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Sample records for effective sound pressure

  1. The Effect of Superior Semicircular Canal Dehiscence on Intracochlear Sound Pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Hideko Heidi; Pisano, Dominic V.; Merchant, Saumil N.; Rosowski, John J.

    2011-11-01

    Semicircular canal dehiscence (SCD) is a pathological opening in the bony wall of the inner ear that can result in conductive hearing loss. The hearing loss is variable across patients, and the precise mechanism and source of variability is not fully understood. We use intracochlear sound pressure measurements in cadaveric preparations to study the effects of SCD size. Simultaneous measurement of basal intracochlear sound pressures in scala vestibuli (SV) and scala tympani (ST) quantifies the complex differential pressure across the cochlear partition, the stimulus that excites the partition. Sound-induced pressures in SV and ST, as well as stapes velocity and ear-canal pressure are measured simultaneously for various sizes of SCD followed by SCD patching. At low frequencies (<600 Hz) our results show that SCD decreases the pressure in both SV and ST, as well as differential pressure, and these effects become more pronounced as dehiscence size is increased. For frequencies above 1 kHz, the smallest pinpoint dehiscence can have the larger effect on the differential pressure in some ears. These effects due to SCD are reversible by patching the dehiscence.

  2. A note on measurement of sound pressure with intensity probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Peter; Jacobsen, Finn

    2004-01-01

    be improved under a variety of realistic sound field conditions by applying a different weighting of the two pressure signals from the probe. The improved intensity probe can measure the sound pressure more accurately at high frequencies than an ordinary sound intensity probe or an ordinary sound level meter......The effect of scattering and diffraction on measurement of sound pressure with "two-microphone" sound intensity probes is examined using an axisymmetric boundary element model of the probe. Whereas it has been shown a few years ago that the sound intensity estimated with a two-microphone probe...... is reliable up to 10 kHz when using 0.5 in. microphones in the usual face-to-face arrangement separated by a 12 mm spacer, the sound pressure measured with the same instrument will typically be underestimated at high frequencies. It is shown in this paper that the estimate of the sound pressure can...

  3. Effect of water vapor on sound absorption in nitrogen at low frequency/pressure ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerwar, A. J.; Griffin, W. A.

    1981-01-01

    Sound absorption measurements were made in N2-H2O binary mixtures at 297 K over the frequency/pressure range f/P of 0.1-2500 Hz/atm to investigate the vibrational relaxation peak of N2 and its location on f/P axis as a function of humidity. At low humidities the best fit to a linear relationship between the f/P(max) and humidity yields an intercept of 0.013 Hz/atm and a slope of 20,000 Hz/atm-mole fraction. The reaction rate constants derived from this model are lower than those obtained from the extrapolation of previous high-temperature data.

  4. Poetry Pages. Sound Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fina, Allan de

    1992-01-01

    Explains how elementary teachers can help students understand onomatopoeia, suggesting that they define onomatopoeia, share examples of it, read poems and have students discuss onomatopoeic words, act out common household sounds, write about sound effects, and create choral readings of onomatopoeic poems. Two appropriate poems are included. (SM)

  5. Sound field separation with sound pressure and particle velocity measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez Grande, Efren; Jacobsen, Finn; Leclère, Quentin

    2012-01-01

    separation techniques make it possible to distinguish between outgoing and incoming waves from the two sides, and thus NAH can be applied. In this paper, a separation method based on the measurement of the particle velocity in two layers and another method based on the measurement of the pressure...... and the velocity in a single layer are proposed. The two methods use an equivalent source formulation with separate transfer matrices for the outgoing and incoming waves, so that the sound from the two sides of the array can be modeled independently. A weighting scheme is proposed to account for the distance......In conventional near-field acoustic holography (NAH) it is not possible to distinguish between sound from the two sides of the array, thus, it is a requirement that all the sources are confined to only one side and radiate into a free field. When this requirement cannot be fulfilled, sound field...

  6. Evaluation of the effects of various sound pressure levels on the level of serum aldosterone concentration in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Nassiri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Noise exposure may have anatomical, nonauditory, and auditory influences. Considering nonauditory impacts, noise exposure can cause alterations in the automatic nervous system, including increased pulse rates, heightened blood pressure, and abnormal secretion of hormones. The present study aimed at examining the effect of various sound pressure levels (SPLs on the serum aldosterone level among rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 45 adult male rats with an age range of 3 to 4 months and a weight of 200 ± 50 g were randomly divided into 15 groups of three. Three groups were considered as the control groups and the rest (i.e., 12 groups as the case groups. Rats of the case groups were exposed to SPLs of 85, 95, and 105 dBA. White noise was used as the noise to which the rats were exposed. To measure the level of rats’ serum aldosterone, 3 mL of each rat’s sample blood was directly taken from the heart of anesthetized animals by using syringes. The taken blood samples were put in labeled test tubes that contained anticoagulant Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. In the laboratory, the level of aldosterone was assessed through Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay protocol. The collected data were analyzed by the use of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 18. Results: The results revealed that there was no significant change in the level of rats’ serum aldosterone as a result of exposure to SPLs of 65, 85, and 95 dBA. However, the level of serum aldosterone experienced a remarkable increase after exposure to the SPL of 105 dBA (P < 0.001. Thus, the SPL had a significant impact on the serum aldosterone level (P < 0.001. In contrast, the exposure time and the level of potassium in the used water did not have any measurable influence on the level of serum aldosterone (P = 0.25 and 0.39. Conclusion: The findings of this study demonstrated that serum aldosterone can be used as a biomarker in the face of sound

  7. Differential effects of suppressors on hazardous sound pressure levels generated by AR-15 rifles: Considerations for recreational shooters, law enforcement, and the military.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobarinas, Edward; Scott, Ryan; Spankovich, Christopher; Le Prell, Colleen G

    2016-01-01

    Firearm discharges produce hazardous levels of impulse noise that can lead to permanent hearing loss. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of suppression, ammunition, and barrel length on AR-15 rifles. Sound levels were measured left/right of a user's head, and 1-m left of the muzzle, per MIL-STD-1474-D, under both unsuppressed and suppressed conditions. Nine commercially available AR-15 rifles and 14 suppressors were used. Suppressors significantly decreased peak dB SPL at the 1-m location and the left ear location. However, under most rifle/ammunition conditions, levels remained above 140 dB peak SPL near a user's right ear. In a subset of conditions, subsonic ammunition produced values near or below 140 dB peak SPL. Overall suppression ranged from 7-32 dB across conditions. These data indicate that (1) suppressors reduce discharge levels to 140 dB peak SPL or below in only a subset of AR-15 conditions, (2) shorter barrel length and use of muzzle brake devices can substantially increase exposure level for the user, and (3) there are significant left/right ear sound pressure differences under suppressed conditions as a function of the AR-15 direct impingement design that must be considered during sound measurements to fully evaluate overall efficacy.

  8. Analysis of sound pressure levels emitted by children's toys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleifer, Pricila; Gonçalves, Maiara Santos; Tomasi, Marinês; Gomes, Erissandra

    2013-06-01

    To verify the levels of sound pressure emitted by non-certified children's toys. Cross-sectional study of sound toys available at popular retail stores of the so-called informal sector. Electronic, mechanical, and musical toys were analyzed. The measurement of each product was carried out by an acoustic engineer in an acoustically isolated booth, by a decibel meter. To obtain the sound parameters of intensity and frequency, the toys were set to produce sounds at a distance of 10 and 50cm from the researcher's ear. The intensity of sound pressure [dB(A)] and the frequency in hertz (Hz) were measured. 48 toys were evaluated. The mean sound pressure 10cm from the ear was 102±10 dB(A), and at 50cm, 94±8 dB(A), with ptoys was above 85dB(A). The frequency ranged from 413 to 6,635Hz, with 56.3% of toys emitting frequency higher than 2,000Hz. The majority of toys assessed in this research emitted a high level of sound pressure.

  9. Differential Intracochlear Sound Pressure Measurements in Normal Human Temporal Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Hideko Heidi; Dong, Wei; Olson, Elizabeth S.; Merchant, Saumil N.; Ravicz, Michael E.; Rosowski, John J.

    2009-02-01

    We present the first simultaneous sound pressure measurements in scala vestibuli and scala tympani of the cochlea in human cadaveric temporal bones. Micro-scale fiberoptic pressure sensors enabled the study of differential sound pressure at the cochlear base. This differential pressure is the input to the cochlear partition, driving cochlear waves and auditory transduction. Results showed that: pressure of scala vestibuli was much greater than scala tympani except at low and high frequencies where scala tympani pressure affects the input to the cochlea; the differential pressure proved to be an excellent measure of normal ossicular transduction of sound (shown to decrease 30-50 dB with ossicular disarticulation, whereas the individual scala pressures were significantly affected by non-ossicular conduction of sound at high frequencies); the middle-ear gain and differential pressure were generally bandpass in frequency dependence; and the middle-ear delay in the human was over twice that of the gerbil. Concurrent stapes velocity measurements allowed determination of the differential impedance across the partition and round-window impedance. The differential impedance was generally resistive, while the round-window impedance was consistent with a compliance in conjunction with distributed inertia and damping. Our techniques can be used to study inner-ear conductive pathologies (e.g., semicircular dehiscence), as well as non-ossicular cochlear stimulation (e.g., round-window stimulation) - situations that cannot be completely quantified by measurements of stapes velocity or scala-vestibuli pressure by themselves.

