DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ruban, Andrei; Simak, S.I.; Shallcross, S.
2003-01-01
We present a simple effective tetrahedron model for local lattice relaxation effects in random metallic alloys on simple primitive lattices. A comparison with direct ab initio calculations for supercells representing random Ni0.50Pt0.50 and Cu0.25Au0.75 alloys as well as the dilute limit of Au-ri...
Local tetrahedron modeling of microelectronics using the finite-volume hybrid-grid technique
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Riley, D.J.; Turner, C.D.
1995-12-01
The finite-volume hybrid-grid (FVHG) technique uses both structured and unstructured grid regions in obtaining a solution to the time-domain Maxwell`s equations. The method is based on explicit time differencing and utilizes rectilinear finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) and nonorthogonal finite-volume time-domain (FVTD). The technique directly couples structured FDTD grids with unstructured FVTD grids without the need for spatial interpolation across grid interfaces. In this paper, the FVHG method is applied to simple planar microelectronic devices. Local tetrahedron grids are used to model portions of the device under study, with the remainder of the problem space being modeled with cubical hexahedral cells. The accuracy of propagating microstrip-guided waves from a low-density hexahedron region through a high-density tetrahedron grid is investigated.
Rupel, Dylan
2015-03-01
The first goal of this note is to extend the well-known Feigin homomorphisms taking quantum groups to quantum polynomial algebras. More precisely, we define generalized Feigin homomorphisms from a quantum shuffle algebra to quantum polynomial algebras which extend the classical Feigin homomorphisms along the embedding of the quantum group into said quantum shuffle algebra. In a recent work of Berenstein and the author, analogous extensions of Feigin homomorphisms from the dual Hall-Ringel algebra of a valued quiver to quantum polynomial algebras were defined. To relate these constructions, we establish a homomorphism, dubbed the quantum shuffle character, from the dual Hall-Ringel algebra to the quantum shuffle algebra which relates the generalized Feigin homomorphisms. These constructions can be compactly described by a commuting tetrahedron of maps beginning with the quantum group and terminating in a quantum polynomial algebra. The second goal in this project is to better understand the dual canonical basis conjecture for skew-symmetrizable quantum cluster algebras. In the symmetrizable types it is known that dual canonical basis elements need not have positive multiplicative structure constants, while this is still suspected to hold for skew-symmetrizable quantum cluster algebras. We propose an alternate conjecture for the symmetrizable types: the cluster monomials should correspond to irreducible characters of a KLR algebra. Indeed, the main conjecture of this note would establish this ''KLR conjecture'' for acyclic skew-symmetrizable quantum cluster algebras: that is, we conjecture that the images of rigid representations under the quantum shuffle character give irreducible characters for KLR algebras. We sketch a proof in the symmetric case giving an alternative to the proof of Kimura-Qin that all non-initial cluster variables in an acyclic skew-symmetric quantum cluster algebra are contained in the dual canonical basis. With these results in mind we
H3O+ tetrahedron induction in large negative linear compressibility
Wang, Hui; Feng, Min; Wang, Yu-Fang; Gu, Zhi-Yuan
2016-01-01
Despite the rarity, large negative linear compressibility (NLC) was observed in metal-organic framework material Zn(HO3PC4H8PO3H)∙2H2O (ZAG-4) in experiment. We find a unique NLC mechanism in ZAG-4 based on first-principle calculations. The key component to realize its large NLC is the deformation of H3O+ tetrahedron. With pressure increase, the oxygen apex approaches and then is inserted into the tetrahedron base (hydrogen triangle). The tetrahedron base subsequently expands, which results in the b axis expansion. After that, the oxygen apex penetrates the tetrahedron base and the b axis contracts. The negative and positive linear compressibility is well reproduced by the hexagonal model and ZAG-4 is the first MOFs evolving from non re-entrant to re-entrant hexagon framework with pressure increase. This gives a new approach to explore and design NLC materials. PMID:27184726
Research on the attitude detection technology of the tetrahedron robot
Gong, Hao; Chen, Keshan; Ren, Wenqiang; Cai, Xin
2017-10-01
The traditional attitude detection technology can't tackle the problem of attitude detection of the polyhedral robot. Thus we propose a novel algorithm of multi-sensor data fusion which is based on Kalman filter. In the algorithm a tetrahedron robot is investigated. We devise an attitude detection system for the polyhedral robot and conduct the verification of data fusion algorithm. It turns out that the minimal attitude detection system we devise could capture attitudes of the tetrahedral robot in different working conditions. Thus the Kinematics model we establish for the tetrahedron robot is correct and the feasibility of the attitude detection system is proven.
Explicit free parametrization of the modified tetrahedron equation
Gehlen, G V; Sergeev, S
2003-01-01
The modified tetrahedron equation (MTE) with affine Weyl quantum variables at the Nth root of unity is solved by a rational mapping operator which is obtained from the solution of a linear problem. We show that the solutions can be parametrized in terms of eight free parameters and 16 discrete phase choices, thus providing a broad starting point for the construction of three-dimensional integrable lattice models. The Fermat-curve points parametrizing the representation of the mapping operator in terms of cyclic functions are expressed in terms of the independent parameters. An explicit formula for the density factor of the MTE is derived. For the example N=2 we write the MTE in full detail.
Cauchy Tetrahedron Argument Applied to Higher Contact Interactions
dell'Isola, F.; Madeo, A.; Seppecher, P.
2016-03-01
Second gradient theories are nowadays used in many studies in order to describe in detail some transition layers which may occur in micro-structured materials and in which physical properties are sharply varying. Sometimes higher order theories are also evoked. Up to now these models have not been based on a construction of stresses similar to the one due to Cauchy, which has been applied only for simple materials. It has been widely recognized that the fundamental assumption by Cauchy that the traction depends only on the normal of the dividing surface cannot be maintained for higher gradient theories. However, this observation did not urge any author, to our knowledge, to revisit the Cauchy construction in order to adapt it to a more general conceptual framework. This is what we do in this paper for a continuum of grade N (also called N-th gradient continuum). Our construction is very similar to the one due to Cauchy; based on the tetrahedron argument, it does not introduce any argument of a different nature. In particular, we avoid invoking the principle of virtual work. As one should expect, the balance assumption and the regularity hypotheses have to be adapted to the new framework and tensorial computations become more complex.
Scaffolded DNA Origami of a DNA Tetrahedron Molecular Container
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ke, Yongang; Sharma, Jaswinder; Liu, Minghui
2009-01-01
We describe a strategy of scaffolded DNA origami to design and construct 3D molecular cages of tetrahedron geometry with inside volume closed by triangular faces. Each edge of the triangular face is ∼54 nm in dimension. The estimated total external volume and the internal cavity of the triangular...... pyramid are about 1.8 × 10-23 and 1.5 × 10-23 m3, respectively. Correct formation of the tetrahedron DNA cage was verified by gel electrophoresis, atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and dynamic light scattering techniques....
Continuous Flattening of a Regular Tetrahedron with Explicit Mappings
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jin-ichi Itoh
2012-01-01
Full Text Available We proved in [10] that each Platonic polyhedron P can be folded into a flat multilayered face of P by a continuous folding process of polyhedra. In this paper, we give explicit formulas of continuous functions for such a continuous flattening process in R³ for a regular tetrahedron.The article is published in the author’s wording.
Computation Techniques for the Volume of a Tetrahedron
Srinivasan, V. K.
2010-01-01
The purpose of this article is to discuss specific techniques for the computation of the volume of a tetrahedron. A few of them are taught in the undergraduate multivariable calculus courses. Few of them are found in text books on coordinate geometry and synthetic solid geometry. This article gathers many of these techniques so as to constitute a…
76 FR 6468 - Versar, Tetrahedron, Inc. and Info Impact; Transfer of Data
2011-02-04
... AGENCY Versar, Tetrahedron, Inc. and Info Impact; Transfer of Data AGENCY: Environmental Protection... Versar and its subcontractors, Tetrahedron, Inc. and Info Impact, in accordance with 40 CFR 2.307(h)(3) and 2.308(i)(2). Versar and its subcontractors, Tetrahedron, Inc. and Info Impact, have been awarded a...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joshua Kim
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Tetrahedron beam computed tomography (TBCT performs volumetric imaging using a stack of fan beams generated by a multiple pixel X-ray source. While the TBCT system was designed to overcome the scatter and detector issues faced by cone beam computed tomography (CBCT, it still suffers the same large cone angle artifacts as CBCT due to the use of approximate reconstruction algorithms. It has been shown that iterative reconstruction algorithms are better able to model irregular system geometries and that algebraic iterative algorithms in particular have been able to reduce cone artifacts appearing at large cone angles. In this paper, the SART algorithm is modified for the use with the different TBCT geometries and is tested using both simulated projection data and data acquired using the TBCT benchtop system. The modified SART reconstruction algorithms were able to mitigate the effects of using data generated at large cone angles and were also able to reconstruct CT images without the introduction of artifacts due to either the longitudinal or transverse truncation in the data sets. Algebraic iterative reconstruction can be especially useful for dual-source dual-detector TBCT, wherein the cone angle is the largest in the center of the field of view.
Yokota, Terufumi
2018-01-01
Ising antiferromagnet on tetrahedron cactus lattices with randomness in the exchange interactions is studied. Instability line of the paramagnetic state, beyond which glassy or antiferromagnetic state is (meta)stable is obtained. The model is investigated by the replica method. Instability toward antiferromagnetic state does not occur for M ≤ 4 where M is the number of corner sharing tetrahedra for the cactus lattices. Instability toward glassy state occurs at as weak randomness as J /(-J0) ≃ 0 . 056 , 0 . 020, and ≤ 10-4 for M = 2 , 3, and 4, respectively, where J0 and J2 are the mean and variance of the Gaussian random exchange interaction, respectively.
DNA Tetrahedron Delivery Enhances Doxorubicin-Induced Apoptosis of HT-29 Colon Cancer Cells
Zhang, Guiyu; Zhang, Zhiyong; Yang, Junen
2017-08-01
As a nano-sized drug carrier with the advantage of modifiability and proper biocompatibility, DNA tetrahedron (DNA tetra) delivery is hopeful to enhance the inhibitory efficiency of nontargeted anticancer drugs. In this investigation, doxorubicin (Dox) was assembled to a folic acid-modified DNA tetra via click chemistry to prepare a targeted antitumor agent. Cellular uptake efficiency was measured via fluorescent imaging. Cytotoxicity, inhibition efficiency, and corresponding mechanism on colon cancer cell line HT-29 were evaluated by MTT assay, cell proliferation curve, western blot, and flow cytometry. No cytotoxicity was induced by DNA tetra, but the cellular uptake ratio increased obviously resulting from the DNA tetra-facilitated penetration through cellular membrane. Accordingly, folic acid-DNA tetra-Dox markedly increased the antitumor efficiency with increased apoptosis levels. In details, 100 μM was the effective concentration and a 6-h incubation period was needed for apoptosis induction. In conclusion, nano-sized DNA tetrahedron was a safe and effective delivery system for Dox and correspondingly enhanced the anticancer efficiency.
Tetrahedron of medical academics: reasons for training in management, leadership and informatics.
Martins, Henrique
2009-06-01
Medical school professors and lecturers are often called to be practicing clinicians, researchers in their own field, in addition to executing their education and curricular responsibilities. Some further accumulate healthcare management responsibilities. These areas pose conflicting demands on time and intellectual activity, but despite their apparent differences, knowledge and skills from management, leadership and informatics may prove useful in helping to smooth these conflicts and hence increase personal effectiveness in these areas. This article tries to clarify some concepts and advance why training in management, leadership and health informatics would seem particularly useful for the medical academic. As opposed to the idea of educational dispersion/specialization, the concept of an integrative tetrahedronal education framework is advanced as a way to plan workshops and other faculty development activities which could be implemented transnationally as well as locally.
A Structurally Variable Hinged Tetrahedron Framework from DNA Origami
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
David M. Smith
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Nanometer-sized polyhedral wire-frame objects hold a wide range of potential applications both as structural scaffolds as well as a basis for synthetic nanocontainers. The utilization of DNA as basic building blocks for such structures allows the exploitation of bottom-up self-assembly in order to achieve molecular programmability through the pairing of complementary bases. In this work, we report on a hollow but rigid tetrahedron framework of 75 nm strut length constructed with the DNA origami method. Flexible hinges at each of their four joints provide a means for structural variability of the object. Through the opening of gaps along the struts, four variants can be created as confirmed by both gel electrophoresis and direct imaging techniques. The intrinsic site addressability provided by this technique allows the unique targeted attachment of dye and/or linker molecules at any point on the structure's surface, which we prove through the superresolution fluorescence microscopy technique DNA PAINT.
Groups of Transformations with a Finite Number of Isometries: the Cases of Tetrahedron and Cube
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ferdinando Casolaro
2016-12-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with groups of transformations with finite number of isometrics and, therefore, appears as the completion of previous and published works (Casolaro, F. L. Cirillo and R. Prosperi 2015 related only to endless groups of transformations with isometrics. In particular isometries of the tetrahedron and the cube are presented which turn these figures in itself.
2010-07-23
... Corporation, Tox Path, Inc., and Pathology Associates, have been awarded a contract to perform work for OPP... AGENCY Tetrahedron, Inc., with Subcontractors: Syracuse Research Corporation; Tox Path, Inc; and... subcontractors: Syracuse Research Corporation, Tox Path, Inc., and Pathology Associates, in accordance with 40...
Analysis of telomerase activity based on a spired DNA tetrahedron TS primer.
Li, Yan; Wen, Yanli; Wang, Lele; Liang, Wen; Xu, Li; Ren, Shuzhen; Zou, Ziying; Zuo, Xiaolei; Fan, Chunhai; Huang, Qing; Liu, Gang; Jia, Nengqin
2015-05-15
The development of sensitive telomerase biosensors is hindered by the restricted accessibility of telomere strand (TS) primer and the limited enzyme reaction space, which is mainly confined by the vertical distance. In this work, we designed an electrochemical telomerase biosensor based on a spired DNA tetrahedron TS primer (STTS). By adding a rigid dsDNA spire onto the top of the DNA tetrahedron, we successfully regulated the distance between the TS primer and the surface, and thus greatly facilitated the telomerase elongation on surface. The signal-to-noise ratio was 2 times higher than TSP without the spire structure. The limit of detection was calculated to be lower than 10 HeLa cells, which is at least 2 magnitudes lower than other surface extension-based electrochemical telomerase sensors without amplification. The practicability of STTS sensor was also demonstrated by analysing various other cell lines including cancer cells, stem cells of high telomerase activity and somatic cells of low telomerase activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
The nonconforming linear strain tetrahedron for a large deformation elasticity problem
Hansbo, Peter; Larsson, Fredrik
2016-12-01
In this paper we investigate the performance of the nonconforming linear strain tetrahedron element introduced by Hansbo (Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 200(9-12):1311-1316, 2011; J Numer Methods Eng 91(10):1105-1114, 2012). This approximation uses midpoints of edges on tetrahedra in three dimensions with either point continuity or mean continuity along edges of the tetrahedra. Since it contains (rotated) bilinear terms it performs substantially better than the standard constant strain element in bending. It also allows for under-integration in the form of one point Gauss integration of volumetric terms in near incompressible situations. We combine under-integration of the volumetric terms with houglass stabilization for the isochoric terms.
The closure constraint for the hyperbolic tetrahedron as a Bianchi identity
Charles, Christoph; Livine, Etera R.
2017-07-01
The closure constraint is a central piece of the mathematics of loop quantum gravity. It encodes the gauge invariance of the spin network states of quantum geometry and provides them with a geometrical interpretation: each decorated vertex of a spin network is dual to a quantized polyhedron in R3. For instance, a 4-valent vertex is interpreted as a tetrahedron determined by the four normal vectors of its faces. We develop a framework where the closure constraint is re-interpreted as a Bianchi identity, with the normals defined as holonomies around the polyhedron faces of a connection (constructed from the spinning geometry interpretation of twisted geometries). This allows us to define closure constraints for hyperbolic tetrahedra (living in the 3-hyperboloid of unit future-oriented spacelike vectors in R^{3,1}) in terms of normals living all in SU(2) or in SB(2,C). The latter fits perfectly with the classical phase space developed for q-deformed loop quantum gravity supposed to account for a non-vanishing cosmological constant Λ >0. This allows the interpretation of q-deformed twisted geometries as actual discrete hyperbolic triangulations for 4d quantum gravity.
The closure constraint for the hyperbolic tetrahedron as a Bianchi identity
Charles, Christoph
2016-01-01
The closure constraint is a central piece of the mathematics of loop quantum gravity. It encodes the gauge invariance of the spin network states of quantum geometry and provides them with a geometrical interpretation: each decorated vertex of a spin network is dual to a quantized polyhedron in $\\mathbb{R}^{3}$. For instance, a 4-valent vertex is interpreted as a tetrahedron determined by the four normal vectors of its faces. We develop a framework where the closure constraint is re-interpreted as a Bianchi identity, with the normals defined as holonomies around the polyhedron faces of a connection (constructed from the spinning geometry interpretation of twisted geometries). This allows us to define closure constraints for hyperbolic tetrahedra (living in the 3-hyperboloid of unit future-oriented spacelike vectors in $\\mathbb{R}^{3,1}$) in terms of normals living all in $SU(2)$ or in $SB(2,\\mathbb{C})$. The latter fits perfectly with the classical phase space developed for $q$-deformed loop quantum gravity su...
Recycled tetrahedron-like CuCl from waste Cu scraps for lithium ion battery anode.
Hou, Hongying; Yao, Yuan; Liu, Song; Duan, Jixiang; Liao, Qishu; Yu, Chengyi; Li, Dongdong; Dai, Zhipeng
2017-07-01
The wide applications of metal Cu inevitably resulted in a large quantity of waste Cu materials. In order to recover the useful Cu under the mild conditions and reduce the environmental emission, waste Cu scraps were recycled in the form of CuCl powders with high economic value added (EVA) via the facile hydrothermal route. The recycled CuCl powders were characterized in terms of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results suggested that the recycled CuCl powders consisted of many regular tetrahedron-like micro-particles. Furthermore, in order to reduce the cost of lithium ion battery (LIB) anode and build the connection of waste Cu scraps and LIB, the recycled CuCl powders were evaluated as the anode active material of LIB. As expected, the reversible discharge capacity was about 171.8mAh/g at 2.0C even after 50 cycles, implying the satisfactory cycle stability. Clearly, the satisfactory results may open a new avenue to develop the circular economy and the sustainable energy industry, which would be very important in terms of both the resource recovery and the environmental protection. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Artem'ev, Alexander V; Bagryanskaya, Irina Yu; Doronina, Evgeniya P; Tolstoy, Peter M; Gushchin, Artem L; Rakhmanova, Mariana I; Ivanov, Alexander Yu; Suturina, Anastasiya O
2017-09-26
An unprecedented silver-centered P-tetracapped [Ag@Ag 4 (μ 3 -P) 4 ] tetrahedron inscribed within a N 12 icosahedral cage has been discovered in the novel family of luminescent clusters. The latter are easily self-assembled by reacting Ag I salts with tris(2-pyridyl)phosphine (Py 3 P).
Modeling information technology effectiveness
Aleksander Lotko
2005-01-01
Numerous cases of systems not bringing expected results cause that investments in information technology are treated more and more carefully and are not privileged amongst others. This gives rise to the need for applying costs–effect calculations. Modeling IT effectiveness is a procedure which helps to bring system complexity under control. By using proper measures it is possible to perform an objective investment appraisal for projects under consideration. In the paper, a framework of method...
Effective Polarizability Models.
Fiedler, Johannes; Thiyam, Priyadarshini; Kurumbail, Anurag; Burger, Friedrich A; Walter, Michael; Persson, Clas; Brevik, Iver; Parsons, Drew F; Boström, Mathias; Buhmann, Stefan Y
2017-12-28
Theories for the effective polarizability of a small particle in a medium are presented using different levels of approximation: we consider the virtual cavity, real cavity, and the hard-sphere models as well as a continuous interpolation of the latter two. We present the respective hard-sphere and cavity radii as obtained from density-functional simulations as well as the resulting effective polarizabilities at discrete Matsubara frequencies. This enables us to account for macroscopic media in van der Waals interactions between molecules in water and their Casimir-Polder interaction with an interface.
Ecotoxicological effects extrapolation models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Suter, G.W. II
1996-09-01
One of the central problems of ecological risk assessment is modeling the relationship between test endpoints (numerical summaries of the results of toxicity tests) and assessment endpoints (formal expressions of the properties of the environment that are to be protected). For example, one may wish to estimate the reduction in species richness of fishes in a stream reach exposed to an effluent and have only a fathead minnow 96 hr LC50 as an effects metric. The problem is to extrapolate from what is known (the fathead minnow LC50) to what matters to the decision maker, the loss of fish species. Models used for this purpose may be termed Effects Extrapolation Models (EEMs) or Activity-Activity Relationships (AARs), by analogy to Structure-Activity Relationships (SARs). These models have been previously reviewed in Ch. 7 and 9 of and by an OECD workshop. This paper updates those reviews and attempts to further clarify the issues involved in the development and use of EEMs. Although there is some overlap, this paper does not repeat those reviews and the reader is referred to the previous reviews for a more complete historical perspective, and for treatment of additional extrapolation issues.
Eichinger, John
2005-01-01
Models are crucial to science teaching and learning, yet they can create unforeseen and overlooked challenges for students and teachers. For example, consider the time-tested clay volcano that relies on a vinegar and-baking-soda mixture for its "eruption." Based on a classroom demonstration of that geologic model, elementary students may interpret…
Aspects of ground effect modeling.
Taraldsen, Gunnar; Jonasson, Hans
2011-01-01
A recently published one-parameter ground model based on Darcy's law is here generalized into a two-parameter model which depends on an effective flow resistivity and an effective layer depth. Extensive field measurements of the acoustic impedance of various ground types have been carried out for frequencies in the range from 200 Hz to 2.5 kHz. The model based on Darcy's law gives an improved fit to the measurements compared to the Delany-Bazley model. It is, in addition, argued on purely theoretical grounds that the suggested model is preferable. In contrast to the Delany-Bazley model it corresponds to a proper causal time-domain model. This is particularly relevant for extrapolation of the models to lower frequencies and for the recently developed harmonized methods intended for use in the implementation of the European Union directive on the assessment and management of environmental noise. The harmonized methods include frequencies down to the 25 Hz third octave band and have the Delany-Bazley ground impedance model as the default choice. The arguments presented here suggest that this default choice should be replaced by the more physically based model from the law of Darcy.
Effective resolution in ocean models
Marchesiello, Patrick; Soufflet, Yves; Capet, Xavier; Jouanno, Julien; Lemarie, Florian
2014-05-01
The increase of model resolution naturally leads to the representation of a wider energy spectrum. As a result, in recent years, the understanding of oceanic submesoscale dynamics has significantly improved. Also, the ubiquity of upper ocean frontal dynamics driving a direct energy cascade is now acknowledged. In the forward cascade framework, numerical and physical closures are more consistent in principle, but dissipation in submesoscale models remains dominated by numerical constraints rather than physical ones. Therefore, effective resolution can be defined by its numerical dissipation range, which is a function of the model numerical filters (assuming that dispersive numerical modes are efficiently removed). The COMODO project gathers the whole French ocean modeling community in order to assess current numerical methods and guide the development of future models. Within this framework, we present an idealized ACC-type Jet case, which provides a controllable test of a model capacity at resolving submesoscale dynamics. We compare analyses performed on simulations from two models, ROMS and NEMO, at different mesh sizes (from 20 to 1 km). Through a spectral decomposition of kinetic energy and its budget terms, we identify the characteristics of turbulent cascade, numerical dissipation, and effective resolution. It shows that numerical dissipation appears in different parts of a model, especially in spatial advection-diffusion schemes for momentum equations (KE dissipation) and tracer equations (APE dissipation) and in the time stepping algorithms.
Effective modelling of acoustofluidic devices
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ley, Mikkel Wennemoes Hvitfeld
, and of the momentum transfer between the particles and the suspension. 2) We derive a full 3D numerical model for the coupled acoustic fields in mm-sized water-filled glass capillaries, calculating pressure field in the liquid coupled to the displacement field of the glass channel, taking into account mixed standing...... of the system, as opposed to making detailed calculations of idealised cases. The effective models developed in this thesis concerns: 1) hydrodynamic particle-particle interactions in dense microparticle suspensions, 2) the acoustic field in mm-sized liquid-filled glass capillaries used for acoustic trapping...... and travelling waves as well as absorption. We model the connective tubing at the outlets, either as being free reflecting surfaces or perfect absorbers of outgoing acoustic waves, and we make an effective description of the mechanical actuation of the attached piezoelectric transducer. 3) Using the model...
Modeling quantization effects in field effect transistors
Troger, C
2001-01-01
Numerical simulation in the field of semiconductor device development advanced to a valuable, cost-effective and flexible facility. The most widely used simulators are based on classical models, as they need to satisfy time and memory constraints. To improve the performance of field effect transistors such as MOSFETs and HEMTs these devices are continuously scaled down in their dimensions. Consequently the characteristics of such devices are getting more and more determined by quantum mechanical effects arising from strong transversal fields in the channel. In this work an approach based on a two-dimensional electron gas is used to describe the confinement of the carriers. Quantization is considered in one direction only. For the derivation of a one-dimensional Schroedinger equation in the effective mass framework a non-parabolic correction for the energy dispersion due to Kane is included. For each subband a non-parabolic dispersion relation characterized by subband masses and subband non-parabolicity coeffi...
Mixed Effects Models for Complex Data
Wu, Lang
2009-01-01
Presenting effective approaches to address missing data, measurement errors, censoring, and outliers in longitudinal data, this book covers linear, nonlinear, generalized linear, nonparametric, and semiparametric mixed effects models. It links each mixed effects model with the corresponding class of regression model for cross-sectional data and discusses computational strategies for likelihood estimations of mixed effects models. The author briefly describes generalized estimating equations methods and Bayesian mixed effects models and explains how to implement standard models using R and S-Pl
Trampoline Effect: Observations and Modeling
Guyer, R.; Larmat, C. S.; Ulrich, T. J.
2009-12-01
The Iwate-Miyagi earthquake at site IWTH25 (14 June 2008) had large, asymmetric at surface vertical accelerations prompting the sobriquet trampoline effect (Aoi et. al. 2008). In addition the surface acceleration record showed long-short waiting time correlations and vertical-horizontal acceleration correlations. A lumped element model, deduced from the equations of continuum elasticity, is employed to describe the behavior at this site in terms of a surface layer and substrate. Important ingredients in the model are the nonlinear vertical coupling between the surface layer and the substrate and the nonlinear horizontal frictional coupling between the surface layer and the substrate. The model produces results in qualitative accord with observations: acceleration asymmetry, Fourier spectrum, waiting time correlations and vertical acceleration-horizontal acceleration correlations. [We gratefully acknowledge the support of the U. S. Department of Energy through the LANL/LDRD Program for this work].
Compressibility effects in turbulence modeling
Rubesin, M. W.
1982-01-01
Numerical turbulence modeling is discussed with attention given to fluid property variations caused by compressibility in an adiabatic flow. The models are considered in terms of integral quantities expressed by ordinary differential equations and by those formulated as partial differential equations. Compressibility corrections for both integral and partial differential methods are reviewed. Eddy-viscosity models are explored for their capability to characterize the mass-weighted Reynolds stress, which can be accounted for with primitive and/or mass-weighted variables. Compressible flow simulations are currently constrained to low Re and zero mean dilation. The effects of compressibility are defined in wave number space by resolving the Fourier transforms of the velocity vectors into components which are perpendicular and parallel to the wave number vector. Statistical correlations then permit obtaining a value for each contribution.
Better models are more effectively connected models
Nunes, João Pedro; Bielders, Charles; Darboux, Frederic; Fiener, Peter; Finger, David; Turnbull-Lloyd, Laura; Wainwright, John
2016-04-01
The concept of hydrologic and geomorphologic connectivity describes the processes and pathways which link sources (e.g. rainfall, snow and ice melt, springs, eroded areas and barren lands) to accumulation areas (e.g. foot slopes, streams, aquifers, reservoirs), and the spatial variations thereof. There are many examples of hydrological and sediment connectivity on a watershed scale; in consequence, a process-based understanding of connectivity is crucial to help managers understand their systems and adopt adequate measures for flood prevention, pollution mitigation and soil protection, among others. Modelling is often used as a tool to understand and predict fluxes within a catchment by complementing observations with model results. Catchment models should therefore be able to reproduce the linkages, and thus the connectivity of water and sediment fluxes within the systems under simulation. In modelling, a high level of spatial and temporal detail is desirable to ensure taking into account a maximum number of components, which then enables connectivity to emerge from the simulated structures and functions. However, computational constraints and, in many cases, lack of data prevent the representation of all relevant processes and spatial/temporal variability in most models. In most cases, therefore, the level of detail selected for modelling is too coarse to represent the system in a way in which connectivity can emerge; a problem which can be circumvented by representing fine-scale structures and processes within coarser scale models using a variety of approaches. This poster focuses on the results of ongoing discussions on modelling connectivity held during several workshops within COST Action Connecteur. It assesses the current state of the art of incorporating the concept of connectivity in hydrological and sediment models, as well as the attitudes of modellers towards this issue. The discussion will focus on the different approaches through which connectivity
Mechanical effects in cookoff modeling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gross, R.J.; Baer, M.R.; Hobbs, M.L.
1994-07-01
Complete cookoff modeling of energetic material in confined geometries must couple thermal, chemical and mechanical effects. In the past, modeling has focused on the prediction of the onset of combustion behavior based only on thermal-chemistry effects with little or no regard to the mechanical behavior of the energetic material. In this paper, an analysis tool is outlined which couples thermal, chemical, and mechanical behavior for one-dimensional Geometries comprised of multi-materials. A reactive heat flow code, XCHEM, and a quasistatic mechanics code, SANTOS, have been completely coupled using, a reactive, elastic-plastic constitutive model describing pressurization of the energetic material. This new Thermally Reactive Elastic-plastic explosive code, TREX, was developed to assess the coupling, of mechanics with thermal chemistry making multidimensional cookoff analysis possible. In this study, TREX is applied to confined and unconfined systems. The confined systems simulate One-Dimensional Time to explosion (ODTX) experiments in both spherical and cylindrical configurations. The spherical ODTX system is a 1.27 cm diameter sphere of TATB confined by aluminum exposed to a constant external temperature. The cylindrical ODTX system is an aluminum tube filled with HMX, NC, and inert exposed to a constant temperature bath. Finally. an unconfined system consisting of a hollow steel cylinder filled with a propellant composed of Al, RMX, and NC, representative of a rocket motor, is considered. This model system is subjected to transient internal and external radiative/convective boundary conditions representative of 5 minutes exposure to a fire. The confined systems show significant pressure prior to ignition, and the unconfined system shows extrusion of the propellent suggesting that the energetic material becomes more shock sensitive.
Model of neutrino effective masses
Dinh Nguyen Dinh; Nguyen Thi Hong Van; Phi Quang Van
2006-01-01
It is shown that an effective (nonrenormalizable) coupling of lepton multiplets to scalar triplets in the 331 model with sterile/exotic neutrinos, can be a good way for generating neutrino masses of different types. The method is simple and avoids radiative/loop calculations which, sometimes, are long and complicated. Basing on some astrophysical arguments it is also stated that the scale of SU(3)L symmetry breaking is at TeV scale, in agreement with earlier investigations. Or equivalently, starting from this symmetry breaking scale we could have sterile/exotic neutrinos with mass of a few keV's which could be used to explain several astrophysical and cosmological puzzles, such as the dark matter, the fast motion of the observed pulsars, the re-ionization of the Universe, etc.
Requirements for effective modelling strategies.
Gaunt, J.L.; Riley, J.; Stein, A.; Penning de Vries, F.W.T.
1997-01-01
As the result of a recent BBSRC-funded workshop between soil scientists, modellers, statisticians and others to discuss issues relating to the derivation of complex environmental models, a set of modelling guidelines is presented and the required associated research areas are discussed.
A Departmental Cost-Effectiveness Model.
Holleman, Thomas, Jr.
In establishing a departmental cost-effectiveness model, the traditional cost-effectiveness model was discussed and equipped with a distant and deflation equation for both benefits and costs. Next, the economics of costing was examined and program costing procedures developed. Then, the model construct was described as it was structured around the…
Enakoutsa, Koffi
2015-06-01
Recently, the works by Toupin, Mindlin, Sokolowski and Germain have been developed following two research streams. In the first one, higher-order gradient continuum models were developed based on the Cauchy tetrahedron argument (see, e.g., dell'Isola and Seppecher in Comptes Rendus de l Academie de Sciences 17 Serie IIb: Mecanique, Physique, Chimie, Astronomie 321:303-308, 1995, Meccanica 32:33-52 1997, Zeitschrift fr Angewandte Mathematik und Physik 63(6):1119-1141, 2012). In the second one, the structure of higher-order gradient models is developed with a view to the applications. In particular in the model of linear isotropic solids proposed by Dell'Isola, Sciarra and Vidoli (DSV), the main constitutive equation is obtained for the case of second gradient models. This model introduces in addition to the two well-known Lame's elastic constants five constitutive constants. The practical applications of this model remain in its infancy since the issue of determining the new moduli it introduces is not yet completely addressed. Also, analytical solutions of simple boundary value problems that can be helpful to grasp some of the physical foundations of this model are missing. This paper aims to address these two issues by providing the analytical solutions for two model problems, a spherical shell subjected to axisymmetric loading conditions and the circular bending of a beam in plane strain, both the beam and the shell obeying the DSV second gradient isotropic elastic model. The solution of the circular bending of a beam has served to grasp some of the physical soundness of the model. A framework based on homogenization under inhomogeneous boundary conditions is also suggested to determine the unknown constitutive constants, which are provided in the particular case of elastic porous heterogeneous materials.
The differential susceptibility to media effects model
Valkenburg, P.M.; Peter, J.
2013-01-01
In this theoretical article, we introduce the Differential Susceptibility to Media Effects Model (DSMM), a new, integrative model to improve our understanding of media effects. The DSMM organizes, integrates, and extends the insights developed in earlier microlevel media-effects theories. It
Modeling Strategic Effects in Wargames
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Whittemore, David
1999-01-01
This paper addresses how strategic effects win and lose wars. Strategic effects are defined here as the impacts that the outcomes from wartime operational and tactical events have on the highest level of decision-makers...
Modeling the effects of labeling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Juhl, Hans Jørn; Fjord, Thomas Ahle; Poulsen, Carsten Stig
A new approach to evaluate the consequences of labeling is presented and applied to test the potential effect of a label on fresh fish. Labeling effects on quality perceptions and overall quality are studied. The empirical study is based on an experimental design and nearly 500 respondents...
Effect of modeling on sexual imagery.
Sachs, D H; Duffy, K G
1976-07-01
Social learning theory was used to examine the effects of a model's sexual imagery on the observer's sexual imagery. In the guise of a creative writing experiment, male and female college students were asked to listen to a tape recording of a same- or opposite-sex model relating a story in response to a sample TAT card. The story described a man and a woman in a physical sex encounter (high sex), a romantic date (medium sex), or a casual study date (low sex). The sample TAT picture and model's story were omitted in the control groups. All subjects wrote stories in response to two other TAT cards. These stories were scored for sexual imagery by a male and a female judge who were blind to experimental conditions and who used a standard sexual imagery scoring manual. The following prediction were based on social learning theory: There would be greater sexual imagery in the stories of subjects who heard the high sex model than in the stories of those who heard the medium or low sex model or no model. Past research implied the prediction that the modeling effects would be greater for males than for females in the high sex model condition and greater for females than for males in the medium sex model condition. The results were analyzed using two factorial analyses of variance. There was greater sexual imagery by subjects who heard the high sex model than by those who heard the low sex model or model. The sexual imagery by subjects who heard the medium sex model was intermediate between that by those who heard the high sex model and that by those who heard the low sex model. The modeling effect was greater in males. The results also confirmed the prediction that sexual imagery would be greater for males in the high sex model condition but did not confirm the prediction that sexual imagery would be greater for females in the medium sex model condition.
Modelling the effect of land use change on hydrological model ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Conceptual rainfall–runoff models have become a basic tool for evaluating effects of land use/cover changes on the hydrologic processes in small-scale as well as large watersheds. The runoff-producing mechanism is influenced by land use/cover changes. In this study, we analysed the effect of land use change on ...
Scientists' internal models of the greenhouse effect
Libarkin, J. C.; Miller, H.; Thomas, S. R.
2013-12-01
A prior study utilized exploratory factor analysis to identify models underlying drawings of the greenhouse effect made by entering university freshmen. This analysis identified four archetype models of the greenhouse effect that appear within the college enrolling population. The current study collected drawings made by 144 geoscientists, from undergraduate geoscience majors through professionals. These participants scored highly on a standardized assessment of climate change understanding and expressed confidence in their understanding; many also indicated that they teach climate change in their courses. Although geoscientists held slightly more sophisticated greenhouse effect models than entering freshmen, very few held complete, explanatory models. As with freshmen, many scientists (44%) depict greenhouse gases in a layer in the atmosphere; 52% of participants depicted this or another layer as a physical barrier to escaping energy. In addition, 32% of participants indicated that incoming light from the Sun remains unchanged at Earth's surface, in alignment with a common model held by students. Finally, 3-20% of scientists depicted physical greenhouses, ozone, or holes in the atmosphere, all of which correspond to non-explanatory models commonly seen within students and represented in popular literature. For many scientists, incomplete models of the greenhouse effect are clearly enough to allow for reasoning about climate change. These data suggest that: 1) better representations about interdisciplinary concepts, such as the greenhouse effect, are needed for both scientist and public understanding; and 2) the scientific community needs to carefully consider how much understanding of a model is needed before necessary reasoning can occur.
Modeling Jamming Effects on Rolling Airframe Missile
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Yen, Chia-Chun
2001-01-01
.... This thesis describes the use of microelectronic-miniature (MEM) technologies to measure the strap down rates experienced by a rolling airframe missile and the model required to effectively determine the missile's attitude during its flight...
Effective acoustic modeling for robust speaker recognition
Hasan Al Banna, Taufiq
Robustness due to mismatched train/test conditions is the biggest challenge facing the speaker recognition community today, with transmission channel and environmental noise degradation being the prominent factors. Performance of state-of-the art speaker recognition methods aim at mitigating these factors by effectively modeling speech in multiple recording conditions, so that it can learn to distinguish between inter-speaker and intra-speaker variability. The increasing demand and availability of large development corpora introduces difficulties in effective data utilization and computationally efficient modeling. Traditional compensation strategies operate on higher dimensional utterance features, known as supervectors, which are obtained from the acoustic modeling of short-time features. Feature compensation is performed during front-end processing. Motivated by the covariance structure of conventional acoustic features, we envision that feature normalization and compensation can be integrated into the acoustic modeling. In this dissertation, we investigate the following fundamental research challenges: (i) analysis of data requirements for effective and efficient background model training, (ii) introducing latent factor analysis modeling of acoustic features, (iii) integration of channel compensation strategies in mixture-models, and (iv) development of noise robust background models using factor analysis. The effectiveness of the proposed solutions are demonstrated in various noisy and channel degraded conditions using the recent evaluation datasets released by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). These research accomplishments make an important step towards improving speaker recognition robustness in diverse acoustic conditions.
The Mixed Effects Trend Vector Model
de Rooij, Mark; Schouteden, Martijn
2012-01-01
Maximum likelihood estimation of mixed effect baseline category logit models for multinomial longitudinal data can be prohibitive due to the integral dimension of the random effects distribution. We propose to use multidimensional unfolding methodology to reduce the dimensionality of the problem. As a by-product, readily interpretable graphical…
Modelling synergistic effects of appetite regulating hormones
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schmidt, Julie Berg; Ritz, Christian
2016-01-01
We briefly reviewed one definition of dose addition, which is applicable within the framework of generalized linear models. We established how this definition of dose addition corresponds to effect addition in case only two doses per compound are considered for evaluating synergistic effects. The....... The link between definitions was exemplified for an appetite study where two appetite hormones were studied....
Mixed-effects regression models in linguistics
Heylen, Kris; Geeraerts, Dirk
2018-01-01
When data consist of grouped observations or clusters, and there is a risk that measurements within the same group are not independent, group-specific random effects can be added to a regression model in order to account for such within-group associations. Regression models that contain such group-specific random effects are called mixed-effects regression models, or simply mixed models. Mixed models are a versatile tool that can handle both balanced and unbalanced datasets and that can also be applied when several layers of grouping are present in the data; these layers can either be nested or crossed. In linguistics, as in many other fields, the use of mixed models has gained ground rapidly over the last decade. This methodological evolution enables us to build more sophisticated and arguably more realistic models, but, due to its technical complexity, also introduces new challenges. This volume brings together a number of promising new evolutions in the use of mixed models in linguistics, but also addres...
Antihistaminic effects of rupatadine and PKPD modelling.
Peña, Juana; Carbo, Marcel Li; Solans, Anna; Nadal, Teresa; Izquierdo, Iñaki; Merlos, Manuel
2008-01-01
Rupatadine is a new oral antihistaminic agent used for the management of allergic inflammatory conditions, such as rhinitis and chronic urticaria. The aim of the present study was to develop a population pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PKPD) model for the description of the effect of rupatadine and one of its active metabolites, desloratadine, on the histamine-induced flare reaction and to predict the response to treatment after repeated administrations of rupatadine. Both rupatadine and desloratadine were characterized by two-compartmental kinetics. For both compounds, covariates sex and weight had a significant effect on several parameters. The pharmacodynamics were described by an indirect model for the inhibition of flare formation that accounted for the contribution of both rupatadine and desloratadine to the antihistaminic effect. The final PKPD model adequately described the original data. The simulated response after repeated once-daily administrations of 10 mg rupatadine showed a significant and maintained antihistaminic effect over time, between two consecutive dosing intervals.
ANSYS Modeling of Hydrostatic Stress Effects
Allen, Phillip A.
1999-01-01
Classical metal plasticity theory assumes that hydrostatic pressure has no effect on the yield and postyield behavior of metals. Plasticity textbooks, from the earliest to the most modem, infer that there is no hydrostatic effect on the yielding of metals, and even modem finite element programs direct the user to assume the same. The object of this study is to use the von Mises and Drucker-Prager failure theory constitutive models in the finite element program ANSYS to see how well they model conditions of varying hydrostatic pressure. Data is presented for notched round bar (NRB) and "L" shaped tensile specimens. Similar results from finite element models in ABAQUS are shown for comparison. It is shown that when dealing with geometries having a high hydrostatic stress influence, constitutive models that have a functional dependence on hydrostatic stress are more accurate in predicting material behavior than those that are independent of hydrostatic stress.
Enhancing Mental Models for Team Effectiveness
2011-09-01
Enhancing mental models for team effectiveness Marie-Eve Jobidon Alexandra Muller-Gass Matthew Duncan Ann-Renee...Blais Defence R&D Canada Technical Report DRDC Toronto TR 2009-202 September 2011 Enhancing mental ... mental models (TMM) has been the focus of many research endeavours (e.g., Edwards et al., 2006; Marks et al., 2002; Mathieu et al., 2010). The purpose
Dynamic hysteresis modeling including skin effect using diffusion equation model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hamada, Souad, E-mail: souadhamada@yahoo.fr [LSP-IE: Research Laboratory, Electrical Engineering Department, University of Batna, 05000 Batna (Algeria); Louai, Fatima Zohra, E-mail: fz_louai@yahoo.com [LSP-IE: Research Laboratory, Electrical Engineering Department, University of Batna, 05000 Batna (Algeria); Nait-Said, Nasreddine, E-mail: n_naitsaid@yahoo.com [LSP-IE: Research Laboratory, Electrical Engineering Department, University of Batna, 05000 Batna (Algeria); Benabou, Abdelkader, E-mail: Abdelkader.Benabou@univ-lille1.fr [L2EP, Université de Lille1, 59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq (France)
2016-07-15
An improved dynamic hysteresis model is proposed for the prediction of hysteresis loop of electrical steel up to mean frequencies, taking into account the skin effect. In previous works, the analytical solution of the diffusion equation for low frequency (DELF) was coupled with the inverse static Jiles-Atherton (JA) model in order to represent the hysteresis behavior for a lamination. In the present paper, this approach is improved to ensure the reproducibility of measured hysteresis loops at mean frequency. The results of simulation are compared with the experimental ones. The selected results for frequencies 50 Hz, 100 Hz, 200 Hz and 400 Hz are presented and discussed.
Modeling socioeconomic status effects on language development.
Thomas, Michael S C; Forrester, Neil A; Ronald, Angelica
2013-12-01
Socioeconomic status (SES) is an important environmental predictor of language and cognitive development, but the causal pathways by which it operates are unclear. We used a computational model of development to explore the adequacy of manipulations of environmental information to simulate SES effects in English past-tense acquisition, in a data set provided by Bishop (2005). To our knowledge, this is the first application of computational models of development to SES. The simulations addressed 3 new challenges: (a) to combine models of development and individual differences in a single framework, (b) to expand modeling to the population level, and (c) to implement both environmental and genetic/intrinsic sources of individual differences. The model succeeded in capturing the qualitative patterns of regularity effects in both population performance and the predictive power of SES that were observed in the empirical data. The model suggested that the empirical data are best captured by relatively wider variation in learning abilities and relatively narrow variation in (and good quality of) environmental information. There were shortcomings in the model's quantitative fit, which are discussed. The model made several novel predictions, with respect to the influence of SES on delay versus giftedness, the change of SES effects over development, and the influence of SES on children of different ability levels (gene-environment interactions). The first of these predictions was that SES should reliably predict gifted performance in children but not delayed performance, and the prediction was supported by the Bishop data set. Finally, the model demonstrated limits on the inferences that can be drawn about developmental mechanisms on the basis of data from individual differences. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
A Normative Model of Work Team Effectiveness
1983-11-01
dramas are played out, from political intrigues to romantic encounters. Our present focus on task effectiveness does not deny the multiple purposes...attributes of group members). 5 Research on process-outcome relationships has emphasized the impact of group interaction on the attitudes, beliefs, and...orocal effects on each other. This model suggests that group interaction does mediate the impact of input conditions--but also that performance outcomes
A MODEL TO MINIMIZE MULTICOLLINEARITY EFFECTS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Baciu Olivia
2013-07-01
Full Text Available Multicollinearity implies near-linear dependence among regressors and is one of the diagnostics that harms enough the quality and the estimation of the regression models. Among the effects of multicollinearity can be mentioned that parameter estimates could lead to opposite signs or the variables turn out to having insignificant coefficients although it is known from theory or reality that the relationship exists. Also, when other variables are included or removed from the model this can affect the parameter estimates. Usually, multicollinearity is measured with the help of Variance Inflation Factor. A value greater than ten indicates severe multicollinearity in the model. Different approaches are known to reduce or eliminate multicollinearity effects but some of them are not always applicable due to data. The most used methods include addition of more data or elimination of the variable that is highly correlated with other independent variables or the use of the Ridge Regression. In addition to the well known and used models it is proposed here a new approach for the multicollinearity reduction. This method implies creating an index variable as a linear combination of the highly correlated ones. The index coefficients are selected under specific constraints imposed on the variables such that the new variable becomes highly correlated with the response variable but not with the independent ones. The best coefficients can be chosen out of the solution domain using an optimization program. In the new model, the highly correlated variables are replaced by the index one. The quality of the new model is improved by reducing or even eliminating the effects of multicollinearity. The regression model is expected to yield proper estimates. Also, VIF returns appropriate values, lower than ten. The method is exemplified on the BRD stock portfolio. Multicollinearity was eliminated, as showed by a value of one of the VIF and the model is expected to improve.
Li, Bao-Wei; Ouyang, Shun-Li; Zhang, Xue-Feng; Jia, Xiao-Lin; Deng, Lei-Bo; Liu, Fang
2014-07-01
In the present paper, nanocrystalline glass-ceramic of CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 system was produced by melting method. The CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 nanocrystalline glass-ceramic was measured by Raman spectroscopy in the temperature range from -190 to 310 degrees C in order to study the effect of temperature on the structure of this system nanocrystalline glass-ceramics. The results showed that different non-bridge oxygen bond silicon-oxygen tetrahedron structural unit changes are not consistent with rising temperature. Further analyses indicated that: the SiO4 tetrahedron with 2 non-bridged oxygen (Q2), the SiO4 tetrahedron with 3 non-bridged oxygen (Q(1)), which are situated at the edge of the 3-D SiO4 tetrahedrons network, and the SiO4 tetrahedron with 4 non-bridged oxygen (Q(0)), which is situated outside the 3-D network all suffered a significant influence by the temperature change, which has been expressed as: shifts towards the high wave-number, increased bond force constants, and shortened bond lengths. This paper studied the influence of temperature on CMAS system nanocrystalline glass-ceramics using variable temperature Raman technology. It provides experiment basis to the research on external environment influence on CMAS system nanocrystalline glass-ceramics materials in terms of structure and performance. In addition, the research provides experimental basis for controlling the expansion coefficient of nanocrystalline glass-ceramic of CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 system.
Modelling vocal anatomy's significant effect on speech
de Boer, B.
2010-01-01
This paper investigates the effect of larynx position on the articulatory abilities of a humanlike vocal tract. Previous work has investigated models that were built to resemble the anatomy of existing species or fossil ancestors. This has led to conflicting conclusions about the relation between
Effective models for excitons in carbon nanotubes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cornean, Horia; Duclos, Pierre; Ricaud, Benjamin
We analyse the low lying spectrum of a model of excitons in carbon nanotubes. Consider two particles with a Coulomb self-interaction, placed on an infinitely long cylinder. If the cylinder radius becomes small, the low lying spectrum is well described by a one-dimensional effective Hamiltonian...
Random effect selection in generalised linear models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Denwood, Matt; Houe, Hans; Forkman, Björn
We analysed abattoir recordings of meat inspection codes with possible relevance to onfarm animal welfare in cattle. Random effects logistic regression models were used to describe individual-level data obtained from 461,406 cattle slaughtered in Denmark. Our results demonstrate that the largest ...
Synergistic effects in threshold models on networks
Juul, Jonas S.; Porter, Mason A.
2018-01-01
Network structure can have a significant impact on the propagation of diseases, memes, and information on social networks. Different types of spreading processes (and other dynamical processes) are affected by network architecture in different ways, and it is important to develop tractable models of spreading processes on networks to explore such issues. In this paper, we incorporate the idea of synergy into a two-state ("active" or "passive") threshold model of social influence on networks. Our model's update rule is deterministic, and the influence of each meme-carrying (i.e., active) neighbor can—depending on a parameter—either be enhanced or inhibited by an amount that depends on the number of active neighbors of a node. Such a synergistic system models social behavior in which the willingness to adopt either accelerates or saturates in a way that depends on the number of neighbors who have adopted that behavior. We illustrate that our model's synergy parameter has a crucial effect on system dynamics, as it determines whether degree-k nodes are possible or impossible to activate. We simulate synergistic meme spreading on both random-graph models and networks constructed from empirical data. Using a heterogeneous mean-field approximation, which we derive under the assumption that a network is locally tree-like, we are able to determine which synergy-parameter values allow degree-k nodes to be activated for many networks and for a broad family of synergistic models.
On effective resolution in ocean models
Soufflet, Yves; Marchesiello, Patrick; Lemarié, Florian; Jouanno, Julien; Capet, Xavier; Debreu, Laurent; Benshila, Rachid
2016-02-01
The increase of model resolution naturally leads to the representation of a wider energy spectrum. As a result, in recent years, the understanding of oceanic submesoscale dynamics has significantly improved. However, dissipation in submesoscale models remains dominated by numerical constraints rather than physical ones. Effective resolution is limited by the numerical dissipation range, which is a function of the model numerical filters (assuming that dispersive numerical modes are efficiently removed). We present a Baroclinic jet test case set in a zonally reentrant channel that provides a controllable test of a model capacity at resolving submesoscale dynamics. We compare simulations from two models, ROMS and NEMO, at different mesh sizes (from 20 to 2 km). Through a spectral decomposition of kinetic energy and its budget terms, we identify the characteristics of numerical dissipation and effective resolution. It shows that numerical dissipation appears in different parts of a model, especially in spatial advection-diffusion schemes for momentum equations (KE dissipation) and tracer equations (APE dissipation) and in the time stepping algorithms. Effective resolution, defined by scale-selective dissipation, is inadequate to qualify traditional ocean models with low-order spatial and temporal filters, even at high grid resolution. High-order methods are better suited to the concept and probably unavoidable. Fourth-order filters are suited only for grid resolutions less than a few kilometers and momentum advection schemes of even higher-order may be justified. The upgrade of time stepping algorithms (from filtered Leapfrog), a cumbersome task in a model, appears critical from our results, not just as a matter of model solution quality but also of computational efficiency (extended stability range of predictor-corrector schemes). Effective resolution is also shaken by the need for non scale-selective barotropic mode filters and requires carefully addressing the
Are Quantum Models for Order Effects Quantum?
Moreira, Catarina; Wichert, Andreas
2017-12-01
The application of principles of Quantum Mechanics in areas outside of physics has been getting increasing attention in the scientific community in an emergent disciplined called Quantum Cognition. These principles have been applied to explain paradoxical situations that cannot be easily explained through classical theory. In quantum probability, events are characterised by a superposition state, which is represented by a state vector in a N-dimensional vector space. The probability of an event is given by the squared magnitude of the projection of this superposition state into the desired subspace. This geometric approach is very useful to explain paradoxical findings that involve order effects, but do we really need quantum principles for models that only involve projections? This work has two main goals. First, it is still not clear in the literature if a quantum projection model has any advantage towards a classical projection. We compared both models and concluded that the Quantum Projection model achieves the same results as its classical counterpart, because the quantum interference effects play no role in the computation of the probabilities. Second, it intends to propose an alternative relativistic interpretation for rotation parameters that are involved in both classical and quantum models. In the end, instead of interpreting these parameters as a similarity measure between questions, we propose that they emerge due to the lack of knowledge concerned with a personal basis state and also due to uncertainties towards the state of world and towards the context of the questions.
Effects of Anethole in Nociception Experimental Models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alessandra Mileni Versuti Ritter
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This study investigated the antinociceptive activity of anethole (anethole 1-methoxy-4-benzene (1-propenyl, major compound of the essential oil of star anise (Illicium verum, in different experimental models of nociception. The animals were pretreated with anethole (62.5, 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg one hour before the experiments. To eliminate a possible sedative effect of anethole, the open field test was conducted. Anethole (62.5, 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg showed an antinociceptive effect in the writhing model induced by acetic acid, in the second phase of the formalin test (125 and 250 mg/kg in the test of glutamate (62.5, 125, and 250 mg/kg, and expresses pain induced by ACF (250 mg/kg. In contrast, anethole was not able to increase the latency time on the hot plate and decrease the number of flinches during the initial phase of the formalin test in any of the doses tested. It was also demonstrated that anethole has no association with sedative effects. Therefore, these data showed that anethole, at all used doses, has no sedative effect and has an antinociceptive effect. This effect may be due to a decrease in the production/release of inflammatory mediators.
Effective orthorhombic anisotropic models for wavefield extrapolation
Ibanez-Jacome, W.
2014-07-18
Wavefield extrapolation in orthorhombic anisotropic media incorporates complicated but realistic models to reproduce wave propagation phenomena in the Earth\\'s subsurface. Compared with the representations used for simpler symmetries, such as transversely isotropic or isotropic, orthorhombic models require an extended and more elaborated formulation that also involves more expensive computational processes. The acoustic assumption yields more efficient description of the orthorhombic wave equation that also provides a simplified representation for the orthorhombic dispersion relation. However, such representation is hampered by the sixth-order nature of the acoustic wave equation, as it also encompasses the contribution of shear waves. To reduce the computational cost of wavefield extrapolation in such media, we generate effective isotropic inhomogeneous models that are capable of reproducing the firstarrival kinematic aspects of the orthorhombic wavefield. First, in order to compute traveltimes in vertical orthorhombic media, we develop a stable, efficient and accurate algorithm based on the fast marching method. The derived orthorhombic acoustic dispersion relation, unlike the isotropic or transversely isotropic ones, is represented by a sixth order polynomial equation with the fastest solution corresponding to outgoing P waves in acoustic media. The effective velocity models are then computed by evaluating the traveltime gradients of the orthorhombic traveltime solution, and using them to explicitly evaluate the corresponding inhomogeneous isotropic velocity field. The inverted effective velocity fields are source dependent and produce equivalent first-arrival kinematic descriptions of wave propagation in orthorhombic media. We extrapolate wavefields in these isotropic effective velocity models using the more efficient isotropic operator, and the results compare well, especially kinematically, with those obtained from the more expensive anisotropic extrapolator.
