  9. Reinforcing effects of caffeine and theobromine as found in chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Hendrik J; Blackburn, Rachel J

    2005-08-01

    Although in a previous study we showed that caffeine and theobromine were the main psychopharmacologically active constituents in a 50-g bar of chocolate, mere activity does not guarantee a role in our liking for the food. Our aim was to see if liking for a drink repeatedly paired with these amounts of caffeine and theobromine would increase compared to a placebo-paired drink. Participants (n=64) consumed a 'novel' drink + treatment capsule on six non-consecutive mornings using a double-blind, placebo-controlled independent-sample design. Aspects of liking and intensity of various sensory descriptors for these drinks were measured at every drink collection. Treatment capsules contained either an ecologically relevant dose combination of 19-mg caffeine and 250-mg theobromine or a placebo. Liking for the drink paired with the methylxanthine-containing capsules increased over time compared to the placebo-paired drink. This highly significant effect was confirmed by subjective, retrospective changes in liking for the drink. Methylxanthines in amounts found in 50-g chocolate may well contribute to our liking for chocolate, especially to the more acquired taste for dark chocolate.

  10. Boron doping effect on the interface interaction and mechanical properties of graphene reinforced copper matrix composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Bingcheng; Li, Jiajun; Zhao, Naiqin; Shi, Chunsheng; Ma, Liying; He, Chunnian; He, Fang; Liu, Enzuo

    2017-12-01

    In order to explore an efficient way of modifying graphene to improve the Cu/graphene interfacial bonding and remain the excellent mechanical and physical properties of graphene, the interaction between Cu and the pristine, atomic oxygen functionalized and boron- or nitrogen-doped graphene with and without defects was systematically investigated by density functional theory calculation. The electronic structure analysis revealed that the chemically active oxygen can enhance the binding energy Eb of Cu with graphene by forming strong covalent bonds, supporting the experimental study suggesting an vital role of intermediate oxygen in the improvement of the mechanical properties of graphene/Cu composites. Due to the strong hybridization between Cu-3d electron states and the 2p states of both boron and carbon atoms, the boron-doping effect is comparable to or even better than the chemical bridging role of oxygen in the reduced graphene oxide reinforced Cu matrix composite. Furthermore, we evidenced an enhancement of mechanical properties including bulk modulus, shear modulus and Young modulus of graphene/Cu composite after boron doping, which closely relates to the increased interfacial binding energy between boron-doped graphene and Cu surfaces.

  11. Reinforcement effect of soy protein/carbohydrate ratio in styrene-butadiene polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soy protein and carbohydrate at different ratios were blended with latex to form composites. The variation of protein to carbohydrate ratio has a sifnificant effect on the composite properties and the results from dynamic mechanical method showed a substantial reinforcement effect. The composites ...

  12. Effect of Moisture Absorption Behavior on Mechanical Properties of Basalt Fibre Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amuthakkannan Pandian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of mechanical properties of fibre reinforced polymeric materials under different environmental conditions is much important. This is because materials with superior ageing resistance can be satisfactorily durable. Moisture effects in fibre reinforced plastic composites have been widely studied. Basalt fibre reinforced unsaturated polyester resin composites were subjected to water immersion tests using both sea and normal water in order to study the effects of water absorption behavior on mechanical properties. Composites specimens containing woven basalt, short basalt, and alkaline and acid treated basalt fibres were prepared. Water absorption tests were conducted by immersing specimens in water at room temperature for different time periods till they reached their saturation state. The tensile, flexural, and impact properties of water immersed specimens were conducted and compared with dry specimens as per the ASTM standard. It is concluded that the water uptake of basalt fibre is considerable loss in the mechanical properties of the composites.

  13. The role of multisensor data fusion in neuromuscular control of a sagittal arm with a pair of muscles using actor-critic reinforcement learning method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golkhou, V; Parnianpour, M; Lucas, C

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we consider the role of multisensor data fusion in neuromuscular control using an actor-critic reinforcement learning method. The model we use is a single link system actuated by a pair of muscles that are excited with alpha and gamma signals. Various physiological sensor information such as proprioception, spindle sensors, and Golgi tendon organs have been integrated to achieve an oscillatory movement with variable amplitude and frequency, while achieving a stable movement with minimum metabolic cost and coactivation. The system is highly nonlinear in all its physical and physiological attributes. Transmission delays are included in the afferent and efferent neural paths to account for a more accurate representation of the reflex loops. This paper proposes a reinforcement learning method with an Actor-Critic architecture instead of middle and low level of central nervous system (CNS). The Actor in this structure is a two layer feedforward neural network and the Critic is a model of the cerebellum. The Critic is trained by the State-Action-Reward-State-Action (SARSA) method. The Critic will train the Actor by supervisory learning based on previous experiences. The reinforcement signal in SARSA is evaluated based on available alternatives concerning the concept of multisensor data fusion. The effectiveness and the biological plausibility of the present model are demonstrated by several simulations. The system showed excellent tracking capability when we integrated the available sensor information. Addition of a penalty for activation of muscles resulted in much lower muscle coactivation while keeping the movement stable.

  14. Briefly delayed reinforcement effects on variable-ratio and yoked-interval schedule performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtyn, August F; Lattal, Kennon A

    2013-09-01

    Most investigations of briefly delayed reinforcement have involved schedules that arrange a time-plus-response requirement. The present experiment examined whether briefly delaying reinforcement on schedules that have a ratio requirement differs from results with schedules that have a time-plus-response requirement. Four pigeons responded on a two-component multiple schedule. One component arranged a variable-ratio (VR) 50 and the other a variable-interval (VI) schedule in which the distribution of reinforcers was yoked to the preceding VR schedule. Across a series of conditions, delays were imposed in both schedules. These delays were brief (0.25- or 0.5-s) unsignaled delays and, as control conditions, a 5-s unsignaled delay and a 0.5-s delay signaled by a blackout of the chamber. In the yoked-VI component, the brief unsignaled delay increased response rates in six of nine opportunities and increased the proportion of short interresponse times (IRTs) (reinforcement condition. The results replicate effects reported with time-based schedules and extend these observations by showing that changes commonly observed in VI performance with briefly delayed reinforcement are not characteristic of VR responding. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  15. Testing the effect of medical positive reinforcement training on salivary cortisol levels in bonobos and orangutans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Behringer

    Full Text Available The management of captive animals has been improved by the establishment of positive reinforcement training as a tool to facilitate interactions between caretakers and animals. In great apes, positive reinforcement training has also been used to train individuals to participate in simple medical procedures to monitor physical health. One aim of positive reinforcement training is to establish a relaxed atmosphere for situations that, without training, might be very stressful. This is especially true for simple medical procedures that can require animals to engage in behaviours that are unusual or use unfamiliar medical devices that can be upsetting. Therefore, one cannot exclude the possibility that the training itself is a source of stress. In this study, we explored the effects of medical positive reinforcement training on salivary cortisol in two groups of captive ape species, orangutans and bonobos, which were familiar to this procedure. Furthermore, we successfully biologically validated the salivary cortisol assay, which had already been validated for bonobos, for orangutans. For the biological validation, we found that cortisol levels in orangutan saliva collected during baseline conditions were lower than in samples collected during three periods that were potentially stressful for the animals. However, we did not find significant changes in salivary cortisol during medical positive reinforcement training for either bonobos or orangutans. Therefore, for bonobos and orangutans with previous exposure to medical PRT, the procedure is not stressful. Thus, medical PRT provides a helpful tool for the captive management of the two species.

  16. Effect of water absorption on the mechanical properties of cotton fabric-reinforced geopolymer composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Alomayri

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cotton fabric (CF reinforced geopolymer composites are fabricated with fibre loadings of 4.5, 6.2 and 8.3 wt%. Results show that flexural strength, flexural modulus, impact strength, hardness and fracture toughness are increased as the fibre content increased. The ultimate mechanical properties were achieved with a fibre content of 8.3 wt%. The effect of water absorption on mechanical and physical properties of CF reinforced geopolymer composites is also investigated. The magnitude of maximum water uptake and diffusion coefficient is increased with an increase in fibre content. Flexural strength, modulus, impact strength, hardness and fracture toughness values are decreased as a result of water absorption. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM is used to characterise the microstructure and failure mechanisms of dry and wet cotton fibre reinforced geopolymer composites.

  17. Object habituation in horses: The effect of voluntary vs. negatively reinforced approach to frightening stimuli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Janne Winther

    2013-01-01

    Reasons for performing the study: The ability of horses to habituate to novel objects influences safety in the horse–human relationship. However, the effectiveness of different habituation techniques has not been investigated in detail. Objectives: 1) To investigate whether horses show increased...... stress responses when negatively reinforced to approach novel objects, compared with horses allowed to voluntarily explore the objects and 2) whether a negatively reinforced approach facilitates object habituation. Methods: Twenty-two 2–3-year-old Danish Warmblood geldings were included. Half...... of the horses (NR group) were negatively reinforced by a familiar human handler to approach a collection of novel objects in a test arena. The other half were individually released in the arena and were free to explore the objects (VOL group). On the next day, the horses were exposed to the objects again...

  18. Effect of surface treatments on tensile properties of hemp fiber reinforced polypropylene composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; He, Lujv; Zhang, Libin

    2017-04-01

    Three forms of hemp fiber (untreated, treated with sodium hydroxide solution and treated with sodium hydroxide solution followed by three-aminopropyltriethoxysilane) reinforced polypropylene composites were prepared. The effects of chemical treatments on tensile properties of the composites were studied. The results show that alkali treatment followed by three-aminopropyltriethoxysilane treatment significantly improves the tensile properties. In particular, the specific tensile strengths of alkali-silane treated composites with 30% fiber content are only 4% lower than those of composites reinforced with glass fiber. Scanning electron microscopy examination shows that the improvements in tensile properties can be attributed to better bonding between the fiber and matrix.

  19. Silica reinforced tyre rubbers: mechanistic aspects of the role of coupling agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Brinke, J.W.

    2002-01-01

    Since the introduction of the "green" tyre, silica is more and more used as a reinforcing filler in tyre applications. Silica when compared to carbon black, strongly reduces the rolling resistance of a tyre, which in turn leads to a lower fuel consumption of the car. The disadvantage of the use of

  20. The Effects of Interspersal Training versus High-Density Reinforcement on Spelling Acquisition and Retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neef, Nancy A.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of interspersing known items during spelling instruction on new words for three moderately to severely mentally retarded male students (ages 19 to 24). Results showed that high density reinforcement did facilitate performance over baseline; however, interspersal training was superior to the other conditions in…

  1. Effects of Prevent-Teach-Reinforce on Academic Engagement and Disruptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJager, Brett W.; Filter, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of prevent-teach-reinforce (P-T-R), a functional behavioral assessment-based intervention for students with behavior problems, using an A-B-A-B design with follow-up. Participants included three students in kindergarten, fourth grade, and fifth grade in a rural Midwestern school district. P-T-R interventions…

  2. The Effect of Self-Recording and Social Reinforcement Components of Parent Training Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csapo, Marg

    1979-01-01

    Evaluates the effectiveness of two components of parent training programs: (1) parents recording their own ignoring and rewarding behavior, and (2) verbal social reinforcement from peers and the consultant. Subjects were 40 parents of children (seven to nine years) with behavior problems. (MP)

  3. Effect of fertilising and reinforcing tall grassveld on duplex soil in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of five levels of nitrogen, viz. 0, 125, 250, 375 and 500 kg nitrogen/ha, were compared on a tall Hyparrhenia community that had been reinforced with either star grass (Cynodon nlemfuensis Vanderyst var. nlemfuensis) or couch grass (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.). The experiment was conducted on a highly ...

  4. Differential Effects of Reinforcement on the Self-Monitoring of On-Task Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Tiffany L.; Haut, Jillian M.

    2016-01-01

    In the current study, the differential effects of reinforcement on a self-monitoring intervention were evaluated. Three students nominated by their teachers for having a marked difficultly maintaining on-task behaviors participated in the study. Using an alternating treatments single-case design to assess self-monitoring with and without…

  5. Effects of Differential Reinforcement and Rules with Feedback on Preference for Choice and Verbal Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsina, Allen; Thompson, Rachel H.; Rodriguez, Nicole M.; Vanselow, Nicholas R.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of differential reinforcement and accurate verbal rules with feedback on the preference for choice and the verbal reports of 6 adults. Participants earned points on a probabilistic schedule by completing the terminal links of a concurrent-chains arrangement in a computer-based game of chance. In free-choice terminal links,…

  6. The Reinforcement Magnitude of Flavored Stimulus Interferes With Omission Effects in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Bueno, José Lino Oliveira; Judice-Daher, Danielle Marcilio; Deliberato, Henrique Guindalini

    2014-01-01

    Reinforcement omission effects (ROEs) have beeninterpreted as behavioral transient facilitation after nonreinforcement inducedby primary frustration, and/or behavioral transient inhibition afterreinforcement induced by demotivation or temporal control. According to frustrationtheory, the size of the ROEs should depend directly on the reinforcementmagnitude: the behavioral facilitation after thereinforcement omission of larger magnitude should be greater than that observedafter the reinforceme...

  7. Effect of Different Bar Embedment Length on Bond-Slip in Plain and Fiber Reinforced Concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jankovic, D.; Chopra, M.B.; Kunnath, S.K.

    2001-01-01

    This research aims to study the behaviour of the concrete-steel bond using numerical models, taking into account the effect of the different bar embedment length. Both plain and fiber reinforced concrete (FRC) are modeled. The interface bond stress as well as load-displacement response of the

  8. Effects of legume reinforcement of veld on the performance of beef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To measure the effect of legume reinforcement of veld on animal production, a 24 ha block of reverted granite sandveld dominated by Hyparrhenia filipendula was fenced into 8 equal-sized paddocks, 4 of which were seeded with legumes. Two paddocks were seeded in December 1971 with a mixture of Stylosanthes ...

  9. The Effect of Positive Peer Reinforcement on Psychological Measures and Guitar Songleading Performance in University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of positive peer reinforcement on self-reported psychological measures and songleading performance in beginning guitar students. No differences were found between the control group (n = 21) and the experimental group (n = 20) concerning psychological measures of self-esteem, stress, and…

  10. Effect of shearing on the reinforcement properties of vital wheat gluten

    Science.gov (United States)

    The reinforcement properties of vital wheat gluten as a biomaterial filler for a carboxylated styrene-butadiene rubber were examined to assess its effectiveness as a filler for carboxylated styrene-butadiene rubber composites. Composites were formulated using 10-40% vital wheat gluten by mixing aqu...

  11. Effects of Continuous and Intermittent Reinforcement for Problem Behavior during Functional Communication Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsdell, April S.; Iwata, Brian A.; Hanley, Gregory P.; Thompson, Rachel H.; Kahng, Sung Woo

    2000-01-01

    A study evaluated the effectiveness of functional communication training (FCT) in reducing problem behavior of 5 individuals with severe mental retardation and in strengthening alternative behavior. Four participants shifted response allocation from problem to alternative behavior as the schedule of reinforcement of problem behavior became more…

  12. Comparison of the Frequency and Effectiveness of Positive and Negative Reinforcement Practices in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dad, Hukam; Ali, Riasat; Janjua, Muhammad Zaigham Qadeer; Shahzad, Saqib; Khan, Muhammad Saeed

    2010-01-01

    The major purpose of the study was to compare the frequency and effectiveness of positive and negative reinforcement practices deployed by teachers in boys' and girls' secondary schools in urban and rural areas. It was hypothesized that there would be no difference in use of reward and punishment by teachers in secondary schools in urban and rural…

  13. Effect of reinforcing steel debonding on RC frame performance in resisting progressive collapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed Mohamed Elsayed

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the experimental program performed to study the effect of reinforcing steel debonding on progressive collapse resistance of moment resisting frame designed and detailed in accordance with the Egyptian code provisions for seismic design. Half-scale specimens of the first story were extracted from the frame structure prototype. Each specimen represented a two-bay beam resulting from the removal of middle supporting column of the lower floor. In all specimens, the exterior two short columns were restrained against horizontal and vertical displacements and a monotonic vertical load was applied on the middle column stub to simulate the vertical load of the upper stories. Gradually increasing vertical load at the location of the removed column is continuously applied and increased up to failure. The cracking patterns, strains and the deformations at selected locations of reinforcing steel and concrete are recorded for further analysis. Different debonded reinforcement ratios, places and length are examined in this study to evaluate its effect on the collapse resistance performance of the frame. The effect of debonding on the distribution of reinforcing steel strain is evaluated. The nonlinear response of the frame to the removal of the column is evaluated and the amount of energy absorbed during the course of deformation is calculated.

  14. Effects of a lag schedule of reinforcement with progressive time delay on topographical mand variability in children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbaugh, Bryant C; Falcomata, Terry S; Ferguson, Raechal H

    2017-09-28

    Evaluate the effects of a Lag 1 schedule of reinforcement and progressive time delay (TD) on topographical mand variability in children with autism. Using single-subject design methodology, a multiple baseline across behaviors with embedded reversal design was employed. During Lag 0, reinforcement was delivered contingent on any independent instances of manding. During Lag 1 + TD, prompts were faded and reinforcement was delivered contingent on independent or prompted variant mand topographies. Higher levels of topographical mand variability were observed during Lag 1 + TD for both participants. A Lag 1 schedule of reinforcement with progressive TD increased variability across functionally equivalent vocal mand topographies for both participants. This finding extends prior literature by providing a novel model for studying reinforced mand variability in children, and by demonstrating how practitioners could use prompts and differential reinforcement to increase topographical mand variability in children with autism.

  15. Offspring of prenatal IV nicotine exposure exhibit increased sensitivity to the reinforcing effects of methamphetamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Brown Harrod

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with increased substance abuse in offspring. Preclinical research shows that in utero exposure to nicotine, the primary psychoactive compound in tobacco smoke, influences the neurodevelopment of reward systems and alters motivated behavior in offspring. The present study determined if prenatal nicotine (PN exposure altered the sensitivity to the reinforcing and aversive effects of methamphetamine (METH in offspring using a low dose, intravenous (IV exposure method. Pregnant dams were administered nicotine (0.05 mg/kg/injection or prenatal saline (PS 3×/day on gestational days 8-21, and adult offspring were tested using METH self-administration (experiment 1 or METH-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA; experiment 2 procedures. For METH self-administration, animals were trained to respond for IV METH (0.05 mg/kg/injection; fixed-ratio 3 and they were tested on varying doses the reinforcer (0.0005-1.0 mg/kg/injection. For METH CTA, rats received three saccharin and METH pairings (0, 0.3, or 0.5 mg/kg, sc followed by fourteen daily extinction trials. Experiment 1: PN and PS animals exhibited inverted U-shaped dose-response curves; however, the PN animal’s curve was shifted to the left, suggesting PN animals were more sensitive to the reinforcing effects of METH. Experiment 2: METH CTA was acquired in a dose-dependent manner and the factor of PN exposure was not related to the acquisition or extinction of METH-induced CTA. There were no sex differences in either experiment. These results indicate that adult offspring of IV PN exposure exhibited altered motivation for the reinforcing effects of METH. This suggests that PN exposure, via maternal smoking, will alter the reinforcing effects of METH during later stages of development, and furthermore, will influence substance use vulnerability in adult human offspring.

  16. Effect of Lubrication on Sliding Wear of Red Mud Particulate Reinforced Aluminium Alloy 6061

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Panwar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In present study, Red mud, an industrial waste, has been utilized as a reinforcement material to fabricate Aluminium 6061 matrix based metal matrix composite. Taguchi L18 orthogonal array has been employed for fabrication of composite castings and for conducting the tribological experimentation. ANOVA analysis has been applied to examine the effect of individual parameters such as sliding condition: dry and wet, reinforcement weight fraction, load, speed, and sliding distance on specific wear rate obtained experimentally. It has been found that tensile strength and impact energy increases while elongation decreases, with increasing weight fraction and decrease in particle size of red mud. The percentage contribution of the effect of factors on SWR is Sliding condition (73.17, speed (7.84, percentage reinforcement (7.35, load (5.75, sliding distance (2.24, and particle size (1.25. It has also been observed that specific wear rate is very low in wet condition. However, it decreases with increase in weight fraction of reinforcement, decrease in load and sliding speed. Al6061/red mud metal matrix composites have shown reasonable strength and wear resistance. The use of red mud in Aluminium composite provides the solution for disposal of red mud and can possibly become an economic replacement of Aluminium and its alloys.

  17. Histopathological evaluation of the effects of fiber reinforced acrylic resins on living tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Ali Kemal; Polat, Nilüfer Tülin; Turgut, Mehmet; Özdemir Dogan, Derya; Göze, Fahrettin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was the histopathological evaluation of the effects of the fiber reinforced acrylic resins on living tissues. The study was performed on 21 rabbits. Three groups, each including seven subjects, were formed. There was no applied plate in the control group. For the second group, heat-polymerized acrylic resin plates were inserted. For the third group, heat-polymerized acrylic resin plates containing proportionally 5% chopped silanated E type glass fiber were inserted. Plates were fixed to the palatine bone of the rabbits with titanium screws. Before the implementation of the plates and 1 month after the plates were applied, soft tissue samples were taken from the buccal mucosa of the rabbits. Also, tissue samples were taken from the control group. All samples were evaluated histopathologically. In the control group, only a focal atrophy was observed. In the acrylic group, large decomposition containing erythrocytes under the parahyperkeratotic region and micro-vesicle like spongiotic tissue reactions were observed. In the fiber reinforced acrylic group, widespread focal atrophy, bulgy look of the epithelium cells similar to apoptosis, over-distension and sub-corneal decomposition had been observed. In terms of atrophy and hyperkeratosis there were no statistically significant differences among groups. However, in respect to sub-corneal decomposition, there was a statistically significant difference in the fiber reinforced group (p decomposition of the fiber reinforced group had made us think that fiber edges had a traumatic effect on the reaction.

  18. Effect of cracking and randomness of inputs on corrosion initiation of reinforced concrete bridge decks exposed to chlorides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Konecny

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is aimed at the indicative evaluation of the effect of random scatter of input parameters in case of durability of reinforced concrete bridge deck. The time to onset of corrosion of steel reinforcement of concrete bridge deck exposed to chloride is evaluated. The effect of cracking in concrete onto chloride ingress is considered. The selected steel reinforcement protection strategies are: unprotected steel reinforcement, epoxy-coated steel reinforcement and water-proof barrier bellow asphalt overlay. The preliminary model for damage effect on chloride ion ingress through water proof membrane under penetrable asphalt overlay is used. 2-D finite element chloride ingress model is combined with Monte Carlo simulation technique. The innovative crack effect modeling via highly penetrable elements is applied. Deterministic and probabilistic calculations are compared.

  19. Effect of descriptions and reinforcement on rule-generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Cepeda-Islas

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of verbal descriptions and different amounts of consequences onthe acquisition and transfer of a first order matching-to-sample response,as well as rule-formulation, was assessed. Twenty undergraduate studentswere assigned to four groups, which differentiated regarding the inclusion ofincomplete texts and feedback at the end of each session. The rules, wrotedown at the end of each session, were analyzed using categories derivedfrom previous studies. The effects were observed at the response acquisitionduring the trainings and tests. It is discussed that an effective performancedoes not always lead to precise verbal descriptions and the instructionaleffect of the incomplete texts upon the formulation of effective rules.

  20. Evaluation of size effect on shear strength of reinforced concrete ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The generic form of the size effect law has been retained considering the merits of Siao's model and modified Bazant's size effect law using the large experimental data base reported in the literature. The proposed equation for predicting the shear strength of deep beams incorporates the compressive strength of concrete, ...

  1. Effect of chloride-based deicers on reinforced concrete structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    We conducted an extensive literature review and performed laboratory tests to assess the effect of chloride-based deicers on the rebars and dowel bars in concrete and to determine whether or not deicer corrosion inhibitors help preserve the transport...

  2. Effects on Homework Completion and Accuracy of Varied and Constant Reinforcement within an Interdependent Group Contingency System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Steven G.; Akin-Little, Angeleque; Newman-Eig, Lynne M.

    2010-01-01

    The present study sought to evaluate the efficacy of an interdependent group contingency program on increasing homework completion and accuracy rates in fourth grade students in an elementary school. In addition, the present study attempted to determine whether randomized reinforcement was more effective than constant reinforcement. Overall, the…

  3. The Effects of an Observational Intervention on the Acquisition of Reinforcing Properties of a Previously Neutral Stimulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer-Dudek, Jessica; Greer, R. Douglas; Schmelzkopf, Jeannine

    2008-01-01

    This study sought to further investigate the effects of an observational intervention for two participants on the reinforcing property of pieces of string. Pre-observational intervention data showed that the neutral stimuli (strings) did not function to reinforce two participants' responding to a performance task or learning three new skills that…

  4. Effective Moment Of Inertia And Deflections Of Reinforced Concrete Beams Under Long-Term Loading

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmood, Khalid M.; Ashour, Samir A.; Al-Noury, Soliman I.

    1995-01-01

    The paper presents a method for estimating long-term deflections of reinforced concrete beams by considering creep and shrinkage effects separately. Based on equilibrium and compatibility conditions a method is developed for investigating the properties of a cracked transformed section under sustained load. The concept of effective moment of inertia is extended to predict initial-plus-creep deflections. Long-term deflections computed by the proposed method are compared with the experimental r...

  5. The effect of polymer coated pumice to the stiffness and flexural strength of reinforce concrete beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wijatmiko Indradi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pumice has been proven as substitution material aggregate in lightweight aggregate concrete (LWAC. However due to its characteristic, pumice has the disadvantages of its excessive water absorption during preparation of concrete mixture which may reduce concrete strength. Therefore in order to eliminate this additional water absorption, this study investigate the effect of coated pumice in concrete mixture to the beam flexural strength and stiffness. This study performed flexural strength test on three types of sample: 1 normal reinforce concrete beam, 2 reinforce concrete beam with uncoated pumice and 3 reinforce concrete beam with coated pumice. The result showed that the lightest weight concrete occurred on the coated pumice specimen, with the reduction of water absorption was 4% compared to the uncoated pumice specimen. The stiffness of the reinforce beam with coated pumice was lower compared to the uncoated ones, this was due to the reduction of adhesion action between cement and aggregates. However, the use of coated pumice increased the flexural strength compare to the uncoated ones with 2.58%.

  6. Effects of Reinforcement Method of Dissection Physiology Education on the Achievement in Pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitayama, Tomoya; Kagota, Satomi; Yoshikawa, Noriko; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Nishimura, Kanae; Miura, Takeshi; Yasui, Naomi; Shinozuka, Kazumasa; Nakabayashi, Toshikatsu

    2016-01-01

    The Pharmaceutical Education Support Center was established in the Department of Pharmacy at the School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Science of Mukogawa Women's University in 2014. We started teaching first and second years students according to proficiency from the 2014 academic year. Students were divided into two classes: the regular class (high proficiency class) and the basic class (low proficiency class), based on achievement in several basic subjects related to the study of pharmacy. The staffs in the Pharmaceutical Education Support Center reinforce what is taught to students in the basic class. In this reinforcement method of education, the class size is small, consisting of about 15 students, a quiz to review the previous lesson is given at the beginning of each lecture, and an additional five lectures are conducted, compared to the high proficiency class, which receives 15 lectures. In this study, we evaluated the effects of the reinforcement method of physiology education on achievement in pharmacology that was not conducted in the proficiency-dependent teaching method. The students in the basic class in physiology education were chosen based on achievement levels in anatomy. Achievement levels of pharmacology students in the basic class of physiology improved compared with those of students who had the same achievement levels in physiology but were not taught according to proficiency-dependent teaching in the 2013 academic year. These results suggest that the reinforcement method for education in basic subjects in pharmacy, such as physiology, can improve achievement in more advanced subjects, such as pharmacology.

  7. Effects of glass fiber modified with calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H(I)) reinforced cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, M.; Zhang, L.; Ge, S.; Cheng, X.

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H(I)) and glass fiber modified with C-S-H(I) (SiF) at ambient temperature were synthesized. SiF and untreated fiber (OF) were incorporated into cement paste. Phase composition of C-S-H(I), SiF and OF was characterized by XRD. The surface morphologies were characterized by SEM. Flexural performance of fiber reinforced cement (FRC) at different curing ages was investigated. Results indicated that both SiF and OF could reinforce cement paste. SiF had a more positive effect on improving the flexural performance of FRC than OF. The strength of SiF reinforced cement was 11.48MPa after 28 days curing when fiber volume was 1.0%, 12.55% higher than that of OF reinforced cement. The flexural strength increased with the addition of fiber volume. However, the large dosage of fiber might cause a decrease in flexural strength of FRC.

  8. Size-effects on yield surfaces for micro reinforced composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azizi, Reza; Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Legarth, Brian Nyvang

    2011-01-01

    Size effects in heterogeneous materials are studied using a rate independent higher order strain gradient plasticity theory, where strain gradient effects are incorporated in the free energy of the material. Numerical studies are carried out using a finite element method, where the components...... of the plastic strain tensor appear as free variables in addition to the displacement variables. Non-conventional boundary conditions are applied at material interfaces to model a constraint on plastic flow due to dislocation blocking. Unit cell calculations are carried out under generalized plane strain...

  9. Backfill Effects on Response of Buried Reinforced Concrete Slabs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-01

    38nionui ONVS 01O~ dilO 9.4 57- /j 4 ti tw to It %Lium Lŕ f34 58 CHAPTER 5 FIELD TEST RESULTS 5.1 GEOPHYSICAL SITE CHARACTERIZATION Surface seismic...of these tests and preliminary analysis of the data show that further information can be obtained on backfill effects on buried structures with...further analysis of the AFESC and Backfill Effects data. Two and tree dimensional finite element calculations should be performed to study the relative

  10. Crystallization and mechanical properties of reinforced PHBV composites using melt compounding: Effect of CNCs and CNFs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Du; Guomin, Zhao; Mingzhu, Pan; Leilei, Zhuang; Dagang, Li; Rui, Zhang

    2017-07-15

    Nanocellulose reinforced poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) composites were prepared using melt compounding. The effects of nanocellulose types (CNCs and CNFs) and nanocellulose content (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7wt%) on the crystallization, thermal and mechanical properties of PHBV composites were systematically compared in this study. The thermal stability of PHBV composites was improved by both CNCs and CNFs. CNFs with a higher thermal stability leaded to a higher thermal stability of PHBV composites. Both CNCs and CNFs induced a reduction in the crystalline size of PHBV spherulites. Furthermore, CNCs could act as a better nucleating agent for PHBV than did CNFs. CNCs and CNFs showed reinforcing effects in PHBV composites. At the equivalent content of nanocellulose, CNCs led to a higher tensile modulus of PHBV composites than did CNFs. 1wt% CNCs/PHBV composites exhibited the most optimum mechanical properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Autocontingencies: Suppressive and accelerative effects of pairs of shocks superimposed on a positively reinforced operant baseline

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Hank; Memmott, John

    1984-01-01

    Previous research has shown that unsignaled shock may accelerate positively reinforced operant responding if each shock signals a subsequent shock-free period. In order to explore the boundary conditions of this effect, two experiments were performed. In Experiment 1, pairs of unsignaled shocks separated by 15, 30, 60, or 120 seconds resulted in suppressed responding during the briefest intershock interval, and in accelerated responding during the longer intervals. When the second shock in ea...

  12. Parameters That Effect the Interfacial Stresses in Fibre Reinforced Plastic Laminates Strengthened Rc Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barış Sayın

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of externally bonded fiber-reinforced plastic (FRP laminates for strengthening of reinforced concrete beams has become an effective method. This method has been used because of the advantages of FRP materials such as their high strength-to-weight ratio, good corrosion resistance, and versatility in coping with different sectional shapes and corners. Many studies on this theme have been carried out since the early 1900s. In this study, interfacial stresses of reinforced concrete beams strengthened with FRP effect the parameters will be studied as experimental and numerical. Adhesives used in the beams applied to FRP's thickness, adhesive type and the state of the concrete surface, produced experimental samples are exposed to the bending effect will be studied as a comparative. Afterwards, by using the ANSYS® WB finite element program to model and analyze RC beams by externally bonding FRP will be carried out. Adhesive thickness, adhesive type, the concrete surface will be performed by entering the parameters for analysis of stress can be obtained as a result. Thus, the analytical expressions of stress and normal stress equations will establish should be modified. Finite element analysis and experimental results will be compared, compatibility investigated, the results and recommendations presented by the study be completed.

  13. Research of Effective Width of FRP U-shaped Hoop Reinforcement Properties of Concrete Beams by Shear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Baokun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paste fiber reinforced composite material (hereinafter referred to as FRP U-shaped hoop of reinforced concrete beams interfacial debonding is an important reinforcement technology research. For the effective width of the CFRP U-shaped hoop reinforcement, it is still a lack of in-depth research, only relying on the test research huge workload, this article (ANSYS and the numerical simulation in the whole process of the shear load release properties of finite element calculation software. According to the results of finite element analysis, the author studied the CFRP U-shaped hoop to increase the width of the shear capacity of reinforced concrete beams by the impact.

  14. Effect of SiC Nano powder on Multiaxial Woven and Chopped Randomly Oriented Flax/Sisal Fiber Reinforced composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalagi Ganesh R.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A study has been carried out to investigate effect of SiC Nano powder on tensile and impact properties of Multiaxial layers of Flax and Sisal fiber reinforced composites and randomly oriented chopped Flax and Sisal fiber reinforced composites. It has been observed that tensile strength and impact strength were improved using 6% of SiC Nanopowder into Multiaxial layer (+45º/-45º, 0º/90º of Flax and Sisal where as randomly oriented chopped Flax and Sisal fiber reinforced composites are improved in its stiffnes for the same composition of fiber, epoxy and SiC Nano powder. SEM Analysis are done to analyse the distribution of SiC in both Multiaxial layers of Flax and Sisal fiber reinforced composites and randomly oriented chopped Flax and Sisal fiber reinforced composites.

  15. Effect of tool plunge depth on reinforcement particles distribution in surface composite fabrication via friction stir processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Rathee

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium matrix surface composites are gaining alluring role especially in aerospace, defence, and marine industries. Friction stir processing (FSP is a promising novel solid state technique for surface composites fabrication. In this study, AA6061/SiC surface composites were fabricated and the effect of tool plunge depth on pattern of reinforcement particles dispersion in metal matrix was investigated. Six varying tool plunge depths were chosen at constant levels of shoulder diameter and tool tilt angle to observe the exclusive effect of plunge variation. Process parameters chosen for the experimentation are speed of rotation, travel speed and tool tilt angle which were taken as 1400 rpm, 40 mm/min, and 2.5°respectively. Macro and the microstructural study were performed using stereo zoom and optical microscope respectively. Results reflected that lower plunge depth levels lead to insufficient heat generation and cavity formation towards the stir zone center. On the other hand, higher levels of plunge depth result in ejection of reinforcement particles and even sticking of material to tool shoulder. Thus, an optimal plunge depth is needed in developing defect free surface composites.

  16. Reinforcement enhances vigilance among children with ADHD: comparisons to typically developing children and to the effects of methylphenidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubnik, Michelle G; Hawk, Larry W; Pelham, William E; Waxmonsky, James G; Rosch, Keri S

    2015-01-01

    Sustained attention and reinforcement are posited as causal mechanisms in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), but their interaction has received little empirical study. In two studies, we examined the impact of performance-based reinforcement on sustained attention over time, or vigilance, among 9- to 12-year-old children. Study 1 demonstrated the expected vigilance deficit among children with ADHD (n = 25; 12% female) compared to typically developing (TD) controls (n = 33; 22% female) on a standard continuous performance task (CPT). During a subsequent visit, reinforcement improved attention more among children with ADHD than controls. Study 2 examined the separate and combined effects of reinforcement and acute methylphenidate (MPH) on CPT performance in children with ADHD (n = 19; 21% female). Both reinforcement and MPH enhanced overall target detection and attenuated the vigilance decrement that occurred in no-reinforcement, placebo condition. Cross-study comparisons suggested that the combination of MPH and reinforcement eliminated the vigilance deficit in children with ADHD, normalizing sustained attention. This work highlights the clinically and theoretically interesting intersection of reinforcement and sustained attention.

  17. The effect of nanoclay filler loading on the flexural strength of fiber-reinforced composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, Vajihesadat; Atai, Mohammad; Fathi, Mohammadhossein; Keshavarzi, Solmaz; Khalighinejad, Navid; Badrian, Hamid

    2012-01-01

    Background: Flexural strength of prosthesis made with dental composite resin materials plays an important role in their survival. The aim of this study was investigating the effect of nanoclay fillers and Poly (methyl methacrylate)-grafted (PMMA-grafted) nanoclay fillers loading on the flexural strength of fiber-reinforced composites (FRCs). Materials and Methods: Standard FRC bars (2 × 2 × 25 mm) for flexural strength testing were prepared with E-glass fibers and a synthetic resin loaded with different quantities of unmodified nanoclay and PMMA-grafted nanoclay filler particles (0% as control group, 0.2%, 0.5%, 1%, 2%, 5%). Flexural strength and flexural modulus were determined. The data were analyzed using 2-way, 1-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey's test (α = 0.05). The fracture surfaces were evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy. Results: For groups with the same concentration of nanoparticles, PMMA-grafted filler-loaded group showed significantly higher flexural strength, except for 0.2% wt. For groups that contain PMMA-grafted nanoclay fillers, the 2% wt had the highest flexural strength value with significant difference to other subgroups. 1% wt and 2% wt showed significantly higher values compared to control (P 0.05). Flexural modulus of 2%, 5% wt PMMA-grafted and 0.5%, 1%, 2%, 5% wt unmodified nanoclay particles-loaded subgroups decreased significantly compared to control group (P < 0.05). Conclusions: PMMA-grafted nanoclay filler loading may enhance the flexural strength of FRCs. Addition of unmodified nanoparticles cannot significantly improve the flexural strength of FRCs. Addition of both unmodified and PMMA-grafted nanoclay particles in some concentrations decreased the flexural modulus. PMID:23087731

  18. Guided ultrasonic waves for determining effective orthotropic material parameters of continuous-fiber reinforced thermoplastic plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webersen, Manuel; Johannesmann, Sarah; Düchting, Julia; Claes, Leander; Henning, Bernd

    2017-10-06

    Ultrasonic methods are widely established in the NDE/NDT community, where they are mostly used for the detection of flaws and structural damage in various components. A different goal, despite the similar technological approach, is non-destructive material characterization, i.e. the determination of parameters like Young's modulus. Only few works on this topic have considered materials with high damping and strong anisotropy, such as continuous-fiber reinforced plastics, but due to the increasing demand in the industry, appropriate methods are needed. In this contribution, we demonstrate the application of laser-induced ultrasonic Lamb waves for the characterization of fiber-reinforced plastic plates, providing effective parameters for a homogeneous, orthotropic material model. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of elevated temperatures on flexural strength of hybrid Napier/glass reinforced epoxy composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, W. M. A. W.; Ridzuan, M. J. M.; Majid, M. S. Abdul; Rahman, M. N.; Azduwin, Y. K.

    2017-10-01

    The effects of elevated temperatures on the flexural strength of hybrid Napier/glass reinforced epoxy composites were investigated. Hybrid composites laminates were fabricated using untreated, 5%, or 10% alkali-treated Napier fibres with woven E-glass fibres and epoxy resin. The composites were manufactured using a vacuum infusion process; the volume fraction of the Napier, glass fibres and epoxy resin were 24%, 6% and 70% respectively. When tested at room temperature (RT), the maximum flexural strength was recorded for the hybrid composites with the 5% alkali-treated Napier fibres. When the test temperature greater than 60°C, the matrix cracking and delamination were occurred due to the temperature that approached the glass transition temperature (Tg) of the composites, which resulted in a reduction of the flexural strength. The fracture surface morphologies indicated that the 5% alkali-treated Napier fibres improved the fibre-matrix interfacial bonding of the hybrid Napier/glass reinforced epoxy composites.

  20. Aluminum matrix composite solidification in microgravity: Effect of the reinforcing phase on nucleation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, F.; Patuelli, C.; Giunchi, G.; Grenni, A.

    Among all the solidification processings available for metal matrix composite (MMC) fabrication, the gas pressure liquid infiltration method, recently developed, is very simple and fast. The molten aluminum can be infiltrated either in a preform made up of a three-dimensional array of fibers (SiC whiskers), or in a porous ceramic network. The resulting microstructures present rather low dislocation densities and, short solidification times can avoid interface phase formation. A series of samples with different orientations and volume fractions of the reinforcement, i.e. with different porosity, were examined in order to investigate the reinforcing phase and convection effects on the nucleation and growth of the solid nuclei in the constrained environment existing between the preform fibers.

  1. The effect of ion implantation on the tribomechanical properties of carbon fibre reinforced polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mistica, R.; Sood, D.K. [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia); Janardhana, M.N. [Deakin University, Geelong, VIC (Australia). School of Engineering and Technology

    1993-12-31

    Graphite fibre reinforced epoxy composite material (GFRP) is used extensively in the aerospace and other industries for structural application. The trend is to address the 20 to 30 year life endurance of this material in service. Mechanical joints in air crafts are exposed to dynamic loads during service and wear may be experienced by the composite material joint. Generally it has been shown that graphite fibre reinforced polymers have superior wear and friction properties as compared with the unfilled polymers. In the described experiment, ion implantation was used as a novel surface treatment. Wear and friction of a polymer composite material (GFRP) was studied and ion implantation was used in order to observe the effect on the tribomechanical properties of the material. It was found that ion implantation of C on GFRP sliding against Ti changes the tribological properties of the system, and in particular decreases the coefficient of friction and wear. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  2. EFFECT OF WATER ABSORPTION ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES \\OF FLAX FIBER REINFORCED EPOXY COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umit Huner

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Flax fiber reinforced epoxy composites were subjected to water immersion tests in order to study the effects of water absorption on the mechanical properties. Epoxy composites specimens containing 0, 1, 5 and 10% fiber weight were prepared. Water absorption tests were conducted by immersing specimens in a de-ionized water bath at 25 ­°C and 90 °C for different time durations. The tensile and flexural properties of water immersed specimens subjected to both aging conditions were evaluated and compared alongside dry composite specimens. The percentage of moisture uptake increased as the fiber volume fraction increased due to the high cellulose content. The tensile and flexural properties of reinforced epoxy specimens were found to decrease with increase in percentage moisture uptake. Moisture induced degradation of composite samples was significant at elevated temperature.

  3. Effect of fiber reinforcement on thermo-oxidative stability and mechanical properties of polymer matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, K. J.