  10. A Loudness Function for Maintaining Spectral Balance at Changing Sound Pressure Levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sofus Birkedal

    Our perception of loudness is a function of frequency as well as sound pressure level as described in ISO226:2003: Normal Equal Loudness Level Contours, which describes the needed sound pressure level for pure tones to be perceived equally loud. At a music performance, this is taking care...... of by the sound engineer by listening to the individual sound sources and adjust and equalize them to the wanted spectral balance including the whole chain of audio equipment and surroundings. At a live venue the sound pressure level will normally change during a concert, and typically increase over time......B is doubling of the effect to the loudspeakers). A level depending digital loudness function has been made based on ISO226:2003, and will be demonstrated. It can maintain the spectral balance at alternating levels and is based on fractional order digital filters. Tutorial. Abstract T3.3 (30th August 16:00 - 17...

  11. Sounding experiments of high pressure gas discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biele, Joachim K.

    1998-01-01

    A high pressure discharge experiment (200 MPa, 5·10 21 molecules/cm 3 , 3000 K) has been set up to study electrically induced shock waves. The apparatus consists of the combustion chamber (4.2 cm 3 ) to produce high pressure gas by burning solid propellant grains to fill the electrical pump chamber (2.5 cm 3 ) containing an insulated coaxial electrode. Electrical pump energy up to 7.8 kJ at 10 kV, which is roughly three times of the gas energy in the pump chamber, was delivered by a capacitor bank. From the current-voltage relationship the discharge develops at rapidly decreasing voltage. Pressure at the combustion chamber indicating significant underpressure as well as overpressure peaks is followed by an increase of static pressure level. These data are not yet completely understood. However, Lorentz forces are believed to generate pinching with subsequent pinch heating, resulting in fast pressure variations to be propagated as rarefaction and shock waves, respectively. Utilizing pure axisymmetric electrode initiation rather than often used exploding wire technology in the pump chamber, repeatable experiments were achieved

  12. A Comparative Study of Sound Speed in Air at Room Temperature between a Pressure Sensor and a Sound Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrani, D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the comparison of sound speed measurements in air using two types of sensor that are widely employed in physics and engineering education, namely a pressure sensor and a sound sensor. A computer-based laboratory with pressure and sound sensors was used to carry out measurements of air through a 60 ml syringe. The fast Fourier…

  13. Semiconductor-based electret sensors for sound and pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorthuyzen, J.A.; Bergveld, Piet; Sprenkels, A.J.

    1989-01-01

    The theory and experimental results for integrated electret-based silicon sensors for the detection of sound and pressure are presented. A silicon electret microphone for use in hearing-aids is described. It has an experimentally determined sensitivity of 19 mV/Pa in the frequency range of 50 Hz to

  14. Hearing with an atympanic ear: good vibration and poor sound-pressure detection in the royal python, Python regius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Christian Bech; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Brandt, Christian; Madsen, Peter Teglberg

    2012-01-15

    Snakes lack both an outer ear and a tympanic middle ear, which in most tetrapods provide impedance matching between the air and inner ear fluids and hence improve pressure hearing in air. Snakes would therefore be expected to have very poor pressure hearing and generally be insensitive to airborne sound, whereas the connection of the middle ear bone to the jaw bones in snakes should confer acute sensitivity to substrate vibrations. Some studies have nevertheless claimed that snakes are quite sensitive to both vibration and sound pressure. Here we test the two hypotheses that: (1) snakes are sensitive to sound pressure and (2) snakes are sensitive to vibrations, but cannot hear the sound pressure per se. Vibration and sound-pressure sensitivities were quantified by measuring brainstem evoked potentials in 11 royal pythons, Python regius. Vibrograms and audiograms showed greatest sensitivity at low frequencies of 80-160 Hz, with sensitivities of -54 dB re. 1 m s(-2) and 78 dB re. 20 μPa, respectively. To investigate whether pythons detect sound pressure or sound-induced head vibrations, we measured the sound-induced head vibrations in three dimensions when snakes were exposed to sound pressure at threshold levels. In general, head vibrations induced by threshold-level sound pressure were equal to or greater than those induced by threshold-level vibrations, and therefore sound-pressure sensitivity can be explained by sound-induced head vibration. From this we conclude that pythons, and possibly all snakes, lost effective pressure hearing with the complete reduction of a functional outer and middle ear, but have an acute vibration sensitivity that may be used for communication and detection of predators and prey.

  15. Wind turbine sound pressure level calculations at dwellings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Stephen E; Feder, Katya; Voicescu, Sonia A; Soukhovtsev, Victor; Denning, Allison; Tsang, Jason; Broner, Norm; Leroux, Tony; Richarz, Werner; van den Berg, Frits

    2016-03-01

    This paper provides calculations of outdoor sound pressure levels (SPLs) at dwellings for 10 wind turbine models, to support Health Canada's Community Noise and Health Study. Manufacturer supplied and measured wind turbine sound power levels were used to calculate outdoor SPL at 1238 dwellings using ISO [(1996). ISO 9613-2-Acoustics] and a Swedish noise propagation method. Both methods yielded statistically equivalent results. The A- and C-weighted results were highly correlated over the 1238 dwellings (Pearson's linear correlation coefficient r > 0.8). Calculated wind turbine SPLs were compared to ambient SPLs from other sources, estimated using guidance documents from the United States and Alberta, Canada.

  16. Separation and reconstruction of high pressure water-jet reflective sound signal based on ICA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongtao; Sun, Yuling; Li, Meng; Zhang, Dongsu; Wu, Tianfeng

    2011-12-01

    The impact of high pressure water-jet on the different materials target will produce different reflective mixed sound. In order to reconstruct the reflective sound signals distribution on the linear detecting line accurately and to separate the environment noise effectively, the mixed sound signals acquired by linear mike array were processed by ICA. The basic principle of ICA and algorithm of FASTICA were described in detail. The emulation experiment was designed. The environment noise signal was simulated by using band-limited white noise and the reflective sound signal was simulated by using pulse signal. The reflective sound signal attenuation produced by the different distance transmission was simulated by weighting the sound signal with different contingencies. The mixed sound signals acquired by linear mike array were synthesized by using the above simulated signals and were whitened and separated by ICA. The final results verified that the environment noise separation and the reconstruction of the detecting-line sound distribution can be realized effectively.

  17. Temperature/pressure and water vapor sounding with microwave spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhleman, D. O.; Janssen, M. A.; Clancy, R. T.; Gulkis, S.; Mccleese, D. J.; Zurek, R.; Haberle, R. M.; Frerking, M.

    1992-01-01

    Two intense microwave spectra lines exist in the martian atmosphere that allow unique sounding capabilities: water vapor at 183 GHz and the (2-1) rotational line of CO at 230 GHz. Microwave spectra line sounding is a well-developed technique for the Earth's atmosphere for sounding from above from spacecraft and airplanes, and from below from fixed surface sites. Two simple instruments for temperature sounding on Mars (the CO line) and water vapor measurements are described. The surface sounder proposed for the MESUR sites is designed to study the boundary layer water vapor distribution and the temperature/pressure profiles with vertical resolution of 0.25 km up to 1 km with reduced resolution above approaching a scale height. The water channel will be sensitive to a few tenths of a micrometer of water and the temperature profile will be retrieved to an accuracy between 1 and 2 K. The latter is routinely done on the Earth using oxygen lines near 60 GHz. The measurements are done with a single-channel heterodyne receiver looking into a 10-cm mirror that is canned through a range of elevation angles plus a target load. The frequency of the receiver is sweep across the water and CO lines generating the two spectra at about 1-hr intervals throughout the mission. The mass and power for the proposed instrument are 2 kg and 5-8 W continuously. The measurements are completely immune to the atmospheric dust and ice particle loads. It was felt that these measurements are the ultimate ones to properly study the martian boundary layer from the surface to a few kilometers. Sounding from above requires an orbiting spacecraft with multichannel microwave spectrometers such as the instrument proposed for MO by a subset of the authors, a putative MESUR orbiter, and a proposed Discovery mission called MOES. Such an instrument can be built with less than 10 kg and use less than 15 W. The obvious advantage of this approach is that the entire atmosphere can be sounded for temperature and

  18. An analysis of collegiate band directors' exposure to sound pressure levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roebuck, Nikole Moore

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a significant but unfortunate common occupational hazard. The purpose of the current study was to measure the magnitude of sound pressure levels generated within a collegiate band room and determine if those sound pressure levels are of a magnitude that exceeds the policy standards and recommendations of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), and the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). In addition, reverberation times were measured and analyzed in order to determine the appropriateness of acoustical conditions for the band rehearsal environment. Sound pressure measurements were taken from the rehearsal of seven collegiate marching bands. Single sample t test were conducted to compare the sound pressure levels of all bands to the noise exposure standards of OSHA and NIOSH. Multiple regression analysis were conducted and analyzed in order to determine the effect of the band room's conditions on the sound pressure levels and reverberation times. Time weighted averages (TWA), noise percentage doses, and peak levels were also collected. The mean Leq for all band directors was 90.5 dBA. The total accumulated noise percentage dose for all band directors was 77.6% of the maximum allowable daily noise dose under the OSHA standard. The total calculated TWA for all band directors was 88.2% of the maximum allowable daily noise dose under the OSHA standard. The total accumulated noise percentage dose for all band directors was 152.1% of the maximum allowable daily noise dose under the NIOSH standards, and the total calculated TWA for all band directors was 93dBA of the maximum allowable daily noise dose under the NIOSH standard. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the room volume, the level of acoustical treatment and the mean room reverberation time predicted 80% of the variance in sound pressure levels in this study.