SOME THEORETICAL MODELS EXPLAINING ADVERTISING EFFECTS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vasilica Magdalena SOMEŞFĂLEAN
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Persuade clients is still the main focus of the companies, using a set of methods and techniques designed to influence their behavior, in order to obtain better results (profits over a longer period of time. Since the late nineteenth - early twentieth century, the american E.St.Elmo Lewis, considered a pioneer in advertising and sales, developed the first theory, AIDA model, later used by marketers and advertisers to develop a marketing communications strategy. Later studies have developed other models that are the main subject of this research, which explains how and why persuasive communication works, to understand why some approaches are effective and others are not.
FEM modeling of the sandpile dip effect
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carvalho Isadora Cota
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Previously, it was shown that the pressure “dip” in the stress profile observed at the bottom of sandpiles prepared by successive avalanches can be related with the skewness effect observed inthe stress response of sheared granular layers to a localized vertical overload. Here, we present a FEM study of the sandpile dip effect using an alternative geometry (“wagon” to build the pile, considering a simplified anisotropic elastic model, with an orthotropy angle. We explore the effect of different boundary conditions and grid coarsening on numerical stress response profiles. Our results indicate that the wagon geometry combined with partially fixed boundary condition may describe better experimental results than the conical geometry, a remark which can contribute for better comprehension of this effect.
Castro-Chavez, Fernando
2012-01-01
BACKGROUND: Three binary representations of the genetic code according to the ancient I Ching of Fu-Xi will be presented, depending on their defragging capabilities by pairing based on three biochemical properties of the nucleic acids: H-bonds, Purine/Pyrimidine rings, and the Keto-enol/Amino-imino tautomerism, yielding the last pair a 32/32 single-strand self-annealed genetic code and I Ching tables. METHODS: Our working tool is the ancient binary I Ching's resulting genetic code chromosomes defragged by vertical and by horizontal pairing, reverse engineered into non-binaries of 2D rotating 4×4×4 circles and 8×8 squares and into one 3D 100% symmetrical 16×4 tetrahedron coupled to a functional tetrahedron with apical signaling and central hydrophobicity (codon formula: 4[1(1)+1(3)+1(4)+4(2)]; 5:5, 6:6 in man) forming a stella octangula, and compared to Nirenberg's 16×4 codon table (1965) pairing the first two nucleotides of the 64 codons in axis y. RESULTS: One horizontal and one vertical defragging had the start Met at the center. Two, both horizontal and vertical pairings produced two pairs of 2×8×4 genetic code chromosomes naturally arranged (M and I), rearranged by semi-introversion of central purines or pyrimidines (M' and I') and by clustering hydrophobic amino acids; their quasi-identity was disrupted by amino acids with odd codons (Met and Tyr pairing to Ile and TGA Stop); in all instances, the 64-grid 90° rotational ability was restored. CONCLUSIONS: We defragged three I Ching representations of the genetic code while emphasizing Nirenberg's historical finding. The synthetic genetic code chromosomes obtained reflect the protective strategy of enzymes with a similar function, having both humans and mammals a biased G-C dominance of three H-bonds in the third nucleotide of their most used codons per amino acid, as seen in one chromosome of the i, M and M' genetic codes, while a two H-bond A-T dominance was found in their complementary chromosome, as
Castro-Chavez, Fernando
2012-01-01
Background Three binary representations of the genetic code according to the ancient I Ching of Fu-Xi will be presented, depending on their defragging capabilities by pairing based on three biochemical properties of the nucleic acids: H-bonds, Purine/Pyrimidine rings, and the Keto-enol/Amino-imino tautomerism, yielding the last pair a 32/32 single-strand self-annealed genetic code and I Ching tables. Methods Our working tool is the ancient binary I Ching's resulting genetic code chromosomes defragged by vertical and by horizontal pairing, reverse engineered into non-binaries of 2D rotating 4×4×4 circles and 8×8 squares and into one 3D 100% symmetrical 16×4 tetrahedron coupled to a functional tetrahedron with apical signaling and central hydrophobicity (codon formula: 4[1(1)+1(3)+1(4)+4(2)]; 5:5, 6:6 in man) forming a stella octangula, and compared to Nirenberg's 16×4 codon table (1965) pairing the first two nucleotides of the 64 codons in axis y. Results One horizontal and one vertical defragging had the start Met at the center. Two, both horizontal and vertical pairings produced two pairs of 2×8×4 genetic code chromosomes naturally arranged (M and I), rearranged by semi-introversion of central purines or pyrimidines (M' and I') and by clustering hydrophobic amino acids; their quasi-identity was disrupted by amino acids with odd codons (Met and Tyr pairing to Ile and TGA Stop); in all instances, the 64-grid 90° rotational ability was restored. Conclusions We defragged three I Ching representations of the genetic code while emphasizing Nirenberg's historical finding. The synthetic genetic code chromosomes obtained reflect the protective strategy of enzymes with a similar function, having both humans and mammals a biased G-C dominance of three H-bonds in the third nucleotide of their most used codons per amino acid, as seen in one chromosome of the i, M and M' genetic codes, while a two H-bond A-T dominance was found in their complementary chromosome, as seen
Internet advertising effectiveness by using hierarchical model
Rahmani, Samaneh
2015-01-01
Abstract. Present paper has been developed with the title of internet advertising effectiveness by using hierarchical model. Presenting the question: Today Internet is an important channel in marketing and advertising. The reason for this could be the ability of the Internet to reduce costs and people’s access to online services[1]. Also advertisers can easily access a multitude of users and communicate with them at low cost [9]. On the other hand, compared to traditional advertising, interne...
ACOUSTIC EFFECTS ON BINARY AEROELASTICITY MODEL
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kok Hwa Yu
2011-10-01
Full Text Available Acoustics is the science concerned with the study of sound. The effects of sound on structures attract overwhelm interests and numerous studies were carried out in this particular area. Many of the preliminary investigations show that acoustic pressure produces significant influences on structures such as thin plate, membrane and also high-impedance medium like water (and other similar fluids. Thus, it is useful to investigate the structure response with the presence of acoustics on aircraft, especially on aircraft wings, tails and control surfaces which are vulnerable to flutter phenomena. The present paper describes the modeling of structural-acoustic interactions to simulate the external acoustic effect on binary flutter model. Here, the binary flutter model which illustrated as a rectangular wing is constructed using strip theory with simplified unsteady aerodynamics involving flap and pitch degree of freedom terms. The external acoustic excitation, on the other hand, is modeled using four-node quadrilateral isoparametric element via finite element approach. Both equations then carefully coupled and solved using eigenvalue solution. The mentioned approach is implemented in MATLAB and the outcome of the simulated result are later described, analyzed and illustrated in this paper.
Atomic Models for Motional Stark Effects Diagnostics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gu, M F; Holcomb, C; Jayakuma, J; Allen, S; Pablant, N A; Burrell, K
2007-07-26
We present detailed atomic physics models for motional Stark effects (MSE) diagnostic on magnetic fusion devices. Excitation and ionization cross sections of the hydrogen or deuterium beam traveling in a magnetic field in collisions with electrons, ions, and neutral gas are calculated in the first Born approximation. The density matrices and polarization states of individual Stark-Zeeman components of the Balmer {alpha} line are obtained for both beam into plasma and beam into gas models. A detailed comparison of the model calculations and the MSE polarimetry and spectral intensity measurements obtained at the DIII-D tokamak is carried out. Although our beam into gas models provide a qualitative explanation for the larger {pi}/{sigma} intensity ratios and represent significant improvements over the statistical population models, empirical adjustment factors ranging from 1.0-2.0 must still be applied to individual line intensities to bring the calculations into full agreement with the observations. Nevertheless, we demonstrate that beam into gas measurements can be used successfully as calibration procedures for measuring the magnetic pitch angle through {pi}/{sigma} intensity ratios. The analyses of the filter-scan polarization spectra from the DIII-D MSE polarimetry system indicate unknown channel and time dependent light contaminations in the beam into gas measurements. Such contaminations may be the main reason for the failure of beam into gas calibration on MSE polarimetry systems.
Integrability in three dimensions: Algebraic Bethe ansatz for anyonic models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sh. Khachatryan
2015-10-01
Full Text Available We extend basic properties of two dimensional integrable models within the Algebraic Bethe Ansatz approach to 2+1 dimensions and formulate the sufficient conditions for the commutativity of transfer matrices of different spectral parameters, in analogy with Yang–Baxter or tetrahedron equations. The basic ingredient of our models is the R-matrix, which describes the scattering of a pair of particles over another pair of particles, the quark-anti-quark (meson scattering on another quark-anti-quark state. We show that the Kitaev model belongs to this class of models and its R-matrix fulfills well-defined equations for integrability.
Cost effectiveness of recycling: A systems model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tonjes, David J., E-mail: david.tonjes@stonybrook.edu [Department of Technology and Society, College of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3560 (United States); Waste Reduction and Management Institute, School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-5000 (United States); Center for Bioenergy Research and Development, Advanced Energy Research and Technology Center, Stony Brook University, 1000 Innovation Rd., Stony Brook, NY 11794-6044 (United States); Mallikarjun, Sreekanth, E-mail: sreekanth.mallikarjun@stonybrook.edu [Department of Technology and Society, College of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3560 (United States)
2013-11-15
Highlights: • Curbside collection of recyclables reduces overall system costs over a range of conditions. • When avoided costs for recyclables are large, even high collection costs are supported. • When avoided costs for recyclables are not great, there are reduced opportunities for savings. • For common waste compositions, maximizing curbside recyclables collection always saves money. - Abstract: Financial analytical models of waste management systems have often found that recycling costs exceed direct benefits, and in order to economically justify recycling activities, externalities such as household expenses or environmental impacts must be invoked. Certain more empirically based studies have also found that recycling is more expensive than disposal. Other work, both through models and surveys, have found differently. Here we present an empirical systems model, largely drawn from a suburban Long Island municipality. The model accounts for changes in distribution of effort as recycling tonnages displace disposal tonnages, and the seven different cases examined all show that curbside collection programs that manage up to between 31% and 37% of the waste stream should result in overall system savings. These savings accrue partially because of assumed cost differences in tip fees for recyclables and disposed wastes, and also because recycling can result in a more efficient, cost-effective collection program. These results imply that increases in recycling are justifiable due to cost-savings alone, not on more difficult to measure factors that may not impact program budgets.
Cost effectiveness of recycling: a systems model.
Tonjes, David J; Mallikarjun, Sreekanth
2013-11-01
Financial analytical models of waste management systems have often found that recycling costs exceed direct benefits, and in order to economically justify recycling activities, externalities such as household expenses or environmental impacts must be invoked. Certain more empirically based studies have also found that recycling is more expensive than disposal. Other work, both through models and surveys, have found differently. Here we present an empirical systems model, largely drawn from a suburban Long Island municipality. The model accounts for changes in distribution of effort as recycling tonnages displace disposal tonnages, and the seven different cases examined all show that curbside collection programs that manage up to between 31% and 37% of the waste stream should result in overall system savings. These savings accrue partially because of assumed cost differences in tip fees for recyclables and disposed wastes, and also because recycling can result in a more efficient, cost-effective collection program. These results imply that increases in recycling are justifiable due to cost-savings alone, not on more difficult to measure factors that may not impact program budgets. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Modeling terahertz heating effects on water.
Kristensen, Torben T L; Withayachumnankul, Withawat; Jepsen, Peter U; Abbott, Derek
2010-03-01
We apply Kirchhoff's heat equation to model the influence of a CW terahertz beam on a sample of water, which is assumed to be static. We develop a generalized model, which easily can be applied to other liquids and solids by changing the material constants. If the terahertz light source is focused down to a spot with a diameter of 0.5 mm, we find that the steady-state temperature increase per milliwatt of transmitted power is 1.8?C/mW. A quantum cascade laser can produce a CW beam in the order of several milliwatts and this motivates the need to estimate the effect of beam power on the sample temperature. For THz time domain systems, we indicate how to use our model as a worst-case approximation based on the beam average power. It turns out that THz pulses created from photoconductive antennas give a negligible increase in temperature. As biotissue contains a high water content, this leads to a discussion of worst-case predictions for THz heating of the human body in order to motivate future detailed study. An open source Matlab implementation of our model is freely available for use at www.eleceng.adelaide.edu.au/thz.
Modelling heating effects in cryocooled protein crystals
Nicholson, J; Fayz, K; Fell, B; Garman, E
2001-01-01
With the application of intense X-ray beams from third generation synchrotron sources, damage to cryocooled macromolecular crystals is being observed more commonly . In order to fully utilize synchrotron facilities now available for studying biological crystals, it is essential to understand the processes involved in radiation damage and beam heating so that, if possible, action can be taken to slow the rate of damage. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) has been applied to model the heating effects of X-rays on cryocooled protein crystals, and to compare the relative cooling efficiencies of nitrogen and helium.
The Ranque-Hilsch effect: CFD modeling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bezprozvannykh, V.; Mottl, H. [DYCOR Technologies, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)]. E-mail: vlad.bez@dycor.com; hank.mottl@dycor.com
2003-07-01
The phenomenon of noticeable temperature distribution in confined steady rotating gas flows is referred as Ranque-Hilsch effect. The simple counter-flow Ranque-Hilsch tube consists of a long hollow cylinder with tangential nozzles at one end for injecting compressed gas. Rotating gas escapes the tube through two outlets - a central orifice diaphragm placed near the injection nozzle plane (cold stream) and a ring-shaped peripheral outlet placed at the opposite end of the tube (hot stream). The flow is essentially three-dimensional, turbulent, compressible, and spinning such that any theoretical simplifications are questionable, if at all possible. Fluent suite of software was applied at Dycor Technologies, Canada to the task of numerical simulation of the Ranque-Hilsch effect that is part of Dycor's program of fundamental and applied research. The behavior of two types of fluids in the Ranque-Hilsch tube was investigated - air and water. Three-dimensional continuity, momentum, and energy equations were solved for incompressible and compressible flows for water and air cases correspondingly. The Reynolds stress turbulence model was originally applied to close the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The visualization of the velocity and temperature fields inside the vortex tube helped to understand the details of fluid flow. It was shown that CFD approach is applicable for simulating Ranque-Hilsch effect. It was found that various levels of complexity in turbulence modeling are suitable for vortex tube analysis. No vortex effect was observed for incompressible flow. The dependence of vortex tube cooling ability on initial gas pressure was investigated. Numerical simulation data are consistent with available experimental results. (author)
Modeling of interaction effects in granular systems
El-Hilo, M; Al-Rsheed, A
2000-01-01
Interaction effects on the magnetic behavior of granular solid systems are examined using a numerical model which is capable of predicting the field, temperature and time dependence of magnetization. In this work, interaction effects on the temperature dependence of time viscosity coefficient S(T) and formation of minor hysteresis loops have been studied. The results for the time- and temperature dependence of remanence ratio have showed that the distribution of energy barriers f(DELTA E) obtained depend critically on the strength and nature of interactions. These interactions-based changes in f(DELTA E) can easily give a temperature-independent behavior of S(T) when these changes give a 1/DELTA E behavior to the distribution of energy barriers. Thus, conclusions about macroscopic quantum tunneling must be carefully drawn when the temperature dependence of S(T) is used to probe for MQT effects. For minor hysteresis effects, the result shows that for the non-interacting case, no minor hysteresis loops occur an...
Modeling nuclear volume isotope effects in crystals
Schauble, Edwin A.
2013-01-01
Mass-independent isotope fractionations driven by differences in volumes and shapes of nuclei (the field shift effect) are known in several elements and are likely to be found in more. All-electron relativistic electronic structure calculations can predict this effect but at present are computationally intensive and limited to modeling small gas phase molecules and clusters. Density functional theory, using the projector augmented wave method (DFT-PAW), has advantages in greater speed and compatibility with a three-dimensional periodic boundary condition while preserving information about the effects of chemistry on electron densities within nuclei. These electron density variations determine the volume component of the field shift effect. In this study, DFT-PAW calculations are calibrated against all-electron, relativistic Dirac–Hartree–Fock, and coupled-cluster with single, double (triple) excitation methods for estimating nuclear volume isotope effects. DFT-PAW calculations accurately reproduce changes in electron densities within nuclei in typical molecules, when PAW datasets constructed with finite nuclei are used. Nuclear volume contributions to vapor–crystal isotope fractionation are calculated for elemental cadmium and mercury, showing good agreement with experiments. The nuclear-volume component of mercury and cadmium isotope fractionations between atomic vapor and montroydite (HgO), cinnabar (HgS), calomel (Hg2Cl2), monteponite (CdO), and the CdS polymorphs hawleyite and greenockite are calculated, indicating preferential incorporation of neutron-rich isotopes in more oxidized, ionically bonded phases. Finally, field shift energies are related to Mössbauer isomer shifts, and equilibrium mass-independent fractionations for several tin-bearing crystals are calculated from 119Sn spectra. Isomer shift data should simplify calculations of mass-independent isotope fractionations in other elements with Mössbauer isotopes, such as platinum and uranium
Modeling nuclear volume isotope effects in crystals.
Schauble, Edwin A
2013-10-29
Mass-independent isotope fractionations driven by differences in volumes and shapes of nuclei (the field shift effect) are known in several elements and are likely to be found in more. All-electron relativistic electronic structure calculations can predict this effect but at present are computationally intensive and limited to modeling small gas phase molecules and clusters. Density functional theory, using the projector augmented wave method (DFT-PAW), has advantages in greater speed and compatibility with a three-dimensional periodic boundary condition while preserving information about the effects of chemistry on electron densities within nuclei. These electron density variations determine the volume component of the field shift effect. In this study, DFT-PAW calculations are calibrated against all-electron, relativistic Dirac-Hartree-Fock, and coupled-cluster with single, double (triple) excitation methods for estimating nuclear volume isotope effects. DFT-PAW calculations accurately reproduce changes in electron densities within nuclei in typical molecules, when PAW datasets constructed with finite nuclei are used. Nuclear volume contributions to vapor-crystal isotope fractionation are calculated for elemental cadmium and mercury, showing good agreement with experiments. The nuclear-volume component of mercury and cadmium isotope fractionations between atomic vapor and montroydite (HgO), cinnabar (HgS), calomel (Hg2Cl2), monteponite (CdO), and the CdS polymorphs hawleyite and greenockite are calculated, indicating preferential incorporation of neutron-rich isotopes in more oxidized, ionically bonded phases. Finally, field shift energies are related to Mössbauer isomer shifts, and equilibrium mass-independent fractionations for several tin-bearing crystals are calculated from (119)Sn spectra. Isomer shift data should simplify calculations of mass-independent isotope fractionations in other elements with Mössbauer isotopes, such as platinum and uranium.
Simple model of the slingshot effect
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gaetano Fiore
2016-07-01
Full Text Available We present a detailed quantitative description of the recently proposed “slingshot effect.” Namely, we determine a broad range of conditions under which the impact of a very short and intense laser pulse normally onto a low-density plasma (or matter locally completely ionized into a plasma by the pulse causes the expulsion of a bunch of surface electrons in the direction opposite to the one of propagation of the pulse, and the detailed, ready-for-experiments features of the expelled electrons (energy spectrum, collimation, etc. The effect is due to the combined actions of the ponderomotive force and the huge longitudinal field arising from charge separation. Our predictions are based on estimating 3D corrections to a simple, yet powerful plane 2-fluid magnetohydrodynamic (MHD model where the equations to be solved are reduced to a system of Hamilton equations in one dimension (or a collection of which become autonomous after the pulse has overcome the electrons. Experimental tests seem to be at hand. If confirmed by the latter, the effect would provide a new extraction and acceleration mechanism for electrons, alternative to traditional radio-frequency-based or Laser-Wake-Field ones.
Space Environments and Effects: Trapped Proton Model
Huston, S. L.; Kauffman, W. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
An improved model of the Earth's trapped proton environment has been developed. This model, designated Trapped Proton Model version 1 (TPM-1), determines the omnidirectional flux of protons with energy between 1 and 100 MeV throughout near-Earth space. The model also incorporates a true solar cycle dependence. The model consists of several data files and computer software to read them. There are three versions of the mo'del: a FORTRAN-Callable library, a stand-alone model, and a Web-based model.
Optimal Scaling of Interaction Effects in Generalized Linear Models
van Rosmalen, Joost; Koning, Alex J.; Groenen, Patrick J. F.
2009-01-01
Multiplicative interaction models, such as Goodman's (1981) RC(M) association models, can be a useful tool for analyzing the content of interaction effects. However, most models for interaction effects are suitable only for data sets with two or three predictor variables. Here, we discuss an optimal scaling model for analyzing the content of…
Energy transport modelling including ergodic effects
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
McTaggart, N.; Bonnin, X.; Runov, A.; Schneider, R. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Wendelsteinstrasse 1, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany); Zagorski, R. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, P.O.Box 49, Warsaw (Poland)
2004-04-01
The effect of ergodization (either by additional coils like in TEXTOR-DED or by intrinsic plasma effects like in W7-X) defines the need for transport models being able to describe this properly. A prerequisite for this is the concept of local magnetic coordinates allowing a correct discretization with minimized numerical errors. For these coordinates the full respective metric tensor has to be known. To study the energy transport in complex edge geometries (in particular for W7-X) we use a finite difference discretization of the transport equations on a custom-tailored grid in local magnetic coordinates. This grid is generated by field line tracing to guarantee an exact discretization of the dominant parallel transport (this also minimizes the numerical diffusion problem). The perpendicular fluxes are interpolated on cross-sectional planes (toroidal cuts), where a quasi-isotropic problem is solved by a constrained Delaunay triangulation (preserving magnetic surfaces where they exist), and discretization. All terms involving toroidal terms are discretized by finite differences. The first tests for W7X and NCSX were successfully performed. (copyright 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
Modelling the effect of land use change on hydrological model ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
2017-04-02
Apr 2, 2017 ... Keywords: land use/cover change; parameter calibration; linearized; upper Huaihe River Basin ...... programming for modelling coastal algal blooms. ... prediction of reference evapotranspiration with climate change in.
Effective stimuli for constructing reliable neuron models.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shaul Druckmann
2011-08-01
Full Text Available The rich dynamical nature of neurons poses major conceptual and technical challenges for unraveling their nonlinear membrane properties. Traditionally, various current waveforms have been injected at the soma to probe neuron dynamics, but the rationale for selecting specific stimuli has never been rigorously justified. The present experimental and theoretical study proposes a novel framework, inspired by learning theory, for objectively selecting the stimuli that best unravel the neuron's dynamics. The efficacy of stimuli is assessed in terms of their ability to constrain the parameter space of biophysically detailed conductance-based models that faithfully replicate the neuron's dynamics as attested by their ability to generalize well to the neuron's response to novel experimental stimuli. We used this framework to evaluate a variety of stimuli in different types of cortical neurons, ages and animals. Despite their simplicity, a set of stimuli consisting of step and ramp current pulses outperforms synaptic-like noisy stimuli in revealing the dynamics of these neurons. The general framework that we propose paves a new way for defining, evaluating and standardizing effective electrical probing of neurons and will thus lay the foundation for a much deeper understanding of the electrical nature of these highly sophisticated and non-linear devices and of the neuronal networks that they compose.
Effective and efficient model clone detection
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Störrle, Harald
2015-01-01
automatically (“MDD-style”) or hand-crafted following the blueprint defined by the model (“MBSD-style”). Unfortunately, however, model clones are much less well studied than code clones. In this paper, we present a clone detection algorithm for UML domain models. Our approach covers a much greater variety...
A General Model for Testing Mediation and Moderation Effects
MacKinnon, David P.
2010-01-01
This paper describes methods for testing mediation and moderation effects in a dataset, both together and separately. Investigations of this kind are especially valuable in prevention research to obtain information on the process by which a program achieves its effects and whether the program is effective for subgroups of individuals. A general model that simultaneously estimates mediation and moderation effects is presented, and the utility of combining the effects into a single model is described. Possible effects of interest in the model are explained, as are statistical methods to assess these effects. The methods are further illustrated in a hypothetical prevention program example. PMID:19003535
Receiver Prejudice and Model Ethnicity: Impact on Advertising Effectiveness.
Lai, Hsiu-Chen Sandra; And Others
1990-01-01
Assesses the effect of model ethnicity on prejudiced respondents, and thus on advertising effectiveness. Finds that, for the most part, use of Asian models does not cause prejudiced respondents to evaluate a product or advertisement more negatively than when White models are used. (SR)
Konstantinou, Konstantinos; Sushko, Peter V; Duffy, Dorothy M
2016-09-21
The nature of chemical bonding of molybdenum in high level nuclear waste glasses has been elucidated by ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. Two compositions, (SiO 2 ) 57.5 -(B 2 O 3 ) 10 -(Na 2 O) 15 -(CaO) 15 -(MoO 3 ) 2.5 and (SiO 2 ) 57.3 -(B 2 O 3 ) 20 -(Na 2 O) 6.8 -(Li 2 O) 13.4 -(MoO 3 ) 2.5 , were considered in order to investigate the effect of ionic and covalent components on the glass structure and the formation of the crystallisation precursors (Na 2 MoO 4 and CaMoO 4 ). The coordination environments of Mo cations and the corresponding bond lengths calculated from our model are in excellent agreement with experimental observations. The analysis of the first coordination shell reveals two different types of molybdenum host matrix bonds in the lithium sodium borosilicate glass. Based on the structural data and the bond valence model, we demonstrate that the Mo cation can be found in a redox state and the molybdate tetrahedron can be connected with the borosilicate network in a way that inhibits the formation of crystalline molybdates. These results significantly extend our understanding of bonding in Mo-containing nuclear waste glasses and demonstrate that tailoring the glass composition to specific heavy metal constituents can facilitate incorporation of heavy metals at high concentrations.
Ashraf, Giti; Kadir, Suhaida bte Abd
2012-01-01
Organizational effectiveness is the main concern of all higher education institutes. Over the years there have been many different models of effectiveness along with the criteria for measuring organizational effectiveness. In this paper, four main models of organizational effectiveness namely the goal approach, the system resource approach, the…
Effective interactions and operators in no-core shell model
Stetcu, I.; Rotureau, J.
2012-01-01
Solutions to the nuclear many-body problem rely on effective interactions, and in general effective operators, to take into account effects not included in calculations. These include effects due to the truncation to finite model spaces where a numerical calculation is tractable, as well as physical terms not included in the description in the first place. In the no-core shell model (NCSM) framework, we discuss two approaches to the effective interactions based on (i) unitary transformations ...
Effect of GPS errors on Emission model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lehmann, Anders; Gross, Allan
n this paper we will show how Global Positioning Services (GPS) data obtained from smartphones can be used to model air quality in urban settings. The paper examines the uncertainty of smartphone location utilising GPS, and ties this location uncertainty to air quality models. The results presented...
Modelling of rate effects at multiple scales
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, R.R.; Simone, A.; Sluys, L. J.
2008-01-01
, the length scale in the meso-model and the macro-model can be coupled. In this fashion, a bridging of length scales can be established. A computational analysis of a Split Hopkinson bar test at medium and high impact load is carried out at macro-scale and meso-scale including information from the micro-scale....
Modeling terahertz heating effects on water
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kristensen, Torben T.L.; Withayachumnankul, Withawat; Jepsen, Peter Uhd
2010-01-01
We apply Kirchhoff’s heat equation to model the influence of a CW terahertz beam on a sample of water, which is assumed to be static. We develop a generalized model, which easily can be applied to other liquids and solids by changing the material constants. If the terahertz light source is focused...
Modeling of gamma/gamma-prime phase equilibrium in the nickel-aluminum system
Sanchez, J. M.; Barefoot, J. R.; Jarrett, R. N.; Tien, J. K.
1984-01-01
A theoretical model is proposed for the determination of phase equilibrium in alloys, taking into consideration dissimilar lattice parameters. Volume-dependent pair interactions are introduced by means of phenomenological Lennard-Jones potentials and the configurational entropy of the system is treated in the tetrahedron approximation of the cluster variation method. The model is applied to the superalloy-relevant, nickel-rich, gamma/gamma-prime phase region of the Ni-Al phase diagram. The model predicts reasonable values for the lattice parameters and the enthalpy of formation as a function of composition, and the calculated phase diagram closely approximates the experimental diagram.
Danilov, A. A.; Salamatova, V. Yu; Vassilevski, Yu V.
2012-12-01
Here, a workflow for high-resolution efficient numerical modeling of bioimpedance measurements is suggested that includes 3D image segmentation, adaptive mesh generation, finite-element discretization, and the analysis of simulation results. Using the adaptive unstructured tetrahedral meshes enables to decrease significantly a number of mesh elements while keeping model accuracy. The numerical results illustrate current, potential, and sensitivity field distributions for a conventional Kubicek-like scheme of bioimpedance measurements using segmented geometric model of human torso based on Visible Human Project data. The whole body VHP man computational mesh is constructed that contains 574 thousand vertices and 3.3 million tetrahedrons.
Incorporating context effects into a choice model
Bijmolt, T.H.A.; van Heerde, H.J.; Rooderkerk, R.P.
2011-01-01
The behavioral literature provides ample evidence that consumer preferences are partly driven by the context provided by the set of alternatives. three important context effects are the compromise, attraction, and similarity effects. because these context effects affect choices in a systematic and
Incorporating Context Effects into a Choice Model
Rooderkerk, Robert P.; Van Heerde, Harald J.; Bijmolt, Tammo H. A.
The behavioral literature provides ample evidence that consumer preferences are partly driven by the context provided by the set of alternatives. Three important context effects are the compromise, attraction, and similarity effects. Because these context effects affect choices in a systematic and
Modeling the Effects of Vaccination and Treatment on Pandemic Influenza
Feng, Zhilan; Towers, Sherry; Yang, Yiding
2011-01-01
In this paper, we demonstrate the uses of some simple mathematical models for the study of disease dynamics in a pandemic situation with a focus on influenza. These models are employed to evaluate the effectiveness of various control programs via vaccination and antiviral treatment. We use susceptible-, infectious-, recovered-type epidemic models consisting of ordinary differential equations. These models allow us to derive threshold conditions that can be used to assess the effectiveness of ...
Integrating teacher education effectiveness research into educational effectiveness models
Scheerens, Jaap; Blömeke, Sigrid
2016-01-01
The purpose of this article is to review and to connect research about teacher education effectiveness and school effectiveness to arrive at an integrative conceptualization that has the potential of improving empirical research in both fields. Teacher education effectiveness addresses effects of
Review of health effects models for Level 3 PSA
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Seung Hee; Kim, Ju Youl [FNC Technology Co., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Han, Seok Jung [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2016-05-15
Many international organizations have developed health risk models. Especially, as radiation-induced cancer is an important part among health effects, development has been focused on cancer risk model. This paper reviewed the cancer risk models of international agencies; United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), National Academy of Sciences (NAS) and International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Moreover, as pre-research for improving the health risk model in Korea, this paper analyzed the three methodologies and specific details in modeling. International agencies have developed radiation-induced cancer risk model reflecting the recent A-bomb survivor LSS data. This paper reviewed the recent cancer risk model of UNSCEAR, NAS and ICRP. All three models were based on ERR and EAR model in the form of a multiplication of dose-response model and modification function. Lifetime risk was calculated as a function of exposure age and gender.
Modelling irradiation effects in fusion materials
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Victoria, M.; Dudarev, S.; Boutard, J.L.
2007-01-01
part played by magnetism. The calculations give accurate migration energies of point defects and the strength of their interaction with He atoms. Kinetic models based on DFT results reproduce the stages of radiation damage recovery in iron, and stages of He-desorption from pre-implanted iron....... Experiments aimed at validating the models will be carried out in the future using a multi-beam ion irradiation facility chosen for its versatility and rapid feedback....
Tsai, Chia-Ching; Chang, Chih-Hsiang
2007-01-01
This study investigates the effect of advertising with physically attractive models on male and female adolescents. The findings suggest that highly attractive models are less effective than those who are normally attractive. Implications of social comparison are discussed.
Effective Biot theory and its generalization to poroviscoelastic models
Liu, Xu; Greenhalgh, Stewart; Zhou, Bing; Greenhalgh, Mark
2018-02-01
A method is suggested to express the effective bulk modulus of the solid frame of a poroelastic material as a function of the saturated bulk modulus. This method enables effective Biot theory to be described through the use of seismic dispersion measurements or other models developed for the effective saturated bulk modulus. The effective Biot theory is generalized to a poroviscoelastic model of which the moduli are represented by the relaxation functions of the generalized fractional Zener model. The latter covers the general Zener and the Cole-Cole models as special cases. A global search method is described to determine the parameters of the relaxation functions, and a simple deterministic method is also developed to find the defining parameters of the single Cole-Cole model. These methods enable poroviscoelastic models to be constructed, which are based on measured seismic attenuation functions, and ensure that the model dispersion characteristics match the observations.
Modeling the effects of ozone on soybean growth and yield.
Kobayashi, K; Miller, J E; Flagler, R B; Heck, W W
1990-01-01
A simple mechanistic model was developed based on an existing growth model in order to address the mechanisms of the effects of ozone on growth and yield of soybean [Glycine max. (L.) Merr. 'Davis'] and interacting effects of other environmental stresses. The model simulates daily growth of soybean plants using environmental data including shortwave radiation, temperature, precipitation, irrigation and ozone concentration. Leaf growth, dry matter accumulation, water budget, nitrogen input and seed growth linked to senescence and abscission of leaves are described in the model. The effects of ozone are modeled as reduced photosynthate production and accelerated senescence. The model was applied to the open-top chamber experiments in which soybean plants were exposed to ozone under two levels of soil moisture regimes. After calibrating the model to the growth data and seed yield, goodness-of-fit of the model was tested. The model fitted well for top dry weight in the vegetative growth phase and also at maturity. The effect of ozone on seen yield was also described satisfactorily by the model. The simulation showed apparent interaction between the effect of ozone and soil moisture stress on the seed yield. The model revealed that further work is needed concerning the effect of ozone on the senescence process and the consequences of alteration of canopy microclimate by the open-top chambers.
Hoogerheide, Vincent; van Wermeskerken, Margot; Loyens, Sofie M M; van Gog, Tamara
2016-01-01
Learning from (video) modeling examples in which a model demonstrates how to perform a task is an effective instructional strategy. The model-observer similarity (MOS) hypothesis postulates that (perceived) similarity between learners and the model in terms of age or expertise moderates the
Review of effective emissions modeling and computation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Paoli
2011-08-01
Full Text Available An important issue in the evaluation of the environmental impact of emissions from concentrated sources such as transport modes, is to understand how processes occurring at the scales of exhaust plumes can influence the physical and chemical state of the atmosphere at regional and global scales. Indeed, three-dimensional global circulation models or chemistry transport models generally assume that emissions are instantaneously diluted into large-scale grid boxes, which may lead, for example, to overpredict the efficiency of NO_{x} to produce ozone. In recent times, various methods have been developed to incorporate parameterizations of plume processes into global models that are based e.g. on correcting the original emission indexes or on introducing "subgrid" reaction rates in the models. This paper provides a review of the techniques proposed so far in the literature to account for local conversion of emissions in the plume, as well as the implementation of these techniques into atmospheric codes.
Enhanced battery model including temperature effects
Rosca, B.; Wilkins, S.
2013-01-01
Within electric and hybrid vehicles, batteries are used to provide/buffer the energy required for driving. However, battery performance varies throughout the temperature range specific to automotive applications, and as such, models that describe this behaviour are required. This paper presents a
Effective models for excitons in carbon nanotubes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cornean, Horia; Duclos, Pierre; Ricaud, Benjamin
2007-01-01
We analyse the low lying spectrum of a model of excitons in carbon nanotubes. Consider two particles with opposite charges and a Coulomb self-interaction, placed on an infinitely long cylinder. If the cylinder radius becomes small, the low lying spectrum of their relative motion is well described...
Unreliability effects in public transport modelling.
van Oort, Niels; Brands, Ties; de Romph, Erik; Aceves Flores, Jessica
2015-01-01
Nowadays, transport demand models do not explicitly evaluate the impacts of service reliability of transit. Service reliability of transit systems is adversely experienced by users, as it causes additional travel time and unsecure arrival times. Because of this, travellers are likely to perceive a
A Mixed Effects Randomized Item Response Model
Fox, J.-P.; Wyrick, Cheryl
2008-01-01
The randomized response technique ensures that individual item responses, denoted as true item responses, are randomized before observing them and so-called randomized item responses are observed. A relationship is specified between randomized item response data and true item response data. True item response data are modeled with a (non)linear…
Bilinear Mixed Effects Models for Dyadic Data
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Hoff, Peter D
2003-01-01
This article discusses the use of a symmetric multiplicative interaction effect to capture certain types of third-order dependence patterns often present in social networks and other dyadic datasets...
Evaluating Differential Effects Using Regression Interactions and Regression Mixture Models
Van Horn, M. Lee; Jaki, Thomas; Masyn, Katherine; Howe, George; Feaster, Daniel J.; Lamont, Andrea E.; George, Melissa R. W.; Kim, Minjung
2015-01-01
Research increasingly emphasizes understanding differential effects. This article focuses on understanding regression mixture models, which are relatively new statistical methods for assessing differential effects by comparing results to using an interactive term in linear regression. The research questions which each model answers, their…
An Experimental Test of the Contingency Model of Leadership Effectiveness.
Chemers, Martin M.; Skrzypek, George J.
The present experiment provided a test of Fiedler's (1967) Contingency Model of Leadership Effectiveness, i.e., the relationship of leader style to group effectiveness is mediated by situational demands. Thirty-two 4 man task groups composed of military academy cadets were run in the experiment. In accordance with the Contingency Model, leaders…
Modeling the effects of study abroad programs on college students
Alvin H. Yu; Garry E. Chick; Duarte B. Morais; Chung-Hsien Lin
2009-01-01
This study explored the possibility of modeling the effects of a study abroad program on students from a university in the northeastern United States. A program effect model was proposed after conducting an extensive literature review and empirically examining a sample of 265 participants in 2005. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA),...
Effects of Modeling and Desensitation in Reducing Dentist Phobia
Shaw, David W.; Thoresen, Carl E.
1974-01-01
Many persons avoid dentists and dental work. The present study explored the effects of systematic desensitization and social-modeling treatments with placebo and assessment control groups. Modeling was more effective than desensitization as shown by the number of subjects who went to a dentist. (Author)
Effect of Constructivist - Based Instructional Model on Students ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
A quasi-experimental, non-equivalent group control design involving two intact classes were used to determine the effect of constructivist-based instructional model-Generative Learning Model (GLM) on students' conceptual change and knowledge retention in chemistry. Effect of GLM on gender is also monitored.
Seventh Grade Students' Mental Models of the Greenhouse Effect
Shepardson, Daniel P.; Choi, Soyoung; Niyogi, Dev; Charusombat, Umarporn
2011-01-01
This constructivist study investigates 225 student drawings and explanations from three different schools in the midwest in the US, to identify seventh grade students' mental models of the greenhouse effect. Five distinct mental models were derived from an inductive analysis of the content of the students' drawings and explanations: Model 1, a…
Modeling dynamic effects of promotion on interpurchase times
D. Fok (Dennis); R. Paap (Richard); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)
2002-01-01
textabstractIn this paper we put forward a duration model to analyze the dynamic effects of marketing-mix variables on interpurchase times. We extend the accelerated failure-time model with an autoregressive structure. An important feature of our model is that it allows for different long-run and
Environmental Radiation Effects on Mammals A Dynamical Modeling Approach
Smirnova, Olga A
2010-01-01
This text is devoted to the theoretical studies of radiation effects on mammals. It uses the framework of developed deterministic mathematical models to investigate the effects of both acute and chronic irradiation in a wide range of doses and dose rates on vital body systems including hematopoiesis, small intestine and humoral immunity, as well as on the development of autoimmune diseases. Thus, these models can contribute to the development of the system and quantitative approaches in radiation biology and ecology. This text is also of practical use. Its modeling studies of the dynamics of granulocytopoiesis and thrombocytopoiesis in humans testify to the efficiency of employment of the developed models in the investigation and prediction of radiation effects on these hematopoietic lines. These models, as well as the properly identified models of other vital body systems, could provide a better understanding of the radiation risks to health. The modeling predictions will enable the implementation of more ef...
Atomic size effects in continuum modeling
Ratsch, C.; Kang, M.; Caflisch, R. E.
2001-08-01
Continuum modeling of many physical systems typically assumes that the spatial extent of an atom is small compared to the quantities of interest and can therefore be neglected. We show that this is valid only asymptotically. For many applications of practical interest, the spatial extent of a discrete atom cannot be neglected. We have developed a model for the description of epitaxial growth based on the levelset method, and find that we can accurately predict quantities such as the island densities, if we implement boundary conditions in a region with atomic width, rather than just on a line without any spatial extent. Only in the limit of very large islands and island spacings can this be neglected.
The media effect in Axelrod's model explained
Peres, L. R.; Fontanari, J. F.
2011-11-01
We revisit the problem of introducing an external global field —the mass media— in Axelrod's model of social dynamics, where in addition to their nearest neighbors, the agents can interact with a virtual neighbor whose cultural features are fixed from the outset. The finding that this apparently homogenizing field actually increases the cultural diversity has been considered a puzzle since the phenomenon was first reported more than a decade ago. Here we offer a simple explanation for it, which is based on the pedestrian observation that Axelrod's model exhibits more cultural diversity, i.e., more distinct cultural domains, when the agents are allowed to interact solely with the media field than when they can interact with their neighbors as well. In this perspective, it is the local homogenizing interactions that work towards making the absorbing configurations less fragmented as compared with the extreme situation in which the agents interact with the media only.
Source-oriented model for air pollutant effects on visibility
Eldering, A; Cass, G R
1996-01-01
A source-oriented model for air pollutant effects on visibility has been developed that can compute light scattering, light extinction, and estimated visual range directly from data on gas phase and primary particle phase air pollutant emissions from sources. The importance of such a model is that it can be used to compute the effect of emission control proposals on visibility-related parameters in advance of the adoption of such control programs. The model has been assembled by embedding sev...
Richly parameterized linear models additive, time series, and spatial models using random effects
Hodges, James S
2013-01-01
A First Step toward a Unified Theory of Richly Parameterized Linear ModelsUsing mixed linear models to analyze data often leads to results that are mysterious, inconvenient, or wrong. Further compounding the problem, statisticians lack a cohesive resource to acquire a systematic, theory-based understanding of models with random effects.Richly Parameterized Linear Models: Additive, Time Series, and Spatial Models Using Random Effects takes a first step in developing a full theory of richly parameterized models, which would allow statisticians to better understand their analysis results. The aut
Towards effective food chains : models and applications
Trienekens, J.H.; Top, J.L.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.; Beulens, A.J.M.
2010-01-01
Food chain management research can help in the analysis and redesign of value creation and the product flow throughout the chain from primary producer down to the consumer. The aim is to meet consumer and societal requirements effectively at minimal cost. In the Wageningen UR strategic research
Modeling the effects of pharmaceutical marketing
Leeflang, P.S.H.; Wieringa, J.E.
Successful innovation of prescription drugs requires a substantial amount of marketing support. There is, however, much concern about the effects of marketing expenditures on the demand of pharmaceutical products (Manchanda et al., Market Lett 16(3/4):293-308, 2005). For example, excessive marketing
Model Equations of Shape Memory Effect - Nitinol
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ion Vela
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Even it has been already confirmed that SMA’s have high potential for robotic actuators, actuators included in space robotics, underwater robotics, robotics for logistics, safety, as well as “green robotics” (robotics for the environment, energy conservation, sustainable development or agriculture, the number of applications of SMA-based actuators is still quite small, especially in applications in which their large strains, high specific work output and structural integration potential are useful,. The paper presents a formulated mathematical model calculated for binary SMA (Ni-Ti, helpful to estimate the stress distribution along with the transformation ratio of a SMA active element.
Total, Direct, and Indirect Effects in Logit Models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Karlson, Kristian Bernt; Holm, Anders; Breen, Richard
It has long been believed that the decomposition of the total effect of one variable on another into direct and indirect effects, while feasible in linear models, is not possible in non-linear probability models such as the logit and probit. In this paper we present a new and simple method that r...... average partial effects, as defined by Wooldridge (2002). We present the method graphically and illustrate it using the National Educational Longitudinal Study of 1988...
Multivariate Term Structure Models with Level and Heteroskedasticity Effects
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christiansen, Charlotte
2005-01-01
The paper introduces and estimates a multivariate level-GARCH model for the long rate and the term-structure spread where the conditional volatility is proportional to the ãth power of the variable itself (level effects) and the conditional covariance matrix evolves according to a multivariate GA...... and the level model. GARCH effects are more important than level effects. The results are robust to the maturity of the interest rates. Udgivelsesdato: MAY......The paper introduces and estimates a multivariate level-GARCH model for the long rate and the term-structure spread where the conditional volatility is proportional to the ãth power of the variable itself (level effects) and the conditional covariance matrix evolves according to a multivariate...... GARCH process (heteroskedasticity effects). The long-rate variance exhibits heteroskedasticity effects and level effects in accordance with the square-root model. The spread variance exhibits heteroskedasticity effects but no level effects. The level-GARCH model is preferred above the GARCH model...
Modeling the ocean effect of geomagnetic storms
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Olsen, Nils; Kuvshinov, A.
2004-01-01
At coastal sites, geomagnetic variations for periods shorter than a few days are strongly distorted by the conductivity of the nearby sea-water. This phenomena, known as the ocean (or coast) effect, is strongest in the magnetic vertical component. We demonstrate the ability to predict the ocean...... if the oceans are considered. Our analysis also indicates a significant local time asymmetry (i.e., contributions from spherical harmonics other than P-I(0)), especially during the main phase of the storm....
COMPUTER MODELLING OF ENERGY SAVING EFFECTS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marian JANCZAREK
2016-09-01
Full Text Available The paper presents the analysis of the dynamics of the heat transfer through the outer wall of the thermal technical spaces, taking into account the impact of the sinusoidal nature of the changes in atmospheric temperature. These temporal variations of the input on the outer surface of the chamber divider result at the output of the sinusoidal change on the inner wall of the room, but suitably suppressed and shifted in phase. Properly selected phase shift is clearly important for saving energy used for the operation associated with the maintenance of a specific regime of heat inside the thermal technical chamber support. Laboratory tests of the model and the actual object allowed for optimal design of the chamber due to the structure of the partition as well as due to the orientation of the geographical location of the chamber.
Opinion dynamics: models, extensions and external effects
Sîrbu, Alina; Servedio, Vito D P; Tria, Francesca
2016-01-01
Recently, social phenomena have received a lot of attention not only from social scientists, but also from physicists, mathematicians and computer scientists, in the emerging interdisciplinary field of complex system science. Opinion dynamics is one of the processes studied, since opinions are the drivers of human behaviour, and play a crucial role in many global challenges that our complex world and societies are facing: global financial crises, global pandemics, growth of cities, urbanisation and migration patterns, and last but not least important, climate change and environmental sustainability and protection. Opinion formation is a complex process affected by the interplay of different elements, including the individual predisposition, the influence of positive and negative peer interaction (social networks playing a crucial role in this respect), the information each individual is exposed to, and many others. Several models inspired from those in use in physics have been developed to encompass many of t...
Characteristics of Effective Training: Developing a Model To Motivate Action.
Wise, Dena; Ezell, Patsy
2003-01-01
The Parenting and Consumer Education project identified effective models for training welfare-to-work facilitators. Premises were the importance of process, learner responsibility, and improvement of social networks. Effective training was learner focused, inspiring, and motivating; demonstrated productive behaviors and effective life skills; and…
Modeling Temporal Behavior of Awards Effect on Viewership of Movies
Altaf, Basmah
2017-04-22
The “rich get richer” effect is well-known in recommendation system. Popular items are recommended more, then purchased more, resulting in becoming even more popular over time. For example, we observe in Netflix data that awarded movies are more popular than non-awarded movies. Unlike other work focusing on making fair/neutralized recommendation, in this paper, we target on modeling the effect of awards on the viewership of movies. The main challenge of building such a model is that the effect on popularity changes over time with different intensity from movie to movie. Our proposed approach explicitly models the award effects for each movie and enables the recommendation system to provide a better ranked list of recommended movies. The results of an extensive empirical validation on Netflix and MovieLens data demonstrate the effectiveness of our model.
Modeling fuels and fire effects in 3D: Model description and applications
Francois Pimont; Russell Parsons; Eric Rigolot; Francois de Coligny; Jean-Luc Dupuy; Philippe Dreyfus; Rodman R. Linn
2016-01-01
Scientists and managers critically need ways to assess how fuel treatments alter fire behavior, yet few tools currently exist for this purpose.We present a spatially-explicit-fuel-modeling system, FuelManager, which models fuels, vegetation growth, fire behavior (using a physics-based model, FIRETEC), and fire effects. FuelManager's flexible approach facilitates...
Park, Mihwa; Liu, Xiufeng; Smith, Erica; Waight, Noemi
2017-01-01
This study reports the effect of computer models as formative assessment on high school students' understanding of the nature of models. Nine high school teachers integrated computer models and associated formative assessments into their yearlong high school chemistry course. A pre-test and post-test of students' understanding of the nature of…
Modelling of observed double-junction effect
Menichelli, D; Li, Z; Eremin, V
1999-01-01
New TCT measurements reveal the existence of a strong electric field, before full depletion, near both p sup + and n sup + side of high- and medium-resistivity silicon detectors, irradiated over space-charge sign inversion. More, by injecting carriers near the low-field side, double-peaked TCT current pulses are observed. This fact can be justified by assuming the presence of two deep levels in the gap, an acceptor like above mid-gap, and a donor like in the lower half of the gap, which can support the existence of two depleted regions. Particularly, the theoretical analysis of the TCT current profiles has been developed, and the second peak existence has been explained as the effect of carriers re-injection from ENB inside depleted regions.
Modeling the effects of annual influenza vaccination
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Smith, D.J.; Ackley, D.H.; Forrest, S. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Computer Science; Perelson, A.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Theoretical Div.
1998-12-31
Although influenza vaccine efficacy is 70--90% in young healthy first-time vaccinees, the efficacy in repeat vaccinees has varied considerably. In some studies, vaccine efficacy in repeat vaccinees was higher than in first-time vaccinees, whereas in other studies vaccine efficacy in repeat vaccinees was significantly lower than in first-time vaccinees and sometimes no higher than in unvaccinated controls. It is known that the closeness of the antigenic match between the vaccine strain and the epidemic virus is important for vaccine effectiveness. In this study the authors show that the antigenic differences between a first vaccine strain and a second vaccine strain, and between the first vaccine strain and the epidemic strain, might account for the observed variation in attack rate among two-time vaccinees.
Effect of suspension kinematic on 14 DOF vehicle model
Wongpattananukul, T.; Chantharasenawong, C.
2017-12-01
Computer simulations play a major role in shaping modern science and engineering. They reduce time and resource consumption in new studies and designs. Vehicle simulations have been studied extensively to achieve a vehicle model used in minimum lap time solution. Simulation result accuracy depends on the abilities of these models to represent real phenomenon. Vehicles models with 7 degrees of freedom (DOF), 10 DOF and 14 DOF are normally used in optimal control to solve for minimum lap time. However, suspension kinematics are always neglected on these models. Suspension kinematics are defined as wheel movements with respect to the vehicle body. Tire forces are expressed as a function of wheel slip and wheel position. Therefore, the suspension kinematic relation is appended to the 14 DOF vehicle model to investigate its effects on the accuracy of simulate trajectory. Classical 14 DOF vehicle model is chosen as baseline model. Experiment data is collected from formula student style car test runs as baseline data for simulation and comparison between baseline model and model with suspension kinematic. Results show that in a single long turn there is an accumulated trajectory error in baseline model compared to model with suspension kinematic. While in short alternate turns, the trajectory error is much smaller. These results show that suspension kinematic had an effect on the trajectory simulation of vehicle. Which optimal control that use baseline model will result in inaccuracy control scheme.
Efficient anisotropic wavefield extrapolation using effective isotropic models
Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali
2013-06-10
Isotropic wavefield extrapolation is more efficient than anisotropic extrapolation, and this is especially true when the anisotropy of the medium is tilted (from the vertical). We use the kinematics of the wavefield, appropriately represented in the high-frequency asymptotic approximation by the eikonal equation, to develop effective isotropic models, which are used to efficiently and approximately extrapolate anisotropic wavefields using the isotropic, relatively cheaper, operators. These effective velocity models are source dependent and tend to embed the anisotropy in the inhomogeneity. Though this isotropically generated wavefield theoretically shares the same kinematic behavior as that of the first arrival anisotropic wavefield, it also has the ability to include all the arrivals resulting from a complex wavefield propagation. In fact, the effective models reduce to the original isotropic model in the limit of isotropy, and thus, the difference between the effective model and, for example, the vertical velocity depends on the strength of anisotropy. For reverse time migration (RTM), effective models are developed for the source and receiver fields by computing the traveltime for a plane wave source stretching along our source and receiver lines in a delayed shot migration implementation. Applications to the BP TTI model demonstrates the effectiveness of the approach.
Dynamic modeling of hydrostatic guideway considering compressibility and inertia effect
Du, Yikang; Mao, Kuanmin; Zhu, Yaming; Wang, Fengyun; Mao, Xiaobo; Li, Bin
2015-03-01
Hydrostatic guideways are used as an alternative to contact bearings due to high stiffness and high damping in heavy machine tools. To improve the dynamic characteristic of bearing structure, the dynamic modeling of the hydrostatic guidway should be accurately known. This paper presents a "mass-spring-Maxwell" model considering the effects of inertia, squeeze, compressibility and static bearing. To determine the dynamic model coefficients, numerical simulation of different cases between displacement and dynamic force of oil film are performed with fluent code. Simulation results show that hydrostatic guidway can be taken as a linear system when it is subjected to a small oscillation amplitude. Based on a dynamic model and numerical simulation, every dynamic model's parameters are calculated by the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. Identification results show that "mass-spring-damper" model is the most appropriate dynamic model of the hydrostatic guidway. This paper provides a reference and preparation for the analysis of the dynamic model of the similar hydrostatic bearings.
STEPS: efficient simulation of stochastic reaction–diffusion models in realistic morphologies
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hepburn Iain
2012-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Models of cellular molecular systems are built from components such as biochemical reactions (including interactions between ligands and membrane-bound proteins, conformational changes and active and passive transport. A discrete, stochastic description of the kinetics is often essential to capture the behavior of the system accurately. Where spatial effects play a prominent role the complex morphology of cells may have to be represented, along with aspects such as chemical localization and diffusion. This high level of detail makes efficiency a particularly important consideration for software that is designed to simulate such systems. Results We describe STEPS, a stochastic reaction–diffusion simulator developed with an emphasis on simulating biochemical signaling pathways accurately and efficiently. STEPS supports all the above-mentioned features, and well-validated support for SBML allows many existing biochemical models to be imported reliably. Complex boundaries can be represented accurately in externally generated 3D tetrahedral meshes imported by STEPS. The powerful Python interface facilitates model construction and simulation control. STEPS implements the composition and rejection method, a variation of the Gillespie SSA, supporting diffusion between tetrahedral elements within an efficient search and update engine. Additional support for well-mixed conditions and for deterministic model solution is implemented. Solver accuracy is confirmed with an original and extensive validation set consisting of isolated reaction, diffusion and reaction–diffusion systems. Accuracy imposes upper and lower limits on tetrahedron sizes, which are described in detail. By comparing to Smoldyn, we show how the voxel-based approach in STEPS is often faster than particle-based methods, with increasing advantage in larger systems, and by comparing to MesoRD we show the efficiency of the STEPS implementation. Conclusion STEPS simulates
STEPS: efficient simulation of stochastic reaction–diffusion models in realistic morphologies
2012-01-01
Background Models of cellular molecular systems are built from components such as biochemical reactions (including interactions between ligands and membrane-bound proteins), conformational changes and active and passive transport. A discrete, stochastic description of the kinetics is often essential to capture the behavior of the system accurately. Where spatial effects play a prominent role the complex morphology of cells may have to be represented, along with aspects such as chemical localization and diffusion. This high level of detail makes efficiency a particularly important consideration for software that is designed to simulate such systems. Results We describe STEPS, a stochastic reaction–diffusion simulator developed with an emphasis on simulating biochemical signaling pathways accurately and efficiently. STEPS supports all the above-mentioned features, and well-validated support for SBML allows many existing biochemical models to be imported reliably. Complex boundaries can be represented accurately in externally generated 3D tetrahedral meshes imported by STEPS. The powerful Python interface facilitates model construction and simulation control. STEPS implements the composition and rejection method, a variation of the Gillespie SSA, supporting diffusion between tetrahedral elements within an efficient search and update engine. Additional support for well-mixed conditions and for deterministic model solution is implemented. Solver accuracy is confirmed with an original and extensive validation set consisting of isolated reaction, diffusion and reaction–diffusion systems. Accuracy imposes upper and lower limits on tetrahedron sizes, which are described in detail. By comparing to Smoldyn, we show how the voxel-based approach in STEPS is often faster than particle-based methods, with increasing advantage in larger systems, and by comparing to MesoRD we show the efficiency of the STEPS implementation. Conclusion STEPS simulates models of cellular
STEPS: efficient simulation of stochastic reaction-diffusion models in realistic morphologies.