    1992-01-01

    A number of studies have investigated the thermooxidative behavior of polymer matrix composites. Two significant observations have been made from these research efforts: (1) fiber reinforcement has a significant effect on composite thermal stability; and (2) geometric effects must be considered when evaluating thermal aging data. The polyimide PMR-15 was the matrix material used in these studies. The control composite material was reinforced with Celion 6000 graphite fiber. T-4OR graphite fibers, along with some very stable ceramic fibers were selected as reinforcing fibers because of their high thermal stability. The ceramic fibers were Nicalon (silicon carbide) and Nextel 312 (alumina-silica-boron oxide). The mechanical properties of the two graphite fiber composites were significantly different, probably owing to variations in interfacial bonding between the fibers and the polyimide matrix. Three oxidation mechanisms were observed: (1) the preferential oxidation of the Celion 6000 fiber ends at cut surfaces, leaving a surface of matrix material with holes where the fiber ends were originally situated; (2) preferential oxidation of the composite matrix; and (3) interfacial degradation by oxidation. The latter two mechanisms were also observed on fiber end cut surfaces. The fiber and interface attacks appeared to initiate interfiber cracking along these surfaces.

  4. Water Absorption Behaviour and Its Effect on the Mechanical Properties of Flax Fibre Reinforced Bioepoxy Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Muñoz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of sustainable development, considerable interest is being shown in the use of natural fibres like as reinforcement in polymer composites and in the development of resins from renewable resources. This paper focuses on eco-friendly and sustainable green composites manufacturing using resin transfer moulding (RTM process. Flax fibre reinforced bioepoxy composites at different weight fractions (40 and 55 wt% were prepared in order to study the effect of water absorption on their mechanical properties. Water absorption test was carried out by immersion specimens in water bath at room temperature for a time duration. The process of water absorption of these composites was found to approach Fickian diffusion behavior. Diffusion coefficients and maximum water uptake values were evaluated; the results showed that both increased with an increase in fibre content. Tensile and flexural properties of water immersed specimens were evaluated and compared to dry composite specimens. The results suggest that swelling of flax fibres due to water absorption can have positive effects on mechanical properties of the composite material. The results of this study showed that RTM process could be used to manufacture natural fibre reinforced composites with good mechanical properties even for potential applications in a humid environment.

  5. FAILURE MECHANISM OF THE SCABBING OF CONCRETE PLATES SUBJECTED TO HIGH VELOCITY IMPACT AND EFFECTS OF FIBER SHEET REINFORCEMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beppu, Masuhiro; Miwa, Koji; Takahashi, Jun

    This paper presents failure mechanism of the scabbing of concrete plates subjected to high velocity impact and effects of fiber sheet reinforcement. Prior to impact tests, strain measurement method using acrylic bar with strain gauges is validated by conducting impact test to concrete bar specimen. Then, impact tests are carried out to examine the failure mechanism of scabbing of concrete plates. In the tests, the strain measurement method is applied and strain behavior inside the concrete plate is discussed. After that, impact tests of fiber sheet reinforced concrete plates are conducted. Based on failure mode and strain behavior, effects of fiber sheet reinforcement on the failure of concrete plates are examined.

  6. An Evaluation of Lag Schedules of Reinforcement During Functional Communication Training: Effects on Varied Mand Responding and Challenging Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adami, Summer; Falcomata, Terry S; Muething, Colin S; Hoffman, Katherine

    2017-09-01

    We evaluated the effects of lag schedules of reinforcement during functional communication training (FCT) on the varied use of mands and challenging behavior by two individuals diagnosed with autism. Specifically, we compared the effects of Lag 0 and Lag 1 schedules of reinforcement during FCT. The results showed that each participant exhibited increases in varied mand responding during FCT with the Lag 1 schedule of reinforcement relative to Lag 0; challenging behavior remained low during both FCT lag conditions relative to baseline. Results are discussed in terms of treatment implications relating to FCT and the potential prevention and/or mitigation of clinical relapse during challenges to treatment.

  7. Caffeine Reinforces Flavor Preference and Behavior in Moderate Users but Not in Low Caffeine Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dack, Charlotte; Reed, Phil

    2009-01-01

    The study examined the role of caffeine consumption in caffeine reinforcement. Previous findings have shown that caffeine reinforced flavor preference in moderate caffeine consumers who are caffeine deprived. However, most of these studies have employed rating procedures only, and have not shown the effectiveness of caffeine to reinforce behaviors…

  8. EFFECTIVE FRACTURE ENERGY OF ULTRA-HIGH-PERFORMANCE FIBRE-REINFORCED CONCRETE UNDER INCREASED STRAIN RATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radoslav Sovják

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to contribute to the development of ultra-high performance fibre reinforced concrete (UHPFRC with respect to its effective fracture energy. Effective fracture energy was investigated in this paper considering different fibre volume fractions and different strain rates. It was concluded that the effective fracture energy is dependent on the strain rate. In addition, it was found that higher fibre volume fractions tend to decrease the sensitivity of the UHPFRC to increased strain rates.

  9. Modeling of nano-reinforced polymer composites: Microstructure effect on Young’s modulus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, R.D.; Zhou, H.W.; Wang, H.W.

    2012-01-01

    A computational numerical-analytical model of nano-reinforced polymer composites is developed taking into account the interface and particle clustering effects. The model was employed to analyze the interrelationships between microstructures and mechanical properties of nanocomposites. An improved...... effective interface model which is based on Mori–Tanaka approach and includes the nanoparticle geometry and clustering effects was developed. A program code for the automatic generation of two-dimensional multiparticle unit cell models of nanocomposites and finite element meshes on the basis of “grid method...... strong influence on the mechanical properties of nanocomposite....

  10. Effects of the Amount and Shape of Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Strengthening Elements on the Ductile Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sungnam

    2014-09-01

    A series of beam tests were performed to evaluate the ductility of reinforced concrete (RC) beams strengthened with carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) elements. A total of nine RC beams were produced and loaded up to failure in three-point bending under deflection control. In addition, the amount and shape of the CFRP elements (plates/sheets) were considered as the key test variables. Test results revealed that the strengthening with CFRP elements in the width direction was more effective than the strengthening across their height. The energy method used in an analysis showed that the energy ratio of the beams strengthened with CFRP plates were half or less than half of the energy ratio of the beams strengthened with CFRP sheets. In addition, the ductility of the beams decreased as the strengthening ratio of the CFRP elements increased.

  11. Individual Differences in the Relative Reinforcing Effects of 3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone under Fixed and Progressive Ratio Schedules of Reinforcement in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, Brenda M.; Galindo, Kayla I.; Rice, Kenner C.

    2017-01-01

    The recreational use of designer drugs, including synthetic cathinones (bath salts), is associated with high levels of abuse and toxicity, and represents a growing threat to public health. 3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is a cocaine-like monoamine uptake inhibitor, and one of the most widely available and abused synthetic cathinones. The present study used male Sprague-Dawley rats to directly compare: (1) the acquisition of responding for MDPV and cocaine under a fixed ratio (FR) 1 schedule of reinforcement; (2) full dose-response curves for MDPV and cocaine under a FR5 schedule; and (3) progressive ratio (PR) schedules of reinforcement. Self-administration of MDPV and cocaine was acquired at comparable rates, and by a similar percentage of rats. Compared with cocaine, MDPV was ∼10-fold more potent and ∼3-fold more effective at maintaining responding (PR; final ratio completed). Unlike cocaine, for which little variability was observed among rats, the FR5 dose-response curve for MDPV was shifted ∼3-fold upward for a subset of rats (high-responders) relative to other rats with identical histories (low-responders). Compared with low-responding rats, high responders also self-administered more cocaine under the FR5 schedule, and earned significantly more MDPV, cocaine, and methamphetamine under a PR schedule of reinforcement. In addition to functioning as a significantly more effective reinforcer than either cocaine or methamphetamine, MDPV also appears to be unique in its capacity to establish an enduring phenotype in rats, characterized by unusually high levels of drug intake. Although the factors underlying this high-responder phenotype are unclear, they might be related to individual differences in human drug-taking behavior. PMID:28179474

  12. Effect of Particle Size on Wear of Particulate Reinforced Aluminum Alloy Composites at Elevated Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Suresh; Pandey, Ratandeep; Panwar, Ranvir Singh; Pandey, O. P.

    2013-11-01

    The present paper describes the effect of particle size on operative wear mechanism in particle reinforced aluminum alloy composites at elevated temperatures. Two composites containing zircon sand particles of 20-32 μm and 106-125 μm were fabricated by stir casting process. The dry sliding wear tests of the developed composites were performed at low and high loads with variation in temperatures from 50 to 300 °C. The transition in wear mode from mild-to-severe was observed with variation in temperature and load. The wear at 200 °C presented entirely different wear behavior from the one at 250 °C. The wear rate of fine size reinforced composite at 200 °C at higher load was substantially lower than that of coarse size reinforced composite. Examination of wear tracks and debris revealed that delamination occurs after run in wear mode followed by formation of smaller size wear debris, transfer of materials from the counter surfaces and mixing of these materials on the contact surfaces. The volume loss was observed to increase with increase in load and temperature. Composite containing bigger size particles exhibit higher loss under similar conditions.

  13. Effect of reinforcement type and porosity on strength of metal matrix composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, S. G.; Lal, Achchhe; Menghani, J. V.

    2016-05-01

    In the present work, experimental investigation and the numerical analysis are carried out for strength analysis of A356 alloy matrix composites reinforced with alumina, fly ash and hybrid particle composites. The combined strengthening effect of load bearing, Hall-Petch, Orowan, coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch and elastic modulus mismatch is studied for predicting accurate uniaxial stress-strain behavior of A356 based alloy matrix composite. The unit cell micromechanical approach and nine noded isoparametric finite element analysis (FEA) is used to investigate the yield failure load by considering material defect of porosity as fabrication errors in particulate composite. The Ramberg-Osgood approach is considered for the linear and nonlinear relationship between stress and strain of A356 based metal matrix composites containing different amounts of fly ash and alumina reinforcing particles. A numerical analysis of material porosity on the stress strain behavior of the composite is performed. The literature and experimental results exhibit the validity of this model and confirm the importance of the fly ash as the cheapest and low density reinforcement obtained as a waste by product in thermal power plants.

  14. Effect of Steel Fiber and Different Environments on Flexural Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Barkhordari Bafghi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The main kind of deterioration in marine Reinforced Concrete (RC structures and other infrastructures is steel bar corrosion due to cracks in concrete surfaces, which leads to the reduction of the load carrying capacity, ductility, and structural safety. It seems that steel fibers can reduce and delay the cracking, and increase the flexural strength and ductility of marine RC structures. To do so, in marine atmosphere and the tidal zone of the Oman Sea and fresh water, the flexural behavior of beams containing Plain Concrete (PC, Concrete with Steel fiber Reinforcement (SFRC, RC, Concrete with Steel fiber, and bar Reinforcement ((R+SC at 28, 90 and 180 days were determined. Beams were 99 un-cracked and pre-cracked beams, with dimensions of 200 × 200 × 750 mm. Based on results and at 180 days, the flexural strength and toughness of pre-cracked (R+SC beams were 22%–43% higher than the pre-cracked RC beams. The effect of steel fiber on the increment of load capacity and the toughness of pre-cracked RC beams were approximately the same. By addition of steel fiber to un-cracked RC beams, load capacity and toughness were increased up to 20%. The load capacity and toughness in marine atmosphere and tidal zone were approximately 15% lower than the fresh water condition.

  15. Effect of nanoclay on durability and mechanical properties of flax fabric reinforced geopolymer composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Assaedi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The main concern of using natural fibres as reinforcement in geopolymer composites is the durability of the fibres. Geopolymers are alkaline in nature because of the alkaline solution that is required for activating the geopolymer reaction. The alkalinity of the matrix, however, is the key reason of the degradation of natural fibres. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of nanoclay (NC loading on the mechanical properties and durability of flax fabric (FF reinforced geopolymer composites. The durability of composites after 4 and 32 weeks at ambient temperature is presented. The microstructure of geopolymer matrices was investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The results showed that the incorporation of NC has a positive impact on the physical properties, mechanical performance, and durability of FF reinforced geopolymer composites. The presence of NC has a positive impact through accelerating the geopolymerization, reducing the alkalinity of the system and increasing the geopolymer gel.

  16. Behavioral momentum of cocaine self-administration: effects of frequency of reinforcement on resistance to extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, Stacey L; Shahan, Timothy A

    2009-07-01

    Persistent drug seeking is a defining property of substance abuse and is generally thought to depend, in part, on exposure to drug-associated contexts. Behavioral momentum theory provides a set of methods and a theoretical framework for understanding how stimulus contexts contribute to the persistence of operant behavior. Earlier research has extended behavioral momentum theory to alcohol self-administration, but not to intravenous drug self-administration. This experiment extended behavioral momentum theory to cocaine self-administration by examining the effects of frequency of cocaine reinforcement in a context on resistance to extinction. Rats self-administered 0.32 mg/kg infusions of cocaine in a multiple schedule of reinforcement arranging two distinct contexts. Responding in a Rich context was reinforced by cocaine infusions at a higher frequency (i.e. variable interval 120 s) and in a Lean context at a lower frequency (variable interval 360 s). After establishment of responding in the two contexts, resistance to extinction was examined. Preextinction response rates for cocaine were similar in the Rich and Lean contexts. Nonetheless, relative resistance to extinction was greater in the Rich context than in the Lean context. The difference in resistance to extinction in the two contexts was well described by a quantitative model of behavioral momentum. These results suggest that the frequency of drug reinforcement in a context contributes to the persistence of drug seeking in that context, and that behavioral momentum theory might be useful for understanding how drug-associated contexts contribute to the persistence of drug seeking.

  17. The Role of Hemoclips Reinforcement in the Ligation-Assisted Endoscopic Enucleation for Small GISTs in Gastric Fundus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Nan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Endoscopic ultrasonography- (EUS- assisted band ligation has been proven to be a safe and effective procedure for the treatment of small gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs apart from the relatively high risk of the postligation perforation of the gastric fundus. The aim of this study is to investigate the efficacy of hemoclip reinforcement in treating small GISTs in the gastric fundus. Method. During a standard endoscopy, a transparent cap attached to the endoscopic tip was placed over the lesion to exert sustained maximal aspiration before a rubber band was released. Once a definite ligation was confirmed by EUS, the tumor was enucleated. Four to 6 hemoclips were placed on the folds around the ligation band to reduce the tension of the ligation site. Results. The small GISTs were resected completely in 192 patients. Two cases of delayed perforation were found 72 hours after the procedure and successfully treated with an ordinary conservative method. Conclusion. Hemoclip-reinforced endoscopic band ligation with systematic follow-up using EUS appears to be a simple and effective technique for the resection of small GISTs in the gastric fundus.

  18. Effects of grapevine root density and reinforcement on slopes prone to shallow slope instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisina, Claudia; Bordoni, Massimiliano; Bischetti, Gianbattista; Vercesi, Alberto; Chiaradia, Enrico; Cislaghi, Alessio; Valentino, Roberto; Bittelli, Marco; Vergani, Chiara; Chersich, Silvia; Giuseppina Persichillo, Maria; Comolli, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    Slope erosion and shallow slope instabilities are the major factors of soil losses in cultivated steep terrains. These phenomena also cause loss of organic matter and plants nutrients, together with the partial or total destruction of the structures, such as the row tillage pattern of the vineyards, which allow for the plants cultivation. Vegetation has long been used as an effective tool to decrease the susceptibility of a slope to erosion and to shallow landslides. In particular, the scientific research focused on the role played by the plant roots, because the belowground biomass has the major control on the potential development of soil erosion and of shallow failures. Instead, a comprehensive study that analyzes the effects of the roots of agricultural plants on both soil erosion and slope instability has not been carried out yet. This aspect should be fundamental where sloped terrains are cultivated with plants of great economical relevance, as grapevine. To contribute to fill this gap, in this study the features of root density in the soil profile have been analyzed in slopes cultivated with vineyards, located on a sample hilly area of Oltrepò Pavese (northern Italy). In this area, the viticulture is the most important branch of the local economy. Moreover, several events of rainfall-induced slope erosion and shallow landslides have occurred in this area in the last 6 years, causing several economical damages linked to the destruction of the vineyards and the loss of high productivity soils. Grapevine root distribution have been measured in different test-site slopes, representative of the main geological, geomorphological, pedological, landslides distribution, agricultural features, in order to identify particular patterns on root density that can influence the development of slope instabilities. Roots have been sampled in each test-site for characterizing their strength, in terms of the relation between root diameter and root force at rupture. Root

  19. Effect of Sea Water and Natural Ageing on Residual Strength of Epoxy Laminates, Reinforced with Glass and Carbon Woven Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Komorek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of the effect of sea water, natural ageing, and cross-impact loading on flexural strength and residual flexural strength of epoxy laminates with glass woven fabrics and hybrid reinforcement with glass and carbon woven fabrics. The tests were conducted on samples with different fibre reinforcement both before and after low energy cross-impact loading. Carbon fabrics decreased residual strength of the composites.

  20. Effect of neutron irradiation on response of reinforced concrete members for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kyoungsoo; Kim, Hyung-Tae [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Tae-Hyun, E-mail: taekwonkr@kaeri.re.kr [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Eunsoo [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hongik University, 94 Wausan-ro, Mapo-gu, Seoul 121-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Effects of long-term irradiation on reinforced concrete (RC) structures were investigated. • Responses of irradiated RC members were numerically investigated in terms of ductility. • Results demonstrated that energy dissipation capacity decreased under radiation environment. • Level of neutron radiation could be critical for RC structures during operation. - Abstract: In this study, the effects of long-term irradiation on the behaviors of reinforced concrete (RC) members were investigated to obtain a better understanding of the behaviors of RC structures under an irradiation environment, which include the biological shield walls and reactor vessel support structures of nuclear power plants (NPPs). The behaviors of three RC members were examined (a beam, beam-column section, and column under cyclic loading) by considering the changes in the constituent material properties due to neutron irradiation. The load capacity generally increases for a tension failure member with an increase in neutron irradiation because neutron irradiation increases the yield stress of reinforcing steel. However, the load capacity of a compression failure member decreases with a decrease in the compressive strength of concrete when the fluence of neutron radiation increases. Additionally, RC member analysis results demonstrate that the energy dissipation capacity, which is a critical factor in seismic design, decreases significantly when the fluence of neutron radiation is greater than 1.0 × 10{sup 17} n/cm{sup 2}. Therefore, the level of neutron irradiation could be critical for RC structures over the long-term operation of NPPs, and thus the effects of neutron irradiation on RC structures should be considered as age-related damage.

  1. EFFECTIVE REINFORCING COMPONENT OF IRON-CONCRETE CONSTRUCTIONS IS A STEEL FIBER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Radjkova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that use of fiber of the modern material, capable to replace metal reinforcing rod in ferroconcrete, provides decrease of expenses for reinforcing works, increase of degree of production mechanization.

  2. The Effects of Large Disturbances on On-Line Reinforcement Learning for aWalking Robot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuitema, E.; Caarls, W.; Wisse, M.; Jonker, P.P.; Babuska, R.

    2010-01-01

    Reinforcement Learning is a promising paradigm for adding learning capabilities to humanoid robots. One of the difficulties of the real world is the presence of disturbances. In Reinforcement Learning, disturbances are typically dealt with stochastically. However, large and infrequent disturbances

  3. Effect of Marble Dust Addition on the Sulphate Resistance of Glass Fiber Reinforced Cement Mortars

    OpenAIRE

    Alişer, Birsu; YILDIZ, Servet; Oğuzhan KELEŞTEMUR

    2016-01-01

    In this study, effect of marble dust addition on the sulphate resistance of glass fiber reinforced cement mortar exposed to sulphate attack was investigated. For this purpose, marble dust was added by replacing with filler material 10%, 20% , 30%, 40%, and 50% ratios by volume to mortars samples containing 0 kg/m3, 0.25 kg/m3, 0.50 kg/m3, 0.75 kg/m3 and 1 kg/m3 glass fiber. Length changes and capillary water absorption of the mortar samples under sulphate attack were determined. As a result o...

  4. Nonlocal plasticity effects on fibre debonding in a whisker-reinforced metal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Tvergaard, Viggo

    2002-01-01

    Numerical cell-model analyses for the matrix-fibre debonding in a metal matrix composite are used to study the effect of a characteristic material length in the plasticity description of the matrix material deformations. Characteristic material lengths are already present in the model problem......, in the form of fibre sizes and the length associated with the debonding process, so the nonlocal plasticity model brings in an additional material length. The analyses for metal reinforced by aligned short fibres are used to obtain an understanding of the interaction of the different length scales...

  5. EFFECT OF WATER ABSORPTION ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES \\OF FLAX FIBER REINFORCED EPOXY COMPOSITES

    OpenAIRE

    Umit Huner

    2015-01-01

    Flax fiber reinforced epoxy composites were subjected to water immersion tests in order to study the effects of water absorption on the mechanical properties. Epoxy composites specimens containing 0, 1, 5 and 10% fiber weight were prepared. Water absorption tests were conducted by immersing specimens in a de-ionized water bath at 25 ­°C and 90 °C for different time durations. The tensile and flexural properties of water immersed specimens subjected to both aging conditions were evaluated and ...

  6. Effect of Nitrite Inhibitor on the Macrocell Corrosion Behavior of Reinforcing Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhonglu Cao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of nitrite ions on the macrocell corrosion behavior of reinforcing steel embedded in cement mortar was investigated by comparing and analyzing the macrocell corrosion current, macrocell polarization ratios, and slopes of anodic and cathodic steels. Based on the experimental results, the relationship between macrocell potential difference and macrocell current density was analyzed, and the mechanism of macrocell corrosion affected by nitrite ions was proposed. The results indicated that nitrite ions had significant impact on the macrocell polarization ratios of cathode and anode. The presence of nitrite could reduce the macrocell current by decreasing the macrocell potential difference and increasing the macrocell polarization resistance of the anode.

  7. Effects of oxygen plasma treatment on domestic aramid fiber III reinforced bismaleimide composite interfacial properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chen; Wang, Jing; Chen, Ping; Feng, Jiayue; Cui, Jinyuan; Yang, Faze

    2017-12-01

    Domestic Aramid Fiber III (DAF III) was modified by oxygen plasma treatment. The fiber surface characteristics was observed by Scanning Electron Microscopy. The results showed that oxygen plasma treatment changed surface morphologies. The effects of oxygen plasma treatment on DAF III reinforced bismaleimides (BMI) composite bending and interfacial properties were investigated, respectively. The ILSS value increased from 49.3 MPa to 56.0 MPa (by 13.5%) after oxygen plasma treatment. The bending strength changed a little. Furthermore, the composite rupture mode changed from interfacial rupture to fiber or resin bulk rupture.

  8. The effects of response cost in the treatment of aberrant behavior maintained by negative reinforcement.

    OpenAIRE

    Keeney, K M; Fisher, W W; Adelinis, J D; Wilder, D A

    2000-01-01

    Positive reinforcement contingencies can sometimes be used to decrease problem behavior maintained by negative reinforcement (e.g., escape). In the current study, we evaluated the extent to which response cost (i.e., contingent removal of a preferred stimulus) would compete with the negative reinforcer maintaining destructive behavior. The response cost contingency reduced destructive behavior by 87% from baseline levels even though the negative reinforcement contingency (i.e., escape) remain...

  9. Effect of Intermittent Reinforcement on Acquisition and Retention in Delayed Matching-to-Sample in Pigeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Douglas S.

    2011-01-01

    Experiments 1 and 2 involved independent groups that received primary reinforcement after a correct match with a probability of 1.0, 0.50 or 0.25. Correct matches that did not produce primary reinforcement produced a conditioned reinforcer. Both experiments revealed little evidence that acquisition or retention was adversely affected by use of…

  10. The Effects of Work-Reinforcer Schedules on Performance and Preference in Students with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukala, Magdalena; Hu, Meng Yao; Lee, Ronald; Ward-Horner, John C.; Fienup, Daniel M.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated performance under and preference for continuous and discontinuous work-reinforcer schedules in 3 students who had been diagnosed with autism. Under continuous schedules, participants completed all work and consumed all reinforcers in contiguous units. Under discontinuous schedules, work and reinforcer access were broken up…

  11. Space environmental effects on LDEF low Earth orbit exposed graphite reinforced polymer matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Pete

    1992-01-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) was deployed on April 7, 1984 in low earth orbit (LEO) at an altitude of 482 kilometers. On board experiments experienced the harsh LEO environment including atomic oxygen (AO), ultraviolet radiation (UV), and thermal cycling. During the 5.8 year mission, the LDEF orbit decayed to 340 kilometers where significantly higher AO concentrations exist. LDEF was retrieved on January 12, 1990 from this orbit. One experiment on board LDEF was M0003, Space Effects on Spacecraft Materials. As a subset of M0003 nearly 500 samples of polymer, metal, and glass matrix composites were flown as the Advanced Composites Experiment M0003-10. The Advanced Composites Experiment is a joint effort between government and industry with the Aerospace Corporation serving as the experiment integrator. A portion of the graphite reinforced polymer matrix composites were furnished by the Boeing Defense and Space Group, Seattle, Washington. Test results and discussions for the Boeing portion of M0003-10 are presented. Experiment and specimen location on the LDEF are presented along with a quantitative summary of the pertinent exposure conditions. Matrix materials selected for the test were epoxy, polysulfone, and polyimide. These composite materials were selected due to their suitability for high performance structural capability in spacecraft applications. Graphite reinforced polymer matrix composites offer higher strength to weight ratios along with excellent dimensional stability. The Boeing space exposed and corresponding ground control composite specimens were subjected to post flight mechanical, chemical, and physical testing in order to determine any changes in critical properties and performance characteristics. Among the more significant findings are the erosive effect of atomic oxygen on leading edge exposed specimens and microcracking in non-unidirectionally reinforced flight specimens.

  12. Potent rewarding and reinforcing effects of the synthetic cathinone 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watterson, Lucas R; Kufahl, Peter R; Nemirovsky, Natali E; Sewalia, Kaveish; Grabenauer, Megan; Thomas, Brian F; Marusich, Julie A; Wegner, Scott; Olive, M Foster

    2014-03-01

    Reports of abuse and toxic effects of synthetic cathinones, frequently sold as 'bath salts' or 'legal highs', have increased dramatically in recent years. One of the most widely used synthetic cathinones is 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV). The current study evaluated the abuse potential of MDPV by assessing its ability to support intravenous self-administration and to lower thresholds for intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) in rats. In the first experiment, the rats were trained to intravenously self-administer MDPV in daily 2-hour sessions for 10 days at doses of 0.05, 0.1 or 0.2 mg/kg per infusion. The rats were then allowed to self-administer MDPV under a progressive ratio (PR) schedule of reinforcement. Next, the rats self-administered MDPV for an additional 10 days under short access (ShA; 2 hours/day) or long access (LgA; 6 hours/day) conditions to assess escalation of intake. A separate group of rats underwent the same procedures, with the exception of self-administering methamphetamine (0.05 mg/kg per infusion) instead of MDPV. In the second experiment, the effects of MDPV on ICSS thresholds following acute administration (0.1, 0.5, 1 and 2 mg/kg, i.p.) were assessed. MDPV maintained self-administration across all doses tested. A positive relationship between MDPV dose and breakpoints for reinforcement under PR conditions was observed. LgA conditions led to escalation of drug intake at 0.1 and 0.2 mg/kg doses, and rats self-administering methamphetamine showed similar patterns of escalation. Finally, MDPV significantly lowered ICSS thresholds at all doses tested. Together, these findings indicate that MDPV has reinforcing properties and activates brain reward circuitry, suggesting a potential for abuse and addiction in humans. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction Biology © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  13. Effect of overloading on fatigue performance of reinforced concrete beams strengthened with externally post-tensioned carbon-fibre-reinforced polymer tendons

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elrefai, Ahmed; West, Jeffrey S; Soudki, Khaled A

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental and analytical study of the fatigue performance of reinforced concrete beams strengthened with externally post-tensioned carbon-fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) tendons...

  14. Effect of Curing Period on Properties of Steel and Polypropylene Fibre Reinforced Ultra-High Performance Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smarzewski, Piotr

    2017-10-01

    This study has investigated the effect of curing period on the mechanical properties of straight polypropylene and hooked-end steel fibre reinforced ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC). Various physical properties are evaluated, i.e. absorbability, apparent density and open porosity. Compressive strength, tensile splitting strength, flexural strength and modulus of elasticity were determined at 28, 56 and 730 days. Comparative strength development of fibre reinforced mixes at 0.5%, 1%, 1.5% and 2% by volume fractions in relation to the mix without fibres was observed. Good correlations between the compressive strength and the modulus of elasticity are established. Steel and polypropylene fibres significantly increased the compressive strength, tensile splitting strength, flexural strength and modulus of elasticity of UHPC after two years curing period when fibre content volume was at least 1%. It seems that steel fibre reinforced UHPC has better properties than the polypropylene fibre reinforced UHPC.

  15. The effect of reinforcer magnitude on probability and delay discounting of experienced outcomes in a computer game task in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhow, Anna K; Hunt, Maree J; Macaskill, Anne C; Harper, David N

    2015-09-01

    Delay and uncertainty of receipt both reduce the subjective value of reinforcers. Delay has a greater impact on the subjective value of smaller reinforcers than of larger ones while the reverse is true for uncertainty. We investigated the effect of reinforcer magnitude on discounting of delayed and uncertain reinforcers using a novel approach: embedding relevant choices within a computer game. Participants made repeated choices between smaller, certain, immediate outcomes and larger, but delayed or uncertain outcomes while experiencing the result of each choice. Participants' choices were generally well described by the hyperbolic discounting function. Smaller numbers of points were discounted more steeply than larger numbers as a function of delay but not probability. The novel experiential choice task described is a promising approach to investigating both delay and probability discounting in humans. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  16. The effect of particle addition and fibrous reinforcement on epoxy-matrix composites for severe sliding conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Thomas Ricco Ølholm; Løgstrup Andersen, Tom; Thorning, Bent

    2008-01-01

    . Friction, wear and interfacial temperatures are measured on a custom-built pin-on-disk apparatus using a steel disk as counterface. The performance of the two types of reinforcing weaves are compared at nine different combinations of contact pressure (p) and sliding velocity (v) also called pv conditions....... The purpose is to systematically compare the performance of the differently reinforced materials while going from mild to severe sliding conditions. It is found that the coefficient of friction (mu) on average is reduced by 35% by substituting the glass fiber weave with the carbon/aramid weave. The latter......, shows superior wear behavior at the six mildest pv conditions with the wear rate (w)) an average factor of 22 lower than the rates for glass fiber reinforcement. An effect of fiber orientation with respect to sliding direction is found for the glass fiber reinforcement. The best tribological properties...

  17. Role of bonding defects in a self-reinforced polypropylene (PURE under fatigue loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skotarek Christoph

    2014-06-01

    The paper deals with the fatigue behavior of this type of material and the role of the bonding imperfections on the damage accumulation process. For this purpose local deformation fields using DIC determined after quasi- static loading, step-wise increased loading and cyclic loading are compared with each other. These findings are related to the damage pattern observed after final fracture.

  18. Identifying cognitive remediation change through computational modelling--effects on reinforcement learning in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cella, Matteo; Bishara, Anthony J; Medin, Evelina; Swan, Sarah; Reeder, Clare; Wykes, Til

    2014-11-01

    Converging research suggests that individuals with schizophrenia show a marked impairment in reinforcement learning, particularly in tasks requiring flexibility and adaptation. The problem has been associated with dopamine reward systems. This study explores, for the first time, the characteristics of this impairment and how it is affected by a behavioral intervention-cognitive remediation. Using computational modelling, 3 reinforcement learning parameters based on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) trial-by-trial performance were estimated: R (reward sensitivity), P (punishment sensitivity), and D (choice consistency). In Study 1 the parameters were compared between a group of individuals with schizophrenia (n = 100) and a healthy control group (n = 50). In Study 2 the effect of cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) on these parameters was assessed in 2 groups of individuals with schizophrenia, one receiving CRT (n = 37) and the other receiving treatment as usual (TAU, n = 34). In Study 1 individuals with schizophrenia showed impairment in the R and P parameters compared with healthy controls. Study 2 demonstrated that sensitivity to negative feedback (P) and reward (R) improved in the CRT group after therapy compared with the TAU group. R and P parameter change correlated with WCST outputs. Improvements in R and P after CRT were associated with working memory gains and reduction of negative symptoms, respectively. Schizophrenia reinforcement learning difficulties negatively influence performance in shift learning tasks. CRT can improve sensitivity to reward and punishment. Identifying parameters that show change may be useful in experimental medicine studies to identify cognitive domains susceptible to improvement. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Pathways to social anxiety: the role of reinforcement sensitivities and emotion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Elodie J; Staiger, Petra K; Kambouropoulos, Nicolas; Smillie, Luke D

    2014-12-30

    Past research has demonstrated a strong relationship between threat sensitivity and social anxiety; however, the relationship between reward sensitivity and social anxiety is less clear. Further, the role that emotion regulation (ER) may play in the expression of social anxiety disorder (SAD) is rarely considered. The current study tested whether two emotion regulation strategies (emotional suppression and cognitive reappraisal) mediated associations between threat sensitivity and reward sensitivity and social anxiety in a community sample (402 adults, 78% female; Mage=32.49, S.D.age=11.53). Path analyses indicated that low reappraisal mediated the relationship between high threat sensitivity and high social anxiety; and both low reappraisal and high suppression mediated the relationship between low reward sensitivity and high social anxiety. These results highlight the potential role that emotion regulation plays in the relationship between trait motivation and social anxiety. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of Carbon Nanotube Size on Compressive Strengths of Nanotube Reinforced Cementitious Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanvir Manzur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Application of nanoscale science to construction material has already begun. In recent times, various nanofibers have raised the interest of researchers due to their exceptional mechanical properties and high potential to be used as reinforcement within cement matrix. Carbon nanotube (CNT is one of the most important areas of research in the field of nanotechnology. The size and exceptional mechanical properties of CNT show their high potential to be used to produce high performance next generation cementitious composites. In this study, an attempt has been made to investigate the effect of size of CNTs on compressive strengths of CNT reinforced cement composites. Seven different sizes of multiwalled nanotubes (MWNTs were used to produce MWNT-cement composites. A trend was observed regarding the effect of nanotube size on compressive strength of composites in most cases. MWNT with outside diameter (OD of 20 nm or less exhibited relatively better performance. Smaller MWNT can be distributed at much finer scale and consequently filling the nanopore space within the cement matrix more efficiently. This in turn resulted in stronger composites.

  1. Effective reinforcement learning following cerebellar damage requires a balance between exploration and motor noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therrien, Amanda S; Wolpert, Daniel M; Bastian, Amy J

    2016-01-01

    Reinforcement and error-based processes are essential for motor learning, with the cerebellum thought to be required only for the error-based mechanism. Here we examined learning and retention of a reaching skill under both processes. Control subjects learned similarly from reinforcement and error-based feedback, but showed much better retention under reinforcement. To apply reinforcement to cerebellar patients, we developed a closed-loop reinforcement schedule in which task difficulty was controlled based on recent performance. This schedule produced substantial learning in cerebellar patients and controls. Cerebellar patients varied in their learning under reinforcement but fully retained what was learned. In contrast, they showed complete lack of retention in error-based learning. We developed a mechanistic model of the reinforcement task and found that learning depended on a balance between exploration variability and motor noise. While the cerebellar and control groups had similar exploration variability, the patients had greater motor noise and hence learned less. Our results suggest that cerebellar damage indirectly impairs reinforcement learning by increasing motor noise, but does not interfere with the reinforcement mechanism itself. Therefore, reinforcement can be used to learn and retain novel skills, but optimal reinforcement learning requires a balance between exploration variability and motor noise. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain.

  2. The Unique and Combined Effects of Reinforcement and Methylphenidate on Temporal Information Processing in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luman, Marjolein; Papanikolau, Alky; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2015-08-01

    Temporal information processing and reward sensitivity are neurocognitive impairments key to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The aim of this study was to examine the unique and combined impact of reinforcement and methylphenidate (MPH) on temporal information processing in children with ADHD. We predicted that both monetary reinforcement and MPH would ameliorate temporal information processing deficits in ADHD, and we expected that the combined effect of reinforcement and MPH would be most beneficial. Forty children (23 with ADHD and 27 typical controls, aged 8-12 y) performed a time production task under 3 conditions: reward, response cost, and feedback only. Children with ADHD also performed the task (in random order) with placebo, a low, a medium, and a high dose of MPH. Dependent variables were time production accuracy and variability. At baseline, children with ADHD displayed poor internal clock functioning compared with controls, as reflected by greater underestimations of the 1-second interval, and they showed poor motor output as reflected by increased timing variability. Reward and response cost improved motor output (timing variability), with similar effects for both groups. Methylphenidate increased performance (timing variability) compared with placebo, with a higher dose showing greater effects. Effect sizes of reinforcement and medication were medium to large. Contrary to expectations, MPH did not add to the reinforcement effect. The results of this study confirm the value of reward and response cost being similar to that of MPH to optimize (timing) performance of children with ADHD.

  3. The effectiveness of using reinforcements in the classroom on the academic achievement of students with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adibsereshki, Narges; Abkenar, Somaye Jalil; Ashoori, Mohammad; Mirzamani, Mahmood

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of two kinds of reinforcements, tangible reinforcements and social reinforcements, on the academic achievement of eighth-grade female students with intellectual disabilities in the science subject. The study was an experimental method by pretest, with a control group. The participants of the study comprised 45 female students with intellectual disabilities from three different middle schools in the province of Tehran. The multistage cluster method was chosen to determine the sample. The Wechsler intelligence test for matching the groups in terms of IQ and teacher-applied tests were used for all students to measure the progress of students in science. Data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance. The results showed that (a) there was a significant difference in the academic achievement scores of the groups after applying the intervention and (b) the mean difference in achievement scores for the tangible reinforcements group was significantly higher than the social reinforcement group and the control group. Also the mean scores for the social reinforcement group were significantly higher than the control group. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Effects of aggregate grading on the properties of steel fibre-reinforced concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acikgens Ulas, M.; Alyamac, K. E.; Ulucan, Z. C.

    2017-09-01

    This study investigates the effects of changing the aggregate grading and maximum aggregate size (D max ) on the workability and mechanical properties of steel fibre-reinforced concrete (SFRC). Four different gradations and two different D max were used to produce SFRC mixtures with constant cement dosages and water/cement ratios. Twelve different concrete series were tested. To observe the properties of fresh concrete, slump and Ve-Be tests were performed immediately after the mixing process to investigate the effects of time on workability. The hardened properties, such as the compressive, splitting tensile and flexural strengths, were also evaluated. In addition, the toughness of the SFRC was calculated. Based on our test results, we can conclude that the grading of the aggregate and the D max have remarkable effects on the properties of fresh and hardened SFRC. In addition, the toughness of the SFRC was influenced by changing the grading of the aggregate and the D max .

  5. Lorcaserin Reduces the Discriminative Stimulus and Reinforcing Effects of Cocaine in Rhesus Monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Gregory T; Gerak, Lisa R; Javors, Martin A; France, Charles P

    2016-01-01

    Cocaine abuse and obesity are serious public health problems, and studies suggest that both dopamine and serotonin systems are involved in regulating the consumption of drugs and food. Lorcaserin has serotonin (5-HT)2C receptor agonist actions, is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for treating obesity, and might be effective for treating cocaine abuse. These studies characterized the pharmacokinetic and behavioral profiles of lorcaserin (intragastric administration) and determined the effectiveness of lorcaserin to alter discriminative stimulus and reinforcing effects of cocaine (intravenous administration) in rhesus monkeys. Administered acutely, lorcaserin dose-dependently increased the occurrence of yawning while decreasing spontaneous activity and operant responding for food. These effects appeared within 30-60 minutes of administration and began to dissipate by 240 minutes, a time course closely matching plasma concentrations of lorcaserin. In monkeys discriminating cocaine from saline, lorcaserin alone did not occasion cocaine-appropriate responding but shifted the cocaine dose-response curve to the right and down in two of three monkeys. When administered acutely, lorcaserin dose-dependently decreased the rate at which monkeys responded for infusions of cocaine. When administered chronically, 3.2 mg/kg lorcaserin reduced the rate of cocaine-maintained responding by 50% for the duration of a 14-day treatment period. Together, these results show that lorcaserin attenuates the discriminative stimulus effects of cocaine after acute administration and the reinforcing effects of cocaine after acute and repeated administration, consistent with the view that it might have utility in treating cocaine abuse. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  6. Effects of Hybrid Fibre Reinforcement on Fire Resistance Performance and Char Morphology of Intumescent Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent researches of fire retardant intumescent coatings reinforced by single Rockwool and single glass wool fibre at various weight percentages and lengths showed some improvements to the mechanical properties of the coatings and the char produced. Therefore, in this research the fibres were combined together in intumescent coating formulation at several weight percentages and fibre lengths to study their effects towards fire resistance performance and char morphology. The hybrid fibre reinforced intumescent coatings were subjected to two types of fire tests; Bunsen burner at 1000°C and the electric furnace at 800°C for 1 hour, respectively. Steel temperature of the coated samples during Bunsen burner test was recorded to determine the fire resistance performance. Thermal stability of the intumescent coatings and chars was determined by Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA. The morphology of the coatings and char was then examined by using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Energy Dispersive Spectrometry (EDS was conducted to obtain elemental composition of the samples. This research concluded that long-hybrid fibre at 12-mm length and 0.6% fibre-weight produced the top performing hybrid fibre intumescent formulation. The hybrid fibres form survived at elevated temperature, hence helped to provide structure and strengthen the char with the highest fire resistance was recorded at steel temperature of 197°C.

  7. Acute and chronic effects of gum chewing on food reinforcement and energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swoboda, Christine; Temple, Jennifer L

    2013-04-01

    Although chewing gum has been considered a potential method for reducing energy intake, little empirical data exist to support this idea. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that chewing gum before eating reduces motivation to eat, hunger, and energy intake. In order to test this hypothesis, we conducted two experiments in which participants chewed gum prior to completing a food reinforcement task or before all eating occasions for two of three weeks. In Experiment 1, we found that chewing gum had no influence on the reinforcing value of food, but chewing mint gum reduced liking of and energy intake from fruit. In addition, chewing gum reduced self-reported hunger immediately after gum chewing and after eating compared with the no gum condition. In Experiment 2, gum chewing had no significant effect on total energy intake, but participants consumed fewer meals, consumed more energy per meal, and had a lower nutrient adequacy ratio during the gum chewing weeks. These studies provide no evidence that acute or chronic gum chewing reduces hunger or energy intake. In fact, chewing mint-flavored gum may deter consumption of fruit and reduce diet quality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The effects of instructions on the sensitivity of negatively reinforced human behavior to extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessandri, Jérôme; Cançado, Carlos R X

    2017-03-01

    The effects of instructions on the sensitivity of negatively reinforced (escape) behavior to extinction were studied. Initially, responding produced timeouts from pressing a force cell on a variable-ratio (VR) schedule, which was then discontinued (extinction). Based on extinction data, participants were distributed into two groups. Participants in the Persistence Group (for which response rates were low in extinction) were instructed that the experimenter expected them to continue responding in extinction after a second exposure to the VR schedule. Participants in the Extinction group (for which response rates were high in extinction) were instructed that the experimenter expected them to stop responding in extinction. Relative to the condition in which instructions were absent, extinction-response rates increased and decreased, respectively, for participants in the Persistence and Extinction groups. These results replicate and extend to negatively reinforced responding previous findings that showed behavioral control by instructions formulated as explicit experimenter demands or expectations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of elevated temperature on the tensile strength of Napier/glass-epoxy hybrid reinforced composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridzuan, M. J. M.; Majid, M. S. Abdul; Afendi, M.; Firdaus, A. Z. Ahmad; Azduwin, K.