  19. Sound specificity effects in spoken word recognition: The effect of integrality between words and sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strori, Dorina; Zaar, Johannes; Cooke, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Recent evidence has shown that nonlinguistic sounds co-occurring with spoken words may be retained in memory and affect later retrieval of the words. This sound-specificity effect shares many characteristics with the classic voice-specificity effect. In this study, we argue that the sound......-specificity effect is conditional upon the context in which the word and sound coexist. Specifically, we argue that, besides co-occurrence, integrality between words and sounds is a crucial factor in the emergence of the effect. In two recognition-memory experiments, we compared the emergence of voice and sound...... from a mere co-occurrence context effect by removing the intensity modulation. The absence of integrality led to the disappearance of the sound-specificity effect. Taken together, the results suggest that the assimilation of background sounds into memory cannot be reduced to a simple context effect...

  20. Numerical Model on Sound-Solid Coupling in Human Ear and Study on Sound Pressure of Tympanic Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Wen-juan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Establishment of three-dimensional finite-element model of the whole auditory system includes external ear, middle ear, and inner ear. The sound-solid-liquid coupling frequency response analysis of the model was carried out. The correctness of the FE model was verified by comparing the vibration modes of tympanic membrane and stapes footplate with the experimental data. According to calculation results of the model, we make use of the least squares method to fit out the distribution of sound pressure of external auditory canal and obtain the sound pressure function on the tympanic membrane which varies with frequency. Using the sound pressure function, the pressure distribution on the tympanic membrane can be directly derived from the sound pressure at the external auditory canal opening. The sound pressure function can make the boundary conditions of the middle ear structure more accurate in the mechanical research and improve the previous boundary treatment which only applied uniform pressure acting to the tympanic membrane.

  1. A Model to Determine the Level of Serum Aldosterone in the Workers Attributed to the Combined Effects of Sound Pressure Level, Exposure Time and Serum Potassium Level: A Field-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Nassiri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Occupational exposure to excessive noise is one of the biggest work-related challenges in the world. This phenomenon causes the release of stress-related hormones, which in turn, negatively affects cardiovascular risk factors. Objectives The current study study aimed to determine the level of workers’ serum aldosterone in light of the combined effect of sound pressure level, exposure time and serum potassium level. Methods This cross-sectional, descriptive, analytical study was conducted on 45 workers of Gol-Gohar Mining and Industrial Company in the fall of 2014. The subjects were divided into three groups (one control and two case groups, each including 15 workers. Participants in the control group were selected from workers with administrative jobs (exposure to the background noise. On the other hand, participants in the case groups were selected from the concentrator and pelletizing factories exposed to excessive noise. Serum aldosterone and potassium levels of participants were assessed at three different time intervals: at the beginning of the shift and before exposure to noise (7:30 - 8:00 AM, during exposure to noise (10:00 - 10:30 AM, and during continuous exposure (1:30 - 2:00 PM. The obtained data were transferred into SPSS ver. 18. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA was used to develop the statistical model of workers’ aldosterone level in light of the combined effect of sound pressure level, exposure time, and serum potassium level. Results The results of the final statistical model to determine the level of serum aldosterone based on the combined effect of sound pressure level, exposure time and serum potassium level indicated that the sound pressure level had a significant influence on the human’s serum aldosterone level (P = 0.04. In addition, the effects of exposure time and serum potassium on aldosterone level were statistically significant with P-values of 0.008 and 0.001, respectively. Conclusions

  2. Sound pressure gain produced by the human middle ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, H; Goode, R L

    1995-10-01

    The acoustic function of the middle ear is to match sound passing from the low impedance of air to the high impedance of cochlear fluid. Little information is available on the actual middle ear pressure gain in human beings. This article describes experiments on middle ear pressure gain in six fresh human temporal bones. Stapes footplate displacement and phase were measured with a laser Doppler vibrometer before and after removal of the tympanic membrane, malleus, and incus. Acoustic insulation of the round window with clay was performed. Umbo displacement was also measured before tympanic membrane removal to assess baseline tympanic membrane function. The middle ear has its major gain in the lower frequencies, with a peak near 0.9 kHz. The mean gain was 23.0 dB below 1.0 kHz, the resonant frequency of the middle ear; the mean peak gain was 26.6 dB. Above 1.0 kHz, the second pressure gain decreased at a rate of -8.6 dB/octave, with a mean gain of 6.5 dB at 4.0 kHz. Only a small amount of gain was present above 7.0 kHz. Significant individual differences in pressure gain were found between ears that appeared related to variations in tympanic membrane function and not to variations in cochlear impedance.

  3. Second sound, osmotic pressure, and Fermi-liquid parameters in 3He-4He solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corruccini, L.R.

    1984-01-01

    Second-sound velocities and osmotic pressures are analyzed to obtain the first experimental values for the Landau compressibility parameter F 0 /sup s/ in 3 He- 4 He solutions. Data are presented as a function of pressure and 3 He concentration, and are compared to theoretical predictions. The square of the second-sound velocity at finite temperature is found to be accurately proportional to the internal energy of a perfect Fermi gas. Using inertial effective masses given by the Landau-Pomeranchuk theory, the square of the velocity is found to separate into two parts: a temperature-dependent part characterized completely by ideal Fermi-gas behavior and a temperature-independent part containing all the Fermi-liquid corrections. This is related to a similar separation found in the osmotic pressure

  4. Effect of Sound Waves on Decarburization Rate of Fe-C Melt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarov, Sergey V.; Sano, Masamichi

    2018-02-01

    Sound waves have the ability to propagate through a gas phase and, thus, to supply the acoustic energy from a sound generator to materials being processed. This offers an attractive tool, for example, for controlling the rates of interfacial reactions in steelmaking processes. This study investigates the kinetics of decarburization in molten Fe-C alloys, the surface of which was exposed to sound waves and Ar-O2 gas blown onto the melt surface. The main emphasis is placed on clarifying effects of sound frequency, sound pressure, and gas flow rate. A series of water model experiments and numerical simulations are also performed to explain the results of high-temperature experiments and to elucidate the mechanism of sound wave application. This is explained by two phenomena that occur simultaneously: (1) turbulization of Ar-O2 gas flow by sound wave above the melt surface and (2) motion and agitation of the melt surface when exposed to sound wave. It is found that sound waves can both accelerate and inhibit the decarburization rate depending on the Ar-O2 gas flow rate and the presence of oxide film on the melt surface. The effect of sound waves is clearly observed only at higher sound pressures on resonance frequencies, which are defined by geometrical features of the experimental setup. The resonance phenomenon makes it difficult to separate the effect of sound frequency from that of sound pressure under the present experimental conditions.

  5. Sound specificity effects in spoken word recognition: The effect of integrality between words and sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strori, Dorina; Zaar, Johannes; Cooke, Martin; Mattys, Sven L

    2018-01-01

    Recent evidence has shown that nonlinguistic sounds co-occurring with spoken words may be retained in memory and affect later retrieval of the words. This sound-specificity effect shares many characteristics with the classic voice-specificity effect. In this study, we argue that the sound-specificity effect is conditional upon the context in which the word and sound coexist. Specifically, we argue that, besides co-occurrence, integrality between words and sounds is a crucial factor in the emergence of the effect. In two recognition-memory experiments, we compared the emergence of voice and sound specificity effects. In Experiment 1 , we examined two conditions where integrality is high. Namely, the classic voice-specificity effect (Exp. 1a) was compared with a condition in which the intensity envelope of a background sound was modulated along the intensity envelope of the accompanying spoken word (Exp. 1b). Results revealed a robust voice-specificity effect and, critically, a comparable sound-specificity effect: A change in the paired sound from exposure to test led to a decrease in word-recognition performance. In the second experiment, we sought to disentangle the contribution of integrality from a mere co-occurrence context effect by removing the intensity modulation. The absence of integrality led to the disappearance of the sound-specificity effect. Taken together, the results suggest that the assimilation of background sounds into memory cannot be reduced to a simple context effect. Rather, it is conditioned by the extent to which words and sounds are perceived as integral as opposed to distinct auditory objects.