Hepburn, Iain; Chen, Weiliang; Wils, Stefan; De Schutter, Erik
2012-05-10
Models of cellular molecular systems are built from components such as biochemical reactions (including interactions between ligands and membrane-bound proteins), conformational changes and active and passive transport. A discrete, stochastic description of the kinetics is often essential to capture the behavior of the system accurately. Where spatial effects play a prominent role the complex morphology of cells may have to be represented, along with aspects such as chemical localization and diffusion. This high level of detail makes efficiency a particularly important consideration for software that is designed to simulate such systems. We describe STEPS, a stochastic reaction-diffusion simulator developed with an emphasis on simulating biochemical signaling pathways accurately and efficiently. STEPS supports all the above-mentioned features, and well-validated support for SBML allows many existing biochemical models to be imported reliably. Complex boundaries can be represented accurately in externally generated 3D tetrahedral meshes imported by STEPS. The powerful Python interface facilitates model construction and simulation control. STEPS implements the composition and rejection method, a variation of the Gillespie SSA, supporting diffusion between tetrahedral elements within an efficient search and update engine. Additional support for well-mixed conditions and for deterministic model solution is implemented. Solver accuracy is confirmed with an original and extensive validation set consisting of isolated reaction, diffusion and reaction-diffusion systems. Accuracy imposes upper and lower limits on tetrahedron sizes, which are described in detail. By comparing to Smoldyn, we show how the voxel-based approach in STEPS is often faster than particle-based methods, with increasing advantage in larger systems, and by comparing to MesoRD we show the efficiency of the STEPS implementation. STEPS simulates models of cellular reaction-diffusion systems with complex
Modelling the electrical properties of concrete for shielding effectiveness prediction
Sandrolini, L.; Reggiani, U.; Ogunsola, A.
2007-09-01
Concrete is a porous, heterogeneous material whose abundant use in numerous applications demands a detailed understanding of its electrical properties. Besides experimental measurements, material theoretical models can be useful to investigate its behaviour with respect to frequency, moisture content or other factors. These models can be used in electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) to predict the shielding effectiveness of a concrete structure against external electromagnetic waves. This paper presents the development of a dispersive material model for concrete out of experimental measurement data to take account of the frequency dependence of concrete's electrical properties. The model is implemented into a numerical simulator and compared with the classical transmission-line approach in shielding effectiveness calculations of simple concrete walls of different moisture content. The comparative results show good agreement in all cases; a possible relation between shielding effectiveness and the electrical properties of concrete and the limits of the proposed model are discussed.
Effect of Linked Rules on Business Process Model Understanding
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wang, Wei; Indulska, Marta; Sadiq, Shazia
2017-01-01
Business process models are widely used in organizations by information systems analysts to represent complex business requirements and by business users to understand business operations and constraints. This understanding is extracted from graphical process models as well as business rules. Prior...... research advocated integrating business rules into business process models to improve the effectiveness of important organizational activities, such as developing shared understanding, effective communication, and process improvement. However, whether such integrated modeling can improve the understanding...... of business processes has not been empirically evaluated. In this paper, we report on an experiment that investigates the effect of linked rules, a specific rule integration approach, on business process model understanding. Our results indicate that linked rules are associated with better time efficiency...
A numerical model for super resolution effect in optical discs
Assafrao, A.C.; Pereira, S.F.; Urbach, H.P.; Fery, C.; Von Riewel, L.; Knappmann, S.
2010-01-01
A simplified computational model for super resolution effect in optical discs is proposed and simulations are compared with experimental results, providing basic understanding of this phenomenon. Simulations show that resolution beyond the diffraction limit is achieved and signal destruction occurs
The effect of Cordia platythyrsa on various experimental models of ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The effect of Cordia platythyrsa on various experimental models of pain and carrageenan induced inflammation. Benedicta N Nkeh-Chungag, Eugene J Ndebia, Joseph T Mbafor, Lonwabo A Dotwana, OO Oyedeji, Jehu E Iputo ...
Comparison of Power Generating Systems Using Feedback Effect Modeling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Seong Ho; Kim, Kil Yoo; Kim, Tae Woon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)
2005-07-01
Comparative assessment of various power systems can be treated as a multicriteria decision-making (MCDM) problem. In reality, there is interdependence among decision elements (e.g., decision goal, decision criteria, and decision alternatives). In our previous work, using an analytic hierarchy process (AHP) technique, a comprehensive assessment framework for national power systems has been developed. It was assumed in the AHP modeling that there is no interdependence among decision elements. In the present work, one of interdependence phenomena, feedback effect, is investigated in the context of network structures instead of one-way directional tree structures. Moreover, attitudes of decision-makers can be incorporated into the feedback effect modeling. The main objectives of this work are to develop a feedback effect modeling using an analytic network process (ANP) technique and to demonstrate the feedback effect using a numerical example in comparison to the hierarchy model.
Enhancing treatment effectiveness through social modelling: A pilot study.
Faasse, Kate; Perera, Anna; Loveys, Kate; Grey, Andrew; Petrie, Keith J
2017-05-01
Medical treatments take place in social contexts; however, little research has investigated how social modelling might influence treatment outcomes. This experimental pilot study investigated social modelling of treatment effectiveness and placebo treatment outcomes. Fifty-nine participants took part in the study, ostensibly examining the use of beta-blockers (actually placebos) for examination anxiety. Participants were randomly assigned to observe a female confederate report positive treatment effects (reduced heart rate, relaxed, calm) or feeling no different. Heart rate, anxiety and blood pressure were assessed, as were symptoms and attributed side effects. Heart rate decreased significantly more in the social modelling compared to control condition, p = .027 (d = .63), and there were trends towards effects in the same direction for both anxiety, p = .097 (d = .46), and systolic blood pressure, p = .077 (d = .51). Significant pre-post placebo differences in heart rate, anxiety and diastolic blood pressure were found in the social modelling group, ps .28 (ds = .09-.59). Social observation of medication effectiveness enhanced placebo effectiveness in heart rate, and showed a trend towards enhancing treatment effectiveness in both anxiety and systolic blood pressure. Social modelling may have utility in enhancing the effectiveness of many active medical treatments.
Application of Poisson random effect models for highway network screening.
Jiang, Ximiao; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed; Alamili, Samer
2014-02-01
In recent years, Bayesian random effect models that account for the temporal and spatial correlations of crash data became popular in traffic safety research. This study employs random effect Poisson Log-Normal models for crash risk hotspot identification. Both the temporal and spatial correlations of crash data were considered. Potential for Safety Improvement (PSI) were adopted as a measure of the crash risk. Using the fatal and injury crashes that occurred on urban 4-lane divided arterials from 2006 to 2009 in the Central Florida area, the random effect approaches were compared to the traditional Empirical Bayesian (EB) method and the conventional Bayesian Poisson Log-Normal model. A series of method examination tests were conducted to evaluate the performance of different approaches. These tests include the previously developed site consistence test, method consistence test, total rank difference test, and the modified total score test, as well as the newly proposed total safety performance measure difference test. Results show that the Bayesian Poisson model accounting for both temporal and spatial random effects (PTSRE) outperforms the model that with only temporal random effect, and both are superior to the conventional Poisson Log-Normal model (PLN) and the EB model in the fitting of crash data. Additionally, the method evaluation tests indicate that the PTSRE model is significantly superior to the PLN model and the EB model in consistently identifying hotspots during successive time periods. The results suggest that the PTSRE model is a superior alternative for road site crash risk hotspot identification. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pseudospectral Model for Hybrid PIC Hall-effect Thruster Simulation
2015-07-01
Paper 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) July 2015-July 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Pseudospectral model for hybrid PIC Hall-effect thruster simulationect...of a pseudospectral azimuthal-axial hybrid- PIC HET code which is designed to explicitly resolve and filter azimuthal fluctuations in the...661-275-5908 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. 239.18 Pseudospectral model for hybrid PIC Hall-effect thruster simulation IEPC
Modeling Reactive Wetting when Inertial Effects are Dominant
Wheeler, Daniel; Warren, James A.; Boettinger, William J.
2010-01-01
Recent experimental studies of molten metal droplets wetting high temperature reactive substrates have established that the majority of triple-line motion occurs when inertial effects are dominant. In light of these studies, this paper investigates wetting and spreading on reactive substrates when inertial effects are dominant using a thermodynamically derived, diffuse interface model of a binary, three-phase material. The liquid-vapor transition is modeled using a van der Waals diffuse inter...
Effectiveness of Two Water Conservation Policies: An Integrated Modeling Approach
Das, Biswa R.; Willis, David B.; Johnson, Jeffrey W.
2010-01-01
Agriculture in the Texas High Plains depends entirely on the Ogallala Aquifer. Texas enacted water conservation legislation to address declining reserves in the aquifer. We developed an integrated regional water policy model that links a hydrology model with an economic optimization model to estimate policy impacts with respect to economic cost and water conservation. Testing the effectiveness of two policies, a groundwater extraction tax and extraction quotas, we observe that neither signifi...
Achievement Emotions and Academic Performance: Longitudinal Models of Reciprocal Effects
Pekrun, Reinhard; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie; Marsh, Herbert W.; Murayama, Kou; Goetz, Thomas
2017-01-01
A reciprocal effects model linking emotion and achievement over time is proposed. The model was tested using five annual waves of the Project for the Analysis of Learning and Achievement in Mathematics (PALMA) longitudinal study, which investigated adolescents' development in mathematics (Grades 5-9; N = 3,425 German students; mean starting…
Comparison of four nonlinear growth models for effective exploration ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This study was conducted to compare the effectiveness for non-linear growth models designated as Chapman-Richards, Gompertz, Logistic and von Bertalanffy for selection of fast-growing fish strain of turbot Scophthalmus maximus. These models were compared using the goodness of fit (the coefficient of determination ...
The Analysis of Random Effects in Modeling Studies.
Scheirer, C. James; Geller, Sanford E.
1979-01-01
Argues that in research on the effects of modeling, models must be analyzed as a random factor in order to avoid a positive bias in the results. The concept of a random factor is discussed, worked examples are provided, and a practical solution to the problem is proposed. (JMB)
The magnetic equation of state in effective chiral models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Almasi, Gabor; Friman, Bengt [Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Tarnowski, Wojciech [Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Jagiellonian University, PL-30-059 Cracow (Poland); Redlich, Krzysztof [University of Wroclaw, Faculty of Physics and Astronomy, PL-50-204 Wroclaw (Poland); Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), ExtreMe Matter Institute (EMMI), 64291 Darmstadt (Germany)
2015-07-01
The chiral properties of QCD are often studied using effective models like the Quark-Meson model. In these models the gauge sector of QCD is integrated out and the models do not show confinement, but they are significantly easier to deal with. Concerning chiral properties they are constructed to be in the same universality class as QCD, so sufficiently close to the chiral phase transition they have the same universal properties (e.g. critical exponents). A finite current quark mass however breaks chiral symmetry explicitly rendering it an approximate symmetry both in QCD and in effective models. This causes violation of the scaling laws at the chiral phase transition. The measure of the violation in QCD and the effective model is in general different. However the better the model is, the closer the deviations from the scaling should be to the deviations in QCD. In this talk the scaling violations in effective models of QCD are discussed, and the results are compared with lattice data on the magnetic equation of state.
Effects of Scenario Planning on Participant Mental Models
Glick, Margaret B.; Chermack, Thomas J.; Luckel, Henry; Gauck, Brian Q.
2012-01-01
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess the effects of scenario planning on participant mental model styles. Design/methodology/approach: The scenario planning literature is consistent with claims that scenario planning can change individual mental models. These claims are supported by anecdotal evidence and stories from the practical…
The Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioural Counselling Model in ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This study focused on applying counselling models in managing adolescent psycho-social crisis. A laboratory approach using a simulated problem situation to determine the effectiveness of Cognitive-behavioural counselling model in managing psycho-social crisis and propensity to drug-abuse in adolescents was adopted ...
Chain Risk Model for quantifying cost effectiveness of phytosanitary measures
Benninga, J.; Hennen, W.H.G.J.; Schans, van de J.
2010-01-01
A Chain Risk Model (CRM) was developed for a cost effective assessment of phytosanitary measures. The CRM model can be applied to phytosanitary assessments of all agricultural product chains. In CRM, stages are connected by product volume flows with which pest infections can be spread from one stage
Effect of Turbulence Modeling on Hovering Rotor Flows
Yoon, Seokkwan; Chaderjian, Neal M.; Pulliam, Thomas H.; Holst, Terry L.
2015-01-01
The effect of turbulence models in the off-body grids on the accuracy of solutions for rotor flows in hover has been investigated. Results from the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes and Laminar Off-Body models are compared. Advection of turbulent eddy viscosity has been studied to find the mechanism leading to inaccurate solutions. A coaxial rotor result is also included.
Relative effectiveness of assertive training, modelling and their ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The study investigated the Relative Effectiveness of Assertive Training (AT), modelling (M) and a combination of Assertive Training and Modelling (AT & M) techniques in improving the social skills of primary school isolates and consequently reduce their isolate behaviour. The study is a quasi experimental research that ...
Personal Coaching: Reflection on a Model for Effective Learning
Griffiths, Kerryn
2015-01-01
The article "Personal Coaching: A Model for Effective Learning" (Griffiths, 2006) appeared in the "Journal of Learning Design" Volume 1, Issue 2 in 2006. Almost ten years on, Kerryn Griffiths reflects upon her original article. Specifically, Griffiths looks back at the combined coaching-learning model she suggested in her…
Modeling Dynamic Effects of the Marketing Mix on Market Shares
D. Fok (Dennis); R. Paap (Richard); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)
2003-01-01
textabstractTo comprehend the competitive structure of a market, it is important to understand the short-run and long-run effects of the marketing mix on market shares. A useful model to link market shares with marketing-mix variables, like price and promotion, is the market share attraction model.
Modeling the Effect of Oil Price on Global Fertilizer Prices
P-Y. Chen (Ping-Yu); C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); C-C. Chen (Chi-Chung); M.J. McAleer (Michael)
2010-01-01
textabstractThe main purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effect of crude oil price on global fertilizer prices in both the mean and volatility. The endogenous structural breakpoint unit root test, the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) model, and alternative volatility models, including the
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mehran FARAJOLLAHI
2010-07-01
Full Text Available The present research aims at presenting a conceptual model for effective distance learning in higher education. Findings of this research shows that an understanding of the technological capabilities and learning theories especially constructive theory and independent learning theory and communicative and interaction theory in Distance learning is an efficient factor in the planning of effective Distance learning in higher education. Considering the theoretical foundations of the present research, in the effective distance learning model, the learner is situated at the center of learning environment. For this purpose, the learner needs to be ready for successful learning and the teacher has to be ready to design the teaching- learning activities when they initially enter the environment. In the present model, group and individual active teaching-learning approach, timely feedback, using IT and eight types of interactions have been designed with respect to theoretical foundations and current university missions. From among the issues emphasized in this model, one can refer to the Initial, Formative and Summative evaluations. In an effective distance learning environment, evaluation should be part of the learning process and the feedback resulting from it should be used to improve learning. For validating the specified features, the opinions of Distance learning experts in Payame Noor, Shiraz, Science and Technology and Amirkabir Universities have been used which verified a high percentage of the statistical sample of the above mentioned features.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hanratty, M.P.; Liber, K. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Superior, WI (United States)
1994-12-31
The Littoral Ecosystem Risk Assessment Model (LERAM) is a bioenergetic ecosystem effects model. It links single species toxicity data to a bioenergetic model of the trophic structure of an ecosystem in order to simulate community and ecosystem level effects of chemical stressors. LERAM was used in 1992 to simulate the ecological effects of diflubenzuron. When compared to the results from a littoral enclosure study, the model exaggerated the cascading of effects through the trophic levels of the littoral ecosystem. It was hypothesized that this could be corrected by making minor changes in the representation of the littoral food web. Two refinements of the model were therefore performed: (1) the plankton and macroinvertebrate model populations [eg., predatory Copepoda, herbivorous Insecta, green phytoplankton, etc.] were changed to better represent the habitat and feeding preferences of the endemic taxa; and (2) the method for modeling the microbial degradation of detritus (and the resulting nutrient remineralization) was changed from simulating bacterial populations to simulating bacterial function. Model predictions of the ecological effects of 4-nonylphenol were made before and after these refinements. Both sets of predictions were then compared to the results from a littoral enclosure study of the ecological effects of 4-nonylphenol. The changes in the LERAM predictions were then used to determine the success of the refinements, to guide. future research, and to further define LERAM`s domain of application.
Between simplicity and accuracy: Effect of adding modeling details on quarter vehicle model accuracy
2017-01-01
Quarter vehicle model is the simplest representation of a vehicle that belongs to lumped-mass vehicle models. It is widely used in vehicle and suspension analyses, particularly those related to ride dynamics. However, as much as its common adoption, it is also commonly accepted without quantification that this model is not as accurate as many higher-degree-of-freedom models due to its simplicity and limited degrees of freedom. This study investigates the trade-off between simplicity and accuracy within the context of quarter vehicle model by determining the effect of adding various modeling details on model accuracy. In the study, road input detail, tire detail, suspension stiffness detail and suspension damping detail were factored in, and several enhanced models were compared to the base model to assess the significance of these details. The results clearly indicated that these details do have effect on simulated vehicle response, but to various extents. In particular, road input detail and suspension damping detail have the most significance and are worth being added to quarter vehicle model, as the inclusion of these details changed the response quite fundamentally. Overall, when it comes to lumped-mass vehicle modeling, it is reasonable to say that model accuracy depends not just on the number of degrees of freedom employed, but also on the contributions from various modeling details. PMID:28617819
Soong, Ming Foong; Ramli, Rahizar; Saifizul, Ahmad
2017-01-01
Quarter vehicle model is the simplest representation of a vehicle that belongs to lumped-mass vehicle models. It is widely used in vehicle and suspension analyses, particularly those related to ride dynamics. However, as much as its common adoption, it is also commonly accepted without quantification that this model is not as accurate as many higher-degree-of-freedom models due to its simplicity and limited degrees of freedom. This study investigates the trade-off between simplicity and accuracy within the context of quarter vehicle model by determining the effect of adding various modeling details on model accuracy. In the study, road input detail, tire detail, suspension stiffness detail and suspension damping detail were factored in, and several enhanced models were compared to the base model to assess the significance of these details. The results clearly indicated that these details do have effect on simulated vehicle response, but to various extents. In particular, road input detail and suspension damping detail have the most significance and are worth being added to quarter vehicle model, as the inclusion of these details changed the response quite fundamentally. Overall, when it comes to lumped-mass vehicle modeling, it is reasonable to say that model accuracy depends not just on the number of degrees of freedom employed, but also on the contributions from various modeling details.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhenglei Yu
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Investigation of the effects of impingement cooling for the different turbulence models and study of the aerodynamic behavior of a simplified transition piece model (TP are the two themes of this paper. A model (double chamber model of a one-fourth cylinder is designed which could simulate the transition piece structure and performance. The relative strengths and drawbacks of renormalization group theory k-ε (RNG, the realizable k-ε (RKE, the v2-f, the shear stress transport k-ω (SST, and large-eddy simulation (LES models are used to solve the closure problem. The prediction of the inner wall temperature, cooling effectiveness, and velocity magnitude contours in various conditions are compared in five different turbulence models. Surprisingly, the v2-f and SST models can produce even better predictions of fluid properties in impinging jet flows. It is recommended as the best compromise between solution speed and accuracy.
Mathematical model of radiation effect on the immunity system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Smirnova, O.A. (Institut Mediko-Biologicheskikh Problem, Moscow (USSR))
1984-03-01
A mathematical model, simulating the effect of ionizing radiation on the dynamics of humoral immune reaction is suggested. It represents the system of nonlinear differential equations and is realized in the form of program in Fortran computer language. The model describes the primary immune reaction of nonirradiated organism on T-independent antigen, reflects the postradiation lymphopoiesis dynamics in nonimmunized mammals, simulates the processes of injury and recovery of the humoral immunity system under the combined effect of ionizing radiation and antigenic stimulation. The model can be used for forecasting immunity state in irradiated mammals.
A Bayesian Network View on Nested Effects Models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fröhlich Holger
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Nested effects models (NEMs are a class of probabilistic models that were designed to reconstruct a hidden signalling structure from a large set of observable effects caused by active interventions into the signalling pathway. We give a more flexible formulation of NEMs in the language of Bayesian networks. Our framework constitutes a natural generalization of the original NEM model, since it explicitly states the assumptions that are tacitly underlying the original version. Our approach gives rise to new learning methods for NEMs, which have been implemented in the /Bioconductor package nem. We validate these methods in a simulation study and apply them to a synthetic lethality dataset in yeast.
Electronic Model of a Ferroelectric Field Effect Transistor
MacLeod, Todd C.; Ho, Fat Duen; Russell, Larry (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
A pair of electronic models has been developed of a Ferroelectric Field Effect transistor. These models can be used in standard electrical circuit simulation programs to simulate the main characteristics of the FFET. The models use the Schmitt trigger circuit as a basis for their design. One model uses bipolar junction transistors and one uses MOSFET's. Each model has the main characteristics of the FFET, which are the current hysterisis with different gate voltages and decay of the drain current when the gate voltage is off. The drain current from each model has similar values to an actual FFET that was measured experimentally. T'he input and o Output resistance in the models are also similar to that of the FFET. The models are valid for all frequencies below RF levels. No attempt was made to model the high frequency characteristics of the FFET. Each model can be used to design circuits using FFET's with standard electrical simulation packages. These circuits can be used in designing non-volatile memory circuits and logic circuits and is compatible with all SPICE based circuit analysis programs. The models consist of only standard electrical components, such as BJT's, MOSFET's, diodes, resistors, and capacitors. Each model is compared to the experimental data measured from an actual FFET.
Effects of Role Models and Gender on Students’ Entrepreneurial Intentions
Karimi, S.; Biemans, H.J.A.; Lans, T.; Chizari, M.; Mulder, M.
2014-01-01
Purpose – This paper aims to, drawing on the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), explore the effects of entrepreneurial role models on entrepreneurial intention (EI) and its antecedents and examines the question of whether the effects vary by gender. Design/methodology/approach – Data were collected
Analgesic Effect of Xenon in Rat Model of Inflammatory Pain.
Kukushkin, M L; Igon'kina, S I; Potapov, S V; Potapov, A V
2017-02-01
The analgesic effects of inert gas xenon were examined on rats. The formalin model of inflammatory pain, tail-flick test, and hot-plate test revealed the antinociceptive effects of subanesthetizing doses of inhalation anesthetic xenon. Inhalation of 50/50 xenon/oxygen mixture moderated the nociceptive responses during acute and tonic phases of inflammatory pain.
A Model for Effective Performance in the Indonesian Navy.
1987-06-01
NAVY LEADERSHIP AND MANAGEMENT COM PETENCY M ODEL .................................. 15 D. MCBER COMPETENT MANAGERS MODEL ................ IS E. SU M M... leadership and managerial skills which emphasize on effective performance of the officers in managing the human resources under their cormnand and...supervision. By effective performance we mean officers who not only know about management theories , but who possess the characteristics, knowledge, skill, and
A Layered Decision Model for Cost-Effective System Security
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wei, Huaqiang; Alves-Foss, James; Soule, Terry; Pforsich, Hugh; Zhang, Du; Frincke, Deborah A.
2008-10-01
System security involves decisions in at least three areas: identification of well-defined security policies, selection of cost-effective defence strategies, and implementation of real-time defence tactics. Although choices made in each of these areas affect the others, existing decision models typically handle these three decision areas in isolation. There is no comprehensive tool that can integrate them to provide a single efficient model for safeguarding a network. In addition, there is no clear way to determine which particular combinations of defence decisions result in cost-effective solutions. To address these problems, this paper introduces a Layered Decision Model (LDM) for use in deciding how to address defence decisions based on their cost-effectiveness. To validate the LDM and illustrate how it is used, we used simulation to test model rationality and applied the LDM to the design of system security for an e-commercial business case.
Numerical Modeling of Electromagnetic Field Effects on the Human Body
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zuzana Psenakova
2006-01-01
Full Text Available Interactions of electromagnetic field (EMF with environment and with tissue of human beings are still under discussion and many research teams are investigating it. The human simulation models are used for biomedical research in a lot of areas, where it is advantage to replace real human body (tissue by the numerical model. Biological effects of EMF are one of the areas, where numerical models are used with many advantages. On the other side, this research is very specific and it is always quite hard to simulate realistic human tissue. This paper deals with different possibilities of numerical modelling of electromagnetic field effects on the human body (especially calculation of the specific absorption rate (SAR distribution in human body and thermal effect.
Simulation of finite size effects of the fiber bundle model
Hao, Da-Peng; Tang, Gang; Xun, Zhi-Peng; Xia, Hui; Han, Kui
2018-01-01
In theory, the macroscopic fracture of materials should correspond with the thermodynamic limit of the fiber bundle model. However, the simulation of a fiber bundle model with an infinite size is unrealistic. To study the finite size effects of the fiber bundle model, fiber bundle models of various size are simulated in detail. The effects of system size on the constitutive behavior, critical stress, maximum avalanche size, avalanche size distribution, and increased step number of external load are explored. The simulation results imply that there is no feature size or cut size for macroscopic mechanical and statistical properties of the model. The constitutive curves near the macroscopic failure for various system size can collapse well with a simple scaling relationship. Simultaneously, the introduction of a simple extrapolation method facilitates the acquisition of more accurate simulation results in a large-limit system, which is better for comparison with theoretical results.
Non-perturbative effective interactions in the standard model
Arbuzov, Boris A
2014-01-01
This monograph is devoted to the nonperturbative dynamics in the Standard Model (SM), the basic theory of all, but gravity, fundamental interactions in nature. The Standard Model is devided into two parts: the Quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and the Electro-weak theory (EWT) are well-defined renormalizable theories in which the perturbation theory is valid. However, for the adequate description of the real physics nonperturbative effects are inevitable. This book describes how these nonperturbative effects may be obtained in the framework of spontaneous generation of effective interactions. The well-known example of such effective interaction is provided by the famous Nambu--Jona-Lasinio effective interaction. Also a spontaneous generation of this interaction in the framework of QCD is described and applied to the method for other effective interactions in QCD and EWT. The method is based on N.N. Bogoliubov conception of compensation equations. As a result we then describe the principle feathures of the Standard...
Faraway, Julian J
2005-01-01
Linear models are central to the practice of statistics and form the foundation of a vast range of statistical methodologies. Julian J. Faraway''s critically acclaimed Linear Models with R examined regression and analysis of variance, demonstrated the different methods available, and showed in which situations each one applies. Following in those footsteps, Extending the Linear Model with R surveys the techniques that grow from the regression model, presenting three extensions to that framework: generalized linear models (GLMs), mixed effect models, and nonparametric regression models. The author''s treatment is thoroughly modern and covers topics that include GLM diagnostics, generalized linear mixed models, trees, and even the use of neural networks in statistics. To demonstrate the interplay of theory and practice, throughout the book the author weaves the use of the R software environment to analyze the data of real examples, providing all of the R commands necessary to reproduce the analyses. All of the ...
School leadership effects revisited: a review of empirical studies guided by indirect-effect models
Hendriks, Maria A.; Scheerens, Jaap
2013-01-01
Fourteen leadership effect studies that used indirect-effect models were quantitatively analysed to explore the most promising mediating variables. The results indicate that total effect sizes based on indirect-effect studies appear to be low, quite comparable to the results of some meta-analyses of
Response to Selection in Finite Locus Models with Nonadditive Effects.
Esfandyari, Hadi; Henryon, Mark; Berg, Peer; Thomasen, Jørn Rind; Bijma, Piter; Sørensen, Anders Christian
2017-05-01
Under the finite-locus model in the absence of mutation, the additive genetic variation is expected to decrease when directional selection is acting on a population, according to quantitative-genetic theory. However, some theoretical studies of selection suggest that the level of additive variance can be sustained or even increased when nonadditive genetic effects are present. We tested the hypothesis that finite-locus models with both additive and nonadditive genetic effects maintain more additive genetic variance (VA) and realize larger medium- to long-term genetic gains than models with only additive effects when the trait under selection is subject to truncation selection. Four genetic models that included additive, dominance, and additive-by-additive epistatic effects were simulated. The simulated genome for individuals consisted of 25 chromosomes, each with a length of 1 M. One hundred bi-allelic QTL, 4 on each chromosome, were considered. In each generation, 100 sires and 100 dams were mated, producing 5 progeny per mating. The population was selected for a single trait (h2 = 0.1) for 100 discrete generations with selection on phenotype or BLUP-EBV. VA decreased with directional truncation selection even in presence of nonadditive genetic effects. Nonadditive effects influenced long-term response to selection and among genetic models additive gene action had highest response to selection. In addition, in all genetic models, BLUP-EBV resulted in a greater fixation of favorable and unfavorable alleles and higher response than phenotypic selection. In conclusion, for the schemes we simulated, the presence of nonadditive genetic effects had little effect in changes of additive variance and VA decreased by directional selection. © The American Genetic Association 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
Consistency in Estimation and Model Selection of Dynamic Panel Data Models with Fixed Effects
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guangjie Li
2015-07-01
Full Text Available We examine the relationship between consistent parameter estimation and model selection for autoregressive panel data models with fixed effects. We find that the transformation of fixed effects proposed by Lancaster (2002 does not necessarily lead to consistent estimation of common parameters when some true exogenous regressors are excluded. We propose a data dependent way to specify the prior of the autoregressive coefficient and argue for comparing different model specifications before parameter estimation. Model selection properties of Bayes factors and Bayesian information criterion (BIC are investigated. When model uncertainty is substantial, we recommend the use of Bayesian Model Averaging to obtain point estimators with lower root mean squared errors (RMSE. We also study the implications of different levels of inclusion probabilities by simulations.
Modeling free convective gravitational effects in chemical vapor deposition
Stinespring, C. D.; Annen, K. D.
1987-01-01
In this paper, a combined fluid-mechanics, mass-transport, and chemistry model describing CVD in an open-tube atmospheric-pressure flow reactor is developed. The model allows gas-phase reactions to proceed to equilibrium and accounts for finite reaction rates at the surface of the deposition substrate. This model is a useful intermediate step toward a model employing fully rate-limited chemistry. The model is used to predict the effects of free convection on flow patterns, temperature and species-concentration profiles, and local deposition rates for silicon deposited by silane pyrolysis. These results are discussed in terms of implications for CVD of silicon and other compounds, microgravity studies, and techniques for testing and validating the model.
Effective Elliptic Models for Efficient Wavefield Extrapolation in Anisotropic Media
Waheed, Umair bin
2014-05-01
Wavefield extrapolation operator for elliptically anisotropic media offers significant cost reduction compared to that of transversely isotropic media (TI), especially when the medium exhibits tilt in the symmetry axis (TTI). However, elliptical anisotropy does not provide accurate focusing for TI media. Therefore, we develop effective elliptically anisotropic models that correctly capture the kinematic behavior of the TTI wavefield. Specifically, we use an iterative elliptically anisotropic eikonal solver that provides the accurate traveltimes for a TI model. The resultant coefficients of the elliptical eikonal provide the effective models. These effective models allow us to use the cheaper wavefield extrapolation operator for elliptic media to obtain approximate wavefield solutions for TTI media. Despite the fact that the effective elliptic models are obtained by kinematic matching using high-frequency asymptotic, the resulting wavefield contains most of the critical wavefield components, including the frequency dependency and caustics, if present, with reasonable accuracy. The methodology developed here offers a much better cost versus accuracy tradeoff for wavefield computations in TTI media, considering the cost prohibitive nature of the problem. We demonstrate the applicability of the proposed approach on the BP TTI model.
Modeling Financial Time Series Based on a Market Microstructure Model with Leverage Effect
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yanhui Xi
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The basic market microstructure model specifies that the price/return innovation and the volatility innovation are independent Gaussian white noise processes. However, the financial leverage effect has been found to be statistically significant in many financial time series. In this paper, a novel market microstructure model with leverage effects is proposed. The model specification assumed a negative correlation in the errors between the price/return innovation and the volatility innovation. With the new representations, a theoretical explanation of leverage effect is provided. Simulated data and daily stock market indices (Shanghai composite index, Shenzhen component index, and Standard and Poor’s 500 Composite index via Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC method are used to estimate the leverage market microstructure model. The results verify the effectiveness of the model and its estimation approach proposed in the paper and also indicate that the stock markets have strong leverage effects. Compared with the classical leverage stochastic volatility (SV model in terms of DIC (Deviance Information Criterion, the leverage market microstructure model fits the data better.
Thomas C. Edwards; D. Richard Cutler; Niklaus E. Zimmermann; Linda Geiser; Gretchen G. Moisen
2006-01-01
We evaluated the effects of probabilistic (hereafter DESIGN) and non-probabilistic (PURPOSIVE) sample surveys on resultant classification tree models for predicting the presence of four lichen species in the Pacific Northwest, USA. Models derived from both survey forms were assessed using an independent data set (EVALUATION). Measures of accuracy as gauged by...
Modelling the effects of a CBRN defence system using a Bayesian Belief Model
Phillipson, F.; Bastings, I.C.L.; Vink, N.
2015-01-01
In this paper a Bayes model to quantify the effects of a passive CBRN defence system is presented. The model gives insight in the way of the mutual influence of all the elements of passive CBRN defence, by the use of detailed scenario analysis, sensitivity analysis and root cause analysis. This can
The Collaboration Model: The Effective Model for the Increasing Interdependence of Organizations.
Doan, Sheila R.
Scarce resources have facilitated increasing interdependence among organizations. This paper describes the group dynamics of the cooperation and collaboration models and examines which one is most suitable for maintaining effective group involvement. The cooperation model is comprised of two organizations that reach a mutual agreement; however,…
Discrete Element Model for Suppression of Coffee-Ring Effect
Xu, Ting; Lam, Miu Ling; Chen, Ting-Hsuan
2017-02-01
When a sessile droplet evaporates, coffee-ring effect drives the suspended particulate matters to the droplet edge, eventually forming a ring-shaped deposition. Because it causes a non-uniform distribution of solid contents, which is undesired in many applications, attempts have been made to eliminate the coffee-ring effect. Recent reports indicated that the coffee-ring effect can be suppressed by a mixture of spherical and non-spherical particles with enhanced particle-particle interaction at air-water interface. However, a model to comprehend the inter-particulate activities has been lacking. Here, we report a discrete element model (particle system) to investigate the phenomenon. The modeled dynamics included particle traveling following the capillary flow with Brownian motion, and its resultant 3D hexagonal close packing of particles along the contact line. For particles being adsorbed by air-water interface, we modeled cluster growth, cluster deformation, and cluster combination. We found that the suppression of coffee-ring effect does not require a circulatory flow driven by an inward Marangoni flow at air-water interface. Instead, the number of new cluster formation, which can be enhanced by increasing the ratio of non-spherical particles and the overall number of microspheres, is more dominant in the suppression process. Together, this model provides a useful platform elucidating insights for suppressing coffee-ring effect for practical applications in the future.
The problematic estimation of "imitation effects" in multilevel models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
2003-09-01
Full Text Available It seems plausible that a person's demographic behaviour may be influenced by that among other people in the community, for example because of an inclination to imitate. When estimating multilevel models from clustered individual data, some investigators might perhaps feel tempted to try to capture this effect by simply including on the right-hand side the average of the dependent variable, constructed by aggregation within the clusters. However, such modelling must be avoided. According to simulation experiments based on real fertility data from India, the estimated effect of this obviously endogenous variable can be very different from the true effect. Also the other community effect estimates can be strongly biased. An "imitation effect" can only be estimated under very special assumptions that in practice will be hard to defend.
Internal tide modelling and the influence of wind effects
Hall, Philip; Davies, Alan M.
2007-05-01
Initially the development of shallow sea three-dimensional barotropic tidal models is briefly reviewed with a view to determining what were the key measurements that allowed progress in this field and rigorous model validation. Subsequently this is extended to a brief review of baroclinic tidal models to try to determine a "way forward" for baroclinic model development. The difficulty of high spatial variability, and wind influence are identified as possibly important issues that must be considered in validating baroclinic tidal models. These are examined using a three-dimensional unstructured grid model of the M2 internal tide on the shelf edge region off the west coast of Scotland. The model is used to investigate the spatial variability of the M2 internal tide, and associated turbulence energy and mixing in the region. Initial calculations are performed with tidal forcing only, with subsequent calculations briefly examining how the tidal distribution is modified by down-welling and up-welling favourable winds. Calculations with tidal forcing only, show that there is significant spatial variability in the internal tide and associated mixing in the region. In addition, these are influenced by wind effects which may have to be taken into account in any model validation exercise. The paper ends by discussing the comprehensive nature of data sets that need to be collected to validate internal tidal models to the same level currently attained with three dimensional barotropic tidal models.
Modeling the Effects of Stress: An Approach to Training
Cuper, Taryn
2010-01-01
Stress is an integral element of the operational conditions experienced by combat medics. The effects of stress can compromise the performance of combat medics who must reach and treat their comrades under often threatening circumstances. Examples of these effects include tunnel vision, loss of motor control, and diminished hearing, which can result in an inability to perceive further danger, satisfactorily treat the casualty, and communicate with others. While many training programs strive to recreate this stress to aid in the experiential learning process, stress inducement may not always be feasible or desired. In addition, live simulations are not always a practical, convenient, and repeatable method of training. Instead, presenting situational training on a personal computer is proposed as an effective training platform in which the effects of stress can be addressed in a different way. We explore the cognitive and motor effects of stress, as well as the benefits of training for mitigating these effects in real life. While many training applications focus on inducing stress in order to "condition" the stress response, the author explores the possibilities of modeling stress to produce a similar effect. Can presenting modeled effects of stress help prepare or inoculate soldiers for stressful situations in which they must perform at a high level? This paper investigates feasibility of modeling stress and describes the preliminary design considerations of a combat medic training system that utilizes this method of battlefield preparation.
Multi-region unstructured volume segmentation using tetrahedron filling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Willliams, Sean Jamerson [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dillard, Scott E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Thoma, Dan J [MDI, INSTITUTES; Hlawitschka, Mario [UC DAVIS; Hamann, Bernd [UC DAVIS
2010-01-01
Segmentation is one of the most common operations in image processing, and while there are several solutions already present in the literature, they each have their own benefits and drawbacks that make them well-suited for some types of data and not for others. We focus on the problem of breaking an image into multiple regions in a single segmentation pass, while supporting both voxel and scattered point data. To solve this problem, we begin with a set of potential boundary points and use a Delaunay triangulation to complete the boundaries. We use heuristic- and interaction-driven Voronoi clustering to find reasonable groupings of tetrahedra. Apart from the computation of the Delaunay triangulation, our algorithm has linear time complexity with respect to the number of tetrahedra.
Wang, Wei; Griswold, Michael E.
2016-01-01
The random effect Tobit model is a regression model that accommodates both left- and/or right-censoring and within-cluster dependence of the outcome variable. Regression coefficients of random effect Tobit models have conditional interpretations on a constructed latent dependent variable and do not provide inference of overall exposure effects on the original outcome scale. Marginalized random effects model (MREM) permits likelihood-based estimation of marginal mean parameters for the clustered data. For random effect Tobit models, we extend the MREM to marginalize over both the random effects and the normal space and boundary components of the censored response to estimate overall exposure effects at population level. We also extend the ‘Average Predicted Value’ method to estimate the model-predicted marginal means for each person under different exposure status in a designated reference group by integrating over the random effects and then use the calculated difference to assess the overall exposure effect. The maximum likelihood estimation is proposed utilizing a quasi-Newton optimization algorithm with Gauss-Hermite quadrature to approximate the integration of the random effects. We use these methods to carefully analyze two real datasets. PMID:27449636
Modeling of Reverberation Effects for Radio Localization and Communications
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Steinböck, Gerhard
2013-01-01
For decades the terrestrial radio channel has been characterized and modeled for communication purpose only, e.g. to design wireless systems and/or to assess their performance by means of Monte Carlo simulations. The recent emergence of localization capabilities in terrestrial wireless systems...... demand for novel channel models that, in addition, accurately emulate the location-dependent features of real channels. In this thesis we address and provide answers to the central questions of the cause, the effect and the modeling of the diffuse component observed in delay power spectra measured......, receivers, and scatterers are represented as vertices and propagation conditions between these vertices as (labeled) edges. Due to its recursive structure, the graph model is capable of reproducing the avalanche effect and the diffuse component, even though propagation along the edges is assumed specular...
Effect of automobiles on global warming: A modeling study
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shyam Sundar
2017-09-01
Full Text Available Global warming threatens our environment as well as basic human needs. In the present scenario, increasing demand and excessive use of automobiles have increased the level of carbon dioxide emission in the environment, providing a significant contribution to increase the global warming. This paper deals with the modeling of the effect of automobiles on global warming. For this, three nonlinearly interacting variables namely; density of human population, density of automobiles and the concentration of carbon dioxide have been taken into account. In the modeling process, it is assumed that the density of automobiles increases in proportion to human population following a logistic growth. The model is analyzed using stability theory of ordinary differential equations. Local and global stability conditions are established to study the feasibility of the model system. It is shown that with increase in human population, the demand for automobiles increases which has significant effect on global warming increase.
Wang, Hui
2014-05-01
This thesis addresses the efficiency improvement of seismic wave modeling and migration in anisotropic media. This improvement becomes crucial in practice as the process of imaging complex geological structures of the Earth\\'s subsurface requires modeling and migration as building blocks. The challenge comes from two aspects. First, the underlying governing equations for seismic wave propagation in anisotropic media are far more complicated than that in isotropic media which demand higher computational costs to solve. Second, the usage of whole prestack seismic data still remains a burden considering its storage volume and the existing wave equation solvers. In this thesis, I develop two approaches to tackle the challenges. In the first part, I adopt the concept of prestack exploding reflector model to handle the whole prestack data and bridge the data space directly to image space in a single kernel. I formulate the extrapolation operator in a two-way fashion to remove he restriction on directions that waves propagate. I also develop a generic method for phase velocity evaluation within anisotropic media used in this extrapolation kernel. The proposed method provides a tool for generating prestack images without wavefield cross correlations. In the second part of this thesis, I approximate the anisotropic models using effective isotropic models. The wave phenomena in these effective models match that in anisotropic models both kinematically and dynamically. I obtain the effective models through equating eikonal equations and transport equations of anisotropic and isotropic models, thereby in the high frequency asymptotic approximation sense. The wavefields extrapolation costs are thus reduced using isotropic wave equation solvers while the anisotropic effects are maintained through this approach. I benchmark the two proposed methods using synthetic datasets. Tests on anisotropic Marmousi model and anisotropic BP2007 model demonstrate the applicability of my
FDTD Modeling and Counteraction to Scintillation Effects in the lonosphere
2014-04-05
AFRL-RV-PS- TR-2014-0101 AFRL-RV-PS- TR-2014-0101 FDTD MODELING AND COUNTERACTION TO SCINTILLATION EFFECTS IN THE IONOSPHERE Christos...DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 05-04-2014 2. REPORT TYPE Final Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 24 Feb 2012 – 23 Feb 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE FDTD ...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT This study investigated the Finite Difference Time Domain ( FDTD ) modeling of ionospheric scintillation
A CONTINGENCY MODEL FOR THE PREDICTION OF LEADER SHIP EFFECTIVENESS
past twelve years with ASo and LPC scores on 21 different types of groups. The model is predicated on the assumption that the type of leader ship...A model for the prediction of group performance is described which attempts an integration of the group effectiveness research conducted over the...behavior required for good group performance is contingent upon favorableness of the group task situation for the leader . Given the group’s classification
The Effect of Head Model Simplification on Beamformer Source Localization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Frank Neugebauer
2017-11-01
Full Text Available Beamformers are a widely-used tool in brain analysis with magnetoencephalography (MEG and electroencephalography (EEG. For the construction of the beamformer filters realistic head volume conductor modeling is necessary for accurately computing the EEG and MEG leadfields, i.e., for solving the EEG and MEG forward problem. In this work, we investigate the influence of including realistic head tissue compartments into a finite element method (FEM model on the beamformer's localization ability. Specifically, we investigate the effect of including cerebrospinal fluid, gray matter, and white matter distinction, as well as segmenting the skull bone into compacta and spongiosa, and modeling white matter anisotropy. We simulate an interictal epileptic measurement with white sensor noise. Beamformer filters are constructed with unit gain, unit array gain, and unit noise gain constraint. Beamformer source positions are determined by evaluating power and excess sample kurtosis (g2 of the source-waveforms at all source space nodes. For both modalities, we see a strong effect of modeling the cerebrospinal fluid and white and gray matter. Depending on the source position, both effects can each be in the magnitude of centimeters, rendering their modeling necessary for successful localization. Precise skull modeling mainly effected the EEG up to a few millimeters, while both modalities could profit from modeling white matter anisotropy to a smaller extent of 5–10 mm. The unit noise gain or neural activity index beamformer behaves similarly to the array gain beamformer when noise strength is sufficiently high. Variance localization seems more robust against modeling errors than kurtosis.
Modeling atmospheric effects of the September 1859 Solar Flare
Thomas, Brian; Jackman, Charles,; Melott, Adrian
2006-01-01
We have modeled atmospheric effects, especially ozone depletion, due to a solar proton event which probably accompanied the extreme magnetic storm of 1-2 September 1859. We use an inferred proton fluence for this event as estimated from nitrate levels in Greenland ice cores. We present results showing production of odd nitrogen compounds and their impact on ozone. We also compute rainout of nitrate in our model and compare to values from ice core data.
Frequency effects of spatial dispersion in semiclassical model of conductivity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Golovashkin, A I; Ivanenko, O M; Karuzskii, A L; Lykov, A N; Perestoronin, A V; Vishnyakov, Yu V, E-mail: karuz@sci.lebedev.r [P. N. Lebedev Physical Institute of RAS, Leninsky prospekt 53, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)
2009-03-01
Effect of significant retardation of an electromagnetic wave in microstrip microwave systems, where the phase velocity becomes less than the Fermi velocity, opens a novel experimental approach to investigations of properties and pairing mechanisms of carriers in superconductors by measurements of spatial dispersion effects at low temperatures. In this study, we present for the first time the semiclassical model of the current carrier dynamics depending on the frequency and phase velocity of electromagnetic wave, which accounts the unlocal spatial dispersion effects. These equations make it possible to perform a comparative analysis of the spatial effects observed in high-temperature superconductors, conventional superconductors, and normal metals.
A hydrodynamic model for granular material flows including segregation effects
Gilberg, Dominik; Klar, Axel; Steiner, Konrad
2017-06-01
The simulation of granular flows including segregation effects in large industrial processes using particle methods is accurate, but very time-consuming. To overcome the long computation times a macroscopic model is a natural choice. Therefore, we couple a mixture theory based segregation model to a hydrodynamic model of Navier-Stokes-type, describing the flow behavior of the granular material. The granular flow model is a hybrid model derived from kinetic theory and a soil mechanical approach to cover the regime of fast dilute flow, as well as slow dense flow, where the density of the granular material is close to the maximum packing density. Originally, the segregation model has been formulated by Thornton and Gray for idealized avalanches. It is modified and adapted to be in the preferred form for the coupling. In the final coupled model the segregation process depends on the local state of the granular system. On the other hand, the granular system changes as differently mixed regions of the granular material differ i.e. in the packing density. For the modeling process the focus lies on dry granular material flows of two particle types differing only in size but can be easily extended to arbitrary granular mixtures of different particle size and density. To solve the coupled system a finite volume approach is used. To test the model the rotational mixing of small and large particles in a tumbler is simulated.
Modelling of micro vibration energy harvester considering size effect
Li, Chuangye; Huo, Rui; Wang, Weike
2017-09-01
Considering increase of stiffness caused by size effect, equivalent Young's modulus was introduced for futher analysis. Experimental platform was established to test vibration characteristics. Dynamic equation for micro piezoelectric cantilever beam considering size effect was studied with finite element analysis and experiment. Results shows it is accurate. Based on that, dynamic model for micro vibration energy harvester was improved, a T-type micro vibration energy harvester was designed and fabricated. Resonant frequency, tip displacement and output voltage of the harvester were obtained. Comparing with macroscopic model for vibration harvester, improved one reduces errors by 13%, 35% and 22%.
Mesh Size Effects on Fracture Toughness Estimation by Damage Model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Choi, Shin Beom; Chang, Yoon Suk; Kim, Young Jin [School of Mechanical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Min Chul; Lee, Bong Sang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2009-05-15
The objective of this paper is to investigate mesh size effects on fracture toughness of SA508 carbon steel by damage model. To achieve this goal, a series of finite element analyses are carried out for CT (compact tension) and PCVN (pre-cracked V-notch) specimens. And Weibull stress model are adopted to derive toughness scale diagram. Finally, toughness scale diagram, which considered crack-tip mesh size effects, is derived from comparing estimated fracture toughness data between CT and PCVN specimens under -60 .deg. C and -80 .deg. C.
Modelling and Analysis of Proximity Effect in IGBT Fuses
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Iov, Florin; Blaabjerg, Frede; Rasmussen, Henrik
2005-01-01
. Even with an active protection, a high power IGBT still has a risk of exhibiting a violent rupture in the case of a fault if e.g. IGBT fuses are not protecting it. By introducing fuses into voltage source converters a better protection of IGBT's can be achieved. However, skin and proximity effects...... affect the current distribution in a fuse due to the high frequency currents and thus a need for de-rating the fuse. This paper shows an analytical model for studying the proximity effect into a fuse. The results obtained using this model are compared with experiments....
Multivariate longitudinal data analysis with mixed effects hidden Markov models.
Raffa, Jesse D; Dubin, Joel A
2015-09-01
Multiple longitudinal responses are often collected as a means to capture relevant features of the true outcome of interest, which is often hidden and not directly measurable. We outline an approach which models these multivariate longitudinal responses as generated from a hidden disease process. We propose a class of models which uses a hidden Markov model with separate but correlated random effects between multiple longitudinal responses. This approach was motivated by a smoking cessation clinical trial, where a bivariate longitudinal response involving both a continuous and a binomial response was collected for each participant to monitor smoking behavior. A Bayesian method using Markov chain Monte Carlo is used. Comparison of separate univariate response models to the bivariate response models was undertaken. Our methods are demonstrated on the smoking cessation clinical trial dataset, and properties of our approach are examined through extensive simulation studies. © 2015, The International Biometric Society.
Wall modeled LES of wind turbine wakes with geometrical effects
Bricteux, Laurent; Benard, Pierre; Zeoli, Stephanie; Moureau, Vincent; Lartigue, Ghislain; Vire, Axelle
2017-11-01
This study focuses on prediction of wind turbine wakes when geometrical effects such as nacelle, tower, and built environment, are taken into account. The aim is to demonstrate the ability of a high order unstructured solver called YALES2 to perform wall modeled LES of wind turbine wake turbulence. The wind turbine rotor is modeled using an Actuator Line Model (ALM) while the geometrical details are explicitly meshed thanks to the use of an unstructured grid. As high Reynolds number flows are considered, sub-grid scale models as well as wall modeling are required. The first test case investigated concerns a wind turbine flow located in a wind tunnel that allows to validate the proposed methodology using experimental data. The second test case concerns the simulation of a wind turbine wake in a complex environment (e.g. a Building) using realistic turbulent inflow conditions.
Modeling the effects of inflammation in bone fracture healing
Kojouharov, H. V.; Trejo, I.; Chen-Charpentier, B. M.
2017-10-01
A new mathematical model is presented to study the early inflammatory effects in bone healing. It consists of a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations that represents the interactions among macrophages, mesenchymal stem cells, and osteoblasts. A qualitative analysis of the model is performed to determine the equilibria and their corresponding stability properties. A set of numerical simulations is performed to support the theoretical results. The model is also used to numerically monitor the evolution of a broken bone for different types of fractures and to explore possible treatments to accelerate bone healing by administrating anti-inflammatory drugs.
Modelling of moving load effect on concrete pavements
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kuchárová Daniela
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Concrete roads may have different layout arrangement. The structures made of isolated prefabricated slabs are used for the construction of temporary roadways. The paper deals with numerical simulation of moving load effect on isolated slabs on elastic foundation. The computing model of a lorry and computing model of a slab are introduced. The deflections at the middle of the slab and tire forces of vehicle are modeled under various conditions. The influence of speed of vehicle motion and influence of initial conditions are evaluated. The results are presented in time domain in graphical and numerical manner.
Excluded volume effect enhances the homology pairing of model chromosomes
Takamiya, Kazunori; Yamamoto, Keisuke; Isami, Shuhei; Nishimori, Hiraku; Awazu, Akinori
To investigate the structural dynamics of the homology pairing of polymers, we mod- eled the scenario of homologous chromosome pairings during meiosis in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, one of the simplest model organisms of eukaryotes. We consider a simple model consist- ing of pairs of homologous polymers with the same structures that are confined in a cylindrical container, which represents the local parts of chromosomes contained in an elongated nucleus of S. pombe. Brownian dynamics simulations of this model showed that the excluded volume effects among non-homological chromosomes and the transitional dynamics of nuclear shape serve to enhance the pairing of homologous chromosomes.
Numerical modeling of coanda effect in a novel propulsive system
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S Das
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Coanda effect (adhesion of jet flow over curved surface is fundamental characteristics of jet flow. In the present paper, we carried out numerical simulations to investigate Coanda flow over a curved surface and its application in a newly proposed Propulsive system "A.C.H.E.O.N" (Aerial Coanda High Efficiency Orienting jet Nozzle which supports thrust vectoring. The ACHEON system is presently being proposed for propelling a new V/STOL airplane in European Union. This system is based on cumulative effects of three physical effects such as (1 High speed jet mixing speeds (2 Coanda effect control by electrostatic fields (3 Coanda effect adhesion of an high speed jet to a convex surface. The performance of this nozzle can be enhanced by increasing the jet deflection angle of synthetic jet over the Coanda surface. This newly proposed nozzle has wide range of applications. It can be used in industrial sector such as plasma spray gun and for direct injection in combustion chamber to enhance the efficiency of the combustion chamber. Also, we studied the effect of Dielectric barrier discharge (DBD plasma actuators on A.C.H.E.O.N system. Dielectric barrier discharge (DBD plasma actuators are active control devices for controlling boundary layer and to delay the flow separation over any convex surfaces. Computations were performed under subsonic condition. Two dimensional CFD calculations were carried out using Reynolds averaged Navier stokes equations (RANS. A numerical method based on finite volume formulation (FVM was used. SST k-ω model was considered to model turbulent flow inside nozzle. DBD model was used to model the plasma. Moreover, a body force treatment was devised to model the effect of plasma and its coupling with the fluid. This preliminary result shows that, the presence of plasma near Coanda surface accelerates the flow and delays the separation and enhances the efficiency of the nozzle.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bergami, L.; Gaunaa, M.
2012-02-15
The report presents the ATEFlap aerodynamic model, which computes the unsteady lift, drag and moment on a 2D airfoil section equipped with Adaptive Trailing Edge Flap. The model captures the unsteady response related to the effects of the vorticity shed into the wake, and the dynamics of flow separation a thin-airfoil potential flow model is merged with a dynamic stall model of the Beddoes-Leishmann type. The inputs required by the model are steady data for lift, drag, and moment coefficients as function of angle of attack and flap deflection. Further steady data used by the Beddoes- Leishmann dynamic stall model are computed in an external preprocessor application, which gives the user the possibility to verify, and eventually correct, the steady data passed to the aerodynamic model. The ATEFlap aerodynamic model is integrated in the aeroelastic simulation tool HAWC2, thus al- lowing to simulate the response of a wind turbine with trailing edge flaps on the rotor. The algorithms used by the preprocessor, and by aerodynamic model are presented, and modifications to previous implementations of the aerodynamic model are briefly discussed. The performance and the validity of the model are verified by comparing the dynamic response computed by the ATEFlap with solutions from CFD simulations. (Author)
Computer modeling of jamming effects on roll stabilized missiles
Hill, Craig Alan.
2000-01-01
Development of countermeasures against infrared missiles is enhanced by an ability to quantify the effects of the countermeasure. Analysts must be capable of accurately determining the attitude of the missile throughout its flight. This thesis describes the use of micro-miniature technologies to measure the rates experienced by a missile and the model required to effectively determine the missile's attitude. The Applied Technology Associates ARS-04E and the Tokin America CG-16D sensors were e...
Analgesic effects of NB001 on mouse models of arthralgia
Tian, Zhen; Wang, Dong-sheng; Wang, Xin-shang; Tian, Jiao; Han, Jing; Guo, Yan-yan; Feng, Bin; Zhang, Nan; Zhao, Ming-gao; Liu, Shui-bing
2015-01-01
Our previous studies have demonstrated the critical roles of calcium-stimulated adenylyl cyclase 1 (AC1) in the central nervous system in chronic pain. In the present study, we examined the analgesic effects of NB001, a selective inhibitor of AC1, on animal models of ankle joint arthritis and knee joint arthritis induced by complete Freund’s adjuvant injection. NB001 treatment had no effect on joint edema, stiffness, and joint destruction. Furthermore, the treatment failed to attenuate the di...