    2017-11-01

    The effects of elevated temperature on the tensile strength of Napier/glass-epoxy hybrid reinforced composites and its morphology of fractured surfaces are discussed. Napier/glass-epoxy hybrid reinforced composites were fabricated by using vacuum infusion method by arranging Napier fibres in between sheets of woven glass fibres. Napier and glass fibres were laminated with estimated volume ratios were 24 and 6 vol. %, respectively. The epoxy resin was used as matrix estimated to 70 vol. %. Specimens were tested to failure under tension at a cross-head speed of 1 mm/min using Universal Testing Machine (Instron) with a load cell 100 kN at four different temperatures of RT, 40°C, 60°C and 80°C. The morphology of fractured surface of hybrid composites was investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy. The result shows reduction in tensile strength at elevated temperatures. The increase in the temperature activates the process of diffusion, and generates critical stresses which cause the damage at first-ply or at the centre of the hybrid plate, as a result lower the tensile strength. The observation of FESEM images indicates that the fracture mode is of evolution of localized damage, from fibre/matrix debonding, matric cracking, delamination and fibre breakage.

  10. Effect of Accelerated Aging on Color Change of Direct and Indirect Fiber-Reinforced Composite Restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masomeh Hasani Tabatabaei

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of artificial accelerated aging (AAA on color change of direct and indirect fiber-reinforced composite (FRC restorations.Materials and Methods: Direct (Z250 and indirect (Gradia composite resins were reinforced with glass (GF and polyethylene fibers (PF based on the manufacturers’ instructions. Forty samples were fabricated and divided into eight groups (n=5. Four groups served as experimental groups and the remaining four served as controls. Color change (∆E and color parameters (∆L*, ∆a*, ∆b* were read at baseline and after AAA based on the CIELAB system. Three-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test were used for statistical analysis.Results: Significant differences were found in ΔE, ΔL*, Δa* and Δb* among the groups after AAA (P<0.05. Most of the studied samples demonstrated an increase in lightness and a red-yellow shift after AAA.Conclusions: The obtained ∆E values were unacceptable after AAA (∆E≥ 3.3. All indirect samples showed a green-blue shift with a reduction in lightness except for Gradia/PF+ NuliteF.Keywords: Aging; Composite Resins; Color

  11. THE EFFECT OF AGGREGATE MAXIMUM SIZE ON IMPACT RESISTANCE OF FIBER REINFORCED CONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şemsi YAZICI

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of maximum size of aggregate on impact resistance of fiber reinforced concrete were investigated. Using crushed limestone aggregate with 10, 15, 20 and 25 mm of maximum size, 8 different normal-steel fiber reinforced concretes were produced. Water/cement ratio and cement dosage of concrete mixtures are 0.5 and 400 kg/m3, respectively. Hooked-end bundled steel fibers with l/d ratio of 65 and 1.0% fiber volume were used in fiber concretes. After 28 days standard curing, compressive strength, split tensile strength and ultrasonic pulse velocity tests were performed on 150/150/150 mm cube specimens. Additionally, impact resistances of concrete specimens were determined using impact test apparatus described in ACI 544.3R-93. 150x300 mm cylinders were prepared for impact resistance tests. After 28 days curing, these specimens were cut and 150x64 mm special discs were prepared. Impact resistance test were performed on these special discs. Experimental results were evaluated corresponding to presence of steel fiber and aggregate maximum size.

  12. Effect of the Type of Surface Treatment and Cement on the Chloride Induced Corrosion of Galvanized Reinforcements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittarelli, Francesca; Mobili, Alessandra; Vicerè, Anna Maria; Roventi, Gabriella; Bellezze, Tiziano

    2017-10-01

    The effect of a new passivation treatment, obtained by immersion of the galvanized reinforcements in a trivalent chromium salts based solution, on the chlorides induced corrosion has been investigated. To investigate also the effect of cement alkalinity on corrosion behaviour of reinforcements, concretes manufactured with three different European cements were compared. The obtained results show that the alternative treatment based on hexavalent chromium-free baths forms effective protection layers on the galvanized rebar surfaces. The higher corrosion rates of zinc coating in concrete manufactured with Portland cement compared to those recorded for bars in concrete manufactured with pozzolanic cement depends strongly on the higher chloride content at the steel concrete interface.

  13. Pounding Effects on the Earthquake Response of Adjacent Reinforced Concrete Structures Strengthened by Cable Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liolios, Angelos; Liolios, Asterios; Hatzigeorgiou, George; Radev, Stefan

    2014-06-01

    A numerical approach for estimating the effects of pounding (seismic interaction) on the response of adjacent Civil Engineering structures is presented. Emphasis is given to reinforced concrete (RC) frames of existing buildings which are seismically strengthened by cable-elements. A double discretization, in space by the Finite Element Method and in time by a direct incremental approach is used. The unilateral behaviours of both, the cable-elements and the interfaces contact-constraints, are taken strictly into account and result to inequality constitutive conditions. So, in each time-step, a non-convex linear complementarity problem is solved. It is found that pounding and cable strengthening have significant effects on the earthquake response and, hence, on the seismic upgrading of existing adjacent RC structures.

  14. Structural Response to Blast Loading: The Effects of Corrosion on Reinforced Concrete Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Yalciner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural blast design has become a necessary part of the design with increasing terrorist attacks. Terrorist attacks are not the one to make the structures important against blast loading where other explosions such as high gas explosions also take an important place in structural safety. The main objective of this study was to verify the structural performance levels under the impact of different blast loading scenarios. The blast loads were represented by using triangular pulse for single degree of freedom system. The effect of blast load on both corroded and uncorroded reinforced concrete buildings was examined for different explosion distances. Modified plastic hinge properties were used to ensure the effects of corrosion. The results indicated that explosion distance and concrete strength were key parameters to define the performance of the structures against blast loading.

  15. Large Scale FEM of the effective elastic properties of particle reinforced composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rauhe, Jens Christian; Pyrz, Ryszard; Lund, Erik

    2004-01-01

    Over the years several methods have been proposed for the determination of the effective elastic properties of particle reinforced composites. The material microstructures used in the present analysis is a real microstructure and a numerically generated microstructure. X-ray microtomography is used...... three-dimensional finite element models of the microstructure. The models contain a large number of elements, up to 1 million, and are solved iteratively using an element-by-element formalism. Models containing 100 particles have been statistically generated and the material properties of each particle...... is assigned using a Gaussian distribution of the properties. Various distributions have been used to determine how the variation of particle properties influences the effective elastic properties. From this examination it was found that the larger the variation of the particle properties is the softer...

  16. Hybrid Effect Evaluation of Steel Fiber and Carbon Fiber on the Performance of the Fiber Reinforced Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Weimin; Yin, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Fiber reinforcement is an important method to enhance the performance of concrete. In this study, the compressive test and impact test were conducted, and then the hybrid effect between steel fiber (SF) and carbon fiber (CF) was evaluated by employing the hybrid effect index. Compressive toughness and impact toughness of steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC), carbon fiber reinforced concrete (CFRC) and hybrid fiber reinforced concrete (HFRC) were explored at steel fiber volume fraction 0.5%, 1%, 1.5% and carbon fiber 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%. Results showed that the addition of steel fiber and carbon fiber can increase the compressive strength. SF, CF and the hybridization between them could increase the compressive toughness significantly. The impact test results showed that as the volume of fiber increased, the impact number of the first visible crack and the ultimate failure also increased. The improvement of toughness mainly lay in improving the crack resistance after the first crack. Based on the test results, the positive hybrid effect of steel fiber and carbon fiber existed in hybrid fiber reinforced concrete. The relationship between the compressive toughness and impact toughness was also explored. PMID:28773824

  17. Hybrid Effect Evaluation of Steel Fiber and Carbon Fiber on the Performance of the Fiber Reinforced Concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Weimin; Yin, Jian

    2016-08-18

    Fiber reinforcement is an important method to enhance the performance of concrete. In this study, the compressive test and impact test were conducted, and then the hybrid effect between steel fiber (SF) and carbon fiber (CF) was evaluated by employing the hybrid effect index. Compressive toughness and impact toughness of steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC), carbon fiber reinforced concrete (CFRC) and hybrid fiber reinforced concrete (HFRC) were explored at steel fiber volume fraction 0.5%, 1%, 1.5% and carbon fiber 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%. Results showed that the addition of steel fiber and carbon fiber can increase the compressive strength. SF, CF and the hybridization between them could increase the compressive toughness significantly. The impact test results showed that as the volume of fiber increased, the impact number of the first visible crack and the ultimate failure also increased. The improvement of toughness mainly lay in improving the crack resistance after the first crack. Based on the test results, the positive hybrid effect of steel fiber and carbon fiber existed in hybrid fiber reinforced concrete. The relationship between the compressive toughness and impact toughness was also explored.

  18. Heads for learning, tails for memory: Reward, reinforcement and a role of dopamine in determining behavioural relevance across multiple timescales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu eBaudonnat

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine has long been tightly associated with aspects of reinforcement learning and motivation in simple situations where there are a limited number of stimuli to guide behaviour and constrained range of outcomes. In naturalistic situations, however, there are many potential cues and foraging strategies that could be adopted, and it is critical that animals determine what might be behaviourally relevant in such complex environments. This requires not only detecting discrepancies with what they have recently experienced, but also identifying similarities with past experiences stored in memory. Here, we review what role dopamine might play in determining how and when to learn about the world, and how to develop choice policies appropriate to the situation faced. We discuss evidence that dopamine is shaped by motivation and memory and in turn shapes reward-based memory formation. In particular, we suggest that hippocampal-striatal-dopamine networks may interact to determine how surprising the world is and to either inhibit or promote actions at time of behavioural uncertainty.

  19. Modification of strut effectiveness factor for reinforced concrete deep beams strengthened with CFRP laminates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panjehpour, M.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method to modify the strut effectiveness factor in the strut-and-tie model for CFRP-strengthened reinforced concrete deep beams. Two groups of deep beams comprising six ordinary reinforced concrete deep beams and six CFRP-strengthened reinforced concrete deep beams were experimentally tested under the four-point bending configuration. The shear span-to-effective depth ratio of the beams in each group was 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, 1.50, 1.75, and 2.00. The theoretical principal tensile strain in CFRP-strengthened struts was modified based on a proposed empirical relationship, based on two ratios: the experimental to the theoretical value of principal tensile strain and the shear span-to-effective depth of deep beams.En este trabajo se propone un método en el que se modifica el factor de eficacia que se aplica a las bielas en el modelo de bielas y tirantes para vigas de canto de hormigón reforzadas con laminados CFRP (polímero reforzado con fibras de carbono. Mediante el ensayo a cuatro puntos se determina la resistencia a flexotracción de doce vigas de canto divididas en dos grupos de seis, las del primer grupo de hormigón armado normal y las del segundo de hormigón reforzado con laminados de CFRP. En ambos grupos cada una de las seis vigas se caracteriza por una relación luz de cortante-canto útil distinta, con valores utilizados de: 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, 1.50, 1.75, y 2.00. El valor teórico de la deformación principal por tracción de la biela reforzada con CFRP se modifica de acuerdo con la relación empírica propuesta en este trabajo. Esta se establece a partir de otras dos: la relación entre los valores experimental y teórico de la deformación por tracción principal y la relación luz de cortante-canto útil de las vigas de canto.

  20. Effect of Temperature on Mechanical Properties of Nanoclay Reinforced Polymeric Nanocomposites. Part 1. Experimental Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-23

    epoxy based nanoclay reinforced specimens Finally, epoxy ( EPON 828 ) specimens with 0%, 1%, 3%, 6% and 10% nanoclay reinforcement were subjected to...stress-strain curves of EPON 828 epoxy specimens with various nanoclay reinforcement percentages The average mechanical properties calculated from...the test results are also shown in Table 3. Table 3. Average material properties of EPON 828 epoxy specimens with 0%, 1%, 3%, 6% and 10% nanoclay

  1. The impact of disulfiram treatment on the reinforcing effects of cocaine: a randomized clinical trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin N Haile

    Full Text Available Clinical trials indicate that disulfiram (250 mg/d reduces cocaine use, though one study found that treatment with lower doses of disulfiram (62.5 and 125 mg/d increased cocaine use. We conducted the present study to better understand how disulfiram alters the reinforcing effects of cocaine in cocaine users.Seventeen non-treatment seeking, cocaine-dependent volunteers participated in this double-blind, placebo-controlled, laboratory-based study. A cross-over design was utilized in which participants received placebo in one phase and disulfiram (250 mg/d in the other. Following three days of study medication participants completed two choice sessions. In one they made 10 choices between receiving an intravenous infusion of saline or money that increased in value (US$ 0.05-16 and in the other cocaine (20 mg or money.Participants chose cocaine more than saline under both disulfiram and placebo conditions (p<0.05. Unexpectedly, disulfiram increased both the number of cocaine and saline infusion choices (p<0.05. We next examined the relationship between disulfiram dose and cocaine choices. Disulfiram dose (mg/kg bodyweight was negatively correlated with number of choices for cocaine (p<0.05. Disulfiram also enhanced cocaine-induced increases in cardiovascular measures (p's<0.05-0.01.Disulfiram's impact on the reinforcing effects of cocaine depends on dose relative to body weight. Our results suggest that the use of weight-based medication doses would produce more reliable effects, consistent with weight-based dosing used in pediatrics and in preclinical research.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00729300.

  2. REINFORCING EFFECTS OF NICOTINE AND NON-NICOTINE COMPONENTS OF CIGARETTE SMOKE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Jed E.; Salley, Al; Behm, Frederique M.; Bates, James E.; Westman, Eric C.

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the reinforcing effects of nicotine and non-nicotine components of cigarette smoke, by presenting a concurrent choice paradigm in which participants had access to intravenous (IV) nicotine infusions vs. saline (placebo) infusions and puffs from denicotinized (“denic”) cigarettes vs. air (sham puffs). We also measured the effects on self-administration of prior satiation with each component. Sixteen smokers participated in 7 sessions, consisting of: 1) a baseline smoking assessment, which was used to tailor the nicotine dose per infusion to that of puffs from subjects’ preferred brands of cigarettes; 2) two sessions in which participants were trained to discriminate IV nicotine vs. saline infusions and denic smoke vs. sham (air) puffs; and 3) four sessions assessing choice behavior after different satiation conditions. Results showed that subjects self-administered more puffs of denic smoke than any other alternative, including IV nicotine. IV nicotine, however, was preferred over IV saline and sham puffs. Preference for denic smoke vs. IV nicotine was highly correlated with subjective ratings of “comfort” associated with the two alternatives. Satiation with smoke diminished the number of denic puffs taken during choice periods, while prior administration of nicotine did not affect the number of puffs taken. Smoking withdrawal symptoms were alleviated both by nicotine administration and by denic smoke. These results show that in established smokers, non-nicotine aspects of cigarette smoking have potent reinforcing effects. While current smoking cessation pharmacotherapies primarily address the nicotine component of cigarette addiction, future cessation strategies should also be designed to target non-nicotine factors. PMID:20358364

  3. Effect of internal short fibers, steel reinforcement, and surface layer on impact and penetration resistance of concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Abd_Elhakam Aliabdo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental program to investigate the impact and penetration resistance of concrete. The research work is divided into two approaches. These approaches are effect of concrete constituents and effect of surface layer. Effect of concrete aggregate type, w/c ratio, fiber type, fiber shape, fiber volume fraction, and steel reinforcement is considered in the first approach. The second approach includes using fiber reinforced concrete and glass fiber reinforced polymer as surface layers. The evaluating tests include standard impact test according to ASTM D 1557 and suggested simulated penetration test to measure the impact and penetration resistance of concrete. The test results of plain and fibrous concrete from ASTM D 1557 method indicated that steel fiber with different configurations and using basalt have a great positive effect on impact resistance of concrete. Moreover, the simulated penetration test indicates that steel fibers are more effective than propylene fibers, type of coarse aggregate has negligible effect, and steel fiber volume fraction has a more significant influence than fiber shape for reinforced concrete test panels. Finally, as expectable, surface properties of tested concrete panels have a significant effect on impact and penetration resistance.

  4. Effects of bingeing on fat during adolescence on the reinforcing effects of cocaine in adult male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Gandía, M Carmen; Cantacorps, Lídia; Aracil-Fernández, Auxiliadora; Montagud-Romero, Sandra; Aguilar, María A; Manzanares, Jorge; Valverde, Olga; Miñarro, José; Rodríguez-Arias, Marta

    2017-02-01

    Binge eating is a specific form of overeating characterized by intermittent excessive eating. In addition to altering the neurobiological reward system, several studies have highlighted that consumption of palatable food increases vulnerability to drug use. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a high-fat diet consumed in a binge pattern during adolescence on the reinforcing effects of cocaine. After 40 days of binge-eating for 2 h, three days a week (PND 29-69), the reinforcing effects of cocaine on conditioning place preference and intravenous self-administration paradigm were evaluated in adolescent male mice. Circulating leptin and ghrelin levels and the effects of bingeing on fat on CB1 mu opioid receptor (MOr) and ghrelin receptor (GHSR) gene expression in the Nucleus Accumbens (NAcc) and Ventral Tegmental Area (VTA) were also assessed. Our results showed a significant escalation in the consumption of a high-fat diet between the first and last week. High-fat binge (HFB) animals were more sensitive to the reinforcing effects of a subthreshold dose of cocaine in the paradigms assayed, and animals under fat withdrawal were more vulnerable to the reinstatement of conditioned place preference. HFB mice also showed enhanced cocaine self-administration. After fat withdrawal, exposure to a new fat binge reinstated cocaine seeking. Although HFB did not modify leptin levels, a decrease in plasmatic ghrelin was observed. Moreover, this pattern of fatty diet resulted in a reduction of MOr and CB1 gene expression in the NAcc and an increase in GHSR expression in the VTA. We propose that bingeing on fat during adolescence induces long-lasting changes in the brain through the sensitization of brain reward circuits, which predisposes individuals to seek cocaine during adulthood. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A cell model for homogenization of fiber-reinforced composites: General theory and nonlinear elasticity effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aidun, J.B.; Addessio, F.L.

    1995-11-01

    The theoretical basis of the homogenization technique developed by Aboudi is presented and assessed. Given the constitutive relations of the constituents, this technique provides an equivalent, homogeneous, constitutive model of unidirectional, continuous-fiber-reinforced composites. The expressions that comprise the first-order version of the technique are given special attention as this treatment has considerable practical value. Nonlinear elasticity effects are added to it. This extension increases the accuracy of numerical simulations of high strain-rate loadings. It is particularly important for any dynamic loading in which shock waves might be produced, including crash safety, armor, and munitions applications. Examples illustrate that elastic nonlinearity can make substantial contributions at strains of only a few per cent. These contributions are greatest during post-yield inelastic deformation. The micromechanics-based homogenization technique is shown to facilitate use of an efficient approximate treatment of elastic nonlinearity in composites with isotropic matrix materials.

  6. Effects of metal- and fiber-reinforced composite root canal posts on flexural properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su-Hyeon; Oh, Tack-Oon; Kim, Ju-Young; Park, Chun-Woong; Baek, Seung-Ho; Park, Eun-Seok

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to observe the effects of different test conditions on the flexural properties of root canal post. Metal- and fiber-reinforced composite root canal posts of various diameters were measured to determine flexural properties using a threepoint bending test at different conditions. In this study, the span length/post diameter ratio of root canal posts varied from 3.0 to 10.0. Multiple regression models for maximum load as a dependent variable were statistically significant. The models for flexural properties as dependent variables were statistically significant, but linear regression models could not be fitted to data sets. At a low span length/post diameter ratio, the flexural properties were distorted by occurrence of shear stress in short samples. It was impossible to obtain high span length/post diameter ratio with root canal posts. The addition of parameters or coefficients is necessary to appropriately represent the flexural properties of root canal posts.

  7. The effect of exfoliated graphite on carbon fiber reinforced composites for cryogenic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Adam Michael

    It is desirable to lighten cryogenic fuel tanks through the use of composites for the development of a reusable single stage launch vehicle. Conventional composites fall victim to microcracking due to the cyclic loading and temperature change experienced during launch and re-entry conditions. Also, the strength of a composite is generally limited by the properties of the matrix. The introduction of the nanoplatelet, exfoliated graphite or graphene, to the matrix shows promise of increasing both the microcracking resistivity and the mechanical characteristics. Several carbon fiber composite plates were manufactured with varying concentrations of graphene and tested under both room and cryogenic conditions to characterize graphene's effect on the composite. Results from tensile and fracture testing indicate that the ideal concentration of graphene in our carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites for cryogenic applications is 0.08% mass graphene.

  8. Team Effectiveness and Leadership Roles

    OpenAIRE

    Duygulu, Ethem; Ciraklar, Nurcan

    2008-01-01

    In this study we aim to explain the patterns of leadership roles for team effectiveness in non economic organizations compared to economic organizations. For this purpose, we studied three successful organization types, i.e the amateur sports clubs (football, basketball), theater companies and, regional folk groups. Our basic hypothesis is that the relationship between the type of organization (specially teams) and the role of leadership is not random. Therefore, we believe that a...

  9. Naltrexone and bupropion, alone or combined, do not alter the reinforcing effects of intranasal methamphetamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoops, William W; Pike, Erika; Hays, Lon R; Glaser, Paul E; Rush, Craig R

    2015-02-01

    Naltrexone and bupropion, when administered alone in clinical trials, modestly reduce amphetamine use. Whether combining these drugs would result in greater reductions in methamphetamine taking relative to either drug alone is undetermined. This study examined the influence of naltrexone, bupropion and a naltrexone-bupropion combination on methamphetamine self-administration in humans. Seven subjects reporting recent illicit stimulant use completed a placebo-controlled, crossover, double-blind study in which the reinforcing, subject-rated and physiological effects of intranasal methamphetamine (0, 10 and 30 mg) were assessed during maintenance on placebo, naltrexone (50 mg), bupropion (300 mg/day), and naltrexone combined with bupropion. Methamphetamine maintained responding and produced prototypic subjective and physiological effects (e.g., increased ratings of good effects, elevated systolic blood pressure). Maintenance doses were well tolerated and generally devoid of effects. No maintenance condition reduced methamphetamine self-administration or systematically altered the subject-rated effects of methamphetamine. These outcomes demonstrate the robust behavioral effects of methamphetamine that could make it resistant to pharmacological manipulation. Although these outcomes indicate that this combination may be ineffective for managing methamphetamine use disorder, future work should evaluate longer maintenance dosing, individuals with different levels of amphetamine use, adding this combination to a behavioral platform and other pharmacotherapy combinations for reducing methamphetamine use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Insight into the Effects of Reinforcement Shape on Achieving Continuous Martensite Transformation in Phase Transforming Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xudong; Ren, Junqiang; Wang, Xiaofei; Zong, Hongxiang; Cui, Lishan; Ding, Xiangdong

    2017-12-01

    A continuous martensite transformation is indispensable for achieving large linear superelasticity and low modulus in phase transforming metal-based composites. However, determining how to accurately condition the residual martensite in a shape memory alloy matrix though the reinforcement shape to achieve continuous martensite transformation has been a challenge. Here, we take the finite element method to perform a comparative study of the effects of nanoinclusion shape on the interaction and martensite phase transformation in this new composite. Two typical samples are compared: one reinforced by metallic nanowires and the other by nanoparticles. We find that the residual martensite within the shape memory alloy matrix after a pretreatment can be tailored by the reinforcement shape. In particular, our results show that the shape memory alloy matrix can retain enough residual martensite phases to achieve continuous martensite transformation in the subsequent loading when the aspect ratio of nanoreinforcement is larger than 20. In contrast, the composites reinforced with spherical or low aspect ratio reinforcement show a typical nonlinear superelasticity as a result of a low stress transfer-induced discontinuous martensite transformation within the shape memory alloy matrix.

  11. Effects of Interface Modification on Mechanical Behavior of Hi-Nicalon Fiber-Reinforced Celsian Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Eldridge, Jeffrey I.

    1997-01-01

    Unidirectional celsian matrix composites having approx. 42 volume percent of uncoated or BN/SiC-coated Hi-Nicalon fibers were tested in three-point bend at room temperature. The uncoated fiber-reinforced composites showed catastrophic failure with strength of 210 +/- 35 MPa and a flat fracture surface. In contrast, composites reinforced with BN/SiC-coated fibers exhibited graceful failure with extensive fiber pullout. Values of first matrix cracking stress and strain were 435 +/- 35 MPa and 0.27 +/- 0.01 %, respectively, with ultimate strength as high as 960 MPa. The elastic Young's modulus of the uncoated and BN/SiC-coated fiber-reinforced composites were measured as 184 q 4 GPa and 165 +/- 5 GPa, respectively. Fiber push-through tests and microscopic examination indicated no chemical reaction at the uncoated or coated fiber-matrix interface. The low strength of the uncoated fiber-reinforced composite is probably due to degradation of the fibers from mechanical surface damage during processing. Because both the coated and uncoated fiber reinforced composites exhibited weak interfaces, the beneficial effect of the BN-SiC dual layer is primarily the protection of fibers from mechanical damage during processing.

  12. PURSUIT ROTOR PERFORMANCE, 1. EFFECTS OF REINFORCING THE LONGER INTERVALS OF CONTINUOUS TRACKING WITHIN EACH TRIAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BJORKLUND, JOHN F.; SHELDON, RICHARD W.

    TO DETERMINE WHETHER SELECTIVE REINFORCEMENT OF PURSUIT ROTOR PERFORMANCE FACILITATES ACQUISITION OF SKILL AND PROMOTES ITS RETENTION, FIVE GROUPS OF SUBJECTS WERE INDIVIDUALLY TRAINED FOR TEN SESSIONS OF 15 TRIALS EACH. SELECTIVE REINFORCEMENT OF LONGER THAN AVERAGE TARGET CONTACTS WAS INTRODUCED FOR ONE GROUP OF SUBJECTS DURING SESSIONS SIX AND…

  13. The Effects of Magnitude-Based Differential Reinforcement on the Skill Acquisition of Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiske, Kate E.; Cohen, Amy P.; Bamond, Meredith J.; Delmolino, Lara; LaRue, Robert H.; Sloman, Kimberly N.

    2014-01-01

    A common recommendation for teaching skills to children with autism is to apply differential reinforcement by reserving high-quality reinforcement for unprompted responses (Sundberg and Partington in Teaching language to children with autism or other developmental disabilities, Behavior Analysts Inc., Pleasant Hill, 1998). Earlier research focuses…

  14. Numerical analyses of the effect of SG‐interlayer shear stiffness on the structural performance of reinforced glass beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Louter, C.; Nielsen, Jens Henrik

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the numerical modelling of SentryGlas-laminated reinforced glass beams. In these beams, which have been experimentally investigated in preceding research, a stainless steel reinforcement section is laminated at the inner recessed edge of a triple-layer glass beam by means...... of SentryGlas (SG) interlayer sheets. The current contribution numerically investigates the effect of the SG-interlayer shear stiffness on the overall structural response of the beams. This is done by means of a 3D finite element model in which the individual glass layers, the SG......-interlayers and the reinforcement are incorporated. In the model, the glass parts are allowed to crack, but all other parts are assumed linear elastic throughout the analyses. By changing the shear modulus of the SG-interlayer in multiple analyses, its contribution to the overall structural performance of the beams – especially...

  15. Numerical analyses of the effect of SG-interlayer shear stiffness on the structural performance of reinforced glass beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Louter, C.; Nielsen, Jens Henrik

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the numerical modelling of SentryGlas-laminated reinforced glass beams. In these beams, which have been experimentally investigated in preceding research, a stainless steel reinforcement section is laminated at the inner recessed edge of a triple-layer glass beam by means...... of SentryGlas (SG) interlayer sheets. The current contribution numerically investigates the effect of the SG-interlayer shear stiffness on the overall structural response of the beams. This is done by means of a 3D finite element model in which the individual glass layers, the SG...... the numerical model is predicting experimental observations very well. However, the crack pattern resulting from the numerical model is not matching the experimental observations. Further studies are thus needed to fully understand the mechanisms involved in the structural behaviour of SGlaminated reinforced...

  16. Effect of Thermal Cycling on the Tensile Behavior of Polymer Composites Reinforced by Basalt and Carbon Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalili, S. Mohammad Reza; Najafi, Moslem; Eslami-Farsani, Reza

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the effect of thermal cycling on the tensile behavior of three types of polymer-matrix composites — a phenolic resin reinforced with woven basalt fibers, woven carbon fibers, and hybrid basalt and carbon fibers — in an ambient environment. For this purpose, tensile tests were performed on specimens previously subjected to a certain number of thermal cycles. The ultimate tensile strength of the specimen reinforced with woven basalt fibers had by 5% after thermal cycling, but the strength of the specimen with woven carbon fibers had reduced to a value by 11% higher than that before thermal cycling.

  17. Reinforcing Effect of Glass Fiber-incorporated ProRoot MTA and Biodentine as Intraorifice Barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagas, Emre; Cehreli, Zafer C; Uyanik, Ozgur; Vallittu, Pekka K; Lassila, Lippo V J

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the fracture resistance of roots by using intraorifice barriers with glass fiber-incorporated ProRoot MTA and Biodentine. The diametral tensile strength and compressive strength of ProRoot MTA and Biodentine were determined after incorporation of 5 wt% and 10 wt% alkali resistant (AR) glass fiber powder into both cements. On the basis of higher diametral tensile strength and compressive strength values, ProRoot MTA and Biodentine with 5 wt% AR glass fiber were selected for further testing as intraorifice barriers. The 14-mm-long root specimens obtained from extracted mandibular premolars (n = 60) were prepared with nickel-titanium rotary files and obturated with gutta-percha + AH Plus sealer. After removal of coronal 3 mm of root fillings, the roots were grouped with respect to the intraorifice barrier material (n = 12/group): (1) ProRoot MTA, (2) ProRoot MTA with 5 wt% AR glass fibers, (3) Biodentine, (4) Biodentine with 5 wt% AR glass fibers, and (5) control (no intraorifice barrier). The specimens were loaded vertically at 1 mm/min crosshead speed until vertical root fracture occurred. The data were evaluated statistically by using 2-way analysis of variance and Tukey tests. Both incorporation of glass fiber and the type of material significantly affected fracture resistance (both P = .002). Roots with glass fiber-reinforced Biodentine barriers showed the highest fracture strength (P = .000). Incorporation of 5 wt% AR glass fiber can significantly improve the reinforcement effect of ProRoot MTA and Biodentine when used as intraorifice barriers. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Cellulose kraft pulp reinforced polylactic acid (PLA composites: effect of fibre moisture content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Retulainen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available PLA offers a competitive and CO2 neutral matrix to commonly used polyolefin polymer based composites. Moreover, the use of PLA reduces dependency on oil when producing composite materials. However, PLA has a tendency of hydrolytic degradation under melt processing conditions in the presence of moisture, which remains a challenge when processing PLA reinforced natural fibre composites. Natural fibres such as cellulose fibres are hygroscopic with 6–10 wt% moisture content at 50–70% relative humidity conditions. These fibres are sensitive to melt processing conditions and fibre breakage (cutting also occur during processing. The degradation of PLA, moisture absorption of natural fibres together with fibre cutting and uneven dispersion of fibres in polymer matrix, deteriorates the overall properties of the composite. In the given research paper, bleached softwood kraft pulp (BSKP reinforced PLA compounds were successfully melt processed using BSKP with relatively high moisture contents. The effect of moist BSKP on the molecular weight of PLA, fibre length and the mechanical properties of the composites were investigated. By using moist never-dried kraft pulp fibres for feeding, the fibre cutting was decreased during the melt compounding. Even though PLA degradation occurred during the melt processing, the final damage to the PLA was moderate and thus did not deteriorate the mechanical properties of the composites. However, comprehensive moisture removal is required during the compounding in order to achieve optimal overall performance of the PLA/BSKP composites. The economic benefit gained from using moist BSKP is that the expensive and time consuming drying process steps of the kraft pulp fibres prior to processing can be minimized.

  19. Effects of Group I metabotropic glutamate receptor antagonists on sensitivity to reinforcer magnitude and delayed reinforcement in a delay-discounting task in rats: Contribution of delay presentation order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Justin R; Rogers, Katherine K; Gunkel, Benjamin T; Prior, Nicholas A; Hughes, Mallory N; Sharpe, Sara M; Campbell, Hunter L; Johnson, Anthony B; Keller, Margaret G; Breitenstein, Kerry A; Shults, Hansen N

    2017-03-30

    Metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGluR1) blockade has been shown to decrease impulsive choice, as measured in delay discounting. However, several variables are known to influence an animal's discounting, including sensitivity to delayed reinforcement and sensitivity to reinforcer magnitude. The goal of this experiment was to determine the effects of mGluR1, as well as mGluR5, antagonism on these parameters. Forty Sprague Dawley rats were trained in delay discounting, in which consistently choosing a small, immediate reward reflects impulsive choice. For half of the rats, the delay to the large reinforcer increased across blocks of trials, whereas the delay decreased across the session for half of the rats. Following training, half of the rats received injections of the mGluR1 antagonist JNJ 16259685 (JNJ; 0, 0.1, 0.3, or 1.0mg/kg; i.p), and half received injections of the mGluR5 antagonist MPEP (0, 1.0, 3.0, or 10.0mg/kg; i.p.). Administration of JNJ increased sensitivity to delayed reinforcement (i.e., promoted impulsive choice), regardless of which schedule was used. However, the order in which delays were presented modulated the effects of JNJ on sensitivity to reinforcer magnitude. Specifically, JNJ decreased sensitivity to reinforcer magnitude in rats trained on the descending schedule only. MPEP did not alter sensitivity to reinforcer magnitude or sensitivity to delayed reinforcement. These results show that mGluR1 is an important mediator of impulsive choice, and they provide further evidence that delay order presentation is an important variable that influences drug effects in delay discounting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The Role of Friction Stir Processing (FSP Parameters on TiC Reinforced Surface Al7075-T651 Aluminum Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe García-Vázquez

    Full Text Available Abstract: Aluminum alloys are very promising for structural applications in aerospace, military and transportation industries due to their light weight, high strength-to-weight ratio and excellent resistance to corrosion. In comparison to unreinforced aluminum alloys, aluminum/aluminum alloy matrix composites reinforced with ceramic phases exhibit higher strength and hardness, improved tribological characteristics. A novel surface modifying technique, friction stir processing (FSP, has been developed for fabrication of surface composite with an improved performance. The effect of FSP parameters such as number of passes, direction of each pass, sealed or unsealed groove on microstructure was investigated. In this work, nano-particles of TiC (2% in weight were added to aluminum alloy AA7075-T651 to produce a functional surface. Fixed parameters for this AA7075 alloy were used; rotation speed of 1000 rpm, travel speed of 300 mm/min and pin penetration of 2.8 mm. Optical microscopy (OM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM were employed to study the microstructure of the fabricated surface composites. The results indicated that the selected FSP parameters influenced the area of surface composite, distribution of TiC particles and micro-hardness of the surface composites. Finally, in order to evaluate rate wear the pin on disk test was carried out.

  1. Microtensile bond strength of a resin cement to glass infiltrated zirconia-reinforced ceramic: The effect of surface conditioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amaral, R.; Ozcan, M.; Bottino, M.A.; Valandro, L.F.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives. This study evaluated the effect of three surface conditioning methods on the microtensile bond strength of resin cement to a glass-infiltrated zirconia-reinforced alumina-based core ceramic. Methods. Thirty blocks (5 x 5 x 4 mm) of In-Ceram Zirconia ceramics (In-Ceram Zirconia-INC-ZR,

  2. Cellulose Nanocrystals vs. Cellulose Nanofibrils: A Comparative study on Their Microstructures and Effects as Polymer Reinforcing Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuezhu Xu; Fei Liu; Long Jiang; J.Y. Zhu; Darrin Haagenson; Dennis P. Wiesenborn

    2013-01-01

    Both cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) and cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) are nanoscale cellulose fibers that have shown reinforcing effects in polymer nanocomposites. CNCs and CNFs are different in shape, size and composition. This study systematically compared their morphologies, crystalline structure, dispersion properties in polyethylene oxide (PEO) matrix, interactions...

  3. Bond strength of a resin cement to high-alumina and zirconia-reinforced ceramics: The effect of surface conditioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valandro, L.F.; Ozcan, M.; Bottino, M.C.; Bottino, M.A.; Scotti, R.; Della Bona, A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two surface conditioning methods on the microtensile bond strength of a resin cement to three high-strength core ceramics: high alumina-based (In-Ceram Alumina, Procera AllCeram) and zirconia-reinforced alumina-based (in-Ceram Zirconia)

  4. Microtensile bond strength of a resin cement to glass infiltrated zirconia-reinforced ceramic : The effect of surface conditioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amaral, R; Ozcan, M; Bottino, MA; Valandro, LF

    Objectives. This study evaluated the effect of three surface conditioning methods on the microtensile bond strength of resin cement to a glass-infiltrated zirconia-reinforced alumina-based core ceramic. Methods. Thirty blocks (5 x 5 x 4 mm) of In-Ceram Zirconia ceramics (In-Ceram Zirconia-INC-ZR,

  5. Bond strength of a resin cement to high-alumina and zirconia-reinforced ceramics : The effect of surface conditioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Felipe Valandro, Luiz; Ozcan, Mutlu; Bottino, Marco Cicero; Bottino, Marco Antonio; Scotti, Roberto; Della Bona, Alvaro

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two surface conditioning methods on the microtensile bond strength of a resin cement to three high-strength core ceramics: high alumina-based (In-Ceram Alumina, Procera AllCeram) and zirconia-reinforced alumina-based (in-Ceram Zirconia)

  6. Effects of Fixed-Time Reinforcement Delivered by Teachers for Reducing Problem Behavior in Special Education Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlin, Michelle; Reed, Phil

    2012-01-01

    The effects of fixed-time (FT) reinforcement schedules on the disruptive behavior of 4 students in special education classrooms were studied. Attention provided on FT schedules in the context of a multiple-baseline design across participants substantially decreased all students' challenging behavior. Disruptive behavior was maintained at levels…

  7. The Effects of Rationales, Differential Reinforcement, and a Guided Compliance Procedure to Increase Compliance among Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, David A.; Myers, Kristin; Nicholson, Katie; Allison, Janelle; Fischetti, Anthony T.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research suggests that rationales, or statements describing why a child should comply with a caregiver-delivered instruction, are ineffective at increasing compliance. In the current study, we compared the effects of rationales to a differential reinforcement procedure and a guided compliance procedure. The results indicated that…

  8. The Effects of Performance Feedback and Social Reinforcement on Up-Selling at Fast-Food Restaurants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesman, Daryl W.

    2006-01-01

    The present study sought to evaluate the effects of feedback and positive social reinforcement on the performance of restaurant drive-thru window order-takers in asking customers to "upsize" their order at a specific prompt. A multiple baseline across settings was followed by the introduction of an intervention of weekly performance feedback and…

  9. A systematic review of the effectiveness of the community reinforcement approach in alcohol, cocaine and opioid addiction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozen, H.G.; Boulogne, J.J.; Tulder, van M.; Brink, van den W.; Jong, de C.A.J.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.

    2004-01-01

    Abstract The community reinforcement approach (CRA) has been applied in the treatment of disorders resulting from alcohol, cocaine and opioid use. The objectives were to review the effectiveness of (1) CRA compared with usual care, and (2) CRA versus CRA plus contingency management. Studies were

  10. A systematic review of the effectiveness of the community reinforcement approach in alcohol, cocaine and opioid addiction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozen, H.G.; Boulogne, J.J.; van Tulder, M.; van den Brink, W.; de Jong, C.A.J.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.

    2004-01-01

    The community reinforcement approach (CRA) has been applied in the treatment of disorders resulting from alcohol, cocaine and opioid use. The objectives were to review the effectiveness of (1) CRA compared with usual care, and (2) CRA versus CRA plus contingency management. Studies were selected

  11. A systematic review of the effectiveness of the community reinforcement approach in alcohol, cocaine and opioid addiction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozen, Hendrik G.; Boulogne, Jiska J.; van Tulder, Maurits W.; van den Brink, Wim; de Jong, Cor A. J.; Kerkhof, Ad J. F. M.

    2004-01-01

    The community reinforcement approach (CRA) has been applied in the treatment of disorders resulting from alcohol, cocaine and opioid use. The objectives were to review the effectiveness of (1) CRA compared with usual care, and (2) CRA versus CRA plus contingency management. Studies were selected

  12. Responding for conditioned reinforcement in C57BL/6 and CD-1 mice, and Sprague-Dawley rats: Effects of methylphenidate and amphetamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, J D Caleb; Soko, Ashlie D; Fletcher, Paul J

    2014-12-01

    Characterization of responding for conditioned reinforcement in mice is important to implement genetic tools in examining the neurobiological mechanisms underlying reward-related learning and incentive motivation. Inbred C57BL/6 mice, outbred CD-1 mice, and outbred Sprague-Dawley rats underwent Pavlovian conditioning in which a conditioned stimulus (CS) was paired with saccharin. Subsequently, subjects were allowed to respond for that CS in tests of responding for conditioned reinforcement. Experiments measured the effects of methylphenidate (MPH) and amphetamine (AMPH) on lever pressing for conditioned reinforcement in mice and rats. We further examined the stability of responding for conditioned reinforcement in mice after repeated testing and the extinction of this behaviour following omission of the reinforcer. We also determined whether the CS exhibited reinforcing properties if it was not paired with saccharin. C57BL/6 and CD-1 mice learned to respond for a conditioned reinforcer similarly to rats, and the behaviour was stable over time. MPH increased responding in CD-1 mice and rats, but not in C57BL/6 mice. AMPH only increased responding in rats. Responding was reduced following omission of the conditioned reinforcer, and responding was only established when the CS was paired with saccharin. These experiments characterize a conditioned reinforcement test which produces stable responding in two different mouse backgrounds. These findings also show that dopaminergic psychomotor stimulants can differently affect rats and mice in tests of responding for conditioned reinforcement.

  13. Effect of Short Fiber Reinforcement on Mechanical Properties of Hybrid Phenolic Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sembian Manoharan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fiber plays an important role in determining the hardness, strength, and dynamic mechanical properties of composite material. In the present work, enhancement of viscoelastic behaviour of hybrid phenolic composites has been synergistically investigated. Five different phenolic composites, namely, C1, C2, C3, C4, and C5, were fabricated by varying the weight percentage of basalt and aramid fiber, namely, 25, 20, 15, 10, and 5% by compensating with barium sulphate (BaSO4 to keep the combined reinforcement concentration at 25 wt%. Hardness was measured to examine the resistance of composites to indentation. The hardness of phenolic composites increased from 72.2 to 85.2 with increase in basalt fiber loading. Composite C1 (25 wt% fiber is 1.2 times harder than composite C5. Compression test was conducted to find out compressive strength of phenolic composites and compressive strength increased with increase in fiber content. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA was carried out to assess the temperature dependence mechanical properties in terms of storage modulus (E′, loss modulus (E′′, and damping factor (tan δ. The results indicate great improvement of E′ values and decrease in damping behaviour of composite upon fiber addition. Further X-ray powder diffraction (XRD and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX analysis were employed to characterize the friction composites.