  6. Hearing with an atympanic ear: good vibration and poor sound-pressure detection in the royal python, Python regius

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Christian Bech; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Brandt, Christian

    2012-01-01

    are sensitive to sound pressure and (2) snakes are sensitive to vibrations, but cannot hear the sound pressure per se. Vibration and sound-pressure sensitivities were quantified by measuring brainstem evoked potentials in 11 royal pythons, Python regius. Vibrograms and audiograms showed greatest sensitivity...... at low frequencies of 80-160 Hz, with sensitivities of -54 dB re. 1 m s(-2) and 78 dB re. 20 μPa, respectively. To investigate whether pythons detect sound pressure or sound-induced head vibrations, we measured the sound-induced head vibrations in three dimensions when snakes were exposed to sound...... pressure at threshold levels. In general, head vibrations induced by threshold-level sound pressure were equal to or greater than those induced by threshold-level vibrations, and therefore sound-pressure sensitivity can be explained by sound-induced head vibration. From this we conclude that pythons...

  7. Problems in nonlinear acoustics: Scattering of sound by sound, parametric receiving arrays, nonlinear effects in asymmetric sound beams and pulsed finite amplitude sound beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Mark F.

    1989-08-01

    Four projects are discussed in this annual summary report, all of which involve basic research in nonlinear acoustics: Scattering of Sound by Sound, a theoretical study of two nonconlinear Gaussian beams which interact to produce sum and difference frequency sound; Parametric Receiving Arrays, a theoretical study of parametric reception in a reverberant environment; Nonlinear Effects in Asymmetric Sound Beams, a numerical study of two dimensional finite amplitude sound fields; and Pulsed Finite Amplitude Sound Beams, a numerical time domain solution of the KZK equation.

  8. How male sound pressure level influences phonotaxis in virgin female Jamaican field crickets (Gryllus assimilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Pacheco

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding female mate preference is important for determining the strength and direction of sexual trait evolution. The sound pressure level (SPL acoustic signalers use is often an important predictor of mating success because higher sound pressure levels are detectable at greater distances. If females are more attracted to signals produced at higher sound pressure levels, then the potential fitness impacts of signalling at higher sound pressure levels should be elevated beyond what would be expected from detection distance alone. Here we manipulated the sound pressure level of cricket mate attraction signals to determine how female phonotaxis was influenced. We examined female phonotaxis using two common experimental methods: spherical treadmills and open arenas. Both methods showed similar results, with females exhibiting greatest phonotaxis towards loud sound pressure levels relative to the standard signal (69 vs. 60 dB SPL but showing reduced phonotaxis towards very loud sound pressure level signals relative to the standard (77 vs. 60 dB SPL. Reduced female phonotaxis towards supernormal stimuli may signify an acoustic startle response, an absence of other required sensory cues, or perceived increases in predation risk.

  9. Sound pressure distribution within natural and artificial human ear canals: forward stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravicz, Michael E; Tao Cheng, Jeffrey; Rosowski, John J

    2014-12-01

    This work is part of a study of the interaction of sound pressure in the ear canal (EC) with tympanic membrane (TM) surface displacement. Sound pressures were measured with 0.5-2 mm spacing at three locations within the shortened natural EC or an artificial EC in human temporal bones: near the TM surface, within the tympanic ring plane, and in a plane transverse to the long axis of the EC. Sound pressure was also measured at 2-mm intervals along the long EC axis. The sound field is described well by the size and direction of planar sound pressure gradients, the location and orientation of standing-wave nodal lines, and the location of longitudinal standing waves along the EC axis. Standing-wave nodal lines perpendicular to the long EC axis are present on the TM surface >11-16 kHz in the natural or artificial EC. The range of sound pressures was larger in the tympanic ring plane than at the TM surface or in the transverse EC plane. Longitudinal standing-wave patterns were stretched. The tympanic-ring sound field is a useful approximation of the TM sound field, and the artificial EC approximates the natural EC.

  10. A study on impulsive sound attenuation for a high-pressure blast flow field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Kuk Jeong; Ko, Sung Ho; Lee, Dong Soo

    2008-01-01

    The present work addresses a numerical study on impulsive sound attenuation for a complex high-pressure blast flow field; these characteristics are generated by a supersonic propellant gas flow through a shock tube into an ambient environment. A numerical solver for analyzing the high pressure blast flow field is developed in this study. From numerical simulations, wave dynamic processes (which include a first precursor shock wave, a second main propellant shock wave, and interactions in the muzzle blasts) are simulated and discussed. The pressure variation of the blast flow field is analyzed to evaluate the effect of a silencer. A live firing test is also performed to evaluate four different silencers. The results of this study will be helpful in understanding blast wave and in designing silencers

  11. A study on impulsive sound attenuation for a high-pressure blast flow field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Kuk Jeong [Agency for Defence Development, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Sung Ho; Lee, Dong Soo [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-01-15

    The present work addresses a numerical study on impulsive sound attenuation for a complex high-pressure blast flow field; these characteristics are generated by a supersonic propellant gas flow through a shock tube into an ambient environment. A numerical solver for analyzing the high pressure blast flow field is developed in this study. From numerical simulations, wave dynamic processes (which include a first precursor shock wave, a second main propellant shock wave, and interactions in the muzzle blasts) are simulated and discussed. The pressure variation of the blast flow field is analyzed to evaluate the effect of a silencer. A live firing test is also performed to evaluate four different silencers. The results of this study will be helpful in understanding blast wave and in designing silencers

  12. Differential Intracochlear Sound Pressure Measurements in Human Temporal Bones with an Off-the-Shelf Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Grossöhmichen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The standard method to determine the output level of acoustic and mechanical stimulation to the inner ear is measurement of vibration response of the stapes in human cadaveric temporal bones (TBs by laser Doppler vibrometry. However, this method is reliable only if the intact ossicular chain is stimulated. For other stimulation modes an alternative method is needed. The differential intracochlear sound pressure between scala vestibuli (SV and scala tympani (ST is assumed to correlate with excitation. Using a custom-made pressure sensor it has been successfully measured and used to determine the output level of acoustic and mechanical stimulation. To make this method generally accessible, an off-the-shelf pressure sensor (Samba Preclin 420 LP, Samba Sensors was tested here for intracochlear sound pressure measurements. During acoustic stimulation, intracochlear sound pressures were simultaneously measurable in SV and ST between 0.1 and 8 kHz with sufficient signal-to-noise ratios with this sensor. The pressure differences were comparable to results obtained with custom-made sensors. Our results demonstrated that the pressure sensor Samba Preclin 420 LP is usable for measurements of intracochlear sound pressures in SV and ST and for the determination of differential intracochlear sound pressures.

  13. Sound

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2003-01-01

    Muddled about what makes music? Stuck on the study of harmonics? Dumbfounded by how sound gets around? Now you no longer have to struggle to teach concepts you really don t grasp yourself. Sound takes an intentionally light touch to help out all those adults science teachers, parents wanting to help with homework, home-schoolers seeking necessary scientific background to teach middle school physics with confidence. The book introduces sound waves and uses that model to explain sound-related occurrences. Starting with the basics of what causes sound and how it travels, you'll learn how musical instruments work, how sound waves add and subtract, how the human ear works, and even why you can sound like a Munchkin when you inhale helium. Sound is the fourth book in the award-winning Stop Faking It! Series, published by NSTA Press. Like the other popular volumes, it is written by irreverent educator Bill Robertson, who offers this Sound recommendation: One of the coolest activities is whacking a spinning metal rod...

  14. Similarities between the irrelevant sound effect and the suffix effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, J Richard; Bourgaize, Jake

    2018-03-29

    Although articulatory suppression abolishes the effect of irrelevant sound (ISE) on serial recall when sequences are presented visually, the effect persists with auditory presentation of list items. Two experiments were designed to test the claim that, when articulation is suppressed, the effect of irrelevant sound on the retention of auditory lists resembles a suffix effect. A suffix is a spoken word that immediately follows the final item in a list. Even though participants are told to ignore it, the suffix impairs serial recall of auditory lists. In Experiment 1, the irrelevant sound consisted of instrumental music. The music generated a significant ISE that was abolished by articulatory suppression. It therefore appears that, when articulation is suppressed, irrelevant sound must contain speech for it to have any effect on recall. This is consistent with what is known about the suffix effect. In Experiment 2, the effect of irrelevant sound under articulatory suppression was greater when the irrelevant sound was spoken by the same voice that presented the list items. This outcome is again consistent with the known characteristics of the suffix effect. It therefore appears that, when rehearsal is suppressed, irrelevant sound disrupts the acoustic-perceptual encoding of auditorily presented list items. There is no evidence that the persistence of the ISE under suppression is a result of interference to the representation of list items in a postcategorical phonological store.