Modeling the effect of comprehensive interventions on Ebola virus transmission
Shen, Mingwang; Xiao, Yanni; Rong, Libin
2015-10-01
Since the re-emergence of Ebola in West Africa in 2014, comprehensive and stringent interventions have been implemented to decelerate the spread of the disease. The effectiveness of interventions still remains unclear. In this paper, we develop an epidemiological model that includes various controlling measures to systematically evaluate their effects on the disease transmission dynamics. By fitting the model to reported cumulative cases and deaths in Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia until March 22, 2015, we estimate the basic reproduction number in these countries as 1.2552, 1.6093 and 1.7994, respectively. Model analysis shows that there exists a threshold of the effectiveness of isolation, below which increasing the fraction of latent individuals diagnosed prior to symptoms onset or shortening the duration between symptoms onset and isolation may lead to more Ebola infection. This challenges an existing view. Media coverage plays a substantial role in reducing the final epidemic size. The response to reported cumulative infected cases and deaths may have a different effect on the epidemic spread in different countries. Among all the interventions, we find that shortening the duration between death and burial and improving the effectiveness of isolation are two effective interventions for controlling the outbreak of Ebola virus infection.
Effect of Keishibukuryogan on Genetic and Dietary Obesity Models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fengying Gao
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Obesity has been recognized as one of the most important risk factors for a variety of chronic diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension/cardiovascular diseases, steatosis/hepatitis, and cancer. Keishibukuryogan (KBG, Gui Zhi Fu Ling Wan in Chinese is a traditional Chinese/Japanese (Kampo medicine that has been known to improve blood circulation and is also known for its anti-inflammatory or scavenging effect. In this study, we evaluated the effect of KBG in two distinct rodent models of obesity driven by either a genetic (SHR/NDmcr-cp rat model or dietary (high-fat diet-induced mouse obesity model mechanism. Although there was no significant effect on the body composition in either the SHR rat or the DIO mouse models, KBG treatment significantly decreased the serum level of leptin and liver TG level in the DIO mouse, but not in the SHR rat model. Furthermore, a lower fat deposition in liver and a smaller size of adipocytes in white adipose tissue were observed in the DIO mice treated with KBG. Importantly, we further found downregulation of genes involved in lipid metabolism in the KBG-treated liver, along with decreased liver TG and cholesterol level. Our present data experimentally support in fact that KBG can be an attractive Kampo medicine to improve obese status through a regulation of systemic leptin level and/or lipid metabolism.
Sequential Effects in Essay Ratings: Evidence of Assimilation Effects Using Cross-Classified Models.
Zhao, Haiyan; Andersson, Björn; Guo, Boliang; Xin, Tao
2017-01-01
Writing assessments are an indispensable part of most language competency tests. In our research, we used cross-classified models to study rater effects in the real essay rating process of a large-scale, high-stakes educational examination administered in China in 2011. Generally, four cross-classified models are suggested for investigation of rater effects: (1) the existence of sequential effects, (2) the direction of the sequential effects, and (3) differences in raters by their individual characteristics. We applied these models to the data to account for possible cluster effects caused by the application of multiple rating strategies. The results of our research showed that raters demonstrated sequential effects during the rating process. In contrast to many other studies on rater effects, our study found that raters exhibited assimilation effects. The more experienced, lenient, and qualified raters were less susceptible to assimilation effects. In addition, our research demonstrated the feasibility and appropriateness of using cross-classified models in assessing rater effects for such data structures. This paper also discusses the implications for educators and practitioners who are interested in reducing sequential effects in the rating process, and suggests directions for future research.
Sequential Effects in Essay Ratings: Evidence of Assimilation Effects Using Cross-Classified Models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Haiyan Zhao
2017-06-01
Full Text Available Writing assessments are an indispensable part of most language competency tests. In our research, we used cross-classified models to study rater effects in the real essay rating process of a large-scale, high-stakes educational examination administered in China in 2011. Generally, four cross-classified models are suggested for investigation of rater effects: (1 the existence of sequential effects, (2 the direction of the sequential effects, and (3 differences in raters by their individual characteristics. We applied these models to the data to account for possible cluster effects caused by the application of multiple rating strategies. The results of our research showed that raters demonstrated sequential effects during the rating process. In contrast to many other studies on rater effects, our study found that raters exhibited assimilation effects. The more experienced, lenient, and qualified raters were less susceptible to assimilation effects. In addition, our research demonstrated the feasibility and appropriateness of using cross-classified models in assessing rater effects for such data structures. This paper also discusses the implications for educators and practitioners who are interested in reducing sequential effects in the rating process, and suggests directions for future research.
Comparison of four nonlinear growth models for effective exploration ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Tuoyo Aghomotsegin
2016-10-05
Oct 5, 2016 ... 4Laboratory for Marine Biology and Biotechnology, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology,. Qingdao 266071, China. Received 24 May, 2016; Accepted 15 September, 2016. This study was conducted to compare the effectiveness for non-linear growth models designated as.
Modeling of eating style and its effect on intake
Boer, van den J.H.W.; Mars, M.
2015-01-01
Observational research has indicated that modeling of eating style might occur when eating in the presence of an eating companion. This experiment investigated the effect of bite frequency of a same-sex eating companion on bite frequency, meal size and meal duration. A total of 30 normal weight
Effects of Peer Modelling Technique in Reducing Substance Abuse ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The study investigated the effects of peer modelling techniques in reducing substance abuse among undergraduates in Nigeria. The participants were one hundred and twenty (120) undergraduate students in 100 and 400 levels respectively. There are two groups: one treatment group and one control group.
Application of Random-Effects Probit Regression Models.
Gibbons, Robert D.; Hedeker, Donald
1994-01-01
Develops random-effects probit model for case in which outcome of interest is series of correlated binary responses, obtained as product of longitudinal response process where individual is repeatedly classified on binary outcome variable or in multilevel or clustered problems in which individuals within groups are considered to share…
Global change effects on a mechanistic decomposer food web model
Kuijper, L.D.J.; Berg, M.P.; Morrien, E.; Kooi, B.W.; Verhoef, H.A.
2005-01-01
Global change may affect the structure and functioning of decomposer food webs through qualitative changes in freshly fallen litter. We analyzed the predicted effects of a changing environment on a dynamic model of a donor-controlled natural decomposer ecosystem near Wekerom, the Netherlands. This
Effects of question formats on causal judgments and model evaluation.
Shou, Yiyun; Smithson, Michael
2015-01-01
Evaluation of causal reasoning models depends on how well the subjects' causal beliefs are assessed. Elicitation of causal beliefs is determined by the experimental questions put to subjects. We examined the impact of question formats commonly used in causal reasoning research on participant's responses. The results of our experiment (Study 1) demonstrate that both the mean and homogeneity of the responses can be substantially influenced by the type of question (structure induction versus strength estimation versus prediction). Study 2A demonstrates that subjects' responses to a question requiring them to predict the effect of a candidate cause can be significantly lower and more heterogeneous than their responses to a question asking them to diagnose a cause when given an effect. Study 2B suggests that diagnostic reasoning can strongly benefit from cues relating to temporal precedence of the cause in the question. Finally, we evaluated 16 variations of recent computational models and found the model fitting was substantially influenced by the type of questions. Our results show that future research in causal reasoning should place a high priority on disentangling the effects of question formats from the effects of experimental manipulations, because that will enable comparisons between models of causal reasoning uncontaminated by method artifact.
Effective ellipsoidal models for wavefield extrapolation in tilted orthorhombic media
Waheed, Umair Bin
2016-04-22
Wavefield computations using the ellipsoidally anisotropic extrapolation operator offer significant cost reduction compared to that for the orthorhombic case, especially when the symmetry planes are tilted and/or rotated. However, ellipsoidal anisotropy does not provide accurate wavefield representation or imaging for media of orthorhombic symmetry. Therefore, we propose the use of ‘effective ellipsoidally anisotropic’ models that correctly capture the kinematic behaviour of wavefields for tilted orthorhombic (TOR) media. We compute effective velocities for the ellipsoidally anisotropic medium using kinematic high-frequency representation of the TOR wavefield, obtained by solving the TOR eikonal equation. The effective model allows us to use the cheaper ellipsoidally anisotropic wave extrapolation operators. Although the effective models are obtained by kinematic matching using high-frequency asymptotic, the resulting wavefield contains most of the critical wavefield components, including frequency dependency and caustics, if present, with reasonable accuracy. The proposed methodology offers a much better cost versus accuracy trade-off for wavefield computations in TOR media, particularly for media of low to moderate anisotropic strength. Furthermore, the computed wavefield solution is free from shear-wave artefacts as opposed to the conventional finite-difference based TOR wave extrapolation scheme. We demonstrate applicability and usefulness of our formulation through numerical tests on synthetic TOR models. © 2016 Institute of Geophysics of the ASCR, v.v.i
Holomorphy without supersymmetry in the Standard Model Effective Field Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rodrigo Alonso
2014-12-01
Full Text Available The anomalous dimensions of dimension-six operators in the Standard Model Effective Field Theory (SMEFT respect holomorphy to a large extent. The holomorphy conditions are reminiscent of supersymmetry, even though the SMEFT is not a supersymmetric theory.
Conceptual Model for Effective Sports Marketing in Nigeria | Akarah ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The Federal Republic of Nigeria Economic Transformation Blueprint on Nigeria Vision 20:2020 seeks to improve the standards of her citizen and place the country among the Top 20 economies in the world with a minimum GDP of $900 billion. The conceptual model for effective sports marketing in Nigeria identifies sports ...
146 Conceptual Model for Effective Sports Marketing in Nigeria
African Journals Online (AJOL)
User
2012-01-24
Jan 24, 2012 ... create business opportunities and employment, thereby enhancing income and reducing poverty.‖. Thus, the conceptual model for an effective sports marketing and development in Nigeria identifies the sports marketers to be the sports producers comprising of sports goods manufacturers (Nike, Adidas, ...
Graphical Illustration of Interaction Effects in Binary Choice Models
Franken, Jason R.V.; Pennings, Joost M.E.; Garcia, Philip
2017-01-01
Graphing procedures for evaluating power or interaction terms in binary logit and probit models are illustrated in an application to hog producers' decisions based on transaction cost economics' hypothesised positive effect of the interaction of uncertainty and asset specificity on contract use.
Towards a more effective model for distance education
Koper, Rob
2014-01-01
Reference: Koper, E.J.R. (2014). Towards a more effective model for distance education. e-Learning and Education. e-Learning and Education, 10. urn:nbn:de:0009-5-40105 http://eleed.campussource.de/archive/10/4010
CREATING EFFECTIVE MODELS OF VERTICAL INTEGRATED STRUCTURES IN UKRAINE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. V. Koliesnikov
2011-01-01
Full Text Available The results of scientific research aimed at development of methodology-theoretical mechanisms of building the effective models of vertically-integrated structures are presented. A presence of vertically-integrated structures on natural-monopolistic markets at private and governmental sectors of economy and priority directions of integration are given.
Analytical model of transient thermal effect on convectional cooled ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 81; Issue 4. Analytical model of transient thermal effect on convectional cooled end-pumped laser rod ... The transient analytical solutions of temperature distribution, stress, strain and optical path difference in convectional cooled end-pumped laser rod are derived.
Effective single scattering albedo estimation using regional climate model
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Tesfaye, M
2011-09-01
Full Text Available In this study, by modifying the optical parameterization of Regional Climate model (RegCM), the authors have computed and compared the Effective Single-Scattering Albedo (ESSA) which is a representative of VIS spectral region. The arid, semi-arid...
Performance of Random Effects Model Estimators under Complex Sampling Designs
Jia, Yue; Stokes, Lynne; Harris, Ian; Wang, Yan
2011-01-01
In this article, we consider estimation of parameters of random effects models from samples collected via complex multistage designs. Incorporation of sampling weights is one way to reduce estimation bias due to unequal probabilities of selection. Several weighting methods have been proposed in the literature for estimating the parameters of…
Learning from a role model: A cascade or whirlpool effect?
Jochemsen-van der Leeuw, H. G. A. Ria; Buwalda, Nienke; Wieringa-de Waard, Margreet; van Dijk, Nynke
2015-01-01
Continuing Professional Development (CPD) and Faculty Development (FD) courses have been designed in the expectation that a cascade effect will occur, consisting of a conveyance of information from the courses to clinical trainers to daily practice and/or to trainees by means of role modeling. The
STAS and Logit Modeling of Advertising and Promotion Effects
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Flemming; Yssing Hansen, Lotte; Grønholdt, Lars
2002-01-01
This paper describes the preliminary studies of the effect of advertising and promotion on purchases using the British single-source database Adlab. STAS and logit modeling are the two measures studied. Results from the two measures have been compared to determine the extent to which, they give...
Global model for the lithospheric strength and effective elastic thickness
Tesauro, M.; Kaban, M.K.; Cloetingh, S.A.P.L.
2013-01-01
Global distribution of the strength and effective elastic thickness (Te) of the lithosphere are estimated using physical parameters from recent crustal and lithospheric models. For the Te estimation we apply a new approach, which provides a possibility to take into account variations of Young
Transmission Model of Hepatitis B Virus with the Migration Effect
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Muhammad Altaf Khan
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Hepatitis B is a globally infectious disease. Mathematical modeling of HBV transmission is an interesting research area. In this paper, we present characteristics of HBV virus transmission in the form of a mathematical model. We analyzed the effect of immigrants in the model to study the effect of immigrants for the host population. We added the following flow parameters: “the transmission between migrated and exposed class” and “the transmission between migrated and acute class.” With these new features, we obtained a compartment model of six differential equations. First, we find the basic threshold quantity Ro and then find the local asymptotic stability of disease-free equilibrium and endemic equilibrium. Furthermore, we find the global stability of the disease-free and endemic equilibria. Previous similar publications have not added the kind of information about the numerical results of the model. In our case, from numerical simulation, a detailed discussion of the parameters and their numerical results is presented. We claim that with these assumptions and by adding the migrated class, the model informs policy for governments, to be aware of the immigrants and subject them to tests about the disease status. Immigrants for short visits and students should be subjected to tests to reduce the number of immigrants with disease.
Effect of vergence adaptation on convergence-accommodation: model simulations.
Sreenivasan, Vidhyapriya; Bobier, William R; Irving, Elizabeth L; Lakshminarayanan, Vasudevan
2009-10-01
Several theoretical control models depict the adaptation effects observed in the accommodation and vergence mechanisms of the human visual system. Two current quantitative models differ in their approach of defining adaptation and in identifying the effect of controller adaptation on their respective cross-links between the vergence and accommodative systems. Here, we compare the simulation results of these adaptation models with empirical data obtained from emmetropic adults when they performed sustained near task through + 2D lens addition. The results of our experimental study showed an initial increase in exophoria (a divergent open-loop vergence position) and convergence-accommodation (CA) when viewing through +2D lenses. Prolonged fixation through the near addition lenses initiated vergence adaptation, which reduced the lens-induced exophoria and resulted in a concurrent reduction of CA. Both models showed good agreement with empirical measures of vergence adaptation. However, only one model predicted the experimental time course of reduction in CA. The pattern of our empirical results seem to be best described by the adaptation model that indicates the total vergence response to be a sum of two controllers, phasic and tonic, with the output of phasic controller providing input to the cross-link interactions.
Exploring Bayesian model selection methods for effective field theory expansions
Schaffner, Taylor; Yamauchi, Yukari; Furnstahl, Richard
2017-09-01
A fundamental understanding of the microscopic properties and interactions of nuclei has long evaded physicists due to the complex nature of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). One approach to modeling nuclear interactions is known as chiral effective field theory (EFT). Today, the method's greatest limitation lies in the approximation of interaction potentials and their corresponding uncertainties. Computing EFT expansion coefficients, known as Low-Energy Constants (LECs), from experimental data reduces to a problem of statistics and fitting. In the conventional approach, the fitting is done using frequentist methods that fail to evaluate the quality of the model itself (e.g., how many orders to use) in addition to its fit to the data. By utilizing Bayesian statistical methods for model selection, the model's quality can be taken into account, providing a more controlled and robust EFT expansion. My research involves probing different Bayesian model checking techniques to determine the most effective means for use with estimating the values of LECs. In particular, we are using model problems to explore the Bayesian calculation of an EFT expansion's evidence and an approximation to this value known as the WAIC (Widely Applicable Information Criterion). This work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. PHY-1306250.
Estimation of Nonlinear Dynamic Panel Data Models with Individual Effects
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yi Hu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper suggests a generalized method of moments (GMM based estimation for dynamic panel data models with individual specific fixed effects and threshold effects simultaneously. We extend Hansen’s (Hansen, 1999 original setup to models including endogenous regressors, specifically, lagged dependent variables. To address the problem of endogeneity of these nonlinear dynamic panel data models, we prove that the orthogonality conditions proposed by Arellano and Bond (1991 are valid. The threshold and slope parameters are estimated by GMM, and asymptotic distribution of the slope parameters is derived. Finite sample performance of the estimation is investigated through Monte Carlo simulations. It shows that the threshold and slope parameter can be estimated accurately and also the finite sample distribution of slope parameters is well approximated by the asymptotic distribution.
A Bayesian Network View on Nested Effects Models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Achim Tresch
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Nested effects models (NEMs are a class of probabilistic models that were designed to reconstruct a hidden signalling structure from a large set of observable effects caused by active interventions into the signalling pathway. We give a more flexible formulation of NEMs in the language of Bayesian networks. Our framework constitutes a natural generalization of the original NEM model, since it explicitly states the assumptions that are tacitly underlying the original version. Our approach gives rise to new learning methods for NEMs, which have been implemented in the R/Bioconductor package nem. We validate these methods in a simulation study and apply them to a synthetic lethality dataset in yeast.
CORPORATE FORESIGHT AND PERFORMANCE: A CHAIN-OF-EFFECTS MODEL
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jissink, Tymen; Huizingh, Eelko K.R.E.; Rohrbeck, René
2015-01-01
In this paper we develop and validate a measurement scale for corporate foresight and examine its impact on performance in a chain-of-effects model. We conceptualize corporate foresight as an organizational ability consisting of five distinct dimensions: information scope, method usage, people......, formal organization, and culture. We investigate the relation of corporate foresight with three innovation performance dimensions – new product success, new product innovativeness, and financial performance. We use partial-least-squares structural equations modelling to assess our measurement mode ls...... and test our research hypotheses. Using a cross-industry sample of 153 innovative firms, we find that corporate foresight can be validly and reliably measured by our measurement instrument. The results of the structural model support the hypothesized positive effects of corporate foresight on all...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Woods, Jason D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Winkler, Jonathan M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
2018-01-31
Moisture buffering of building materials has a significant impact on the building's indoor humidity, and building energy simulations need to model this buffering to accurately predict the humidity. Researchers requiring a simple moisture-buffering approach typically rely on the effective-capacitance model, which has been shown to be a poor predictor of actual indoor humidity. This paper describes an alternative two-layer effective moisture penetration depth (EMPD) model and its inputs. While this model has been used previously, there is a need to understand the sensitivity of this model to uncertain inputs. In this paper, we use the moisture-adsorbent materials exposed to the interior air: drywall, wood, and carpet. We use a global sensitivity analysis to determine which inputs are most influential and how the model's prediction capability degrades due to uncertainty in these inputs. We then compare the model's humidity prediction with measured data from five houses, which shows that this model, and a set of simple inputs, can give reasonable prediction of the indoor humidity.
Dilbert-Peter model of organization effectiveness: computer simulations
Sobkowicz, Pawel
2010-01-01
We provide a technical report on a computer simulation of general effectiveness of a hierarchical organization depending on two main aspects: effects of promotion to managerial levels and efforts to self-promote of individual employees, reducing their actual productivity. The combination of judgment by appearance in the promotion to higher levels of hierarchy and the Peter Principle (which states that people are promoted to their level of incompetence) results in fast declines in effectiveness of the organization. The model uses a few synthetic parameters aimed at reproduction of realistic conditions in typical multilayer organizations.
CRLH Transmission Lines for Telecommunications: Fast and Effective Modeling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Juanjuan Gao
2017-01-01
Full Text Available A different parameter extraction approach based on zero immittances for composite right/left-handed (CRLH structure is presented. For lossless unit cell equivalent circuit model, LC parameters of series and parallel branches are extracted according to series resonance frequency and parallel resonance frequency, respectively. This approach can be applied to symmetric and unbalanced CRLH structures. The parameter extraction procedure is provided and validated by T-type unit cell model. The responses of distributed prototype and extracted equivalent LC circuit model are in good agreement. The equivalent circuit modeling can improve the degree of freedom in the CRLH TLs design. This parameter extraction method provides an effective and straightforward way in CRLH metamaterials design and applications in telecommunication systems.
Modeling of Drift Effects on Solar Tower Concentrated Flux Distributions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Luis O. Lara-Cerecedo
2016-01-01
Full Text Available A novel modeling tool for calculation of central receiver concentrated flux distributions is presented, which takes into account drift effects. This tool is based on a drift model that includes different geometrical error sources in a rigorous manner and on a simple analytic approximation for the individual flux distribution of a heliostat. The model is applied to a group of heliostats of a real field to obtain the resulting flux distribution and its variation along the day. The distributions differ strongly from those obtained assuming the ideal case without drift or a case with a Gaussian tracking error function. The time evolution of peak flux is also calculated to demonstrate the capabilities of the model. The evolution of this parameter also shows strong differences in comparison to the case without drift.
Modeling age-of-onset: Cox model with latent major gene effects
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, H.; Thompson, E.A. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)
1994-09-01
Analysis of age-of-onset is a key factor in the segregation and linkage analysis of complex genetic traits, but is complicated by the censoring of unaffected individuals. Most previous work has used parametric distributional assumptions, but it is hard to characterize the distribution of age-of-onset by a single distribution. Other approaches discretize age-of-onset and use logistic regression to model incidence; this approach does not use the information fully. Frailty models have been used for age-of-oset in the biostatistics literature, but these models do not lend themselves to modeling the correlations due to genetic effects which segregate within a family. Here, we propose use of the Cox model with latent major gene effects; conditional on the major genotypes, Cox`s proportional hazards model is used for age-of-onset for each individual. This is a semiparametric model; we do not specify the baseline hazard function. Likelihood analysis of such models is restricted by the difficulty in evaluating of maximizing the likelihood, especially when data are available for some of the members of an extended pedigree. Markov chain Monte Carlo permits genotypic configurations to be realized from the posterior distributions given a current model and the observed data. Hence methods for likelihood analysis can be developed: Monte Carlo EM is used for estimation of the parameters and their variance-covariance matrix. Markers and observed covariates are easily incorporated into this analysis. We present the model, methods for likelihood analysis and the results of a simulation study. The results are comparable with those based on a Cox model with known genotypic dependence in a pedigree. An early-onset Alzheimer`s pedigree and some breast cancer pedigrees have been used as real data examples. Some possible extensions are also discussed.
Global Dynamics of Avian Influenza Epidemic Models with Psychological Effect
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sanhong Liu
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Cross-sectional surveys conducted in Thailand and China after the outbreaks of the avian influenza A H5N1 and H7N9 viruses show a high degree of awareness of human avian influenza in both urban and rural populations, a higher level of proper hygienic practice among urban residents, and in particular a dramatically reduced number of visits to live markets in urban population after the influenza A H7N9 outbreak in China in 2013. In this paper, taking into account the psychological effect toward avian influenza in the human population, a bird-to-human transmission model in which the avian population exhibits saturation effect is constructed. The dynamical behavior of the model is studied by using the basic reproduction number. The results demonstrate that the saturation effect within avian population and the psychological effect in human population cannot change the stability of equilibria but can affect the number of infected humans if the disease is prevalent. Numerical simulations are given to support the theoretical results and sensitivity analyses of the basic reproduction number in terms of model parameters that are performed to seek for effective control measures for avian influenza.
NC effective gauge model for multilayer FQH states
El-Rhalami, A
2002-01-01
We develop an effective field model for describing FQH states with rational filling factors that are not of Laughlin type. These kinds of systems, which concern single layer hierarchical states and multilayer ones, were observed experimentally; but have not yet a satisfactory non commutative effective field description like in the case of Susskind model. Using D brane analysis and fiber bundle techniques, we first classify such states in terms of representations characterized, amongst others, by the filling factor of the layers; but also by proper subgroups of the underlying U(n) gauge symmetry. Multilayer states in the lowest Landau level are interpreted in terms of systems of D2 branes; but hierarchical ones are realized as Fiber bundles on D2 which we construct explicitly. In this picture, Jain and Haldane series are recovered as special cases and have a remarkable interpretation in terms of Fiber bundles with specific intersection matrices. We also derive the general NC commutative effective field and mat...
Mathematical modeling of radiation effect on immune system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Smirnova, O.A.
The fruitful application of mathematical models to immunology research has been solidly justified by achievements in theoretical and experimental immunology. The present article describes use of such modeling to clarify the effect of various doses of ionizing radiation on the dynamics of the humoral immune response; it also analyzes the temporal characteristics of the processes of post-radiation injury in recovery of the immune system. Initially, a model was constructed of the dynamics of humoral immunity; this was limited to the first humoral immune response to a soluble T-independent antigen, when the role of the T-cell-helpers cannot be studied; the model is based on Bernet's clonal-selection theory. A block design of the model of the dynamics is presented, coupled with pertinent mathematical expressions (non-linear differential equations) of the stages of response. The model (derived in seven mathematical expressions) is realized in the form of a FORTRAN program. A model of the post-radiation dynamics of lymphopoiesis is then constructed which is limited to post-radiation damage and recovery of cells of the lymphoid series and their predecessors in bone marrow. Finally, a model is constructed of the combined action, on immunity, of antigen stimulation and irradiation in mammals; the model is realized in the form of a system of differential equations for concentration of antigens, antibodies, damaged by radiation, and undamaged immunocompetent cells, and their predecessors, in bone marrow. It is suggested that the model can be used to predict the state of a mammalian immune system. 11 references, 4 figures.
Source-oriented model for air pollutant effects on visibility
Eldering, A.; Cass, G. R.
1996-08-01
A source-oriented model for air pollutant effects on visibility has been developed that can compute light scattering, light extinction, and estimated visual range directly from data on gas phase and primary particle phase air pollutant emissions from sources. The importance of such a model is that it can be used to compute the effect of emission control proposals on visibility-related parameters in advance of the adoption of such control programs. The model has been assembled by embedding several aerosol process modules within the photochemical trajectory model previously developed for aerosol nitrate concentration predictions by Russell et al. [1983] and Russell and Cass [1986]. These modules describe the size distribution and chemical composition of primary particle emissions, the speciation of organic vapor emissions, atmospheric chemical reactions, transport of condensible material between the gas and the particle phases, fog chemistry, dry deposition, and atmospheric light scattering and light absorption. Model predictions have been compared to observed values using 48-hour trajectories arriving at Claremont, California, at each hour of August 28, 1987, during the Southern California Air Quality Study. The predicted fine particle concentration averages 62 μg m-3 compared to an observed value of 61 μg m-3, while predicted PM10 concentrations average 102 μg m-3 compared to an observed average of 97 μg m-3. The size distribution and chemical composition predictions for elemental carbon, sulfate, and sodium ion agree with observations to within plus or minus a few micrograms per cubic meter, while ammonium and nitrate concentrations are underpredicted by the base case model by 3 to 7 μg m-3 on average. Light-scattering coefficient values are calculated from the predicted aerosol size distribution and refractive index, and the model predictions agree with measured values on average to within 19%. The advantages and limitations of the modeling procedure are
2017-08-01
The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), in cooperation with the John A. Volpe National Transportation Systems Center, has developed an analytic model to measure the effectiveness of roadside inspections and traffic enforcements in te...
Situational effects of the school factors included in the dynamic model of educational effectiveness
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Creerners, Bert; Kyriakides, Leonidas
2009-01-01
.... We tested the validity of the dynamic model of educational effectiveness and especially its assumption that the impact of school factors depends on the current situation of the school and on the...
The picture superiority effect: support for the distinctiveness model.
Mintzer, M Z; Snodgrass, J G
1999-01-01
The form change paradigm was used to explore the basis for the picture superiority effect. Recognition memory for studied pictures and words was tested in their study form or the alternate form. Form change cost was defined as the difference between recognition performance for same and different form items. Based on the results of Experiment 1 and previous studies, it was difficult to determine the relative cost for studied pictures and words due to a reversal of the mirror effect. We hypothesized that the reversed mirror effect results from subjects' basing their recognition decisions on their assumptions about the study form. Experiments 2 and 3 confirmed this hypothesis and generated a method for evaluating the relative cost for pictures and words despite the reversed mirror effect. More cost was observed for pictures than words, supporting the distinctiveness model of the picture superiority effect.
Modeling the Cumulative Effects of Social Exposures on Health: Moving beyond Disease-Specific Models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Heather L. White
2013-03-01
Full Text Available The traditional explanatory models used in epidemiology are “disease specific”, identifying risk factors for specific health conditions. Yet social exposures lead to a generalized, cumulative health impact which may not be specific to one illness. Disease-specific models may therefore misestimate social factors’ effects on health. Using data from the Canadian Community Health Survey and Canada 2001 Census we construct and compare “disease-specific” and “generalized health impact” (GHI models to gauge the negative health effects of one social exposure: socioeconomic position (SEP. We use logistic and multinomial multilevel modeling with neighbourhood-level material deprivation, individual-level education and household income to compare and contrast the two approaches. In disease-specific models, the social determinants under study were each associated with the health conditions of interest. However, larger effect sizes were apparent when outcomes were modeled as compound health problems (0, 1, 2, or 3+ conditions using the GHI approach. To more accurately estimate social exposures’ impacts on population health, researchers should consider a GHI framework.
The transition model test for serial dependence in mixed-effects models for binary data
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Breinegaard, Nina; Rabe-Hesketh, Sophia; Skrondal, Anders
2017-01-01
Generalized linear mixed models for longitudinal data assume that responses at different occasions are conditionally independent, given the random effects and covariates. Although this assumption is pivotal for consistent estimation, violation due to serial dependence is hard to assess by model...... elaboration. We therefore propose a targeted diagnostic test for serial dependence, called the transition model test (TMT), that is straightforward and computationally efficient to implement in standard software. The TMT is shown to have larger power than general misspecification tests. We also propose...
SPUF - a simple polyurethane foam mass loss and response model.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hobbs, Michael L.; Lemmon, Gordon H.
2003-07-01
A Simple PolyUrethane Foam (SPUF) mass loss and response model has been developed to predict the behavior of unconfined, rigid, closed-cell, polyurethane foam-filled systems exposed to fire-like heat fluxes. The model, developed for the B61 and W80-0/1 fireset foam, is based on a simple two-step mass loss mechanism using distributed reaction rates. The initial reaction step assumes that the foam degrades into a primary gas and a reactive solid. The reactive solid subsequently degrades into a secondary gas. The SPUF decomposition model was implemented into the finite element (FE) heat conduction codes COYOTE [1] and CALORE [2], which support chemical kinetics and dynamic enclosure radiation using 'element death.' A discretization bias correction model was parameterized using elements with characteristic lengths ranging from 1-mm to 1-cm. Bias corrected solutions using the SPUF response model with large elements gave essentially the same results as grid independent solutions using 100-{micro}m elements. The SPUF discretization bias correction model can be used with 2D regular quadrilateral elements, 2D paved quadrilateral elements, 2D triangular elements, 3D regular hexahedral elements, 3D paved hexahedral elements, and 3D tetrahedron elements. Various effects to efficiently recalculate view factors were studied -- the element aspect ratio, the element death criterion, and a 'zombie' criterion. Most of the solutions using irregular, large elements were in agreement with the 100-{micro}m grid-independent solutions. The discretization bias correction model did not perform as well when the element aspect ratio exceeded 5:1 and the heated surface was on the shorter side of the element. For validation, SPUF predictions using various sizes and types of elements were compared to component-scale experiments of foam cylinders that were heated with lamps. The SPUF predictions of the decomposition front locations were compared to the front locations
Effective action model of dynamically scalarizing binary neutron stars
Sennett, Noah; Shao, Lijing; Steinhoff, Jan
2017-10-01
Gravitational waves can be used to test general relativity (GR) in the highly dynamical strong-field regime. Scalar-tensor theories of gravity are natural alternatives to GR that can manifest nonperturbative phenomena in neutron stars (NSs). One such phenomenon, known as dynamical scalarization, occurs in coalescing binary NS systems. Ground-based gravitational-wave detectors may be sensitive to this effect, and thus could potentially further constrain scalar-tensor theories. This type of analysis requires waveform models of dynamically scalarizing systems; in this work we devise an analytic model of dynamical scalarization using an effective action approach. For the first time, we compute the Newtonian-order Hamiltonian describing the dynamics of a dynamically scalarizing binary in a self-consistent manner. Despite only working to leading order, the model accurately predicts the frequency at which dynamical scalarization occurs. In conjunction with Landau theory, our model allows one to definitively establish dynamical scalarization as a second-order phase transition. We also connect dynamical scalarization to the related phenomena of spontaneous scalarization and induced scalarization; these phenomena are naturally encompassed into our effective action approach.
A model to evaluate quality and effectiveness of disease management.
Lemmens, K M M; Nieboer, A P; van Schayck, C P; Asin, J D; Huijsman, R
2008-12-01
Disease management has emerged as a new strategy to enhance quality of care for patients suffering from chronic conditions, and to control healthcare costs. So far, however, the effects of this strategy remain unclear. Although current models define the concept of disease management, they do not provide a systematic development or an explanatory theory of how disease management affects the outcomes of care. The objective of this paper is to present a framework for valid evaluation of disease-management initiatives. The evaluation model is built on two pillars of disease management: patient-related and professional-directed interventions. The effectiveness of these interventions is thought to be affected by the organisational design of the healthcare system. Disease management requires a multifaceted approach; hence disease-management programme evaluations should focus on the effects of multiple interventions, namely patient-related, professional-directed and organisational interventions. The framework has been built upon the conceptualisation of these disease-management interventions. Analysis of the underlying mechanisms of these interventions revealed that learning and behavioural theories support the core assumptions of disease management. The evaluation model can be used to identify the components of disease-management programmes and the mechanisms behind them, making valid comparison feasible. In addition, this model links the programme interventions to indicators that can be used to evaluate the disease-management programme. Consistent use of this framework will enable comparisons among disease-management programmes and outcomes in evaluation research.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shashikant Mishra
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Objective: We performed a comparative study of high-fidelity training models for flexible ureteroscopy (URS. Our objective was to determine whether high-fidelity non-virtual reality (VR models are as effective as the VR model in teaching flexible URS skills. Materials and Methods: Twenty-one trained urologists without clinical experience of flexible URS underwent dry lab simulation practice. After a warm-up period of 2 h, tasks were performed on a high-fidelity non-VR (Uro-scopic Trainer TM ; Endo-Urologie-Modell TM and a high-fidelity VR model (URO Mentor TM . The participants were divided equally into three batches with rotation on each of the three stations for 30 min. Performance of the trainees was evaluated by an expert ureteroscopist using pass rating and global rating score (GRS. The participants rated a face validity questionnaire at the end of each session. Results: The GRS improved statistically at evaluation performed after second rotation (P<0.001 for batches 1, 2 and 3. Pass ratings also improved significantly for all training models when the third and first rotations were compared (P<0.05. The batch that was trained on the VR-based model had more improvement on pass ratings on second rotation but could not achieve statistical significance. Most of the realistic domains were higher for a VR model as compared with the non-VR model, except the realism of the flexible endoscope. Conclusions: All the models used for training flexible URS were effective in increasing the GRS and pass ratings irrespective of the VR status.
A differential effective medium model for piezoelectret foams
Haberman, Michael R.; Berthelot, Yves H.
2007-12-01
Polymer foams with piezoelectric properties, called piezoelectrets, have recently gained interest in the acoustics and scientific community. These foams are heterogeneous materials consisting of a continuous polymer containing electrically polarized elliptical voids. The macroscopically observable piezoelectric behavior results from the unique combination of the high void-polymer elastic contrast and the void polarization. Existing modeling methods to approximate the macroscopic piezoelectric properties of these foams are elementary one-dimensional noncoupled electrostatic models. In this study, a coupled mean field microelectromechanical model has been developed as a predictive tool of the macroscopically observed piezoelectric material behavior. This technique employs Green's function solutions of the three-dimensional (3D) stress equilibrium equations and Gauss' Law. The result is a multiscale differential effective medium model approximating the 3D effective stiffness, dielectric permittivity, and piezoelectric coupling coefficients as a function of the constituent material properties, void shape and orientation, and deposited charge density. The model is employed to study the sensitivity of macroscopic foam behavior to various constituent material and void variables. This approach improves the approximation of the true piezoelectret behavior by capturing the influence of microscopic material structure and properties on macroscopic piezoelectric performance.
Boron doped simulated graphene field effect transistor model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sharma, Preetika, E-mail: preetikamadhav@yahoo.co.in; Gupta, Shuchi, E-mail: sgupta@pu.ac.in [University Institute Of Engineering And Technology, Panjab University Chandigarh (India); Kaur, Inderpreet, E-mail: inderpreety@yahoo.co.in; Singh, Sukhbir, E-mail: singhsukhbir05@gmail.com [Central Scientific Instruments Organization, Chandigarh (India)
2016-05-06
Graphene based electronic devices due to its unique properties has transformed electronics. A Graphene Field Effect Transistor (GNRFET) model is simulated in Virtual Nano Lab (VNL) and the calculations are based on density functional theory (DFT). Simulations were performed on this pristine GNRFET model and the transmission spectrum was observed. The graph obtained showed a uniform energy gap of +1 to −1eV and the highest transmission peak at −1.75 eV. To this pristine model of GNRFET, doping was introduced and its effect was seen on the Fermi level obtained in the transmission spectrum. Boron as a dopant was used which showed variations in both the transmission peaks and the energy gap. In this model, first the single boron was substituted in place of carbon and Fermi level showed an energy gap of 1.5 to −0.5eV with the highest transmission peak at −1.3 eV. In another variation in the model, two carbon atoms were replaced by two boron atoms and Fermi level shifted from 2 to 0.25eV. In this observation, the highest transmission peak was observed at −1(approx.). The use of nanoelectronic devices have opened many areas of applications as GFET is an excellent building block for electronic circuits, and is being used in applications such as high-performance frequency doublers and mixers, digital modulators, phase detectors, optoelectronics and spintronics.
Modelling of structural effects on chemical reactions in turbulent flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gammelsaeter, H.R.
1997-12-31
Turbulence-chemistry interactions are analysed using algebraic moment closure for the chemical reaction term. The coupling between turbulence and chemical length and time scales generate a complex interaction process. This interaction process is called structural effects in this work. The structural effects are shown to take place on all scales between the largest scale of turbulence and the scales of the molecular motions. The set of equations describing turbulent correlations involved in turbulent reacting flows are derived. Interactions are shown schematically using interaction charts. Algebraic equations for the turbulent correlations in the reaction rate are given using the interaction charts to include the most significant couplings. In the frame of fundamental combustion physics, the structural effects appearing on the small scales of turbulence are proposed modelled using a discrete spectrum of turbulent scales. The well-known problem of averaging the Arrhenius law, the specific reaction rate, is proposed solved using a presumed single variable probability density function and a sub scale model for the reaction volume. Although some uncertainties are expected, the principles are addressed. Fast chemistry modelling is shown to be consistent in the frame of algebraic moment closure when the turbulence-chemistry interaction is accounted for in the turbulent diffusion. The modelling proposed in this thesis is compared with experimental data for an laboratory methane flame and advanced probability density function modelling. The results show promising features. Finally it is shown a comparison with full scale measurements for an industrial burner. All features of the burner are captured with the model. 41 refs., 33 figs.
Effects of fusel oil on animal hangover models.
Hori, Hisako; Fujii, Wataru; Hatanaka, Yutaka; Suwa, Yoshihide
2003-08-01
Fusel oil has been reported to have undesirable side effects such as hangover. However, the relationship between fusel oil and hangover has been investigated insufficiently. In this study, we investigated the effects of fusel oil and their ingredients contained in alcoholic beverages by using animal hangover models. Ethanol and fusel oil were simultaneously administered to Suncus murinus, and emetic responses were observed for 60 min. Ethanol and fusel oil were simultaneously administered to mice immediately after intake of saccharin solution; on the next day, the mouse's saccharin solution intake was measured. The volatile fraction (fusel oil) of whisky had no remarkable effect on ethanol-induced emetic responses in suncus. Whisky had the most suppressive effect on ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion in mice among the various alcoholic beverages tested. The volatile fraction (fusel oil) of whisky suppressed the ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion. In contrast, the nonvolatile fraction of whisky had no effect. The administration of isoamyl alcohol (5 mg/kg) and isoamyl acetate (10 and 40 microg/kg), ingredients of fusel oil, significantly suppressed the ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion. The fusel oil in whisky had no effect on the ethanol-induced emetic response, but it suppressed taste-aversion behavior in animal models of hangover symptoms. These results suggest that the fusel oil in whisky alleviates hangover, contrary to the common belief.
Model Uncertainties for Valencia RPA Effect for MINERvA
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gran, Richard [Univ. of Minnesota, Duluth, MN (United States)
2017-05-08
This technical note describes the application of the Valencia RPA multi-nucleon effect and its uncertainty to QE reactions from the GENIE neutrino event generator. The analysis of MINERvA neutrino data in Rodrigues et al. PRL 116 071802 (2016) paper makes clear the need for an RPA suppression, especially at very low momentum and energy transfer. That published analysis does not constrain the magnitude of the effect; it only tests models with and without the effect against the data. Other MINERvA analyses need an expression of the model uncertainty in the RPA effect. A well-described uncertainty can be used for systematics for unfolding, for model errors in the analysis of non-QE samples, and as input for fitting exercises for model testing or constraining backgrounds. This prescription takes uncertainties on the parameters in the Valencia RPA model and adds a (not-as-tight) constraint from muon capture data. For MINERvA we apply it as a 2D ($q_0$,$q_3$) weight to GENIE events, in lieu of generating a full beyond-Fermi-gas quasielastic events. Because it is a weight, it can be applied to the generated and fully Geant4 simulated events used in analysis without a special GENIE sample. For some limited uses, it could be cast as a 1D $Q^2$ weight without much trouble. This procedure is a suitable starting point for NOvA and DUNE where the energy dependence is modest, but probably not adequate for T2K or MicroBooNE.
Effective Orthorhombic Anisotropic Models for Wave field Extrapolation
Ibanez Jacome, Wilson
2013-05-01
Wavefield extrapolation in orthorhombic anisotropic media incorporates complicated but realistic models, to reproduce wave propagation phenomena in the Earth\\'s subsurface. Compared with the representations used for simpler symmetries, such as transversely isotropic or isotropic, orthorhombic models require an extended and more elaborated formulation that also involves more expensive computational processes. The acoustic assumption yields more efficient description of the orthorhombic wave equation that also provides a simplified representation for the orthorhombic dispersion relation. However, such representation is hampered by the sixth-order nature of the acoustic wave equation, as it also encompasses the contribution of shear waves. To reduce the computational cost of wavefield extrapolation in such media, I generate effective isotropic inhomogeneous models that are capable of reproducing the first-arrival kinematic aspects of the orthorhombic wavefield. First, in order to compute traveltimes in vertical orthorhombic media, I develop a stable, efficient and accurate algorithm based on the fast marching method. The derived orthorhombic acoustic dispersion relation, unlike the isotropic or transversely isotropic one, is represented by a sixth order polynomial equation that includes the fastest solution corresponding to outgoing P-waves in acoustic media. The effective velocity models are then computed by evaluating the traveltime gradients of the orthorhombic traveltime solution, which is done by explicitly solving the isotropic eikonal equation for the corresponding inhomogeneous isotropic velocity field. The inverted effective velocity fields are source dependent and produce equivalent first-arrival kinematic descriptions of wave propagation in orthorhombic media. I extrapolate wavefields in these isotropic effective velocity models using the more efficient isotropic operator, and the results compare well, especially kinematically, with those obtained from the
Elements of effective palliative care models: a rapid review
2014-01-01
Background Population ageing, changes to the profiles of life-limiting illnesses and evolving societal attitudes prompt a critical evaluation of models of palliative care. We set out to identify evidence-based models of palliative care to inform policy reform in Australia. Method A rapid review of electronic databases and the grey literature was undertaken over an eight week period in April-June 2012. We included policy documents and comparative studies from countries within the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) published in English since 2001. Meta-analysis was planned where >1 study met criteria; otherwise, synthesis was narrative using methods described by Popay et al. (2006). Results Of 1,959 peer-reviewed articles, 23 reported systematic reviews, 9 additional RCTs and 34 non-randomised comparative studies. Variation in the content of models, contexts in which these were implemented and lack of detailed reporting meant that elements of models constituted a more meaningful unit of analysis than models themselves. Case management was the element most consistently reported in models for which comparative studies provided evidence for effectiveness. Essential attributes of population-based palliative care models identified by policy and addressed by more than one element were communication and coordination between providers (including primary care), skill enhancement, and capacity to respond rapidly to individuals’ changing needs and preferences over time. Conclusion Models of palliative care should integrate specialist expertise with primary and community care services and enable transitions across settings, including residential aged care. The increasing complexity of care needs, services, interventions and contextual drivers warrants future research aimed at elucidating the interactions between different components and the roles played by patient, provider and health system factors. The findings of this review are limited by its
Nonlinear model for thermal effects in free-electron lasers
Peter, Eduardo Alcides; Endler, Antônio; Rizzato, Felipe Barbedo
2014-01-01
In the present work, we extend results of a previous paper [Peter et al., Phys. Plasmas 20, 12 3104 (2013)] and develop a semi-analytical model to account for thermal effects on the nonlinear dynamics of the electron beam in free-electron lasers. We relax the condition of a cold electron beam but still use the concept of compressibility, now associated with a warm beam model, to evaluate the time scale for saturation and the peak laser intensity in high-gain regimes. Although vanishing compre...
A multifluid mix model with material strength effects
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chang, C. H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Scannapieco, A. J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2012-04-23
We present a new multifluid mix model. Its features include material strength effects and pressure and temperature nonequilibrium between mixing materials. It is applicable to both interpenetration and demixing of immiscible fluids and diffusion of miscible fluids. The presented model exhibits the appropriate smooth transition in mathematical form as the mixture evolves from multiphase to molecular mixing, extending its applicability to the intermediate stages in which both types of mixing are present. Virtual mass force and momentum exchange have been generalized for heterogeneous multimaterial mixtures. The compression work has been extended so that the resulting species energy equations are consistent with the pressure force and material strength.
Effect of PLISSIT Model on Solution of Sexual Problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Esra Uslu
2016-03-01
Full Text Available This systematic review study aims to determine the effect of PLISSIT model (permission, limited information, special suggestions, intensive therapy in the care of individuals having sexual problems. Two of the studies included in the systematic review have been carried out in Iran and one of them in Turkey. These studies were limited to the patients with stoma and women having sexual problems. Results presented that care via PLISSIT model improves the sexual functions and reduces sexual stress, increases the sexual desire, sexual arousal, lubrication, orgasm, sexual satisfaction and frequency of sexual activity. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(1: 52-63
The model of manpower management influence on mining business effectiveness
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Miriama Hakelová
2013-12-01
Full Text Available Manpower management is one of the documents in a business firm which reflects the philosophy of human resources work, sets the priorities and procedures for the capacity of personal processes. The article describes the theoretical model considering the manpower management aspects which are related to adopting the competency model in mining business respecting the triad of capacity management namely by assessing the work capacity, remuneration, education and employees ? growth. The motivation of employees, their efficiency and the work productivity will increase by the impact of the manpower management aspects which will provide the increase of mining business effectiveness.
Development of Plant Model to Study Biological Effects of Nanodilutions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Delinick (Delinikou A.N.
2007-12-01
Full Text Available Pea (Pisum sativum as a model plant has been used extensively in fundamental research in different biological sciences. In vivo and in vitro pea models were used, as well, to study stress factors. Applying environment friendly technologies for overcoming biotic/abiotic stress increases its importance for sustainable agriculture. In this respect studies in the field of nanotechnology can contribute to solve some problems and to understanding of phenomena or practices that still lack methodology or specific instrumentation for scientific explanations. The interest to such studies was provoked by attempting an explanation on the potentization process and its therapeutic effect, and also by the possibility to apply similar approach in sustainable agriculture. The objectives of the experiments were to examine if potentized nanodilutions (PNDs have effects on different stages of seed development of pea aiming at the development of a plant model. Copper was chosen as stress factor as its excess is toxic and affects seed development. The experiments show for the first time that potentized nanodilutions (PNDs of metallic copprer have biological effects on pea seed development which are similar to the effect of copper (water solutions of CuSO4. The results, also, show that PNDs can stimulate response for overcoming the stress applied to seeds.
Infrared lens thermal effect: equivalent focal shift and calculating model
Zhang, Cheng-shuo; Shi, Zelin; Feng, Bin; Xu, Bao-shu
2014-11-01
It's well-know that the focal shift of infrared lens is the major factor in degeneration of imaging quality when temperature change. In order to figure out the connection between temperature change and focal shift, partial differential equations of thermal effect on light path are obtained by raytrace method, to begin with. The approximately solution of the PDEs show that focal shift is proportional to temperature change. And a formula to compute the proportional factor is given. In order to understand infrared lens thermal effect deeply, we use defocus by image plane shift at constant temperature to equivalently represent thermal effect on infrared lens. So equivalent focal shift (EFS) is defined and its calculating model is proposed at last. In order to verify EFS and its calculating model, Physical experimental platform including a motorized linear stage with built-in controller, blackbody, target, collimator, IR detector, computer and other devices is developed. The experimental results indicate that EFS make the image plane shift at constant temperature have the same influence on infrared lens as thermal effect and its calculating model is correct.
Modeling the prediction of business intelligence system effectiveness.
Weng, Sung-Shun; Yang, Ming-Hsien; Koo, Tian-Lih; Hsiao, Pei-I
2016-01-01
Although business intelligence (BI) technologies are continually evolving, the capability to apply BI technologies has become an indispensable resource for enterprises running in today's complex, uncertain and dynamic business environment. This study performed pioneering work by constructing models and rules for the prediction of business intelligence system effectiveness (BISE) in relation to the implementation of BI solutions. For enterprises, effectively managing critical attributes that determine BISE to develop prediction models with a set of rules for self-evaluation of the effectiveness of BI solutions is necessary to improve BI implementation and ensure its success. The main study findings identified the critical prediction indicators of BISE that are important to forecasting BI performance and highlighted five classification and prediction rules of BISE derived from decision tree structures, as well as a refined regression prediction model with four critical prediction indicators constructed by logistic regression analysis that can enable enterprises to improve BISE while effectively managing BI solution implementation and catering to academics to whom theory is important.
A Model for Effective Professional Development of Formal Science Educators
Bleacher, L. V.; Jones, A. J. P.; Farrell, W. M.
2015-01-01
The Lunar Workshops for Educators (LWE) series was developed by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) education team in 2010 to provide professional development on lunar science and exploration concepts for grades 6-9 science teachers. Over 300 educators have been trained to date. The LWE model incorporates best practices from pedagogical research of science education, thoughtful integration of scientists and engineer subject matter experts for both content presentations and informal networking with educators, access to NASA-unique facilities, hands-on and data-rich activities aligned with education standards, exposure to the practice of science, tools for addressing common misconceptions, follow-up with participants, and extensive evaluation. Evaluation of the LWE model via pre- and post-assessments, daily workshop surveys, and follow-up surveys at 6-month and 1-year intervals indicate that the LWE are extremely effective in increasing educators' content knowledge, confidence in incorporating content into the classroom, understanding of the practice of science, and ability to address common student misconceptions. In order to address the efficacy of the LWE model for other science content areas, the Dynamic Response of Environments at Asteroids, the Moon, and moons of Mars (DREAM2) education team, funded by NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute, developed and ran a pilot workshop called Dream2Explore at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in June, 2015. Dream2Explore utilized the LWE model, but incorporated content related to the science and exploration of asteroids and the moons of Mars. Evaluation results indicate that the LWE model was effectively used for educator professional development on non-lunar content. We will present more detail on the LWE model, evaluation results from the Dream2Explore pilot workshop, and suggestions for the application of the model with other science content for robust educator professional development.
A Model for Effective Professional Development of Formal Science Educators
Bleacher, L.; Jones, A. P.; Farrell, W. M.
2015-12-01
The Lunar Workshops for Educators (LWE) series was developed by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) education team in 2010 to provide professional development on lunar science and exploration concepts for grades 6-9 science teachers. Over 300 educators have been trained to date. The LWE model incorporates best practices from pedagogical research of science education, thoughtful integration of scientists and engineer subject matter experts for both content presentations and informal networking with educators, access to NASA-unique facilities, hands-on and data-rich activities aligned with education standards, exposure to the practice of science, tools for addressing common misconceptions, follow-up with participants, and extensive evaluation. Evaluation of the LWE model via pre- and post-assessments, daily workshop surveys, and follow-up surveys at 6-month and 1-year intervals indicate that the LWE are extremely effective in increasing educators' content knowledge, confidence in incorporating content into the classroom, understanding of the practice of science, and ability to address common student misconceptions. In order to address the efficacy of the LWE model for other science content areas, the Dynamic Response of Environments at Asteroids, the Moon, and moons of Mars (DREAM2) education team, funded by NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute, developed and ran a pilot workshop called Dream2Explore at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in June, 2015. Dream2Explore utilized the LWE model, but incorporated content related to the science and exploration of asteroids and the moons of Mars. Evaluation results indicate that the LWE model was effectively used for educator professional development on non-lunar content. We will present more detail on the LWE model, evaluation results from the Dream2Explore pilot workshop, and suggestions for the application of the model with other science content for robust educator professional development.
Global model for the lithospheric strength and effective elastic thickness
Tesauro, Magdala; Kaban, Mikhail K.; Cloetingh, Sierd A. P. L.
2013-08-01
Global distribution of the strength and effective elastic thickness (Te) of the lithosphere are estimated using physical parameters from recent crustal and lithospheric models. For the Te estimation we apply a new approach, which provides a possibility to take into account variations of Young modulus (E) within the lithosphere. In view of the large uncertainties affecting strength estimates, we evaluate global strength and Te distributions for possible end-member 'hard' (HRM) and a 'soft' (SRM) rheology models of the continental crust. Temperature within the lithosphere has been estimated using a recent tomography model of Ritsema et al. (2011), which has much higher horizontal resolution than previous global models. Most of the strength is localized in the crust for the HRM and in the mantle for the SRM. These results contribute to the long debates on applicability of the "crème brulée" or "jelly-sandwich" model for the lithosphere structure. Changing from the SRM to HRM turns most of the continental areas from the totally decoupled mode to the fully coupled mode of the lithospheric layers. However, in the areas characterized by a high thermal regime and thick crust, the layers remain decoupled even for the HRM. At the same time, for the inner part of the cratons the lithospheric layers are coupled in both models. Therefore, rheological variations lead to large changes in the integrated strength and Te distribution in the regions characterized by intermediate thermal conditions. In these areas temperature uncertainties have a greater effect, since this parameter principally determines rheological behavior. Comparison of the Te estimates for both models with those determined from the flexural loading and spectral analysis shows that the 'hard' rheology is likely applicable for cratonic areas, whereas the 'soft' rheology is more representative for young orogens.
Effects of random noise in a dynamical model of love
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xu Yong, E-mail: hsux3@nwpu.edu.cn [Department of Applied Mathematics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China); Gu Rencai; Zhang Huiqing [Department of Applied Mathematics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China)
2011-07-15
Highlights: > We model the complexity and unpredictability of psychology as Gaussian white noise. > The stochastic system of love is considered including bifurcation and chaos. > We show that noise can both suppress and induce chaos in dynamical models of love. - Abstract: This paper aims to investigate the stochastic model of love and the effects of random noise. We first revisit the deterministic model of love and some basic properties are presented such as: symmetry, dissipation, fixed points (equilibrium), chaotic behaviors and chaotic attractors. Then we construct a stochastic love-triangle model with parametric random excitation due to the complexity and unpredictability of the psychological system, where the randomness is modeled as the standard Gaussian noise. Stochastic dynamics under different three cases of 'Romeo's romantic style', are examined and two kinds of bifurcations versus the noise intensity parameter are observed by the criteria of changes of top Lyapunov exponent and shape of stationary probability density function (PDF) respectively. The phase portraits and time history are carried out to verify the proposed results, and the good agreement can be found. And also the dual roles of the random noise, namely suppressing and inducing chaos are revealed.
Nonlinear mixed-effects modeling of MNREAD data.