  14. Effects of machining conditions on the specific cutting energy of carbon fibre reinforced polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, A. I.; Syahmi, A. Z.; Naquib, M.; Lih, T. C.; Mansor, A. F.; Khalil, A. N. M.

    2017-10-01

    This article presents an approach to evaluate the effects of different machining conditions on the specific cutting energy of carbon fibre reinforced polymer composites (CFRP). Although research works in the machinability of CFRP composites have been very substantial, the present literature rarely discussed the topic of energy consumption and the specific cutting energy. A series of turning experiments were carried out on two different CFRP composites in order to determine the power and specific energy constants and eventually evaluate their effects due to the changes in machining conditions. A good agreement between the power and material removal rate using a simple linear relationship. Further analyses revealed that a power law function is best to describe the effect of feed rate on the changes in the specific cutting energy. At lower feed rate, the specific cutting energy increases exponentially due to the nature of finishing operation, whereas at higher feed rate, the changes in specific cutting energy is minimal due to the nature of roughing operation.

  15. Natural Weathering and Sea Water Effects on the Durability of Glass Fiber Reinforced Vinylester: Fractographic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merah, Nesar; Nizamuddin, Seyed; Khan, Zafarullah; Al-Sulaiman, Faleh; Mehdi, Moeid

    2010-10-01

    This paper presents a study of the effects of harsh outdoor weather and warm sea water on the tensile behavior of Glass-Fiber Reinforced Vinylester (GFRV) pipe materials destined for sea water handling and transportation. The effect of Dhahran’s outdoor weather for exposure periods ranging from 3 to 36 months revealed an improvement in tensile strength when compared with the as received GFRV sample. A significant increasing trend of tensile strength from 3 to 12 months was noted. This is attributed mainly to the post curing effects resulting in higher cross linking density. After 12 months of exposure the tensile strength showed a decreasing trend, but remaining still higher than the average tensile strength of as received (baseline) GFRV sample. Similar results of enhanced tensile strength were noted after immersion of GFRV pipes in warm Gulf sea water for 12 months. Fractographic analysis was performed on the tensile tested GFRV samples using optical microscope followed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The characterization of the controlling failure mechanisms involved from fracture initiation to fracture propagation through the gage section of the specimen were predicted and were justified by correlating the optical and SEM pictures.

  16. Conditioned Reinforcement and Locomotor Activating Effects of Caffeine and Ethanol Combinations in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Megan L.T.; May, Christina E.; Griffin, William C.

    2013-01-01

    A growing trend among ethanol drinkers, especially young adults, is to combine caffeinated energy drinks with ethanol during a drinking episode. The primary active ingredient of these mixers is caffeine, which may significantly interact with ethanol. We tested the two hypotheses that caffeine would enhance ethanol-conditioned place preference and also enhance ethanol-stimulated locomotor activity. The interactive pharmacology of ethanol and caffeine was examined in C57BL/6J (B6) mice in a conditioned place preference procedure with 1.75 g/kg ethanol and 3 mg/kg caffeine. Additionally, we used B6 mice to evaluate ethanol/caffeine combinations on locomotor activity using 3 doses of ethanol (1.75, 2.5 and 3.25 g/kg) and 2 two doses of caffeine (3 and 15 mg/kg). Both ethanol and caffeine administered alone increased preference for the drug paired side, though the effect of caffeine was more modest than that of ethanol. The drug combination produced significant place preference itself, but this was not greater than that for ethanol alone. Additionally, the combination of caffeine and ethanol significantly increased locomotion compared to giving either drug alone. The effect was strongest with a stimulatory dose of ethanol (1.75 g/kg) and waned with increasing doses of ethanol. Thus, combinations of caffeine and ethanol had significant conditioned reinforcing and locomotor activating effects in mice. PMID:23872371

  17. Stochastic Analysis of the Multi-dimensional Effect of Chloride Ingress into Reinforced Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frier, Christian; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2007-01-01

    For many reinforced concrete structures corrosion of the reinforcement is an important problem since it can result in expensive maintenance and repair actions. One mode of corrosion initiation occurs when the chloride content around the reinforcement bars exceeds a critical threshold value, which...... is the subject of the present paper. Typically, the chloride concentration is obtained by solving Fick's diffusion partial differential equation assuming chloride flow into an infinite half space. However, when the concrete structure is relatively thin or when a rebar is situated at a corner of the structure...... Optimum Linear Estimation) approach. A bridge pier in a marine environment is considered to exemplify the results....

  18. Effect of Lithium Disilicate Reinforced Liner Treatment on Bond and Fracture Strengths of Bilayered Zirconia All-Ceramic Crown

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Seok Jang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to evaluate the effect of a lithium-disilicate spray-liner application on both the bond strength between zirconia cores and heat-pressed lithium-disilicate glass-ceramic veneers, and the fracture strength of all-ceramic zirconia crowns. A lithium-disilicate reinforced liner was applied on the surface of a zirconia core and lithium-disilicate glass-ceramic was veneered on zirconia through heat press forming. Microtensile and crown fracture tests were conducted in order to evaluate, respectively, the bonding strength between the zirconia cores and heat pressed lithium-disilicate glass-ceramic veneers, and the fracture strength of bilayered zirconia all-ceramic crowns. The role of lithium-disilicate spray-liner at the interface between zirconia and lithium-disilicate glass-ceramic veneers was investigated through surface and cross-sectional analyses. We confirmed that both the mean bonding strength between the zirconia ceramics and lithium-disilicate glass-ceramic veneers and the fracture strength of the liner-treated groups were significantly higher than those of the untreated groups, which resulted, on the one hand, from the chemical bonding at the interface of the zirconia and lithium-disilicate liner, and, on the other, from the existence of a microgap in the group not treated with liner.

  19. Effect of Lithium Disilicate Reinforced Liner Treatment on Bond and Fracture Strengths of Bilayered Zirconia All-Ceramic Crown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yong-Seok; Noh, Hyeong-Rok; Lee, Min-Ho; Lim, Myung-Jin; Bae, Tae-Sung

    2018-01-05

    This study was performed to evaluate the effect of a lithium-disilicate spray-liner application on both the bond strength between zirconia cores and heat-pressed lithium-disilicate glass-ceramic veneers, and the fracture strength of all-ceramic zirconia crowns. A lithium-disilicate reinforced liner was applied on the surface of a zirconia core and lithium-disilicate glass-ceramic was veneered on zirconia through heat press forming. Microtensile and crown fracture tests were conducted in order to evaluate, respectively, the bonding strength between the zirconia cores and heat pressed lithium-disilicate glass-ceramic veneers, and the fracture strength of bilayered zirconia all-ceramic crowns. The role of lithium-disilicate spray-liner at the interface between zirconia and lithium-disilicate glass-ceramic veneers was investigated through surface and cross-sectional analyses. We confirmed that both the mean bonding strength between the zirconia ceramics and lithium-disilicate glass-ceramic veneers and the fracture strength of the liner-treated groups were significantly higher than those of the untreated groups, which resulted, on the one hand, from the chemical bonding at the interface of the zirconia and lithium-disilicate liner, and, on the other, from the existence of a microgap in the group not treated with liner.

  20. Effects of Vigabatrin, an Irreversible GABA Transaminase Inhibitor, on Ethanol Reinforcement and Ethanol Discriminative Stimuli in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Griffin, William C.; Nguyen, Shaun A.; Deleon, Christopher P.; Middaugh, Lawrence D

    2012-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the irreversible gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) transaminase inhibitor, γ-vinyl GABA (Vigabatrin; VGB) would reduce ethanol reinforcement and enhance the discriminative stimulus effect of ethanol, effectively reducing ethanol intake. The present studies used adult C57BL/6J (B6) mice in well-established operant, two-bottle choice consumption, locomotor activity and ethanol discrimination procedures, to examine comprehensively the effects of VGB on ethanol-support...

  1. Use of high energy ball milling to study the role of graphene nanoplatelets and carbon nanotubes reinforced magnesium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashad, Muhammad, E-mail: rashadphy87@gmail.com [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Magnesium Alloys, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Pan, Fusheng, E-mail: fspan@cqu.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Magnesium Alloys, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Chongqing Academy of Science and Technology, Chongqing, Chongqing 401123 (China); Zhang, Jianyue [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Magnesium Alloys, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Asif, Muhammad [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2015-10-15

    Graphene nanoplatelets (few layer graphene) and carbon nanotubes were used as reinforcement fillers to enhance the mechanical properties of AZ31 magnesium alloy through high energy ball milling, sintering, and hot extrusion techniques. Experimental results revealed that tensile fracture strain of AZ31 magnesium alloy was enhanced by +49.6% with 0.3 wt.% graphene nanoplatelets compared to −8.3% regression for 0.3 wt.% carbon nanotubes. The tensile strength of AZ31 magnesium alloy was decreased (−11.2%) with graphene nanoplatelets addition, while increased (+7.7%) with carbon nanotubes addition. Unlike tensile test, compression tests showed different trend. The compression strength of carbon nanotubes-AZ31 composite was +51.2% greater than AZ31 magnesium alloy as compared to +0.6% increase for graphene nanoplatelets. The compressive fracture strain of carbon nanotubes-AZ31 composite was decreased (−14.1%) while no significant change in fracture strain of graphene nanoplatelets-AZ31 composite was observed. The X-ray diffraction results revealed that addition of reinforcement particles weaken the basal textures which affect the composite's yield asymmetry. Microstructure evaluation revealed the absence of intermetallic phase formation between reinforcements and matrix. The carbon reinforcements in AZ31 magnesium alloy dissolve and isolate β phases throughout the matrix. The increased fracture strain and mechanical strength of graphene nanoplatelets and carbon nanotubes-AZ31 composites are attributed to large specific surface area of graphene nanoplatelets and stiffer nature of carbon nanotubes respectively. - Highlights: • Powder metallurgy method was used to fabricate magnesium composites. • The AZ31-carbon materials composite were blended using ball milling. • The reinforcement particles weaken the basal texture which affects yield asymmetry of composites. • AZ31-graphene nanoplatelets composite exhibited impressive increase in tensile elongation

  2. Masonry Vaults Subjected To Horizontal Loads: Experimental and Numerical Investigations to Evaluate the Effectiveness of A GFRM Reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattesco, Natalino; Boem, Ingrid

    2017-10-01

    The paper investigates the effectiveness of a modern reinforcement technique based on a Glass Fiber-Reinforced Mortar (GFRM) for the enhancement of the performances of existing masonry vaults subjected to horizontal seismic actions. In fact, the authors recently evidenced, through numerical simulations, that the typical simplified loading patterns generally adopted in the literature for the experimental tests, based on concentrated vertical loads at 1/4 of the span, are not reliable for such a purpose, due to an unrealistic stress distribution. Thus, experimental quasi-static cyclic tests on full-scale masonry vaults based on a specific setup, designed to apply a horizontal load pattern proportional to the mass, were performed. Three samples were tested: an unreinforced vault, a vault reinforced at the extrados and a vault reinforced at the intrados. The experimental results demonstrated the technique effectiveness in both strength and ductility. Moreover, numerical simulations were performed by adopting a simplified FE, smear-crack model, evidencing the good reliability of the prediction by comparison with the experimental results.

  3. Efficiency of fiber reinforced concrete application in structures subjected to dynamic effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morozov Valeriy Ivanovich

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fiber reinforced concretes possess high strength under dynamic loadings, which include impact loads, thanks to their high structural viscosity. This is the reason for using them in difficult operating conditions, where increasing the performance characteristics and the structure durability is of prime importance, and the issues of the cost become less significant. Applying methods of disperse reinforcement is most challenging in case of subtle high-porous materials on mineral binders, for example foamed concrete. At the same time, the experiments conducted in Russia and abroad show, that also in other cases the concrete strength resistance several times increases as a result of disperse reinforcement. This doesn't depend on average density of the concrete and type of fiber used. In the article the fibre reinforced concrete impact resistance is analysed. Recommendations are given in regard to fibre concrete application in manufacture of monolithic floor units for industrial buildings and precast piles.

  4. Effect of polyester fiber reinforcement on the mechanical properties of interim fixed partial dentures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Gopichander

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, polyester fiber reinforcements improved the mechanical properties of heat-polymerized PMMA, cold-polymerized PMMA, and bis-acrylic provisional FPD materials.

  5. Effects of Locus of Control and Type of Reinforcement on Programmed Instruction Performance of Adolescent Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Mary K.

    1976-01-01

    Students with an internal locus of control functioned well under a variety of conditions while students needing extrinsic reinforcement functioned well only when feedback was provided by the experimenter. (MM)

  6. Field monitoring of mechanically stabilized earth walls to investigate secondary reinforcement effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Mechanically stabilized earth (MSE) walls have been commonly used in highway construction. AASHTO (2007) has : detailed design procedures for such a wall system. In the current AASHTO design, only primary reinforcements are used in : relatively large...

  7. Seismic Effects on the Design of Geosynthetic-Reinforced Earth Retaining Structures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carter, Jeffrey

    1998-01-01

    For the purposes of this paper, the study will be limited to developing a design method for earth retaining structures that have been reinforced with geosynthetics and are subjected to cyclic motion...

  8. Assessment of reinforcement enhancing effects of toluene vapor and nitrous oxide in intracranial self-stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Matthew E.; Slavova-Hernandez, Galina G.; Shelton, Keith L.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Despite widespread abuse there are few validated methods to study the rewarding effects of inhalants. One model that that may have utility for this purpose is intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS). Objectives We wished to compare and contrast the ICSS reward-facilitating effects of abused inhalants to other classes of abused drugs. Compounds were examined using two different ICSS procedures in mice to determine the generality of each drug's effects on ICSS and the sensitivity of the procedures. Methods Male C57BL/6J mice with electrodes implanted in the medial forebrain bundle were trained under a three component rate-frequency as well as a progressive ratio (PR) ICSS procedure. The effects of nitrous oxide, toluene vapor, cocaine and diazepam on ICSS were then examined. Results Concentrations of 1360-2900 ppm inhaled toluene vapor significantly facilitated ICSS in the rate frequency procedure and 1360 ppm increased PR breakpoint. A concentration of 40% nitrous oxide facilitated ICSS in the rate-frequency procedure but reduced PR breakpoint. Doses of 3-18 mg/kg cocaine facilitated ICSS in the rate frequency procedure and 10 and 18 mg/kg increased PR breakpoint. Doses of 1 and 3 mg/kg diazepam facilitated ICSS in the rate frequency procedure and 3 mg/kg increased PR breakpoint. Conclusions The reinforcement facilitating effect of toluene in ICSS is at least as great as diazepam. In contrast, nitrous oxide weakly enhances ICSS in only the rate frequency procedure. The data suggest that the rate frequency procedure may be more sensitive than the PR schedule to the reward facilitating effects of abused inhalants. PMID:24186077

  9. Effects of caffeine on alcohol reinforcement: beverage choice, self-administration, and subjective ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Mary M; Meredith, Steven E; Evatt, Daniel P; Griffiths, Roland R

    2017-03-01

    Combining alcohol and caffeine is associated with increased alcohol consumption, but no prospective experimental studies have examined whether added caffeine increases alcohol consumption. This study examined how caffeine alters alcohol self-administration and subjective reinforcing effects in healthy adults. Thirty-one participants completed six double-blind alcohol self-administration sessions: three sessions with alcohol only (e.g., beverage A) and three sessions with alcohol and caffeine (e.g., beverage B). Participants chose which beverage to consume on a subsequent session (e.g., beverage A or B). The effects of caffeine on overall beverage choice, number of self-administered drinks, subjective ratings (e.g., Biphasic Alcohol Effects Scale), and psychomotor performance were examined. A majority of participants (65%) chose to drink the alcohol beverage containing caffeine on their final self-administration session. Caffeine did not increase the number of self-administered drinks. Caffeine significantly increased stimulant effects, decreased sedative effects, and attenuated decreases in psychomotor performance attributable to alcohol. Relative to nonchoosers, caffeine choosers reported overall lower stimulant ratings and reported greater drinking behavior prior to the study. Although caffeine did not increase the number of self-administered drinks, most participants chose the alcohol beverage containing caffeine. Given the differences in subjective ratings and pre-existing differences in self-reported alcohol consumption for caffeine choosers and nonchoosers, these data suggest that decreased stimulant effects of alcohol and heavier self-reported drinking may predict subsequent choice of combined caffeine and alcohol beverages. These predictors may identify individuals who would benefit from efforts to reduce risk behaviors associated with combining alcohol and caffeine.

  10. Effect of Home Bleaching on Microleakage of Fiber-reinforced and Particle-filled Composite Resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahnaz Sharafeddin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Bleaching may exert some negative effects on existing composite resin restorations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of home bleaching on microleakage of fiber-reinforced and particle-filled composite resins. Materials and methods. Ninety class V cavities (1.5×2×3 mm were prepared on the buccal surfaces of 90 bovine teeth. The teeth were randomly divided into 6 groups (n=15 and restored as follows: Groups 1 and 2 with Z100, groups 3 and 4 with Z250, and groups 5 and 6 with Nulite F composite resins. All the specimens were thermocycled. Groups 1, 3 and 5 were selected as control groups (without bleaching and the experimental groups 2, 4 and 6 were bleached with 22% carbamide peroxide gel. All the samples were immersed in 2% basic fuchsin dye for 24 hours and then sectioned longitudinally. Dye penetration was evaluated under a stereomicroscope (×25, at both the gingival and incisal margins. Data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon tests (α=0.05. Results. Statistical analyses revealed that bleaching gel increased microleakage only at gingival margins with Z250 (P=0.007. Moreover, the control groups showed a statistically significant difference in microleakage at their gingival margins. Nulite F had the maximum microleakage while Z250 showed the minimum (P=0.006. Conclusion. Microleakage of home-bleached restorations might be related to the type of composite resin used.

  11. A finite deformation continuum modelling framework for curvature effects in fibre-reinforced nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmanoglo, Tobias; Menzel, Andreas

    2017-10-01

    Motivated by experimental findings on one-dimensional nano-materials, this contribution focusses on the elaboration of a fibre curvature based higher-order gradient contribution to the stored energy function in a finite deformation setting. The presented approach is based on the fundamental theoretical developments for fibre-reinforced composites presented by Spencer and Soldatos (2007), which take into account the fibre-bending stiffness in addition to the directional dependency induced by the fibres. A mixed-type finite element formulation is then used for the solution of the resulting system of coupled partial differential equations. A specific form of the stored energy function is introduced such that well-interpretable contributions to the stress- and the couple stress tensor are obtained. It is shown that this framework may, in principle, account for fibres of different diameters and induces a natural length scale into the model. Such continuum theory covering size-effects is of special interest since experiments for different materials suggest significant size-effects at small length scales.

  12. Effect of Temperature Variation on Modal Frequency of Reinforced Concrete Slab and Beam in Cold Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanbing Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes of modal frequencies induced by temperature variation can be more obvious than those caused by structural damage, which will lead to the false damage identification results. Therefore, quantifying the temperature effect on modal frequencies is a critical step to eliminate its interference in damage detection. Due to the nonuniform and time-dependent characteristics of temperature distribution, it is insufficient to obtain the reliable relationships between temperatures and modal frequencies using temperatures in air or at surface. In this paper, correlations between measured temperatures (air temperature, surface temperature, mean temperature, etc. and modal frequencies for the slab and beam are comparatively analyzed. And the quantitative models are constructed considering nonuniform temperature distribution. Firstly, the reinforced concrete slab and beam were constructed and placed outside the laboratory to be monitored. Secondly, the correlation coefficients between modal frequencies and three kinds of temperatures are calculated, respectively. Thirdly, simple linear regression models between mean temperature and modal frequencies are established for the slab and beam. Finally, five temperature variables are selected to construct the multiple linear regression models. Prediction results reveal that the proposed multiple linear regression models possess favorable accuracy to quantify the temperature effect on modal frequencies considering nonuniform temperature distribution.

  13. EFFECTS OF COLUMN FAILURES ON THE INTERNAL FORCES OF ORTHOGONAL REINFORCED CONCRETE BUILDING FRAMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilay KAYA

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of column failures which may take place due to the special causes such as blast, vehicle impact, insufficient or deficient design, on the internal forces of orthogonal reinforced concrete building frames have been investigated. Calculations have been performed with SAP2000 structural analysis program, under static conditions. For a typical frame system, firstly, various column failure scenarios have been considered for uninfilled case and internal forces have been calculated and compared with those in the intact case. Then, similar calculations have been implemented for the case of presence of infill walls. The results of analyses have shown that the effects of column failures had condensed on the neighbor columns and beams of orthogonal frames on which the columns had been failed. Moreover, it has been determined that, while the bending moment capacities of the connected beams to the failed columns had exceeded in the bare frames, in the masonry infilled frames, walls give substantial support to the structural elements of the building, and capacities of the beams had not exceeded.

  14. Elastomeric Polymers for Retrofitting of Reinforced Concrete Structures against the Explosive Effects of Blast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Raman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main distinction of blast load from other types of dynamic loadings is its impulsive nature, where the loads usually act for a very short duration but transmit very high impulsive pressures. This paper presents an overview of the present retrofitting techniques in use to enhance the capacity of structural elements to withstand the effects of blast loads, and introduces an alternative retrofitting approach by utilizing polymer coatings. The authors have demonstrated the positive effects of this approach by conducting a numerical investigation on the behavior of an unretrofitted reinforced concrete panel subjected to the blast load from a 2 kg charge at 1.6 m stand-off distance, and subsequently comparing its performance with several polymer coated panels. The analysis was performed by using an explicit nonlinear finite element (FE code. The results demonstrate the contributions of this technique in terms of panel displacement control and energy dissipation. Considering that the polymer coating can also act as a protective layer in improving the durability of structural materials, this technique can also be optimized favorably to enhance the overall sustainability of structures.

  15. 2D net shape weaving for cost effective manufacture of textile reinforced composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, D. M. P.; Kern, M.; Hoffmann, G.; Cherif, C.

    2017-10-01

    Despite significant weight and performance advantages over metal parts, the today’s demand for fibre-reinforced polymer composites (FRPC) has been limited mainly by their large manufacturing cost. The combination of dry textile preforms and low-cost consolidation processes such as resin transfer molding (RTM) has been appointed as a promising approach to low-cost FRPC manufacture. At the current state of the art, tooling and impregnation technology is well understood whereas preform fabrication technology has not been developed effectively. This paper presents an advanced 2D net shape weaving technology developed with the aim to establish a more cost effective system for the manufacture of dry textile preforms for FRPC. 2D net shape weaving is developed based on open reed weave (ORW) technology and enables the manufacture of 2D contoured woven fabrics with firm edge, so that oversize cutting and hand trimming after molding are no longer required. The introduction of 2D net shape woven fabrics helps to reduce material waste, cycle time and preform manufacturing cost significantly. Furthermore, higher grade of automation in preform fabrication can be achieved.

  16. Effects of vestibular rehabilitation and social reinforcement on recovery following ablative vestibular surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mruzek, M; Barin, K; Nichols, D S; Burnett, C N; Welling, D B

    1995-07-01

    This study investigated the relative effects of vestibular rehabilitation (VR) and social reinforcement (SR) on recovery following ablative vestibular surgery. Twenty-four subjects were randomly assigned to three treatment groups of either VR with SR, VR without SR, or general range of motion (ROM) exercises with SR. Outcome measures included equilibrium scores in dynamic posturography, asymmetry index in rotation testing, motion sensitivity quotient (MSQ), and dizziness handicap inventory (DHI). A multiple comparison of the overall outcome measures showed no significant differences in group performance over an 8-week period. When individual outcome measures were compared, MSQ and DHI results at the end of the 8-week treatment period revealed less motion sensitivity and dizziness handicap in groups who received VR, with or without SR, as compared with the group who received ROM exercises. These results suggest that after a vestibular injury most patients can effectively utilize central compensation mechanisms to recover from such an injury, regardless of the type of therapeutic intervention used. On the other hand, the reduction in motion sensitivity and dizziness handicap for patients who received VR could indicate a more rapid and complete recovery for these patients. This investigation is continuing as a long-term follow-up study to determine whether there are any long-term benefits in participating in a VR program.

  17. Effects of Increasing the Time to Reinforcement on Interval Timing in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Higa, Jennifer J.; Tillou, Patrick

    2001-01-01

    The experiment examined interval timing in rats during a momentary, unsignaled, increase in the time to reinforcement. A session began with intervals programmed according to a fixed interval (FI) 60 s reinforcement schedule, changed to either an FI 90 s, FI 120 s, or FI 180 s schedule at an unpredictable point, and then returned to an FI 60 s schedule after 1, 8, or 24 successive long intervals had elapsed. Overall, postreinforcement wait time duration increased with increases in the schedule...

  18. Effects of differential rates of alternative reinforcement on resurgence of human behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brooke M; Smith, Gregory S; Shahan, Timothy A; Madden, Gregory J; Twohig, Michael P

    2017-01-01

    Despite the success of exposure-based psychotherapies in anxiety treatment, relapse remains problematic. Resurgence, the return of previously eliminated behavior following the elimination of an alternative source of reinforcement, is a promising model of operant relapse. Nonhuman resurgence research has shown that higher rates of alternative reinforcement result in faster, more comprehensive suppression of target behavior, but also in greater resurgence when alternative reinforcement is eliminated. This study investigated rich and lean rates of alternative reinforcement on response suppression and resurgence in typically developing humans. In Phase 1, three groups (Rich, n = 18; Lean, n = 18; Control, n = 10) acquired the target response. In Phase 2, target responding was extinguished and alternative reinforcement delivered on RI 1 s, RI 3 s, and extinction schedules, respectively. Resurgence was assessed during Phase 3 under extinction conditions for all groups. Target responding was suppressed most thoroughly in Rich and partially in Lean. Target responding resurged in the Rich and Lean groups, but not in the Control group. Between groups, resurgence was more pronounced in the Rich group than the Lean and Control groups. Clinical implications of these findings, including care on the part of clinicians when identifying alternative sources of reinforcement, are discussed. © 2017 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  19. Effect of reinforcement on the cutting forces while machining metal matrix composites–An experimental approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch. Shoba

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid metal matrix composites are of great interest for researchers in recent years, because of their attractive superior properties over traditional materials and single reinforced composites. The machinabilty of hybrid composites becomes vital for manufacturing industries. The need to study the influence of process parameters on the cutting forces in turning such hybrid composite under dry environment is essentially required. In the present study, the influence of machining parameters, e.g. cutting speed, feed and depth of cut on the cutting force components, namely feed force (Ff, cutting force (Fc, and radial force (Fd has been investigated. Investigations were performed on 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 wt% Silicon carbide (SiC and rice husk ash (RHA reinforced composite specimens. A comparison was made between the reinforced and unreinforced composites. The results proved that all the cutting force components decrease with the increase in the weight percentage of the reinforcement: this was probably due to the dislocation densities generated from the thermal mismatch between the reinforcement and the matrix. Experimental evidence also showed that built-up edge (BUE is formed during machining of low percentage reinforced composites at high speed and high depth of cut. The formation of BUE was captured by SEM, therefore confirming the result. The decrease of cutting force components with lower cutting speed and higher feed and depth of cut was also highlighted. The related mechanisms are explained and presented.

  20. Within- and between-subject variability in the reinforcing and subjective effects of nitrous oxide in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D J; Zacny, J P

    2001-09-01

    Within- and between-subject variability in the reinforcing and subjective effects of nitrous oxide (N(2)O) was studied across five sessions. Twelve volunteers with no history of drug dependence sampled 30% N(2)O and 100% oxygen for 10 min each, then chose nine times, once every 5 min, among N(2)O (e.g. "Agent A"), oxygen (e.g. "Agent B"), or "drug-free air." Choice varied across subjects but was stable within subjects. Quantitative differences in subjective effects occurred within and across subjects. Some subjective effects were correlated with choice and/or differed between subjects who were consistent choosers of N(2)O versus those who were not. However, drug liking and euphoria, two face-valid measures of abuse liability, were unrelated to choice. Thus, the present study found individual differences (i.e. between-subject variability) in subjective and reinforcing effects of N(2)O and, in terms of within-subject variability, suggested that subjective effects fluctuate across sessions to a relatively greater extent than do reinforcing effects. The varying degrees of correlation between N(2)O choice and its subjective effects emphasize the need for obtaining multiple measures when characterizing abuse liability of this drug.

  1. Within-Subject Testing of the Signaled-Reinforcement Effect on Operant Responding as Measured by Response Rate and Resistance to Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Phil; Doughty, Adam H.

    2005-01-01

    Response rates under random-interval schedules are lower when a brief (500 ms) signal accompanies reinforcement than when there is no signal. The present study examined this signaled-reinforcement effect and its relation to resistance to change. In Experiment 1, rats responded on a multiple random-interval 60-s random-interval 60-s schedule, with…

  2. Specific features of learning with nociceptive electrical reinforcement in rats of different genetic strains: role of brain neurotransmitter systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyuzhnyi, A L; Litvinova, S V; Shulgovskii, V V; Panchenko, L F

    2005-01-01

    The interaction between neurotransmitter systems and opioid system in rats of different strains was studied during learning and emotional stress. The interaction between noradrenergic, serotoninergic, and opioid systems in the brain is the main neurochemical mechanism underlying learning reinforced by nociceptive electrical stimulation, which determine individual differences in the rate and type of learning.

  3. Ti particle-reinforced surface layers in Al: Effect of particle size on microstructure, hardness and wear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mordyuk, B.N., E-mail: mordyuk@imp.kiev.ua [Kurdyumov Institute for Metal Physics, 36 Academician Vernadsky Boulevard, UA-03680, Kyiv (Ukraine); Silberschmidt, V.V. [Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Prokopenko, G.I. [Kurdyumov Institute for Metal Physics, 36 Academician Vernadsky Boulevard, UA-03680, Kyiv (Ukraine); Nesterenko, Yu.V. [National Technical University ' Kyiv Polytechnic Institute' , 37 Peremohy Avenue, UA-03056, Kyiv (Ukraine); Iefimov, M.O. [Frantzevich Institute for Problems of Materials Science, 3 Krzhyzhanivsky Street, UA-03142, Kyiv (Ukraine)

    2010-11-15

    Two types of Ti particles are used in an ultrasonic impact peening (UIP) process to modify sub-surface layers of cp aluminium atomized, with an average size of approx. 20 {mu}m and milled (0.3-0.5 {mu}m). They are introduced into a zone of severe plastic deformation induced by UIP. The effect of Ti particles of different sizes on microstructure, phase composition, microhardness and wear resistance of sub-surface composite layers in aluminium is studied in this paper. The formed layers of a composite reinforced with smaller particles have a highly misoriented fine-grain microstructure of its matrix with a mean grain size of 200-400 nm, while reinforcement with larger particles results in relatively large Al grains (1-2 {mu}m). XRD, SEM, EDX and TEM studies confirm significantly higher particle/matrix bonding in the former case due to formation of a Ti{sub 3}Al interlayer around Ti particles with rough surface caused by milling. Different microstructures determine hardness and wear resistance of reinforced aluminium layers: while higher magnitudes of microhardness are observed for both composites (when compared with those of annealed and UIP-treated aluminium), the wear resistance is improved only in the case of reinforcement with small particles.

  4. The effects of a novel-reinforced bone substitute and Colloss®E on bone defect healing in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ming; Røjskjaer, Jesper; Cheng, Liming; Theilgaard, Naseem; Overgaard, Søren

    2012-10-01

    Hydroxyappatite-β-tricalciumphosphate (HA/β-TCP) was reinforced with poly(D,L)-lactic acid (PDLLA) to overcome its weak mechanical properties. Two substitutes with porosities of 77% and 81% HA/β-TCP reinforced with 12 wt % PDLLA were tested in compression. The effects of allograft, substitute (HA/β-TCP-PDLLA), Colloss®E, and combination of substitute with Colloss®E on bone formation in vivo were evaluated. Cylindrical critical size defects were created at distal femoral condyles bilaterally in sheep. Titanium implant with concentric gap filling with one of the four materials was inserted. After 9 weeks, the sheep were sacrificed. Implants with surrounding bone were harvested and sectioned into two parts: one for microcomputed tomography scanning and push-out test, and one for histomorphometry. The 77% HA/β-TCP reinforced with PDLLA had similar mechanical properties to human cancellous bone and was significantly stronger than the HA/β-TCP without PDLLA. Microarchitecture of gap mass was significantly changed after implantation for all groups. Allograft had stronger shear mechanical properties than the other three groups, whereas there were no significant differences between the other three groups. Significant new bone formation could be seen in vivo in all four groups and there were no significant differences between them. The PDLLA-reinforced substitute seems to be good alternative substitute material for bone healing in sheep. Further investigations should be performed to validate this novel substitute material. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. The effect of zeolite and diatomite on the corrosion of reinforcement steel in 1 M HCl solution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Husnu Gerengi; Mine Kurtay; Hatice Durgun

    2015-01-01

    The greatest disadvantage of reinforced concrete structures is the corrosion occurring in the reinforcement which, over time, causes a reduction in the reinforcement-concrete adherence and eventual sectional loss...

  6. Affective-associative two-process theory: a neurocomputational account of partial reinforcement extinction effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Robert; Almér, Alexander; Billing, Erik; Sandamirskaya, Yulia; Balkenius, Christian

    2017-12-01

    The partial reinforcement extinction effect (PREE) is an experimentally established phenomenon: behavioural response to a given stimulus is more persistent when previously inconsistently rewarded than when consistently rewarded. This phenomenon is, however, controversial in animal/human learning theory. Contradictory findings exist regarding when the PREE occurs. One body of research has found a within-subjects PREE, while another has found a within-subjects reversed PREE (RPREE). These opposing findings constitute what is considered the most important problem of PREE for theoreticians to explain. Here, we provide a neurocomputational account of the PREE, which helps to reconcile these seemingly contradictory findings of within-subjects experimental conditions. The performance of our model demonstrates how omission expectancy, learned according to low probability reward, comes to control response choice following discontinuation of reward presentation (extinction). We find that a PREE will occur when multiple responses become controlled by omission expectation in extinction, but not when only one omission-mediated response is available. Our model exploits the affective states of reward acquisition and reward omission expectancy in order to differentially classify stimuli and differentially mediate response choice. We demonstrate that stimulus-response (retrospective) and stimulus-expectation-response (prospective) routes are required to provide a necessary and sufficient explanation of the PREE versus RPREE data and that Omission representation is key for explaining the nonlinear nature of extinction data.

  7. Effect of γ-irradiation on the optical and electrical properties of fiber reinforced composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Ahmad; Elfiky, Dalia; Ramadan, Ahmed M.; Hassan, G. M.

    2017-05-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on the optical and electrical properties of the reinforced fiber polymeric based materials became an important issue. Fiberglass/epoxy and Kevlar fiber/epoxy were selected as investigated samples manufactured with hand lay-up without autoclave curing technique. The selected technique is simple and low cost while being rarely used in space materials production. The electric conductivity and dielectric constant for those samples were measured with increasing the gamma radiation dose. Moreover, the absorptivity, band gap and color change were determined. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) was performed to each of the material's constituent to evaluate the change in the investigated materials due to radiation exposure dose. In this study, the change of electrical properties for both investigated materials showed a slight variation of the test parameters with respect to the gamma dose increase; this variation is placed in the insulators rang. The tested samples showed an insulator stable behavior during the test period. The change of optical properties for both composite specimens showed the maximum absorptivity at the gamma dose 750 kGy. These materials are suitable for structure materials and thermal control for orbital life less than 7 years. In addition, the transparency of epoxy matrix was degraded. However, there is no color change for either Kevlar fiber or fiberglass.

  8. Parametric Study of Strain Rate Effects on Nanoparticle-Reinforced Polymer Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Soltannia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Crashworthiness, energy absorption capacity, and safety are important factors in the design of lightweight vehicles made of fiber-reinforced polymer composite (FRP components. The relatively recent emergence of the nanotechnology industry has presented a novel means to augment the mechanical properties of various materials. As a result, recent attempts have contemplated the use of nanoparticles to further improve the resiliency of resins, especially when resins are used for mating FRP components. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of the response of nanoreinforced polymer composites, subjected to various rates of loading, is of paramount importance for developing reliable structures. In this paper, the effects of nanoreinforcement on the mechanical response of a commonly used epoxy resin subjected to four different strain rates, are systematically investigated. The results are then compared to those of the neat resin. To characterize the mechanical properties of the nanocomposite, a combination of the strain rate-dependent mechanical (SRDM model of Goldberg and his coworkers and Halpin-Tsai’s micromechanical approach is employed. Subsequently, a parametric study is conducted to ascertain the influences of particle type and their weight percentage. Finally, the numerical results are compared to the experimental data obtained from testing of the neat and the nanoreinforced epoxy resin.

  9. Effect of reinforcement nanoparticles addition on mechanical properties of SBS/curaua fiber composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borba, Patricia M. [Servico Nacional de Aprendizagem Industrial (CETEPO/SENAI/RS), Sao Leopoldo, RS (Brazil). Centro Tecnologico de Polimeros; Tedesco, Adriana [Braskem S. A., III Polo Petroquimico, Triunfo, RS (Brazil); Lenz, Denise M., E-mail: denise.lenz@gmail.com [Universidade Luterana do Brasil (ULBRA), Canoas, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia de Materiais e Processos Sustentaveis

    2014-03-15

    Composites of styrene-butadiene-styrene triblock copolymer (SBS) matrix with curauá fiber and/or a nanoparticulated mineral (montmorillonite clay - MMT) used as reinforcing agents were prepared by melt-mixing. The influence of clay addition on properties like tensile and tear strength, rebound resilience, flex fatigue life, abrasion loss, hardness and water absorption of composites with 5, 10 and 20 wt% of curauá fiber was evaluated in presence of maleic anhydride grafted styrene-(ethylene-co-butylene)-styrene triblock copolymer (MA-g-SEBS) coupling agent. Furthermore, the effect of mineral plasticizer loading on tensile strength of selected composites was investigated. The hybrid SBS composite that showed the best overall mechanical performance was composed by 2 wt% of MMT and 5 wt% of curauá fiber. Increasing fiber content up to 20 wt% resulted in a general decrease in all mechanical properties as well as incorporation of 5 wt% MMT caused a decrease in the tensile strength in all fiber contents. The hybrid composites showed clay agglomerates (tactoids) poorly dispersed that could explain the poor mechanical performance of composites at higher concentrations of curauá fiber and MMT nanoparticles. The addition of plasticizer further decreased the tensile strength while the addition of MMT nanoparticles decreased water absorption for all SBS composites. (author)

  10. The Effects of Acute Dopamine Precursor Depletion on the Reinforcing Value of Exercise in Anorexia Nervosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin B O'Hara

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether dopaminergic systems are involved in the motivation to engage in behaviours associated with anorexia nervosa (AN, specifically, the drive to exercise. Women recovered from AN (AN REC, n = 17 and healthy controls (HC, n = 15 were recruited. The acute phenylalanine/tyrosine depletion (APTD method was used to transiently decrease dopamine synthesis and transmission. The effect of dopamine precursor depletion on drive to exercise was measured using a progressive ratio (PR exercise breakpoint task. Both groups worked for the opportunity to exercise, and, at baseline, PR breakpoint scores were higher in AN REC than HC. Compared to values on the experimental control session, APTD did not decrease PR breakpoint scores in AN REC, but significantly decreased scores in HC. These data show that women recovered from AN are more motivated to exercise than HC, although in both groups, activity is more reinforcing than inactivity. Importantly, decreasing dopamine does not reduce the motivation to exercise in people recovered from AN, but in contrast, does so in HC. It is proposed that in AN, drive to exercise develops into a behaviour that is largely independent of dopamine mediated reward processes and becomes dependent on cortico-striatal neurocircuitry that regulates automated, habit- or compulsive-like behaviours. These data strengthen the case for the involvement of reward, learning, habit, and dopaminergic systems in the aetiology of AN.

  11. An electrophysiological investigation of reinforcement effects in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Dissociating cue sensitivity from down-stream effects on target engagement and performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia Chronaki

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Neural hypo-sensitivity to cues predicting positive reinforcement has been observed in ADHD using the Monetary Incentive Delay (MID task. Here we report the first study using an electrophysiological analogue of this task to distinguish between (i cue related anticipation of reinforcement and downstream effects on (ii target engagement and (iii performance in a clinical sample of adolescents with ADHD and controls. Methods: Thirty-one controls and 32 adolescents with ADHD aged 10–16 years performed the electrophysiological (e-MID task − in which preparatory cues signal whether a response to an upcoming target will be reinforced or not − under three conditions; positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement (response cost and no consequence (neutral. We extracted values for both cue-related potentials known to be, both, associated with response preparation and modulated by reinforcement (Cue P3 and Cue CNV and target-related potentials (target P3 and compared these between ADHD and controls. Results: ADHD and controls did not differ on cue-related components on neutral trials. Against expectation, adolescents with ADHD displayed Cue P3 and Cue CNV reinforcement-related enhancement (versus neutral trials compared to controls. ADHD individuals displayed smaller target P3 amplitudes and slower and more variable performance − but effects were not modulated by reinforcement contingencies. When age, IQ and conduct problems were controlled effects were marginally significant but the pattern of results did not change. Discussion: ADHD was associated with hypersensitivity to positive (and marginally negative reinforcement reflected on components often thought to be associated with response preparation − however these did not translate into improved attention to targets. In the case of ADHD, upregulated CNV may be a specific marker of hyper-arousal rather than an enhancement of anticipatory attention to upcoming targets

  12. Methods for producing reinforced carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhifen [Newton, MA; Wen, Jian Guo [Newton, MA; Lao, Jing Y [Chestnut Hill, MA; Li, Wenzhi [Brookline, MA

    2008-10-28

    Methods for producing reinforced carbon nanotubes having a plurality of microparticulate carbide or oxide materials formed substantially on the surface of such reinforced carbon nanotubes composite materials are disclosed. In particular, the present invention provides reinforced carbon nanotubes (CNTs) having a plurality of boron carbide nanolumps formed substantially on a surface of the reinforced CNTs that provide a reinforcing effect on CNTs, enabling their use as effective reinforcing fillers for matrix materials to give high-strength composites. The present invention also provides methods for producing such carbide reinforced CNTs.