  15. Speed of sound as a function of temperature and pressure for propane derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yebra, Francisco; Zemánková, Katerina; Troncoso, Jacobo

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • New speed of sound data for six propane derivatives is reported. • Temperature and pressure ranges: (283.15–343.15) K and (0.1–95) MPa. • Data are compared with those available for other propane derivatives. • Temperature and pressure dependencies of sound speed are analyzed. - Abstract: The speed of sound in the temperature and pressure intervals (283.15–343.15) K and (0.1–95) MPa was measured for nitropropane, propionitrile, 1,2-dichloropropane, 1,3-dichloropropane, propylamine and propionic acid. An apparatus based on the acoustic wave time of flight determination, with a fully automatized temperature and pressure control, was used to this aim. The speed of sound derivatives against temperature and pressure, as well as the nonlinear acoustic coefficient was obtained from experimental values. The results are analyzed and compared with previously reported data for other propane derivatives: propane, 1-propanol, propanone, d-propanone, and several fluoropropanes. All obtained magnitudes are rationalized basing on the physicochemical properties of these fluids. Nearness to critical point and molar mass are revealed as key factors as regards the speed of sound behavior against temperature and pressure.

  16. Inner-ear sound pressures near the base of the cochlea in chinchilla: Further investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravicz, Michael E.; Rosowski, John J.

    2013-01-01

    The middle-ear pressure gain GMEP, the ratio of sound pressure in the cochlear vestibule PV to sound pressure at the tympanic membrane PTM, is a descriptor of middle-ear sound transfer and the cochlear input for a given stimulus in the ear canal. GMEP and the cochlear partition differential pressure near the cochlear base ΔPCP, which determines the stimulus for cochlear partition motion and has been linked to hearing ability, were computed from simultaneous measurements of PV, PTM, and the sound pressure in scala tympani near the round window PST in chinchilla. GMEP magnitude was approximately 30 dB between 0.1 and 10 kHz and decreased sharply above 20 kHz, which is not consistent with an ideal transformer or a lossless transmission line. The GMEP phase was consistent with a roughly 50-μs delay between PV and PTM. GMEP was little affected by the inner-ear modifications necessary to measure PST. GMEP is a good predictor of ΔPCP at low and moderate frequencies where PV ⪢ PST but overestimates ΔPCP above a few kilohertz where PV ≈ PST. The ratio of PST to PV provides insight into the distribution of sound pressure within the cochlear scalae. PMID:23556590

  17. Sound and sound sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Wahlberg, Magnus

    2017-01-01

    There is no difference in principle between the infrasonic and ultrasonic sounds, which are inaudible to humans (or other animals) and the sounds that we can hear. In all cases, sound is a wave of pressure and particle oscillations propagating through an elastic medium, such as air. This chapter...... is about the physical laws that govern how animals produce sound signals and how physical principles determine the signals’ frequency content and sound level, the nature of the sound field (sound pressure versus particle vibrations) as well as directional properties of the emitted signal. Many...... of these properties are dictated by simple physical relationships between the size of the sound emitter and the wavelength of emitted sound. The wavelengths of the signals need to be sufficiently short in relation to the size of the emitter to allow for the efficient production of propagating sound pressure waves...

  18. Sound absorption effects in a rectangular enclosure with the foamed aluminum sheet absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jae Eung; Chung, Jin Tai; Kim, Sang Hun; Chung, Kyung Ryul

    1998-01-01

    For the purpose of finding out the optimal thickness of sound absorber and the sound absorption effects due to the selected thickness at an interested frequency range, the analytical study identifies the interior and exterior sound field characteristics of a rectangular enclosure with foamed aluminum lining and the experimental verification is performed with random noise input. By using a two-microphone impedance tube, we measure experimentally the absorption coefficient and the impedance of simple sound absorbing materials. Measured acoustical parameters of the test samples are applied to the theoretical analysis to predict sound pressure field in the cavity. The sound absorption effects from measurements are compared to predicted ones in both cases with and without foamed aluminum lining in the cavity of the rectangular enclosure

  19. Investigating the relationship between pressure force and acoustic waveform in footstep sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grani, Francesco; Serafin, Stefania; Götzen, Amalia De

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present an inquiry into of the relationships between audio waveforms and ground reaction force in recorded footstep sounds. In an anechoic room, we recorded several footstep sounds produced while walking on creaking wood and gravel. The recordings were performed by using a pair o...... of sandals embedded with six pressure sensors each. Investigations of the relationships between recorded force and footstep sounds is presented, together with several possible applications of the system.......In this paper we present an inquiry into of the relationships between audio waveforms and ground reaction force in recorded footstep sounds. In an anechoic room, we recorded several footstep sounds produced while walking on creaking wood and gravel. The recordings were performed by using a pair...

  20. MP3 player listening sound pressure levels among 10 to 17 year old students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Stephen E; Michaud, David S; Feder, Katya; Haider, Ifaz; Marro, Leonora; Thompson, Emma; Marcoux, Andre M

    2011-11-01

    Using a manikin, equivalent free-field sound pressure level measurements were made from the portable digital audio players of 219 subjects, aged 10 to 17 years (93 males) at their typical and "worst-case" volume levels. Measurements were made in different classrooms with background sound pressure levels between 40 and 52 dBA. After correction for the transfer function of the ear, the median equivalent free field sound pressure levels and interquartile ranges (IQR) at typical and worst-case volume settings were 68 dBA (IQR = 15) and 76 dBA (IQR = 19), respectively. Self-reported mean daily use ranged from 0.014 to 12 h. When typical sound pressure levels were considered in combination with the average daily duration of use, the median noise exposure level, Lex, was 56 dBA (IQR = 18) and 3.2% of subjects were estimated to exceed the most protective occupational noise exposure level limit in Canada, i.e., 85 dBA Lex. Under worst-case listening conditions, 77.6% of the sample was estimated to listen to their device at combinations of sound pressure levels and average daily durations for which there is no known risk of permanent noise-induced hearing loss, i.e., ≤  75 dBA Lex. Sources and magnitudes of measurement uncertainties are also discussed.

  1. Experimental analysis of considering the sound pressure distribution pattern at the ear canal entrance as an unrevealed head-related localization clue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TONG Xin; QI Na; MENG Zihou

    2018-01-01

    By analyzing the differences between binaural recording and real listening,it was deduced that there were some unrevealed auditory localization clues,and the sound pressure distribution pattern at the entrance of ear canal was probably a clue.It was proved through the listening test that the unrevealed auditory localization clues really exist with the reduction to absurdity.And the effective frequency bands of the unrevealed localization clues were induced and summed.The result of finite element based simulations showed that the pressure distribution at the entrance of ear canal was non-uniform,and the pattern was related to the direction of sound source.And it was proved that the sound pressure distribution pattern at the entrance of the ear canal carried the sound source direction information and could be used as an unrevealed localization cluc.The frequency bands in which the sound pressure distribution patterns had significant differences between front and back sound source directions were roughly matched with the effective frequency bands of unrevealed localization clues obtained from the listening tests.To some extent,it supports the hypothesis that the sound pressure distribution pattern could be a kind of unrevealed auditory localization clues.

  2. Near-field acoustic holography with sound pressure and particle velocity measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez Grande, Efren

    of the particle velocity has notable potential in NAH, and furthermore, combined measurement of sound pressure and particle velocity opens a new range of possibilities that are examined in this study. On this basis, sound field separation methods have been studied, and a new measurement principle based on double...... layer measurements of the particle velocity has been proposed. Also, the relation between near-field and far-field radiation from sound sources has been examined using the concept of the supersonic intensity. The calculation of this quantity has been extended to other holographic methods, and studied...

  3. Sheep as a large animal ear model: Middle-ear ossicular velocities and intracochlear sound pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péus, Dominik; Dobrev, Ivo; Prochazka, Lukas; Thoele, Konrad; Dalbert, Adrian; Boss, Andreas; Newcomb, Nicolas; Probst, Rudolf; Röösli, Christof; Sim, Jae Hoon; Huber, Alexander; Pfiffner, Flurin

    2017-08-01

    Animals are frequently used for the development and testing of new hearing devices. Dimensions of the middle ear and cochlea differ significantly between humans and commonly used animals, such as rodents or cats. The sheep cochlea is anatomically more like the human cochlea in size and number of turns. This study investigated the middle-ear ossicular velocities and intracochlear sound pressure (ICSP) in sheep temporal bones, with the aim of characterizing the sheep as an experimental model for implantable hearing devices. Measurements were made on fresh sheep temporal bones. Velocity responses of the middle ear ossicles at the umbo, long process of the incus and stapes footplate were measured in the frequency range of 0.25-8 kHz using a laser Doppler vibrometer system. Results were normalized by the corresponding sound pressure level in the external ear canal (P EC ). Sequentially, ICSPs at the scala vestibuli and tympani were then recorded with custom MEMS-based hydrophones, while presenting identical acoustic stimuli. The sheep middle ear transmitted most effectively around 4.8 kHz, with a maximum stapes velocity of 0.2 mm/s/Pa. At the same frequency, the ICSP measurements in the scala vestibuli and tympani showed the maximum gain relative to the P EC (24 dB and 5 dB, respectively). The greatest pressure difference across the cochlear partition occurred between 4 and 6 kHz. A comparison between the results of this study and human reference data showed middle-ear resonance and best cochlear sensitivity at higher frequencies in sheep. In summary, sheep can be an appropriate large animal model for research and development of implantable hearing devices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of direction on loudness for wideband and reverberant sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivonen, Ville Pekka; Ellermeier, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    The effect of incidence angle on loudness was investigated for wideband and reverberant sounds. In an adaptive procedure, five listeners matched the loudness of a sound coming from five incidence angles in the horizontal plane to that of the same sound with frontal incidence. The stimuli were...... presented to the listeners via individual binaural synthesis. The results confirm that loudness depends on sound incidence angle, as it does for narrow-band, anechoic sounds. The directional effects, however, were attenuated with the wideband and reverberant stimuli used in the present investigation....