Cheung, Sing-Hang; Kallie, Christopher S; Legge, Gordon E; Cheong, Allen M Y
2008-02-01
It is often difficult to estimate parameters from individual clinical data because of noisy or incomplete measurements. Nonlinear mixed-effects (NLME) modeling provides a statistical framework for analyzing population parameters and the associated variations, even when individual data sets are incomplete. The authors demonstrate the application of NLME by analyzing data from the MNREAD, a continuous-text reading-acuity chart. The authors analyzed MNREAD data (measurements of reading speed vs. print size) for two groups: 42 adult observers with normal vision and 14 patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Truncated sets of MNREAD data were generated from the individual observers with normal vision. The MNREAD data were fitted with a two-limb function and an exponential-decay function using an individual curve-fitting approach and an NLME modeling approach. The exponential-decay function provided slightly better fits than the two-limb function. When the parameter estimates from the truncated data sets were used to predict the missing data, NLME modeling gave better predictions than individual fitting. NLME modeling gave reasonable parameter estimates for AMD patients even when individual fitting returned unrealistic estimates. These analyses showed that (1) an exponential-decay function fits MNREAD data very well, (2) NLME modeling provides a statistical framework for analyzing MNREAD data, and (3) NLME analysis provides a way of estimating MNREAD parameters even for incomplete data sets. The present results demonstrate the potential value of NLME modeling for clinical vision data.
Determination of effective loss factors in reduced SEA models
Chimeno Manguán, M.; Fernández de las Heras, M. J.; Roibás Millán, E.; Simón Hidalgo, F.
2017-01-01
The definition of Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) models for large complex structures is highly conditioned by the classification of the structure elements into a set of coupled subsystems and the subsequent determination of the loss factors representing both the internal damping and the coupling between subsystems. The accurate definition of the complete system can lead to excessively large models as the size and complexity increases. This fact can also rise practical issues for the experimental determination of the loss factors. This work presents a formulation of reduced SEA models for incomplete systems defined by a set of effective loss factors. This reduced SEA model provides a feasible number of subsystems for the application of the Power Injection Method (PIM). For structures of high complexity, their components accessibility can be restricted, for instance internal equipments or panels. For these cases the use of PIM to carry out an experimental SEA analysis is not possible. New methods are presented for this case in combination with the reduced SEA models. These methods allow defining some of the model loss factors that could not be obtained through PIM. The methods are validated with a numerical analysis case and they are also applied to an actual spacecraft structure with accessibility restrictions: a solar wing in folded configuration.
Ecotoxicity Effect Indicator for use in the OMNIITOX Base Model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Henrik Fred; Payet, Jerome; Molander, S
2004-01-01
for the estimation of the EFI. However none of these methods are found to be adequately robust and/or able to work on the low data input defined by the OMNIITOX Base Model (BM), i.e. a minimum of three acute EC50 values. Given the fact that the BM should be applicable to a significant number of chemicals......, this requirement follows from the current and the most likely future data availability as defined by the proposed EU chemicals policy REACH. In this paper, a theoretical elaboration of effect-based average approaches (arithmetic mean, geometric mean and median) and the non-effect based approach (PNEC) is made...... focusing on their statistical robustness. Considerations about the possibility to relate the effect indicator to damage on the endpoint, the ecosystem, are also included. The effect-based approaches are tested for their robustness in estimating an HC50 in a practical test on datasets from eleven different...
Kim, Young-Suk Grace; Schatschneider, Christopher
2016-01-01
We investigated direct and indirect effects of component skills on writing (DIEW) using data from 193 children in Grade 1. In this model, working memory was hypothesized to be a foundational cognitive ability for language and cognitive skills as well as transcription skills, which, in turn, contribute to writing. Foundational oral language skills (vocabulary and grammatical knowledge) and higher-order cognitive skills (inference and theory of mind) were hypothesized to be component skills of text generation (i.e., discourse-level oral language). Results from structural equation modeling largely supported a complete mediation model among four variations of the DIEW model. Discourse-level oral language, spelling, and handwriting fluency completely mediated the relations of higher-order cognitive skills, foundational oral language, and working memory to writing. Moreover, language and cognitive skills had both direct and indirect relations to discourse-level oral language. Total effects, including direct and indirect effects, were substantial for discourse-level oral language (.46), working memory (.43), and spelling (.37), followed by vocabulary (.19), handwriting (.17), theory of mind (.12), inference (.10), and grammatical knowledge (.10). The model explained approximately 67% of variance in writing quality. These results indicate that multiple language and cognitive skills make direct and indirect contributions, and it is important to consider both direct and indirect pathways of influences when considering skills that are important to writing. PMID:28260812
Arkansas Principals' Attitudes Concerning the Program for Effective Teaching Model (Hunter Model).
Terry, Paul M.
This study was conducted to compare the attitudes of Arkansas elementary and secondary school principals toward the Madeline Hunter clinical supervision model "Program for Effective Teaching (PET)." A survey instrument titled "Attitudes of Principals Toward PET" was mailed to every elementary and secondary public school…
Kim, Young-Suk Grace; Schatschneider, Christopher
2017-01-01
We investigated direct and indirect effects of component skills on writing (DIEW) using data from 193 children in Grade 1. In this model, working memory was hypothesized to be a foundational cognitive ability for language and cognitive skills as well as transcription skills, which, in turn, contribute to writing. Foundational oral language skills…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kizilkaya Kadir
2005-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract We propose a general Bayesian approach to heteroskedastic error modeling for generalized linear mixed models (GLMM in which linked functions of conditional means and residual variances are specified as separate linear combinations of fixed and random effects. We focus on the linear mixed model (LMM analysis of birth weight (BW and the cumulative probit mixed model (CPMM analysis of calving ease (CE. The deviance information criterion (DIC was demonstrated to be useful in correctly choosing between homoskedastic and heteroskedastic error GLMM for both traits when data was generated according to a mixed model specification for both location parameters and residual variances. Heteroskedastic error LMM and CPMM were fitted, respectively, to BW and CE data on 8847 Italian Piemontese first parity dams in which residual variances were modeled as functions of fixed calf sex and random herd effects. The posterior mean residual variance for male calves was over 40% greater than that for female calves for both traits. Also, the posterior means of the standard deviation of the herd-specific variance ratios (relative to a unitary baseline were estimated to be 0.60 ± 0.09 for BW and 0.74 ± 0.14 for CE. For both traits, the heteroskedastic error LMM and CPMM were chosen over their homoskedastic error counterparts based on DIC values.
Models for predicting effective HIV chemoprevention in women.
Nicol, Melanie R; Emerson, Cindi W; Prince, Heather M A; Nelson, Julie A E; Fedoriw, Yuri; Sykes, Craig; Geller, Elizabeth J; Patterson, Kristine B; Cohen, Myron S; Kashuba, Angela D M
2015-04-01
Model systems that rapidly identify tissue drug concentrations protective of HIV infection could streamline the development of chemoprevention strategies. Tissue models are promising, but limited concentration targets exist, and no systematic comparison to cell models or clinical studies has been performed. We explored the efficacy of maraviroc (MVC) and tenofovir (TFV) for HIV prevention by comparing Emax models from TZM-bl cells to vaginal tissue explants and evaluated their predictive capabilities with a dose-challenge clinical study. HIV-1JR-CSF was used for viral challenge. Drug efficacy was assessed using a luciferase reporter assay in TZM-bl cells and real-time PCR to quantify spliced RNA in a tissue explant model. Cell and tissue concentrations of MVC, TFV, and the active metabolite tenofovir diphosphate were measured by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry and used to create Emax models of efficacy. Efficacy after a single oral dose of 600 mg MVC and 600 mg tenofovir disoproxil fumarate was predicted from cell and tissue models and confirmed in a clinical study with viral biopsy challenge postdose. TFV was >10-fold and MVC >1000-fold, more potent in TZM-bl cells compared with vaginal explant tissue. In the dose-challenge study, tissues from 3 of 6 women were protected from HIV infection, which was 49% lower than predicted by TZM-bl data and 36% higher than predicted by tissue explant data. Comparative effective concentration data were generated for TFV and MVC in 3 HIV chemoprophylaxis models. These results provide a framework for future early investigations of antiretroviral efficacy in HIV prevention to optimize dosing strategies in clinical investigations.
Modeling of Atmospheric Turbulence Effect on Terrestrial FSO Link
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Prokes
2009-04-01
Full Text Available Atmospheric turbulence results in many effects causing fluctuation in the received optical power. Terrestrial laser beam communication is affected above all by scintillations. The paper deals with modeling the influence of scintillation on link performance, using the modified Rytov theory. The probability of correct signal detection in direct detection system in dependence on many parameters such as link distance, power link margin, refractive-index structure parameter, etc. is discussed and different approaches to the evaluation of scintillation effect are compared. The simulations are performed for a horizontal-path propagation of the Gaussian-beam wave.
Modeling of biological doses and mechanical effects on bone transduction
Rieger, Romain; Jennane, Rachid; 10.1016/j.jtbi.2011.01.003
2012-01-01
Shear stress, hormones like parathyroid and mineral elements like calcium mediate the amplitude of stimulus signal which affects the rate of bone remodeling. The current study investigates the theoretical effects of different metabolic doses in stimulus signal level on bone. The model was built considering the osteocyte as the sensing center mediated by coupled mechanical shear stress and some biological factors. The proposed enhanced model was developed based on previously published works dealing with different aspects of bone transduction. It describes the effects of physiological doses variations of Calcium, Parathyroid Hormone, Nitric Oxide and Prostaglandin E2 on the stimulus level sensed by osteocytes in response to applied shear stress generated by interstitial fluid flow. We retained the metabolic factors (Parathyroid Hormone, Nitric Oxide, and Prostaglandin E2) as parameters of bone cell mechanosensitivity because stimulation/inhibition of induced pathways stimulates osteogenic response in vivo. We t...
Comparative assessment of PV plant performance models considering climate effects
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tina, Giuseppe; Ventura, Cristina; Sera, Dezso
2017-01-01
The paper investigates the effect of climate conditions on the accuracy of PV system performance models (physical and interpolation methods) which are used within a monitoring system as a reference for the power produced by a PV system to detect inefficient or faulty operating conditions. The met......The paper investigates the effect of climate conditions on the accuracy of PV system performance models (physical and interpolation methods) which are used within a monitoring system as a reference for the power produced by a PV system to detect inefficient or faulty operating conditions...... the performance of the studied PV plants with others, the efficiency of the systems has been estimated by both conventional Performance Ratio and Corrected Performance Ratio...
Lean construction as an effective organization model in Arctic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Balashova Elena S.
2017-01-01
Full Text Available In recent time, due to the sharp climatic changes, the Arctic attracts an increased interest of the world powers as a strategically important object. In 2013, the development strategy of the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation and national security for the period up to 2020 was approved by the President. In this strategy, the socio-economic development of the region in terms of improving the quality of life, expressed in the implementation of housing and civil engineering is very important. The goal of the study is to identify effective organization model of construction in the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation. Lean construction as a dynamically developing methodology abroad is analyzed. Characteristics of this organization model of construction meet the necessary requirements for the construction of various infrastructure objects in the Arctic. Therefore, the concept of lean construction can be an effective strategy of development of the Arctic regions of Russia as well as other Arctic countries.
Applying learning theories and instructional design models for effective instruction.
Khalil, Mohammed K; Elkhider, Ihsan A
2016-06-01
Faculty members in higher education are involved in many instructional design activities without formal training in learning theories and the science of instruction. Learning theories provide the foundation for the selection of instructional strategies and allow for reliable prediction of their effectiveness. To achieve effective learning outcomes, the science of instruction and instructional design models are used to guide the development of instructional design strategies that elicit appropriate cognitive processes. Here, the major learning theories are discussed and selected examples of instructional design models are explained. The main objective of this article is to present the science of learning and instruction as theoretical evidence for the design and delivery of instructional materials. In addition, this article provides a practical framework for implementing those theories in the classroom and laboratory. Copyright © 2016 The American Physiological Society.
Modeling and PSPICE simulation of NBTI effects in VDMOS transistors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marjanović Miloš
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper the results of modeling and simulation of NBTI effects in p-channel power VDMOS transistor have been presented. Based on the experimental results, the threshold voltage shifts and changes of transconductance during the NBT stress have been modeled and implemented in the PSPICE model of the IRF9520 transistor. By predefining the threshold voltage value before the NBT stress, and by assigning the stress time, transfer characteristics of the transistor are simulated. These characteristics are within (1.33÷11.25% limits in respect to the measured ones, which represents a good agreement. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI 171026 i br. TR 32026
Model instruments of effective segmentation of the fast food market
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mityaeva Tetyana L.
2013-03-01
Full Text Available The article presents results of optimisation step-type calculations of economic effectiveness of promotion of fast food with consideration of key parameters of assessment of efficiency of the marketing strategy of segmentation. The article justifies development of a mathematical model on the bases of 3D-presentations and three-dimensional system of management variables. The modern applied mathematical packages allow formation not only of one-dimensional and two-dimensional arrays and analyse links of variables, but also of three-dimensional, besides, the more links and parameters are taken into account, the more adequate and adaptive are results of modelling and, as a result, more informative and strategically valuable. The article shows modelling possibilities that allow taking into account strategies and reactions on formation of the marketing strategy under conditions of entering the fast food market segments.
Modeling Distortion Effects in Class-D Amplifier Filter Inductors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Knott, Arnold; Stegenborg-Andersen, Tore; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius
2010-01-01
Distortion is generally accepted as a quantifier to judge the quality of audio power amplifiers. In switchmode power amplifiers various mechanisms influence this performance measure. After giving an overview of those, this paper focuses on the particular effect of the nonlinearity of the output...... filter components on the audio performance. While the physical reasons for both, the capacitor and the inductor induced distortion are given, the practical in depth demonstration is done for the inductor only. This includes measuring the inductors performance, modeling through fitting and resulting...... into simulation models. The fitted models achieve distortion values between 0.03 % and 0.2 % as a basis to enable the design of a 200 W amplifier....
An effective convolutional neural network model for Chinese sentiment analysis
Zhang, Yu; Chen, Mengdong; Liu, Lianzhong; Wang, Yadong
2017-06-01
Nowadays microblog is getting more and more popular. People are increasingly accustomed to expressing their opinions on Twitter, Facebook and Sina Weibo. Sentiment analysis of microblog has received significant attention, both in academia and in industry. So far, Chinese microblog exploration still needs lots of further work. In recent years CNN has also been used to deal with NLP tasks, and already achieved good results. However, these methods ignore the effective use of a large number of existing sentimental resources. For this purpose, we propose a Lexicon-based Sentiment Convolutional Neural Networks (LSCNN) model focus on Weibo's sentiment analysis, which combines two CNNs, trained individually base on sentiment features and word embedding, at the fully connected hidden layer. The experimental results show that our model outperforms the CNN model only with word embedding features on microblog sentiment analysis task.
Modeling the Effects of Mergers in the Retail Sector
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Blomgren-Hansen, Niels
2013-01-01
the retail and wholesale markets is constructed, calibrated and simulated based on a concrete case (the acquisition and merger of 250 shops previously organized in a voluntary chain of shops comprising roughly half of the market for high-end cosmetics in Denmark). Model simulations predicts that the merger......According to EU competition law, mergers that significantly impedes effective competition, particularly by creating or strengthening a dominant position are prohibited. To identify these cases, authorities need a quantifiable model of the relationship between the variables that are affected...... by the merger and some measure of competition. Furthermore, the authorities must make their decision quickly, rendering deliberate data collection and econometric analyses infeasible in practice. The decision must be based on easily accessible data. In this paper, a simple model of the interaction between...
Modeling the Effects of Mergers in the Retail Sector
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Blomgren-Hansen, Niels
2013-01-01
According to EU competition law, mergers that significantly impedes effective competition, particularly by creating or strengthening a dominant position are prohibited. To identify these cases, authorities need a quantifiable model of the relationship between the variables that are affected...... by the merger and some measure of competition. Furthermore, the authorities must make their decision quickly, rendering deliberate data collection and econometric analyses infeasible in practice. The decision must be based on easily accessible data. In this paper, a simple model of the interaction between...... the retail and wholesale markets is constructed, calibrated and simulated based on a concrete case (the acquisition and merger of 250 shops previously organized in a voluntary chain of shops comprising roughly half of the market for high-end cosmetics in Denmark). Model simulations predicts that the merger...
Effects of model layer simplification using composite hydraulic properties
Kuniansky, Eve L.; Sepulveda, Nicasio; Elango, Lakshmanan
2011-01-01
Groundwater provides much of the fresh drinking water to more than 1.5 billion people in the world (Clarke et al., 1996) and in the United States more that 50 percent of citizens rely on groundwater for drinking water (Solley et al., 1998). As aquifer systems are developed for water supply, the hydrologic system is changed. Water pumped from the aquifer system initially can come from some combination of inducing more recharge, water permanently removed from storage, and decreased groundwater discharge. Once a new equilibrium is achieved, all of the pumpage must come from induced recharge and decreased discharge (Alley et al., 1999). Further development of groundwater resources may result in reductions of surface water runoff and base flows. Competing demands for groundwater resources require good management. Adequate data to characterize the aquifers and confining units of the system, like hydrologic boundaries, groundwater levels, streamflow, and groundwater pumping and climatic data for recharge estimation are to be collected in order to quantify the effects of groundwater withdrawals on wetlands, streams, and lakes. Once collected, three-dimensional (3D) groundwater flow models can be developed and calibrated and used as a tool for groundwater management. The main hydraulic parameters that comprise a regional or subregional model of an aquifer system are the hydraulic conductivity and storage properties of the aquifers and confining units (hydrogeologic units) that confine the system. Many 3D groundwater flow models used to help assess groundwater/surface-water interactions require calculating ?effective? or composite hydraulic properties of multilayered lithologic units within a hydrogeologic unit. The calculation of composite hydraulic properties stems from the need to characterize groundwater flow using coarse model layering in order to reduce simulation times while still representing the flow through the system accurately. The accuracy of flow models with
Note on the butterfly effect in holographic superconductor models
Ling, Yi; Liu, Peng; Wu, Jian-Pin
2017-05-01
In this note we remark that the butterfly effect can be used to diagnose the phase transition of superconductivity in a holographic framework. Specifically, we compute the butterfly velocity in a charged black hole background as well as anisotropic backgrounds with Q-lattice structure. In both cases we find its derivative to the temperature is discontinuous at critical points. We also propose that the butterfly velocity can signalize the occurrence of thermal phase transition in general holographic models.
Predictive modeling of nanomaterial exposure effects in biological systems
Liu X.; Tang K.; Harper S.; Harper B; Steevens JA; Xu R
2013-01-01
Xiong Liu,1 Kaizhi Tang,1 Stacey Harper,2 Bryan Harper,2 Jeffery A Steevens,3 Roger Xu1 1Intelligent Automation, Inc., Rockville, MD, USA; 2Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, School of Chemical, Biological, and Environmental Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, USA; 3ERDC Environmental Laboratory, Vicksburg, MS, USA Background: Predictive modeling of the biological effects of nanomaterials is critical for industry and policymakers to assess the potential ha...
Note on the butterfly effect in holographic superconductor models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yi Ling
2017-05-01
Full Text Available In this note we remark that the butterfly effect can be used to diagnose the phase transition of superconductivity in a holographic framework. Specifically, we compute the butterfly velocity in a charged black hole background as well as anisotropic backgrounds with Q-lattice structure. In both cases we find its derivative to the temperature is discontinuous at critical points. We also propose that the butterfly velocity can signalize the occurrence of thermal phase transition in general holographic models.
Note on the butterfly effect in holographic superconductor models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ling, Yi, E-mail: lingy@ihep.ac.cn [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Shanghai Key Laboratory of High Temperature Superconductors, Shanghai 200444 (China); School of Physics, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Liu, Peng, E-mail: liup51@ihep.ac.cn [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wu, Jian-Pin, E-mail: jianpinwu@mail.bnu.edu.cn [Institute of Gravitation and Cosmology, Department of Physics, School of Mathematics and Physics, Bohai University, Jinzhou 121013 (China); Shanghai Key Laboratory of High Temperature Superconductors, Shanghai 200444 (China)
2017-05-10
In this note we remark that the butterfly effect can be used to diagnose the phase transition of superconductivity in a holographic framework. Specifically, we compute the butterfly velocity in a charged black hole background as well as anisotropic backgrounds with Q-lattice structure. In both cases we find its derivative to the temperature is discontinuous at critical points. We also propose that the butterfly velocity can signalize the occurrence of thermal phase transition in general holographic models.
A neural network model of ventriloquism effect and aftereffect.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Elisa Magosso
Full Text Available Presenting simultaneous but spatially discrepant visual and auditory stimuli induces a perceptual translocation of the sound towards the visual input, the ventriloquism effect. General explanation is that vision tends to dominate over audition because of its higher spatial reliability. The underlying neural mechanisms remain unclear. We address this question via a biologically inspired neural network. The model contains two layers of unimodal visual and auditory neurons, with visual neurons having higher spatial resolution than auditory ones. Neurons within each layer communicate via lateral intra-layer synapses; neurons across layers are connected via inter-layer connections. The network accounts for the ventriloquism effect, ascribing it to a positive feedback between the visual and auditory neurons, triggered by residual auditory activity at the position of the visual stimulus. Main results are: i the less localized stimulus is strongly biased toward the most localized stimulus and not vice versa; ii amount of the ventriloquism effect changes with visual-auditory spatial disparity; iii ventriloquism is a robust behavior of the network with respect to parameter value changes. Moreover, the model implements Hebbian rules for potentiation and depression of lateral synapses, to explain ventriloquism aftereffect (that is, the enduring sound shift after exposure to spatially disparate audio-visual stimuli. By adaptively changing the weights of lateral synapses during cross-modal stimulation, the model produces post-adaptive shifts of auditory localization that agree with in-vivo observations. The model demonstrates that two unimodal layers reciprocally interconnected may explain ventriloquism effect and aftereffect, even without the presence of any convergent multimodal area. The proposed study may provide advancement in understanding neural architecture and mechanisms at the basis of visual-auditory integration in the spatial realm.
Effect of ozone on colon anastomoses in rat peritonitis model
Çakır,Tuğrul; Aslaner, Arif; Tekeli,Seçkin Özgür; Avcı,Sema; Doğan,Uğur; Tekeli,Feyza; Soylu,Hakan; Akyüz, Cebrail; Koç,Süleyman; Üstünel,İsmail; Yılmaz,Necat
2016-01-01
PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of medical ozone theraphy on the colon anastomosis of peritonitis model in rats. METHODS: Eighteen rats were randomly assigned into three equal groups; control, cecal punctuation and colon anastomosis and ozone theraphy. Sepsis was performed with a cecal punctuation in groups 2 and 3. The medical ozone theraphy was administered intraperitonealy for three weeks in group 3 while the other rats received saline injection. At the twenty second day serum were ob...
Probabilistic Modeling of Intracranial Pressure Effects on Optic Nerve Biomechanics
Ethier, C. R.; Feola, Andrew J.; Raykin, Julia; Myers, Jerry G.; Nelson, Emily S.; Samuels, Brian C.
2016-01-01
Altered intracranial pressure (ICP) is involved/implicated in several ocular conditions: papilledema, glaucoma and Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome. The biomechanical effects of altered ICP on optic nerve head (ONH) tissues in these conditions are uncertain but likely important. We have quantified ICP-induced deformations of ONH tissues, using finite element (FE) and probabilistic modeling (Latin Hypercube Simulations (LHS)) to consider a range of tissue properties and relevant pressures.
Superconducting proximity effect for in situ and model layered systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Finnemore, D.K.
1980-01-01
The primary drawback for in situ composites is that the ac losses are higher than for mechanically produced multifilamentary wire. To develop an understanding of the proximity effect so that analytical expressions will be available for design, a model system is developed based on PbCd. Items discussed include boundary conditions at SN interface, phonon spectral function, supercurrents through normal barriers, flux entry fields, and implications for in situ composites. (GHT)
Effect of automobiles on global warming: A modeling study
Shyam Sundar; Ashish Kumar Mishra; Ram Naresh
2017-01-01
Global warming threatens our environment as well as basic human needs. In the present scenario, increasing demand and excessive use of automobiles have increased the level of carbon dioxide emission in the environment, providing a significant contribution to increase the global warming. This paper deals with the modeling of the effect of automobiles on global warming. For this, three nonlinearly interacting variables namely; density of human population, density of automobiles and the concentr...
Treatment of cloud radiative effects in general circulation models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, W.C.; Dudek, M.P.; Liang, X.Z.; Ding, M. [State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States)] [and others
1996-04-01
We participate in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program with two objectives: (1) to improve the general circulation model (GCM) cloud/radiation treatment with a focus on cloud verticle overlapping and layer cloud optical properties, and (2) to study the effects of cloud/radiation-climate interaction on GCM climate simulations. This report summarizes the project progress since the Fourth ARM Science Team meeting February 28-March 4, 1994, in Charleston, South Carolina.
Modeling elephant-mediated cascading effects of water point closure.
Hilbers, Jelle P; Van Langevelde, Frank; Prins, Herbert H T; Grant, C C; Peel, Mike J S; Coughenour, Michael B; De Knegt, Henrik J; Slotow, Rob; Smit, Izak P J; Kiker, Greg A; De Boer, Willem F
2015-03-01
Wildlife management to reduce the impact of wildlife on their habitat can be done in several ways, among which removing animals (by either culling or translocation) is most often used. There are, however, alternative ways to control wildlife densities, such as opening or closing water points. The effects of these alternatives are poorly studied. In this paper, we focus on manipulating large herbivores through the closure of water points (WPs). Removal of artificial WPs has been suggested in order to change the distribution of African elephants, which occur in high densities in national parks in Southern Africa and are thought to have a destructive effect on the vegetation. Here, we modeled the long-term effects of different scenarios of WP closure on the spatial distribution of elephants, and consequential effects on the vegetation and other herbivores in Kruger National Park, South Africa. Using a dynamic ecosystem model, SAVANNA, scenarios were evaluated that varied in availability of artificial WPs; levels of natural water; and elephant densities. Our modeling results showed that elephants can indirectly negatively affect the distributions of meso-mixed feeders, meso-browsers, and some meso-grazers under wet conditions. The closure of artificial WPs hardly had any effect during these natural wet conditions. Under dry conditions, the spatial distribution of both elephant bulls and cows changed when the availability of artificial water was severely reduced in the model. These changes in spatial distribution triggered changes in the spatial availability of woody biomass over the simulation period of 80 years, and this led to changes in the rest of the herbivore community, resulting in increased densities of all herbivores, except for giraffe and steenbok, in areas close to rivers. The spatial distributions of elephant bulls and cows showed to be less affected by the closure of WPs than most of the other herbivore species. Our study contributes to ecologically
Colored noise and memory effects on formal spiking neuron models
da Silva, L. A.; Vilela, R. D.
2015-06-01
Simplified neuronal models capture the essence of the electrical activity of a generic neuron, besides being more interesting from the computational point of view when compared to higher-dimensional models such as the Hodgkin-Huxley one. In this work, we propose a generalized resonate-and-fire model described by a generalized Langevin equation that takes into account memory effects and colored noise. We perform a comprehensive numerical analysis to study the dynamics and the point process statistics of the proposed model, highlighting interesting new features such as (i) nonmonotonic behavior (emergence of peak structures, enhanced by the choice of colored noise characteristic time scale) of the coefficient of variation (CV) as a function of memory characteristic time scale, (ii) colored noise-induced shift in the CV, and (iii) emergence and suppression of multimodality in the interspike interval (ISI) distribution due to memory-induced subthreshold oscillations. Moreover, in the noise-induced spike regime, we study how memory and colored noise affect the coherence resonance (CR) phenomenon. We found that for sufficiently long memory, not only is CR suppressed but also the minimum of the CV-versus-noise intensity curve that characterizes the presence of CR may be replaced by a maximum. The aforementioned features allow to interpret the interplay between memory and colored noise as an effective control mechanism to neuronal variability. Since both variability and nontrivial temporal patterns in the ISI distribution are ubiquitous in biological cells, we hope the present model can be useful in modeling real aspects of neurons.
The effect of two models of supervision on selected outcomes.
Uys, Leana R; Minnaar, Ansie; Simpson, Barbara; Reid, Steve
2005-01-01
To evaluate the effect of training in two different supervisory models on the supervision itself, the quality of care, and job satisfaction of nurses in different service settings in a district health service (DHS) in South Africa. As part of a larger health systems study, the results of supervision training were evaluated. The quantitative study was done in three health districts in South Africa. The modified matrix (MM) model of supervision was taught and implemented in District A, the Centre for Health and Social Studies (CHESS) model in District B, and the control was District C. Checklists based on direct observation and record reviews were used to measure quality of care (quality of hand-over between shifts, nursing records, management of chronic diseases, and implementation of universal precautions). Questionnaires were used to measure perception of supervision and patient satisfaction. Chi-square analysis was done. Supervision ratings before and after the interventions differed significantly in the total sample, but not by district. In the district with the MM model, care for people with chronic diseases improved significantly, but other measures did not. The supervision training had some influence, but more measures of effectiveness of supervision training are needed.
1980-09-01
Resources Laboratory, Air Force Systems Command, 1979b. Hersey , P. and K. H. Blanchard. Management of Organizational Behaviors Utilizing Human Resources...of Management , 4(1): 7-26 (1961). Scott, W. Richard. "Effectiveness of Organizational Effec- tiveness Studies," in Paul S. Goodman, Johannes M...Dist SpecialL V ANALYSIS OF A CONTINGENCY MODEL, EFFECTS OF MANAGEMENT STYLE AND SITUATIONAL ENVIRONMENT ON ORGANIZATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS John M
Estimating the Effects of Parental Divorce and Death With Fixed Effects Models
Amato, Paul R.; Anthony, Christopher J.
2014-01-01
The authors used child fixed effects models to estimate the effects of parental divorce and death on a variety of outcomes using 2 large national data sets: (a) the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Cohort (kindergarten through the 5th grade) and (b) the National Educational Longitudinal Study (8th grade to the senior year of high school). In both data sets, divorce and death were associated with multiple negative outcomes among children. Although evidence for a causal effect o...
Modelling the effectiveness of chlamydia screening in England.
Turner, K M E; Adams, E J; Lamontagne, D S; Emmett, L; Baster, K; Edmunds, W J
2006-12-01
Several developed countries have initiated chlamydia screening programmes. Screening for a sexually transmitted infection has both direct individual and indirect population-wide effects. Mathematical models can incorporate these non-linear effects and estimate the likely impact of different screening programmes and identify areas where more data are needed. A stochastic, individual based dynamic network model, parameterised from UK screening studies and data on sexual behaviour and chlamydia epidemiology, was used to investigate the likely impact of opportunistic screening on chlamydia prevalence. Three main strategies were considered for screening parameters including uptake rate, targeted age range, percentage of partners notified, and screening interval. Under strategy 1, continuous opportunistic screening of women screening those aged over 25 results in small additional reductions in prevalence. Including men led to a faster and greater reduction in overall prevalence, but involved approximately twice as many tests as strategy 1 and 10% more than strategy 2. The frequency of attendance at healthcare sites limits the number of opportunities to screen and the effect of changing the screening interval. The model suggests that continuous opportunistic screening at high uptake rates could significantly reduced chlamydia prevalence within a few years. Opportunistic programmes depend on regular attendance at healthcare providers, but there is a lack of high quality data on patterns of attendance. Inequalities in coverage may result in a less efficient and less equitable outcome.
Stochastic representations of seismic anisotropy: transversely isotropic effective media models
Song, Xin; Jordan, Thomas H.
2017-06-01
We apply Jordan's self-consistent, second-order Born theory to compute the effective stiffness tensor for spatially stationary, stochastic models of 3-D elastic heterogeneity. The effects of local anisotropy can be separated from spatially extended geometric anisotropy by factoring the covariance of the moduli into a one-point variance tensor and a two-point correlation function. The latter is incorporated into the rescaled Kneer tensor, which is contracted against the one-point variance tensor to yield a second-order perturbation to the Voigt average. The theory can handle heterogeneity with orthotropic stochastic symmetry, but the calculations presented here are restricted to media with transversely isotropic (TI) statistics. We thoroughly investigate TI stochastic media that are locally isotropic. If the heterogeneity aspect ratio η is unity, the effective medium is isotropic, and the main effect of the scattering is to reduce the moduli. The two limiting regimes are a 2-D vertical stochastic bundle (η → 0), where the P and S anisotropy ratios are negative, and a 1-D horizontal stochastic laminate (η → ∞), where they are positive. The effective-medium equations for the latter yield the second-order approximation to Backus's exact solution, demonstrating the connection between Backus theory and self-consistent effective-media theory. Comparisons of the exact and second-order results for non-Gaussian laminates indicate that the approximation should be adequate for moduli heterogeneities less than about 30 per cent and thus valid for most seismological purposes. We apply the locally isotropic theory to data from the Los Angeles Basin to illustrate how it can be used to explain shallow seismic anisotropy. To assess the relative contributions of geometric and local anisotropy to the effective anisotropy, we consider a rotational model for stochastic anisotropic variability proposed by Jordan. In this model, the axis of a hexagonally symmetric stiffness
A numerical model for blast injury of human thorax based on digitized visible human.
Li, Xiao-Fang; Kuang, Jiang-Ming; Nie, Si-Bing; Xu, Jing; Zhu, Jin; Liu, Yi-He
2017-12-04
Knowledge of the pressure distribution around human thorax in blast help to understand the injury mechanisms and their assessment. To investigate the transmission mechanism of the pressure on human thorax in blast, a three dimension surface model of human thorax was constructed in this work. To increase the precious of this model, tetrahedron element division method was applied to transfer the rough 3D surface model to hexahedral elements model. Using this model, the high pressure duration was computationally solved using numerical simulation of the hexahedral elements. Simulation results showed that the apex of lungs was subjected to the largest stress in a blast. In order to verify this result, an animal experiment was performed on a dog. The animal experimental results was shown to have a same variation tendency with the calculation results based on our numerical model of human thorax, which made this model reliable for the blast injury research.
Quantifying and modeling birth order effects in autism.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tychele Turner
Full Text Available Autism is a complex genetic disorder with multiple etiologies whose molecular genetic basis is not fully understood. Although a number of rare mutations and dosage abnormalities are specific to autism, these explain no more than 10% of all cases. The high heritability of autism and low recurrence risk suggests multifactorial inheritance from numerous loci but other factors also intervene to modulate risk. In this study, we examine the effect of birth rank on disease risk which is not expected for purely hereditary genetic models. We analyzed the data from three publicly available autism family collections in the USA for potential birth order effects and studied the statistical properties of three tests to show that adequate power to detect these effects exist. We detect statistically significant, yet varying, patterns of birth order effects across these collections. In multiplex families, we identify V-shaped effects where middle births are at high risk; in simplex families, we demonstrate linear effects where risk increases with each additional birth. Moreover, the birth order effect is gender-dependent in the simplex collection. It is currently unknown whether these patterns arise from ascertainment biases or biological factors. Nevertheless, further investigation of parental age-dependent risks yields patterns similar to those observed and could potentially explain part of the increased risk. A search for genes considering these patterns is likely to increase statistical power and uncover novel molecular etiologies.
Quantifying and modeling birth order effects in autism.
Turner, Tychele; Pihur, Vasyl; Chakravarti, Aravinda
2011-01-01
Autism is a complex genetic disorder with multiple etiologies whose molecular genetic basis is not fully understood. Although a number of rare mutations and dosage abnormalities are specific to autism, these explain no more than 10% of all cases. The high heritability of autism and low recurrence risk suggests multifactorial inheritance from numerous loci but other factors also intervene to modulate risk. In this study, we examine the effect of birth rank on disease risk which is not expected for purely hereditary genetic models. We analyzed the data from three publicly available autism family collections in the USA for potential birth order effects and studied the statistical properties of three tests to show that adequate power to detect these effects exist. We detect statistically significant, yet varying, patterns of birth order effects across these collections. In multiplex families, we identify V-shaped effects where middle births are at high risk; in simplex families, we demonstrate linear effects where risk increases with each additional birth. Moreover, the birth order effect is gender-dependent in the simplex collection. It is currently unknown whether these patterns arise from ascertainment biases or biological factors. Nevertheless, further investigation of parental age-dependent risks yields patterns similar to those observed and could potentially explain part of the increased risk. A search for genes considering these patterns is likely to increase statistical power and uncover novel molecular etiologies.
Modeling Tree Shade Effect on Urban Ground Surface Temperature.
Napoli, Marco; Massetti, Luciano; Brandani, Giada; Petralli, Martina; Orlandini, Simone
2016-01-01
There is growing interest in the role that urban forests can play as urban microclimate modifiers. Tree shade and evapotranspiration affect energy fluxes and mitigate microclimate conditions, with beneficial effects on human health and outdoor comfort. The aim of this study was to investigate surface temperature () variability under the shade of different tree species and to test the capability in predicting of a proposed heat transfer model. Surface temperature data on asphalt and grass under different shading conditions were collected in the Cascine park, Florence, Italy, and were used to test the performance of a one-dimensional heat transfer model integrated with a routine for estimating the effect of plant canopies on surface heat transfer. Shading effects of 10 tree species commonly used in Italian urban settings were determined by considering the infrared radiation and the tree canopy leaf area index (LAI). The results indicate that, on asphalt, was negatively related to the LAI of trees ( reduction ranging from 13.8 to 22.8°C). On grass, this relationship was weaker probably because of the combined effect of shade and grass evapotranspiration on ( reduction ranged from 6.9 to 9.4°C). A sensitivity analysis confirmed that other factors linked to soil water content play an important role in reduction of grassed areas. Our findings suggest that the energy balance model can be effectively used to estimate of the urban pavement under different shading conditions and can be applied to the analysis of microclimate conditions of urban green spaces. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.
Sun, Ruochen; Yuan, Huiling; Liu, Xiaoli
2017-11-01
The heteroscedasticity treatment in residual error models directly impacts the model calibration and prediction uncertainty estimation. This study compares three methods to deal with the heteroscedasticity, including the explicit linear modeling (LM) method and nonlinear modeling (NL) method using hyperbolic tangent function, as well as the implicit Box-Cox transformation (BC). Then a combined approach (CA) combining the advantages of both LM and BC methods has been proposed. In conjunction with the first order autoregressive model and the skew exponential power (SEP) distribution, four residual error models are generated, namely LM-SEP, NL-SEP, BC-SEP and CA-SEP, and their corresponding likelihood functions are applied to the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model over the Huaihe River basin, China. Results show that the LM-SEP yields the poorest streamflow predictions with the widest uncertainty band and unrealistic negative flows. The NL and BC methods can better deal with the heteroscedasticity and hence their corresponding predictive performances are improved, yet the negative flows cannot be avoided. The CA-SEP produces the most accurate predictions with the highest reliability and effectively avoids the negative flows, because the CA approach is capable of addressing the complicated heteroscedasticity over the study basin.
Design Change Model for Effective Scheduling Change Propagation Paths
Zhang, Hai-Zhu; Ding, Guo-Fu; Li, Rong; Qin, Sheng-Feng; Yan, Kai-Yin
2017-09-01
Changes in requirements may result in the increasing of product development project cost and lead time, therefore, it is important to understand how requirement changes propagate in the design of complex product systems and be able to select best options to guide design. Currently, a most approach for design change is lack of take the multi-disciplinary coupling relationships and the number of parameters into account integrally. A new design change model is presented to systematically analyze and search change propagation paths. Firstly, a PDS-Behavior-Structure-based design change model is established to describe requirement changes causing the design change propagation in behavior and structure domains. Secondly, a multi-disciplinary oriented behavior matrix is utilized to support change propagation analysis of complex product systems, and the interaction relationships of the matrix elements are used to obtain an initial set of change paths. Finally, a rough set-based propagation space reducing tool is developed to assist in narrowing change propagation paths by computing the importance of the design change parameters. The proposed new design change model and its associated tools have been demonstrated by the scheduling change propagation paths of high speed train's bogie to show its feasibility and effectiveness. This model is not only supportive to response quickly to diversified market requirements, but also helpful to satisfy customer requirements and reduce product development lead time. The proposed new design change model can be applied in a wide range of engineering systems design with improved efficiency.
Nonlinear dispersion effects in elastic plates: numerical modelling and validation
Kijanka, Piotr; Radecki, Rafal; Packo, Pawel; Staszewski, Wieslaw J.; Uhl, Tadeusz; Leamy, Michael J.
2017-04-01
Nonlinear features of elastic wave propagation have attracted significant attention recently. The particular interest herein relates to complex wave-structure interactions, which provide potential new opportunities for feature discovery and identification in a variety of applications. Due to significant complexity associated with wave propagation in nonlinear media, numerical modeling and simulations are employed to facilitate design and development of new measurement, monitoring and characterization systems. However, since very high spatio- temporal accuracy of numerical models is required, it is critical to evaluate their spectral properties and tune discretization parameters for compromise between accuracy and calculation time. Moreover, nonlinearities in structures give rise to various effects that are not present in linear systems, e.g. wave-wave interactions, higher harmonics generation, synchronism and | recently reported | shifts to dispersion characteristics. This paper discusses local computational model based on a new HYBRID approach for wave propagation in nonlinear media. The proposed approach combines advantages of the Local Interaction Simulation Approach (LISA) and Cellular Automata for Elastodynamics (CAFE). The methods are investigated in the context of their accuracy for predicting nonlinear wavefields, in particular shifts to dispersion characteristics for finite amplitude waves and secondary wavefields. The results are validated against Finite Element (FE) calculations for guided waves in copper plate. Critical modes i.e., modes determining accuracy of a model at given excitation frequency - are identified and guidelines for numerical model parameters are proposed.
Zealotry effects on opinion dynamics in the adaptive voter model
Klamser, Pascal P.; Wiedermann, Marc; Donges, Jonathan F.; Donner, Reik V.
2017-11-01
The adaptive voter model has been widely studied as a conceptual model for opinion formation processes on time-evolving social networks. Past studies on the effect of zealots, i.e., nodes aiming to spread their fixed opinion throughout the system, only considered the voter model on a static network. Here we extend the study of zealotry to the case of an adaptive network topology co-evolving with the state of the nodes and investigate opinion spreading induced by zealots depending on their initial density and connectedness. Numerical simulations reveal that below the fragmentation threshold a low density of zealots is sufficient to spread their opinion to the whole network. Beyond the transition point, zealots must exhibit an increased degree as compared to ordinary nodes for an efficient spreading of their opinion. We verify the numerical findings using a mean-field approximation of the model yielding a low-dimensional set of coupled ordinary differential equations. Our results imply that the spreading of the zealots' opinion in the adaptive voter model is strongly dependent on the link rewiring probability and the average degree of normal nodes in comparison with that of the zealots. In order to avoid a complete dominance of the zealots' opinion, there are two possible strategies for the remaining nodes: adjusting the probability of rewiring and/or the number of connections with other nodes, respectively.
Effective Models for Scientists Engaging in Meaningful Education and Outreach
Noel-Storr, Jacob; Gurule, Isaiah; InsightSTEM Teacher-Scientist-Communicator-Learner Team
2017-01-01
We present a central paradigm, extending the model of "Teacher-Scientist" partnerships towards a new philosophy of "Scientist-Instructor-Learner-Communicator" Partnerships. In this paradigm modes of, and expertise in, communication, and the learners themselves, are held is as high status as the experts and teachers in the learning setting.We present three distinctive models that rest on this paradigm in different educational settings. First a model in which scientists and teachers work together with a communications-related specialist to design and develop new science exploration tools for the classroom, and gather feedback from learners. Secondly, we present a model which involves an ongoing joint professional development program helping scientists and teachers to be co-communicators of knowledge exploration to their specific audience of learners. And thirdly a model in which scientists remotely support classroom research based on online data, while the teachers and their students learn to become effective communicators of their genuine scientific results.This work was funded in part by the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and by NASA awards NNX16AC68A and NNX16AJ21G. All opinions are those of the authors.
Modeling food matrix effects on chemical reactivity: Challenges and perspectives.
Capuano, Edoardo; Oliviero, Teresa; van Boekel, Martinus A J S
2017-06-29
The same chemical reaction may be different in terms of its position of the equilibrium (i.e., thermodynamics) and its kinetics when studied in different foods. The diversity in the chemical composition of food and in its structural organization at macro-, meso-, and microscopic levels, that is, the food matrix, is responsible for this difference. In this viewpoint paper, the multiple, and interconnected ways the food matrix can affect chemical reactivity are summarized. Moreover, mechanistic and empirical approaches to explain and predict the effect of food matrix on chemical reactivity are described. Mechanistic models aim to quantify the effect of food matrix based on a detailed understanding of the chemical and physical phenomena occurring in food. Their applicability is limited at the moment to very simple food systems. Empirical modeling based on machine learning combined with data-mining techniques may represent an alternative, useful option to predict the effect of the food matrix on chemical reactivity and to identify chemical and physical properties to be further tested. In such a way the mechanistic understanding of the effect of the food matrix on chemical reactions can be improved.
Microscopic models for the study of taxpayer audit effects
Bertotti, Maria Letizia; Modanese, Giovanni
2016-03-01
A microscopic dynamic model is here constructed and analyzed, describing the evolution of the income distribution in the presence of taxation and redistribution in a society in which also tax evasion and auditing processes occur. The focus is on effects of enforcement regimes, characterized by different choices of the audited taxpayer fraction and of the penalties imposed to noncompliant individuals. A complex systems perspective is adopted: society is considered as a system composed by a large number of heterogeneous individuals. These are divided into income classes and may as well have different tax evasion behaviors. The variation in time of the number of individuals in each class is described by a system of nonlinear differential equations of the kinetic discretized Boltzmann type involving transition probabilities. A priori, one could think that audits and fines should have a positive effect on the reduction of economic inequality and correspondingly of the Gini index G. According to our model, however, such effect is rather small. In contrast, the effect on the increase of the tax revenue may be significant.
Modeling cooperative effects in halogen-bonded infinite linear chains.
Adasme-Carreño, Francisco; Alzate-Morales, Jans; Ireta, Joel
2017-07-19
Non-additivity in noncovalent interactions is an important aspect of complex systems that can lead to stronger (cooperative) interactions when three or more molecular units influence each other. The halogen bond (XB) is a highly-directional noncovalent interaction that has been found to be cooperative. Here the strength and nature of cooperativity arising in X-bonded infinite linear chains of cyanogen halides and 4-halopyridines are investigated by means of density functional theory calculations. It is found that cyanogen halide chains are highly cooperative (up to 77%), whereas pyridines are only slightly cooperative (below 21%). It is demonstrated that XB and its non-additivity can be modeled as the sum of a local term, which depends on first nearest-neighbors only, and long-range effective dipole-dipole attractions. It is shown that the local term in cyanogen halides primarily accounts for repulsive short-range screened Coulomb interactions, whereas in 4-halopyridines such a term also includes attractive contributions, which are particularly sizeable in some elongated XB conformations. This outcome reveals differences in the nature of the XBs formed in these molecular systems. Nevertheless, it is shown that both systems behave as effective point dipoles regarding cooperative effects, at any point of the XB dissociation path. As such, these results are useful contributions for the understanding and modeling of non-additive effects of noncovalent interactions.
Direct and indirect effects in a logit model.
Buis, Maarten L
2010-01-01
This article discusses a method by Erikson et al. (2005) for decomposing a total effect in a logit model into direct and indirect effects. Moreover, this article extends this method in three ways. First, in the original method the variable through which the indirect effect occurs is assumed to be normally distributed. In this article the method is generalized by allowing this variable to have any distribution. Second, the original method did not provide standard errors for the estimates. In this article the bootstrap is proposed as a method of providing those. Third, I show how to include control variables in this decomposition, which was not allowed in the original method. The original method and these extensions are implemented in the ldecomp package.
CFD Modeling of LNG Spill: Humidity Effect on Vapor Dispersion
Giannissi, S. G.; Venetsanos, A. G.; Markatos, N.
2015-09-01
The risks entailed by an accidental spill of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) should be indentified and evaluated, in order to design measures for prevention and mitigation in LNG terminals. For this purpose, simulations are considered a useful tool to study LNG spills and to understand the mechanisms that influence the vapor dispersion. In the present study, the ADREA-HF CFD code is employed to simulate the TEEX1 experiment. The experiment was carried out at the Brayton Fire Training Field, which is affiliated with the Texas A&M University system and involves LNG release and dispersion over water surface in open- obstructed environment. In the simulation the source was modeled as a two-phase jet enabling the prediction of both the vapor dispersion and the liquid pool spreading. The conservation equations for the mixture are solved along with the mass fraction for natural gas. Due to the low prevailing temperatures during the spill ambient humidity condenses and this might affect the vapor dispersion. This effect was examined in this work by solving an additional conservation equation for the water mass fraction. Two different models were tested: the hydrodynamic equilibrium model which assumes kinetic equilibrium between the phases and the non hydrodynamic equilibrium model, in order to assess the effect of slip velocity on the prediction. The slip velocity is defined as the difference between the liquid phase and the vapor phase and is calculated using the algebraic slip model. Constant droplet diameter of three different sizes and a lognormal distribution of the droplet diameter were applied and the results are discussed and compared with the measurements.
Modeling of Strain Effects in Multi-component Semiconductors
Arjmand, Mehrdad
Strain affects the properties of crystalline material by changing the atomic symmetry. Controlling the strain in semiconductors helps to tune properties of material and design new material. For instance, strained semiconductor heterostructures have improved the efficiency of traditional solar cells remarkably. Another example of strain application is in electronic devices. Strained heterostructure nanowires provide a better control on electronic properties of gates used in transistors. Gate-all-around nanowires are promising candidates to power microprocessors in future. Strain is also used to make quantum dot structures from semiconductors. These quantum dots are used in quantum computing, diode lasers and sensors. Once the stored strain in a structure reaches a critical limit, it relaxes by triggering different phenomena in the structure. For instance, strain causes morphology change, plastic deformation, phase separation and intermixing, fracture, buckling, bulging and peeling. In order to use these strained structures for design purposes, it is critical to understand these different relaxation phenomena and be able to control them. Modeling provides a powerful framework to understand different relaxation mechanisms and provide guidance to control these strain induced phenomena. In this thesis, I have developed a continuum based model called "phase field" to study morphology change, plastic deformation and phase separation in multi-component semiconductors during growth and annealing processes. The advantage of phase field approach compared to some other modeling techniques is that it includes the effects of both thermodynamics and kinetics. Also, I have developed a continuum based elasto-plasticity model to study the effects of plastic relaxation in semiconductor nanowires. This model can particularly be useful for piezoelectric and surface stability analysis of nanowires.
Shin, Sun-Hee; Kim, Ok-Yeon; Kim, Dongmin; Lee, Myong-In
2017-07-01
Using 32 CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5) models, this study examines the veracity in the simulation of cloud amount and their radiative effects (CREs) in the historical run driven by observed external radiative forcing for 1850-2005, and their future changes in the RCP (Representative Concentration Pathway) 4.5 scenario runs for 2006-2100. Validation metrics for the historical run are designed to examine the accuracy in the representation of spatial patterns for climatological mean, and annual and interannual variations of clouds and CREs. The models show large spread in the simulation of cloud amounts, specifically in the low cloud amount. The observed relationship between cloud amount and the controlling large-scale environment are also reproduced diversely by various models. Based on the validation metrics, four models—ACCESS1.0, ACCESS1.3, HadGEM2-CC, and HadGEM2-ES—are selected as best models, and the average of the four models performs more skillfully than the multimodel ensemble average. All models project global-mean SST warming at the increase of the greenhouse gases, but the magnitude varies across the simulations between 1 and 2 K, which is largely attributable to the difference in the change of cloud amount and distribution. The models that simulate more SST warming show a greater increase in the net CRE due to reduced low cloud and increased incoming shortwave radiation, particularly over the regions of marine boundary layer in the subtropics. Selected best-performing models project a significant reduction in global-mean cloud amount of about -0.99% K-1 and net radiative warming of 0.46 W m-2 K-1, suggesting a role of positive feedback to global warming.
Effect of Saraswatarishta in animal models of behavior despair
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Reshma R Parekar
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Background: Saraswatarishta (SA is a herbo-mineral formulation consisting of 18 plants some of which are Medhyarasayanas. It has been claimed to be useful in treating central nervous system disorders. Objective: To evaluate antidepressant effect of ′Saraswatarishta′(SA alone and in combination with imipramine and fluoxetine in animal models of depression. Materials and Methods: After obtaining IAEC permission, 144 rats (n = 36/part were randomized into 6 groups- Group 1: Distilled water (1 mL, Group 2: Imipramine (30 mg/kg, Group 3: Fluoxetine (10 mg/kg, Group 4: SA (1.8 mL/kg, Group 5: Imipramine + SA, Group 6: Fluoxetine + SA. Effects of study drugs were evaluated in forced swim test (FST with single exposure to FST (Part 1 and repeated exposure for 14 days (Part 2. In Part 3, reserpine was used with FST and effects of study drugs were evaluated against single exposure to FST. Same model was used with repeated exposures to FST (Part 4. In each part, rats were subjected to open field test (OFT for 5 min prior to final FST. The variables measured: Immobility time in FST; line crossing, rearing and defecation in the OFT. Results: In all four parts, individual drugs and combinations thereof produced significant decrease in immobility time as compared to control, and extent of decrease was comparable amongst these groups. However, values for combination of fluoxetine with SA group were found to be lesser than that for individual agents in Parts 2 and 3. Combination of SA with imipramine did not enhance its anti-depressant effect in any of the parts. OFT findings did not vary significantly amongst the study groups. Conclusion: Decreased immobility in FST and absence of generalized stimulation or depression of motor activity in OFT point towards potential antidepressant effect of Saraswatarishta. Its co-administration with fluoxetine showed more promising effects.
Effect of Saraswatarishta in animal models of behavior despair.
Parekar, Reshma R; Jadhav, Kshitij S; Marathe, Padmaja A; Rege, Nirmala N
2014-07-01
Saraswatarishta (SA) is a herbo-mineral formulation consisting of 18 plants some of which are Medhyarasayanas. It has been claimed to be useful in treating central nervous system disorders. To evaluate antidepressant effect of 'Saraswatarishta'(SA) alone and in combination with imipramine and fluoxetine in animal models of depression. After obtaining IAEC permission, 144 rats (n = 36/part) were randomized into 6 groups- Group 1: Distilled water (1 mL), Group 2: Imipramine (30 mg/kg), Group 3: Fluoxetine (10 mg/kg), Group 4: SA (1.8 mL/kg), Group 5: Imipramine + SA, Group 6: Fluoxetine + SA. Effects of study drugs were evaluated in forced swim test (FST) with single exposure to FST (Part 1) and repeated exposure for 14 days (Part 2). In Part 3, reserpine was used with FST and effects of study drugs were evaluated against single exposure to FST. Same model was used with repeated exposures to FST (Part 4). In each part, rats were subjected to open field test (OFT) for 5 min prior to final FST. The variables measured: Immobility time in FST; line crossing, rearing and defecation in the OFT. In all four parts, individual drugs and combinations thereof produced significant decrease in immobility time as compared to control, and extent of decrease was comparable amongst these groups. However, values for combination of fluoxetine with SA group were found to be lesser than that for individual agents in Parts 2 and 3. Combination of SA with imipramine did not enhance its anti-depressant effect in any of the parts. OFT findings did not vary significantly amongst the study groups. Decreased immobility in FST and absence of generalized stimulation or depression of motor activity in OFT point towards potential antidepressant effect of Saraswatarishta. Its co-administration with fluoxetine showed more promising effects.
Smith, Alastair C; Monaghan, Padraic; Huettig, Falk
2014-12-01
Learning to read and write requires an individual to connect additional orthographic representations to pre-existing mappings between phonological and semantic representations of words. Past empirical results suggest that the process of learning to read and write (at least in alphabetic languages) elicits changes in the language processing system, by either increasing the cognitive efficiency of mapping between representations associated with a word, or by changing the granularity of phonological processing of spoken language, or through a combination of both. Behavioural effects of literacy have typically been assessed in offline explicit tasks that have addressed only phonological processing. However, a recent eye tracking study compared high and low literate participants on effects of phonology and semantics in processing measured implicitly using eye movements. High literates' eye movements were more affected by phonological overlap in online speech than low literates, with only subtle differences observed in semantics. We determined whether these effects were due to cognitive efficiency and/or granularity of speech processing in a multimodal model of speech processing - the amodal shared resource model (ASR, Smith, Monaghan, & Huettig, 2013a,b). We found that cognitive efficiency in the model had only a marginal effect on semantic processing and did not affect performance for phonological processing, whereas fine-grained versus coarse-grained phonological representations in the model simulated the high/low literacy effects on phonological processing, suggesting that literacy has a focused effect in changing the grain-size of phonological mappings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The Significance of the Bystander Effect: Modeling, Experiments, and More Modeling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brenner, David J.