  13. Sex differences and the role of dopamine receptors in the reward-enhancing effects of nicotine and bupropion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Scott T; Geary, Trevor N; Steiner, Amy N; Bevins, Rick A

    2017-01-01

    Nicotine and bupropion have been demonstrated to enhance the value of other reinforcers, and this may partially account for nicotine reward and dependence. Evidence suggests that the sexes differ in their sensitivity to the primary and secondary reinforcing effects of nicotine and nicotine-associated stimuli. Whether the sexes also differ in sensitivity to the reward-enhancing effects of nicotine (and bupropion) is yet unclear. The present study evaluated potential sex differences in the enhancement effects of nicotine and bupropion using a reinforcer demand approach. Furthermore, we sought to investigate the role that D1- and D2-type dopamine receptors play in the reward-enhancing effects of nicotine and bupropion. Demand for sensory reinforcement was assessed in male and female rats responding on a progression of fixed ratio schedules. The effects of nicotine and 10 or 20 mg/kg bupropion on reinforcer demand were assessed within subjects. Subsequently, the effects of SCH-23390 and eticlopride were assessed on the enhancing effects of nicotine and bupropion on progressive ratio responding. Nicotine and bupropion enhanced demand metrics of reinforcement value in both sexes. Females were more sensitive to the enhancement effects of bupropion assessed by reinforcer demand and progressive ratio performance. D2-like dopamine receptor antagonism by eticlopride attenuated the enhancement effects of bupropion, but not of nicotine. Nicotine and bupropion both enhance reinforcement value in both sexes, though females may be more sensitive to the reward-enhancing effects of bupropion. D2- and possibly D1-type receptors appear to be involved in the reward-enhancing effects of bupropion, but not necessarily nicotine.

  14. Ultimate Load Behaviour of Reinforced Concrete Beam with Corroded Reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchana Devi, A.; Ramajaneyulu, K.; Sundarkumar, S.; Ramesh, G.; Bharat Kumar, B. H.; Krishna Moorthy, T. S.

    2017-12-01

    Corrosion of reinforcement reduces the load carrying capacity, energy dissipation and ductility of Reinforced Concrete (RC) members. In the present study, reinforcements of RC beam are subjected to 10, 25, and 30% corrosion and the respective RC beams are tested to evaluate their ultimate load behaviour. A huge drop in energy dissipation capacity of the RC beam is observed beyond the corrosion level of 10%. Further, nonlinear finite element analysis is employed to assess the load-displacement behaviour and ultimate load of RC beam. The corrosion induced damage to the reinforcement is represented in the finite element model by modifying its mechanical properties based on the results reported in the literature. The resultant load versus displacement curves of reinforced concrete beams are obtained. Good correlation is observed between the finite element analysis results and that obtained from experimental investigation on the control beam. The experimental results are also compared with the finite element analysis results for RC beams with corroded reinforcement. In order to understand the effect of corrosion on the mechanical properties of reinforcement, the corroded reinforcements are modelled in nonlinear finite element analysis by (i) reducing the area of reinforcement alone (ii) by reducing both area and mechanical properties and (iii) reducing the mechanical properties without reducing the area of steel as reported in literature. The results obtained for the beam with corroded reinforcement confirms reduction in yield stress and ultimate stress of the reinforcement steel.

  15. Behavior of Short Columns Reinforced with Welded Wire Fabric as Transverse Reinforcement under Concentric Loading

    OpenAIRE

    Satjapan LEELATANON; Trakool ARAMRAKS

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the behavior of concrete columns reinforced by Welded Wire Fabric, WWF, as transverse reinforcement under concentric loading and to compare the results with concrete columns reinforced by round bar as tie reinforcement when the volumetric ratio of transverse reinforcement was equal. Additionally, the effect of the spacing of transverse tie reinforcement on strength and ductility of the columns was studied by testing six different types of column sp...

  16. Synthesis of wrinkled mesoporous silica and its reinforcing effect for dental resin composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruili; Habib, Eric; Zhu, X X

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this work is to explore the reinforcing effect of wrinkled mesoporous silica (WMS), which should allow micromechanical resin matrix/filler interlocking in dental resin composites, and to investigate the effect of silica morphology, loading, and compositions on their mechanical properties. WMS (average diameter of 496nm) was prepared through the self-assembly method and characterized by the use of the electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and the N 2 adsorption-desorption measurements. The mechanical properties of resin composites containing silanized WMS and nonporous smaller silica were evaluated with a universal mechanical testing machine. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy was used to study the fracture morphology of dental composites. Resin composites including silanized silica particles (average diameter of 507nm) served as the control group. Higher filler loading of silanized WMS substantially improved the mechanical properties of the neat resin matrix, over the composites loaded with regular silanized silica particles similar in size. The impregnation of smaller secondary silica particles with diameters of 90 and 190nm, denoted respectively as Si90 and Si190, increased the filler loading of the bimodal WMS filler (WMS-Si90 or WMS-Si190) to 60wt%, and the corresponding composites exhibited better mechanical properties than the control fillers made with regular silica particles. Among all composites, the optimal WMS-Si190- filled composite (mass ratio WMS:Si190=10:90, total filler loading 60wt%) exhibited the best mechanical performance including flexural strength, flexural modulus, compressive strength and Vickers microhardness. The incorporation of WMS and its mixed bimodal fillers with smaller silica particles led to the design and formulation of dental resin composites with superior mechanical properties. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A note on the effect of the fiber curvature on the micromechanical behavior of natural fiber reinforced thermoplastic composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Escalante-Solis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To better understand the role of the fiber curvature on the tensile properties of short-natural-fiber reinforced composites, a photoelastic model and a finite element analysis were performed in a well characterized henequen fiber-high density polyethylene composite material. It was hypothesized that the angle of orientation of the inclusion and the principal material orientation with respect to the applied load was very important in the reinforcement mechanics. From the photoelastic and finite element analysis it was found that the stress distribution around the fiber inclusion was different on the concave side from that observed on the convex side and an efficient length of stress transfer was estimated to be approximately equal to one third the average fiber length. This approach was used to predict the short-natural-fiber reinforced composite mechanical properties using probabilistic functions modifications of the rule of mixtures models developed by Fukuda-Chow and the Fukuda-Kawata. Recognizing the inherent flexibility that curves the natural fibers during processing, the consideration of a length of one third of the average length l should improve the accuracy of the calculations of the mechanical properties using theoretical models.

  18. Effect of water absorption on the mechanical properties of nanoclay filled recycled cellulose fibre reinforced epoxy hybrid nanocomposites

    KAUST Repository

    Alamri, H.

    2013-01-01

    Recycled cellulose fibre (RCF) reinforced epoxy/clay nanocomposites were successfully synthesized with different weight percentages (0%, 1%, 3% and 5%) of organoclay platelets (30B). The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of water absorption on the physical and mechanical properties of the RCF reinforced epoxy/clay nanocomposites. TEM images indicated a well-intercalated structure of nanoclay/epoxy matrix with some exfoliated regions. Water absorption was found to decrease as the clay content increased. The flexural strength, flexural modulus and fracture toughness significantly decreased as a result of water absorption. However, the properties of impact strength and impact toughness were found to increase after exposing to water. The addition of nanoclay slightly minimized the effect of moisture on the mechanical properties. SEM images showed that water absorption severely damaged the cellulose fibres and the bonding at fibres-matrix interfaces in wet composites. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of hot-dry environment on fiber-reinforced self-compacting concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tioua, Tahar; Kriker, Abdelouahed; Salhi, Aimad; Barluenga, Gonzalo

    2016-07-01

    Drying shrinkage can be a major reason for the deterioration of concrete structures. Variation in ambient temperature and relative humidity cause changes in the properties of hardened concrete which can affect their mechanical and drying shrinkage characteristics. The present study investigated mechanical strength and particularly drying shrinkage properties of self-compacting concretes (SCC) reinforced with date palm fiber exposed to hot and dry environment. In this study a total of nine different fibers reinforced self compacting concrete (FRSCC) mixtures and one mixture without fiber were prepared. The volume fraction and the length of fibers reinforcement were 0.1-0.2-0.3% and 10-20-30 mm. It was observed that drying shrinkage lessened with adding low volumetric fraction and short length of fibers in curing condition (T = 20 °C and RH = 50 ± 5 %), but increased in hot and dry environment.

  20. Effect of Sisal Fiber Surface Treatment on Properties of Sisal Fiber Reinforced Polylactide Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoqian Li

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical properties of composites are strongly influenced by the quality of the fiber/matrix interface. The objective of this study was to evaluate the mechanical properties of polylactide (PLA composites as a function of modification of sisal fiber with two different macromolecular coupling agents. Sisal fiber reinforced polylactide composites were prepared by injection molding, and the properties of composites were studied by static/dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA. The results from mechanical testing revealed that surface-treated sisal fiber reinforced composite offered superior mechanical properties compared to untreated fiber reinforced polylactide composite, which indicated that better adhesion between sisal fiber and PLA matrix was achieved. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM investigations also showed that surface modifications improved the adhesion of the sisal fiber/polylactide matrix.

  1. Warming reinforces nonconsumptive predator effects on prey growth, physiology, and body stoichiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Lizanne; Van Dievel, Marie; Stoks, Robby

    2015-12-01

    only present in the absence of predation risk and that (2) warming reinforced the predator-induced effects on C:N:P, are pivotal in understanding how nonconsumptive predator effects under global warming will shape prey populations.

  2. THE EFFECT OF HIGH TEMPERATURE ON THE POROSITY AND COMPRESSiVE STRENGTH ON THE CARBON FIBER REINFORCED LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE

    OpenAIRE

    DEMİREL, Bahar; GÖNEN, Tahir

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the effect of high temperature on the mechanical properties of the carbon fiber reinforced lightweight concrete with silica fume was investigated. With this aim, lightweight concrete samples were produced by using basaltic pumice (scoria) obtained from Elazig region. In addition, the samples produced with and without silica fume and carbon fiber. Silica fume was replaced 10 % by weight of cement and carbon fiber was added 0.5 % by weight of cement. Four different series of samp...

  3. Effect of lightweight and low-strength concrete on seismic performance of thin lightly-reinforced shear walls

    OpenAIRE

    Carrillo J.; Lizarazo J.M.; Bonett R.

    2015-01-01

    Although several research programs have investigated the performance of structural elements made of lightweight concrete, there is a limited understanding of the behavior of lightweight shear walls under seismic conditions. In this paper is summarized an experimental study that comprised quasi-static cyclic tests and shake table tests of twenty walls, conducted to provide information on the effect of lightweight and low-strength concrete on seismic performance of thin lightly-reinforced shear...

  4. The Effect of Two Different E Glass Fiber Reinforcements on Mechanical Properties of Polymethyl Metacrylate Denture Base Resins

    OpenAIRE

    Sinmazisik, G.; Ozyegin, LS.; Akesi, S.

    2002-01-01

    Denture base polymers were reinforced with various types of fibers, such as glass, carbon/graphite and ultrahigh-modulus polyethylene fibers. These procedures were performed to take advantage of the good esthetic qualities of glass fibers and good bonding of glass fibers to polymers via silane coupling agents. The most common type of glass used in fiber production is the so-called E glass (electrical glass). This study investigated the effect of chopped fibers with two different silane coupli...

  5. Comparison of the conditioned reinforcing properties of a safety signal and appetitive stimulus: effects of d-amphetamine and anxiolytics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, A B P; Urcelay, G P; Mar, A C; Dickinson, A; Robbins, T W

    2013-05-01

    Safety signals providing relief are hypothesised to possess conditioned reinforcing properties, supporting the acquisition of a new response (AnR) as seen with appetitive stimuli. Such responding should also be sensitive to the rate-increasing effects of d-amphetamine and to the anxiolytics 8-OH-DPAT and diazepam. This study tests whether safety signals have conditioned reinforcing properties similar to those of stimuli-predicting reward. Rats received Pavlovian conditioning with either appetitive stimuli (CS+) or safety signals (conditioned inhibitors, CIs) plus truly random control (TRC) stimuli. The appetitive group received a CS + paired with a sucrose pellet and the safety signal group, a stimulus paired with shock omission. Stimuli were tested using an AnR procedure and following systemic d-amphetamine, the 5HT-1A agonist 8-OH-DPAT and the benzodiazepine diazepam in a counterbalanced design. Effective conditioning selectively reduced contextual freezing during CI presentation in the safety signal group and increased food magazine responses (with respect to context and TRC) during CS + presentation in the appetitive group. The appetitive stimulus strongly supported AnR but the safety signal did not. Systemic d-amphetamine significantly potentiated lever pressing in the appetitive group but for the safety signal group, it either reduced it or had no effect, dependent on food deprivation state. 8-OH-DPAT and diazepam had no effect on responding in either group. The safety signal did not support AnR and, therefore, did not exhibit conditioned reinforcing properties. Furthermore, d-amphetamine decreased responding when the safety signal was presented as a consequence, whilst increasing responding with appetitive-conditioned reinforcement. These results are discussed in terms of implications for opponent motivational theory.

  6. Effects of wet/dry-cycling and plasma treatments on the properties of flax nonwovens intended for composite reinforcing

    OpenAIRE

    Heura Ventura; Josep Claramunt; Antonio Navarro; Rodriguez-Perez, Miguel A.; Mònica Ardanuy

    2016-01-01

    This research analyzes the effects of different treatments on flax nonwoven (NW) fabrics which are intended for composite reinforcement. The treatments applied were of two different kinds: a wet/dry cycling which helps to stabilize the cellulosic fibers against humidity changes and plasma treatments with air, argon and ethylene gases considering different conditions and combinations, which produce variation on the chemical surface composition of the NWs. The resulting changes in the chemical ...

  7. Effects of schedules of reinforcement on pouched rats' performance in urban search-and-rescue training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Timothy L; La Londe, Kate B; Cox, Christophe; Weetjens, Bart; Poling, Alan

    2016-03-01

    Standard operating procedures have been developed to train Cricetomys to locate humans in collapsed structures and return to the release point on command. The present study demonstrated that the schedule of reinforcement for target location influences the rats' performance. Rats required more time to locate targets when no reinforcement was arranged for target location but less time to return to the release point. These findings suggest that training conditions should be based on the priority assigned to target location and return in an operational scenario. © 2015 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  8. Size and shape effect of specimen on the compressive strength of HPLWFC reinforced with glass fibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Jihad Hamad

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available High performance lightweight foamed concrete (HPLWFC have a structural strength with low density and high flowability. HPLWFC is used in modern concrete technology and extensively in the construction applications of high-rise buildings, long-span concrete structures and road sub-bases among others. This present work investigated the effect of size and shape specimen on the compressive strength of HPLWFC reinforced with glass fibres. Foam agent (organic material was used to obtain lightweight concrete. The volume fractions of the glass fibres used were: 0.0%, 0.06%, 0.2%, 0.4%, and 0.6% by total volume of concrete. The fresh properties of HPLWFC were measured by flowability and fresh density tests. In this study, the size and shape of specimens used for compressive strength were cubes by size (150 × 150 × 150, 100 × 100 × 100 and 50 × 50 × 50 mm and cylinders by size (150 × 300 and 100 × 200 mm. The results of HPLWFC mixes showed the increase in the compressive strength for all sizes of specimens with glass fibre content. The small size of specimens gave higher compressive strength in comparison with other sizes. The disparity in the compressive strength for two sizes and shapes (cubes and cylinders were reduced with a rise in the volume fraction of the glass fibres.

  9. Effect of chlorhexidine on initial adhesion of fiber-reinforced post to root canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblad, Ritva M; Lassila, Lippo V J; Salo, Veijo; Vallittu, Pekka K; Tjäderhane, Leo

    2010-10-01

    Chlorhexidine is used as final irrigant before endodontic obturation and fiber-reinforced composite posts are recommended for restoration retention. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of chlorhexidine on adhesion of cements used in post cementation. We hypothesized that chlorhexidine would not negatively affect the immediate bond strength. Root canals of eighty human extracted third molars were prepared for post cementation with each post systems' own burs. Four commercially available FRC posts (Glassix, D.T.Light-Post, Unicore, everStickPOST) with three cements (Duo-link with All-bond 2, PermaFlo DC with PermaFlo DC Primers, RelyX Unicem) were used. After etching, except with self-etching RelyX Unicem, the post spaces were irrigated either with 2% chlorhexidine (Consepsis) or physiological saline for 60 s. With RelyX Unicem, respective treatments were done before cement application. The roots (n=5 per group) were cut into 2 mm thick dentin discs. The bond strength was measured with push-out method, and the failure mode was evaluated with a stereomicroscope. Significant differences in bond strength were observed between various post/cement combinations. Unicore/PermaFlo DC and everStickPOST/RelyX Unicem showed significantly higher bond strengths than Glassix or D.T.Light-Post with Duo-link both with saline and chlorhexidine. Chlorhexidine improved the bond strength slightly with all posts/cements except with D.T.Light-Post, but the differences were not statistically significant. With chlorhexidine, significant reduction of adhesive failures towards dentin cohesive or mixed failures was observed with all posts/cements except with everStickPOST. Chlorhexidine did not negatively affect the push-out bond strength in post bond cementation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Preclinical studies on the reinforcing effects of cannabinoids. A tribute to the scientific research of Dr. Steve Goldberg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanda, Gianluigi

    2016-01-01

    Rationale The reinforcing effects of most abused drugs have been consistently demonstrated and studied in animal models, although those of marijuana were not, until the demonstration fifteen years ago that THC could serve as a reinforcer in self-administration (SA) procedures in squirrel monkeys. Until then, those effects were inferred using indirect assessments. Objectives The aim of this manuscript is to review the primary preclinical procedures used to indirectly and directly infer reinforcing effects of cannabinoid drugs. Methods Results will be reviewed from studies of cannabinoid-discrimination, intracranial-self-stimulation (ICSS), conditioned place preference (CPP), as well as change in levels of dopamine assessed in brain areas related to reinforcement, and finally from self-administration procedures. For each procedure, an evaluation will be made of the predictive validity in detecting the potential abuse liability of cannabinoids based on seminal papers, with the addition of selected reports from more recent years especially those from Dr. Goldberg’s research group. Results and Conclusions ICSS and CPP do not provide consistent results for the assessment of potential for abuse of cannabinoids. However, drug-discrimination and neurochemistry procedures appear to detect potential for abuse of cannabinoids, as well as several novel “designer cannabinoid drugs.” Though after 15 years it remains somewhat problematic transfer the self-administration model of marijuana abuse from squirrel monkeys to other species, studies with the former species have substantially advanced the field, and several reports have been published with consistent self-administration of cannabinoid agonists in rodents. PMID:27026633

  11. Affect and the computer game player: the effect of gender, personality, and game reinforcement structure on affective responses to computer game-play

    OpenAIRE

    Chumbley, J; Griffiths, MD

    2006-01-01

    Previous research on computer games has tended to concentrate on their more negative effects (e.g., addiction, increased aggression). This study departs from the traditional clinical and social learning explanations for these behavioral phenomena and examines the effect of personality, in-game reinforcement characteristics, gender, and skill on the emotional state of the game-player. Results demonstrated that in-game reinforcement characteristics and skill significantly effect a number of aff...

  12. Effect of quinolinic acid-induced lesions of the nucleus accumbens core on performance on a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement: implications for inter-temporal choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezzina, G; Body, S; Cheung, T H C; Hampson, C L; Deakin, J F W; Anderson, I M; Szabadi, E; Bradshaw, C M

    2008-04-01

    The nucleus accumbens core (AcbC) is believed to contribute to the control of operant behaviour by reinforcers. Recent evidence suggests that it is not crucial for determining the incentive value of immediately available reinforcers, but is important for maintaining the values of delayed reinforcers. This study aims to examine the effect of AcbC lesions on performance on a progressive-ratio schedule using a quantitative model that dissociates effects of interventions on motor and motivational processes (Killeen 1994 Mathematical principles of reinforcement. Behav Brain Sci 17:105-172). Rats with bilateral quinolinic acid-induced lesions of the AcbC (n = 15) or sham lesions (n = 14) were trained to lever-press for food-pellet reinforcers under a progressive-ratio schedule. In Phase 1 (90 sessions) the reinforcer was one pellet; in Phase 2 (30 sessions), it was two pellets; in Phase 3, (30 sessions) it was one pellet. The performance of both groups conformed to the model of progressive-ratio performance (group mean data: r2 > 0.92). The motor parameter, delta, was significantly higher in the AcbC-lesioned than the sham-lesioned group, reflecting lower overall response rates in the lesioned group. The motivational parameter, a, was sensitive to changes in reinforcer size, but did not differ significantly between the two groups. The AcbC-lesioned group showed longer post-reinforcement pauses and lower running response rates than the sham-lesioned group. The results suggest that destruction of the AcbC impairs response capacity but does not alter the efficacy of food reinforcers. The results are consistent with recent findings that AcbC lesions do not alter sensitivity to reinforcer size in inter-temporal choice schedules.

  13. Effects of Reinforcement on Peer Imitation in a Small Group Play Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Erin E.; Ledford, Jennifer R.

    2018-01-01

    Children with disabilities often have deficits in imitation skills, particularly in imitating peers. Imitation is considered a behavioral cusp--which, once learned, allows a child to access additional and previously unavailable learning opportunities. In the current study, researchers examined the efficacy of contingent reinforcement delivered…

  14. Dynamic response of reinforced concrete building from the effects of rail transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demjan Ivo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A 3D model of a reinforced concrete building and was created in software ANSYS. The dynamic analysis was focused on the spectral response of the object represented by a random excitation experiment found in records in the form of load spectra

  15. Maternal Evaluation of Social Reinforcement and Time-Out: Effects of Brief Parent Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Steven A.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Assessed maternal evaluations of acceptability of social reinforcement and time-out procedures following their use in a brief parent training program for 28 mothers with noncompliant children. Results indicated that, in addition to producing greater reductions in noncompliant behavior, time-out is rated as comparable in acceptability to social…

  16. Effect of Admixed Micelles on the Microstructure Alterations of Reinforced Mortar Subjected to Chloride Induced Corrosion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, J.; Koleva, D.A.; Van Breugel, K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the main results from the influence of the initially admixed nano-aggregates (0.5 g/l PEO113-b-PS70 micelles previously dissolved in demi-water) on microstructural alterations of the reinforced mortar subjected to chloride induced corrosion. The morphology of hydration/corrosion

  17. Unified-theory-of-reinforcement neural networks do not simulate the blocking effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvin, Nicholas T; J McDowell, J

    2015-11-01

    For the last 20 years the unified theory of reinforcement (Donahoe et al., 1993) has been used to develop computer simulations to evaluate its plausibility as an account for behavior. The unified theory of reinforcement states that operant and respondent learning occurs via the same neural mechanisms. As part of a larger project to evaluate the operant behavior predicted by the theory, this project was the first replication of neural network models based on the unified theory of reinforcement. In the process of replicating these neural network models it became apparent that a previously published finding, namely, that the networks simulate the blocking phenomenon (Donahoe et al., 1993), was a misinterpretation of the data. We show that the apparent blocking produced by these networks is an artifact of the inability of these networks to generate the same conditioned response to multiple stimuli. The piecemeal approach to evaluate the unified theory of reinforcement via simulation is critiqued and alternatives are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of baseline reinforcement rate on operant ABA and ABC renewal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Meredith S; Sweeney, Mary M; Odum, Amy L

    2014-10-01

    Renewal is a relapse phenomenon that occurs when the contextual stimuli present during extinction change, and consequently, an extinguished response increases in rate. Two experiments assessed extinction and renewal of key-pecking in pigeons in a two-component multiple schedule wherein baseline reinforcer rates were delivered at relatively rich or lean rates. In Experiment 1, an ABA design was used in which baseline stimuli were steady key lights (Context A). Food was then removed during extinction, and simultaneously, the context was changed by flashing the key lights (Context B). Following extinction, steady key lights were reintroduced, but food remained unavailable. Key-pecking was more resistant to extinction and recovered to a greater degree in the rich relative to the lean component. In Experiment 2, we introduced novel stimuli following extinction (ABC renewal) rather than reintroducing baseline stimuli. Similar to Experiment 1, in Experiment 2 resistance to change and renewal remained greater in the component associated with higher reinforcer rates during baseline. These findings provide additional support for the context-specificity of operant extinction, and support the prediction of behavioral momentum theory that stimuli associated with higher rates of reinforcement engender greater persistence and relapse than those associated with lower rates of reinforcement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The reinforcing effect of electrical stimulation of the tongue in thirsty rats : brief communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slangen, J.L.; Weijmen, J.A.W.M.

    Thirsty rats repeatedly closed the electric circuit of a drinkometer with their tongue in the absence of water. The hypothesis that electrical stimulation of the tongue has reinforcing properties was tested. The results indicate that persistent licking by a thirsty rat is dependent on a current as

  20. Agrofibre reinforced poly(lactic acid) composites: Effect of moisture on degradation and mechanical properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oever, van den M.J.A.; Beck, B.; Müssig, J.

    2010-01-01

    Natural fibre reinforced PLA composites are a 100% biobased material with a promising mechanical properties profile. However, natural fibres are hygroscopic whereas PLA is sensitive to hydrolytic degradation under melt processing conditions in the presence of small amounts of water. Here, we

  1. The Effect of Brief Delays to Reinforcement on the Acquisition of Tacts in Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majdalany, Lina; Wilder, David A.; Smeltz, Lindsay; Lipschultz, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    We used discrete-trial training to teach 3 children with autism to tact shapes of countries using 3 levels of reinforcement delay for correct responding: 0 s (immediate delivery), 6 s, and 12 s. Two of the 3 participants acquired the targets more quickly in the immediate-delivery condition, suggesting that delays as brief as 6 s may be detrimental…

  2. Modulation of response timing in ADHD, effects of reinforcement valence magnitude

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luman, M.; Oosterlaan, J.; Sergeant, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated the impact of reinforcement valence and magnitude on response timing in children with ADHD. Children were required to estimate a 1-s interval, and both the median response time (response tendency) and the intrasubject-variability (response stability) were investigated.

  3. Modulation of Response Timing in ADHD, Effects of Reinforcement Valence and Magnitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luman, Marjolein; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Sergeant, Joseph A.

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated the impact of reinforcement valence and magnitude on response timing in children with ADHD. Children were required to estimate a 1-s interval, and both the median response time (response tendency) and the intrasubject-variability (response stability) were investigated. In addition, heart rate and skin conductance…

  4. Morphology of Silica-Reinforced Natural Rubber: Effect of Silane Coupling Agent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarkawi, S.S.; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.

    2015-01-01

    A good dispersion of silica in a rubber vulcanizate is important as it influences the filler-to-rubber interaction and consequently the final properties. This article presents an investigation into the morphology of silica-reinforced natural rubber (NR) in the presence and absence of a silane

  5. Effect of corrosion on the fatigue service-life on steel and reinforced concrete beams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerman, R.P.; van Breugel, K.; Koenders, E.A.B.

    2015-01-01

    Chloride-induced corrosion is a point of big concern in reinforced concrete (RC) structures. To monitor the actual health and to predict the remaining service-life of structures, it is important to understand the structural behaviour and the failure mechanism of structures exposed to chlorides under

  6. Structures to Resist the Effects of Accidential Explosions. Volume 4. Reinforced Concrete Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    section is assumed and the entire de-. sign procedure is repeated. 14-25 Design for Large Derleotiors 4-25.1 Introduccion Design of non-laced reinforced...gency , Watertown , MA, December 1963. 145. Iqbal , M. and Derecho , A., Design Criteria ror Deflection Capacity of Con- ventionally Reit-forced Concr

  7. Reinforcement effect of soy protein nanoparticles in amine-modified natural rubber latex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechanical properties of natural rubber reinforced with soy protein nanoparticles are useful for various rubber applications. However, the properties is further improved by improving interactions between soy protein and rubber. A novel method is used to modify particle surface of natural rubber late...

  8. Improving Attitudes Regarding the Elderly Population: The Effects of Information and Reinforcement for Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragan, Amie M.; Bowen, Anne M.

    2001-01-01

    Altering negative attitudes associated with ageism may be possible by giving people accurate information about older people in conjunction with reinforcement for change. This study, which involved 99 college students, supports the premise that negative attitudes toward older people are amenable; however, the new attitude may be lost without…

  9. Effects of postcuring on mechanical properties of pultruded fiber-reinforced epoxy composites and the neat resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Edward R., Jr.; Long, Sheila Ann T.; Funk, Joan G.; Collins, William D.; Gray, Stephanie L.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of postcuring on mechanical properties of pultruded fiber-reinforced epoxy-resin composites have been investigated. Composites with carbon, glass, and aramid reinforcement fibers were individually studied. The epoxy was a commercially-available resin that was especially developed for pultrusion fabrication. The pultrusions were conducted at 400 F with postcures at 400, 450, 500, and 550 F. Measurements of the flexural, shear, and interlaminar fracture-toughness properties showed that significant postcuring can occur during the pultrusion process. All three mechanical properties were degraded by the higher (500 and 550 F) temperatures; photomicrographs suggest that the degradation was caused at the fiber-resin interface for all three fiber types.

  10. Effect of fiber content on flexural properties of glass fiber-reinforced polyamide-6 prepared by injection molding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagakura, Manamu; Tanimoto, Yasuhiro; Nishiyama, Norihiro

    2017-07-26

    The use of non-metal clasp denture (NMCD) materials may seriously affect the remaining tissues because of the low rigidity of NMCD materials such as polyamides. The purpose of this study was to develop a high-rigidity glass fiber-reinforced thermoplastic (GFRTP) composed of E-glass fiber and polyamide-6 for NMCDs using an injection molding. The reinforcing effects of fiber on the flexural properties of GFRTPs were investigated using glass fiber content ranging from 0 to 50 mass%. Three-point bending tests indicated that the flexural strength and elastic modulus of a GFRTP with a fiber content of 50 mass% were 5.4 and 4.7 times higher than those of unreinforced polyamide-6, respectively. The result showed that the physical characteristics of GFRTPs were greatly improved by increasing the fiber content, and the beneficial effects of fiber reinforcement were evident. The findings suggest that the injection-molded GFRTPs are adaptable to NMCDs because of their excellent mechanical properties.

  11. Effects of Rotation and Gravity Field on Surface Waves in Fibre-Reinforced Thermoelastic Media under Four Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Abd-Alla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Estimation is done to investigate the gravitational and rotational parameters effects on surface waves in fibre-reinforced thermoelastic media. The theory of generalized surface waves has been firstly developed and then it has been employed to investigate particular cases of waves, namely, Stoneley waves, Rayleigh waves, and Love waves. The analytical expressions for surface waves velocity and attenuation coefficient are obtained in the physical domain by using the harmonic vibrations and four thermoelastic theories. The wave velocity equations have been obtained in different cases. The numerical results are given for equation of coupled thermoelastic theory (C-T, Lord-Shulman theory (L-S, Green-Lindsay theory (G-L, and the linearized (G-N theory of type II. Comparison was made with the results obtained in the presence and absence of gravity, rotation, and parameters for fibre-reinforced of the material media. The results obtained are displayed by graphs to clear the phenomena physical meaning. The results indicate that the effect of gravity, rotation, relaxation times, and parameters of fibre-reinforced of the material medium is very pronounced.

  12. Manufacture of and environmental effects on carbon fiber-reinforced phenylethynyl-terminated poly(etherimide)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullions, Todd Aaron

    The initial objective of this research project was to determine the feasibility of manufacturing carbon fiber-reinforced (CFR) composites with a matrix consisting of a phenylethynyl-terminated version of a thermoplastic poly(etherimide) termed PETU. Successful composite manufacture with 3,000 g/mol (3k) PETU led to a survey of CFR 3kPETU mechanical properties for comparison with other high-performance composites. Encouraging results led to a study of moisture sorption effects on CFR 3kPETU properties. The success of these initial studies spawned the large scale production of 2,500 g/mol (2.5k) PETU. Thermal characterization of neat and CFR 2.5kPETU via differential scanning calorimetry, dynamic mechanical thermal analysis, and parallel plate rheometry resulted in an understanding of the influence of cure time and temperature on reaction progress via both reaction kinetics and monitoring of the glass transition temperature. From the rheological characterization, a two-stage, dual-Arrhenius model was developed to successfully model isothermal complex viscosity over the range of processing temperatures. Neat 2.5kPETU and CFR 2.5kPETU specimens were exposed separately to elevated temperature environments of different moisture and different oxygen concentrations to evaluate the effects of moisture absorption, moisture desorption, and thermal oxidation on material properties. Moisture absorption took place in a 90°C/85% relative humidity environment followed by moisture desorption in a 90°C/10% relative humidity environment. Thermal-oxidative aging for up to 5000 hours took place at 204°C in environments of four different oxygen partial pressures: 0.0 kPa, 2.84 kPa, 20.2 kPa, and 40.4 kPa. Following exposure to the different aging environments, the specimens were tested for retention of mechanical properties. In addition, moisture sorption properties were measured. Results from the moisture sorption studies on CFR 3kPETU and CFR 2.5kPETU suggest that fully cured

  13. Effects of carbon blacks with various structures on vulcanization and reinforcement of filled ethylene-propylene-diene rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of carbon blacks on vulcanization and mechanical properties of filled ethylene-propylene-diene rubber (EPDM are investigated, by comparing with five types of rubber-grade carbon blacks. Curing kinetics is studied by rheometer and the results indicate that the curing characteristics are influenced by combination of surface area of carbon black and sulphur content on the filler surface, because the former one enhances the physical cross-linking and the latter one introduces the additional chemical cross-linking. Both the degree of cross-linking and cure rate increase with increasing surface area and sulphur content, whereas the optimum cure time and scorch time decrease. The reinforcing nature of the carbon black is assessed from mechanical measurements. It is suggested that the surface area of carbon blacks strongly affects the physical properties of EPDM/carbon black composites. Conductive carbon black (N472 can be used as desirable reinforcing filler due to the higher degree of cross-linking of EPDM with N472 than other EPDM/carbon black composites. The morphology and distribution of particles are studied by using scanning electron microscope. The sound reinforcing ability of N472 is also supported by scanning electron microscope due to the notable dispersibility of N472 within EPDM matrix. N472 ensures the EPDM/N472 composite the most conductive sample among the five composites.

  14. Effect of Copper Coated SiC Reinforcements on Microstructure, Mechanical Properties and Wear of Aluminium Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kori, P. S.; Vanarotti, Mohan; Angadi, B. M.; Nagathan, V. V.; Auradi, V.; Sakri, M. I.

    2017-08-01

    Experimental investigations are carried out to study the influence of copper coated Silicon carbide (SiC) reinforcements in Aluminum (Al) based Al-SiC composites. Wear behavior and mechanical Properties like, ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and hardness are studied in the present work. Experimental results clearly revealed that, an addition of SiC particles (5, 10 and 15 Wt %) has lead in the improvement of hardness and ultimate tensile strength. Al-SiC composites containing the Copper coated SiC reinforcements showed better improvement in mechanical properties compared to uncoated ones. Characterization of Al-SiC composites are carried out using optical photomicrography and SEM analysis. Wear tests are carried out to study the effects of composition and normal pressure using Pin-On Disc wear testing machine. Results suggested that, wear rate decreases with increasing SiC composition, further an improvement in wear resistance is observed with copper coated SiC reinforcements in the Al-SiC metal matrix composites (MMC’s).

  15. Effect of TiH{sub 2} in the preparation of MMC Ti based with TiC reinforcement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peillon, N.; Fruhauf, J.B. [Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Saint-Etienne, LGF UMR5307 CNRS, 42023 Saint-Etienne Cedex 2 (France); Gourdet, S. [EADS Innovation Works, 12, Rue Pasteur, BP 76, 92152 Suresnes Cedex (France); Feraille, J. [Eurocopter SA, Aéroport International de Marseille, 13725 Marignane Cedex (France); Saunier, S.; Desrayaud, C. [Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Saint-Etienne, LGF UMR5307 CNRS, 42023 Saint-Etienne Cedex 2 (France)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Using TiH{sub 2} precursors promotes the MMC densification and microstructure homogeneity. • Clear description of the TiH{sub 2} interest and limitations. • Coupling of TGA, TMA and EBSD analyses to investigate the sintering process of MMC. • Process parameters: granulometry, precursor composition, temperature and rate. - Abstract: Many studies were carried out on the elaboration Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs) and a wide variety of process is reported in the bibliography. For titanium based MMC, the basis material for these elaboration techniques mainly consists of atomized titanium powder. In this work a titanium hydride powder is used to elaborate Ti/TiC MMC. Although an additional dehydrogenation operation is required a significant decrease of the sintering temperature is expected with this basis powder. In this context, the behavior of titanium hydride powder mixed with 0, 10 and 20 vol.% TiC reinforcement is studied during densification by free sintering. The effects of particle size, temperature and rate of sintering reinforcement are discussed. The comparison of the TiH{sub 2} process with Ti HDH (Hydride Dehydride) and atomized Ti mixture is made with 10 vol.% reinforcement. The results indicate that the sintering temperature is lowered and the final densities achieved are higher if the hydride is used. Interactions between dehydrogenation and sintering mechanisms clearly appear for the higher sintering temperature rate (10 °C/min) and need specific attention to prevent porosity nucleation through hydrogen entrapment.

  16. Effects of fiber-glass-reinforced composite restorations on fracture resistance and failure mode of endodontically treated molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicola, Scotti; Alberto, Forniglia; Riccardo, Michelotto Tempesta; Allegra, Comba; Massimo, Saratti Carlo; Damiano, Pasqualini; Mario, Alovisi; Elio, Berutti

    2016-10-01

    The study evaluated the fracture resistance and fracture patterns of endodontically treated mandibular first molars restored with glass-fiber-reinforced direct composite restorations. In total, 60 extracted intact first molars were treated endodontically; a mesio-occluso-distal (MOD) cavity was prepared and specimens were then divided into six groups: sound teeth (G1), no restoration (G2), direct composite restoration (G3), fiber-post-supported direct composite restoration (G4), direct composite reinforced with horizontal mesio-distal glass-fibers (G5), and buccal-palatal glass-fibers (G6). Specimens were subjected to 5000 thermocycles and 20,000 cycles of 45° oblique loading force at 1.3Hz and 50N; they were then loaded until fracture. The maximum fracture loads were recorded in Newtons (N) and data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey tests (pglass fibers inducted a partial deflection of the fracture, although they were not able to stop crack propagation. For the direct restoration of endodontically treated molars, reinforcement of composite resins with glass-fibers or fiber posts can enhance fracture resistance. The SEM analysis showed a low ability of horizontal glass-fibers to deviate the fracture, but this effect was not sufficient to lead to more favorable fracture patterns above the cement-enamel junction (CEJ). The fracture resistance of endodontically treated molars restored with direct composite restorations seems to be increased by reinforcement with fibers, even if it is insufficient to restore sound molar fracture resistance and cannot avoid vertical fractures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of Intercritical Heat Treatment on Mechanical Properties of Reinforcing Steel Bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUHAMMAD ISHAQUE ABRO

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Intercritical heat treatments attempts were made to enhance the mechanical properties of reinforcing steel bars milled from scrap metal. For this, two grades of steel bars were obtained from different steel mills and their mechanical properties that include hardness, ultimate tensile strength, and percent elongation before and after intercritical heat treatment were determined. Results indicated that 25.5 and 17.6%, improvements in UTS (Ultimate Tensile Strength and 18.8 and 14.3% improvement in percent elongation in two grades of reinforcing steel samples containing 0.17 and 0.24% carbon respectively was achieved while heating at 750oC for 2h. Appreciable improvement in the mechanical properties was noted due to birth of sufficient quantity of martensite along with ferrite

  18. Cellulose nanocrystal-reinforced keratin bioadsorbent for effective removal of dyes from aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kaili; Xu, Helan; Xu, Lan; Xie, Kongliang; Yang, Yiqi

    2017-05-01

    High-efficiency and recyclable three-dimensional bioadsorbents were prepared by incorporating cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) as reinforcements in keratin sponge matrix to remove dyes from aqueous solution. Adsorption performance of dyes by CNC-reinforced keratin bioadsorbent was improved significantly as a result of adding CNC as filler. Batch adsorption results showed that the adsorption capacities for Reactive Black 5 and Direct Red 80 by the bioadsorbent were 1201 and 1070mgg -1 , respectively. The isotherms and kinetics for adsorption of both dyes on bioadsorbent followed the Langmuir isotherm model and pseudo-second order model, respectively. Desorption and regeneration experiments showed that the removal efficiencies of the bioadsorbent for both dyes could remain above 80% at the fifth recycling cycles. Moreover, the bioadsorbent possessed excellent packed-bed column operation performance. Those results suggested that the adsorbent could be considered as a high-performance and promising candidate for dye wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A Methanol Extract of Brugmansia arborea Affects the Reinforcing and Motor Effects of Morphine and Cocaine in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Bracci, Antonio; Daza-Losada, Manuel; Aguilar, Maria; De Feo, Vincenzo; Mi?arro, Jos?; Rodr?guez-Arias, Marta

    2013-01-01

    Previous reports have shown that several of the effects of morphine, including the development of tolerance and physical withdrawal symptoms, are reduced by extracts of Brugmansia arborea (L.) Lagerheim (Solanaceae) (B. arborea). In the present study we evaluate the action of the methanol extract of B. arborea (7.5–60 mg/kg) on the motor and reinforcing effects of morphine (20 and 40 mg/kg) and cocaine (25 mg/kg) using the conditioned place preference (CPP) procedure. At the doses employed, ...

  20. Effect of an Opening on Reinforced Concrete Hollow Beam Web Under Torsional, Flexural, and Cyclic Loadings

    OpenAIRE

    Jabbar, Sarah; Hejazi,Farzad; Mahmod,H. Mahir

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Hollow sections have been increasingly applied in the construction of buildings, bridges, offshore structures, and towers for passing electrical and mechanical pipes or other utilities. Torsion caused by external force is a weakness of hollow sections that is rarely investigated. In particular, the behavior of hollow sections with high-strength concrete (HSC) and ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC) remains poorly studied. This study aims to examine the behavior of a reinforced con...