  5. Equivalent threshold sound pressure levels (ETSPL) for Interacoustics DD 45 supra-aural audiometric earphones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the determination and results of pure tone Equivalent Threshold Sound Pressure Levels for the Interacoustics DD45 audiometric earphone equipped with standard Model 51 cushions. The size and shape of the DD45 transducer resembles the classical Telephonics TDH 39 earphone. Pure...... tone hearing threshold measurements were performed for both ears of 29 test subjects. All audiometric frequencies from 125 Hz to 8 kHz were used. The data are intended for inclusion in future standardized Reference Equivalent Threshold Sound Pressure Levels. The results show that the DD45 may be a good...

  6. Pressure sound level measurements at an educational environment in Goiania, Goias, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Jhonatha J.L.; Nascimento, Eriberto O. do; Oliveira, Lucas N. de; Caldas, Linda V. E.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, twenty five points located on the ground floor of the Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Goias - IFG - Campus Goiania, were analyzed in morning periods of two Saturdays. The pressure sound levels were measured at internal and external environments during routine activities seeking to perform an environmental monitoring at this institution. The initial hypothesis was that an amusement park (Mutirama Park) was responsible for originating noise pollution in the institution, but the results showed, within the campus environment, sound pressure levels in accordance with the Municipal legislation of Goiania for all points. (author)

  7. Pressure sound level measurements at an educational environment in Goiania, Goias, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Jhonatha J.L.; Nascimento, Eriberto O. do; Oliveira, Lucas N. de [Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia de Goiás (IFG), Goiânia, GO (Brazil); Caldas, Linda V. E., E-mail: lcaldas@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    In this work, twenty five points located on the ground floor of the Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Goias - IFG - Campus Goiania, were analyzed in morning periods of two Saturdays. The pressure sound levels were measured at internal and external environments during routine activities seeking to perform an environmental monitoring at this institution. The initial hypothesis was that an amusement park (Mutirama Park) was responsible for originating noise pollution in the institution, but the results showed, within the campus environment, sound pressure levels in accordance with the Municipal legislation of Goiania for all points. (author)

  8. Line pressure effects on differential pressure measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neff, G.G.; Evans, R.P.

    1982-01-01

    The performance of differential pressure transducers in experimental pressurized water reactor (PWR) systems was evaluated. Transient differential pressure measurements made using a simple calibration proportionality relating differential pressure to output voltage could have large measurement uncertainties. A more sophisticated calibration equation was derived to incorporate the effects of zero shifts and sensitivity shifts as pressure in the pressure sensing line changes with time. A comparison made between the original calibration proportionality equation and the derived compensation equation indicates that potential measurement uncertainties can be reduced

  9. Tutorial and Guidelines on Measurement of Sound Pressure Level in Voice and Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Švec, Jan G.; Granqvist, Svante

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Sound pressure level (SPL) measurement of voice and speech is often considered a trivial matter, but the measured levels are often reported incorrectly or incompletely, making them difficult to compare among various studies. This article aims at explaining the fundamental principles behind these measurements and providing guidelines to…

  10. Influence of impedance phase angle on sound pressures and reverberation times in a rectangular room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Lee, Doheon; Santurette, Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    , but with an absorptive ceiling are investigated. The zero phase angle, which has commonly been assumed in practice, is regarded as reference and differences in the sound pressure level and early decay time from the reference are quantified. As expected, larger differences in the room acoustic parameters are found...

  11. Equivalent threshold sound pressure levels for acoustic test signals of short duration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben; Daugaard, Carsten

    1998-01-01

    . The measurements were performed with two types of headphones, Telephonics TDH-39 and Sennheiser HDA-200. The sound pressure levels were measured in an IEC 318 ear simulator with Type 1 adapter (a flat plate) and a conical ring. The audiometric methods used in the experiments were the ascending method (ISO 8253...

  12. Estimation of sound pressure levels of voiced speech from skin vibration of the neck

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svec, JG; Titze, IR; Popolo, PS

    How accurately can sound pressure levels (SPLs) of speech be estimated from skin vibration of the neck? Measurements using a small accelerometer were carried out in 27 subjects (10 males and 17 females) who read Rainbow and Marvin Williams passages in soft, comfortable, and loud voice, while skin

  13. Effects of sounds of locomotion on speech perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matz Larsson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human locomotion typically creates noise, a possible consequence of which is the masking of sound signals originating in the surroundings. When walking side by side, people often subconsciously synchronize their steps. The neurophysiological and evolutionary background of this behavior is unclear. The present study investigated the potential of sound created by walking to mask perception of speech and compared the masking produced by walking in step with that produced by unsynchronized walking. The masking sound (footsteps on gravel and the target sound (speech were presented through the same speaker to 15 normal-hearing subjects. The original recorded walking sound was modified to mimic the sound of two individuals walking in pace or walking out of synchrony. The participants were instructed to adjust the sound level of the target sound until they could just comprehend the speech signal ("just follow conversation" or JFC level when presented simultaneously with synchronized or unsynchronized walking sound at 40 dBA, 50 dBA, 60 dBA, or 70 dBA. Synchronized walking sounds produced slightly less masking of speech than did unsynchronized sound. The median JFC threshold in the synchronized condition was 38.5 dBA, while the corresponding value for the unsynchronized condition was 41.2 dBA. Combined results at all sound pressure levels showed an improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR for synchronized footsteps; the median difference was 2.7 dB and the mean difference was 1.2 dB [P < 0.001, repeated-measures analysis of variance (RM-ANOVA]. The difference was significant for masker levels of 50 dBA and 60 dBA, but not for 40 dBA or 70 dBA. This study provides evidence that synchronized walking may reduce the masking potential of footsteps.

  14. Effect of a sound wave on the stability of an argon discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galechyan, G.A.; Karapetyan, D.M.; Tavakalyan, L.B.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of a sound wave on the stability of the positive column of an argon discharge has been studied experimentally in the range of pressures from 40 to 180 torr and discharge currents from 40 to 110 mA in a tube with an interior diameter of 9.8 cm. It is shown that, depending on the intensity of the sound wave and the discharge parameters, sound can cause the positive column either to contract or to leave the contracted state. The electric field strength has been measured as a function of the sound intensity. An analogy between the effect of sound and that of longitudinal pumping of the gas on the argon discharge parameters has been established. The radial temperature of the gas has been studied in an argon discharge as a function of the sound intensity for different gas pressures. A direct relationship has been established between the sign of the detector effect produced by a sound wave in a discharge and the processes of contraction and filamentation of a discharge. 11 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  15. Variation of the Korotkoff Stethoscope Sounds During Blood Pressure Measurement: Analysis Using a Convolutional Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Fan; He, Peiyu; Liu, Chengyu; Li, Taiyong; Murray, Alan; Zheng, Dingchang

    2017-11-01

    Korotkoff sounds are known to change their characteristics during blood pressure (BP) measurement, resulting in some uncertainties for systolic and diastolic pressure (SBP and DBP) determinations. The aim of this study was to assess the variation of Korotkoff sounds during BP measurement by examining all stethoscope sounds associated with each heartbeat from above systole to below diastole during linear cuff deflation. Three repeat BP measurements were taken from 140 healthy subjects (age 21 to 73 years; 62 female and 78 male) by a trained observer, giving 420 measurements. During the BP measurements, the cuff pressure and stethoscope signals were simultaneously recorded digitally to a computer for subsequent analysis. Heartbeats were identified from the oscillometric cuff pressure pulses. The presence of each beat was used to create a time window (1 s, 2000 samples) centered on the oscillometric pulse peak for extracting beat-by-beat stethoscope sounds. A time-frequency two-dimensional matrix was obtained for the stethoscope sounds associated with each beat, and all beats between the manually determined SBPs and DBPs were labeled as "Korotkoff." A convolutional neural network was then used to analyze consistency in sound patterns that were associated with Korotkoff sounds. A 10-fold cross-validation strategy was applied to the stethoscope sounds from all 140 subjects, with the data from ten groups of 14 subjects being analyzed separately, allowing consistency to be evaluated between groups. Next, within-subject variation of the Korotkoff sounds analyzed from the three repeats was quantified, separately for each stethoscope sound beat. There was consistency between folds with no significant differences between groups of 14 subjects (P = 0.09 to P = 0.62). Our results showed that 80.7% beats at SBP and 69.5% at DBP were analyzed as Korotkoff sounds, with significant differences between adjacent beats at systole (13.1%, P = 0.001) and diastole (17.4%, P < 0