2009-07-22
Non-targeted (bystander) effects of ionizing radiation are caused by intercellular signaling; they include production of DNA damage and alterations in cell fate (i.e. apoptosis, differentiation, senescence or proliferation). Biophysical models capable of quantifying these effects may improve cancer risk estimation at radiation doses below the epidemiological detection threshold. Understanding the spatial patterns of bystander responses is important, because it provides estimates of how many bystander cells are affected per irradiated cell. In a first approach to modeling of bystander spatial effects in a three-dimensional artificial tissue, we assumed the following: (1) The bystander phenomenon results from signaling molecules (S) that rapidly propagate from irradiated cells and decrease in concentration (exponentially in the case of planar symmetry) as distance increases. (2) These signals can convert cells to a long-lived epigenetically activated state, e.g. a state of oxidative stress; cells in this state are more prone to DNA damage and behavior alterations than normal and therefore exhibit an increased response (R) for many end points (e.g. apoptosis, differentiation, micronucleation). These assumptions were implemented by a mathematical formalism and computational algorithms. The model adequately described data on bystander responses in the 3D system using a small number of adjustable parameters. Mathematical models of radiation carcinogenesis are important for understanding mechanisms and for interpreting or extrapolating risk. There are two classes of such models: (1) long-term formalisms that track pre-malignant cell numbers throughout an entire lifetime but treat initial radiation dose-response simplistically and (2) short-term formalisms that provide a detailed initial dose-response even for complicated radiation protocols, but address its modulation during the subsequent cancer latency period only indirectly. We argue that integrating short- and long
Incorporating effects of forest litter in a snow process model
Hardy, J. P.; Melloh, R.; Robinson, P.; Jordan, R.
2000-12-01
Net solar radiation often dominates the snow surface energy exchange during ablation in many conifer forests. Reflection of solar radiation from the snow surface depends not only on snow properties, but also on forest litter lying on and within the snowpack. We know of no validated model reported in the literature that accounts for the influence of forest litter on snow surface energy exchanges. The purpose of this work is to test an existing algorithm's ability to accumulate forest litter in snow layers and to predict the subsequent effect of litter on the snow surface albedo. Field studies in a conifer stand of red spruce-balsam fir in northern Vermont, USA, provided key data for validation, including subcanopy radiation, meteorology, snow depth, and images of litter accumulation. We ran the litter algorithm coupled with the snow model SNTHERM for the ablation season, and predictions compared well with measurements of snow depth, snow surface litter coverage, and snow surface albedo beneath the conifer canopy. Model results suggest that for this forest and ablation season, the current litter algorithm realistically distributes litter in the snowpack through time with validated effects on snow surface litter concentration and albedo. The poor relationship between mean wind speed and change in litter coverage on the snow surface suggest that, for this forest and ablation season, incorporating wind events into the algorithm will not improve the results.
Towards robust and effective shape modeling: sparse shape composition.
Zhang, Shaoting; Zhan, Yiqiang; Dewan, Maneesh; Huang, Junzhou; Metaxas, Dimitris N; Zhou, Xiang Sean
2012-01-01
Organ shape plays an important role in various clinical practices, e.g., diagnosis, surgical planning and treatment evaluation. It is usually derived from low level appearance cues in medical images. However, due to diseases and imaging artifacts, low level appearance cues might be weak or misleading. In this situation, shape priors become critical to infer and refine the shape derived by image appearances. Effective modeling of shape priors is challenging because: (1) shape variation is complex and cannot always be modeled by a parametric probability distribution; (2) a shape instance derived from image appearance cues (input shape) may have gross errors; and (3) local details of the input shape are difficult to preserve if they are not statistically significant in the training data. In this paper we propose a novel Sparse Shape Composition model (SSC) to deal with these three challenges in a unified framework. In our method, a sparse set of shapes in the shape repository is selected and composed together to infer/refine an input shape. The a priori information is thus implicitly incorporated on-the-fly. Our model leverages two sparsity observations of the input shape instance: (1) the input shape can be approximately represented by a sparse linear combination of shapes in the shape repository; (2) parts of the input shape may contain gross errors but such errors are sparse. Our model is formulated as a sparse learning problem. Using L1 norm relaxation, it can be solved by an efficient expectation-maximization (EM) type of framework. Our method is extensively validated on two medical applications, 2D lung localization in X-ray images and 3D liver segmentation in low-dose CT scans. Compared to state-of-the-art methods, our model exhibits better performance in both studies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Quantum critical behavior of the quantum Ising model on fractal lattices.
Yi, Hangmo
2015-01-01
I study the properties of the quantum critical point of the transverse-field quantum Ising model on various fractal lattices such as the Sierpiński carpet, Sierpiński gasket, and Sierpiński tetrahedron. Using a continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo simulation method and finite-size scaling analysis, I identify the quantum critical point and investigate its scaling properties. Among others, I calculate the dynamic critical exponent and find that it is greater than one for all three structures. The fact that it deviates from one is a direct consequence of the fractal structures not being integer-dimensional regular lattices. Other critical exponents are also calculated. The exponents are different from those of the classical critical point and satisfy the quantum scaling relation, thus confirming that I have indeed found the quantum critical point. I find that the Sierpiński tetrahedron, of which the dimension is exactly 2, belongs to a different universality class than that of the two-dimensional square lattice. I conclude that the critical exponents depend on more details of the structure than just the dimension and the symmetry.
Von Benda-Beckmann, Alexander M; Wensveen, Paul J; Kvadsheim, Petter H; Lam, Frans-Peter A; Miller, Patrick J O; Tyack, Peter L; Ainslie, Michael A
2014-02-01
Ramp-up or soft-start procedures (i.e., gradual increase in the source level) are used to mitigate the effect of sonar sound on marine mammals, although no one to date has tested whether ramp-up procedures are effective at reducing the effect of sound on marine mammals. We investigated the effectiveness of ramp-up procedures in reducing the area within which changes in hearing thresholds can occur. We modeled the level of sound killer whales (Orcinus orca) were exposed to from a generic sonar operation preceded by different ramp-up schemes. In our model, ramp-up procedures reduced the risk of killer whales receiving sounds of sufficient intensity to affect their hearing. The effectiveness of the ramp-up procedure depended strongly on the assumed response threshold and differed with ramp-up duration, although extending the duration of the ramp up beyond 5 min did not add much to its predicted mitigating effect. The main factors that limited effectiveness of ramp up in a typical antisubmarine warfare scenario were high source level, rapid moving sonar source, and long silences between consecutive sonar transmissions. Our exposure modeling approach can be used to evaluate and optimize mitigation procedures. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.
Effective dielectric mixture model for characterization of diesel contaminated soil
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Al-Mattarneh, H.M.A. [Tenaga National Univ., Kajang (Malaysia). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Essa Ahmad, M. [Al-Balqa Applied Univ. (Jordan). Al-Huson University College; Zain, M.F.M.; Tha, M.R. [Kebangsaan Malaysia Univ., Bangi (Malaysia)
2007-07-01
Human exposure to contaminated soil by diesel isomers can have serious health consequences like neurological diseases or cancer. The potential of dielectric measuring techniques for electromagnetic characterization of contaminated soils was investigated in this paper. The purpose of the research was to develop an empirical dielectric mixture model for soil hydrocarbon contamination application. The paper described the basic theory and elaborated in dielectric mixture theory. The analytical and empirical models were explained in simple algebraic formulas. The experimental study was then described with reference to materials, properties and experimental results. The results of the analytical models were also mathematically explained. The proposed semi-empirical model was also presented. According to the result of the electromagnetic properties of dry soil contaminated with diesel, the diesel presence had no significant effect on the electromagnetic properties of dry soil. It was concluded that diesel had no contribution to the soil electrical conductivity, which confirmed the nonconductive character of diesel. The results of diesel-contaminated soil at saturation condition indicated that both dielectric constant and loss factors of soil were decreased with increasing diesel content. 15 refs., 2 tabs., 9 figs.
Energy efficiency in nonprofit agencies: Creating effective program models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brown, M.A.; Prindle, B.; Scherr, M.I.; White, D.L.
1990-08-01
Nonprofit agencies are a critical component of the health and human services system in the US. It has been clearly demonstrated by programs that offer energy efficiency services to nonprofits that, with minimal investment, they can educe their energy consumption by ten to thirty percent. This energy conservation potential motivated the Department of Energy and Oak Ridge National Laboratory to conceive a project to help states develop energy efficiency programs for nonprofits. The purpose of the project was two-fold: (1) to analyze existing programs to determine which design and delivery mechanisms are particularly effective, and (2) to create model programs for states to follow in tailoring their own plans for helping nonprofits with energy efficiency programs. Twelve existing programs were reviewed, and three model programs were devised and put into operation. The model programs provide various forms of financial assistance to nonprofits and serve as a source of information on energy efficiency as well. After examining the results from the model programs (which are still on-going) and from the existing programs, several replicability factors'' were developed for use in the implementation of programs by other states. These factors -- some concrete and practical, others more generalized -- serve as guidelines for states devising program based on their own particular needs and resources.
Analysis of Surface Heterogeneity Effects with Mesoscale Terrestrial Modeling Platforms
Simmer, C.
2015-12-01
An improved understanding of the full variability in the weather and climate system is crucial for reducing the uncertainty in weather forecasting and climate prediction, and to aid policy makers to develop adaptation and mitigation strategies. A yet unknown part of uncertainty in the predictions from the numerical models is caused by the negligence of non-resolved land surface heterogeneity and the sub-surface dynamics and their potential impact on the state of the atmosphere. At the same time, mesoscale numerical models using finer horizontal grid resolution [O(1)km] can suffer from inconsistencies and neglected scale-dependencies in ABL parameterizations and non-resolved effects of integrated surface-subsurface lateral flow at this scale. Our present knowledge suggests large-eddy-simulation (LES) as an eventual solution to overcome the inadequacy of the physical parameterizations in the atmosphere in this transition scale, yet we are constrained by the computational resources, memory management, big-data, when using LES for regional domains. For the present, there is a need for scale-aware parameterizations not only in the atmosphere but also in the land surface and subsurface model components. In this study, we use the recently developed Terrestrial Systems Modeling Platform (TerrSysMP) as a numerical tool to analyze the uncertainty in the simulation of surface exchange fluxes and boundary layer circulations at grid resolutions of the order of 1km, and explore the sensitivity of the atmospheric boundary layer evolution and convective rainfall processes on land surface heterogeneity.
Cardioprotective Effect of Resveratrol in a Postinfarction Heart Failure Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adam Riba
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Despite great advances in therapies observed during the last decades, heart failure (HF remained a major health problem in western countries. In order to further improve symptoms and survival in patients with heart failure, novel therapeutic strategies are needed. In some animal models of HF resveratrol (RES, it was able to prevent cardiac hypertrophy, contractile dysfunction, and remodeling. Several molecular mechanisms are thought to be involved in its protective effects, such as inhibition of prohypertrophic signaling molecules, improvement of myocardial Ca2+ handling, regulation of autophagy, and the reduction of oxidative stress and inflammation. In our present study, we wished to further examine the effects of RES on prosurvival (Akt-1, GSK-3β and stress signaling (p38-MAPK, ERK 1/2, and MKP-1 pathways, on oxidative stress (iNOS, COX-2 activity, and ROS formation, and ultimately on left ventricular function, hypertrophy and fibrosis in a murine, and isoproterenol- (ISO- induced postinfarction heart failure model. RES treatment improved left ventricle function, decreased interstitial fibrosis, cardiac hypertrophy, and the level of plasma BNP induced by ISO treatment. ISO also increased the activation of P38-MAPK, ERK1/2Thr183-Tyr185, COX-2, iNOS, and ROS formation and decreased the phosphorylation of Akt-1, GSK-3β, and MKP-1, which were favorably influenced by RES. According to our results, regulation of these pathways may also contribute to the beneficial effects of RES in HF.
A model of toughening effects in whisker-reinforced composites
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hoagland, R.G. (Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Materials Engineering); Henager, C.H. Jr. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))
1991-01-01
A numerical approach is presented that lends itself to modeling the screening or antiscreening effects due solely to modulus differences of a discrete array of whiskers in an elastic matrix. The method is applied to single whiskers, and to examining the issue of whisker orientation of the toughness of ceramic composites. The model results indicate that crack-tip shielding due to modulus defect interactions occurs when the reinforcement has a higher modulus than the matrix material, and that anti-shielding occurs for the opposite case. Results for a single whisker located at the crack-tip (maximum effect) indicate that the crack-tip stress intensity is reduced by about 10% when a modulus ratio of four is assumed. Calculations performed with whisker arrays demonstrate pronounced effects of whisker orientation on the crack-tip screening, being larger for whiskers oriented perpendicular to the crack plane, as expected. Ordered whisker arrays produce larger and more uniform screening than do random whisker arrays. 16 refs., 10 figs.
Acute glucocorticoid effects on the multicomponent model of working memory.
Vaz, Leonardo José; Pradella-Hallinan, Márcia; Bueno, Orlando Francisco Amodeo; Pompéia, Sabine
2011-10-01
In comparison with basal physiological levels, acute, high levels of cortisol affect learning and memory. Despite reports of cortisol-induced episodic memory effects, no study has used a comprehensive battery of tests to evaluate glucocorticoid effects on the multicomponent model of working memory. Here, we report the results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled, between-subjects study. Twenty healthy young men were randomly assigned to either acute cortisol (30 mg hydrocortisone) or placebo administration. Participants were subjected to an extensive cognitive test battery that evaluated all systems of the multicomponent model of working memory, including various executive domains (shifting, updating, inhibition, planning and access to long-term memory). Compared with placebo, hydrocortisone administration increased cortisol blood levels and impaired working memory in storage of multimodal information in the episodic buffer and maintenance/reverberation of information in the phonological loop. Hydrocortisone also decreased performance in planning and inhibition tasks, the latter having been explained by changes in storage of information in working memory. Thus, hydrocortisone acutely impairs various components of working memory, including executive functioning. This effect must be considered when administering similar drugs, which are widely used for the treatment of many clinical disorders. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Temperature Effect on Micelle Formation: Molecular Thermodynamic Model Revisited.
Khoshnood, Atefeh; Lukanov, Boris; Firoozabadi, Abbas
2016-03-08
Temperature affects the aggregation of macromolecules such as surfactants, polymers, and proteins in aqueous solutions. The effect on the critical micelle concentration (CMC) is often nonmonotonic. In this work, the effect of temperature on the micellization of ionic and nonionic surfactants in aqueous solutions is studied using a molecular thermodynamic model. Previous studies based on this technique have predicted monotonic behavior for ionic surfactants. Our investigation shows that the choice of tail transfer energy to describe the hydrophobic effect between the surfactant tails and the polar solvent molecules plays a key role in the predicted CMC. We modify the tail transfer energy by taking into account the effect of the surfactant head on the neighboring methylene group. The modification improves the description of the CMC and the predicted micellar size for aqueous solutions of sodium n-alkyl sulfate, dodecyl trimethylammonium bromide (DTAB), and n-alkyl polyoxyethylene. The new tail transfer energy describes the nonmonotonic behavior of CMC versus temperature. In the DTAB-water system, we redefine the head size by including the methylene group, next to the nitrogen, in the head. The change in the head size along with our modified tail transfer energy improves the CMC and aggregation size prediction significantly. Tail transfer is a dominant energy contribution in micellar and microemulsion systems. It also promotes the adsorption of surfactants at fluid-fluid interfaces and affects the formation of adsorbed layer at fluid-solid interfaces. Our proposed modifications have direct applications in the thermodynamic modeling of the effect of temperature on molecular aggregation, both in the bulk and at the interfaces.
Activated aging dynamics and effective trap model description in the random energy model
Baity-Jesi, M.; Biroli, G.; Cammarota, C.
2018-01-01
We study the out-of-equilibrium aging dynamics of the random energy model (REM) ruled by a single spin-flip Metropolis dynamics. We focus on the dynamical evolution taking place on time-scales diverging with the system size. Our aim is to show to what extent the activated dynamics displayed by the REM can be described in terms of an effective trap model. We identify two time regimes: the first one corresponds to the process of escaping from a basin in the energy landscape and to the subsequent exploration of high energy configurations, whereas the second one corresponds to the evolution from a deep basin to the other. By combining numerical simulations with analytical arguments we show why the trap model description does not hold in the former but becomes exact in the second.
Dynamical 3-Space Gravity Theory: Effects on Polytropic Solar Models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
May R. D.
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Numerous experiments and observations have confirmed the existence of a dynamical 3-space, detectable directly by light-speed anisotropy experiments, and indirectly by means of novel gravitational effects, such as bore hole g anomalies, predictable black hole masses, flat spiral-galaxy rotation curves, and the expansion of the universe, all without dark matter and dark energy. The dynamics for this 3-space follows from a unique generalisation of Newtonian gravity, once that is cast into a velocity formalism. This new theory of gravity is applied to the solar model of the sun to compute new density, pressure and temperature profiles, using polytrope modelling of the equation of state for the matter. These results should be applied to a re-analysis of solar neutrino production, and to stellar evolution in general.
Dynamical 3-Space Gravity Theory: Effects on Polytropic Solar Models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cahill R. T.
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Numerous experiments and observations have confirmed the existence of a dynamical 3-space, detectable directly by light-speed anisotropy experiments, and indirectly by means of novel gravitational effects, such as bore hole g-anomalies, predictable black hole masses, flat spiral-galaxy rotation curves, and the expansion of the universe, all without dark matter and dark energy. The dynamics for this 3-space follows from a unique generalisation of Newtonian gravity, once that is cast into a velocity formalism. This new theory of gravity is applied to the solar model of the sun to compute new density, pressure and temperature profiles, using polytrope modelling of the equation of state for the matter. These results should be applied to a re-analysis of solar neutrino production, and to stellar evolution in general.
Effects of Induced Stress on Seismic Forward Modelling and Inversion
Tromp, Jeroen; Trampert, Jeannot
2018-01-01
We demonstrate how effects of induced stress may be incorporated in seismic modelling and inversion. Our approach is motivated by the accommodation of prestress in global seismology. Induced stress modifies both the equation of motion and the constitutive relationship. The theory predicts that induced pressure linearly affects the unstressed isotropic moduli with a slope determined by their adiabatic pressure derivatives. The induced deviatoric stress produces anisotropic compressional and shear wavespeeds; the latter result in shear-wave splitting. For forward modelling purposes, we determine the weak form of the equation of motion under induced stress. In the context of the inverse problem, we determine induced stress sensitivity kernels, which may be used for adjoint tomography. The theory is illustrated by considering 2D propagation of SH waves and related Fréchet derivatives based on a spectral-element method.
Multifractal model of asset returns with leverage effect
Eisler, Z.; Kertész, J.
2004-11-01
Multifractal processes are a relatively new tool of stock market analysis. Their power lies in the ability to take multiple orders of autocorrelations into account explicitly. In the first part of the paper we discuss the framework of the Lux model and refine the underlying phenomenological picture. We also give a procedure of fitting all parameters to empirical data. We present a new approach to account for the effective length of power-law memory in volatility. The second part of the paper deals with the consequences of asymmetry in returns. We incorporate two related stylized facts, skewness and leverage autocorrelations into the model. Then from Monte Carlo measurements we show, that this asymmetry significantly increases the mean squared error of volatility forecasts. Based on a filtering method we give evidence on similar behavior in empirical data.
Modelling of capital asset pricing by considering the lagged effects
Sukono; Hidayat, Y.; Bon, A. Talib bin; Supian, S.
2017-01-01
In this paper the problem of modelling the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) with the effect of the lagged is discussed. It is assumed that asset returns are analysed influenced by the market return and the return of risk-free assets. To analyse the relationship between asset returns, the market return, and the return of risk-free assets, it is conducted by using a regression equation of CAPM, and regression equation of lagged distributed CAPM. Associated with the regression equation lagged CAPM distributed, this paper also developed a regression equation of Koyck transformation CAPM. Results of development show that the regression equation of Koyck transformation CAPM has advantages, namely simple as it only requires three parameters, compared with regression equation of lagged distributed CAPM.
Effects of television modeling on residential energy conservation.
Winett, R A; Leckliter, I N; Chinn, D E; Stahl, B; Love, S Q
1985-01-01
A combination of social marketing, communications, social learning (particularly modeling), and behavior analysis may provide an effective framework for behavior change via films and television. We used this approach in developing special television programs about residential energy conservation. The programs were tailored and directed to preselected middle-class homeowners (N = 150), and delivered over a public access channel of a cable TV system. The results indicated that after one program exposure (about 20 minutes), viewers adopted simple strategies modeled in the programs which led to savings of approximately 10% on their home energy use for a substantial part of the cooling and heating season. Although the potential benefits to costs of large-scale media efforts seemed great, institutional barriers for such programs were identified. Less expensive, more local programs seem more viable.
Effects of mixing in threshold models of social behavior
Akhmetzhanov, Andrei R.; Worden, Lee; Dushoff, Jonathan
2013-07-01
We consider the dynamics of an extension of the influential Granovetter model of social behavior, where individuals are affected by their personal preferences and observation of the neighbors’ behavior. Individuals are arranged in a network (usually the square lattice), and each has a state and a fixed threshold for behavior changes. We simulate the system asynchronously by picking a random individual and we either update its state or exchange it with another randomly chosen individual (mixing). We describe the dynamics analytically in the fast-mixing limit by using the mean-field approximation and investigate it mainly numerically in the case of finite mixing. We show that the dynamics converge to a manifold in state space, which determines the possible equilibria, and show how to estimate the projection of this manifold by using simulated trajectories, emitted from different initial points. We show that the effects of considering the network can be decomposed into finite-neighborhood effects, and finite-mixing-rate effects, which have qualitatively similar effects. Both of these effects increase the tendency of the system to move from a less-desired equilibrium to the “ground state.” Our findings can be used to probe shifts in behavioral norms and have implications for the role of information flow in determining when social norms that have become unpopular in particular communities (such as foot binding or female genital cutting) persist or vanish.
A random effect multiplicative heteroscedastic model for bacterial growth
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Quinto Emiliano J
2010-02-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Predictive microbiology develops mathematical models that can predict the growth rate of a microorganism population under a set of environmental conditions. Many primary growth models have been proposed. However, when primary models are applied to bacterial growth curves, the biological variability is reduced to a single curve defined by some kinetic parameters (lag time and growth rate, and sometimes the models give poor fits in some regions of the curve. The development of a prediction band (from a set of bacterial growth curves using non-parametric and bootstrap methods permits to overcome that problem and include the biological variability of the microorganism into the modelling process. Results Absorbance data from Listeria monocytogenes cultured at 22, 26, 38, and 42°C were selected under different environmental conditions of pH (4.5, 5.5, 6.5, and 7.4 and percentage of NaCl (2.5, 3.5, 4.5, and 5.5. Transformation of absorbance data to viable count data was carried out. A random effect multiplicative heteroscedastic model was considered to explain the dynamics of bacterial growth. The concept of a prediction band for microbial growth is proposed. The bootstrap method was used to obtain resamples from this model. An iterative procedure is proposed to overcome the computer intensive task of calculating simultaneous prediction intervals, along time, for bacterial growth. The bands were narrower below the inflection point (0-8 h at 22°C, and 0-5.5 h at 42°C, and wider to the right of it (from 9 h onwards at 22°C, and from 7 h onwards at 42°C. A wider band was observed at 42°C than at 22°C when the curves reach their upper asymptote. Similar bands have been obtained for 26 and 38°C. Conclusions The combination of nonparametric models and bootstrap techniques results in a good procedure to obtain reliable prediction bands in this context. Moreover, the new iterative algorithm proposed in this paper allows one to
Magnetocaloric effect in the ferromagnetic Kondo lattice model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alfaro, F. [Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina, 89.223-100 Joinville (Brazil); Bernhard, B.H., E-mail: dfi2bhb@joinville.udesc.b [Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina, 89.223-100 Joinville (Brazil)
2009-10-15
The Kondo lattice model describes a lattice of localized spins S{sub i} interacting with the conduction electrons via a local exchange coupling J. Assuming a ferromagnetic Hund's rule coupling J>0, the model can be used to describe some itinerant magnetocaloric materials such as Gd(Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1-x}){sub 4}, La(Fe{sub 1-x}Si{sub x}){sub 13}, and LaCa{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}O{sub 3}, which are important for magnetic refrigeration near room temperature. The localized magnetic moments are described in the model Hamiltonian by spin operators, and the conduction electrons by fermionic operators. To study the magnetocaloric effect, a uniform external magnetic field is added through a Zeeman term. By averaging the fermionic degrees of freedom, one obtains an indirect exchange coupling J-circumflex{sub ij} between spins at sites i and j, which corresponds to the RKKY interaction. The self-consistent mean value is evaluated in the effective Heisenberg Hamiltonian within the random phase approximation (RPA). The conduction electron magnetization for a given value of is obtained from the corresponding Green's functions through the equation of motion method. The pressure and doping dependence of the Curie temperature are taken into account in the evaluation of J-circumflex{sub ij}. The magnetocaloric effect is characterized by the isothermal entropy change DELTAS and the adiabatic temperature change DELTAT{sub ad} upon magnetic field variations in the neighborhood of the ferromagnetic phase transition. The results are obtained for S=7/2 and compared to measurements with Gd compounds.
Numerical Modeling of Hydrokinetic Turbines and their Environmental Effects
Javaherchi, T.; Seydel, J.; Aliseda, A.
2010-12-01
The search for predictable renewable energy has led research into marine hydrokinetic energy. Electricity can be generated from tidally-induced currents through turbines located in regions of high current speed and relatively low secondary flow intensity. Although significant technological challenges exist, the main obstacle in the development and commercial deployment of marine hydrokinetic (MHK) turbines is the uncertainty in the environmental effect of devices. The velocity deficit in the turbulent wake of the turbine might enhance the sedimentation process of suspended particles in the water column and lead to deposition into artificial patterns that alter the benthic ecosystem. Pressure fluctuations across turbine blades and in blade tip vortices can damage internal organs of marine species as they swim through the device. These are just a few examples of the important potential environmental effects of MHK turbines that need to be addressed and investigated a priori before pilot and large scale deployment. We have developed a hierarchy of numerical models to simulate the turbulent wake behind a well characterized two bladed turbine. The results from these models (Sliding Mesh, Rotating Reference Frame, Virtual Blade Model and Actuator Disk Model) have been validated and are been used to investigate the efficiency and physical changes introduced in the environment by single or multiple MHK turbines. We will present results from sedimenting particles and model juvenile fish, with relative densities of 1.2 and 0.95, respectively. The settling velocity and terminal location on the bottom of the tidal channel is computed and compared to the simulated flow in a channel without turbines. We have observed an enhanced sedimentation, and we will quantify the degree of enhancement and the parameter range within which it is significant. For the slightly buoyant particles representing fish, the pressure history is studied statistically with particular attention to the
An asperity-deformation model for effective pressure
Gangi, Anthony F.; Carlson, Richard L.
1996-05-01
Variations of the mechanical and transport properties of cracked and/or porous rocks under isotropic stress depend on both the confining pressure ( Pc) and the pore-fluid pressure ( Pp). To a first approximation, these rock properties are functions of the differential pressure, Pd = Pc - Pp; at least for low differential pressures. However, at higher differential pressures, the properties depend in a more complicated way upon the two pressures. The concept of effective pressure, Pe, is used to denote this variation and it is defined as Pe( Pc, Pp) = Pc - n( Pc, Pp) Pp. If n = 1 (and therefore, is independent of Pc and Pp), the effective pressure is just the differential pressure. We have used an asperity-deformation model and a force-balance equation to derive expressions for the effective pressure. We equate the total external force (in one direction), Fc, to the total force on the asperities, Fa, and the force of the fluid, Fp, acting in that same direction. The fluid force, Fp, acts only on the parts of the crack (or pore-volume) faces which are not in contact. Then, the asperity pressure, Pa, is the average force per unit area acting on the crack (or grain) contacts P a = {F a}/{A} = {F c}/{A} - {F p}/{A} = P c - (1 - {A c}/{A})P p, where A is the total area over which Fc acts and Ac is the area of contact of the crack asperities or the grains. Thus, the asperity pressure, Pa, is greater than the differential pressure, Pd, because Pp acts on a smaller area, A- Ac, than the total area, A. For elastic asperities, the area of contact Ac and the strain (e.g., crack and pore openings) remain the same, to a high degree of approximation, at constant asperity pressure. Therefore, transport properties such as permeability, resistivity, thermal conductivity, etc. are constant, to the same degree of approximation, at constant asperity pressure. For these properties, the asperity pressure is, very accurately, the effective pressure, Pc. Using this model, we find that the
Modelling of Failure Effect to Integrity of System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Karol Rastocny
2004-01-01
Full Text Available The interlocking systems are typically resisting against hazardous faults. Failure effect on the system can be determined directly by monitoring the original system installation, by simulation of the system operation using its model, or by computing or theoretical reasoning. The process of system ageing can be described with the help of the random failure time. Essential majorities of computer-based interlocking system elements are electronic elements that are not exposed to mechanical wear. The failure distribution of these elements is assumed to be exponential.
Effective Field Theory and the Gamow Shell Model
Rotureau, J.; van Kolck, U.
2013-01-01
We combine Halo/Cluster Effective Field Theory (H/CEFT) and the Gamow Shell Model (GSM) to describe the $0^+$ ground state of $\\rm{^6He}$ as a three-body halo system. We use two-body interactions for the neutron-alpha particle and two-neutron pairs obtained from H/CEFT at leading order, with parameters determined from scattering in the p$_{3/2}$ and s$_0$ channels, respectively. The three-body dynamics of the system is solved using the GSM formalism, where the continuum states are incorporate...
Modeling the Temperature Effect of Orientations in Residential Buildings
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sabahat Arif
2012-07-01
Full Text Available Indoor thermal comfort in a building has been an important issue for the environmental sustainability. It is an accepted fact that their designs and planning consume a lot of energy in the modern architecture of 20th and 21st centuries. An appropriate orientation of a building can provide thermally comfortable indoor temperatures which otherwise can consume extra energy to condition these spaces through all the seasons. This experimental study investigates the potential effect of this solar passive design strategy on indoor temperatures and a simple model is presented for predicting indoor temperatures based upon the ambient temperatures.
lmerTest Package: Tests in Linear Mixed Effects Models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kuznetsova, Alexandra; Brockhoff, Per B.; Christensen, Rune Haubo Bojesen
2017-01-01
One of the frequent questions by users of the mixed model function lmer of the lme4 package has been: How can I get p values for the F and t tests for objects returned by lmer? The lmerTest package extends the 'lmerMod' class of the lme4 package, by overloading the anova and summary functions...... by providing p values for tests for fixed effects. We have implemented the Satterthwaite's method for approximating degrees of freedom for the t and F tests. We have also implemented the construction of Type I - III ANOVA tables. Furthermore, one may also obtain the summary as well as the anova table using...
Modeling the Effects of Knots in Structural Timber
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Foley, Christina
was established, which describes variations of radial growth direction and fiber orientation related to knots in timber. The adaptability of the paradigm allows practically any softwood knot and its effect on surrounding wood material to be modeled with an accuracy that is limited only by input data. The knot......-dimensional fiber paradigm, variations of knot and knot-bump geometry and related fiber disturbance of eleven knots from two trees of Nordic Spruce (Picea Abies) grown in Southern Sweden were analysed. Results showed that the paradigm could be calibrated to describe measured projected fiber orientations...
Contrasting effects of sunitinib within in vivo models of metastasis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Welti, Jonathan C; Powles, Thomas; Foo, Shane
2012-01-01
that correlated with increased seeding of metastasis. By administering sunitinib to mice after intravenous injection of tumour cells, we demonstrate that while sunitinib does not inhibit the growth of 4T1 lung tumour nodules, it does block the growth of RENCA lung tumour nodules. This contrasting response...... both form lung metastases in Balb/c mice, to re-address the effects of sunitinib on the progression of metastatic disease in mice. We show that treatment of mice with sunitinib prior to intravenous injection of tumour cells can promote the seeding and growth of 4T1 lung metastases, but not RENCA lung......Sunitinib is a potent and clinically approved tyrosine kinase inhibitor that can suppress tumour growth by inhibiting angiogenesis. However, conflicting data exist regarding the effects of this drug on the growth of metastases in preclinical models. Here we use 4T1 and RENCA tumour cells, which...
Comparative assessment of PV plant performance models considering climate effects
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tina, Giuseppe; Ventura, Cristina; Sera, Dezso
2017-01-01
. The methodological approach is based on comparative tests of the analyzed models applied to two PV plants installed respectively in north of Denmark (Aalborg) and in the south of Italy (Agrigento). The different ambient, operating and installation conditions allow to understand how these factors impact the precision...... and effectiveness of such approaches, among these factors it is worth mentioning the different percentage of diffuse component of the yearly solar radiation on the global one. The experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed approach. In order to have the possibility to analyze and compare...... the performance of the studied PV plants with others, the efficiency of the systems has been estimated by both conventional Performance Ratio and Corrected Performance Ratio...
DsixTools: the standard model effective field theory toolkit
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Celis, Alejandro [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Fakultaet fuer Physik, Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics, Munich (Germany); Fuentes-Martin, Javier; Vicente, Avelino [Universitat de Valencia-CSIC, Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Valencia (Spain); Virto, Javier [University of Bern, Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Bern (Switzerland)
2017-06-15
We present DsixTools, a Mathematica package for the handling of the dimension-six standard model effective field theory. Among other features, DsixTools allows the user to perform the full one-loop renormalization group evolution of the Wilson coefficients in the Warsaw basis. This is achieved thanks to the SMEFTrunner module, which implements the full one-loop anomalous dimension matrix previously derived in the literature. In addition, DsixTools also contains modules devoted to the matching to the ΔB = ΔS = 1, 2 and ΔB = ΔC = 1 operators of the Weak Effective Theory at the electroweak scale, and their QCD and QED Renormalization group evolution below the electroweak scale. (orig.)
Effects of mixing in threshold models of social behavior
Akhmetzhanov, Andrei R; Dushoff, Jonathan
2013-01-01
We consider the dynamics of an extension of the influential Granovetter model of social behavior, where individuals are affected by their personal preferences and observation of the neighbors' behavior. Individuals are arranged in a network (usually, the square lattice) and each has a state and a fixed threshold for behavior changes. We simulate the system asynchronously either by picking a random individual and either update its state or exchange it with another randomly chosen individual (mixing). We describe the dynamics analytically in the fast-mixing limit by using the mean-field approximation and investigate it mainly numerically in case of a finite mixing. We show that the dynamics converge to a manifold in state space, which determines the possible equilibria, and show how to estimate the projection of manifold by using simulated trajectories, emitted from different initial points. We show that the effects of considering the network can be decomposed into finite-neighborhood effects, and finite-mixing...
Modelling the Effects of a Predictable Money Supply of Bitcoin
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jakub Jedlinský
2017-12-01
Full Text Available The paper examines effects of a predefined and immutable money supply using a simulation performed in Minsky. It uses the cryptocurrency Bitcoin as an example and compares its settings and outcomes with Euro as a credit based fiat currency. Minsky is a specialized software for creating SFC economic models. It operates in continuous time. Unlike Euro, Bitcoin is a non-liability currency. It is not being issued against debt and it does not allow a fiduciary issue. The study examines the economy of the EU complexly, focusing on its monetary system, using Eurostat data. Then it changes the rules of the system so that they comply with the rules of Bitcoin’s protocol. The performed simulations show different effects of these monetary settings on wealth distribution among particular groups of economic subjects as well as on the stability of the economy as a whole after some time has passed.
Remarks on meson loop effects on quark models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hammer, I.K.; Hanhart, C. [Institut fuer Kernphysik and Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institute for Advanced Simulation, Juelich (Germany); Nefediev, A.V. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)
2016-11-15
We investigate the effect of meson loops on the spectrum of quark states. We demonstrate that in general quark states do not tend to get very broad if their coupling to the continuum increases, but instead they decouple from the latter in the large coupling limit. We ascribe this effect to the essentially nonperturbative unitarization procedure involved. In the meantime, some quark resonances behave very differently and demonstrate collectivity in the sense that their pole trajectories span a wide, as compared to the level spacing, region therefore acquiring contributions from multiple bare poles rather than from the closest neighbors. While the actual calculations are done within particular, very simplified models, it is argued that the findings might well be general. (orig.)
Effect of model resolution on a regional climate model simulation over southeast Australia
Evans, J. P.
2013-03-26
Dynamically downscaling climate projections from global climate models (GCMs) for use in impacts and adaptation research has become a common practice in recent years. In this study, the CSIRO Mk3.5 GCM is downscaled using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) regional climate model (RCM) to medium (50 km) and high (10 km) resolution over southeast Australia. The influence of model resolution on the present-day (1985 to 2009) modelled regional climate and projected future (2075 to 2099) changes are examined for both mean climate and extreme precipitation characteristics. Increasing model resolution tended to improve the simulation of present day climate, with larger improvements in areas affected by mountains and coastlines. Examination of circumstances under which increasing the resolution decreased performance revealed an error in the GCM circulation, the effects of which had been masked by the coarse GCM topography. Resolution modifications to projected changes were largest in regions with strong topographic and coastline influences, and can be large enough to change the sign of the climate change projected by the GCM. Known physical mechanisms for these changes included orographic uplift and low-level blocking of air-masses caused by mountains. In terms of precipitation extremes, the GCM projects increases in extremes even when the projected change in the mean was a decrease: but this was not always true for the higher resolution models. Thus, while the higher resolution RCM climate projections often concur with the GCM projections, there are times and places where they differ significantly due to their better representation of physical processes. It should also be noted that the model resolution can modify precipitation characteristics beyond just its mean value.
A micromechanical model for effective conductivity in granular electrode structures
Ott, Julia; Völker, Benjamin; Gan, Yixiang; McMeeking, Robert M.; Kamlah, Marc
2013-10-01
Optimization of composition and microstructure is important to enhance performance of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) and lithium-ion batteries (LIB). For this, the porous electrode structures of both SOFC and LIB are modeled as a binary mixture of electronic and ionic conducting particles to estimate effective transport properties. Particle packings of 10 000 spherical, binary sized and randomly positioned particles are created numerically and densified considering the different manufacturing processes in SOFC and LIB: the sintering of SOFC electrodes is approximated geometrically, whereas the calendering process and volume change due to intercalation in LIB are modeled physically by a discrete element approach. A combination of a tracking algorithm and a resistor network approach is developed to predict the connectivity and effective conductivity for the various densified structures. For SOFC, a systematic study of the influence of morphology on connectivity and conductivity is performed on a large number of assemblies with different compositions and particle size ratios between 1 and 10. In comparison to percolation theory, an enlarged percolation area is found, especially for large size ratios. It is shown that in contrast to former studies the percolation threshold correlates to varying coordination numbers. The effective conductivity shows not only an increase with volume fraction as expected but also with size ratio. For LIB, a general increase of conductivity during the intercalation process was observed in correlation with increasing contact forces. The positive influence of calendering on the percolation threshold and the effective conductivity of carbon black is shown. The anisotropy caused by the calendering process does not influence the carbon black phase.
Resistance to genetic insect control: Modelling the effects of space.
Watkinson-Powell, Benjamin; Alphey, Nina
2017-01-21
Genetic insect control, such as self-limiting RIDL(2) (Release of Insects Carrying a Dominant Lethal) technology, is a development of the sterile insect technique which is proposed to suppress wild populations of a number of major agricultural and public health insect pests. This is achieved by mass rearing and releasing male insects that are homozygous for a repressible dominant lethal genetic construct, which causes death in progeny when inherited. The released genetically engineered ('GE') insects compete for mates with wild individuals, resulting in population suppression. A previous study modelled the evolution of a hypothetical resistance to the lethal construct using a frequency-dependent population genetic and population dynamic approach. This found that proliferation of resistance is possible but can be diluted by the introgression of susceptible alleles from the released homozygous-susceptible GE males. We develop this approach within a spatial context by modelling the spread of a lethal construct and resistance trait, and the effect on population control, in a two deme metapopulation, with GE release in one deme. Results show that spatial effects can drive an increased or decreased evolution of resistance in both the target and non-target demes, depending on the effectiveness and associated costs of the resistant trait, and on the rate of dispersal. A recurrent theme is the potential for the non-target deme to act as a source of resistant or susceptible alleles for the target deme through dispersal. This can in turn have a major impact on the effectiveness of insect population control. Copyright Â© 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Antidepressant Effect of Thymoquinone in Animal Models of Depression.
Aquib, M; Najmi, A K; Akhtar, M
2015-09-01
The present study was carried out to determine the role of thymoquinone (TQ) in modulating the levels of neurotransmitter and reducing the oxidative stress in animal models of depression. Mice were divided into 5 groups, each group had 6 animals. TQ (20 mg/kg) in corn oil and fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) in normal saline were administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) half an hour before performing behavioural tests. Modified forced swim test (MFST) and tail suspension test (TST) were used to assess the antidepressant effect in mice. Animals were sacrificed and their brains were removed for biochemical estimation after performing behavioural tests. TQ treatment showed increased swimming, climbing and decreased immobility times in MFST and TST. Combination of TQ with fluoxetine in MFST and TST showed potentiating effect in the present study. A significant elevation of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) levels was observed following TQ administration in the behavioural models studied. MFST and TST reduced glutathione and elevated TBARS levels in mice. Pre-treatment of TQ restored glutathione and decreased TBARS levels. TQ combination with fluoxetine also showed reduction of TBARS and increased glutathione levels. TQ demonstrated antidepressant effects in MFST and TST respectively in the present study. It further demonstrated antioxidant effects by reducing thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and increasing reduced glutathione (GSH) levels. Although our results are preliminary, further investigations may be required however, based on afore mentioned results, it may be suggested that TQ could be a potential candidate for the management of depression. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Spectral amplification models for response spectrum addressing the directivity effect
Moghimi, Saed; Akkar, Sinan
2017-04-01
Ground motions with forward directivity effects are known with their significantly large spectral ordinates in medium-to-long periods. The large spectral ordinates stem from the impulsive characteristics of the forward directivity ground motions. The quantification of these spectral amplifications requires the identification of major seismological parameters that play a role in their generation. After running a suite of probabilistic seismic hazard analysis, Moghimi and Akkar (2016) have shown that fault slip rate, fault characteristic magnitude, fault-site geometry as well as mean annual exceedance rate are important parameters that determine the level of spectral amplification due to directivity. These parameters are considered to develop two separate spectral amplification equations in this study. The proposed equations rely on Shahi and Baker (SHB11; 2011) and Chiou and Spudich (CHS13; Spudic et al., 2013) narrow-band forward directivity models. The presented equations only focus on the estimation of maximum spectral amplifications that occur at the ends of the fault segments. This way we eliminate the fault-site parameter in our equations for simplification. The proposed equations show different trends due to differences in the narrow-band directivity models of SHB11 and CHS13. The equations given in this study can form bases for describing forward directivity effects in seismic design codes. REFERENCES Shahi. S., Baker, J.W. (2011), "An Empirically Calibrated Framework for Including the Effects of Near-Fault Directivity in Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis", Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 101(2): 742-755. Spudich, P., Watson-Lamprey, J., Somerville, P., Bayless, J., Shahi, S. K., Baker, J. W., Rowshandel, B., and Chiou, B. (2013), "Final Report of the NGA-West2 Directivity Working Group", PEER Report 2013/09. Moghimi. S., Akkar, S. (2016), "Implications of Forward Directivity Effects on Design Ground Motions", Seismological Society of
Modelling Sensor and Target effects on LiDAR Waveforms
Rosette, J.; North, P. R.; Rubio, J.; Cook, B. D.; Suárez, J.
2010-12-01
The aim of this research is to explore the influence of sensor characteristics and interactions with vegetation and terrain properties on the estimation of vegetation parameters from LiDAR waveforms. This is carried out using waveform simulations produced by the FLIGHT radiative transfer model which is based on Monte Carlo simulation of photon transport (North, 1996; North et al., 2010). The opportunities for vegetation analysis that are offered by LiDAR modelling are also demonstrated by other authors e.g. Sun and Ranson, 2000; Ni-Meister et al., 2001. Simulations from the FLIGHT model were driven using reflectance and transmittance properties collected from the Howland Research Forest, Maine, USA in 2003 together with a tree list for a 200m x 150m area. This was generated using field measurements of location, species and diameter at breast height. Tree height and crown dimensions of individual trees were calculated using relationships established with a competition index determined for this site. Waveforms obtained by the Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS) were used as validation of simulations. This provided a base from which factors such as slope, laser incidence angle and pulse width could be varied. This has enabled the effect of instrument design and laser interactions with different surface characteristics to be tested. As such, waveform simulation is relevant for the development of future satellite LiDAR sensors, such as NASA’s forthcoming DESDynI mission (NASA, 2010), which aim to improve capabilities of vegetation parameter estimation. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We would like to thank scientists at the Biospheric Sciences Branch of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, in particular to Jon Ranson and Bryan Blair. This work forms part of research funded by the NASA DESDynI project and the UK Natural Environment Research Council (NE/F021437/1). REFERENCES NASA, 2010, DESDynI: Deformation, Ecosystem Structure and Dynamics of Ice. http
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ting Li
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Modeling Light propagation within human head to deduce spatial sensitivity distribution (SSD is important for Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS/imaging (NIRI and diffuse correlation tomography. Lots of head models have been used on this issue, including layered head model, artificial simplified head model, MRI slices described head model, and visible human head model. Hereinto, visible Chinese human (VCH head model is considered to be a most faithful presentation of anatomical structure, and has been highlighted to be employed in modeling light propagation. However, it is not practical for all researchers to use VCH head models and actually increasing number of people are using magnet resonance imaging (MRI head models. Here, all the above head models were simulated and compared, and we focused on the effect of using different head models on predictions of SSD. Our results were in line with the previous reports on the effect of cerebral cortex folding geometry. Moreover, the influence on SSD increases with the fidelity of head models. And surprisingly, the SSD percentages in scalp and gray matter (region of interest in MRI head model were found to be 80% and 125% higher than in VCH head model. MRI head models induced nonignorable discrepancy in SSD estimation when compared with VCH head model. This study, as we believe, is the first to focus on comparison among full serials of head model on estimating SSD, and provided quantitative evidence for MRI head model users to calibrate their SSD estimation.
Neuroprotective Effects of Liraglutide for Stroke Model of Rats
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kenichiro Sato
2013-10-01
Full Text Available The number of diabetes mellitus (DM patients is increasing, and stroke is deeply associated with DM. Recently, neuroprotective effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 are reported. In this study, we explored whether liraglutide, a GLP-1 analogue exerts therapeutic effects on a rat stroke model. Wistar rats received occlusion of the middle cerebral artery for 90 min. At one hour after reperfusion, liraglutide or saline was administered intraperitoneally. Modified Bederson’s test was performed at 1 and 24 h and, subsequently, rats were euthanized for histological investigation. Peripheral blood was obtained for measurement of blood glucose level and evaluation of oxidative stress. Brain tissues were collected to evaluate the level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. The behavioral scores of liraglutide-treated rats were significantly better than those of control rats. Infarct volumes of liraglutide-treated rats at were reduced, compared with those of control rats. The level of derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolite was lower in liraglutide-treated rats. VEGF level of liraglutide-treated rats in the cortex, but not in the striatum significantly increased, compared to that of control rats. In conclusion, this is the first study to demonstrate neuroprotective effects of liraglutide on cerebral ischemia through anti-oxidative effects and VEGF upregulation.
Negative isotope effect in Hubbard-Holstein model
Wang, Da
In phonon mediated conventional s-wave superconductors, higher-frequency phonon (or smaller atomic mass) leads to a higher superconducting transition temperature, known as the isotope effect. However, in correlated systems, various competing electronic order (such as spin-density-wave, charge-density-wave, and unconventional superconductivity) arises and the effect of electron-phonon coupling on these orders is a long-standing problem. Using the functional renormalization group, here we investigated the interplay between the electron correlation and electron-phonon coupling in the Hubbard-Holstein model on a square lattice. At half-filling, we found spin-density-wave and charge-density-wave phases and the transition between them, while no superconducting phase arises. Upon finite doping, d-wave/s-wave superconductivity emerges in proximity to the spin-density-wave/charge-density-wave phase. Surprisingly, lower-frequency Holstein phonons are either less destructive or even beneficial to the various phases, resulting in a negative isotope effect. For the superconducting phases, such an effect is apparently beyond the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory.
An approach to effects-based modeling for wargaming
Mckeever, William E., Jr.; Gilmour, Duane A.; Hillman, Robert G.
2004-08-01
Effects-based operations (EBO) are proving to be a vital part of current concepts of operations in military missions and consequently need to be an integral part of current generation wargames. EBO focuses on the producing effects from military activities, as opposed to the direct result of attacking targets. Alternatively, the emphasis of conventional wargames is focused on attrition-based modeling and is incapable of assessing effects and their contribution to the overall mission objectives. For wargames to be effective, they must allow users to evaluate multiple ways to accomplish the same goal with a combination of direct, indirect and cascading events (actions). The focus of this paper is to describe the development of a methodology for the implementation of EBO concepts into modern wargames. The design approach was to develop a generic methodology and demonstrate how simulation objects can incorporate EBO capabilities. The authors will illustrate the application of the methodology utilizing an EBO scenario example, which was developed to test the system.
Situational effects of the school factors included in the dynamic model of educational effectiveness
Creerners, Bert; Kyriakides, Leonidas
We present results of a longitudinal study in which 50 schools, 113 classes and 2,542 Cypriot primary students participated. We tested the validity of the dynamic model of educational effectiveness and especially its assumption that the impact of school factors depends on the current situation of
Isac, Maria Magdalena; Maslowski, Ralf; van der Werf, Greetje
2011-01-01
In this study, a comprehensive educational effectiveness model is tested in relation to student's civic knowledge. Multilevel analysis was applied on the dataset of the IEA Civic Education Study (CIVED; Torney-Purta, Lehmann, Oswald, & Schulz, 2001), which was conducted among junior secondary-school students (age 14), their schools, and their…
Omar, Zoharah; Ahmad, Aminah
2014-01-01
Following the classic systems model of inputs, processes, and outputs, this study examined the influence of three input factors, team climate, work overload, and team leadership, on research project team effectiveness as measured by publication productivity, team member satisfaction, and job frustration. This study also examined the mediating…
Effective models of inflation from a nonlocal framework
Koshelev, Alexey S.; Kumar, K. Sravan; Moniz, Paulo Vargas
2017-11-01
The dilaton is a possible inflaton candidate following recent CMB data allowing a nonminimal coupling to the Ricci curvature scalar in the early Universe. In this paper, we introduce an approach that has seldom been used in the literature, namely dilaton inflation with non-local features. More concretely, employing non-local features expressed in [J. High Energy Phys. 04 (2007) 029, 10.1088/1126-6708/2007/04/029], we study quadratic variations around a de Sitter geometry of an effective action with a nonlocal dilaton. The nonlocality refers to an infinite derivative kinetic term involving the operator F (□) . Algebraic roots of the characteristic equation F (z )=0 play a crucial role in determining the properties of the theory. We subsequently study the cases when F (□) has one real root and one complex root, from which we retrieve two concrete effective models of inflation. In the first case we retrieve a class of single field inflations with universal prediction of ns˜0.967 with any value of the tensor to scalar ratio r equation. The second case involves a new class of two field conformally invariant models with a peculiar quadratic cross-product of scalar fields. In this latter case, we obtain Starobinsky-like inflation through a spontaneously broken conformal invariance. Furthermore, an uplifted minimum of the potential, which accounts for the vacuum energy after inflation is produced naturally through this mechanism intrinsically within our approach.
Hybrid model of the radiation-induced bystander effect
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Braga, Viviane V.B.; Faria, Fernando Pereira de; Grynberg, Suely Epsztein, E-mail: vitoriabraga06@gmail.com, E-mail: fernandopereirabh@gmail.com, E-mail: seg@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)
2013-07-01
The radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) refer to biological alterations in non-irradiated cells that occupy the same medium (culture or tissue) of irradiated cells. The biochemical mechanisms of the RIBE are not completely elucidated. However, several experiments indicate its existence. The objective of this work is to quantify the effect via stochastic and deterministic approaches. The hypotheses of the model are: a) one non-irradiated healthy cell interacts with signals that propagate through the medium. These signals are released by irradiated cells. At the time of interaction cell-signal, the cell can become damaged and signaling or damage and not signaling; b) Both types of damage cells repair with certain rate becoming health cells; c) The diffusion of signals obey the discrete diffusion equation with decay in two dimensions. d) The signal concentration released by irradiated cells depends on the dose in the low dose range (< 0.3 Gy) and saturates for higher dose values. As expected, the temporal analysis of the model as a function of the repair rate shows that the survival fraction decreases as the repair rate is reduced. The analysis of the extent of damage triggered by a signal concentration released by a single irradiated cell at time zero show that the damage grows with the maximum simulation time. The results show good agreement with the experimental data. The stochastic and deterministic methods used are in qualitative agreement, as expected. (author)
Modeling thermal effects in braking systems of railway vehicles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Milošević Miloš S.
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The modeling of thermal effects has become increasingly important in product design in different transport means, road vehicles, airplanes, railway vehicles, and so forth. The thermal analysis is a very important stage in the study of braking systems, especially of railway vehicles, where it is necessary to brake huge masses, because the thermal load of a braked railway wheel prevails compared to other types of loads. In the braking phase, kinetic energy transforms into thermal energy resulting in intense heating and high temperature states of railway wheels. Thus induced thermal loads determine thermomechanical behavior of the structure of railway wheels. In cases of thermal overloads, which mainly occur as a result of long-term braking on down-grade railroads, the generation of stresses and deformations occurs, whose consequences are the appearance of cracks on the rim of a wheel and the final total wheel defect. The importance to precisely determine the temperature distribution caused by the transfer process of the heat generated during braking due to the friction on contact surfaces of the braking system makes it a challenging research task. Therefore, the thermal analysis of a block-braked solid railway wheel of a 444 class locomotive of the national railway operator Serbian Railways is processed in detail in this paper, using analytical and numerical modeling of thermal effects during long-term braking for maintaining a constant speed on a down-grade railroad.
Effectiveness and safety of iodopovidone in an experimental pleurodesis model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lisete R. Teixeira
2013-04-01
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Chemical pleurodesis is an important therapeutic tool to control recurrent malignant pleural effusion. Among the various sclerosing agents, iodopovidone is considered effective and safe. However, in a recent study, ocular changes were described after iodopovidone was used in recurrent pneumothorax. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and morbidity of iodopovidone pleurodesis in an experimental model. METHODS: New Zealand rabbits were submitted to intrapleural injection of iodopovidone at concentrations of 2%, 4% and 10%. Biochemical (lactic dehydrogenase, proteins, triiodothyronine, free thyroxine, urea and creatinine and immunological (Interleukin-8 [IL-8], VEGF and TGFβ parameters were measured in the pleural fluid and blood. After 1, 3, 7, 14 and 28 days, groups of animals were euthanized, and macro- (pleura and microscopic (pleura and retina analyses were performed. RESULTS: An early pleural inflammatory response with low systemic repercussion was observed without corresponding changes in thyroid or renal function. The higher concentrations (4% and 10% correlated with greater initial exudation, and maximum pleural thickening was observed after 28 days. No changes were observed in the retinal pigment epithelium of the rabbits. CONCLUSION: Iodopovidone is considered to be an effective and safe sclerosing agent in this animal model. However, its efficacy, tolerance and safety in humans should be further evaluated.
Generalized Magnetic Field Effects in Burgers' Nanofluid Model.
Rashidi, M M; Yang, Z; Awais, Muhammad; Nawaz, Maria; Hayat, Tasawar
2017-01-01
Analysis has been conducted to present the generalized magnetic field effects on the flow of a Burgers' nanofluid over an inclined wall. Mathematical modelling for hydro-magnetics reveals that the term "[Formula: see text]" is for the Newtonian model whereas the generalized magnetic field term (as mentioned in Eq 4) is for the Burgers' model which is incorporated in the current analysis to get the real insight of the problem for hydro-magnetics. Brownian motion and thermophoresis phenomenon are presented to analyze the nanofluidics for the non-Newtonian fluid. Mathematical analysis is completed in the presence of non-uniform heat generation/absorption. The constructed set of partial differential system is converted into coupled nonlinear ordinary differential system by employing the suitable transformations. Homotopy approach is employed to construct the analytical solutions which are shown graphically for sundr5y parameters including Deborah numbers, magnetic field, thermophoresis, Brownian motion and non-uniform heat generation/absorption. A comparative study is also presented showing the comparison of present results with an already published data.
Inferring modulators of genetic interactions with epistatic nested effects models
Fröhlich, Holger; Markowetz, Florian
2017-01-01
Maps of genetic interactions can dissect functional redundancies in cellular networks. Gene expression profiles as high-dimensional molecular readouts of combinatorial perturbations provide a detailed view of genetic interactions, but can be hard to interpret if different gene sets respond in different ways (called mixed epistasis). Here we test the hypothesis that mixed epistasis between a gene pair can be explained by the action of a third gene that modulates the interaction. We have extended the framework of Nested Effects Models (NEMs), a type of graphical model specifically tailored to analyze high-dimensional gene perturbation data, to incorporate logical functions that describe interactions between regulators on downstream genes and proteins. We benchmark our approach in the controlled setting of a simulation study and show high accuracy in inferring the correct model. In an application to data from deletion mutants of kinases and phosphatases in S. cerevisiae we show that epistatic NEMs can point to modulators of genetic interactions. Our approach is implemented in the R-package ‘epiNEM’ available from https://github.com/cbg-ethz/epiNEM and https://bioconductor.org/packages/epiNEM/. PMID:28406896
Inferring modulators of genetic interactions with epistatic nested effects models.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Martin Pirkl
2017-04-01
Full Text Available Maps of genetic interactions can dissect functional redundancies in cellular networks. Gene expression profiles as high-dimensional molecular readouts of combinatorial perturbations provide a detailed view of genetic interactions, but can be hard to interpret if different gene sets respond in different ways (called mixed epistasis. Here we test the hypothesis that mixed epistasis between a gene pair can be explained by the action of a third gene that modulates the interaction. We have extended the framework of Nested Effects Models (NEMs, a type of graphical model specifically tailored to analyze high-dimensional gene perturbation data, to incorporate logical functions that describe interactions between regulators on downstream genes and proteins. We benchmark our approach in the controlled setting of a simulation study and show high accuracy in inferring the correct model. In an application to data from deletion mutants of kinases and phosphatases in S. cerevisiae we show that epistatic NEMs can point to modulators of genetic interactions. Our approach is implemented in the R-package 'epiNEM' available from https://github.com/cbg-ethz/epiNEM and https://bioconductor.org/packages/epiNEM/.