  1. Effects of Shear Stirrup Details on Ultimate Capacity and Tensile Membrane Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Slabs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-01

    anticipation of the construction of 20,000 to 40,000 of the shelters, economical design requirements are very important. Because of high labor intensity... Derecho (Reference 35) stated that no data are available for one-way slabs tested under uniformly distributed load. During the same year that Iqbal and... Derecho reported their work (1969), *- Keenan (Reference 36) tested four laced reinforced concrete one-way slabs to failure under a uniformly

  2. Effect of cross-sectional design on the modulus of elasticity and toughness of fiber-reinforced composite materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Scott R; Lassila, Lippo V J; Jokinen, Mikko; Vallittu, Pekka K

    2005-09-01

    Many current fabrication protocols for dental fiber-reinforced composites use hand lay-up techniques and technician design input. Little information exists regarding how the manipulation of the cross-sectional design of a prosthesis might affect the modulus of elasticity and toughness. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of simple and complex cross-sectional designs on the modulus of elasticity and toughness of fiber-reinforced composite used for dental prostheses. Two particulate composites (BelleGlass HP and Targis) were reinforced with ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene fiber ribbon (Connect), woven E-glass fibers (Vectris Frame), or unidirectional R-glass fibers (Vectris Pontic). A range of fiber positions, orientations, or geometries were incorporated into the rhombic specimens (2 x 2 x 25 mm(3)) to achieve simple and complex experimental cross-sectional designs. The control specimen did not contain fiber reinforcement. Specimens (n=6) were stored 1 week in distilled water at 37 degrees C prior to 3-point load testing to determine the modulus of elasticity (GPa) and toughness (MPa). The data within each main fiber group were subjected to 1-way analysis of variance and a Tukey post hoc test (alpha=.05). Cross-sections of randomly selected test specimens (n=2) were made for scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis of the fiber distribution. The mean modulus of elasticity varied from 8.7 +/- 2.0 GPa (Targis control) to 21.6 +/- 1.4 GPa (2 unidirectional glass fiber reinforcements, 1 each at the tension side and the compression side). Mean toughness varied from 0.07 +/- 0.02 MPa (unidirectional glass fiber positioned at the compression side) as the lowest mean, to 4.53 +/- 0.89 MPa (unidirectional glass fiber positioned at the tension side) as the highest. Significant differences were identified between specimen groups in each main category (all groups Pmodulus of elasticity of the woven E-glass groups, where P=.003). SEM micrographs showed

  3. Experimental studies on the effects of bolt parameters on the bearing characteristics of reinforced rock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Liang; Zhang, Yidong; Ji, Ming; Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Minglei

    2016-01-01

    Roadways supported by bolts contain support structures that are built into the rock surrounding the roadway, referred to as reinforced rocks in this paper. Using physical model simulation, the paper investigates the bearing characteristics of the reinforced rock under different bolt parameters with incrementally increased load. The experimental results show that the stress at the measurement point inside the structure varies with the kinetic pressure. The stress increases slowly as the load is initially applied, displays accelerated growth in the middle of the loading application, and decreases or remains constant in the later stage of the loading application. The change in displacement of the surrounding rock exhibits the following characteristics: a slow increase when the load is first applied, accelerated growth in the middle stage, and violent growth in the later stage. There is a good correlation between the change in the measured stress and the change in the surrounding rock displacement. Increasing the density of the bolt support and the length and diameter of the bolt improves the load-bearing performance of the reinforced rock, including its strength, internal peak stress, and residual stress. Bolting improves the internal structure of the surrounding rocks, and the deterioration of the surrounding rock decreases with the distance between the bolt supports.

  4. Effect of Fiber Waviness on Tensile Strength of a Flax-Sliver-Reinforced Composite Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taweesak Piyatuchsananon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a composite material made from natural fibers and biodegradable resin, “green composite,” is attracting attention as an alternative composite material for the replacement of glass fiber-reinforced plastics. Plant-based natural fibers such as kenaf and flax have already been used as composite reinforcement materials because they are more environmentally friendly and costless fibers than artificial fibers. A problem of using natural fibers is the fiber waviness, which affects the tensile properties. Fiber waviness is fluctuation in the fiber orientation that is inherent in the sliver morphology of plant-based natural fibers. This study was conducted to clarify the relation between quantified parameters of fiber waviness and a composite’s tensile strength. First, the fiber orientation angles on a flax-sliver-reinforced composite were measured. Then the angle distribution was quantified through spatial autocorrelation analysis methods: Local Moran’s I and Local Geary’s c. Finally, the relation between the resultant tensile strength and quantified parameters was discussed.

  5. Nucleus accumbens core and shell are necessary for reinforcer devaluation effects on Pavlovian conditioned responding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teghpal eSingh

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The nucleus accumbens (NA has been hypothesized to be part of a circuit in which cue-evoked information about expected outcomes is mobilized to guide behavior. Here we tested this hypothesis using a Pavlovian reinforcer devaluation task, previously applied to assess outcome-guided behavior after damage to regions such as the orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala that send projections to NA. Rats with sham lesions or neurotoxic lesions of either the core or shell subdivision of NA were trained to associate a 10 sec CS+ with delivery of three food pellets. After training, half of the rats in each lesion group received food paired with illness induced by LiCl injections; the remaining rats received food and illness unpaired. Subsequently, responding to the CS+ was assessed in an extinction probe test. Both sham and lesioned rats conditioned to the CS+ and formed a conditioned taste aversion. However only sham rats reduced their conditioned responding as a result of reinforcer devaluation; devalued rats with lesions of either core or shell showed levels of responding that were similar to lesioned, non-devalued rats. This impairment was not due to the loss of motivational salience conferred to the CS+ in lesioned rats as both groups responded similarly for the cue in conditioned reinforcement testing. These data suggest that NA core and shell are part of a circuit necessary for the use of cue-evoked information about expected outcomes to guide behavior.

  6. Effects of Different Reinforcements for Improving Mechanical Properties of Composite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut BİNGÖL

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The traditional materials are inadequate to the needs of modern manufacturing such as high mechanical and technological properties. There is a conflict with the demands of high-strength and lightweight, however the composite materials with diverse reinforcements provide each of the requests. Therefore, the use of the composite materials in industrial applications has become increasingly necessary. Sheet Molding Compounds (SMC is a production method which the thermoset polymer composite parts with high-strengths can be manufacture in series for many areas, including automotive.In this study, the mechanical properties of two different SMC materials were examined which obtained using woven glass fibers and nonwoven (random fibers as reinforcements to increase strengths of the resulting material. The experimental results showed that the tensile strength of the SMC specimen with random fibers reached an average value of 67.58 MPa, but the average value of the specimen with woven glass fiber reinforcement in the same conditions and a weight ratio was reached up to 137.29 MPa. With this new material, the tensile strength values were increased approximately to double.

  7. Effect of Reinforcement Using Stainless Steel Mesh, Glass Fibers, and Polyethylene on the Impact Strength of Heat Cure Denture Base Resin - An In Vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, H B Mallikarjuna; Shaik, Sharaz; Sachdeva, Harleen; Khare, Sumit; Haralur, Satheesh B; Roopa, K T

    2015-06-01

    The impact strength of denture base resin is of great concern and many approaches have been made to strengthen acrylic resin dentures. The objective of this study was to compare the impact strength of the denture base resin with and without reinforcement and to evaluate the impact strength of denture base resin when reinforced with stainless steel mesh, glass fiber, and polyethylene fibers in the woven form. The specimens (maxillary denture bases) were fabricated using a standard polyvinylsiloxane mold with conventional heat cured polymethyl methacrylate resin. The specimens were divided into four groups (n = 10). Group I specimens or control group were not reinforced. Group II specimens were reinforced with stainless steel mesh and Group III and Group IV specimens were reinforced with three percent by weight of glass fibers and polyethylene fibers in weave form respectively. All the specimens were immersed in water for 1-week before testing. The impact strength was measured with falling weight impact testing machine. One-way analysis of variance and Tukey's post-hoc test were used for statistical analysis. Highest impact strength values were exhibited by the specimens reinforced with polyethylene fibers followed by glass fibers, stainless steel mesh, and control group. Reinforcement of maxillary complete dentures showed a significant increase in impact strength when compared to unreinforced dentures. Polyethylene fibers exhibit better impact strength followed by glass fibers and stainless steel mesh. By using pre-impregnated glass and polyethylene fibers in woven form (prepregs) the impact strength of the denture bases can be increased effectively.

  8. Corrosion of reinforcement bars in steel ibre reinforced concrete structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solgaard, Anders Ole Stubbe

    Steel fibres have been known as an alternative to traditional reinforcement bars for special applications of structural concrete for decades and the use of steel fibre reinforced concrete (SFRC) has gradually increased in recent years. Steel fibres lead to reduced crack widths in concrete formed......, among other reasons, due to shrinkage and/or mechanical loading. Steel fibres are nowadays also used in combination with traditional reinforcement for structural concrete, where the role of the fibres is to minimize the crack widths whereas the traditional reinforcement bars are used for structural....... The aim of the work presented in this Ph.D. thesis was to quantify the influence of steel fibres on corrosion of traditional reinforcement bars embedded in uncracked concrete as well as cracked concrete. Focus of the work was set on the impact of steel fibres on corrosion propagation in uncracked concrete...

  9. Effects of therapies for regulating and reinforcing lung and kidney on osteoporosis in rats with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yange, Tian; Ya, Li; Jiansheng, Li; Suyun, Li; Suli, Jiang; Ying, Wang; Xiaofan, Lu; Weiwei, Li

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and long-term effects of the three therapies for regulating and reinforcing lung and kidney (reinforcing lung and invigorating spleen, reinforcing lung and replenishing kidney, and supplementing Qi and nourishing kidney) in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) on osteoporosis in rats with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Totally 120 rats were randomly divided into control, model, Bufeijianpi, Bufeiyishen, Yiqizishen, aminophyline groups. Repeated smoke inhalations and bacterial infections were used to duplicate the stable Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease rat model. Normal saline was given to the air control and model groups, while Bufeijianpi granule, Bufeiyishen granule, and Yiqizishen granule, and aminophylline were administrated to rats in the Bufeijianpi, Bufeiyishen, Yiqizishen, and aminophylline groups respectively from weeks 9 through 20. Another 12 weeks without medicines to observe the long-term effect. Rats were sacrificed at week 20 and week 32. Bone mass density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), morphology of the femoral head, lung function, and levels of serum interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α were detected. At weeks 20 and 32, tidal volume, peak expiratory flow and expiratory flow at 50% tidal volume in the three TCM-treated groups were higher than those in the model group (P < 0.05). Femur weight, BMD, and BMC were significantly higher in the three TCM-treated groups and the aminophylline-treated group compared with the model group (P < 0.01), except for BMC in the Yiqizishen-treated group at week 20. Bufeijianpi, Bufeiyishen, and Yiqizishen granules show good effects in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis, which can alleviate airflow limitations and inflammation, improve BMD and BMC of the femur, and have favorable long-term effects.

  10. Preliminary validity of the modified Cigarette Evaluation Questionnaire in predicting the reinforcing effects of cigarettes that vary in nicotine content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arger, Christopher A; Heil, Sarah H; Sigmon, Stacey C; Tidey, Jennifer W; Stitzer, Maxine L; Gaalema, Diann E; Durand, Hanna J; Bunn, Janice Y; Ruggieri, Elizabeth K; Higgins, Stephen T

    2017-12-01

    Validity studies evaluating self-report measures in relation to behavioral preference of cigarettes varying in nicotine content are needed. The current study examined the relationship between ratings on the modified Cigarette Evaluation Questionnaire (mCEQ) and the relative reinforcing effects of Spectrum research cigarettes (15.8, 5.2, 2.4, 0.4 mg per gram of tobacco). Data for this secondary analysis were obtained from a double-blind study (Higgins et al., 2017) evaluating the subjective and reinforcing effects of Spectrum cigarettes under acute smoking abstinence. Current smokers (N = 26) were recruited from three vulnerable smoking populations (economically disadvantaged women of reproductive age, opioid-maintained individuals, individuals with affective disorders). In Phase 1 (five sessions), the mCEQ (Satisfaction, Psychological Reward, Enjoyment of Respiratory Tract Sensations, Craving Reduction, Aversion subscales) was administered following ad lib smoking of Spectrum cigarettes and subscale differences scores were calculated by subtracting ratings of the 15.8 mg/g cigarette from ratings of the reduced nicotine content cigarettes. In Phase 2 (six sessions), participants completed six 2-dose concurrent choice tests. The relationship between mCEQ subscale difference scores from Phase 1 and nicotine dose choice from Phase 2 was examined using mixed-model repeated-measures analyses of variance. Higher Satisfaction and lower Aversion subscale difference scores were associated with choosing the 15.8 mg/g cigarette more than the 5.2, 2.4, and 0.4 mg/g cigarettes. Scores on the other mCEQ subscales were not associated with nicotine choice. These results provide support for validity of the mCEQ Satisfaction and Aversion subscales predicting the relative reinforcing effects and abuse liability of varying nicotine content cigarettes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Prestressing effect of cold-drawn short NiTi SMA fibres in steel reinforced mortar beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eunsoo; Kim, Dong Joo; Hwang, Jin-Ha; Kim, Woo Jin

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated the prestressing effect of cold-drawn short NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA) fibres in steel reinforced mortar beams. The SMA fibres were mixed with 1.5% volume content in a mortar matrix with the compressive strength of 50 MPa. The SMA fibres had an average length of 34 mm, and they were manufactured with a dog-bone shape: the diameters of the end- and middle-parts were 1.024 and 1.0 mm, respectively. Twenty mortar beams with the dimensions of 40 mm × 40 mm × 160 mm (B × H × L) were prepared. Two types of tests were conducted. One was to investigate the prestressing effect of the SMA fibres, and the beams with the SMA fibres were heated at the bottom. The other was to assess the bending behaviour of the beams prestressed by the SMA fibres. The SMA fibres induced upward deflection and cracking at the top surface by heating at the bottom; thus, they achieved an obvious prestressing effect. The beams that were prestressed by the SMA fibres did not show a significant difference in bending behaviour from that of the SMA fibre reinforced beams that were not subjected to heating. Stress analysis of the beams indicated that the prestressing effect decreased in relation to the cooling temperature.

  12. Effect of weight percentage and particle size of B4C reinforcement on physical and mechanical properties of powder metallurgy Al2024-B4C composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varol, T.; Canakci, A.

    2013-11-01

    In this study, Al2024-B4C composites containing 0, 5, 10 and 20 wt% of B4C particles with two different particle sizes (d50=49 μm and d50=5 μm) as reinforcement material were produced by a mechanical alloying method. Two new particle distribution models based on the size of reinforcement materials was developed. The microstructure of the Al2024-B4C composites was investigated using a scanning electron microscope. The effects of reinforcement particle size and weight percentage (wt%) on the physical and mechanical properties of the Al2024-B4C composites were determined by measuring the density, hardness and tensile strength values. The results showed that more homogenous dispersion of B4C powders was obtained in the Al2024 matrix using the mechanical alloying technique according to the conventional powder metallurgy method. Measurement of the density and hardness properties of the composites showed that density values decreased and hardness values increased with an increase in the weight fraction of reinforcement. Moreover, it was found that the effect of reinforcement size and reinforcement content (wt%) on the homogeneous distribution of B4C particles is as important as the effect of milling time.

  13. Effects of types of institutionalization on responsiveness to social reinforcement, wariness, and outerdirectedness among low-MA residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zigler, E; Balla, D; Kossan, N

    1986-07-01

    The ways in which institutional factors and psychological characteristics of residents interact to determine the behavioral effects of institutionalization were investigated. Two large and five small institutions were rated on resident management practices, aide attitudes, and demographic variables, such as size and cost per resident. Resident variables included preinstitutional deprivation, CA, MA, IQ, and length of institutionalization. The institution and resident variables were used in an attempt to predict three aspects of behavior: responsiveness to social reinforcement, wariness, and outerdirectedness. Of the predictor variables, only MA was related to all three. As in earlier research, institutional variables were not predictive of the behaviors examined.

  14. BEHAVIORAL MECHANISMS UNDERLYING NICOTINE REINFORCEMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupprecht, Laura E.; Smith, Tracy T.; Schassburger, Rachel L.; Buffalari, Deanne M.; Sved, Alan F.; Donny, Eric C.

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of preventable deaths worldwide and nicotine, the primary psychoactive constituent in tobacco, drives sustained use. The behavioral actions of nicotine are complex and extend well beyond the actions of the drug as a primary reinforcer. Stimuli that are consistently paired with nicotine can, through associative learning, take on reinforcing properties as conditioned stimuli. These conditioned stimuli can then impact the rate and probability of behavior and even function as conditioning reinforcers that maintain behavior in the absence of nicotine. Nicotine can also act as a conditioned stimulus, predicting the delivery of other reinforcers, which may allow nicotine to acquire value as a conditioned reinforcer. These associative effects, establishing non-nicotine stimuli as conditioned stimuli with discriminative stimulus and conditioned reinforcing properties as well as establishing nicotine as a conditioned stimulus, are predicted by basic conditioning principles. However, nicotine can also act non-associatively. Nicotine directly enhances the reinforcing efficacy of other reinforcing stimuli in the environment, an effect that does not require a temporal or predictive relationship between nicotine and either the stimulus or the behavior. Hence, the reinforcing actions of nicotine stem both from the primary reinforcing actions of the drug (and the subsequent associative learning effects) as well as the reinforcement enhancement action of nicotine which is non-associative in nature. Gaining a better understanding of how nicotine impacts behavior will allow for maximally effective tobacco control efforts aimed at reducing the harm associated with tobacco use by reducing and/or treating its addictiveness. PMID:25638333

  15. The effects of aging on the interaction between reinforcement learning and attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radulescu, Angela; Daniel, Reka; Niv, Yael

    2016-11-01

    Reinforcement learning (RL) in complex environments relies on selective attention to uncover those aspects of the environment that are most predictive of reward. Whereas previous work has focused on age-related changes in RL, it is not known whether older adults learn differently from younger adults when selective attention is required. In 2 experiments, we examined how aging affects the interaction between RL and selective attention. Younger and older adults performed a learning task in which only 1 stimulus dimension was relevant to predicting reward, and within it, 1 "target" feature was the most rewarding. Participants had to discover this target feature through trial and error. In Experiment 1, stimuli varied on 1 or 3 dimensions and participants received hints that revealed the target feature, the relevant dimension, or gave no information. Group-related differences in accuracy and RTs differed systematically as a function of the number of dimensions and the type of hint available. In Experiment 2 we used trial-by-trial computational modeling of the learning process to test for age-related differences in learning strategies. Behavior of both young and older adults was explained well by a reinforcement-learning model that uses selective attention to constrain learning. However, the model suggested that older adults restricted their learning to fewer features, employing more focused attention than younger adults. Furthermore, this difference in strategy predicted age-related deficits in accuracy. We discuss these results suggesting that a narrower filter of attention may reflect an adaptation to the reduced capabilities of the reinforcement learning system. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Properties of ceramic-reinforced aluminium matrix composites - a review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Das, Dipti Kanta; Mishra, Purna Chandra; Singh, Saranjit; Thakur, Ratish Kumar

    2014-01-01

    .... The properties discussed include microstructural, optical, physical and mechanical behaviour of ceramic-reinforced aluminium matrix composites and effects of reinforcement fraction, particle size...

  17. Model for the Effect of Fiber Bridging on the Fracture Resistance of Reinforced-Carbon-Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kwai S.; Lee, Yi-Der; Hudak, Stephen J., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    A micromechanical methodology has been developed for analyzing fiber bridging and resistance-curve behavior in reinforced-carbon-carbon (RCC) panels with a three-dimensional (3D) composite architecture and a silicon carbide (SiC) surface coating. The methodology involves treating fiber bridging traction on the crack surfaces in terms of a weight function approach and a bridging law that relates the bridging stress to the crack opening displacement. A procedure has been developed to deduce material constants in the bridging law from the linear portion of the K-resistance curve. This report contains information on the application of procedures and outcomes.

  18. ELASTICITY of SHORT FIBRE REINFORCED POLYAMIDE: MORPHOLOGICAL AND NUMERICAl ANALYSIS OF FIBRE ORIENTATION EFFECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Cosmi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The fatigue behaviour of injection moulded short fibre reinforced polymers depends upon fibre orientation, as shown in experiments conducted with notched specimens injected through different injection gates. The different fatigue behaviour is mainly related to the different local elastic properties, as determined by the different fibre orientation patterns, resulting into different strain distributions. In order to quantify the relationship between fibre orientation and elastic constants, the Cell Method was applied to volumes extracted from the specimens, reconstructed by micro-tomography.

  19. Effect of corrosion and sandblasting on the high cycle fatigue behavior of reinforcing B500C steel bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina C. Vasco

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In a series of applications, steel reinforced concrete structures are subjected to fatigue loads during their service life, what in most cases happens in corrosive environments. Surface treatments have been proved to represent proper processes in order to improve both fatigue and corrosion resistances. In this work, the effect of corrosion and sandblasting on the high cycle fatigue behavior reinforcing steel bars is investigated. The investigated material is the reinforcing steel bar of technical class B500C, of nominal diameter of 12 mm. Steel bars specimens were first exposed to corrosion in alternate salt spray environment for 30 and 60 days and subjected to both tensile and fatigue tests. Then, a series of specimens were subjected to common sandblasting, corroded and mechanically tested. Metallographic investigation and corrosion damage evaluation regarding mass loss and martensitic area reduction were performed. Tensile tests were conducted after each corrosion exposure period prior to the fatigue tests. Fatigue tests were performed at a stress ratio, R, of 0.1 and loading frequency of 20 Hz. All fatigue tests series as well as tensile test were also performed for as received steel bars to obtain the reference behavior. The results have shown that sandblasting hardly affects the tensile behavior of the uncorroded material. The effect of sandblasting on the tensile behavior of pre-corroded specimens seems to be also limited. On the other hand, fatigue results indicate an improved fatigue behavior for the sandblasted material after 60 days of corrosion exposure. Martensitic area reductions, mass loss and depth of the pits were significantly smaller for the case of sandblasted materials, which confirms an increased corrosion resistance

  20. glass fabric reinforced epoxy composite

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Miyazaki and Takeda (1993) studied about effect of matrix materials, reinforcement fibers, interface strength between matrix material and fibers, impact angle, and particle velocity on the solid particle erosion behavior of short glass carbon fiber reinforced nylon 66 resin, ABS resin .They found that the erosion rate is larger in ...

  1. Conditioned Reinforcement and Response Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahan, Timothy A.

    2010-01-01

    Stimuli associated with primary reinforcers appear themselves to acquire the capacity to strengthen behavior. This paper reviews research on the strengthening effects of conditioned reinforcers within the context of contemporary quantitative choice theories and behavioral momentum theory. Based partially on the finding that variations in…

  2. Delayed Reinforcement of Operant Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattal, Kennon A.

    2010-01-01

    The experimental analysis of delay of reinforcement is considered from the perspective of three questions that seem basic not only to understanding delay of reinforcement but also, by implication, the contributions of temporal relations between events to operant behavior. The first question is whether effects of the temporal relation between…

  3. Effect of a positive reinforcing stimulus on fear memory reconsolidation in ethanol withdrawn rats: Influence of d-cycloserine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Vanesa; Molina, Víctor Alejandro; Martijena, Irene Delia

    2016-12-15

    The pharmacological blockade of memory reconsolidation has been suggested as a potential treatment to the attenuation of maladaptive memories associated to psychiatric disorders and drug addiction. To interfere with the process of fear memory reconsolidation using a manipulation safer than pharmacological interventions, here we examined whether a positive reinforcing stimulus (non-alcoholic beer, NB) post-memory retrieval can decrease the fear response in ethanol withdrawn (ETOH) animals. We first evaluated the potential interfering effect of NB on memory reconsolidation in non-ethanol dependent (control, CON) rats. Non-alcoholic beer intake shortly after memory retrieval attenuated the fear response in CON rats. A resistance to destabilization/reconsolidation process was previously observed in ETOH rats, which was reversed by the activation of NMDA receptor induced by pre-retrieval d-cycloserine (DCS) administration. Therefore, the influence of DCS (5mg/kg; i.p.) to facilitate the disruptive effect of NB on fear memory was examined in ETOH animals. As expected, NB was ineffective to attenuate the fear response in ETOH rats, with DCS being necessary to promote the disruptive effect of NB on the reconsolidation in these animals. Hence, DCS/reinforcing stimulus in combination with memory reactivation can be considered as an alternative approach for disrupting resistant fear memories. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Conditioned reinforcement can be mediated by either outcome-specific or general affective representations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn A Burke

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Conditioned reinforcers are Pavlovian cues that support the acquisition and maintenance of new instrumental responses. Responding on the basis of conditioned rather than primary reinforcers is a pervasive part of modern life, yet we have a remarkably limited understanding of what underlying associative information is triggered by these cues to guide responding. Specifically, it is not certain whether conditioned reinforcers are effective because they evoke representations of specific outcomes or because they trigger general affective states that are independent of any specific outcome. This question has important implications for how different brain circuits might be involved in conditioned reinforcement. Here, we use specialized Pavlovian training procedures, reinforcer devaluation and transreinforcer blocking, to create cues that were biased to preferentially evoke either devaluation-insensitive, general affect representations or, devaluationsensitive, outcome-specific representations. Subsequently, these cues, along with normally conditioned control cues, were presented contingent on lever pressing.We found that intact rats learned to lever press for either the outcome or the affect cues to the same extent as for a normally conditioned cue. These results demonstrate that conditioned reinforcers can guide responding through either type of associative information. Interestingly, conditioned reinforcement was abolished in rats with basolateral amygdala lesions. Consistent with the extant literature, this result suggests a general role for basolateral amygdala in conditioned reinforcement. The implications of these data, combined with recent reports from our laboratory of a more specialized role of orbitofrontal cortex in conditioned reinforcement, will be discussed.

  5. Curaua fiber reinforced high-density polyethylene composites: effect of impact modifier and fiber loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Albano de Morais

    Full Text Available Abstract Short fibers are used in thermoplastic composites to increase their tensile and flexural resistance; however, it often decreases impact resistance. Composites with short vegetal fibers are not an exception to this behavior. The purpose of this work is to produce a vegetal fiber reinforced composite with improved tensile and impact resistance in relation to the polymer matrix. We used poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate, EVA, to recover the impact resistance of high density polyethylene, HDPE, reinforced with Curauá fibers, CF. Blends and composites were processed in a corotating twin screw extruder. The pure polymers, blends and composites were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetry, infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, tensile mechanical properties and Izod impact resistance. EVA used as impact modifier in the HDPE matrix exhibited a co-continuous phase and in the composites the fibers were homogeneously dispersed. The best combination of mechanical properties, tensile, flexural and impact, were obtained for the formulations of composites with 20 wt. % of CF and 20 to 40 wt. % of EVA. The composite prepared with 20 wt. % EVA and containing 30 wt. % of CF showed impact resistance comparable to pure HDPE and improved tensile and flexural mechanical properties.

  6. Effect of Coupling Agent on Mechanical Properties of Palm Petiole Nanofiber Reinforced Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinod Kumar, T.; Chandrasekaran, M.; Santhanam, V.; Sudharsan, V. D.

    2017-03-01

    Composites have replaced conventional materials due to their advantages such as low cost, low density, high strength, etc. recently the research has been focused on natural fibers as a suitable replacement for synthetic fibers for reinforcement in composites. Hence, in this work, natural fiber is extracted from palm petiole and this fiber is investigated for reinforcement in epoxy polymer. The fiber is subjected to different chemical treatments for enhancing the surface wetting and Nano cellulose will also be extracted from the fiber. The composite will be fabricated by using handlay-up method by using 1%, 2%, 3% volume fraction of cellulose nanofiber in the epoxy resin. It is observed that the increase of the nanofiber in 3% volume fraction gives the good tensile, flexural and impact strength. So they obtained chemically treated cellulose nanofiber was treated with the amino propyl triethoxysilane and 3% of the silanesilane treated nano-fiber fabricated. Then the mechanical testings of this is compared with the 3% of chemically treated nano-fiber composite. The silane treated nanofiber gives the best results.

  7. Universal effect of dynamical reinforcement learning mechanism in spatial evolutionary games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai-Feng; Wu, Zhi-Xi; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2012-06-01

    One of the prototypical mechanisms in understanding the ubiquitous cooperation in social dilemma situations is the win-stay, lose-shift rule. In this work, a generalized win-stay, lose-shift learning model—a reinforcement learning model with dynamic aspiration level—is proposed to describe how humans adapt their social behaviors based on their social experiences. In the model, the players incorporate the information of the outcomes in previous rounds with time-dependent aspiration payoffs to regulate the probability of choosing cooperation. By investigating such a reinforcement learning rule in the spatial prisoner's dilemma game and public goods game, a most noteworthy viewpoint is that moderate greediness (i.e. moderate aspiration level) favors best the development and organization of collective cooperation. The generality of this observation is tested against different regulation strengths and different types of network of interaction as well. We also make comparisons with two recently proposed models to highlight the importance of the mechanism of adaptive aspiration level in supporting cooperation in structured populations.

  8. Sex-dependent effects on tasks assessing reinforcement learning and interference inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly L Evans

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that the prefrontal cortex (PFC is influenced by sex steroids and that some cognitive functions dependent on the PFC may be sexually differentiated in humans. Past work has identified a male advantage on certain complex reinforcement learning tasks, but it is unclear which latent task components are important to elicit the sex difference. The objective of the current study was to investigate whether there are sex differences on measures of response inhibition and valenced feedback processing, elements that are shared by previously studied reinforcement learning tasks. Healthy young adults (90 males, 86 females matched in general intelligence completed the Probabilistic Selection Task (PST, a Simon task, and the Stop-Signal task. On the PST, females were more accurate than males in learning from positive (but not negative feedback. On the Simon task, males were faster than females, especially in the face of incongruent stimuli. No sex difference was observed in Stop-Signal reaction time. The current findings provide preliminary support for a sex difference in the processing of valenced feedback and in interference inhibition.

  9. Affective modulation of the startle reflex and the Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory of personality: The role of sensitivity to reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluja, Anton; Blanch, Angel; Blanco, Eduardo; Balada, Ferran

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated differences in the amplitude of startle reflex and Sensitivity to Reward (SR) and Sensitivity to Punishment (SP) personality variables of the Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST). We hypothesized that subjects with higher scores in SR would obtain a higher startle reflex when exposed to pleasant pictures than lower scores, while higher scores in SP would obtain a higher startle reflex when exposed to unpleasant pictures than subjects with lower scores in this dimension. The sample consisted of 112 healthy female undergraduate psychology students. Personality was assessed using the short version of the Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity Reward Questionnaire (SPSRQ). Laboratory anxiety was controlled by the State Anxiety Inventory. The startle blink reflex was recorded electromyographically (EMG) from the right orbicularis oculi muscle as a response to the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) pleasant, neutral and unpleasant pictures. Subjects higher in SR obtained a significant higher startle reflex response in pleasant pictures than lower scorers (48.48 vs 46.28, p<0.012). Subjects with higher scores in SP showed a light tendency of higher startle responses in unpleasant pictures in a non-parametric local regression graphical analysis (LOESS). The findings shed light on the relationships among the impulsive-disinhibited personality, including sensitivity to reward and emotions evoked through pictures of emotional content. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Mutual irradiation grafting on indigenous aramid fiber-3 in diethanolamine and epichlorohydrin and its effect on interfacially reinforced epoxy composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing, Lixin [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001,China (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Liu, Li, E-mail: liuli@hit.edu.cn [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001,China (China); Xie, Fei [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001,China (China); Huang, Yudong [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001,China (China); State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2016-07-01

    Highlights: • High energy gamma rays were used to decorate the surface of aramid fiber via mutual irradiation grafting process in two medium. • The effects of different grafting medium on aramid fiber surface were investigated through SEM, AFM, XPS, wettability and adsorption measurements. • Interfacial properties of aramid reinforced polymer composites were remarkable improved after mutual irradiation. - Abstract: The surface of indigenous aramid fiber-3 (IAF3) was decorated via mutual irradiation grafting process in diethanolamine (DEA) and epichlorohydrin (ECH), respectively, with the assist of high energy gamma rays. This modification method with great permeability produced the homogeneous and ameliorative AF3 surfaces, which were observed by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atom forced microscopy (AFM). Enhanced surface free energy and reduced contact angles of irradiated AF3 verified the fabulous effectiveness of mutual irradiation without seriously injured tensile strength. The composites based on epoxy resin (ER) polymer as the matrix and irradiated IAF3 grafted DEA and ECH as the reinforcement. By capitalizing on the irradiated IAF3 which has higher wettability and adsorption on resin, the irradiated IAF3-ECH/ER composites exhibit admirable interfacial mechanical performance as compared to the pristine IAF3 contained composites. The interfacial shear strength (IFSS), interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) and flexural strength of composites were remarkable improved to 86.5, 60.13 and 511 MPa respectively, from the pristine IAF3/ER composite with IFSS of 65.9 MPa, ILSS of 48.1 MPa, and flexural strength of 479 MPa.

  11. Effect of Expansive Admixtures on the Shrinkage and Mechanical Properties of High-Performance Fiber-Reinforced Cement Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won-Chang Choi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available High-performance fiber-reinforced cement composites (HPFRCCs are characterized by strain-hardening and multiple cracking during the inelastic deformation process, but they also develop high shrinkage strain. This study investigates the effects of replacing Portland cement with calcium sulfoaluminate-based expansive admixtures (CSA EXAs to compensate for the shrinkage and associated mechanical behavior of HPFRCCs. Two types of CSA EXA (CSA-K and CSA-J, each with a different chemical composition, are used in this study. Various replacement ratios (0%, 8%, 10%, 12%, and 14% by weight of cement of CSA EXA are considered for the design of HPFRCC mixtures reinforced with 1.5% polyethylene (PE fibers by volume. Mechanical properties, such as shrinkage compensation, compressive strength, flexural strength, and direct tensile strength, of the HPFRCC mixtures are examined. Also, crack width and development are investigated to determine the effects of the EXAs on the performance of the HPFRCC mixtures, and a performance index is used to quantify the performance of mixture. The results indicate that replacements of 10% CSA-K (Type 1 and 8% CSA-J (Type 2 considerably enhance the mechanical properties and reduce shrinkage of HPFRCCs.

  12. Effects of precursor composition and mode of crosslinking on mechanical properties of graphene oxide reinforced composite hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jinhyeong; Hong, Jisu; Cha, Chaenyung

    2017-05-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) is increasingly investigated as a reinforcing nanofiller for various hydrogels for biomedical applications for its superior mechanical strength. However, the reinforcing mechanism of GO in different hydrogel conditions has not been extensively explored and elucidated to date. Herein, we systematically examine the effects of various types of precursor molecules (monomers vs. macromers) as well as mode of GO incorporation (physical vs. covalent) on the mechanical properties of resulting composite hydrogels. Two hydrogel types, (1) polyacrylamide hydrogels with varying concentrations of acrylamide monomers and (2) poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels with varying molecular weights of PEG macromers, are used as model systems. In addition, incorporation of GO is also controlled by using either unmodified GO or methacrylic GO (MGO) which allows for covalent incorporation. The results in this study demonstrate that the interaction between GO and the surrounding network and its effect on the mechanical properties (i.e. rigidity and toughness) of composite hydrogels are highly dependent on both the type and concentration of precursors and the mode of crosslinking. We expect this study will provide an important guideline for future research efforts on controlling the mechanical properties of GO-based composite hydrogels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Nalfurafine hydrochloride, a selective κ opioid receptor agonist, has no reinforcing effect on intravenous self-administration in rhesus monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaoru Nakao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nalfurafine hydrochloride [(E-N-[17-(cyclopropylmethyl-4,5α-epoxy-3,14-dihydroxymorphinan-6β-yl]-3-(furan-3-yl-N-methylprop-2-enamide monohydrochloride; nalfurafine] is used in Japan as an antipruritic for the treatment of intractable pruritus in patients undergoing hemodialysis or with chronic liver disease. It is a potent and selective agonist at the κ opioid receptor, but also has weak and partial agonist activity at μ opioid receptors. Opioids, especially those acting at μ receptors, carry a risk of abuse. This is an important factor in the consideration of therapeutic risk vs. benefit in clinical use and the potential for misuse as a public health problem. It is therefore necessary to carefully evaluate the reinforcing effects of nalfurafine. To this end, we investigated intravenous self-administration of nalfurafine in rhesus monkeys. The number of self-administration of nalfurafine at doses of 0.0625, 0.125 and 0.25 μg/kg/infusion was not higher than that of saline in rhesus monkeys that frequently self-administered pentazocine (0.25 mg/kg/infusion. These results indicate that nalfurafine has no reinforcing effect in rhesus monkeys in the intravenous self-administration paradigm.

  14. Simulating the Effects of Surface Roughness on Reinforced Concrete T Beam Bridge under Single and Multiple Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Kalyankar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research focuses on the application of the spatial system of finite element modeling for the vehicle-bridge interaction on reinforced concrete US Girder Bridge in order to obtain the effect of surface roughness. Single vehicle and multiple vehicles on reinforced concrete T beam bridge were studied with variable surface roughness profiles. The effects of six different surface roughness profiles (very good, good, measured, average, poor, and very poor were investigated for vehicle-bridge interaction. The values of the Dynamic Amplification Factor (DAF were obtained for single and multiple vehicles on T Beam Bridge for different surface roughness profiles, along with the distances between the axles of heavy vehicle. It was observed that when the bridge has very good, good, measured, and average surface roughness, the DAF values for the single vehicle over the bridge were observed to be within acceptable limits specified by AASHTO. However, for the bridge with multiple vehicles only very good and measured surface roughness profiles showed a DAF and vehicle axle distances within the acceptable limits. From the current studies, it was observed that the spatial system showed reliable responses for predicting the behavior of the bridge under variable road surface roughness conditions and was reliable in vehicle axle detection, and therefore, it has a potential to be use for realistic simulations.

  15. Effects of Thermal and Humidity Aging on the Interfacial Adhesion of Polyketone Fiber Reinforced Natural Rubber Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Ki Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyketone fiber is considered as a reinforcement of the mechanical rubber goods (MRG such as tires, automobile hoses, and belts because of its high strength and modulus. In order to apply it to those purposes, the high adhesion of fiber/rubber interface and good sustainability to aging conditions are very important. In this study, polyketone fiber reinforced natural rubber composites were prepared and they were subjected to thermal and humidity aging, to assess the changes of the interfacial adhesion and material properties. Also, the effect of adhesive primer treatment, based on the resorcinol formaldehyde resin and latex (RFL, of polyketone fiber for high interfacial adhesion was evaluated. Morphological and property changes of the rubber composites were analyzed by using various instrumental analyses. As a result, the rubber composite was aged largely by thermal aging at high temperature rather than humidity aging condition. Interfacial adhesion of the polyketone/NR composites was improved by the primer treatment and its effect was maintained in aging conditions.

  16. REINFORCED COMPOSITE PANEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    A composite panel having front and back faces, the panel comprising facing reinforcement, backing reinforcement and matrix material binding to the facing and backing reinforcements, the facing and backing reinforcements each independently comprising one or more reinforcing sheets, the facing...... by matrix material, the facing and backing reinforcements being interconnected to resist out-of-plane relative movement. The reinforced composite panel is useful as a barrier element for shielding structures, equipment and personnel from blast and/or ballistic impact damage....

  17. Ethanol as a prodrug: brain metabolism of ethanol mediates its reinforcing effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karahanian, Eduardo; Quintanilla, María Elena; Tampier, Lutske; Rivera-Meza, Mario; Bustamante, Diego; Gonzalez-Lira, Víctor; Morales, Paola; Herrera-Marschitz, Mario; Israel, Yedy

    2011-04-01

     While the molecular entity responsible for the rewarding effects of virtually all drugs of abuse is known, that for ethanol remains uncertain. Some lines of evidence suggest that the rewarding effects of alcohol are mediated not by ethanol per se but by acetaldehyde generated by catalase in the brain. However, the lack of specific inhibitors of catalase has not allowed strong conclusions to be drawn about its role on the rewarding properties of ethanol. The present studies determined the effect on voluntary alcohol consumption of two gene vectors, one designed to inhibit catalase synthesis and one designed to synthesize alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), to respectively inhibit or increase brain acetaldehyde synthesis.  The lentiviral vectors, which incorporate the genes they carry into the cell genome, were (i) one encoding a shRNA anticatalase synthesis and (ii) one encoding alcohol dehydrogenase (rADH1). These were stereotaxically microinjected into the brain ventral tegmental area (VTA) of Wistar-derived rats bred for generations for their high alcohol preference (UChB), which were allowed access to an ethanol solution and water.  Microinjection into the VTA of the lentiviral vector encoding the anticatalase shRNA virtually abolished (-94% p alcohol by the rats. Conversely, injection into the VTA of the lentiviral vector coding for ADH greatly stimulated (2 to 3 fold p brain. Data suggest novel targets for interventions aimed at reducing chronic alcohol intake. Copyright © 2011 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  18. Chloride-Reinforced Carbon Nanofiber Host as Effective Polysulfide Traps in Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Lei; Zhuang, Houlong L; Zhang, Kaihang; Cooper, Valentino R; Li, Qi; Lu, Yingying

    2016-12-01

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery is one of the most promising alternatives for the current state-of-the-art lithium-ion batteries due to its high theoretical energy density and low production cost from the use of sulfur. However, the commercialization of Li-S batteries has been so far limited to the cyclability and the retention of active sulfur materials. Using co-electrospinning and physical vapor deposition procedures, we created a class of chloride-carbon nanofiber composites, and studied their effectiveness on polysulfides sequestration. By trapping sulfur reduction products in the modified cathode through both chemical and physical confinements, these chloride-coated cathodes are shown to remarkably suppress the polysulfide dissolution and shuttling between lithium and sulfur electrodes. From adsorption experiments and theoretical calculations, it is shown that not only the sulfide-adsorption effect but also the diffusivity in the vicinity of these chlorides materials plays an important role on the reversibility of sulfur-based cathode upon repeated cycles. Balancing the adsorption and diffusion effects of these nonconductive materials could lead to the enhanced cycling performance of an Li-S cell. Electrochemical analyses over hundreds of cycles indicate that cells containing indium chloride-modified carbon nanofiber outperform cells with other halogenated salts, delivering an average specific capacity of above 1200 mAh g-1 at 0.2 C.

  19. Opponent actor learning (OpAL): modeling interactive effects of striatal dopamine on reinforcement learning and choice incentive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Anne G E; Frank, Michael J

    2014-07-01

    The striatal dopaminergic system has been implicated in reinforcement learning (RL), motor performance, and incentive motivation. Various computational models have been proposed to account for each of these effects individually, but a formal analysis of their interactions is lacking. Here we present a novel algorithmic model expanding the classical actor-critic architecture to include fundamental interactive properties of neural circuit models, incorporating both incentive and learning effects into a single theoretical framework. The standard actor is replaced by a dual opponent actor system representing distinct striatal populations, which come to differentially specialize in discriminating positive and negative action values. Dopamine modulates the degree to which each actor component contributes to both learning and choice discriminations. In contrast to standard frameworks, this model simultaneously captures documented effects of dopamine on both learning and choice incentive-and their interactions-across a variety of studies, including probabilistic RL, effort-based choice, and motor skill learning. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Short Jute Fiber Reinforced Polypropylene Composites: Effect of Nonhalogenated Fire Retardants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sk. Sharfuddin Chestee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Short jute fiber reinforced polypropylene (PP composites were prepared using a single screw extrusion moulding. Jute fiber content in the composites is optimized with the extent of mechanical properties, and composites with 20% jute show higher mechanical properties. Dissimilar concentrations of several fire retardants (FRs, such as magnesium oxide (MO, aluminum oxide (AO, and phosphoric acid (PA, were used in the composites. The addition of MO, AO, and PA improved the fire retardancy properties (ignition time, flame height, and total firing time of the composites. Ignition time for 30% MO, flame height for 30% PA, and total firing time for 20% MO content composites showed good results which were 8 sec, 1 inch, and 268 sec, respectively. Mechanical properties (tensile strength, tensile modulus, bending strength, bending modulus, and elongation at break, degradation properties (soil test, weathering test, and percentage of weight loss, and water uptake were studied.