  16. Cuffless and Continuous Blood Pressure Estimation from the Heart Sound Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-Chao Peng

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease, like hypertension, is one of the top killers of human life and early detection of cardiovascular disease is of great importance. However, traditional medical devices are often bulky and expensive, and unsuitable for home healthcare. In this paper, we proposed an easy and inexpensive technique to estimate continuous blood pressure from the heart sound signals acquired by the microphone of a smartphone. A cold-pressor experiment was performed in 32 healthy subjects, with a smartphone to acquire heart sound signals and with a commercial device to measure continuous blood pressure. The Fourier spectrum of the second heart sound and the blood pressure were regressed using a support vector machine, and the accuracy of the regression was evaluated using 10-fold cross-validation. Statistical analysis showed that the mean correlation coefficients between the predicted values from the regression model and the measured values from the commercial device were 0.707, 0.712, and 0.748 for systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressure, respectively, and that the mean errors were less than 5 mmHg, with standard deviations less than 8 mmHg. These results suggest that this technique is of potential use for cuffless and continuous blood pressure monitoring and it has promising application in home healthcare services.

  17. Sound produced by an oscillating arc in a high-pressure gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Fedor K.; Shneider, Mikhail N.

    2017-08-01

    We suggest a simple theory to describe the sound generated by small periodic perturbations of a cylindrical arc in a dense gas. Theoretical analysis was done within the framework of the non-self-consistent channel arc model and supplemented with time-dependent gas dynamic equations. It is shown that an arc with power amplitude oscillations on the order of several percent is a source of sound whose intensity is comparable with external ultrasound sources used in experiments to increase the yield of nanoparticles in the high pressure arc systems for nanoparticle synthesis.

  18. Memory for product sounds: the effect of sound and label type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, Elif; van Egmond, René

    2007-11-01

    The (mnemonic) interactions between auditory, visual, and the semantic systems have been investigated using structurally complex auditory stimuli (i.e., product sounds). Six types of product sounds (air, alarm, cyclic, impact, liquid, mechanical) that vary in spectral-temporal structure were presented in four label type conditions: self-generated text, text, image, and pictogram. A memory paradigm that incorporated free recall, recognition, and matching tasks was employed. The results for the sound type suggest that the amount of spectral-temporal structure in a sound can be indicative for memory performance. Findings related to label type suggest that 'self' creates a strong bias for the retrieval and the recognition of sounds that were self-labeled; the density and the complexity of the visual information (i.e., pictograms) hinders the memory performance ('visual' overshadowing effect); and image labeling has an additive effect on the recall and matching tasks (dual coding). Thus, the findings suggest that the memory performances for product sounds are task-dependent.

  19. Boundary effects on sound propagation in superfluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, H.H.; Smith, H.; Woelfle, P.

    1983-01-01

    The attenuation of fourth sound propagating in a superfluid confined within a channel is determined on a microscopic basis, taking into account the scatter of the quasiparticles from the walls. The Q value of a fourth-sound resonance is shown to be inversely proportional to the stationary flow of thermal excitations through the channel due to an external force. Our theoretical estimates of Q are compared with experimentally observed values for 3 He. The transition between first and fourth sound is studied in detail on the basis of two-fluid hydrodynamics, including the slip of the normal component at the walls. The slip is shown to have a strong influence on the velocity and attenuation in the transition region between first and fourth sound, offering a means to examine the interaction of quasiparticles with a solid surface

  20. What ears do for bats: a comparative study of pinna sound pressure transformation in chiroptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrist, M K; Fenton, M B; Eger, J L; Schlegel, P A

    1993-07-01

    Using a moveable loudspeaker and an implanted microphone, we studied the sound pressure transformation of the external ears of 47 species of bats from 13 families. We compared pinna gain, directionality of hearing and interaural intensity differences (IID) in echolocating and non-echolocating bats, in species using different echolocation strategies and in species that depend upon prey-generated sounds to locate their targets. In the Pteropodidae, two echolocating species had slightly higher directionality than a non-echolocating species. The ears of phyllostomid and vespertilionid species showed moderate directionality. In the Mormoopidae, the ear directionality of Pteronotus parnellii clearly matched the dominant spectral component of its echolocation calls, unlike the situation in three other species. Species in the Emballonuridae, Molossidae, Rhinopomatidae and two vespertilionids that use narrow-band search-phase echolocation calls showed increasingly sharp tuning of the pinna to the main frequency of their signals. Similar tuning was most evident in Hipposideridae and Rhinolophidae, species specialized for flutter detection via Doppler-shifted echoes of high-duty-cycle narrow-band signals. The large pinnae of bats that use prey-generated sounds to find their targets supply high sound pressure gain at lower frequencies. Increasing domination of a narrow spectral band in echolocation is reflected in the passive acoustic properties of the external ears (sharper directionality). The importance of IIDs for lateralization and horizontal localization is discussed by comparing the behavioural directional performance of bats with their bioacoustical features.

  1. ANALYSIS OF SOUND PRESSURE LEVEL (SPL AND LAY OUT OF ENGINES IN THE FACTORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wijianto Wijianto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Modeling layout of engines in the factory is very useful to know how many dB sound pressure level that are occur in the building in order to avoid hearing damage of employees that are caused by noise. The objective of this research is to know how many dB sound pressure level that are occur in the factory with engine composition such as boiler, diesel, turbine, motor and gear box with dimension of building are 40 m length, 35 m width and 10 m height. With MATLAB analysis can be obtain that the highest SPL is 104.7 dB and the lowest is 93.5 dB, so, this range are dangerous for human hearing. To avoid hearing damage in this area, employees must use hearing protector.

  2. Surface effects on the propagation of sound in Fermi liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, K.; Woelfle, P.

    1981-01-01

    The propagation of sound in a resonator is discussed in both the normal and superfluid Fermi liquids. A set of model hydrodynamic equations is developed for describing the transition from the hydrodynamic regime to the collisionless regime. Surface effects are incorporated by using a slip boundary condition. The resonance condition for the sound propagation in a cylindrical resonator is derived

  3. Vulnerability to the Irrelevant Sound Effect in Adult ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Marie-France; Hodgetts, Helen M; Lafleur, Martin F; Vincent, Annick; Tremblay, Sébastien

    2016-04-01

    An ecologically valid adaptation of the irrelevant sound effect paradigm was employed to examine the relative roles of short-term memory, selective attention, and sustained attention in ADHD. In all, 32 adults with ADHD and 32 control participants completed a serial recall task in silence or while ignoring irrelevant background sound. Serial recall performance in adults with ADHD was reduced relative to controls in both conditions. The degree of interference due to irrelevant sound was greater for adults with ADHD. Furthermore, a positive correlation was observed between task performance under conditions of irrelevant sound and the extent of attentional problems reported by patients on a clinical symptom scale. The results demonstrate that adults with ADHD exhibit impaired short-term memory and a low resistance to distraction; however, their capacity for sustained attention is preserved as the impact of irrelevant sound diminished over the course of the task. © The Author(s) 2013.

  4. Exploring the effect of sound and music on health in hospital settings: A narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyendo, Timothy Onosahwo

    2016-11-01

    Sound in hospital space has traditionally been considered in negative terms as both intrusive and unwanted, and based mainly on sound levels. However, sound level is only one aspect of the soundscape. There is strong evidence that exploring the positive aspect of sound in a hospital context can evoke positive feelings in both patients and nurses. Music psychology studies have also shown that music intervention in health care can have a positive effect on patient's emotions and recuperating processes. In this way, hospital spaces have the potential to reduce anxiety and stress, and make patients feel comfortable and secure. This paper describes a review of the literature exploring sound perception and its effect on health care. This review sorted the literature and main issues into themes concerning sound in health care spaces; sound, stress and health; positive soundscape; psychological perspective of music and emotion; music as a complementary medicine for improving health care; contradicting arguments concerning the use of music in health care; and implications for clinical practice. Using Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, ProQuest Central, MEDLINE, and Google, a literature search on sound levels, sound sources and the impression of a soundscape was conducted. The review focused on the role and use of music on health care in clinical environments. In addition, other pertinent related materials in shaping the understanding of the field were retrieved, scanned and added into this review. The result indicated that not all noises give a negative impression within healthcare soundscapes. Listening to soothing music was shown to reduce stress, blood pressure and post-operative trauma when compared to silence. Much of the sound conveys meaningful information that is positive for both patients and nurses, in terms of soft wind, bird twitter, and ocean sounds. Music perception was demonstrated to bring about positive change in patient-reported outcomes such as eliciting

  5. Towards parameter-free classification of sound effects in movies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Selina; Narayanan, Shrikanth; Kuo, C.-C. J.