Estimating a marriage matching model with spillover effects.
Choo, Eugene; Siow, Aloysius
2006-08-01
We use marriage matching functions to study how marital patterns change when population supplies change. Specifically, we use a behavioral marriage matching function with spillover effects to rationalize marriage and cohabitation behavior in contemporary Canada. The model can estimate a couple's systematic gains to marriage and cohabitation relative to remaining single. These gains are invariant to changes in population supplies. Instead, changes in population supplies redistribute these gains between a couple. Although the model is behavioral, it is nonparametric. It can fit any observed cross-sectional marriage matching distribution. We use the estimated model to quantify the impacts of gender differences in mortality rates and the baby boom on observed marital behavior in Canada. The higher mortality rate of men makes men scarcer than women. We show that the scarceness of men modestly reduced the welfare of women and increased the welfare of men in the marriage market. On the other hand, the baby boom increased older men's net gains to entering the marriage market and lowered middle-aged women's net gains.
Creep effect modeling for a core free tubular actuator
Sarban, Rahimullah; Oubaek, Jakob; Jones, Richard W.
2009-03-01
Of the range of dielectric EAP-based actuators that currently exist those having a cylindrical configuration are perhaps the most important. Up until now the most popular tubular actuator designs have exploited the exceptional pre-strain performance of the acrylics VHB 2910 and VHB 2905. Unfortunately pre-stained acrylic film rolled tubular actuators with a spring core experience problems concerning reliability and life expectancy. Partly because of these problems research is beginning to be directed towards the design, fabrication and characterisation of core free tubular actuators. This work reviews the Voltage-Strain modeling of core free rolled actuators that are constructed using a dielectric electro active polymer film that employs smart electrode technology. Position response tests, whereby a step input of 1500 V was applied to each actuator, confirmed that time dependent strain influences the Voltage-Strain behaviour of the actuators. To represent the time dependent strain behaviour a creep effect model was combined with Pelrine's electromechanical model to provide a more accurate representation of the Voltage-Strain characteristics of the actuators.
Modeling the mitigation effect of coastal forests on tsunami
Kh'ng, Xin Yi; Teh, Su Yean; Koh, Hock Lye
2017-08-01
As we have learned from the 26 Dec 2004 mega Andaman tsunami that killed 250, 000 lives worldwide, tsunami is a devastating natural disaster that can cause severe impacts including immense loss of human lives and extensive destruction of properties. The wave energy can be dissipated by the presence of coastal mangrove forests, which provide some degree of protection against tsunami waves. On the other hand, costly artificial structures such as reinforced walls can substantially diminish the aesthetic value and may cause environmental problems. To quantify the effectiveness of coastal forests in mitigating tsunami waves, an in-house 2-D model TUNA-RP is developed and used to quantify the reduction in wave heights and velocities due to the presence of coastal forests. The degree of reduction varies significantly depending on forest flow-resistant properties such as vegetation characteristics, forest density and forest width. The ability of coastal forest in reducing tsunami wave heights along the west coast of Penang Island is quantified by means of model simulations. Comparison between measured tsunami wave heights for the 2004 Andaman tsunami and 2-D TUNA-RP model simulated values demonstrated good agreement.
Estimating safety effects of pavement management factors utilizing Bayesian random effect models.
Jiang, Ximiao; Huang, Baoshan; Zaretzki, Russell L; Richards, Stephen; Yan, Xuedong
2013-01-01
Previous studies of pavement management factors that relate to the occurrence of traffic-related crashes are rare. Traditional research has mostly employed summary statistics of bidirectional pavement quality measurements in extended longitudinal road segments over a long time period, which may cause a loss of important information and result in biased parameter estimates. The research presented in this article focuses on crash risk of roadways with overall fair to good pavement quality. Real-time and location-specific data were employed to estimate the effects of pavement management factors on the occurrence of crashes. This research is based on the crash data and corresponding pavement quality data for the Tennessee state route highways from 2004 to 2009. The potential temporal and spatial correlations among observations caused by unobserved factors were considered. Overall 6 models were built accounting for no correlation, temporal correlation only, and both the temporal and spatial correlations. These models included Poisson, negative binomial (NB), one random effect Poisson and negative binomial (OREP, ORENB), and two random effect Poisson and negative binomial (TREP, TRENB) models. The Bayesian method was employed to construct these models. The inference is based on the posterior distribution from the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation. These models were compared using the deviance information criterion. Analysis of the posterior distribution of parameter coefficients indicates that the pavement management factors indexed by Present Serviceability Index (PSI) and Pavement Distress Index (PDI) had significant impacts on the occurrence of crashes, whereas the variable rutting depth was not significant. Among other factors, lane width, median width, type of terrain, and posted speed limit were significant in affecting crash frequency. The findings of this study indicate that a reduction in pavement roughness would reduce the likelihood of traffic
Modeling Compressibility Effects in High-Speed Turbulent Flows
Sarkar, S.
2004-01-01
Man has strived to make objects fly faster, first from subsonic to supersonic and then to hypersonic speeds. Spacecraft and high-speed missiles routinely fly at hypersonic Mach numbers, M greater than 5. In defense applications, aircraft reach hypersonic speeds at high altitude and so may civilian aircraft in the future. Hypersonic flight, while presenting opportunities, has formidable challenges that have spurred vigorous research and development, mainly by NASA and the Air Force in the USA. Although NASP, the premier hypersonic concept of the eighties and early nineties, did not lead to flight demonstration, much basic research and technology development was possible. There is renewed interest in supersonic and hypersonic flight with the HyTech program of the Air Force and the Hyper-X program at NASA being examples of current thrusts in the field. At high-subsonic to supersonic speeds, fluid compressibility becomes increasingly important in the turbulent boundary layers and shear layers associated with the flow around aerospace vehicles. Changes in thermodynamic variables: density, temperature and pressure, interact strongly with the underlying vortical, turbulent flow. The ensuing changes to the flow may be qualitative such as shocks which have no incompressible counterpart, or quantitative such as the reduction of skin friction with Mach number, large heat transfer rates due to viscous heating, and the dramatic reduction of fuel/oxidant mixing at high convective Mach number. The peculiarities of compressible turbulence, so-called compressibility effects, have been reviewed by Fernholz and Finley. Predictions of aerodynamic performance in high-speed applications require accurate computational modeling of these "compressibility effects" on turbulence. During the course of the project we have made fundamental advances in modeling the pressure-strain correlation and developed a code to evaluate alternate turbulence models in the compressible shear layer.
Effect of (social) media on the political figure fever model: Jokowi-fever model
Yong, Benny; Samat, Nor Azah
2016-02-01
In recent years, political figures begin to utilize social media as one of alternative to engage in communication with their supporters. Publics referred to Jokowi, one of the candidates in Indonesia presidential election in 2014, as the first politician in Indonesia to truly understand the power of social media. Social media is very important in shaping public opinion. In this paper, effect of social media on the Jokowi-fever model in a closed population will be discussed. Supporter population is divided into three class sub-population, i.e susceptible supporters, Jokowi infected supporters, and recovered supporters. For case no positive media, there are two equilibrium points; the Jokowi-fever free equilibrium point in which it locally stable if basic reproductive ratio less than one and the Jokowi-fever endemic equilibrium point in which it locally stable if basic reproductive ratio greater than one. For case no negative media, there is only the Jokowi-fever endemic equilibrium point in which it locally stable if the condition is satisfied. Generally, for case positive media proportion is positive, there is no Jokowi-fever free equilibrium point. The numerical result shows that social media gives significantly effect on Jokowi-fever model, a sharp increase or a sharp decrease in the number of Jokowi infected supporters. It is also shown that the boredom rate is one of the sensitive parameters in the Jokowi-fever model; it affects the number of Jokowi infected supporters.
An Effective Parameter Screening Strategy for High Dimensional Watershed Models
Khare, Y. P.; Martinez, C. J.; Munoz-Carpena, R.
2014-12-01
Watershed simulation models can assess the impacts of natural and anthropogenic disturbances on natural systems. These models have become important tools for tackling a range of water resources problems through their implementation in the formulation and evaluation of Best Management Practices, Total Maximum Daily Loads, and Basin Management Action Plans. For accurate applications of watershed models they need to be thoroughly evaluated through global uncertainty and sensitivity analyses (UA/SA). However, due to the high dimensionality of these models such evaluation becomes extremely time- and resource-consuming. Parameter screening, the qualitative separation of important parameters, has been suggested as an essential step before applying rigorous evaluation techniques such as the Sobol' and Fourier Amplitude Sensitivity Test (FAST) methods in the UA/SA framework. The method of elementary effects (EE) (Morris, 1991) is one of the most widely used screening methodologies. Some of the common parameter sampling strategies for EE, e.g. Optimized Trajectories [OT] (Campolongo et al., 2007) and Modified Optimized Trajectories [MOT] (Ruano et al., 2012), suffer from inconsistencies in the generated parameter distributions, infeasible sample generation time, etc. In this work, we have formulated a new parameter sampling strategy - Sampling for Uniformity (SU) - for parameter screening which is based on the principles of the uniformity of the generated parameter distributions and the spread of the parameter sample. A rigorous multi-criteria evaluation (time, distribution, spread and screening efficiency) of OT, MOT, and SU indicated that SU is superior to other sampling strategies. Comparison of the EE-based parameter importance rankings with those of Sobol' helped to quantify the qualitativeness of the EE parameter screening approach, reinforcing the fact that one should use EE only to reduce the resource burden required by FAST/Sobol' analyses but not to replace it.
Modelling salinity inhibition effects during biodegradation of perchlorate.
Park, C; Marchand, E A
2006-07-01
To determine the mathematical kinetic rates and mechanisms of acclimated perchlorate (ClO)-reducing microbial cultures by incorporating a term to relate the inhibitory effect of high salinity during biological reduction of concentrated perchlorate solutions. Salt toxicity associated with the biodegradation of concentrated perchlorate (200, 500, 1100, 1700 and 2400 mg l(-1) as ClO) was investigated using two microbial cultures isolated from a domestic wastewater treatment plant [return activated sludge (RAS) and anaerobic digester sludge (ADS)]. Experiments were performed in wastewaters containing various sodium chloride concentrations, ranging from 0% to 4.0% (w/v) NaCl (ionic strength: 0.14-0.82 mol l(-1), total dissolved solids: 5.3-42.6 g l(-1)) at near-neutral values of pH (6.7-7.8). Perchlorate biodegradation was stimulated through stepwise acclimation to high salinity. The ADS culture was capable of reducing perchlorate at salinities up to 4% NaCl, while the RAS culture exhibited complete inhibition of perchlorate degradation at 4% NaCl, probably resulting from either a toxic effect or enzyme inactivation of the perchlorate-reducing microbes. Further, a kinetic growth model was developed based on experimental data in order to express an inhibition function to relate specific growth rate and salinity. Biological reduction of concentrated perchlorate wastewaters using either acclimated RAS or ADS cultures is feasible up to 3% or 4% NaCl, respectively. In addition, the kinetic model including a salinity inhibition term should be effective in many practical applications such as improving reactor design and management, furthering the understanding of high salinity inhibition, and enhancing bioremediation under high salinity loading conditions. Applications of these findings in water treatment practice where ion exchange or membrane technologies are used to remove perchlorate from water can have the potential to increase the overall attractiveness of these
Estimating the Effects of Parental Divorce and Death With Fixed Effects Models
Amato, Paul R.; Anthony, Christopher J.
2014-01-01
The authors used child fixed effects models to estimate the effects of parental divorce and death on a variety of outcomes using 2 large national data sets: (a) the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Cohort (kindergarten through the 5th grade) and (b) the National Educational Longitudinal Study (8th grade to the senior year of high school). In both data sets, divorce and death were associated with multiple negative outcomes among children. Although evidence for a causal effect of divorce on children was reasonably strong, effect sizes were small in magnitude. A second analysis revealed a substantial degree of variability in children’s outcomes following parental divorce, with some children declining, others improving, and most not changing at all. The estimated effects of divorce appeared to be strongest among children with the highest propensity to experience parental divorce. PMID:24659827
Estimating the Effects of Parental Divorce and Death With Fixed Effects Models.
Amato, Paul R; Anthony, Christopher J
2014-04-01
The authors used child fixed effects models to estimate the effects of parental divorce and death on a variety of outcomes using 2 large national data sets: (a) the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Cohort (kindergarten through the 5th grade) and (b) the National Educational Longitudinal Study (8th grade to the senior year of high school). In both data sets, divorce and death were associated with multiple negative outcomes among children. Although evidence for a causal effect of divorce on children was reasonably strong, effect sizes were small in magnitude. A second analysis revealed a substantial degree of variability in children's outcomes following parental divorce, with some children declining, others improving, and most not changing at all. The estimated effects of divorce appeared to be strongest among children with the highest propensity to experience parental divorce.
Modelling Blast Effects on a Reinforced Concrete Bridge
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Markellos Andreou
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The detailed investigation of blast phenomena and their catastrophic effects on existing structures are the main objectives of the present paper. It is well known that blast phenomena may be characterized by significant complexity, often involving complicated wave propagation effects as well as distinguishable material behaviors. Considering the above and in an attempt to provide a simplified modelling approach for the simulation of blast effects, a novel procedure is presented herein based on well-established methodologies and common engineering practices. In the above framework, firstly, the “predominant” deformation shape of the structure is estimated based on elastic finite element simulations under blast loads and then the structural response of the system is evaluated as a result of common computational beam-element tools such as displacement-based pushover analysis. The proposed methodology provides an immediate first estimation of the structural behavior under blast loads, based on familiar engineering procedures. A two-span reinforced concrete bridge was thoroughly investigated and the results provide insightful information regarding the damage patterns and localization.
Effects of drift angle on model ship flow
Longo, J.; Stern, F.
The effects of drift angle on model ship flow are investigated through towing tank tests for the Series 60 CB=0.6 cargo/container model ship. Resistance, side force, drift moment, sinkage, trim, and heel data are procured for a range of drift angles β and Froude numbers (Fr) and the model free condition. Detailed free-surface and mean velocity and pressure flow maps are procured for high and low Fr=0.316 and 0.16 and β=5° and 10° (free surface) and β=10° (mean velocity and pressure) for the model fixed condition (i.e. fixed with zero sinkage, trim, and heel). Comparison of results at high and low Fr and previous data for β=0° enables identification of important free-surface and drift effects. Geometry, conditions, data, and uncertainty analysis are documented in sufficient detail so as to be useful as a benchmark for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) validation. The resistance increases linearly with β with same slope for all Fr, whereas the increases in the side force, drift moment, sinkage, trim, and heel with β are quadratic. The wave profile is only affected near the bow, i.e. the bow wave amplitude increases/decreases on the windward/leeward sides, whereas the wave elevations are affected throughout the entire wave field. However, the wave envelope angle on both sides is nearly the same as β=0°, i.e. the near-field wave pattern rotates with the hull and remains within a similar wave envelope as β=0°. The wave amplitudes are significantly increased/decreased on the windward/leeward sides. The wake region is also asymmetric with larger wedge angle on the leeward side. The boundary layer and wake are dominated by the hull vortex system consisting of fore body keel, bilge, and wave-breaking vortices and after body bilge and counter-rotating vortices. The occurrence of a wave-breaking vortex for breaking bow waves has not been previously documented in the literature. The trends for the maximum vorticity, circulation, minimum axial velocity, and
Haem, Elham; Harling, Kajsa; Ayatollahi, Seyyed Mohammad Taghi; Zare, Najaf; Karlsson, Mats O
2017-02-01
One important aim in population pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics is identification and quantification of the relationships between the parameters and covariates. Lasso has been suggested as a technique for simultaneous estimation and covariate selection. In linear regression, it has been shown that Lasso possesses no oracle properties, which means it asymptotically performs as though the true underlying model was given in advance. Adaptive Lasso (ALasso) with appropriate initial weights is claimed to possess oracle properties; however, it can lead to poor predictive performance when there is multicollinearity between covariates. This simulation study implemented a new version of ALasso, called adjusted ALasso (AALasso), to take into account the ratio of the standard error of the maximum likelihood (ML) estimator to the ML coefficient as the initial weight in ALasso to deal with multicollinearity in non-linear mixed-effect models. The performance of AALasso was compared with that of ALasso and Lasso. PK data was simulated in four set-ups from a one-compartment bolus input model. Covariates were created by sampling from a multivariate standard normal distribution with no, low (0.2), moderate (0.5) or high (0.7) correlation. The true covariates influenced only clearance at different magnitudes. AALasso, ALasso and Lasso were compared in terms of mean absolute prediction error and error of the estimated covariate coefficient. The results show that AALasso performed better in small data sets, even in those in which a high correlation existed between covariates. This makes AALasso a promising method for covariate selection in nonlinear mixed-effect models.
Modeling the effect of carbon-dioxide gas on cavitation.
Gireesan, Subash; Pandit, Aniruddha B
2017-01-01
One of the controlling parameters of the physical and chemical effects produced by acoustic cavitation is the use of dissolved gas as it affects the temperature and pressure obtained at cavity collapse and, the reactions happening in a bubble. It also enhances the nucleation rates by decreasing the threshold required for cavitation by providing dissolved gas nuclei. The present study looks into the effect of carbon dioxide gas on cavitation using a diffusion limited model. The model couples the dynamics of a single bubble with 11 chemical reactions involving 8 reactive species. The effect of mass transport (diffusion of water vapor and radical species) and heat transport (by conduction) is included in the model. Simulations were carried out for different initial compositions of an Ar-CO2- bubble and the results were compared with an experimental study reported in the earlier literature. The results have indicated that intensity of collapse decreases with an increase in CO2 composition in the bubble thereby decreasing the yield of the oxidizing radicals like OH. This is due to the lower polytropic coefficient and higher specific heat of CO2 compared to that of argon. Also, the bubbles grows to a larger extent with an increase in the dissolved CO2 concentration thereby accommodating higher amounts of water vapor and ultimately decreasing the temperature obtained at collapse. Simulations were done for a bubble containing a mole fraction of 95% Ar and 5% CO2 at different values of driving frequencies (213, 355, 647 and 1000kHz) and driving pressure amplitudes (3.22, 5, 7.5 and 10bar). Higher production rate of OH radicals was predicted at a lower driving frequency, for a given driving pressure amplitude and it increased with an increase in the driving pressure amplitude. At a given driving pressure amplitude, the yield of OH radicals decreased with an increase in the CO2 concentration in the bubble for all the driving frequencies used in the simulations. Copyright
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Evans, J.S.; Moeller, D.W.; Cooper, D.W.
1985-07-01
Analysis of the radiological health effects of nuclear power plant accidents requires models for predicting early health effects, cancers and benign thyroid nodules, and genetic effects. Since the publication of the Reactor Safety Study, additional information on radiological health effects has become available. This report summarizes the efforts of a program designed to provide revised health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence modeling. The new models for early effects address four causes of mortality and nine categories of morbidity. The models for early effects are based upon two parameter Weibull functions. They permit evaluation of the influence of dose protraction and address the issue of variation in radiosensitivity among the population. The piecewise-linear dose-response models used in the Reactor Safety Study to predict cancers and thyroid nodules have been replaced by linear and linear-quadratic models. The new models reflect the most recently reported results of the follow-up of the survivors of the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and permit analysis of both morbidity and mortality. The new models for genetic effects allow prediction of genetic risks in each of the first five generations after an accident and include information on the relative severity of various classes of genetic effects. The uncertainty in modeloling radiological health risks is addressed by providing central, upper, and lower estimates of risks. An approach is outlined for summarizing the health consequences of nuclear power plant accidents. 298 refs., 9 figs., 49 tabs.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Azarang, Leyla; Scheike, Thomas; de Uña-Álvarez, Jacobo
2017-01-01
In this work, we present direct regression analysis for the transition probabilities in the possibly non-Markov progressive illness–death model. The method is based on binomial regression, where the response is the indicator of the occupancy for the given state along time. Randomly weighted score...... equations that are able to remove the bias due to censoring are introduced. By solving these equations, one can estimate the possibly time-varying regression coefficients, which have an immediate interpretation as covariate effects on the transition probabilities. The performance of the proposed estimator...... is investigated through simulations. We apply the method to data from the Registry of Systematic Lupus Erythematosus RELESSER, a multicenter registry created by the Spanish Society of Rheumatology. Specifically, we investigate the effect of age at Lupus diagnosis, sex, and ethnicity on the probability of damage...
Effective World Modeling: Multisensor Data Fusion Methodology for Automated Driving
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jos Elfring
2016-10-01
Full Text Available The number of perception sensors on automated vehicles increases due to the increasing number of advanced driver assistance system functions and their increasing complexity. Furthermore, fail-safe systems require redundancy, thereby increasing the number of sensors even further. A one-size-fits-all multisensor data fusion architecture is not realistic due to the enormous diversity in vehicles, sensors and applications. As an alternative, this work presents a methodology that can be used to effectively come up with an implementation to build a consistent model of a vehicle’s surroundings. The methodology is accompanied by a software architecture. This combination minimizes the effort required to update the multisensor data fusion system whenever sensors or applications are added or replaced. A series of real-world experiments involving different sensors and algorithms demonstrates the methodology and the software architecture.
Effective World Modeling: Multisensor Data Fusion Methodology for Automated Driving.
Elfring, Jos; Appeldoorn, Rein; van den Dries, Sjoerd; Kwakkernaat, Maurice
2016-10-11
The number of perception sensors on automated vehicles increases due to the increasing number of advanced driver assistance system functions and their increasing complexity. Furthermore, fail-safe systems require redundancy, thereby increasing the number of sensors even further. A one-size-fits-all multisensor data fusion architecture is not realistic due to the enormous diversity in vehicles, sensors and applications. As an alternative, this work presents a methodology that can be used to effectively come up with an implementation to build a consistent model of a vehicle's surroundings. The methodology is accompanied by a software architecture. This combination minimizes the effort required to update the multisensor data fusion system whenever sensors or applications are added or replaced. A series of real-world experiments involving different sensors and algorithms demonstrates the methodology and the software architecture.
The Statistical Multifragmentation Model with Skyrme Effective Interactions
Carlson, B V; Donangelo, R; Lynch, W G; Steiner, A W; Tsang, M B
2010-01-01
The Statistical Multifragmentation Model is modified to incorporate Helmholtz free energies calculated in the finite temperature Thomas-Fermi approximation using Skyrme effective interactions. In this formulation, the density of the fragments at the freeze-out configuration corresponds to the equilibrium value obtained in the Thomas-Fermi approximation at the given temperature. The behavior of the nuclear caloric curve, at constant volume, is investigated in the micro-canonical ensemble and a plateau is observed for excitation energies between 8 and 10 MeV per nucleon. A small kink in the caloric curve is found at the onset of this gas transition, indicating the existence of negative heat capacity, even in this case in which the system is constrained to a fixed volume, in contrast to former statistical calculations.
Moisture Absorption Model of Composites Considering Water Temperature Effect
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
HUI Li
2016-11-01
Full Text Available The influence of water temperature on composite moisture absorption parameters was investigated in temperature-controlled water bath. Experiments of carbon fiber/bismaleimide resin composites immersed in water of 60℃, 70℃and 80℃ were developed respectively. According to the moisture content-time curves obtained from the experimental results, the diffusion coefficient and the balanced moisture content of the composites immersed in different water temperature could be calculated. What's more, the effect of water temperature on the diffusion coefficient and the balanced moisture content were discussed too. According to the Arrhenius equation and the law of Fick, a moisture absorption model was proposed to simulate the hygroscopic behaviour of the composite laminates immersed in different water temperature which can predict the absorption rate of water of the composites immersed in distilled water of 95℃ at any time precisely and can calculate how long it will take to reach the specific absorption rate.
Molecular Recognition Effects in Atomistic Models of Imprinted Polymers
Dourado, Eduardo M. A.; Herdes, Carmelo; van Tassel, Paul R.; Sarkisov, Lev
2011-01-01
In this article we present a model for molecularly imprinted polymers, which considers both complexation processes in the pre-polymerization mixture and adsorption in the imprinted structures within a single consistent framework. As a case study we investigate MAA/EGDMA polymers imprinted with pyrazine and pyrimidine. A polymer imprinted with pyrazine shows substantial selectivity towards pyrazine over pyrimidine, thus exhibiting molecular recognition, whereas the pyrimidine imprinted structure shows no preferential adsorption of the template. Binding sites responsible for the molecular recognition of pyrazine involve one MAA molecule and one EGDMA molecule, forming associations with the two functional groups of the pyrazine molecule. Presence of these specific sites in the pyrazine imprinted system and lack of the analogous sites in the pyrimidine imprinted system is directly linked to the complexation processes in the pre-polymerization solution. These processes are quite different for pyrazine and pyrimidine as a result of both enthalpic and entropic effects. PMID:21954325
Modeling molecular effects on plasmon transport: Silver nanoparticles with tartrazine
Arntsen, Christopher; Lopata, Kenneth; Wall, Michael R.; Bartell, Lizette; Neuhauser, Daniel
2011-02-01
Modulation of plasmon transport between silver nanoparticles by a yellow fluorophore, tartrazine, is studied theoretically. The system is studied by combining a finite-difference time-domain Maxwell treatment of the electric field and the plasmons with a time-dependent parameterized method number 3 simulation of the tartrazine, resulting in an effective Maxwell/Schrödinger (i.e., classical/quantum) method. The modeled system has three linearly arranged small silver nanoparticles with a radius of 2 nm and a center-to-center separation of 4 nm; the molecule is centered between the second and third nanoparticles. We initiate an x-polarized current on the first nanoparticle and monitor the transmission through the system. The molecule rotates much of the x-polarized current into the y-direction and greatly reduces the overall transmission of x-polarized current.
Nonparametric Estimation of Distributions in Random Effects Models
Hart, Jeffrey D.
2011-01-01
We propose using minimum distance to obtain nonparametric estimates of the distributions of components in random effects models. A main setting considered is equivalent to having a large number of small datasets whose locations, and perhaps scales, vary randomly, but which otherwise have a common distribution. Interest focuses on estimating the distribution that is common to all datasets, knowledge of which is crucial in multiple testing problems where a location/scale invariant test is applied to every small dataset. A detailed algorithm for computing minimum distance estimates is proposed, and the usefulness of our methodology is illustrated by a simulation study and an analysis of microarray data. Supplemental materials for the article, including R-code and a dataset, are available online. © 2011 American Statistical Association.
Cancer growth dynamics: stochastic models and noise induced effects
Spagnolo, B.; Fiasconaro, A.; Pizzolato, N.; Valenti, D.; Adorno, D. Persano; Caldara, P.; Ochab-Marcinek, A.; Gudowska-Nowak, E.
2009-04-01
In the framework of the Michaelis-Menten (MM) reaction kinetics, we analyze the cancer growth dynamics in the presence of the immune response. We found the coexistence of noise enhanced stability (NES) and resonant activation (RA) phenomena which act in an opposite way with respect to the extinction of the tumor. The role of the stochastic resonance (SR) in the case of weak cancer therapy has been analyzed. The evolutionary dynamics of a system of cancerous cells in a model of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is investigated by a Monte Carlo approach. We analyzed the effects of a targeted therapy on the evolutionary dynamics of normal, first-mutant and cancerous cell populations. We show how the patient response to the therapy changes when an high value of the mutation rate from healthy to cancerous cells is present. Our results are in agreement with clinical observations.
METHODS OF SELECTING THE EFFECTIVE MODELS OF BUILDINGS REPROFILING PROJECTS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Александр Иванович МЕНЕЙЛЮК
2016-02-01
Full Text Available The article highlights the important task of project management in reprofiling of buildings. It is expedient to pay attention to selecting effective engineering solutions to reduce the duration and cost reduction at the project management in the construction industry. This article presents a methodology for the selection of efficient organizational and technical solutions for the reconstruction of buildings reprofiling. The method is based on a compilation of project variants in the program Microsoft Project and experimental statistical analysis using the program COMPEX. The introduction of this technique in the realigning of buildings allows choosing efficient models of projects, depending on the given constraints. Also, this technique can be used for various construction projects.
SPATIAL TEMPORAL MODELLING OF PARTICULATE MATTER FOR HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. A. S. Hamm
2016-10-01
Full Text Available Epidemiological studies of the health effects of air pollution require estimation of individual exposure. It is not possible to obtain measurements at all relevant locations so it is necessary to predict at these space-time locations, either on the basis of dispersion from emission sources or by interpolating observations. This study used data obtained from a low-cost sensor network of 32 air quality monitoring stations in the Dutch city of Eindhoven, which make up the ILM (innovative air (quality measurement system. These stations currently provide PM10 and PM2.5 (particulate matter less than 10 and 2.5 m in diameter, aggregated to hourly means. The data provide an unprecedented level of spatial and temporal detail for a city of this size. Despite these benefits the time series of measurements is characterized by missing values and noisy values. In this paper a space-time analysis is presented that is based on a dynamic model for the temporal component and a Gaussian process geostatistical for the spatial component. Spatial-temporal variability was dominated by the temporal component, although the spatial variability was also substantial. The model delivered accurate predictions for both isolated missing values and 24-hour periods of missing values (RMSE = 1.4 μg m−3 and 1.8 μg m−3 respectively. Outliers could be detected by comparison to the 95% prediction interval. The model shows promise for predicting missing values, outlier detection and for mapping to support health impact studies.
Modeling the nonlinear effect of wind on rectilinear tidal flow
Ruessink, B. G.; Houwman, K. T.; Grasmeijer, B. T.
2006-10-01
Observations of near-bed alongshore flow in 4-10 m depth at Terschelling, Netherlands, show that strong alongshore winds (≈15-20 m/s) in the flood direction reduce the tide current range and alter the tidal flow curve by bringing maximum flood flow forward in time and delaying maximum ebb flow. These nonlinear effects, which are more pronounced in shallower water, are reproduced well by a single-point model in the vertical driven by large-scale (O(km)) sea surface gradients and wind stress, using a quadratic bottom stress formulation and a time-dependent eddy viscosity derived from a k-ɛ turbulence closure model. Subsequent idealized model simulations using a (Terschelling based) M2 sea-surface gradient and wind speeds between 0 and 20 m/s show that the wind-induced modifications of the tidal flow are consistent with the interaction of the wind-induced flow with the tidal flow through the quadratic bed stress. The wind-driven flow enhances friction during the flood phase more than it reduces friction during the ebb flow, thereby increasing friction over a tidal cycle and, as a consequence, reducing the tide current range. The predicted increase in asymmetry of bed friction during flood and ebb flow with increasing wind speed also increases (decreases) the M4 (M6) amplitude, consistent with the observations. The M4/M2 amplitude ratio is predicted to be largest when the flow has just become unidirectional (that is, when the wind-driven flow equals the tidal current).
Prompt atmospheric neutrino fluxes: perturbative QCD models and nuclear effects
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bhattacharya, Atri [Department of Physics, University of Arizona,1118 E. 4th St. Tucson, AZ 85704 (United States); Space sciences, Technologies and Astrophysics Research (STAR) Institute,Université de Liège,Bât. B5a, 4000 Liège (Belgium); Enberg, Rikard [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University,Box 516, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Jeong, Yu Seon [Department of Physics and IPAP, Yonsei University,50 Yonsei-ro Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722 (Korea, Republic of); National Institute of Supercomputing and Networking, KISTI,245 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34141 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, C.S. [Department of Physics and IPAP, Yonsei University,50 Yonsei-ro Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722 (Korea, Republic of); Reno, Mary Hall [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa,Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Sarcevic, Ina [Department of Physics, University of Arizona,1118 E. 4th St. Tucson, AZ 85704 (United States); Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona,933 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Stasto, Anna [Department of Physics, 104 Davey Lab, The Pennsylvania State University,University Park, PA 16802 (United States)
2016-11-28
We evaluate the prompt atmospheric neutrino flux at high energies using three different frameworks for calculating the heavy quark production cross section in QCD: NLO perturbative QCD, k{sub T} factorization including low-x resummation, and the dipole model including parton saturation. We use QCD parameters, the value for the charm quark mass and the range for the factorization and renormalization scales that provide the best description of the total charm cross section measured at fixed target experiments, at RHIC and at LHC. Using these parameters we calculate differential cross sections for charm and bottom production and compare with the latest data on forward charm meson production from LHCb at 7 TeV and at 13 TeV, finding good agreement with the data. In addition, we investigate the role of nuclear shadowing by including nuclear parton distribution functions (PDF) for the target air nucleus using two different nuclear PDF schemes. Depending on the scheme used, we find the reduction of the flux due to nuclear effects varies from 10% to 50% at the highest energies. Finally, we compare our results with the IceCube limit on the prompt neutrino flux, which is already providing valuable information about some of the QCD models.
Linear mixed effects models under inequality constraints with applications.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Laura Farnan
Full Text Available Constraints arise naturally in many scientific experiments/studies such as in, epidemiology, biology, toxicology, etc. and often researchers ignore such information when analyzing their data and use standard methods such as the analysis of variance (ANOVA. Such methods may not only result in a loss of power and efficiency in costs of experimentation but also may result poor interpretation of the data. In this paper we discuss constrained statistical inference in the context of linear mixed effects models that arise naturally in many applications, such as in repeated measurements designs, familial studies and others. We introduce a novel methodology that is broadly applicable for a variety of constraints on the parameters. Since in many applications sample sizes are small and/or the data are not necessarily normally distributed and furthermore error variances need not be homoscedastic (i.e. heterogeneity in the data we use an empirical best linear unbiased predictor (EBLUP type residual based bootstrap methodology for deriving critical values of the proposed test. Our simulation studies suggest that the proposed procedure maintains the desired nominal Type I error while competing well with other tests in terms of power. We illustrate the proposed methodology by re-analyzing a clinical trial data on blood mercury level. The methodology introduced in this paper can be easily extended to other settings such as nonlinear and generalized regression models.
Modeling the Effect of Tumor Size in Early Breast Cancer
Verschraegen, Claire; Vinh-Hung, Vincent; Cserni, Gábor; Gordon, Richard; Royce, Melanie E.; Vlastos, Georges; Tai, Patricia; Storme, Guy
2005-01-01
Summary Background Data: The purpose of this study was to determine the type of relationship between tumor size and mortality in early breast carcinoma. Methods: The data was abstracted from 83,686 cases registered in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program of women diagnosed with primary breast carcinoma between 1988 and 1997 presenting with a T1–T2 lesion and no metastasis in whom axillary node dissection was performed: 58,070 women were node-negative (N0) and 25,616 were node-positive (N+). End point was death from any cause. Tumor size was modeled as a continuous variable by proportional hazards using a generalized additive models procedure. Results: Functionally, a Gompertzian expression exp(-exp(-(size-15)/10)) provided a good fit to the effect of tumor size (in millimeters) on mortality, irrespective of nodal status. Quantitatively, for tumor size between 3 and 50 mm, the increase of crude cumulative death rate (number of observed deaths divided by the number of patients at risk) increased with size from 10% to 25% for N0 and from 20% to 40% for N+. Conclusions: The functional relationship of tumor size with mortality is concordant with current knowledge of tumor growth. However, its qualitative and quantitative independence of nodal status is in contradiction with the prevailing concept of sequential disease progression from primary tumor to regional nodes. This argues against the perception that nodal metastases are caused by the primary tumor. PMID:15650642
Prompt atmospheric neutrino fluxes: perturbative QCD models and nuclear effects
Bhattacharya, Atri; Enberg, Rikard; Jeong, Yu Seon; Kim, C. S.; Reno, Mary Hall; Sarcevic, Ina; Stasto, Anna
2016-11-01
We evaluate the prompt atmospheric neutrino flux at high energies using three different frameworks for calculating the heavy quark production cross section in QCD: NLO perturbative QCD, k T factorization including low- x resummation, and the dipole model including parton saturation. We use QCD parameters, the value for the charm quark mass and the range for the factorization and renormalization scales that provide the best description of the total charm cross section measured at fixed target experiments, at RHIC and at LHC. Using these parameters we calculate differential cross sections for charm and bottom production and compare with the latest data on forward charm meson production from LHCb at 7 TeV and at 13 TeV, finding good agreement with the data. In addition, we investigate the role of nuclear shadowing by including nuclear parton distribution functions (PDF) for the target air nucleus using two different nuclear PDF schemes. Depending on the scheme used, we find the reduction of the flux due to nuclear effects varies from 10% to 50% at the highest energies. Finally, we compare our results with the IceCube limit on the prompt neutrino flux, which is already providing valuable information about some of the QCD models.
Effects of stream topology on ecological community results from neutral models
While neutral theory and models have stimulated considerable literature, less well investigated is the effect of topology on neutral metacommunity model simulations. We implemented a neutral metacommunity model using two different stream network topologies, a widely branched netw...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abrahamson, S. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States); Bender, M.A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Boecker, B.B.; Scott, B.R. [Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Inhalation Toxicology Research Inst.; Gilbert, E.S. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)
1993-05-01
The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has sponsored several studies to identify and quantify, through the use of models, the potential health effects of accidental releases of radionuclides from nuclear power plants. The Reactor Safety Study provided the basis for most of the earlier estimates related to these health effects. Subsequent efforts by NRC-supported groups resulted in improved health effects models that were published in the report entitled {open_quotes}Health Effects Models for Nuclear Power Plant Consequence Analysis{close_quotes}, NUREG/CR-4214, 1985 and revised further in the 1989 report NUREG/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 2. The health effects models presented in the 1989 NUREG/CR-4214 report were developed for exposure to low-linear energy transfer (LET) (beta and gamma) radiation based on the best scientific information available at that time. Since the 1989 report was published, two addenda to that report have been prepared to (1) incorporate other scientific information related to low-LET health effects models and (2) extend the models to consider the possible health consequences of the addition of alpha-emitting radionuclides to the exposure source term. The first addendum report, entitled {open_quotes}Health Effects Models for Nuclear Power Plant Accident Consequence Analysis, Modifications of Models Resulting from Recent Reports on Health Effects of Ionizing Radiation, Low LET Radiation, Part 2: Scientific Bases for Health Effects Models,{close_quotes} was published in 1991 as NUREG/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 2, Addendum 1. This second addendum addresses the possibility that some fraction of the accident source term from an operating nuclear power plant comprises alpha-emitting radionuclides. Consideration of chronic high-LET exposure from alpha radiation as well as acute and chronic exposure to low-LET beta and gamma radiations is a reasonable extension of the health effects model.
Whyte, Sophie; Harnan, Susan
2014-06-01
A campaign to increase the awareness of the signs and symptoms of colorectal cancer (CRC) and encourage self-presentation to a GP was piloted in two regions of England in 2011. Short-term data from the pilot evaluation on campaign cost and changes in GP attendances/referrals, CRC incidence, and CRC screening uptake were available. The objective was to estimate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a CRC awareness campaign by using a mathematical model which extrapolates short-term outcomes to predict long-term impacts on cancer mortality, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and costs. A mathematical model representing England (aged 30+) for a lifetime horizon was developed. Long-term changes to cancer incidence, cancer stage distribution, cancer mortality, and QALYs were estimated. Costs were estimated incorporating costs associated with delivering the campaign, additional GP attendances, and changes in CRC treatment. Data from the pilot campaign suggested that the awareness campaign caused a 1-month 10 % increase in presentation rates. Based on this, the model predicted the campaign to cost £5.5 million, prevent 66 CRC deaths and gain 404 QALYs. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio compared to "no campaign" was £13,496 per QALY. Results were sensitive to the magnitude and duration of the increase in presentation rates and to disease stage. The effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a cancer awareness campaign can be estimated based on short-term data. Such predictions will aid policy makers in prioritizing between cancer control strategies. Future cost-effectiveness studies would benefit from campaign evaluations reporting as follows: data completeness, duration of impact, impact on emergency presentations, and comparison with non-intervention regions.
Effects of threaded post placement on strain and stress distribution of endodontically treated teeth
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Paulo Cesar Freitas Santos Filho
2013-07-01
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of parallel and tapered threaded post placement on the strain and stress distribution of endodontically treated teeth. Fifteen bovine incisors were sectioned 15 mm from their apices, endodontically treated, and divided into three groups (n = 5 according to three different threaded posts: parallel threaded post (Radix-Anker, RA; tapered threaded post (Euro-Post, EP and tapered threaded post (Reforpost II, RII. A strain-gauge was fixed on the proximal surface perpendicular to the long root axis, 2 mm from the cervical limit. Strain generated during post placement was recorded and compared using one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α= .05. A scanning electron microscope was used to examine the longitudinal root sections. Stress was evaluated for each group in a two-dimensional finite element analysis. The models were meshed with tetrahedron elements and loaded with 2 N at an angle of 135° to the lingual face. The equivalent Von Mises stress was calculated. The one-way ANOVA showed significant difference among the groups. The RA group (150.0 ± 12.2 A produced higher external strain than the RII (80.0 ± 12.2 B and the EP (70.0 ± 6.1 B groups. The inner strain was approximately five times greater than the external dentin strain. High stress concentrations in each thread of the posts were observed. Scanning electron micrographs showed cracks that started in the threads of the posts. The threaded post placement induced root strain mainly on the parallel side post. Root strain and stress concentration on the post threads tended to create cracks in the inner root canal dentin.
Modeling effects of secondary tidal basins on estuarine morphodynamics
Nnafie, Abdel; Van Oyen, Tomas; De Maerschalck, Bart
2017-04-01
Many estuaries are situated in very densely populated areas with high economic activities that often conflict with their ecological values. For centuries, geometry and bathymetry of estuaries have been drastically modified trough engineering works such as embanking, sand extraction, channel deepening, land reclamations, etc. It is generally recognized that these works may increase the tidal range (e.g., Scheldt, Ems, Elbe) and turbidity (e.g., Loire, Ems) in estuaries [cf. Kerner, 2007; Wang et al., 2009; Winterwerp and Wang, 2013; Van Maren et al., 2015b,a]. In recent years, construction of secondary basins (also called retention basins) has gained increasing popularity among coastal managers to reduce tidal range and turbidity [Donner et al., 2012]. Previous studies have shown that location, geometry and number of secondary basins have a significant impact on tidal characteristics and sediment transport [Alebregtse and de Swart, 2014; Roos and Schuttelaars, 2015]. However, knowledge on how these secondary basins affect the morphodynamic development of estuaries on long time scales (order decades to centuries) is still lacking. The specific objectives of this study are twofold. First, to investigate effects of secondary basins on the long-term morphodynamic evolution of estuaries. In particular, effects of the presence of such a basin on the morphodynamic evolution of the main channel in the estuary and the physics underlying channel migration will be examined. For this, the Western Scheldt estuary (situated in the Netherlands) is used as a case study, which used to consist of multiple secondary tidal basins that were located at different positions in the estuary, and which have been gradually closed off between 1800 and 1968. Second, to systematically quantify sensitivity of model results to location, geometry, and to number of secondary basins. To this end, the state-of-the- art numerical model Delft3D is used, which has been successfully applied to
Mechanistic Modeling of the Effects of Acidosis on Thrombin Generation.
Mitrophanov, Alexander Y; Rosendaal, Frits R; Reifman, Jaques
2015-08-01
Acidosis, a frequent complication of trauma and complex surgery, results from tissue hypoperfusion and IV resuscitation with acidic fluids. While acidosis is known to inhibit the function of distinct enzymatic reactions, its cumulative effect on the blood coagulation system is not fully understood. Here, we use computational modeling to test the hypothesis that acidosis delays and reduces the amount of thrombin generation in human blood plasma. Moreover, we investigate the sensitivity of different thrombin generation parameters to acidosis, both at the individual and population level. We used a kinetic model to simulate and analyze the generation of thrombin and thrombin-antithrombin complexes (TAT), which were the end points of this study. Large groups of temporal thrombin and TAT trajectories were simulated and used to calculate quantitative parameters, such as clotting time (CT), thrombin peak time, maximum slope of the thrombin curve, thrombin peak height, area under the thrombin trajectory (AUC), and prothrombin time. The resulting samples of parameter values at different pH levels were compared to assess the acidosis-induced effects. To investigate intersubject variability, we parameterized the computational model using the data on clotting factor composition for 472 subjects from the Leiden Thrombophilia Study. To compare acidosis-induced relative parameter changes in individual ("virtual") subjects, we estimated the probabilities of relative change patterns by counting the pattern occurrences in our virtual subjects. Distribution overlaps for thrombin generation parameters at distinct pH levels were quantified using the Bhattacharyya coefficient. Acidosis in the range of pH 6.9 to 7.3 progressively increased CT, thrombin peak time, AUC, and prothrombin time, while decreasing maximum slope of the thrombin curve and thrombin peak height (P Acidosis delayed the onset and decreased the amount of TAT generation (P acidosis-induced relative changes, and AUC
Chan, Jennifer S K
2016-05-01
Dropouts are common in longitudinal study. If the dropout probability depends on the missing observations at or after dropout, this type of dropout is called informative (or nonignorable) dropout (ID). Failure to accommodate such dropout mechanism into the model will bias the parameter estimates. We propose a conditional autoregressive model for longitudinal binary data with an ID model such that the probabilities of positive outcomes as well as the drop-out indicator in each occasion are logit linear in some covariates and outcomes. This model adopting a marginal model for outcomes and a conditional model for dropouts is called a selection model. To allow for the heterogeneity and clustering effects, the outcome model is extended to incorporate mixture and random effects. Lastly, the model is further extended to a novel model that models the outcome and dropout jointly such that their dependency is formulated through an odds ratio function. Parameters are estimated by a Bayesian approach implemented using the user-friendly Bayesian software WinBUGS. A methadone clinic dataset is analyzed to illustrate the proposed models. Result shows that the treatment time effect is still significant but weaker after allowing for an ID process in the data. Finally the effect of drop-out on parameter estimates is evaluated through simulation studies. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Impacts of Wake Effect and Time Delay on the Dynamic Analysis of Wind Farms Models
El-Fouly, Tarek H. M.; El-Saadany, Ehab F.; Salama, Magdy M. A.
2008-01-01
This article investigates the impacts of proper modeling of the wake effects and wind speed delays, between different wind turbines' rows, on the dynamic performance accuracy of the wind farms models. Three different modeling scenarios were compared to highlight the impacts of wake effects and wind speed time-delay models. In the first scenario,…
The Effects of Model Making on Design and Learning in Landscape Architecture Education
Duzenli, Tugba; Yilmaz, Serap; Alpak, Elif Merve
2017-01-01
Purpose: One of the modeling methods used in the training of all design disciplines is physical model making. This study investigates the model-making technique and emphasizes the positive effects of model-making and its utility in the academic setting in order to understand its effects on design and learning. The "Equipment Design"…
Cost effectiveness of the 1995 model energy code in Massachusetts
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lucas, R.G.
1996-02-01
This report documents an analysis of the cost effectiveness of the Council of American Building Officials` 1995 Model Energy Code (MEC) building thermal-envelope requirements for single-family houses and multifamily housing units in Massachusetts. The goal was to compare the cost effectiveness of the 1995 MEC to the energy conservation requirements of the Massachusetts State Building Code-based on a comparison of the costs and benefits associated with complying with each.. This comparison was performed for three cities representing three geographical regions of Massachusetts--Boston, Worcester, and Pittsfield. The analysis was done for two different scenarios: a ``move-up`` home buyer purchasing a single-family house and a ``first-time`` financially limited home buyer purchasing a multifamily condominium unit. Natural gas, oil, and electric resistance heating were examined. The Massachusetts state code has much more stringent requirements if electric resistance heating is used rather than other heating fuels and/or equipment types. The MEC requirements do not vary by fuel type. For single-family homes, the 1995 MEC has requirements that are more energy-efficient than the non-electric resistance requirements of the current state code. For multifamily housing, the 1995 MEC has requirements that are approximately equally energy-efficient to the non-electric resistance requirements of the current state code. The 1995 MEC is generally not more stringent than the electric resistance requirements of the state code, in fact; for multifamily buildings the 1995 MEC is much less stringent.
Cost effectiveness of the 1993 Model Energy Code in Colorado
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lucas, R.G.
1995-06-01
This report documents an analysis of the cost effectiveness of the Council of American Building Officials` 1993 Model Energy Code (MEC) building thermal-envelope requirements for single-family homes in Colorado. The goal of this analysis was to compare the cost effectiveness of the 1993 MEC to current construction practice in Colorado based on an objective methodology that determined the total life-cycle cost associated with complying with the 1993 MEC. This analysis was performed for the range of Colorado climates. The costs and benefits of complying with the 1993 NIEC were estimated from the consumer`s perspective. The time when the homeowner realizes net cash savings (net positive cash flow) for homes built in accordance with the 1993 MEC was estimated to vary from 0.9 year in Steamboat Springs to 2.4 years in Denver. Compliance with the 1993 MEC was estimated to increase first costs by $1190 to $2274, resulting in an incremental down payment increase of $119 to $227 (at 10% down). The net present value of all costs and benefits to the home buyer, accounting for the mortgage and taxes, varied from a savings of $1772 in Springfield to a savings of $6614 in Steamboat Springs. The ratio of benefits to costs ranged from 2.3 in Denver to 3.8 in Steamboat Springs.
[Protective effect of nicotinamide in a mouse Parkinson's disease model].
Xu, Jing; Xu, Sheng-quan; Liang, Jie; Lu, Yuan; Luo, Jian-hong; Jin, Jing-hua
2012-03-01
To examine the protective effect of nicotinamide on 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced Parkinson's disease (PD) in mouse model and its mechanisms. Parkinson's disease was induced by injection of MPTP in adult male C57BL/6 mice, nicotinamide (500 mg/kg,i.p.) was given prior to subacute (30 mg/kg/d × 5 d,i.p.) MPTP administration. Locomotor activities, striatal dopamine levels, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and NO synthase (NOS) activities of whole brains and striatum were analyzed at d5 after last MPTP injections. Pretreatment with nicotinamide significantly improved the locomotor activity in the open-field test (Pclimbing test. Nicotinamide administration resulted in sparing striatal dopamine levels from MPTP-induced dopamine depletion. There was no significant difference in LDH and NOS activities in the whole brains among the groups; but the activities in the striatum were drastically elevated after MPTP treatment. Nicotinamide pretreatment markedly inhibited MPTP-induced LDH and NOS activities (P0.05). Nicotinamide protects dopaminergic neurons against MPTP-induced neurodegeneration,which suggests that the neuroprotective effects be associated with the inhibition of cell injuries and NOS activities.
A social force evacuation model with the leadership effect
Hou, Lei; Liu, Jian-Guo; Pan, Xue; Wang, Bing-Hong
2014-04-01
When planning for the evacuation guidance, how to efficiently set the trained evacuation leaders is an important problem which has great impact on the evacuation process. This paper investigates the effect of the number and positions of evacuation leaders on the evacuation dynamics in rooms with limited visibility range. In the improved social force model, only the trained leaders exactly know the exit positions, and the others could only follow the guidance according to the positions and directions of evacuation leaders. According to the simulation results, only one or two leaders could get remarkable effect for a single-exit configuration. But for configurations with multi-exits, evacuation leaders would make the dynamic slower unless the guidance sufficiently utilizes every exit. The results indicate that, we should set as many leaders as the number of exits in the center of the multi-exits regular squared room, and when emergencies occur, each leader heads to a different exit. Moreover, if we do like this, the evacuation would be even faster than that with 20 random-position-leaders. This work may shed some light on the drawing up of emergency scheme for large public-gathering places like stadiums and shopping malls.
Effect of manual hyperinflation on haemodynamics in an animal model.
Anning, Luke; Paratz, Jennifer; Wong, Wai Pong; Wilson, Kathleen
2003-01-01
Manual hyperinflation is a physiotherapy technique that improves static compliance and mobilizes secretions, but has the potential to alter haemodynamic function. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of manual hyperinflation on haemodynamic function in a healthy animal model, without the usual confounding effects inherent in an heterogeneous intensive care population. The study used a within-subjects design, in an animal research theatre. Nine healthy sheep (eight Border Leicester, one Merino, mean weight 39.5 kg, standard deviation (SD) 1.6 kg) completed the study. The sheep were induced (thiopentane 15-20 ml), intubated, ventilated and surgically instrumented for an arterial line and pulmonary artery catheter. Anaesthesia was maintained by 1.5% halothane/oxygen. Manual hyperinflation was delivered for two minutes with a Mapleson C circuit, using a peak inspiratory pressure of 35 cmH2O and an inspiratory:expiratory ratio of 2:1. Mean tidal volume during manual hyperinflation was 294% (SD 22%) of the ventilator tidal volume. A paired Student's t-test demonstrated that cardiac output (thermodilution method) decreased significantly (p manual hyperinflation. A repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) and a least-significant difference pairwise comparison revealed that mean arterial pressure and pulse pressure decreased significantly during (p manual hyperinflation (p respiratory function.
Effects of surfactin on membrane models displaying lipid phase separation.
Deleu, Magali; Lorent, Joseph; Lins, Laurence; Brasseur, Robert; Braun, Nathalie; El Kirat, Karim; Nylander, Tommy; Dufrêne, Yves F; Mingeot-Leclercq, Marie-Paule
2013-02-01
Surfactin, a bacterial amphiphilic lipopeptide is attracting more and more attention in view of its bioactive properties which are in relation with its ability to interact with lipids of biological membranes. In this work, we investigated the effect of surfactin on membrane structure using model of membranes, vesicles as well as supported bilayers, presenting coexistence of fluid-disordered (DOPC) and gel (DPPC) phases. A range of complementary methods was used including AFM, ellipsometry, dynamic light scattering, fluorescence measurements of Laurdan, DPH, calcein release, and octadecylrhodamine B dequenching. Our findings demonstrated that surfactin concentration is critical for its effect on the membrane. The results suggest that the presence of rigid domains can play an essential role in the first step of surfactin insertion and that surfactin interacts both with the membrane polar heads and the acyl chain region. A mechanism for the surfactin lipid membrane interaction, consisting of three sequential structural and morphological changes, is proposed. At concentrations below the CMC, surfactin inserted at the boundary between gel and fluid lipid domains, inhibited phase separation and stiffened the bilayer without global morphological change of liposomes. At concentrations close to CMC, surfactin solubilized the fluid phospholipid phase and increased order in the remainder of the lipid bilayer. At higher surfactin concentrations, both the fluid and the rigid bilayer structures were dissolved into mixed micelles and other structures presenting a wide size distribution. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Habitat heterogeneity hypothesis and edge effects in model metacommunities.
Hamm, Michaela; Drossel, Barbara
2017-08-07
Spatial heterogeneity is an inherent property of any living environment and is expected to favour biodiversity due to a broader niche space. Furthermore, edges between different habitats can provide additional possibilities for species coexistence. Using computer simulations, this study examines metacommunities consisting of several trophic levels in heterogeneous environments in order to explore the above hypotheses on a community level. We model heterogeneous landscapes by using two different sized resource pools and evaluate the combined effect of dispersal and heterogeneity on local and regional species diversity. This diversity is obtained by running population dynamics and evaluating the robustness (i.e., the fraction of surviving species). The main results for regional robustness are in agreement with the habitat heterogeneity hypothesis, as the largest robustness is found in heterogeneous systems with intermediate dispersal rates. This robustness is larger than in homogeneous systems with the same total amount of resources. We study the edge effect by arranging the two types of resources in two homogeneous blocks. Different edge responses in diversity are observed, depending on dispersal strength. Local robustness is highest for edge habitats that contain the smaller amount of resource in combination with intermediate dispersal. The results show that dispersal is relevant to correctly identify edge responses on community level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Joint action of pharmaceuticals in model lipid membranes: calorimetric effects
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
О. В. Ващенко
2016-11-01
Full Text Available Joint action of a number of pharmaceuticals has been studied in multibilayer model membranes of L-α-dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine. Shift of the main phase transition temperature of the membrane under the pharmaceuticals introduction (∆Tm was determined by means of differential scanning calorimetry and used as a basic factor of their membranotropic action (MA. Pairs of pharmaceuticals were selected with various character of lipophylicity and MA; cholesterol was used as the membrane compound with the well-known MA. Revelation and identification of the effects of joint action was performed by comparison of ∆Tm values under separate and joint introduction of the pharmaceuticals. Effects of joint action appear similar for hydrophobic azithromycin and hydrophilic succinylcholine in their combinations both with povidone and with cholesterol. Examination of joint action of an active pharmaceutical intgredient (API and and an excipient allowed us to establish a certain advantage of the API’s MA in the pairs azithromycin-lactose and azithromycin-dimetylsulfoxide, and additivity of the MA in the pair amixin-hypromelose.