  1. Effect of reinforcement volume fraction and size on wear behaviour of Al-matrix composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonollo, F.; Giordano, L.; Tiziani, A.; Zambon, A. (Padua Univ. (Italy)); Tangerini, I. (Temav SpA, Milan (Italy)); Yang, W.L. (Kunming Metallurgy Research Institute, Kunming (China))

    1993-02-01

    There is an increasing interest in the application of metal matrix composites (MMC's) in the automotive industry. Some of the possible applications require good wear resistance. In this paper, five kinds of Al-SiC[sub p] (10% vol and 20% vol) composites, with reinforcement size ranging between 0. 8 and 20 microns were tested by means of a pin-on-disk tribometer; the composites acted as pins, sliding against heat treated carbon steel disks. The wear tests results were compared with those obtained with unreinforced aluminum and related to the microstructural characteristics of the composites, studied by means of light and electron microscopy and by X-ray diffraction. Some guidelines for understanding the wear mechanisms of Al-SiC[sub p] composites were also developed.

  2. Reinforcement and backpropagation training for an optical neural network using self-lensing effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Cabrera, A A; Yang, M; Cui, G; Behrman, E C; Steck, J E; Skinner, S R

    2000-01-01

    The optical bench training of an optical feedforward neural network, developed by the authors, is presented. The network uses an optical nonlinear material for neuron processing and a trainable applied optical pattern as the network weights. The nonlinear material, with the applied weight pattern, modulates the phase front of a forward propagating information beam by dynamically altering the index of refraction profile of the material. To verify that the network can be trained in real time, six logic gates were trained using a reinforcement training paradigm. More importantly, to demonstrate optical backpropagation, three gates were trained via optical error backpropagation. The output error is optically backpropagated, detected with a CCD camera, and the weight pattern is updated and stored on a computer. The obtained results lay the ground work for the implementation of multilayer neural networks that are trained using optical error backpropagation and are able to solve more complex problems.

  3. Haloperidol treatment with chronically medicated residents: dose effects on clinical behavior and reinforcement contingencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aman, M G; Teehan, C J; White, A J; Turbott, S H; Vaithianathan, C

    1989-01-01

    Twenty residents, most of whom had previously received neuroleptic maintenance therapy, were assessed in a double blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study of haloperidol. Haloperidol was administered in standardized doses of .025 and .05 mg/kg/day, for 3 weeks each. Clinical changes were confined to a slight reduction in ratings of stereotypic behavior and an increase in gross-motor activity under the high dose. Under reinforcement conditions, there was a marked tendency for instruction following performance to improve under the high dose condition. Subjects were divided according to degree of stereotypic behavior. Those with initially high levels of stereotypy tended to show a significantly more favorable response to haloperidol than did those with low levels of stereotypy.

  4. Effect of steel surface conditions on reinforcing steel corrosion in concrete exposed to marine environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anzola, E.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory methods and experimental tests were deployed in the present study to evaluate corrosion in reinforced concrete exposed to marine environments. Reinforcing steel exhibiting two different surface conditions prior to embedment in concrete were studied, one the one hand to assess the electrochemical behaviour of the bars during exposure of the concrete specimens to a simulated marine environment, and on the other to determine the strength of the steel/concrete bond. The reinforced concrete specimens prepared were adapted as required for electrochemical potential and corrosion rate testing. A total of 56 7x15-cm cylindrical specimens containing 3/8" steel rods anchored at a depth of 11.5 cm were made to evaluate the steel / concrete bond and exposed to a natural marine environment for 28 or 190 days prior to testing. All the specimens were made with ready-mixed concrete. It may be concluded from the results of the corrosion tests on reinforcing steel with different surface conditions that the oxide initially covering the bars was dissolved and the steel passivated by the alkalinity in the concrete. The chief finding of the bonding study was that the layer of oxide formed in pre-embedment steel deterioration contributed to establishing a better bond.

    En el contexto de esta investigación, se tomaron en consideración métodos y ensayos experimentales de laboratorio, que permiten hacer una evaluación de la corrosión del hormigón armado expuesto en ambientes marinos. Por una parte se evaluó el comportamiento electroquímico de dos condiciones de estados superficiales del acero embebido en el hormigón, exponiéndolo en un ambiente marino simulado y, por otra parte, se estudió la adherencia entre el acero y el hormigón, con los mismos estados superficiales usados para la evaluación electroquímica. Las probetas se fabricaron de hormigón con acero de refuerzo en su interior, adecuándolas para realizar los ensayos de potenciales

  5. Effect of water storage on the flexural strength of heat-cured denture base resin reinforced with stick (s glass fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit Galav

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Flexural strength (FS of denture base resins (DBRs had been improved by reinforcing it with different glass fibers. However, a limited data are available on the effect of glass fiber reinforcement with conventional heat-cured resin after prolonged water storage. Aims and Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the reinforcing effect of novel S-glass and nylon fibers on the FS of acrylic DBRs. It also aimed to evaluate the effect of glass fiber reinforcement on the FS of acrylic DBRs after a prolonged storage in water. Materials and Methods: One hundred and sixty identical specimens were fabricated in specially designed molds according to the manufacturer's instructions. The three experimental groups were prepared consisting of conventional (unreinforced acrylic resin, novel S-glass fiber-reinforced and nylon fiber-reinforced acrylic resin. The specimens were fabricated in a standardized fashion for each experimental group. Each group was further subdivided into two groups on the basis of storage conditions (dry and wet. FS was tested using a three-point universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 5 mm/min. Glass fiber-reinforced group was further tested after prolonged storage in distilled water. Entered data were statistically analyzed with one-way ANOVA and least significant difference post hoc test. Results: In this study, statistically significant differences were noted in the FS of all the groups. S-glass fiber-reinforced group had highest FS compared to the other two groups (P < 0.001. Nylon fiber-reinforced group had lowest FS. All the groups stored in distilled water revealed a decrease in strength compared to those stored in dry atmosphere. Among wet specimens, those stored for 3 weeks had a significantly higher FS than those stored at one and 2 weeks (P < 0.01. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this investigation, the FS of heat-cured acrylic DBR was improved after reinforcement with glass fibers. It can be

  6. Long term effects of aversive reinforcement on colour discrimination learning in free-flying bumblebees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A Rodríguez-Gironés

    Full Text Available The results of behavioural experiments provide important information about the structure and information-processing abilities of the visual system. Nevertheless, if we want to infer from behavioural data how the visual system operates, it is important to know how different learning protocols affect performance and to devise protocols that minimise noise in the response of experimental subjects. The purpose of this work was to investigate how reinforcement schedule and individual variability affect the learning process in a colour discrimination task. Free-flying bumblebees were trained to discriminate between two perceptually similar colours. The target colour was associated with sucrose solution, and the distractor could be associated with water or quinine solution throughout the experiment, or with one substance during the first half of the experiment and the other during the second half. Both acquisition and final performance of the discrimination task (measured as proportion of correct choices were determined by the choice of reinforcer during the first half of the experiment: regardless of whether bees were trained with water or quinine during the second half of the experiment, bees trained with quinine during the first half learned the task faster and performed better during the whole experiment. Our results confirm that the choice of stimuli used during training affects the rate at which colour discrimination tasks are acquired and show that early contact with a strongly aversive stimulus can be sufficient to maintain high levels of attention during several hours. On the other hand, bees which took more time to decide on which flower to alight were more likely to make correct choices than bees which made fast decisions. This result supports the existence of a trade-off between foraging speed and accuracy, and highlights the importance of measuring choice latencies during behavioural experiments focusing on cognitive abilities.

  7. A generalized matching law analysis of cocaine vs. food choice in rhesus monkeys: effects of candidate 'agonist-based' medications on sensitivity to reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutsell, Blake A; Negus, S Stevens; Banks, Matthew L

    2015-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated reductions in cocaine choice produced by either continuous 14-day phendimetrazine and d-amphetamine treatment or removing cocaine availability under a cocaine vs. food choice procedure in rhesus monkeys. The aim of the present investigation was to apply the concatenated generalized matching law (GML) to cocaine vs. food choice dose-effect functions incorporating sensitivity to both the relative magnitude and price of each reinforcer. Our goal was to determine potential behavioral mechanisms underlying pharmacological treatment efficacy to decrease cocaine choice. A multi-model comparison approach was used to characterize dose- and time-course effects of both pharmacological and environmental manipulations on sensitivity to reinforcement. GML models provided an excellent fit of the cocaine choice dose-effect functions in individual monkeys. Reductions in cocaine choice by both pharmacological and environmental manipulations were principally produced by systematic decreases in sensitivity to reinforcer price and non-systematic changes in sensitivity to reinforcer magnitude. The modeling approach used provides a theoretical link between the experimental analysis of choice and pharmacological treatments being evaluated as candidate 'agonist-based' medications for cocaine addiction. The analysis suggests that monoamine releaser treatment efficacy to decrease cocaine choice was mediated by selectively increasing the relative price of cocaine. Overall, the net behavioral effect of these pharmacological treatments was to increase substitutability of food pellets, a nondrug reinforcer, for cocaine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Shape Effect of Electrochemical Chloride Extraction in Structural Reinforced Concrete Elements Using a New Cement-Based Anodic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Carmona

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article shows the research carried out by the authors focused on how the shape of structural reinforced concrete elements treated with electrochemical chloride extraction can affect the efficiency of this process. Assuming the current use of different anode systems, the present study considers the comparison of results between conventional anodes based on Ti-RuO2 wire mesh and a cement-based anodic system such as a paste of graphite-cement. Reinforced concrete elements of a meter length were molded to serve as laboratory specimens, to closely represent authentic structural supports, with circular and rectangular sections. Results confirm almost equal performances for both types of anode systems when electrochemical chloride extraction is applied to isotropic structural elements. In the case of anisotropic ones, such as rectangular sections with no uniformly distributed rebar, differences in electrical flow density were detected during the treatment. Those differences were more extreme for Ti-RuO2 mesh anode system. This particular shape effect is evidenced by obtaining the efficiencies of electrochemical chloride extraction in different points of specimens.

  9. Geometrical Effect on Thermal Conductivity of Unidirectional Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Composite along Different In-plane Orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zenong; Li, Min; Wang, Shaokai; Li, Yanxia; Wang, Xiaolei; Gu, Yizhuo; Liu, Qianli; Tian, Jie; Zhang, Zuoguang

    2017-11-01

    This paper focuses on the anisotropic characteristics of the in-plane thermal conductivity of fiber-reinforced polymer composite based on experiment and simulation. Thermal conductivity along different in-plane orientations was measured by laser flash analysis (LFA) and steady-state heat flow method. Their heat transfer processes were simulated to reveal the geometrical effect on thermal conduction. The results show that the in-plane thermal conduction of unidirectional carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer composite is greatly influenced by the sample geometry at an in-plane orientation angle between 0° to 90°. By defining radius-to-thickness as a dimensionless shape factor for the LFA sample, the apparent thermal conductivity shows a dramatic change when the shape factor is close to the tangent of the orientation angle (tanθ). Based on finite element analysis, this phenomenon was revealed to correlate with the change of the heat transfer process. When the shape factor is larger than tanθ, the apparent thermal conductivity is consistent with the estimated value according to the theoretical model. For a sample with a shape factor smaller than tanθ, the apparent thermal conductivity shows a slow growth around a low value, which seriously deviates from the theory estimation. This phenomenon was revealed to correlate with the change of the heat transfer process from a continuous path to a zigzag path. These results will be helpful in optimizing the ply scheme of composite laminates for thermal management applications.

  10. Marginal accuracy and fracture strength of ceromer/fiber-reinforced composite crowns: effect of variations in preparation design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, LeeRa; Song, HoYong; Koak, JaiYoung; Heo, SeongJoo

    2002-10-01

    Targis/Vectris restorations provide excellent esthetics and clinical success; however, the relationship of their marginal accuracy and fracture strength to the tooth preparation design requires further investigation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of variations in tooth preparation design on the marginal accuracy before and after cementation and on the fracture strength of the ceromer/fiber reinforced composite crown. Three metal dies with varying total occlusal convergence angles (6 degrees, 10 degrees, 15 degrees) were prepared. A total of 30 (10 for each angle) Targis/Vectris crowns were fabricated. The restorations were evaluated at 48 points on the entire circumferential margin with a stereomicroscope measuring in micrometers for margin adaptation before and after cementation. The specimens then were compressively loaded to failure in a universal testing machine. Marginal adaptation was analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis test and post-hoc Dunnett test (alpha=0.05). The fracture strength was analyzed with analysis of variance and the Scheffe adjustment at the 95% significance level. Fracture surfaces of the crowns were examined with a scanning electron microscope to determine the mode of fracture. The smallest marginal gap was recorded in angled crowns with a 6-degree convergence (47 microm mean). The marginal gap of most (95.6%) of the crowns was within a clinically acceptable level (established as ceromer/fiber-reinforced composite crowns diminished their marginal gap and increased their fracture strength.

  11. Laboratory Investigation for the Effects of Using Fiber Reinforcement in Rigid Pavements on Compressive and Flexural Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abbas Jasim Alsabbagh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Rigid pavements provide durable service life and have remarkable application under heavy traffic loading. But, though the rigid pavements have several advantages, it suffers from some disadvantages that are relating with concrete is brittle material. One solution have been carried out in order to overcome this problem is using fibers reinforced to improve tensile strength and provides ductility. The main objective of this study is to investigating the effects of using fiber reinforced concrete (Polyvinyl alcohol and steel fiber in Rigid Pavements on Compressive and Flexural Properties. The study results shown the compressive strength has been increased by (20% when adding (0.5% of Polyvinyl alcohol concrete mixture. While modulus of elasticity has been decreasing by (23% when adding the same content of Polyvinyl alcohol. On the other hand, the study results show that using steel fiber (1.5% in concrete mixtures increase compressive strength by more than 145%.However modulus of elasticity slightly decrease. Also the addition of PVA fiber by 0.5% increase of about (51% in the Modulus of Rupture, while using steel fiber (1.5% increase Modulus of Rupture by more than (24%.

  12. [Effect of amount of silane coupling agent on flexural strength of dental composite resins reinforced with aluminium borate whisker].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ming-yi; Zhang, Xiu-yin

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of amount of silane coupling agent on flexural strength of dental composite resins reinforced with aluminium borate whisker (ABW). ABW was surface-treated with 0%, 1%, 2%, 3% and 4% silan coupling agent (γ-MPS), and mixed with resin matrix to synthesize 5 groups of composite resins. After heat-cured at 120 degrees centigrade for 1 h, specimens were tested in three-point flexure to measure strength according to ISO-4049. One specimen was selected randomly from each group and observed under scanning electron microscope (SEM). The data was analyzed with SAS 9.2 software package. The flexural strength (117.93±11.9 Mpa) of the group treated with 2% silane coupling agent was the highest, and significantly different from that of the other 4 groups (α=0.01). The amount of silane coupling agent has impact on the flexural strength of dental composite resins reinforced with whiskers; The flexual strength will be reduced whenever the amount is higher or lower than the threshold. Supported by Research Fund of Science and Technology Committee of Shanghai Municipality (08DZ2271100).

  13. Affect and the computer game player: the effect of gender, personality, and game reinforcement structure on affective responses to computer game-play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumbley, Justin; Griffiths, Mark

    2006-06-01

    Previous research on computer games has tended to concentrate on their more negative effects (e.g., addiction, increased aggression). This study departs from the traditional clinical and social learning explanations for these behavioral phenomena and examines the effect of personality, in-game reinforcement characteristics, gender, and skill on the emotional state of the game-player. Results demonstrated that in-game reinforcement characteristics and skill significantly effect a number of affective measures (most notably excitement and frustration). The implications of the impact of game-play on affect are discussed with reference to the concepts of "addiction" and "aggression."

  14. A Comparative Evaluation of Effect of Different Chemical Solvents on the Shear Bond Strength of Glass Fiber reinforced Post to Core Material

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Ashish; Samadi, Firoza; Jaiswal, JN; Saha, Sonali

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT% Aim: To compare the effect of different chemical solvents on glass fiber reinforced posts and to study the effect of these solvents on the shear bond strength of glass fiber reinforced post to core material. Materials and methods: This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of three chemical solvents, i.e. silane coupling agent, 6% H2O2 and 37% phosphoric acid on the shear bond strength of glass fiber post to a composite resin restorative material. The changes in post surface ch...

  15. Conditioned Reinforcement Value and Resistance to Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahan, Timothy A.; Podlesnik, Christopher A.

    2008-01-01

    Three experiments examined the effects of conditioned reinforcement value and primary reinforcement rate on resistance to change using a multiple schedule of observing-response procedures with pigeons. In the absence of observing responses in both components, unsignaled periods of variable-interval (VI) schedule food reinforcement alternated with…

  16. Prestressing Effects on the Performance of Concrete Beams with Near-surface-mounted Carbon-fiber-reinforced Polymer Bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sungnam; Park, Sun-Kyu

    2016-07-01

    The effects of various prestressing levels on the flexural behavior of concrete beams strengthened with prestressed near-surface-mounted (NSM) carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) bars were investigated in this study. Four-point flexural tests up to failure were performed using a total of six strengthened prestressed and nonprestressed concrete beams. The nonprestressed strengthened beam failed by premature debonding at the interface of concrete and the epoxy adhesive, but the prestressed one failed owing due to rupture of the CFRP bar. As the prestressing level of the CFRP bar increased, the cracking and yield loads of the prestressed beams increased, but its effect on their deflections was insignificant. The ultimate load was constant regardless of prestressing level, but the ultimate deflection was almost inversely proportional to the level.

  17. Study on the Reinforcement Measures and Control Effect of the Surrounding Rock Stability Based on the Shield Tunneling Under Overpass Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian-cheng Fang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available To study the stability of surrounding rocks for shield tunneling under overpass structures and the safety of existing bridge structures, a practical example of the method was cited through a shield tunneling project under the overpass structure between K1+110 and K1+700 on Line 2 of Shenyang Subway, China. The sub-area reinforcement was proposed according to surrounding rock deformation characteristics during shield tunnel excavation. The bridge foundation (i.e., the clear spacing to the shield tunnel is less than 2 m was reinforced by steel support, the bridge foundation (the clear spacing is about 2~7m used “jet grouting pile” reinforcement, whereas the bridge foundation (the clear spacing is greater than 7 m did not adopt any reinforcement measures for the moment. For this study, the mean value and material heterogeneity models were established to evaluate the reinforcement effect from several aspects, such as surrounding rock deformation, plastic zone development, and safety factor. The simulation results were consistent with those of field monitoring. After reinforcement, the maximum deformation values of the surrounding rock were reduced by 4.9%, 12.2%, and 48.46%, and the maximum values of surface subsidence were decreased by 5.6%, 72.2%, and 88.64%. By contrast, the overall safety factor was increased by 4.1%, 55.46%, and 55.46%. This study posited that this reinforcement method can be adopted to solve tunnel construction problems in engineering-geological conditions effectively. References for evaluating similar projects are provided.

  18. Immediate effects of scalp acupuncture with twirling reinforcing manipulation on hemiplegia following acute ischemic stroke: a hidden association study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-zheng Du

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Data mining has the potential to provide information for improving clinical acupuncture strategies by uncovering hidden rules between acupuncture manipulation and therapeutic effects in a data set. In this study, we performed acupuncture on 30 patients with hemiplegia due to acute ischemic stroke. All participants were pre-screened to ensure that they exhibited immediate responses to acupuncture. We used a twirling reinforcing acupuncture manipulation at the specific lines between the bilateral Baihui (GV20 and Taiyang (EX-HN5. We collected neurologic deficit score, simplified Fugl-Meyer assessment score, muscle strength of the proximal and distal hemiplegic limbs, ratio of the maximal H-reflex to the maximal M-wave (H max /M max , muscle tension at baseline and immediately after treatment, and the syndromes of traditional Chinese medicine at baseline. We then conducted data mining using an association algorithm and an artificial neural network backpropagation algorithm. We found that the twirling reinforcing manipulation had no obvious therapeutic difference in traditional Chinese medicine syndromes of "Deficiency and Excess". The change in the muscle strength of the upper distal and lower proximal limbs was one of the main factors affecting the immediate change in Fugl-Meyer scores. Additionally, we found a positive correlation between the muscle tension change of the upper limb and H max /M max immediate change, and both positive and negative correlations existed between the muscle tension change of the lower limb and immediate H max /M max change. Additionally, when the difference value of muscle tension for the upper and lower limbs was > 0 or < 0, the difference value of H max /M max was correspondingly positive or negative, indicating the scalp acupuncture has a bidirectional effect on muscle tension in hemiplegic limbs. Therefore, acupuncture with twirling reinforcing manipulation has distinct effects on acute ischemic stroke patients

  19. Mechanical properties of abaca fiber reinforced polypropylene composites: Effect of chemical treatment by benzenediazonium chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadevi Punyamurthy

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Untreated abaca fibers and benzenediazonium chloride treated abaca strands were employed as reinforcements for fabricating polypropylene composites by injection molding method. Various composites were fabricated with different fiber loadings of 30%, 35%, 40%, 45% and 50% with and without coupling agents. Abaca composites without coupling agents with 40% fiber loadings were found to have optimum properties when mechanical characterization was done and the investigation also revealed that untreated and treated composites with coupling agents were found to have improved tensile strength, flexural strength and impact strength when correlated to composites without coupling agents. Among various surface modifications performed, benzenediazonium chloride treated abaca strands reinforced polypropylene composites with coupling agents showed superior properties. For composites including coupling agents, surge in tensile strength and flexural strength was observed with hike in fiber content up to 50% whereas optimum impact properties were shown at 40% fiber loading. Between untreated composites with coupling agent and without coupling agent, composites with coupling agent showed 77.50% hike in tensile strength for 50% fiber loading. Benzenediazonium chloride treated composites with coupling agent showed 70.07% increase in tensile strength when compared to benzenediazonium chloride treated composites without coupling agent for 50% fiber loading. Untreated composites with coupling agent showed 64.91% increase in flexural strength when compared to untreated composites without coupling agent for 50% fiber loading. Benzenediazonium chloride treated composites with coupling agent showed 36.84% increase in flexural strength when compared to benzenediazonium chloride treated composites without coupling agent for 50% fiber loading. However, in case of impact strength, addition of coupling agent increased the impact strength up to 35% fiber loading and beyond 35

  20. Investigating the interactive role of stressful life events, reinforcement sensitivity and personality traits in prediction of the severity of Multiple Sclerosis (MS symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Multiple sclerosis is a chronic neurological condition recognized by demyelination in the central nervous system. The present study was conducted to investigate the interactive role of stressful life events, reinforcement sensitivity, and personality traits in prediction of the severity of symptoms of Multiple sclerosis (MS symptoms. Materials & Methods: This is a correlational study whose statistical population consisted of all the patients suffering from Multiple Sclerosis in Shiraz in the first half of 1394, among whom 162 patients were included in this research by means of purposive sampling method. Five-Factor Personality Inventory, Jackson Personality Inventory, Stressful Life Events Scale, and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS were utilised as research tools. In order to analyze the data, descriptive and inferential methods were used. The data were analysed using Pearson correlation and hierarchical regression. Results: The findings revealed that stressful life events (β = 0.41, p <0.001, Behavioral Inhibition System (β = 0.26, p<0.05, and neuroticism index (β = 0.92, p <0.05 were able to predict variance of scores of the severity of symptoms of Multiple Sclerosis significantly. Conclusion: Stressful life events, Behavioral Inhibition System, and neuroticism showed a significant relationship with the severity of symptoms of Multiple Sclerosis; thus, it seems that interaction of personality traits and environmental conditions are among influential factors of the severity of symptoms of Multiple Sclerosis. This fact implies that individuals' personal traits play an eminent role in the progression of the disease.

  1. Response Blocking with Guided Compliance and Reinforcement for a Habilitative Replacement Behavior: Effects on Public Masturbation and On-Task Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufrene, Brad A.; Watson, T. Steuart; Weaver, Adam

    2005-01-01

    There is limited empirical research regarding effective treatment for public masturbation. In the current study, the relative and combined effects of reinforcement of an incompatible habilitative replacement behavior and response blocking with guided compliance on masturbation and on-task behavior were evaluated for a seven year-old…

  2. The Effects of the Absence of an Adult on the Emergence of Conditioned Reinforcement as a Function of Observation in Preschool Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zrinzo, Michelle L.

    2010-01-01

    I tested the effects of the absence of an adult on the observational conditioning effect (Greer & Singer-Dudek, 2008). Neutral stimuli (metal washers) did not function to reinforce performance or learning tasks for three preschool age children as determined by a counterbalanced reversal design for the pre-intervention performance tasks and…

  3. Resistance to impact of cross-linked denture base biopolymer materials: effect of relining, glass flakes reinforcement and cyclic loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cruz Perez, Luciano Elias; Lucia Machado, Ana; Eduardo Vergani, Carlos; Andrade Zamperini, Camila; Cláudia Pavarina, Ana; Vicente Canevarolo, Sebastião

    2014-09-01

    The effect of reinforcement and cyclic loading on the resistance to impact (RI) of denture base biopolymer materials was evaluated using Charpy (C) and falling-weight (FW) impact tests. Bar-shaped (60×6×2mm(3)) and denture-shaped specimens (2mm) for the C and FD tests, respectively, were prepared with Lucitone 550 (L) and Vipi Wave (V) and relined (2mm) using the same material or the autopolymerizing relining resins Tokuyama Rebase II (T) and Ufi Gel Hard (U). Bulk specimens (60×6×4mm(3)) of all materials (L, V, T and U) were also prepared and tested. To evaluate the effect of reinforcement, glass flakes were added to the powder of the relining resins T and U (5% by weight). Half of bar-shaped (n=320) and half of the denture-shaped specimens (n=480) were subjected to cyclic loading (10,000 cycles) before the impact tests. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVAs (α=0.05) and revealed that the RI of L and V were comparable and higher than those of U and T. Compared to L and V, the RI was increased by relining with T and decreased by relining with U. When relining was made using the same material (L and V) the RI was maintained. Flexural cyclic loading and the incorporation of glass flakes into the resins T and U did not cause any significant alteration in the RI. A high correlation between results from C and FW tests was observed (r=0.8854). Relining may exert effects on the RI of L and V denture base resins, which vary according to the relining material used. The high correlation between C and FW, suggests that the Charpy test, using bar-shaped specimens, can be a simple and reliable method for evaluating factors that may influence the RI of denture base polymers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Attention-gated reinforcement learning of internal representations for classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelfsema, Pieter R; van Ooyen, Arjen

    2005-10-01

    Animal learning is associated with changes in the efficacy of connections between neurons. The rules that govern this plasticity can be tested in neural networks. Rules that train neural networks to map stimuli onto outputs are given by supervised learning and reinforcement learning theories. Supervised learning is efficient but biologically implausible. In contrast, reinforcement learning is biologically plausible but comparatively inefficient. It lacks a mechanism that can identify units at early processing levels that play a decisive role in the stimulus-response mapping. Here we show that this so-called credit assignment problem can be solved by a new role for attention in learning. There are two factors in our new learning scheme that determine synaptic plasticity: (1) a reinforcement signal that is homogeneous across the network and depends on the amount of reward obtained after a trial, and (2) an attentional feedback signal from the output layer that limits plasticity to those units at earlier processing levels that are crucial for the stimulus-response mapping. The new scheme is called attention-gated reinforcement learning (AGREL). We show that it is as efficient as supervised learning in classification tasks. AGREL is biologically realistic and integrates the role of feedback connections, attention effects, synaptic plasticity, and reinforcement learning signals into a coherent framework.

  5. Effect of monomer composition of polymer matrix on flexural properties of glass fibre-reinforced orthodontic archwire

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ohtonen, J; Vallittu, P K; Lassila, L V J

    2013-01-01

    To compare force levels obtained from glass fibre-reinforced composite (FRC) archwires. Specifically, FRC wires were compared with polymer matrices having different dimethacrylate monomer compositions...

  6. Effect of mechanical alloying on FeCrC reinforced Ni alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilmaz, S. Osman [Univ. of Namik Kemal, Tekirdag (Turkey); Teker, Tanju [Adiyaman Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering; Demir, Fatih [Batman Univ. (Turkey)

    2016-05-01

    Mechanical alloying (MA) is a powder metallurgy processing technique involving cold welding, fracturing and rewelding of powder particles in a high-energy ball mill. In the present study, the intermetallic matrix composites (IMCs) of Ni-Al reinforced by M{sub 7}C{sub 3} were produced by powder metallurgical routes via solid state reaction of Ni, Al and M{sub 7}C{sub 3} particulates by mechanical alloying processes. Ni, Al and M{sub 7}C{sub 3} powders having 100 μm were mixed, mechanical alloyed and the compacts were combusted in a furnace. The mechanically alloyed (MAed) powders were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), microhardness measurement, optic microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). The presence of the carbides depressed the formation of unwanted NiAl intermetallic phases. The mechanical alloyed M{sub 7}C{sub 3} particles were unstable and decomposed partially within the matrix during alloying and sintering, and the morphology of the composites changed with the dissolution ratio of M{sub 7}C{sub 3} and sintering temperature.

  7. The effectiveness of reinforced feedback in virtual environment in the first 12 months after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiper, Paweł; Piron, Lamberto; Turolla, Andrea; Stożek, Joanna; Tonin, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Reinforced feedback in virtual environment (RFVE) therapy is emerging as an innovative method in rehabilitation, which may be advantageous in the treatment of the affected arm after stroke. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of assisted motor training in a virtual environment for the treatment of the upper extremity (UE) after stroke compared to traditional neuromotor rehabilitation (TNR), studying also if differences exist related to the type of stroke (haemorrhagic or ischaemic). Eighty patients affected by a stroke (48 ischaemic and 32 haemorrhagic) that occurred at least 1 year before were enrolled. The clinical assessment comprising the Fugl-Meyer UE (F-M UE), modified Ashworth (Bohannon and Smith) and Functional Independence Measure scale (FIM) was administered before and after the treatment. A statistically significant difference between RFVE and TNR groups (Mann-Whitney U-test) was observed in the clinical outcomes of F-M UE and FIM (both p training, in both post-ischaemic and post-haemorrhagic groups. We observed improvements in both groups of patients: post-haemorrhagic and post-ischaemic stroke after RFVE training.

  8. Effect of Different Matrix Compositions and Micro Steel Fibers on Tensile Behavior of Textile Reinforced Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, J.; Sharifi, I.; Andalibi, K.; Kasaei, J.

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents results of a research on uniaxial tensile behavior of textile reinforced concrete (TRC) prepared with different matrix compositions containing different contents of micro steel fibers. TRC exhibits very favorable stress-strain behavior, high Load-carrying capacity and a certain ductility which results in a strain-hardening behavior. At this paper, different Glass-TRCs were prepared using different commonly used normal and also innovative matrix compositions containing different volume fractions of micro steel fibers. Three commonly used matrices, a polymer-based composite and also a UHPC mixture were prepared containing different percentages of micro steel fibers. The direct tensile tests were applied on all specimens to study the tensile properties (first crack stress and ultimate tensile strength) and strain-hardening behavior. Considering the stress-strain curves of all specimens, it has been found that the tensile properties and strain-hardening behavior of Glass-TRC can be considerably improved by using steel micro fibers in an appropriate matrix composition.

  9. Effect of Filler Loading on Mechanical and Tribological Properties of Wood Apple Shell Reinforced Epoxy Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ojha Shakuntala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last century, natural fibers and particulates are used as reinforcement in polymer composite that has been continuously growing in the composite industry. This polymer matrix composite has wide range of applications in hostile environment where they are exposed to external attacks such as solid particle erosion. Also, the mechanical properties of different polymer composites show the best alternate to replace the metal material. In the present investigation, an attempt has been made to improve the mechanical and tribological behaviour of polymer matrix composite using wood apple shell particles as a filler material in polymer matrix. Also the temperature variation of the dynamic-mechanical parameters of epoxy matrix composites incorporated with 5, 10, 15, and 20 wt% of wood apple shell particles was investigated by DMA test. It is clearly observed that the incorporation of wood apple shell particles tends to increase the tensile strength, flexural strength, erosive wear resistance, and viscoelastic stiffness of the polymer composite. To validate the results, SEM of the polymer matrix composite has been studied.

  10. Effect of Cold-Drawn Fibers on the Self-Reinforcement of PP/LDPE Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying-Guo; Su, Bei; Wu, Hai-Hong

    2017-08-01

    In our previous study, a method to fabricate super-ductile polypropylene/low-density polyethylene (PP/LDPE) blends was proposed, and a fiber-shape structure was shown to be formed, presenting necking propagation during tensile testing. In this study, the mechanical properties and thermal behavior of the necking region of tested super-ductile PP/LDPE samples were carefully investigated and further compared with the melt-stretched, untested, and thermo-mechanical-history-removed samples by differential scanning calorimetry and tensile testing. The results suggest that the tested samples have high mechanical properties and are more thermo-mechanically stable than the common PP/LDPE blends and melt-stretched samples. Additionally, to investigate their structure-property relationship, the necking region of the tested samples was further characterized by scanning electron microscopy and hot-stage polarized light microscopy. It can be concluded that the variation of the microstructure can be attributed to the cold-drawn fibers (CDFs), which were more stable thermally, formed during the tensile test. Furthermore, the CDFs were used for the filler in PP/LDPE blends. The experimental results of the different PP/LDPE composites indicate that the CDFs are a good reinforcement candidate and have the ability to improve the mechanical properties of the PP/LDPE blends.

  11. Effect of Material Variability and Mechanical Eccentricity on the Seismic Vulnerability Assessment of Reinforced Concrete Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Lucio Puppio

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the influence of material variability on the seismic vulnerability assessment of reinforced concrete buildings. Existing r.c. buildings are affected by a strong dispersion of material strengths of both the base materials. This influences the seismic response in linear and nonlinear static analysis. For this reason, it is useful to define a geometrical parameter called “material eccentricity”. As a reference model, an analysis of a two storey building is presented with a symmetrical plan but asymmetrical material distribution. Furthermore, an analysis of two real buildings with a similar issue is performed. Experimental data generate random material distributions to carry out a probabilistic analysis. By rotating the vector that defines the position of the center of strength it is possible to describe a strength domain that is characterized by equipotential lines in terms of the Risk Index. Material eccentricity is related to the Ultimate Shear of non-linear static analyses. This relevant uncertainty, referred to as the variation of the center of strength, is not considered in the current European and Italian Standards. The “material eccentricity” therefore reveals itself to be a relevant parameter to considering how material variability affects such a variation.

  12. Effect of nanocellulose isolation techniques on the formation of reinforced poly(vinyl alcohol nanocomposite films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Y. Zhan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Three techniques including acid hydrolysis (AH, 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical (TEMPO-mediated oxidation (TMO and ultrasonication (US were introduced to isolate nanocellulose from microcrystalline cellulose, in order to reinforce poly(vinyl alcohol (PVA films. Important differences were noticed in fiber quality of nanocellulose and film properties of PVA nanocomposite films. The TMO treatment was more efficient in nanocellulose isolation with higher aspect ratio, surface charge (–47 mV and yields (37%. While AH treatment resulted in higher crystallinity index (88.1% and better size dispersion. The fracture surface, thermal behavior and mechanical properties of the PVA nanocomposite films were investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and tensile testing. The results showed that both the TMO-derived and AH-derived nanocellulose could be dispersed homogeneously in the PVA matrices. AH/PVA films had higher elongation at break (51.59% at 6 wt% nanocellulose loading as compared with TMO/PVA, while TMO/PVA films shown superior tensile modulus and strength with increments of 21.5% and 10.2% at 6wt% nanocellulose loading. The thermal behavior of the PVA nanocomposite films was higher improved with TMO-derived nanofibrils addition.

  13. Experimental Investigations on Effect of Damage on Vibration Characteristics of a Reinforced Concrete Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, V.; Jeyasehar, C. Antony; Ramanjaneyulu, K.; Sasmal, Saptarshi

    2012-02-01

    Need for developing efficient non-destructive damage assessment procedures for civil engineering structures is growing rapidly towards structural health assessment and management of existing structures. Damage assessment of structures by monitoring changes in the dynamic properties or response of the structure has received considerable attention in recent years. In the present study, damage assessment studies have been carried out on a reinforced concrete beam by evaluating the changes in vibration characteristics with the changes in damage levels. Structural damage is introduced by static load applied through a hydraulic jack. After each stage of damage, vibration testing is performed and system parameters were evaluated from the measured acceleration and displacement responses. Reduction in fundamental frequencies in first three modes is observed for different levels of damage. It is found that a consistent decrease in fundamental frequency with increase in damage magnitude is noted. The beam is numerically simulated and found that the vibration characteristics obtained from the measured data are in close agreement with the numerical data.

  14. Effect of Particle Size on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Al-Based Composite Reinforced with 10 Vol.% Mechanically Alloyed Mg-7.4%Al Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil K. Chaubey

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Mg-7.4%Al reinforcement particle size on the microstructure and mechanical properties in pure Al matrix composites was investigated. The samples were prepared by hot consolidation using 10 vol.% reinforcement in different size ranges, D, 0 < D < 20 µm (0–20 µm, 20 ≤ D < 40 µm (20–40 µm, 40 ≤ D < 80 µm (40–80 µm and 80 ≤ D < 100 µm (80–100 µm. The result reveals that particle size has a strong influence on the yield strength, ultimate tensile strength and percentage elongation. As the particle size decreases from 80 ≤ D < 100 µm to 0 < D < 20 µm, both tensile strength and ductility increases from 195 MPa to 295 MPa and 3% to 4% respectively, due to the reduced ligament size and particle fracturing. Wear test results also corroborate the size effect, where accelerated wear is observed in the composite samples reinforced with coarse particles.

  15. Evolutionary computation for reinforcement learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Whiteson, S.; Wiering, M.; van Otterlo, M.

    2012-01-01

    Algorithms for evolutionary computation, which simulate the process of natural selection to solve optimization problems, are an effective tool for discovering high-performing reinforcement-learning policies. Because they can automatically find good representations, handle continuous action spaces,

  16. Effects of role variables on job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, E C

    1998-01-01

    This study examines the effects of role variables on job satisfaction among physician and non-physician executives in hospital settings. Positive relationships were found for both groups between role variables and job satisfaction. The results indicate that role variables have a significant effect on stress, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment in the physician executive and the non-physician health care executive. On a theoretical level, this research allowed for an extended test of role theory, specifically as it applies to the management of health care. The implications of these findings for role theory and the physician executive are discussed. Since this study is of an exploratory nature, it offers new insights into the field of health care management, and the physician's role as the executive.

  17. Effect of S-glass fabric on the mechanical characteristics of a hybrid carbon/aramid fabric reinforced epoxy composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaadi, Mohamad; Erkliğ, Ahmet; Alrawi, Humam

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the hybridization effects of intraply carbon/aramid fabric layers with S-glass fabric layers on the tensile and flexural behavior of asymmetric and symmetric arrangements of hybrid composite laminates. The results revealed that the replacement of some carbon/aramid fiber layers with S-glass fiber layers in the composite laminate can provide enhancements in tensile strain, tensile modulus and flexural properties while the tensile strength results were slightly degraded. Three-point bending test results indicated a significant improvement in flexural properties when S-glass fibers employed in compressive side across the depth of composite laminates. The maximum increment in tensile modulus, flexural modulus and flexural strength of hybrid composite laminates were 19.7%, 50.0% and 42.3%, respectively compared to carbon/aramid fiber reinforced epoxy composite.

  18. MESH SIZE EFFECTS IN NONLINEAR DYNAMIC 3D-ANALYSIS OF REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAM UNDER IMPACT LOADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar Saleem K.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Theinvestigation into the effect of mesh size in nonlinear 3D-analysis ofreinforced concrete beam under dynamic load presents in this paper. Thebehavior of reinforced concrete beam under dynamic loads are supported byintensive numerical simulations, and  theeffect of  various parameters on theresults is of great interest. Finite element simulations were performed in thenonlinear dynamic domain with modified concrete and steel constitutive models.To eliminate the dependence of the computed results on the mesh size, a  procedure for calculating the ultimate tensilestrain of concrete was developed and implemented into nonlinear dynamicanalysis. The proposed model gives good agreement  with the experimental results. In particular,the new  model can be used effectivelywith relatively mesh size in reasonable accuracy.

  19. Token reinforcement in the psychosocial rehabilitation of individuals with chronic mental illness: is it effective over time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimmerman, A; Finn, H; Schnee, J; Klein, I

    1991-01-01

    The main purpose of this project was to determine whether the addition of the token economy reinforcement to the regular treatment modalities (medication therapy and psychotherapy) improved the following outcome measures: re-hospitalization rate. NYPCC (agency) therapeutic goals, symptomatology, social integration activities and ADL skills. The research was carried out over a period of 18 months. Subjects were 617 individuals diagnosed as having chronic mental illness. They lived in three adult homes in New York, two of which were on a token economy programme, while the third served as a quasi-control group. The findings suggest that while medication therapy and psychotherapy have different effects in respect to the various outcome measures, the addition of the token economy programme resulted in positive, albeit marginal, gains to all outcome measures.

  20. Effects of ethanol on cocaine self-administration in monkeys responding under a second-order schedule of reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, William S; Nader, Michael A

    2017-01-01

    Concurrent alcohol use among cocaine abusers is common but the behavioral variables that promote co-abuse are not well understood. The present study examined the effects of intragastric (i.g.) ethanol (EtOH) administration in monkeys responding under a schedule of cocaine reinforcement in which extensive drug seeking was maintained by conditioned stimuli. Four adult male cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were trained to respond under a second-order fixed-interval (FI) 600s (fixed-ratio (FR) 30:S) schedule of cocaine (0.003-0.56mg/kg/injection) presentation. Sessions ended after 5 injections or 90min had elapsed. Different EtOH doses (0.5-2.0g/kg, i.g.) were administered 30min before the session, typically on Tuesdays and Fridays. Blood ethanol concentrations (BECs) were also assessed. Pattern of FI responding was assessed by determining quarter-life (QL) values. Cocaine self-administration was characterized as an inverted U-shaped function of dose; QL values increased monotonically with dose. EtOH pretreatments dose-dependently decreased self-administration at several cocaine doses in 3 of 4 monkeys. In one animal, EtOH increased low-dose cocaine-maintained responding. For all monkeys, QL values were increased by EtOH when low- and high-cocaine doses were self-administered, suggesting additive effects of EtOH and cocaine. Furthermore, BECs were not altered following cocaine self-administration. The reductions in cocaine self-administration and the increases in QL values following EtOH, suggest that EtOH was enhancing cocaine-related conditioned reinforcement. A better understanding of the behavioral mechanisms that mediate the co-abuse of alcohol and cocaine will lead to improved treatments for both drugs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The effect of silica fume and metakaolin on glass-fibre reinforced concrete (GRC ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enfedaque Díaz, A.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The deterioration of the mechanical properties of glassfibre reinforced concrete (GRC over time rules out the use of this material in load-bearing structures. While one possible solution to this problem is the addition of pozzolans or metakaolin to the cement mortar, the amounts needed to ensure GRC integrity raise its price to non-competitive levels. Experimental research has been conducted to analyze whether the addition of small amounts of silica fume or metakaolin can prevent or mitigate the ageing issue. Unfortunately, the findings indicate that the addition of small proportions of metakaolin or silica fume to GRC are ineffective in improving its long-term performance.