Analytical models for total dose ionization effects in MOS devices.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Campbell, Phillip Montgomery; Bogdan, Carolyn W.
2008-08-01
MOS devices are susceptible to damage by ionizing radiation due to charge buildup in gate, field and SOI buried oxides. Under positive bias holes created in the gate oxide will transport to the Si / SiO{sub 2} interface creating oxide-trapped charge. As a result of hole transport and trapping, hydrogen is liberated in the oxide which can create interface-trapped charge. The trapped charge will affect the threshold voltage and degrade the channel mobility. Neutralization of oxidetrapped charge by electron tunneling from the silicon and by thermal emission can take place over long periods of time. Neutralization of interface-trapped charge is not observed at room temperature. Analytical models are developed that account for the principal effects of total dose in MOS devices under different gate bias. The intent is to obtain closed-form solutions that can be used in circuit simulation. Expressions are derived for the aging effects of very low dose rate radiation over long time periods.
Modeling Periodic Impulsive Effects on Online TV Series Diffusion.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Peihua Fu
Full Text Available Online broadcasting substantially affects the production, distribution, and profit of TV series. In addition, online word-of-mouth significantly affects the diffusion of TV series. Because on-demand streaming rates are the most important factor that influences the earnings of online video suppliers, streaming statistics and forecasting trends are valuable. In this paper, we investigate the effects of periodic impulsive stimulation and pre-launch promotion on on-demand streaming dynamics. We consider imbalanced audience feverish distribution using an impulsive susceptible-infected-removed(SIR-like model. In addition, we perform a correlation analysis of online buzz volume based on Baidu Index data.We propose a PI-SIR model to evolve audience dynamics and translate them into on-demand streaming fluctuations, which can be observed and comprehended by online video suppliers. Six South Korean TV series datasets are used to test the model. We develop a coarse-to-fine two-step fitting scheme to estimate the model parameters, first by fitting inter-period accumulation and then by fitting inner-period feverish distribution.We find that audience members display similar viewing habits. That is, they seek new episodes every update day but fade away. This outcome means that impulsive intensity plays a crucial role in on-demand streaming diffusion. In addition, the initial audience size and online buzz are significant factors. On-demand streaming fluctuation is highly correlated with online buzz fluctuation.To stimulate audience attention and interpersonal diffusion, it is worthwhile to invest in promotion near update days. Strong pre-launch promotion is also a good marketing tool to improve overall performance. It is not advisable for online video providers to promote several popular TV series on the same update day. Inter-period accumulation is a feasible forecasting tool to predict the future trend of the on-demand streaming amount. The buzz in public
Modeling Periodic Impulsive Effects on Online TV Series Diffusion.
Fu, Peihua; Zhu, Anding; Fang, Qiwen; Wang, Xi
Online broadcasting substantially affects the production, distribution, and profit of TV series. In addition, online word-of-mouth significantly affects the diffusion of TV series. Because on-demand streaming rates are the most important factor that influences the earnings of online video suppliers, streaming statistics and forecasting trends are valuable. In this paper, we investigate the effects of periodic impulsive stimulation and pre-launch promotion on on-demand streaming dynamics. We consider imbalanced audience feverish distribution using an impulsive susceptible-infected-removed(SIR)-like model. In addition, we perform a correlation analysis of online buzz volume based on Baidu Index data. We propose a PI-SIR model to evolve audience dynamics and translate them into on-demand streaming fluctuations, which can be observed and comprehended by online video suppliers. Six South Korean TV series datasets are used to test the model. We develop a coarse-to-fine two-step fitting scheme to estimate the model parameters, first by fitting inter-period accumulation and then by fitting inner-period feverish distribution. We find that audience members display similar viewing habits. That is, they seek new episodes every update day but fade away. This outcome means that impulsive intensity plays a crucial role in on-demand streaming diffusion. In addition, the initial audience size and online buzz are significant factors. On-demand streaming fluctuation is highly correlated with online buzz fluctuation. To stimulate audience attention and interpersonal diffusion, it is worthwhile to invest in promotion near update days. Strong pre-launch promotion is also a good marketing tool to improve overall performance. It is not advisable for online video providers to promote several popular TV series on the same update day. Inter-period accumulation is a feasible forecasting tool to predict the future trend of the on-demand streaming amount. The buzz in public social communities
The Development Effectiveness Management Model for Sub-District Secondary School
Butsankom, Akachai; Sirishuthi, Chaiyuth; Lammana, Preeda
2016-01-01
The purposes of this research were to study the factors of effectiveness management model for subdistrict secondary school, to investigate current situations and desirable situations of effectiveness management model for sub-district secondary school, to develop the effectiveness management model for sub-district secondary school and to study the…
Musselman, Keith; Clark, Martyn; Endalamaw, Abraham; Bolton, W. Robert; Nijssen, Bart; Arnold, Jeffrey
2017-04-01
Cold regions are characterized by intense spatial gradients in climate, vegetation and soil properties that determine the complex spatiotemporal patterns of snowpack evolution, frozen soil dynamics, catchment connectivity, and streamflow. These spatial gradients pose unique challenges for hydrological models, including: 1) how the spatial variability of the physical processes are best represented across a hierarchy of scales, and 2) what algorithms and parameter sets best describe the biophysical and hydrological processes at the spatial scale of interest. To address these topics, we apply the Structure for Unifying Multiple Modeling Alternatives (SUMMA) to simulate hydrological processes at the Caribou - Poker Creeks Research Watershed in the Alaskan sub-arctic Boreal forest. The site is characterized by numerous gauged headwater catchments ranging in size from 5 sq. km to 106 sq. km with varying extents (3% to 53%) of discontinuous permafrost that permits a multi-scale paired watershed analysis of the hydrological impacts of frozen soils. We evaluate the effects of model decisions on the skill of SUMMA to simulate observed snow and soil dynamics, and the spatial integration of these processes as catchment streamflow. Decisions such as the number of soil layers, total soil column depth, and vertical soil discretization are shown to have profound impacts on the simulation of seasonal active layer dynamics. Decisions on the spatial organization (lateral connectivity, representation of riparian response units, and the spatial discretization of the hydrological landscape) are shown to be as important as accurate snowpack and soil process representation in the simulation of streamflow. The work serves to better inform hydrological model decisions for cold region hydrologic evaluation and to improve predictive capacity for water resource planning.
Perperoglou, Aris
2016-12-10
Flexible survival models are in need when modelling data from long term follow-up studies. In many cases, the assumption of proportionality imposed by a Cox model will not be valid. Instead, a model that can identify time varying effects of fixed covariates can be used. Although there are several approaches that deal with this problem, it is not always straightforward how to choose which covariates should be modelled having time varying effects and which not. At the same time, it is up to the researcher to define appropriate time functions that describe the dynamic pattern of the effects. In this work, we suggest a model that can deal with both fixed and time varying effects and uses simple hypotheses tests to distinguish which covariates do have dynamic effects. The model is an extension of the parsimonious reduced rank model of rank 1. As such, the number of parameters is kept low, and thus, a flexible set of time functions, such as b-splines, can be used. The basic theory is illustrated along with an efficient fitting algorithm. The proposed method is applied to a dataset of breast cancer patients and compared with a multivariate fractional polynomials approach for modelling time-varying effects. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An Integrated Professional Development Model for Effective Teaching
Kuijpers, J. M.; Houtveen, A. A. M.; Wubbels, Th.
2010-01-01
This article examines the design of a professional development model that aims to improve student achievement. This model has been designed by combining and supplementing elements from school-improvement literature and existing professional development models. Existing models from two largely independent approaches to professional development of…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hae Kyung Im
2012-02-01
Full Text Available The International HapMap project has made publicly available extensive genotypic data on a number of lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs. Building on this resource, many research groups have generated a large amount of phenotypic data on these cell lines to facilitate genetic studies of disease risk or drug response. However, one problem that may reduce the usefulness of these resources is the biological noise inherent to cellular phenotypes. We developed a novel method, termed Mixed Effects Model Averaging (MEM, which pools data from multiple sources and generates an intrinsic cellular growth rate phenotype. This intrinsic growth rate was estimated for each of over 500 HapMap cell lines. We then examined the association of this intrinsic growth rate with gene expression levels and found that almost 30% (2,967 out of 10,748 of the genes tested were significant with FDR less than 10%. We probed further to demonstrate evidence of a genetic effect on intrinsic growth rate by determining a significant enrichment in growth-associated genes among genes targeted by top growth-associated SNPs (as eQTLs. The estimated intrinsic growth rate as well as the strength of the association with genetic variants and gene expression traits are made publicly available through a cell-based pharmacogenomics database, PACdb. This resource should enable researchers to explore the mediating effects of proliferation rate on other phenotypes.
Im, Hae Kyung; Gamazon, Eric R.; Stark, Amy L.; Huang, R. Stephanie; Cox, Nancy J.; Dolan, M. Eileen
2012-01-01
The International HapMap project has made publicly available extensive genotypic data on a number of lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs). Building on this resource, many research groups have generated a large amount of phenotypic data on these cell lines to facilitate genetic studies of disease risk or drug response. However, one problem that may reduce the usefulness of these resources is the biological noise inherent to cellular phenotypes. We developed a novel method, termed Mixed Effects Model Averaging (MEM), which pools data from multiple sources and generates an intrinsic cellular growth rate phenotype. This intrinsic growth rate was estimated for each of over 500 HapMap cell lines. We then examined the association of this intrinsic growth rate with gene expression levels and found that almost 30% (2,967 out of 10,748) of the genes tested were significant with FDR less than 10%. We probed further to demonstrate evidence of a genetic effect on intrinsic growth rate by determining a significant enrichment in growth-associated genes among genes targeted by top growth-associated SNPs (as eQTLs). The estimated intrinsic growth rate as well as the strength of the association with genetic variants and gene expression traits are made publicly available through a cell-based pharmacogenomics database, PACdb. This resource should enable researchers to explore the mediating effects of proliferation rate on other phenotypes. PMID:22346769
Effects of temporal variability on HBV model calibration
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Steven Reinaldo Rusli
2015-10-01
Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effect of temporal variability on the optimization of the Hydrologiska Byråns Vattenbalansavedlning (HBV model, as well as the calibration performance using manual optimization and average parameter values. By applying the HBV model to the Jiangwan Catchment, whose geological features include lots of cracks and gaps, simulations under various schemes were developed: short, medium-length, and long temporal calibrations. The results show that, with long temporal calibration, the objective function values of the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient (NSE, relative error (RE, root mean square error (RMSE, and high flow ratio generally deliver a preferable simulation. Although NSE and RMSE are relatively stable with different temporal scales, significant improvements to RE and the high flow ratio are seen with longer temporal calibration. It is also noted that use of average parameter values does not lead to better simulation results compared with manual optimization. With medium-length temporal calibration, manual optimization delivers the best simulation results, with NSE, RE, RMSE, and the high flow ratio being 0.563 6, 0.122 3, 0.978 8, and 0.854 7, respectively; and calibration using average parameter values delivers NSE, RE, RMSE, and the high flow ratio of 0.481 1, 0.467 6, 1.021 0, and 2.784 0, respectively. Similar behavior is found with long temporal calibration, when NSE, RE, RMSE, and the high flow ratio using manual optimization are 0.525 3, −0.069 2, 1.058 0, and 0.980 0, respectively, as compared with 0.490 3, 0.224 8, 1.096 2, and 0.547 9, respectively, using average parameter values. This study shows that selection of longer periods of temporal calibration in hydrological analysis delivers better simulation in general for water balance analysis.
Effects of temporal variability on HBV model calibration
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Steven Reinaldo Rusli
2015-10-01
Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effects of temporal variability on the optimization of the Hydrologiska Byråns Vattenbalansavedlning (HBV model, as well as the calibration performance using manual optimization and average parameter values. By applying the HBV model to the Jiangwan Catchment, whose geological features include lots of cracks and gaps, simulations under various schemes were developed: short, medium-length, and long temporal calibrations. The results show that, with long temporal calibration, the objective function values of the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient (NSE, relative error (RE, root mean square error (RMSE, and high flow ratio generally deliver a preferable simulation. Although NSE and RMSE are relatively stable with different temporal scales, significant improvements to RE and the high flow ratio are seen with longer temporal calibration. It is also noted that use of average parameter values does not lead to better simulation results compared with manual optimization. With medium-length temporal calibration, manual optimization delivers the best simulation results, with NSE, RE, RMSE, and the high flow ratio being 0.563 6, 0.122 3, 0.978 8, and 0.854 7, respectively; and calibration using average parameter values delivers NSE, RE, RMSE, and the high flow ratio of 0.481 1, 0.467 6, 1.021 0, and 2.784 0, respectively. Similar behavior is found with long temporal calibration, when NSE, RE, RMSE, and the high flow ratio using manual optimization are 0.525 3, −0.069 2, 1.058 0, and 0.980 0, respectively, as compared with 0.490 3, 0.224 8, 1.096 2, and 0.547 9, respectively, using average parameter values. This study shows that selection of longer periods of temporal calibration in hydrological analysis delivers better simulation in general for water balance analysis.
Modelling and Testing of Blast Effect On the Structures
Figuli, Lucia; Jangl, Štefan; Papán, Daniel
2016-10-01
As a blasting agent in the blasting and mining engineering, has been using one of so called new generation of explosives which offer greater flexibility in their range and application, and such explosive is ANFO. It is type of explosive consists of an oxidiser and a fuel (ammonium nitrate and fuel oil). One of such ANFO explosives which are industrially made in Slovakia is POLONIT. The explosive is a mixture of ammonium nitrate, methyl esters of higher fatty acids, vegetable oil and red dye. The paper deals with the analysis of structure subjected to the blast load created by the explosion of POLONIT charge. First part of paper is describing behaviour and characteristic of blast wave generated from the blast (detonation characteristics, physical characteristics, time-history diagram etc.) and the second part presents the behaviour of such loaded structures, because of the analysis of such dynamical loaded structure is required knowing the parameters of blast wave, its effect on structure and the tools for the solution of dynamic analysis. The real field tests of three different weight of charges and two different structures were done. The explosive POLONIT was used together with 25 g of ignition explosive PLNp10. Analytical and numerical model of blast loaded structure is compared with the results obtained from the field tests (is compared with the corresponding experimental accelerations). For the modelling structures were approximated as a one-degree system of freedom (SDOF), where the blast wave was estimated with linear decay and exponential decay using positive and negative phase of blast wave. Numerical solution of the steel beam dynamic response was performed via FEM (Finite Element Method) using standard software Visual FEA.
An efficient and effective teaching model for ambulatory education.
Regan-Smith, Martha; Young, William W; Keller, Adam M
2002-07-01
Teaching and learning in the ambulatory setting have been described as inefficient, variable, and unpredictable. A model of ambulatory teaching that was piloted in three settings (1973-1981 in a university-affiliated outpatient clinic in Portland, Oregon, 1996-2000 in a community outpatient clinic, and 2000-2001 in an outpatient clinic serving Dartmouth Medical School's teaching hospital) that combines a system of education and a system of patient care is presented. Fully integrating learners into the office practice using creative scheduling, pre-rotation learning, and learner competence certification enabled the learners to provide care in roles traditionally fulfilled by physicians and nurses. Practice redesign made learners active members of the patient care team by involving them in such tasks as patient intake, histories and physicals, patient education, and monitoring of patient progress between visits. So that learners can be active members of the patient care team on the first day of clinic, pre-training is provided by the clerkship or residency so that they are able to competently provide care in the time available. To assure effective education, teaching and learning times are explicitly scheduled by parallel booking of patients for the learner and the preceptor at the same time. In the pilot settings this teaching model maintained or improved preceptor productivity and on-time efficiency compared with these outcomes of traditional scheduling. The time spent alone with patients, in direct observation by preceptors, and for scheduled case discussion was appreciated by learners. Increased satisfaction was enjoyed by learners, teachers, clinic staff, and patients. Barriers to implementation include too few examining rooms, inability to manipulate patient appointment schedules, and learners' not being present in a teaching clinic all the time.
Sub-Grid Modeling of Electrokinetic Effects in Micro Flows
Chen, C. P.
2005-01-01
Advances in micro-fabrication processes have generated tremendous interests in miniaturizing chemical and biomedical analyses into integrated microsystems (Lab-on-Chip devices). To successfully design and operate the micro fluidics system, it is essential to understand the fundamental fluid flow phenomena when channel sizes are shrink to micron or even nano dimensions. One important phenomenon is the electro kinetic effect in micro/nano channels due to the existence of the electrical double layer (EDL) near a solid-liquid interface. Not only EDL is responsible for electro-osmosis pumping when an electric field parallel to the surface is imposed, EDL also causes extra flow resistance (the electro-viscous effect) and flow anomaly (such as early transition from laminar to turbulent flow) observed in pressure-driven microchannel flows. Modeling and simulation of electro-kinetic effects on micro flows poses significant numerical challenge due to the fact that the sizes of the double layer (10 nm up to microns) are very thin compared to channel width (can be up to 100 s of m). Since the typical thickness of the double layer is extremely small compared to the channel width, it would be computationally very costly to capture the velocity profile inside the double layer by placing sufficient number of grid cells in the layer to resolve the velocity changes, especially in complex, 3-d geometries. Existing approaches using "slip" wall velocity and augmented double layer are difficult to use when the flow geometry is complicated, e.g. flow in a T-junction, X-junction, etc. In order to overcome the difficulties arising from those two approaches, we have developed a sub-grid integration method to properly account for the physics of the double layer. The integration approach can be used on simple or complicated flow geometries. Resolution of the double layer is not needed in this approach, and the effects of the double layer can be accounted for at the same time. With this
Ng, Edmond S-W; Diaz-Ordaz, Karla; Grieve, Richard; Nixon, Richard M; Thompson, Simon G; Carpenter, James R
2016-10-01
Multilevel models provide a flexible modelling framework for cost-effectiveness analyses that use cluster randomised trial data. However, there is a lack of guidance on how to choose the most appropriate multilevel models. This paper illustrates an approach for deciding what level of model complexity is warranted; in particular how best to accommodate complex variance-covariance structures, right-skewed costs and missing data. Our proposed models differ according to whether or not they allow individual-level variances and correlations to differ across treatment arms or clusters and by the assumed cost distribution (Normal, Gamma, Inverse Gaussian). The models are fitted by Markov chain Monte Carlo methods. Our approach to model choice is based on four main criteria: the characteristics of the data, model pre-specification informed by the previous literature, diagnostic plots and assessment of model appropriateness. This is illustrated by re-analysing a previous cost-effectiveness analysis that uses data from a cluster randomised trial. We find that the most useful criterion for model choice was the deviance information criterion, which distinguishes amongst models with alternative variance-covariance structures, as well as between those with different cost distributions. This strategy for model choice can help cost-effectiveness analyses provide reliable inferences for policy-making when using cluster trials, including those with missing data. © The Author(s) 2013.
Immunorestorative effect of thymostimulin on surgery immunodepression: experimental model.
García-Lechuz, J M; Navarro, M; Morandeira, M J; Soria, J; Román, A; Güemes, A; Salinas, J C; Lozano, R
1993-01-01
The purpose of the present study is to ascertain the immunorestorative effect of two different drugs on immunodepression induced by small bowel surgical resection in an experimental model. The potential immunorestorative effect has been measured by the ability of the drug to avoid the delay of skin allograft rejection induced by surgery and the inhibition of CD4/CD8 index changes induced by surgery in spleen tissue. 120 Wistar-Furth rats (age 12-16 weeks) anesthetized with a single intramuscular dose of ketamine (25 mg), diazepine (4 mg) and atropine (0.1 mg) were allotted to two main groups. One group received a skin graft (SG) from Fisher 344 rats and was treated with placebo, Inmunoferón (AM-3 polypeptidic drug) or TP-1 (thymostimulin) before the experiment (groups I, II, III) or treated with placebo, Inmunoferón or TP-1 before the experiment and underwent enterectomy and anastomosis (groups IV, V, VI). On the 2nd, 5th and 8th postoperative days, biopsies of the SG were taken and the signs of rejection were microscopically studied and evaluated by a pathologist as zero, incipient, moderate or massive. The other group was treated similarly, but the animals did not receive a SG and were splenectomized 5 days later. CD4 and CD8 lymphocyte subpopulations were identified by means of immunoperoxidase technique and monoclonal antibodies. Thymostimulin is able to stimulate the presence of SG rejection signs on the 2nd postoperative day in nonenterectomized animals and on the 8th postoperative day in nonenterectomized animals and on the 8th postoperative day in enterectomized rats and is able to avoid the decrease of the CD4/CD8 index in spleen tissue after surgical immunodepression.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Karlsson, Ida B.; Sonnenborg, Torben O.; Refsgaard, Jens Christian
2016-01-01
to cause little change in mean hydrological responses and little variation between hydrological models. Differences in hydrological model responses to land use were, however, significant for extremes due to dissimilarities in hydrological model structure and process equations. The climate model choice......Impact studies of the hydrological response of future climate change are important for the water authorities when risk assessment, management and adaptation to a changing climate are carried out. The objective of this study was to model the combined effect of land use and climate changes...... on hydrology for a 486 km2 catchment in Denmark and to evaluate the sensitivity of the results to the choice of hydrological model. Three hydrological models, NAM, SWAT and MIKE SHE, were constructed and calibrated using similar methods. Each model was forced with results from four climate models and four land...
Wyss, Richard; Ellis, Alan R.; Lunt, Mark; Brookhart, M. Alan; Glynn, Robert J.; Stürmer, Til
2014-01-01
Theory and simulations show that variables affecting the outcome only through exposure, known as instrumental variables (IVs), should be excluded from propensity score (PS) models. In pharmacoepidemiologic studies based on automated healthcare databases, researchers will sometimes use a single PS model to control for confounding when evaluating the effect of a treatment on multiple outcomes. Because these “full” models are not constructed with a specific outcome in mind, they will usually contain a large number of IVs for any individual study or outcome. If researchers subsequently decide to evaluate a subset of the outcomes in more detail, they can construct reduced “outcome-specific” models that exclude IVs for the particular study. Accurate estimates of PSs that do not condition on IVs, however, can be compromised when simply excluding instruments from the full PS model. This misspecification may have a negligible impact on effect estimates in many settings, but is likely to be more pronounced for situations where instruments modify the effects of covariates on treatment (instrument-confounder interactions). In studies evaluating drugs during early dissemination, the effects of covariates on treatment are likely modified over calendar time and IV-confounder interaction effects on treatment are likely to exist. In these settings, refitting more flexible PS models after excluding IVs and IV-confounder interactions can work well. The authors propose an alternative method based on the concept of marginalization that can be used to remove the negative effects of controlling for IVs and IV-confounder interactions without having to refit the full PS model. This method fits the full PS model, including IVs and IV-confounder interactions, but marginalizes over values of the instruments. Fitting more flexible PS models after excluding IVs or using the full model to marginalize over IVs can prevent model misspecification along with the negative effects of balancing
Direction of Effects in Multiple Linear Regression Models.
Wiedermann, Wolfgang; von Eye, Alexander
2015-01-01
Previous studies analyzed asymmetric properties of the Pearson correlation coefficient using higher than second order moments. These asymmetric properties can be used to determine the direction of dependence in a linear regression setting (i.e., establish which of two variables is more likely to be on the outcome side) within the framework of cross-sectional observational data. Extant approaches are restricted to the bivariate regression case. The present contribution extends the direction of dependence methodology to a multiple linear regression setting by analyzing distributional properties of residuals of competing multiple regression models. It is shown that, under certain conditions, the third central moments of estimated regression residuals can be used to decide upon direction of effects. In addition, three different approaches for statistical inference are discussed: a combined D'Agostino normality test, a skewness difference test, and a bootstrap difference test. Type I error and power of the procedures are assessed using Monte Carlo simulations, and an empirical example is provided for illustrative purposes. In the discussion, issues concerning the quality of psychological data, possible extensions of the proposed methods to the fourth central moment of regression residuals, and potential applications are addressed.
Urbanization effects on the microclimate of Manaus: A modeling study
Souza, Diego Oliveira de; Alvalá, Regina Célia dos Santos; Nascimento, Marília Guedes do
2016-01-01
Activities associated with land use and land cover changes and urbanization induce local impacts, such as changes in atmospheric composition in water and energy balances and changes in the ecosystem. Therefore, more studies are needed to evaluate the possible relationship between urban growth and local and regional changes. In the last 30 years, the population of Manaus grew by over 500%, with approximately 1.9 million inhabitants in 2010. Trying to understand the effects of the urban growth of the city of Manaus on its microclimate and atmospheric processes, the present study aims to evaluate the possible physical mechanisms related to the urbanization process observed through a study of atmospheric modeling. The results allowed to assess that the presence of the urban area significantly modifies the surface energy balance (SEB), generating a thermal gradient between the city and the surrounding regions, favoring the formation and intensification of local atmospheric circulations. The results indicated that with urban growth there is an increase in temperature, decrease in the atmospheric water content and significant changes in the flow at low levels, mainly in the breeze circulations, with significant changes observed in the structure and characteristic of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) over the study area. A positive correlation between the increase of the urban area and increased rainfall was also observed. From the results, it was possible to observe that there is a direct relationship between urban growth and changes in the local microclimate in Manaus.
An Effective Model for Improving Global Health Nursing Competence
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sunjoo Kang
2016-09-01
Full Text Available This paper developed an effective model for improving global health nursing competence among undergraduate students. A descriptive case study was conducted by implementing four programs. All programs were conducted with students majoring nursing and healthcare, where the researcher was a program director, professor, or facilitator. These programs were analyzed in terms of students’ needs assessment, program design, and implementation and evaluation factors. The concept and composition of global nursing competence, identified within previous studies, were deemed appropriate in all of our programs. Program composition varied from curricular to extracurricular domains. During the implementation phase, most of the programs included non-Korean students to improve cultural diversity and overcome language barriers. Qualitative and quantitative surveys were conducted to assess program efficacy. Data triangulation from students’ reflective journals was examined. Additionally, students’ awareness regarding changes within global health nursing, improved critical thinking, cultural understanding, and global leadership skills were investigated pre and post-program implementation. We discuss how identifying students’ needs regarding global nursing competence when developing appropriate curricula.
Effect of ozone on colon anastomoses in rat peritonitis model.
Çakır, Tuğrul; Aslaner, Arif; Tekeli, Seçkin Özgür; Avcı, Sema; Doğan, Uğur; Tekeli, Feyza; Soylu, Hakan; Akyüz, Cebrail; Koç, Süleyman; Üstünel, İsmail; Yılmaz, Necat
2016-02-01
To investigate the effects of medical ozone theraphy on the colon anastomosis of peritonitis model in rats. Eighteen rats were randomly assigned into three equal groups; control, cecal punctuation and colon anastomosis and ozone theraphy. Sepsis was performed with a cecal punctuation in groups 2 and 3. The medical ozone theraphy was administered intraperitonealy for three weeks in group 3 while the other rats received saline injection. At the twenty second day serum were obtained for TNF-α and IL-1β, the colonic burst pressures were measured and colonic tissue samples were obtained for MDA and MPO levels. Histolopatological examination was evaluated with H&E stain, and Ki-67, IL-1β and the VEGF immunostaining densities were also compared. Intraperitoneal ozone administration reversed TNF-α, IL-1β, MDA and MPO levels and the colonic burst pressures. There was also a significant difference at immunostaining densities of histopathological examination. Medical ozone therapy may contribute to tissue healing by affecting the proliferation and the vascularization thus has benefits on colonic anastomosis at peritonitis in rats.
The effect of thickness measurement on numerical arterial models.
de Gelidi, Serena; Tozzi, Gianluca; Bucchi, Andrea
2017-07-01
Several optical-based techniques for measuring the sample thickness (ST) of soft tissues have been proposed in the literature to overcome the limits of hand-operated procedures. However, ST measurement still remains arbitrary. The stress calculated during an experimental procedure, usually based on a constant thickness value for all samples, cannot be considered representative of the actual stress experienced by the tissue. Therefore, a new optical methodology to measure ST is proposed and compared to four different thickness estimations. A simplified aortic geometry, under physiologic pulsatile conditions, is used to assess the impact of ST measurement on stress predictions. An additional computational model investigates the effect of such thickness values on critical pressure levels that may instigate aneurysm formation in a homogeneous or artificially modified geometry. Comparing the results obtained for the application of a pulsatile load, wall stress values associated to minimum ST are at least 24kPa inferior to maximum ST. Critical pressure values appear to be inversely proportional to ST estimation: simulations, associated to maximum ST, predict aneurysm formation for pressure levels at least 7kPa inferior to minimum ST outcomes. Finally, the role of the strain-energy function used to fit the experimental data is demonstrated to be fundamental for predictions of aneurysm formation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Immunomodulatory effect of Hawthorn extract in an experimental stroke model.
Elango, Chinnasamy; Devaraj, Sivasithambaram Niranjali
2010-12-30
increased Foxp3-positive T(regs) in the brain, which may have aided in suppression of activated inflammatory cells. Such treatment also minimizes apoptotic cell death by influencing STAT-3 phosphorylation and Bcl-xL expression in the brain. Taken together, the immunomodulatory effect of Hawthorn extract may play a critical role in the neuroprotection observed in this MCAO-induced stroke model.
Immunomodulatory effect of Hawthorn extract in an experimental stroke model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Devaraj Sivasithambaram
2010-12-01
with I/R-induced injury, boosted IL-10 levels, and increased Foxp3-positive Tregs in the brain, which may have aided in suppression of activated inflammatory cells. Such treatment also minimizes apoptotic cell death by influencing STAT-3 phosphorylation and Bcl-xL expression in the brain. Taken together, the immunomodulatory effect of Hawthorn extract may play a critical role in the neuroprotection observed in this MCAO-induced stroke model.
Delocalization effects in quasi-1D models with correlated disorder
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tessieri, L [Instituto de Fisica y Matematicas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Edificio C-3, Ciudad Universitaria, 58060, Morelia, Mich. (Mexico); Izrailev, F M [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Apdo Postal J-48, Puebla, Pue 72570 (Mexico)
2006-09-22
We introduce a new approach to analyse the global structure of electronic states in quasi-1D models in terms of the dynamics of a system of parametric oscillators with time-dependent stochastic couplings. We thus extend to quasi-1D models the method previously applied to 1D disordered models. Using this approach, we show that a 'delocalization transition' can occur in quasi-1D models with weak disorder with long-range correlations.
Effects of Stochastic Traffic Flow Model on Expected System Performance
2012-12-01
feasible. 2.2.2 Brownian Bridge Stochastic Path Model Like the linear model, the Brownian bridge ( Karlin and Taylor 1981) model uses the idea of...IEEE Computer Vision and Pattern Recog- nition Workshop, Piscataway, New Jersey: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. Karlin , S
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Arun Krishnan
2012-01-01
Full Text Available A special mechanics/material phenomenon involving nanocomposites is the agglomeration of nanofillers at high volume fractions of nanofillers. Numerous experimental investigations on nanocomposites have indicated a significant decrease in mechanical properties, due to the agglomeration of nanofillers. This paper describes a simple effective flaw model to correlate the local mechanical behavior of agglomerated nanoparticles with the change in global strengths of nanocomposites. The estimated bending strength reduction from our model is shown to be similar to experimental results reported by previous researchers. These results can be used as a guide for future nanocomposite design and development. Future nanomaterial manufacturing should be focused on eliminating the largest agglomerates, rather than limiting the nanofiller volume fraction. Meanwhile, by reducing the nanofiller agglomerate size, we expect that a high critical nanofiller volume fraction could be obtained to delay the mechanical property reduction.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vladimir Burtman
2015-07-01
Full Text Available One of the major tasks of the petroleum resource-efficient technologies (pREFFIT is the development and improvement of the methods of exploration for energy resources. This review paper summarizes the results of the research on induced polarization (IP effect in reservoir rocks conducted by the University of Utah Consortium for Electromagnetic Modeling and Inversion (CEMI and TechnoImaging. The electrical IP effect in hydrocarbon (HC bearing reservoir rocks having nonmetallic minerals is usually associated with membrane polarization, which is caused by a variation in the mobility of the ions throughout the rock structure. This mobility is related to the size and shape of the pores filled with electrolyte and the double electrical layers. We have studied the IP response of multiphase porous systems by conducting complex resistivity (CR frequency-domain IP measurements for two different groups of samples: sands and sandstones containing salt water in pores and those whose unsaturated pores were filled with synthetic oil. We have also studied selected carbonate reservoir formations, typical of some major HC deposits. The generalized effective-medium theory of induced polarization (GEMTIP was used to analyze the IP parameters of the measured responses. This paper presents a conceptual model of polarizing clusters to explain the observed IP phenomena. The results of this study show that the HC bearing sands and sandstone samples and carbonate rocks are characterized by a significant IP response. These experimental observations, compared with the theoretical modeling based on the GEMTIP approach, confirm earlier geophysical experiments with the application of the IP method for HC exploration.
Nature of size effects in compact models of field effect transistors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Torkhov, N. A., E-mail: trkf@mail.ru [Tomsk State University, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Scientific-Research Institute of Semiconductor Devices, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Tomsk State University of Control Systems and Radioelectronics, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Babak, L. I.; Kokolov, A. A.; Salnikov, A. S.; Dobush, I. M. [Tomsk State University of Control Systems and Radioelectronics, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Novikov, V. A., E-mail: novikovvadim@mail.ru; Ivonin, I. V. [Tomsk State University, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation)
2016-03-07
Investigations have shown that in the local approximation (for sizes L < 100 μm), AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) structures satisfy to all properties of chaotic systems and can be described in the language of fractal geometry of fractional dimensions. For such objects, values of their electrophysical characteristics depend on the linear sizes of the examined regions, which explain the presence of the so-called size effects—dependences of the electrophysical and instrumental characteristics on the linear sizes of the active elements of semiconductor devices. In the present work, a relationship has been established for the linear model parameters of the equivalent circuit elements of internal transistors with fractal geometry of the heteroepitaxial structure manifested through a dependence of its relative electrophysical characteristics on the linear sizes of the examined surface areas. For the HEMTs, this implies dependences of their relative static (A/mm, mA/V/mm, Ω/mm, etc.) and microwave characteristics (W/mm) on the width d of the sink-source channel and on the number of sections n that leads to a nonlinear dependence of the retrieved parameter values of equivalent circuit elements of linear internal transistor models on n and d. Thus, it has been demonstrated that the size effects in semiconductors determined by the fractal geometry must be taken into account when investigating the properties of semiconductor objects on the levels less than the local approximation limit and designing and manufacturing field effect transistors. In general, the suggested approach allows a complex of problems to be solved on designing, optimizing, and retrieving the parameters of equivalent circuits of linear and nonlinear models of not only field effect transistors but also any arbitrary semiconductor devices with nonlinear instrumental characteristics.
Experimental determination and modelling of restricted water effects on bulkcarriers
Laforce, E.; Vantorre, M.
2006-01-01
Systematic captive motion tests on scale models of Panamax bulkcaniers of three different sizes were performed for open shallow water al 10% under keel clearance, in a trapezoidal standard cross section of a canal with 27 % blockage and in a scale model of a canal with varying width. Forces were measured and modelled. A technique of validation of the models by multi-harmonic test runs was developed. The models were used for an evaluation of the influence of ship length by fast-time simulation.
Interpreting parameters in the logistic regression model with random effects
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Klaus; Petersen, Jørgen Holm; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben
2000-01-01
interpretation, interval odds ratio, logistic regression, median odds ratio, normally distributed random effects......interpretation, interval odds ratio, logistic regression, median odds ratio, normally distributed random effects...
Effect of Sapindus trifoliatus on hyperalgesic in vivo migraine models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D.K. Arulmozhi
2005-03-01
Full Text Available Phytotherapies have offered alternative sources of therapy for migraine and gained much importance in prophylactic treatment. Sapindus trifoliatus is a medium-sized deciduous tree growing wild in south India that belongs to the family Sapindaceae. The pericarp is reported for various medicinal properties. A thick aqueous solution of the pericarp is used for the treatment of hemicrania, hysteria or epilepsy in folklore medicine. We have investigated the antihyperalgesic effects of the lyophilized aqueous extract of S. trifoliatus in animal models predictive of experimental migraine models using morphine withdrawal-induced hyperalgesia on the hot-plate test and on 0.3% acetic acid-induced abdominal constrictions in adult male Swiss albino mice. The extract significantly (N = 10, P < 0.05 increased the licking latency in the hot-plate test when administered ip at 10 mg/kg (6.70 ± 0.39 s in saline control vs 18.76 ± 0.96 s in S. trifoliatus-treated animals and significantly (N = 10, P < 0.001 reduced the abdominal constrictions when administered ip at 2 and 10 mg/kg (40.20 ± 1.36 in saline control vs 30.20 ± 1.33 and 23.00 ± 0.98 for 2 and 10 mg/kg, ip, respectively, in S. trifoliatus-treated animals. Furthermore, when administered ip at 20 and 100 mg/kg, the extract significantly (N = 10, P < 0.05 inhibited the apomorphine-induced climbing behavior in mice (climbing duration 15.75 ± 5.0 min for saline control vs 11.4 ± 1.28 and 3.9 ± 1.71 min for 20 and 100 mg/kg, respectively, in S. trifoliatus-treated animals. In receptor radioligand-binding studies, the extract exhibited affinity towards D2 receptors. The findings suggest that dopamine D2 antagonism could be the mechanism involved in the antihyperalgesic activity of the aqueous extract of S. trifoliatus.
Effect of Sapindus trifoliatus on hyperalgesic in vivo migraine models.
Arulmozhi, D K; Veeranjaneyulu, A; Bodhankar, S L; Arora, S K
2005-03-01
Phytotherapies have offered alternative sources of therapy for migraine and gained much importance in prophylactic treatment. Sapindus trifoliatus is a medium-sized deciduous tree growing wild in south India that belongs to the family Sapindaceae. The pericarp is reported for various medicinal properties. A thick aqueous solution of the pericarp is used for the treatment of hemicrania, hysteria or epilepsy in folklore medicine. We have investigated the antihyperalgesic effects of the lyophilized aqueous extract of S. trifoliatus in animal models predictive of experimental migraine models using morphine withdrawal-induced hyperalgesia on the hot-plate test and on 0.3% acetic acid-induced abdominal constrictions in adult male Swiss albino mice. The extract significantly (N = 10, P < 0.05) increased the licking latency in the hot-plate test when administered i.p. at 10 mg/kg (6.70 +/- 0.39 s in saline control vs 18.76 +/- 0.96 s in S. trifoliatus-treated animals) and significantly (N = 10, P < 0.001) reduced the abdominal constrictions when administered i.p. at 2 and 10 mg/kg (40.20 +/- 1.36 in saline control vs 30.20 +/- 1.33 and 23.00 +/- 0.98 for 2 and 10 mg/kg, i.p., respectively, in S. trifoliatus-treated animals). Furthermore, when administered i.p. at 20 and 100 mg/kg, the extract significantly (N = 10, P < 0.05) inhibited the apomorphine-induced climbing behavior in mice (climbing duration 15.75 +/- 5.0 min for saline control vs 11.4 +/- 1.28 and 3.9 +/- 1.71 min for 20 and 100 mg/kg, respectively, in S. trifoliatus-treated animals). In receptor radioligand-binding studies, the extract exhibited affinity towards D2 receptors. The findings suggest that dopamine D2 antagonism could be the mechanism involved in the antihyperalgesic activity of the aqueous extract of S. trifoliatus.
A modified microdosimetric kinetic model for relative biological effectiveness calculation
Chen, Yizheng; Li, Junli; Li, Chunyan; Qiu, Rui; Wu, Zhen
2018-01-01
In the heavy ion therapy, not only the distribution of physical absorbed dose, but also the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) weighted dose needs to be taken into account. The microdosimetric kinetic model (MKM) can predict the RBE value of heavy ions with saturation-corrected dose-mean specific energy, which has been used in clinical treatment planning at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences. In the theoretical assumption of the MKM, the yield of the primary lesion is independent of the radiation quality, while the experimental data shows that DNA double strand break (DSB) yield, considered as the main primary lesion, depends on the LET of the particle. Besides, the β parameter of the MKM is constant with LET resulting from this assumption, which also differs from the experimental conclusion. In this study, a modified MKM was developed, named MMKM. Based on the experimental DSB yield of mammalian cells under the irradiation of ions with different LETs, a RBEDSB (RBE for the induction of DSB)-LET curve was fitted as the correction factor to modify the primary lesion yield in the MKM, and the variation of the primary lesion yield with LET is considered in the MMKM. Compared with the present the MKM, not only the α parameter of the MMKM for mono-energetic ions agree with the experimental data, but also the β parameter varies with LET and the variation trend of the experimental result can be reproduced on the whole. Then a spread-out Bragg peaks (SOBP) distribution of physical dose was simulated with Geant4 Monte Carlo code, and the biological and clinical dose distributions were calculated, under the irradiation of carbon ions. The results show that the distribution of clinical dose calculated with the MMKM is closed to the distribution with the MKM in the SOBP, while the discrepancy before and after the SOBP are both within 10%. Moreover, the MKM might overestimate the clinical dose at the distal end of the SOBP more than 5% because of its
Effects of Fluoride on Two Chemical Models of Enamel Demineralization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ollie Yiru Yu
2017-10-01
Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects of fluoride on subsurface enamel demineralization induced by two commonly used chemical models. Forty-eight enamel blocks were demineralized at pH = 5.0 by an acetate buffer (Group 1, a lactate buffer (Group 2, an acetate buffer with 0.02 ppm fluoride (Group 3 and a lactate buffer with 0.02 ppm fluoride (Group 4 at 25 °C for 3 weeks. The surface destruction percentage (SDP, mineral loss and lesion depth of the blocks were studied using micro-computed tomography. An elemental analysis of the enamel surface was evaluated using an energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Surface micro-hardness was determined by the Knoop Hardness Test. The mean lesion depth of Groups 1 through 4 were 134.1 ± 27.2 μm, 96.1 ± 16.5 μm, 97.5 ± 22.4 μm and 91.1 ± 16.2 μm, respectively (p < 0.001; group 1 > 2, 3 > 4. The SDPs of groups 1 through 4 were 7.8 ± 8.93%, 0.71 ± 1.6%, 0.36 ± 1.70% and 1.36 ± 2.94% (p < 0.001; group 1 > 2, 3, 4. The fluoride in mean weight percentages of groups 1 through 4 were 1.12 ± 0.24%, 1.10 ± 0.20%, 1.45 ± 0.40% and 1.51 ± 0.51%, respectively (p < 0.001; group 3, 4 > 1, 2. The mean Knoop hardness values of groups 1 through 4 were 27.5 ± 13.3, 39.7 ± 19.3, 73.6 ± 44.2 and 91.0 ± 57.2, respectively (p < 0.001; group 4 > 3 > 2 > 1. The chemical model using an acetate buffer solution created significantly deeper zones of subsurface demineralization on enamel than the lactate buffer solution. An acetate buffer may damage the enamel surface, but the surface damage can be prevented by adding fluoride.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Juul, Rasmus V; Foster, David J R; Upton, Richard N
2014-01-01
The purpose of the study was to investigate placebo and buprenorphine effects on event-related potentials (ERPs) in experimental pain and the potential benefit of population pharmacodynamic modelling in data analysis. Nineteen healthy volunteers received transdermal placebo and buprenorphine......-effects modelling implemented in NONMEM (V7.2.0.). Pharmacodynamic models were developed to adequately describe both placebo and buprenorphine ERP data. Models predicted significant placebo effects, but did not predict significant effects related to buprenorphine concentration. Models revealed that ERPs varied both...
van Eijkeren, Jan C H; Olie, J. Daniël N; Bradberry, Sally M; Vale, J Allister; de Vries, Irma|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/41398625X; Clewell, Harvey J.; Meulenbelt, Jan; Hunault, Claudine C|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/297757849
CONTEXT: Kinetic models could assist clinicians potentially in managing cases of lead poisoning. Several models exist that can simulate lead kinetics but none of them can predict the effect of chelation in lead poisoning. Our aim was to devise a model to predict the effect of succimer
MODEL OF ANECHOIC CHAMBER FOR EVALUATING THE SHIELDING EFFECTIVENESS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Ján Zbojovský; Iraida Kolcunová; Marek Pavlík; Marek Češkovič; František Adamčík; Martin Krchňák
2017-01-01
.... This paper deals with model of anechoic chamber created in ANSYS HFSS. Model is created for evaluating the shielding effectiveness of materials with different properties. In that case it is possible to optimize the shielding effectiveness of materials with changing of its properties. Model works for frequency range from 1 to 10 GHz.
Modeling the Effects of Mortality on Sea Otter Populations
Bodkin, James L.; Ballachey, Brenda E.
2010-01-01
mortality in all simulations eventually led to low proportions of males, leading to instability in projected populations over time. Our findings identify the critical need to understand underlying rates of change that can be acquired only through frequent monitoring of managed populations. Models could be improved through better understanding of the effects of density and demographic and environmental stochasticity on sea otter vital rates. Although our primary objective was to provide information useful in managing harvests of sea otters, our findings have implications for the conservation and management of sea otter populations subjected to other sources of mortality that can be quantified, such as incidental, accidental, or illegal.
Estimating dose painting effects in radiotherapy: a mathematical model.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Juan Carlos López Alfonso
Full Text Available Tumor heterogeneity is widely considered to be a determinant factor in tumor progression and in particular in its recurrence after therapy. Unfortunately, current medical techniques are unable to deduce clinically relevant information about tumor heterogeneity by means of non-invasive methods. As a consequence, when radiotherapy is used as a treatment of choice, radiation dosimetries are prescribed under the assumption that the malignancy targeted is of a homogeneous nature. In this work we discuss the effects of different radiation dose distributions on heterogeneous tumors by means of an individual cell-based model. To that end, a case is considered where two tumor cell phenotypes are present, which we assume to strongly differ in their respective cell cycle duration and radiosensitivity properties. We show herein that, as a result of such differences, the spatial distribution of the corresponding phenotypes, whence the resulting tumor heterogeneity can be predicted as growth proceeds. In particular, we show that if we start from a situation where a majority of ordinary cancer cells (CCs and a minority of cancer stem cells (CSCs are randomly distributed, and we assume that the length of CSC cycle is significantly longer than that of CCs, then CSCs become concentrated at an inner region as tumor grows. As a consequence we obtain that if CSCs are assumed to be more resistant to radiation than CCs, heterogeneous dosimetries can be selected to enhance tumor control by boosting radiation in the region occupied by the more radioresistant tumor cell phenotype. It is also shown that, when compared with homogeneous dose distributions as those being currently delivered in clinical practice, such heterogeneous radiation dosimetries fare always better than their homogeneous counterparts. Finally, limitations to our assumptions and their resulting clinical implications will be discussed.
Modelling the effects of cerebral microvasculature morphology on oxygen transport.
Park, Chang Sub; Payne, Stephen J
2016-01-01
The cerebral microvasculature plays a vital role in adequately supplying blood to the brain. Determining the health of the cerebral microvasculature is important during pathological conditions, such as stroke and dementia. Recent studies have shown the complex relationship between cerebral metabolic rate and transit time distribution, the transit times of all the possible pathways available dependent on network topology. In this paper, we extend a recently developed technique to solve for residue function, the amount of tracer left in the vasculature at any time, and transit time distribution in an existing model of the cerebral microvasculature to calculate cerebral metabolism. We present the mathematical theory needed to solve for oxygen concentration followed by results of the simulations. It is found that oxygen extraction fraction, the fraction of oxygen removed from the blood in the capillary network by the tissue, and cerebral metabolic rate are dependent on both mean and heterogeneity of the transit time distribution. For changes in cerebral blood flow, a positive correlation can be observed between mean transit time and oxygen extraction fraction, and a negative correlation between mean transit time and metabolic rate of oxygen. A negative correlation can also be observed between transit time heterogeneity and the metabolic rate of oxygen for a constant cerebral blood flow. A sensitivity analysis on the mean and heterogeneity of the transit time distribution was able to quantify their respective contributions to oxygen extraction fraction and metabolic rate of oxygen. Mean transit time has a greater contribution than the heterogeneity for oxygen extraction fraction. This is found to be opposite for metabolic rate of oxygen. These results provide information on the role of the cerebral microvasculature and its effects on flow and metabolism. They thus open up the possibility of obtaining additional valuable clinical information for diagnosing and treating
Modelling the effects of cerebral microvasculature morphology on oxygen transport
Park, Chang Sub; Payne, Stephen J.
2016-01-01
The cerebral microvasculature plays a vital role in adequately supplying blood to the brain. Determining the health of the cerebral microvasculature is important during pathological conditions, such as stroke and dementia. Recent studies have shown the complex relationship between cerebral metabolic rate and transit time distribution, the transit times of all the possible pathways available dependent on network topology. In this paper, we extend a recently developed technique to solve for residue function, the amount of tracer left in the vasculature at any time, and transit time distribution in an existing model of the cerebral microvasculature to calculate cerebral metabolism. We present the mathematical theory needed to solve for oxygen concentration followed by results of the simulations. It is found that oxygen extraction fraction, the fraction of oxygen removed from the blood in the capillary network by the tissue, and cerebral metabolic rate are dependent on both mean and heterogeneity of the transit time distribution. For changes in cerebral blood flow, a positive correlation can be observed between mean transit time and oxygen extraction fraction, and a negative correlation between mean transit time and metabolic rate of oxygen. A negative correlation can also be observed between transit time heterogeneity and the metabolic rate of oxygen for a constant cerebral blood flow. A sensitivity analysis on the mean and heterogeneity of the transit time distribution was able to quantify their respective contributions to oxygen extraction fraction and metabolic rate of oxygen. Mean transit time has a greater contribution than the heterogeneity for oxygen extraction fraction. This is found to be opposite for metabolic rate of oxygen. These results provide information on the role of the cerebral microvasculature and its effects on flow and metabolism. They thus open up the possibility of obtaining additional valuable clinical information for diagnosing and treating
Galic, Nika; Grimm, Volker; Forbes, Valery E
2017-08-01
Freshwater ecosystems are exposed to many stressors, including toxic chemicals and global warming, which can impair, separately or in combination, important processes in organisms and hence higher levels of organization. Investigating combined effects of warming and toxicants has been a topic of little research, but neglecting their combined effects may seriously misguide management efforts. To explore how toxic chemicals and warming, alone and in combination, propagate across levels of biological organization, including a key ecosystem process, we developed an individual-based model (IBM) of a freshwater amphipod detritivore, Gammarus pseudolimnaeus, feeding on leaf litter. In this IBM, life history emerges from the individuals' energy budgets. We quantified, in different warming scenarios (+1-+4 °C), the effects of hypothetical toxicants on suborganismal processes, including feeding, somatic and maturity maintenance, growth, and reproduction. Warming reduced mean adult body sizes and population abundance and biomass, but only in the warmest scenarios. Leaf litter processing, a key contributor to ecosystem functioning and service delivery in streams, was consistently enhanced by warming, through strengthened interaction between the detritivorous consumer and its resource. Toxicant effects on feeding and maintenance resulted in initially small adverse effects on consumers, but ultimately led to population extinction and loss of ecosystem process. Warming in combination with toxicants had little effect at the individual and population levels, but ecosystem process was impaired in the warmer scenarios. Our results suggest that exposure to the same amount of toxicants can disproportionately compromise ecosystem processing depending on global warming scenarios; for example, reducing organismal feeding rates by 50% will reduce resource processing by 50% in current temperature conditions, but by up to 200% with warming of 4 °C. Our study has implications for
Modelling atmospheric turbulence effects on ground-based telescope systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bradford, L.W.; Flatte, S.M. [California Univ., Santa Cruz, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Max, C.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)
1993-09-30
Questions still exist concerning the appropriate model for turbulence- induced phase fluctuations seen in ground-based telescopes. Bester et al. used a particular observable (slope of the Allan variance) with an infrared interferometer in an attempt to distinguish models. The authors have calculated that observable for Kolmogorov and {open_quotes}random walk{close_quotes} models with a variety of outer scales and altitude-dependent turbulence and wind velocity. The authors have found that clear distinction between models requires good data on the vertical distribution of wind and turbulence. Furthermore, measurements at time separations of order 60 s are necessary to distinguish the {open_quotes}random walk{close_quotes} model from the Kolmogorov model.
General Friction Model Extended by the Effect of Strain Hardening
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Chris V.; Martins, Paulo A.F.; Bay, Niels
2016-01-01
contact area as function of the normalized contact pressure is based on slip-line analysis and hence on the assumption of rigid-ideally plastic material behavior. In the present work, a general finite element model is established to, firstly, reproduce the original model under the assumption of rigid......-ideally plastic material, and secondly, to extend the solution by the influence of material strain hardening. This corresponds to adding a new variable and, therefore, a new axis to the general friction model. The resulting model is presented in a combined function suitable for e.g. finite element modeling...... of friction in metal forming, where the material generally strain hardens. The extension of the model to cover strain hardening materials is validated by comparison to previously published experimental data....
Assessing the effects of symmetry on motif discovery and modeling.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lala M Motlhabi
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Identifying the DNA binding sites for transcription factors is a key task in modeling the gene regulatory network of a cell. Predicting DNA binding sites computationally suffers from high false positives and false negatives due to various contributing factors, including the inaccurate models for transcription factor specificity. One source of inaccuracy in the specificity models is the assumption of asymmetry for symmetric models. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using simulation studies, so that the correct binding site model is known and various parameters of the process can be systematically controlled, we test different motif finding algorithms on both symmetric and asymmetric binding site data. We show that if the true binding site is asymmetric the results are unambiguous and the asymmetric model is clearly superior to the symmetric model. But if the true binding specificity is symmetric commonly used methods can infer, incorrectly, that the motif is asymmetric. The resulting inaccurate motifs lead to lower sensitivity and specificity than would the correct, symmetric models. We also show how the correct model can be obtained by the use of appropriate measures of statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study demonstrates that the most commonly used motif-finding approaches usually model symmetric motifs incorrectly, which leads to higher than necessary false prediction errors. It also demonstrates how alternative motif-finding methods can correct the problem, providing more accurate motif models and reducing the errors. Furthermore, it provides criteria for determining whether a symmetric or asymmetric model is the most appropriate for any experimental dataset.
Mechanistic Modeling of the Effects of Acidosis on Thrombin Generation
2015-08-01
trick, MD. The Leiden Thrombophilia Study, completed previously (FRR), was funded by the Netherlands Heart Foundation (89-063). The authors declare...TAT) data on induced acidosis for an in vivo porcine model; the data values are des- ignated with square markers and were extracted from Figure 5 in...2, C and D). These model predictions were consistent with experi- mental results for a porcine model of acidosis (Fig. 2E).9 Figure 6. Thrombin
Effects of simulation language and modeling methodology on simulation modeling performance
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, T.J.
1987-01-01
Research in simulation modeling has made little advance over the past two decades. Many simulation languages and modeling methodologies were designed but not evaluated. Model developers were given no criteria for selecting from among these modeling tools. A framework of research in simulation modeling was developed to identify factors that might most affect simulation modeling performance. First, two simulation languages (MAGIE and GPSS) that differ greatly in complexity were compared. Both languages are similar in their design philosophy. However, MAGIE is a small simulation language with ten model building blocks while GPSS is a large simulation language with fifty-six model building blocks. Secondly, two modeling methodologies, namely the top-down and the bottom-up approaches, were compared. This research shows that it is feasible to apply the user-based empirical research methodology to study simulation modeling. It is also concluded that modeling with a large simulation language does not necessarily yield better results than modeling with a small simulation language. Furthermore, it was found that using the top-down modeling approach does not necessarily yield better results than using the bottom-up modeling approach.
Modeling effects of overstory density and competing vegetation on tree height growth
Christian Salas; Albert R. Stage; Andrew P. Robinson
2007-01-01
We developed and evaluated an individual-tree height growth model for Douglas-fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirbel) Franco] in the Inland Northwest United States. The model predicts growth for all tree sizes continuously, rather than requiring a transition between independent models for juvenile and mature growth phases. The model predicts the effects...
A Mixture Proportional Hazards Model with Random Effects for Response Times in Tests
Ranger, Jochen; Kuhn, Jörg-Tobias
2016-01-01
In this article, a new model for test response times is proposed that combines latent class analysis and the proportional hazards model with random effects in a similar vein as the mixture factor model. The model assumes the existence of different latent classes. In each latent class, the response times are distributed according to a…
Investigating the acoustic effect of the descended larynx with articulatory models
de Boer, B.
2010-01-01
A strongly simplified articulatory model, as well as three more realistic models are investigated for the effect of larynx height on the extent of vowel signaling space. The models explore a larger range of larynx positions than previous models, and the use of the convex hull for measuring
Idawati; Mahmud, Alimuddin; Dirawan, Gufran Darma
2016-01-01
The purpose of this research was to determine the effectiveness of a training model for capacity building of women entrepreneurship community-based. Research type approach Research and Development Model, which refers to the model of development research that developed by Romiszowki (1996) combined with a model of development Sugiono (2011) it was…