    Para el uso del mortero de cemento reforzado con fibras de vidrio (GRC en estructuras portantes se han de solucionar los problemas de reducción de las propiedades mecánicas que aparecen con el paso del tiempo. Estos problemas pueden ser solucionados mediante la adición de puzolanas o de metacaolín, a la pasta de mortero de cemento. Sin embargo, la cantidad de metacaolín que ha de ser añadida es elevada y el precio del GRC fabricado está fuera del mercado. Se ha realizado una campaña experimental que analiza si la adición de humo de sílice o de metacaolín en proporciones reducidas consigue evitar o paliar el problema del envejecimiento, que supone un freno al uso del GRC en elementos estructurales. Desgraciadamente, los resultados experimentales muestran que proporciones bajas de metacaolín o de humo de sílice no son efectivas para reducir el problema de pérdida de propiedades mecánicas.

  2. Effect of Alkali-Silica Reaction on Shear Strength of Reinforced Concrete Structural Members

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hariri-Ardebili, Mohammad [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Saouma, Victor [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Le Pape, Yann [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Alkali-silica reaction (ASR) was discovered in the early 40s by Stanton (1940) of the California Division of Highways. Since, it has been recognized as a major degradation mechanism for concrete dams and transportation infrastructures. Sometimes described as the ’cancer of concrete’, this internal swelling mechanism causes expansion, cracking and loss of mechanical properties. There are no known economically viable solutions applicable to massive concrete to prevent the reaction once initiated. The e ciency of the mitigation strategies for ASR subjected structures is limited. Several cases of ASR in nuclear generating stations have been disclosed in Japan (Takatura et al. 2005), Canada at Gentilly 2 NPP (Tcherner and Aziz 2009) 1, and more recently, in the United States for which the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission issued Information Notice (IN) 2011-20, ’Concrete Degradation by Alkali Silica Reaction,’ on November 18, 2011, to provide the industry with information related to the ASR identified at Seabrook. Considering that US commercial reactors in operation enter the age when ASR degradation can be visually detected and that numerous non nuclear infrastructures (transportation, energy production) have already experienced ASR in a large majority of the States (e.g., Department of Transportation survey reported by Touma (Touma 2000)), the susceptibility and significance of ASR for nuclear concrete structures must be addressed in the perspective of license renewal and long-term operation beyond 60 years. The aim of this report is to perform an extensive parametric series of 3D nonlinear finite element analyses of three di erent “beam-like” geometries, including two di erent depths, three di erent types of boundary conditions, and four other parameters: namely, the ASR volumetric expansion, the reinforcement ratio, the loss of elastic modulus induced by ASR and the loss of tensile strength caused by ASR.

  3. EFFECT OF ACCELERATED WEATHERING ON TENSILE PROPERTIES OF KENAF REINFORCED HIGH-DENSITY POLYETHYLENE COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umar A.H.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Umar A.H1, Zainudin E.S1,2 and Sapuan S.M.1,21Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing EngineeringFaculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra MalaysiaSelangor, Malaysia.2Biocomposite LaboratoryInstitute of Tropical Forestry and Forest Product (INTROPUniversiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia.Email: umarhanan@yahoo.com ABSTRACTIn this study, a high-density polyethylene composite reinforced with kenaf (Hibiscus Cannabinus L. bast fibres (K-HDPE was fabricated and tested for durability with regard to weather elements. The material consists of 40% (by weight fibres and 60% matrix. Other additives, such as ultraviolet (UV stabiliser and maleic anhydride grafted polyethylene (MaPE as a coupling agent were added to the composite material. The biocomposite was subjected to 1000 hours (h of accelerated weathering tests, which consisted of heat, moisture and UV light, intended to imitate the outdoor environment. The tensile properties of the K-HDPE composite were recorded after 0, 200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 h of exposure to the accelerated weathering. Compared with neat high-density polyethylene (HDPE, the K-HDPE composite has 22.7% lower tensile strength when produced but displays a less rapid rate of strength deterioration under weathering (After 1000 h of exposure the tensile strength of K-HDPE drops 29.4%, whereas, for neat HDPE, it falls rapidly by 36%. Due to better stiffness, the Young’s modulus of the K-HDPE composite is much higher than that of neat HDPE. The fibres on the surface of the K-HDPE composite gradually start to whiten after 200 h of exposure and become completely white after 600 h of exposure. For neat HDPE, micro-cracking on the surface can be observed after 200 h of exposure and the stress-strain curve obtained from the tensile test indicates its increase in brittleness proportional to the amount of weathering time.

  4. Reinforcement of frontal affinity chromatography for effective analysis of lectin-oligosaccharide interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirabayashi, J; Arata, Y; Kasai, K

    2000-08-25

    Frontal affinity chromatography is a method for quantitative analysis of biomolecular interactions. We reinforced it by incorporating various merits of a contemporary liquid chromatography system. As a model study, the interaction between an immobilized Caenorhabditis elegans galectin (LEC-6) and fluorescently labeled oligosaccharides (pyridylaminated sugars) was analyzed. LEC-6 was coupled to N-hydroxysuccinimide-activated Sepharose 4 Fast Flow (100 microm diameter), and packed into a miniature column (e.g., 10 x 4.0 mm, 0.126 ml). Twelve pyridylaminated oligosaccharides were applied to the column through a 2-ml sample loop, and their elution patterns were monitored by fluorescence. The volume of the elution front (V) determined graphically for each sample was compared with that obtained in the presence of an excess amount of hapten saccharide, lactose (V0); and the dissociation constant, Kd, was calculated according to the literature [K. Kasai, Y. Oda, M. Nishikawa, S. Ishii, J. Chromatogr. 376 (1986) 33]. This system also proved to be useful for an inverse confirmation; that is, application of galectins to an immobilized glycan column (in the present case, asialofetuin was immobilized on Sepharose 4 Fast Flow), and the elution profiles were monitored by fluorescence based on tryptophan. The relative affinity of various galectins for asialofetuin could be easily compared in terms of the extent of retardation. The newly constructed system proved to be extremely versatile. It enabled rapid (analysis time 12 min/cycle) and sensitive (20 nM for pyridylaminated derivatives, and 1 microg/ml for protein) analyses of lectin-carbohydrate interactions. It should become a powerful tool for elucidation of biomolecular interactions, in particular for functional analysis of a large number of proteins that should be the essential issues of post-genome projects.

  5. Mechanical effect of static loading on endodontically treated teeth restored with fiber-reinforced posts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chieruzzi, Manila; Rallini, Marco; Pagano, Stefano; Eramo, Stefano; D'Errico, Potito; Torre, Luigi; Kenny, José M

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanical behavior of a dental system built up with fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) endodontic posts with different types of fibers and two cements (the first one used with a primer, the second one without it). Six FRC posts were used. Each system was characterized in terms of structural efficiency under external applied loads similar to masticatory forces. An oblique force was applied and stiffness and maximum load data were obtained. The same test was used for the dentine. The systems were analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) to investigate the surface of the post and inner surface of root canal after failure. The mechanical tests showed that load values in dental systems depend on the post material and used cement. The highest load (281 ± 59 N) was observed for the conical glass fiber posts in the cement without primer. There was a 50 and 85% increase in the maximum load for two of the conical posts with glass fibers and a 229% increase for the carbon fiber posts in the cement without primer as compared with the cement with primer. Moreover, almost all the studied systems showed fracture resistances higher than the typical masticatory loads. The microscopic analysis underlined the good adhesion of the second cement at the interfaces between dentine and post. The mechanical tests confirmed that the strength of the dental systems subjected to masticatory loads was strictly related to the bond at the interface post/cement and cement/dentine. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. The Effects of Corrosive Chemicals on Corrosion Rate of Steel Reinforcement Bars: I. Swamp Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulistyoweni Widanarko

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Most of infrastructures using steel concrete to reinforce the strength of concrete. Steel concrete is so vulnerable to chemical compounds that can cause corrosion. It can happen due to the presence of chemical compounds in acid environment in low pH level. These chemical compounds are SO42-, Cl-, NO3-. There are many swamp area in Indonesia. The acid contents and the concentration of ion sulphate, chlorides, and nitrate are higher in the swamp water than in the ground water .The objective of this research was to find out the influence of corrosive chemicals in the swamp water to the steel concrete corrosion rate. There were two treatment used: (1 emerging ST 37 and ST 60 within 60 days in the 'polluted' swamp water, (2 moving the ST 37 up and down periodically in the ' polluted' swamp water. Three variation of 'polluted' swamp water were made by increasing the concentration of corrosive chemical up to 1X, 5X and 10X respectively. The corrosion rate was measured by using an Immersion Method. The result of Immersion test showed that chloride had the greatest influence to corrosion rate of ST 37 and ST 60 and followed by sulphate and Nitrate. Corrosion rate value for ST 37 is 24.29 mpy and for ST 60 is 22.76 mpy. By moving the sample up and down, the corrosion rate of ST 37 increase up to 37.59 mpy, and chloride still having the greatest influence, followed by sulphate and nitrate.

  7. Domino Effect: mechanic factors role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardi, Alfredo; Tarantino, Umberto; Ventura, Lorenzo; Armotti, Pierantonio; Resmini, Giuseppina; Cozzi, Luisella; Tonini, Greta; Ramazzina, Emilio; Rossini, Maurizio

    2011-01-01

    Summary The rapid onset of the Domino Effect following the first Vertebral Compression Fracture is a direct consequence of the mechanical variations that affect the spine when physiological curves are modified. The degree of kyphosis influences the intensity of the Flexor Moment; this is greater on vertebrae D7, D8 and on vertebrae D12, L1 when the spine flexes. Fractures of D7, D8, D12 and L1 are, by far, the most frequent and also the main cause of the mechanical alterations that can trigger the Domino Effect. For these considerations vertebrae D7, D8, D12 and L1 have to be taken in consideration as “critical". In the case of critical clinical vertebral fractures it is useful to provide an indication for minimally invasive surgical reduction or intrasomatic stabilization. When occurs a fracture of a “critical vertebra”, prompt restoration of the heights leads to a reduction in the Kyphosis Index and therefore in the Flexor Moment, not only of the fractured vertebra but also, in turn, of all the other metameres which, even if morphologically still intact, are structurally fragile; so, through the restoration of the mechanical vertebral proprieties, we can reduce the risk of the Domino Effect. At the same time the prompt implementation of osteoinductive therapy is indispensable in order to achieve rapid and intense reconstruction of the trabecular bone, the strength of which increases significantly in a short period of time. Clinical studies are necessary to confirm the reduction of the domino effect following a fragility fracture of "critical vertebrae" with the restoration of the mechanical properties together with anabolic therapy. PMID:22461815

  8. Elucidating the Biological Basis for the Reinforcing Actions of Alcohol in the Mesolimbic Dopamine System: The Role of Active Metabolites of Alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald A Deehan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of successful pharmacotherapeutics for the treatment of alcoholism is predicated upon understanding the biological action of alcohol. A limitation of the alcohol research field has been examining the effects of alcohol only and ignoring the multiple biological active metabolites of alcohol. The concept that alcohol is a ‘pro-drug’ is not new. Alcohol is readily metabolized to acetaldehyde within the brain. Acetaldehyde is a highly reactive compound that forms a number of condensation products, including salsolinol and iso-salsolinol (acetaldehyde and dopamine. Recent experiments have established that numerous metabolites of ethanol do have direct CNS action, and could, in part or whole, mediate the reinforcing actions of alcohol within the mesolimbic dopamine system. The mesolimbic dopamine system originates in the ventral tegmental area (VTA and projects to forebrain regions that include the nucleus accumbens (Acb and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC and is thought to be the neurocircuitry governing the rewarding properties of drugs of abuse. Within this neurocircuitry there is convincing evidence that; 1 biologically active metabolites of alcohol can directly or indirectly increase the activity of VTA dopamine neurons, 2 alcohol and alcohol metabolites are reinforcing within the mesolimbic dopamine system, 3 inhibiting the alcohol metabolic pathway inhibits the biological consequences of alcohol exposure, 4 alcohol consumption can be reduced by inhibiting/attenuating the alcohol metabolic pathway in the mesolimbic dopamine system, 5 alcohol metabolites can alter neurochemical levels within the mesolimbic dopamine system, and 6 alcohol interacts with alcohol metabolites to enhance the actions of both compounds. The data indicate that there is a positive relationship between alcohol and alcohol metabolites in regulating the biological consequences of consuming alcohol and the potential of alcohol use escalating to

  9. The Curriculum-Faculty-Reinforcement Alignment and Its Effect on Learning Retention of Core Marketing Concepts of Marketing Capstone Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raska, David; Keller, Eileen Weisenbach; Shaw, Doris

    2014-01-01

    Curriculum-Faculty-Reinforcement (CFR) alignment is an alignment between fundamental marketing concepts that are integral to the mastery of knowledge expected of our marketing graduates, their perceived importance by the faculty, and their level of reinforcement throughout core marketing courses required to obtain a marketing degree. This research…

  10. Experimental Investigation of the Effect of Curtailed Reinforcement on the Shear Failure of RC Members Without Stirrups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henrik Brøner; Gustenhoff Hansen, Søren

    2017-01-01

    Curtailing of reinforcement in concrete beams and slabs is often carried out in practice for different reasons; in continuous beams, top reinforcement is often curtailed in accordance with the extent of the hogging moments and generally, in concrete structures it is often necessary to add extra r...

  11. Theory of fiber reinforced materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashin, Z.

    1972-01-01

    A unified and rational treatment of the theory of fiber reinforced composite materials is presented. Fundamental geometric and elasticity considerations are throughly covered, and detailed derivations of the effective elastic moduli for these materials are presented. Biaxially reinforced materials which take the form of laminates are then discussed. Based on the fundamentals presented in the first portion of this volume, the theory of fiber-reinforced composite materials is extended to include viscoelastic and thermoelastic properties. Thermal and electrical conduction, electrostatics and magnetostatics behavior of these materials are discussed. Finally, a brief statement of the very difficult subject of physical strength is included.

  12. Experimental and numerical investigations of higher mode effects on seismic inelastic response of reinforced concrete shear walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbanirenani, Iman

    This thesis presents two experimental programs together with companion numerical studies that were carried out on reinforced concrete shear walls: static tests and dynamic (shake table) tests. The first series of experiments were monotonic and cyclic quasi-static testing on ductile reinforced concrete shear wall specimens designed and detailed according to the seismic provisions of NBCC 2005 and CSA-A23.3-04 standard. The tests were carried out on full-scale and 1:2.37 reduced scale wall specimens to evaluate the seismic design provisions and similitude law and determine the appropriate scaling factor that could be applied for further studies such as dynamic tests. The second series of experiments were shake table tests conducted on two identical 1:2.33 scaled, 8-storey moderately ductile reinforced concrete shear wall specimens to investigate the effects of higher modes on the inelastic response of slender walls under high frequency ground motions expected in Eastern North America. The walls were designed and detailed according to the seismic provisions of NBCC 2005 and CSA-A23.3-04 standard. The objectives were to validate and understand the inelastic response and interaction of shear, flexure and axial loads in plastic hinge zones of the walls considering the higher mode effects and to investigate the formation of second hinge in upper part of the wall due to higher mode responses. Second mode response significantly affected the response of the walls. This caused inelastic flexural response to develop at the 6th level with approximately the same rotation ductility compared to that observed at the base. Dynamic amplification of the base shear forces was also observed in both walls. Numerical modeling of these two shake table tests was performed to evaluate the test results and validate current modeling approaches. Nonlinear time history analyses were carried out by the reinforced concrete fibre element (OpenSees program) and finite element (VecTor2 program

  13. The effect of zeolite and diatomite on the corrosion of reinforcement steel in 1 M HCl solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husnu Gerengi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The greatest disadvantage of reinforced concrete structures is the corrosion occurring in the reinforcement which, over time, causes a reduction in the reinforcement-concrete adherence and eventual sectional loss. The purpose of this study was to reveal the corrosion mechanism of ribbed reinforcement inside additive-free (reference, 20% zeolite-doped and 20% diatomite-doped concrete samples after exposure to 1 M HCl over 240 days. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS measurements were made every 10 days. Consequently, it was determined that the 20% zeolite-doped concrete samples had higher concrete and reinforcement resistance compared to the 20% diatomite-doped and the reference concrete, i.e. they exhibited less corrosion.

  14. The effect of glass fiber-reinforced epoxy resin dowel diameter on the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tey, Kuan Chuan; Lui, Joo Loon

    2014-10-01

    To determine the effect of glass fiber-reinforced epoxy resin (FRC) dowels of different diameters on the failure load of endodontically treated teeth with different remaining dentine and reinforcing resin composite (RRC) thicknesses and the mode of failure in each group. Fifty extracted intact human maxillary central incisors were decoronated 2 mm incisal to the buccal cementoenamel junction and endodontically treated. The teeth were randomly assigned to one of five groups (n = 10): group B, dowel space prepared with size 0 dowel drill/size 0 FRC dowel/no RRC; group W, size 1 dowel space/size 1 FRC dowel/no RRC; group R, size 3 dowel space/size 3 FRC dowel/no RRC; group WR, size 3 dowel space/size 1 FRC dowel/RRC; group BR, size 3 dowel space/size 0 FRC dowel/RRC. Ferrules of 2 and 0.5 mm were prepared at the facio-lingual and proximal margin respectively. All specimens were restored with a Ni-Cr crown, thermocycled and loaded at 135° from the long axis in a universal testing machine at a 0.5 mm/min crosshead speed until fracture. Data were analyzed using ANOVA followed by post hoc comparisons (Bonferroni) with α = 0.05. Mean failure loads (N) for groups B, W, R, WR, and BR were as follows: 1406 (SD = 376), 1259 (379), 1085 (528), 959 (200), and 816 (298). Significant differences were found between groups B and BR. Group B had the highest favorable failure mode. Within the limitations of this study, the use of a smaller FRC dowel and RRC is recommended rather than enlargement of dowel spaces to accurately fit larger FRC dowels, as the enlargement of dowel space may increase the risk of unfavorable failure. © 2014 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  15. Behavior of hybrid high-strength fiber reinforced concrete slab-column connections under the effect of high tempera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reham H. Ahmed

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Concrete can be modified to perform in a more ductile form by the addition of randomly distributed discrete fibers in the concrete matrix. The combined effect of the addition of two types of fibers (steel fiber and polypropylene fiber with different percentages to concrete matrix, which is called hybrid effect is currently under investigation worldwide. The current research work presents the conducted experimental program to observe the behavior of hybrid high strength reinforced concrete slab-column connections under the effect of high temperature. For this purpose, ten slab-column connections were casted and tested. The experimental program was designed to investigate the effect of different variables such as concrete mixture, column location and temperature fighting system. All specimens were exposed to a temperature of 500 °C for duration of two hours. To observe the effect of each variable, specimens were divided into four groups according to the studied parameters. The test results revealed that using hybrid high strength concrete HFHSC produced more strength in punching failure compared with high strength concrete HSC when exposed to elevated temperature. Fighting by air had higher initial crack load compared with that for without fighting and fighting by water. On the other hand, fighting by water decreased the ultimate load.

  16. Experimental Research Into the Effect Of External Actions and Polluting Environments on the Serviceablity of Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobanov, D. S.; Vildeman, V. E.; Babin, A. D.; Grinev, M. A.

    2015-03-01

    The results of mechanical tests of fiberglass and CFRP specimens in transverse bending and interlaminar shear (the short-beam method) and of sandwich panels in tension and compression are presented. The effect of external polluting environments on the mechanical properties of fiber-reinforced polymer composite materials and structures is estimated. Stress-strain diagrams are constructed.

  17. The Effects of Observation of Learn Units during Reinforcement and Correction Conditions on the Rate of Learning Math Algorithms by Fifth Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neu, Jessica Adele

    2013-01-01

    I conducted two studies on the comparative effects of the observation of learn units during (a) reinforcement or (b) correction conditions on the acquisition of math objectives. The dependent variables were the within-session cumulative numbers of correct responses emitted during observational sessions. The independent variables were the…

  18. Effect of fabric structure and polymer matrix on flexural strength, interlaminar shear stress, and energy dissipation of glass fiber-reinforced polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report the effect of glass fiber structure and the epoxy polymer system on the flexural strength, interlaminar shear stress (ILSS), and energy absorption properties of glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) composites. Four different GFRP composites were fabricated from two glass fiber textiles of...

  19. The Effects of Manipulated Self-Evaluation and Model Performance on Imitation and Incentive Reproduction of Novel and Self-Reinforcing Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellett, Chad D.; White, William F.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate within the vicarious learning paradigm the effects of manipulated self-evaluation treatments and model performance conditions on both the acquisition and subsequent performance of novel and self-reinforcing responses. It was predicted that subjects receiving either high or low self-evaluation treatments…

  20. Effects of an Oral-Sensory/Oral-Motor Stimulation/Positive Reinforcement Program on the Acceptance of Nonpreferred Foods by Youth with Physical and Multiple Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Rita L.; Angell, Maureen E.

    2005-01-01

    This study employed a multiple probe design to evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based lunchtime oral-sensory/oral-motor/positive reinforcement program on food acceptance behaviors of three youth with multiple disabilities. Overall dramatic gains in food acceptance behaviors of all participants indicated that trained school personnel were…

  1. A Methanol Extract of Brugmansia arborea Affects the Reinforcing and Motor Effects of Morphine and Cocaine in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracci, Antonio; Daza-Losada, Manuel; Aguilar, Maria; De Feo, Vincenzo; Miñarro, José; Rodríguez-Arias, Marta

    2013-01-01

    Previous reports have shown that several of the effects of morphine, including the development of tolerance and physical withdrawal symptoms, are reduced by extracts of Brugmansia arborea (L.) Lagerheim (Solanaceae) (B. arborea). In the present study we evaluate the action of the methanol extract of B. arborea (7.5-60 mg/kg) on the motor and reinforcing effects of morphine (20 and 40 mg/kg) and cocaine (25 mg/kg) using the conditioned place preference (CPP) procedure. At the doses employed, B. arborea did not affect motor activity or induce any effect on CPP. The extract partially counteracted morphine-induced motor activity and completely blocked the CPP induced by 20 mg/kg morphine. On the other hand, B. arborea blocked cocaine-induced hyperactivity but did not block cocaine-induced CPP. Reinstatement of extinguished preference with a priming dose of morphine or cocaine was also inhibited by B. arborea. The complex mechanism of action of B. arborea, which affects the dopaminergic and the cholinergic systems, seems to provide a neurobiological substrate for the effects observed. Considered as a whole, these results point to B. arborea as a useful tool for the treatment of morphine or cocaine abuse.

  2. Combined Effects of Sustained Loads and Wet-Dry Cycles on Durability of Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengting Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with durability of glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP composites under the combined effects of sustained tensile loads and wet-dry (WD cycles. Two different solutions (distilled water and saltwater were used to imitate the freshwater and marine environments, respectively. Tensile properties of the unconditioned and conditioned specimens were measured to study the durability of GFRP composites under these 2 effects. The response indicated that both tensile strength and elastic modulus increased initially upon WD cycles, which was attributed to both the postcuring of resin and the sustained tensile stress allowing for fastec cure. Further exposure to WD cycles in distilled water or saltwater led to a steady decrease in tensile strength and modulus. WD cycles of saltwater and distilled water have similar effects on the degradation of the tensile properties for unstressed specimens. However, the elastic modulus and elongation at rupture of stressed specimens under WD cycles of saltwater decreased more than those specimens under WD cycles of distilled water. Moreover, increase of sustained loads led to a decrease in tensile strength. Based on Arrhenius method, a prediction model which accounted for the effects of postcure processes was developed. The predicted results of tensile strength and elastic modulus agree well with those obtained from the experiments.

  3. A Methanol Extract of Brugmansia arborea Affects the Reinforcing and Motor Effects of Morphine and Cocaine in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Bracci

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous reports have shown that several of the effects of morphine, including the development of tolerance and physical withdrawal symptoms, are reduced by extracts of Brugmansia arborea (L. Lagerheim (Solanaceae (B. arborea. In the present study we evaluate the action of the methanol extract of B. arborea (7.5–60 mg/kg on the motor and reinforcing effects of morphine (20 and 40 mg/kg and cocaine (25 mg/kg using the conditioned place preference (CPP procedure. At the doses employed, B. arborea did not affect motor activity or induce any effect on CPP. The extract partially counteracted morphine-induced motor activity and completely blocked the CPP induced by 20 mg/kg morphine. On the other hand, B. arborea blocked cocaine-induced hyperactivity but did not block cocaine-induced CPP. Reinstatement of extinguished preference with a priming dose of morphine or cocaine was also inhibited by B. arborea. The complex mechanism of action of B. arborea, which affects the dopaminergic and the cholinergic systems, seems to provide a neurobiological substrate for the effects observed. Considered as a whole, these results point to B. arborea as a useful tool for the treatment of morphine or cocaine abuse.

  4. Fiber-reinforced syntactic foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi-Jen

    Long fibers are generally preferred for reinforcing foams for performance reasons. However, uniform dispersion is difficult to achieve because they must be mixed with liquid resin prior to foam expansion. New approaches aiming to overcome such problem have been developed at USC's Composites Center. Fiber-reinforced syntactic foams with long fibers (over 6 mm in length) manufactured at USC's Composites Center have achieved promising mechanical properties and demonstrated lower density relative to conventional composite foams. Fiber-reinforced syntactic foams were synthesized from thermosetting polymeric microspheres (amino and phenolic microspheres), as well as thermoplastic PVC heat expandable microspheres (HEMs). Carbon and/or aramid fibers were used to reinforce the syntactic foams. Basic mechanical properties, including shear, tensile, and compression, were measured in syntactic foams and fiber-reinforced syntactic foams. Microstructure and crack propagation behavior were investigated by scanning electron microscope and light microscopy. Failure mechanisms and reinforcing mechanisms of fiber-reinforced syntactic foams were also analyzed. As expected, additions of fiber reinforcements to foams enhanced both tensile and shear properties. However, only limited enhancement in compression properties was observed, and fiber reinforcement was of limited benefit in this regard. Therefore, a hybrid foam design was explored and evaluated in an attempt to enhance compression properties. HEMs were blended with glass microspheres to produce hybrid foams, and hybrid foams were subsequently reinforced with continuous aramid fibers to produce fiber-reinforced hybrid foams. Mechanical properties of these foams were evaluated. Findings indicated that the production of hybrid foams was an effective way to enhance the compressive properties of syntactic foams, while the addition of fiber reinforcements enhanced the shear and tensile performance of syntactic foams. Another approach

  5. Effect on mechanical properties of glass reinforced epoxy (GRE) pipe filled with different geopolymer filler molarity for piping application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, M. F. Abu; Abdullah, M. M. A.; Ghazali, C. M. R.; Hussin, K.; Binhussain, M.

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated the use of a novel white clay geopolymer as a filler to produce high strength glass reinforced epoxy pipe. It was found that using white clay geopolymer as filler gives better compressive strength to the glass reinforced epoxy pipe. The disadvantages of current glass reinforced epoxy pipes such low compressive strength which can be replaced by the composite pipes. Geopolymerization is an innovative technology that can transform several aluminosilicate materials into useful products called geopolymers or inorganic polymers. A series of glass reinforced epoxy pipe and glass reinforced epoxy pipe filled with 10 - 40 weight percentages white clay geopolymer filler with 4 Molarity and 8 Molarity were prepared. Morphology of white clay geopolymer filler surface was indicates using scanning electron microscopy. The additions of white clay geopolymer filler for both 4 Molarity and 8 Molarity show higher compressive strength than glass reinforced epoxy pipe without any geopolymer filler. The compressive test of these epoxy geopolymer pipe samples was determined using Instron Universal Testing under compression mode. Nonetheless, the compressive strength of glass reinforced epoxy pipe with white clay geopolymer filler continues to drop when added to 40 wt% of the geopolymer filler loading for both 4 Molarity and 8 Molarity. These outcomes showed that the mixing of geopolymer materials in epoxy system can be attained in this research.

  6. Is the Source of Reinforcement for Naming Multiple Conditioned Reinforcers for Observing Responses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longano, Jennifer M.; Greer, R. Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Naming refers to the incidental acquisition of word-object relations as listener and speaker without explicit reinforcement. To investigate possible sources of reinforcement for naming, we examined the effects of a procedure for conditioning reinforcement for observing responses on the emergence of naming in children who previously lacked it. The…

  7. Effect of Addition of A Marble Dust on Drying Shrinkage Cracks of Cement Mortar Reinforced with Various Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basim Thabit Al-Khafaji

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This investigation is conducted to study the effect of addition of marble powder (marble dust and different fibers on drying shrinkage cracks and some properties of fibers reinforcment cement mortar. Steel molds having a trapezoidal section, and the end restrained at square shape with( 2.7 meter at length are used to study restrained drying shrinkage of cement mortar. Specimens of ( compressive .flextural. splitting strength were cast. The admixture (marble dust was used to replacie weight of cement with three levels of (4%, 8% and 16% and the fiber hemp and sisal fiber were added for all mixes with proportion by volum of cement . All specimens were cured for (14 days. Average of three results was taken for any test of compressive, tensil and flextural strength. The experimental results showed that the adding of this admixture(marble dust cause adelay in a formation of cracks predicted from a drying shrinkage ,decreases of its width , and hence increases of (compressive, splitting tensil and flextural strength at levels of (4%, and 8%. Thus there is a the positive effect when fiberes added for all mixes of cement mortar with addition of (marble dust. All The admixtures (marble dust and fibers have the obvious visible effect in the delay of the information of shrinkage cracks and the decrease of its width as Compared to the cement mortar mixes when marble dust added a alone.

  8. Effect of Yarn Distortion on the Mechanical Properties of Fiber-Bar Composites Reinforced by Three-Dimensional Weaving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Huairong; Shan, Zhongde; Zang, Yong; Liu, Feng

    2016-04-01

    A meso-structure model of fiber-bar composites reinforced by three-dimensional weaving (FBCR3DW) is proposed. Optical microscopy images of the preform structure revealed that the fibers along the circumference of the yarn cross-weave were twisted randomly due to alternating yarn winding on either side of the fiber bars during the manufacturing process. Sections of the cross-woven yarn were divided into five regions based on the twist characteristics. Stochastic function theory was used to describe the twist characteristics and to calculate the compliance tensor for each twisted yarn region. The twist characteristics and compliance tensor of each region were then introduced into a finite element model to calculate the elastic properties of the twisted yarn and FBCR3DW; unidirectional tensile stress-strain curves were generated based on the Tsai-Wu failure criterion. Several FBCR3DW specimens with randomly twisted yarns inside the weave structure were used in experimental tests. Our numerical results were in good agreement with the experimental values. Yarn distortion had a significant effect on the elastic properties and axial tensile strength of the yarn; specifically, the influence of yarn distortion on the transverse elastic modulus and transverse shear modulus of FBCR3DW was severe, whereas only a slight effect occurred with regard to the other elastic constants and unidirectional tensile properties. Thus, the proposed method provides an effective reference for modeling fiber composites with a weave structure.

  9. Effect of Length and Diameter of Fiber Reinforced Composite Post on Fracture Resistance of Remaining Tooth Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Ebrahimzadeh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Post and core has been considered for endodontically treated tooth, especially in cases with severe damage crowns. Recently fiber reinforced composite posts (FRC post have been used in the treatment of endodontically treated teeth. Because the length and diameter of posts are effective in stress distribution, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of length and diameter of FRC post on fracture resistance. Methods: In this experimental study, 36 glass fiber posts with combination of 7mm, 9mm, and 12mm length and 1.1mm, 1.3mm and 1.5mm diameter were divided into 9 groups of 4. These posts were cemented in root canals by Panavia. Samples were tested with 45° compressive forces for the evaluation of fracture resistance. Datas were analyzed using SPSS soft ware and One- way and Two-way ANOVA analyses. Results: Fracture resistance did not increase significantly with the effect of length and diameter simultaneously (P=0.85. Samples with 12mm length and 1.5mm diameter had the greatest fracture resistance (1023/33N±239/22. The minimum fracture resistance had occurred in post with 7mm length and 1.5mm diameter (503/13N ±69/18. Fracture resistance increased significantly by increasing the length and the same diameter. Conclusion: It can be concluded that fracture resistance is affected by the length and not the diameter of FRC post.

  10. Effect of length and diameter of fiber reinforced composite post (FRC on fracture resistance of remaining tooth structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdiyeh seifi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Post and core has been considered for endodontically treated tooth, especially in cases with severe damage crowns. Recently fiber reinforced composite posts (FRC post have been used in the treatment of endodontically treated teeth. Because the length and diameter of posts are effective in stress distribution, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of length and diameter of FRC post on fracture resistance. Methods: In this experimental study, 36 glass fiber posts with combination of 7mm, 9mm, and 12mm length and 1.1mm, 1.3mm and 1.5mm diameter were divided into 9 groups of 4. These posts were cemented in root canals by Panavia. Samples were tested with 45° compressive forces for the evaluation of fracture resistance. Datas were analyzed using SPSS soft ware and One- way and Two-way ANOVA analyses. Results: Fracture resistance did not increase significantly with the effect of length and diameter simultaneously (P=0.85. Samples with 12mm length and 1.5mm diameter had the greatest fracture resistance (1023/33N±239/22. The minimum fracture resistance had occurred in post with 7mm length and 1.5mm diameter (503/13N ±69/18. Fracture resistance increased significantly by increasing the length and the same diameter. Conclusion: It can be concluded that fracture resistance is affected by the length and not the diameter of FRC post.

  11. Thermal effects on weld and unweld tensile properties of injection moulded short glass fibre reinforced ABS composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of temperature on weldline properties of injection moulded acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS reinforced with short glass fibres was investigated in tension between 25 and 100°C. Tensile modulus of both weld and unweld specimens increased linearly with increasing fibre concentration and decreased linearly with increasing temperature. It was found that the presence of weldline had no significant effect upon tensile modulus and this was reflected by weldline integrity factors in the range 0.98 to 0.95. Tensile strength of both weld and unweld tensile specimens increased nonlinearly with increasing fibre concentration and in the case of weldline specimens showed a maximum at fibre concentration of approximately 10% v/v. A linear dependence with respect to volume fraction of fibres was found for specimens without weldline for fibre concentrations in the range 0–10% v/v. The weldline integrity factor for tensile strength decreased significantly with increasing fibre concentration and increased with increasing temperature. The effect of temperature on tensile modulus and strength was satisfactorily modelled using the Kitagawa power law relationship..

  12. Effect of Welding Speed on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties due to The Deposition of Reinforcements on Friction Stir Welded Dissimilar Aluminium Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baridula Ravinder Reddy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The strength of the welded joint obtained by solid state stir welding process was found to be improved as compared to fusion welding process. The deposition of reinforcements during friction stir welding process can further enhance the strength of the welded joint by locking the movement of grain boundaries. In the present study, the aluminium alloys AA2024 and AA7075 were welded effectively by depositing the multi-walled carbon nanotubes in to the stir zone. The mechanical properties and microstructures were studied by varying the traverse speed at constant rotational speed. The results show that rotating tool pin stirring action and heat input play an important role in controlling the grain size. The carbon nanotubes were found to be distributed uniformly at a welding speed (traverse speed of 80mm/min. This enhanced the mechanical properties of the welded joint. The microstructure and Electron dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX studies indicate that the deposition of carbon nanotubes in the stir zone was influenced by the traverse speed.

  13. Silica reinforced triblock copolymer gels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theunissen, E.; Overbergh, N.; Reynaers, H.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of silica and polymer coated silica particles as reinforcing agents on the structural and mechanical properties of polystyrene-poly(ethylene/butylene)-polystyrene (PS-PEB-PS) triblock gel has been investigated. Different types of chemically modified silica have been compared in order...... to evaluate the influence of the compatibility between gel and filler. Time-resolved SANS and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) shows that the presence of silica particles affects the ordering of the polystyrene domains during gelsetting. The scattering pattern of silica-reinforced gels reveals strong...... scattering at very low q, but no structure and formfactor information. However, on heating above the viscoelastic to plastic transition, the 'typical' scattering pattern of the copolymer gel builds-up. All reinforced gels are strengthened by the addition of the reinforcing agent. The transitions from...

  14. Evaluation of the effect of synthetic fibers and nonwoven geotextile reinforcement on the stability of heavy clay embankments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-01

    This study evaluates two methods for repairing slope surface failures of clayey soil embankments. One method involves reinforcing the cohesive soils with randomly oriented synthetic fibers; the other method incorporates non-woven geotextiles. The per...

  15. The effect of moment redistribution on the stability of reinforced concrete moment resisting frame buildings under the ground motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Golpayegani

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years some studies have been done on the moment rredistribution in buildings and new methods offered for calculating of redistribution. Observations demonstrated that the combination of moment and shear force is important in analysis of reinforced concrete structures. But little research is done about the effect of redistribution by using moding in software. In order to study the effect of moment redistribution on the stability of RC moment resisting frame structures, four buildings with 4, 7, 10 and 13 story have been considered. In these models, the nonlinear behavior of elements (beam and column is considered by the use of interaction PMM hinges. The average plastic rotation was calculated by performing pushover analysis and storing stiffness matrix for 5 points and then the buckling coefficients were obtained by conducting buckling analysis. By the use of modal analysis natural frequency was calculated and it was attempted to be related the average plastic rotation with the buckling coefficients and the natural frequency.   It could be concluded that increase in the plastic rotation reduce the buckling coefficients to about 96% which this amount of reduction is related to the average plastic rotation. Moreover, the buildings experience instability state when the average plastic rotation reached to 0.006 radian.

  16. Effects of Cylindrical Charge Geometry and Secondary Combustion Reactions on the Internal Blast Loading of Reinforced Concrete Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Matthew A. [New Mexico Inst. of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States)

    2005-05-01

    An understanding of the detonation phenomenon and airblast behavior for cylindrical high-explosive charges is essential in developing predictive capabilities for tests and scenarios involving these charge geometries. Internal tests on reinforced concrete structures allowed for the analysis of cylindrical charges and the effect of secondary reactions occurring in confined structures. The pressure profiles that occur close to a cylindrical explosive charge are strongly dependent on the length-to-diameter ratio (L/D) of the charge. This study presents a comparison of finite-element code models (i.e., AUTODYN) to empirical methods for predicting airblast behavior from cylindrical charges. Current finite element analysis (FEA) and blast prediction codes fail to account for the effects of secondary reactions (fireballs) that occur with underoxidized explosives. Theoretical models were developed for TNT and validated against literature. These models were then applied to PBX 9501 for predictions of the spherical fireball diameter and time duration. The following relationships for PBX 9501 were derived from this analysis (units of ft, lb, s). Comparison of centrally located equivalent weight charges using cylindrical and spherical geometries showed that the average impulse on the interior of the structure is ~3%–5% higher for the spherical charge. Circular regions of high impulse that occur along the axial direction of the cylindrical charge must be considered when analyzing structural response.

  17. Effect of fabrication processes on mechanical properties of glass fiber reinforced polymer composites for 49 meter (160 foot recreational yachts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave (Dae-Wook Kim

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Polymer composite materials offer high strength and stiffness to weight ratio, corrosion resistance, and total life cost reductions that appeal to the marine industry. The advantages of composite construction have led to their incorporation in U.S. yacht hull structures over 46 meters (150 feet in length. In order to construct even larger hull structures, higher quality composites with lower cost production techniques need to be developed. In this study, the effect of composite hull fabrication processes on mechanical properties of glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP composites is presented. Fabrication techniques investigated during this study are hand lay-up (HL, vacuum infusion (VI, and hybrid (HL + VI processes. Mechanical property testing includes: tensile, compressive, and ignition loss sample analysis. Results demonstrate that the vacuum pressure implemented during composite fabrication has an effect on mechanical properties. The VI processed GFRP yields improved mechanical properties in tension/compression strengths and tensile modulus. The hybrid GFRP composites, however, failed in a sequential manor, due to dissimilar failure modes in the HL and VI processed sides. Fractography analysis was conducted to validate the mechanical property testing results.

  18. THE EFFECT OF HIGH TEMPERATURE ON THE POROSITY AND COMPRESSiVE STRENGTH ON THE CARBON FIBER REINFORCED LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahar DEMİREL

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of high temperature on the mechanical properties of the carbon fiber reinforced lightweight concrete with silica fume was investigated. With this aim, lightweight concrete samples were produced by using basaltic pumice (scoria obtained from Elazig region. In addition, the samples produced with and without silica fume and carbon fiber. Silica fume was replaced 10 % by weight of cement and carbon fiber was added 0.5 % by weight of cement. Four different series of samples were prepared in order to observe the effect of high temperature on the physical and mechanical properties of both the lightweight concrete with and without silica fume and the lightweight concrete with and without carbon fiber. The specimens completed the 365 days curing period were exposed to 250, 500, 750 and 1000 °C for 1 hour. Porosity and compressive strength were determined and recorded after the specimens were cooled at the room temperature. In conclusion, it is determined that the losing of compressive strength in the specimens with silica fume is higher than the others. Relation of compressive strength-porosity is high out of 500-750 °C.

  19. Proposed Model of Predicting the Reduced Yield Axial Load of Reinforced Concrete Columns Due to Casting Deficiency Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achillopoulou Dimitra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with the investigation of the effect of casting deficiencies- both experimentally and analytically on axial yield load or reinforced concrete columns. It includes 6 specimens of square section (150x150x500 mm of 24.37 MPa nominal concrete strength with 4 longitudinal steel bars of 8 mm (500 MPa nominal strength with confinement ratio ωc=0.15. Through casting procedure the necessary provisions defined by International Standards were not applied strictly in order to create construction deficiencies. These deficiencies are quantified geometrically without the use of expensive and expertise non-destructive methods and their effect on the axial load capacity of the concrete columns is calibrated trough a novel and simplified prediction model extracted by an experimental and analytical investigation that included 6 specimens. It is concluded that: a even with suitable repair, load reduction up to 22% is the outcome of the initial construction damage presence, b the lower dispersion is noted for the section damage index proposed, c extended damage alters the failure mode to brittle accompanied with longitudinal bars buckling, d the proposed model presents more than satisfying results to the load capacity prediction of repaired columns.

  20. Effect of components and surface treatments of fiber-reinforced composite posts on bond strength to composite resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, Yuya; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Kobayashi, Masahiro; Iwasaki, Naohiko

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the effect of the components and surface treatments of fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) posts on the durable bonding to core build-up resin evaluated using the pull-out and microtensile tests. Four types of experimental FRC posts, combinations of two types of matrix resins (polymethyl methacrylate and urethane dimethacrylate) and two types of fiberglass (E-glass and zirconia-containing glass) were examined. The FRC posts were subjected to one of three surface treatments (cleaned with ethanol, dichloromethane, or sandblasting). The bond strength between the FRC posts and core build-up resin were measured using the pull-out and microtensile tests before and after thermal cycling. The bond strengths obtained by each test before and after thermal cycling were statistically analyzed by three-way ANOVA and Tukey's multiple comparisons test (pposts by the pull-out test, but not by the microtensile test. Sandblasting was effective for both PMMA- and UDMA-based FRC posts, regardless of the test method. The bond strengths were influenced by the matrix resin of the FRC post and the surface treatment. The bond strengths of the pull-out test showed a similar tendency of those of the microtensile test, but the value obtained by these test were different. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.