    2005-08-01

    The problem of identifying intense events via multimedia data mining in films is investigated in this work. Movies are mainly characterized by dialog, music, and sound effects. We begin our investigation with detecting interesting events through sound effects. Sound effects are neither speech nor music, but are closely associated with interesting events such as car chases and gun shots. In this work, we utilize low-level audio features including MFCC and energy to identify sound effects. It was shown in previous work that the Hidden Markov model (HMM) works well for speech/audio signals. However, this technique requires a careful choice in designing the model and choosing correct parameters. In this work, we introduce a framework that will avoid such necessity and works well with semi- and non-parametric learning algorithms.

  6. Pressure Effect on Entrance Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jens Horslund; Couch, Mark

    1997-01-01

    The paper reports on experimentally determined pressure drops associated with orifice and capillary dies, where the exit pressure is elevated. The effect of hydrostatic pressure up to 70 MPa is reported for PS, LDPE and PP melts.......The paper reports on experimentally determined pressure drops associated with orifice and capillary dies, where the exit pressure is elevated. The effect of hydrostatic pressure up to 70 MPa is reported for PS, LDPE and PP melts....

  7. Sound pressure level tools design used in occupational health by means of Labview software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Forouharmajd

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: LabVIEW programming capabilities in the field of sound can be referred to the measurement of sound, frequency analysis, and sound control that actually the software acts like a sound level meter and sound analyzer. According to the mentioned features, we can use this software to analyze and process sound and vibration as a monitoring system.

  8. Sound velocity and equation-of-state measurements in high pressure fluid and solid helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebenberg, D.H.; Mills, R.L.; Bronson, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    A piston--cylinder apparatus was used to obtain P, V, T, and simultaneous values of longitudinal sound velocity in helium fluid throughout the ranges 75 to 300 0 K and 3 to 20 kbar. Some 670 data sets were obtained for the fluid and used in a double-process least-squares fit to an equation of state of the Benedict type. Additional measurements extended across the melting line into the solid phase at pressures up to 18 kbar. Measurements of the compressibility are compared with those obtained by Stewart along the 4 0 K isotherm up to 20 kbar. We discuss the use of helium as a pressure medium in high-pressure diamond anvil cells. Essentially no data are given

  9. Sound field reconstruction based on the acousto-optic effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torras Rosell, Antoni; Barrera Figueroa, Salvador; Jacobsen, Finn

    2011-01-01

    be measured with a laser Doppler vibrometer; furthermore, it can be exploited to characterize an arbitrary sound field using tomographic techniques. This paper briefly reviews the fundamental principles governing the acousto-optic effect in air, and presents an investigation of the tomographic reconstruction...... within the audible frequency range by means of simulations and experimental results. The good agreement observed between simulations and measurements is further confirmed with representations of the sound field obtained with traditional microphone array measurements....

  10. Underwater sound from vessel traffic reduces the effective communication range in Atlantic cod and haddock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Jenni A; Van Parijs, Sofie M; Hatch, Leila T

    2017-11-07

    Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary is located in Massachusetts Bay off the densely populated northeast coast of the United States; subsequently, the marine inhabitants of the area are exposed to elevated levels of anthropogenic underwater sound, particularly due to commercial shipping. The current study investigated the alteration of estimated effective communication spaces at three spawning locations for populations of the commercially and ecologically important fishes, Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus). Both the ambient sound pressure levels and the estimated effective vocalization radii, estimated through spherical spreading models, fluctuated dramatically during the three-month recording periods. Increases in sound pressure level appeared to be largely driven by large vessel activity, and accordingly exhibited a significant positive correlation with the number of Automatic Identification System tracked vessels at the two of the three sites. The near constant high levels of low frequency sound and consequential reduction in the communication space observed at these recording sites during times of high vocalization activity raises significant concerns that communication between conspecifics may be compromised during critical biological periods. This study takes the first steps in evaluating these animals' communication spaces and alteration of these spaces due to anthropogenic underwater sound.

  11. Effects of interaural level differences on the externalization of sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catic, Jasmina; Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten

    2012-01-01

    Distant sound sources in our environment are perceived as externalized and are thus properly localized in both direction and distance. This is due to the acoustic filtering by the head, torso, and external ears, which provides frequency-dependent shaping of binaural cues such as interaural level...... differences (ILDs) and interaural time differences (ITDs). In rooms, the sound reaching the two ears is further modified by reverberant energy, which leads to increased fluctuations in short-term ILDs and ITDs. In the present study, the effect of ILD fluctuations on the externalization of sound......, for sounds that contain frequencies above about 1 kHz the ILD fluctuations were found to be an essential cue for externalization....

  12. Pressure Effect on Extensional Viscosity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jens Horslund; Kjær, Erik Michael

    1999-01-01

    The primary object of these experiments was to investigate the influence of hydrostatic pressure on entrance flow. The effect of pressure on shear and extensional viscosity was evaluated using an axis symmetric capillary and a slit die where the hydrostatic pressure was raised with valves....... The experiments show a significant increase in extensional viscosity with increasing pressure....

  13. Reconstruction of Sound Source Pressures in an Enclosure Using the Phased Beam Tracing Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Ih, Jeong-Guon

    2009-01-01

    . First, surfaces of an extended source are divided into reasonably small segments. From each source segment, one beam is projected into the field and all emitted beams are traced. Radiated beams from the source reach array sensors after traveling various paths including the wall reflections. Collecting...... all the pressure histories at the field points, source-observer relations can be constructed in a matrix-vector form for each frequency. By multiplying the measured field data with the pseudo-inverse of the calculated transfer function, one obtains the distribution of source pressure. An omni......-directional sphere and a cubic source in a rectangular enclosure were taken as examples in the simulation tests. A reconstruction error was investigated by Monte Carlo simulation in terms of field point locations. When the source information was reconstructed by the present method, it was shown that the sound power...

  14. Visualization of the hot chocolate sound effect by spectrograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trávníček, Z.; Fedorchenko, A. I.; Pavelka, M.; Hrubý, J.

    2012-12-01

    We present an experimental and a theoretical analysis of the hot chocolate effect. The sound effect is evaluated using time-frequency signal processing, resulting in a quantitative visualization by spectrograms. This method allows us to capture the whole phenomenon, namely to quantify the dynamics of the rising pitch. A general form of the time dependence volume fraction of the bubbles is proposed. We show that the effect occurs due to the nonlinear dependence of the speed of sound in the gas/liquid mixture on the volume fraction of the bubbles and the nonlinear time dependence of the volume fraction of the bubbles.

  15. Effects of instructed timing and tempo on snare drum sound in drum kit performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsen, Anne; Waadeland, Carl Haakon; Sundt, Henrik G; Witek, Maria A G

    2015-10-01

    This paper reports on an experiment investigating the expressive means with which performers of groove-based musics signal the intended timing of a rhythmic event. Ten expert drummers were instructed to perform a rock pattern in three different tempi and three different timing styles: "laid-back," "on-the-beat," and "pushed." The results show that there were systematic differences in the intensity and timbre (i.e., sound-pressure level, temporal centroid, and spectral centroid) of series of snare strokes played with these different timing styles at the individual level. A common pattern was found across subjects concerning the effect of instructed timing on sound-pressure level: a majority of the drummers played laid-back strokes louder than on-the-beat strokes. Furthermore, when the tempo increased, there was a general increase in sound-pressure level and a decrease in spectral centroid across subjects. The results show that both temporal and sound-related features are important in order to indicate that a rhythmic event has been played intentionally early, late, or on-the-beat, and provide insight into the ways in which musicians communicate at the microrhythmic level in groove-based musics.

  16. Do high sound pressure levels of crowing in roosters necessitate passive mechanisms for protection against self-vocalization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claes, Raf; Muyshondt, Pieter G G; Dirckx, Joris J J; Aerts, Peter

    2018-02-01

    High sound pressure levels (>120dB) cause damage or death of the hair cells of the inner ear, hence causing hearing loss. Vocalization differences are present between hens and roosters. Crowing in roosters is reported to produce sound pressure levels of 100dB measured at a distance of 1m. In this study we measured the sound pressure levels that exist at the entrance of the outer ear canal. We hypothesize that roosters may benefit from a passive protective mechanism while hens do not require such a mechanism. Audio recordings at the level of the entrance of the outer ear canal of crowing roosters, made in this study, indeed show that a protective mechanism is needed as sound pressure levels can reach amplitudes of 142.3dB. Audio recordings made at varying distances from the crowing rooster show that at a distance of 0.5m sound pressure levels already drop to 102dB. Micro-CT scans of a rooster and chicken head show that in roosters the auditory canal closes when the beak is opened. In hens the diameter of the auditory canal only narrows but does not close completely. A morphological difference between the sexes in shape of a bursa-like slit which occurs in the outer ear canal causes the outer ear canal to close in roosters but not in hens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Source Separation of Heartbeat Sounds for Effective E-Auscultation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geethu, R. S.; Krishnakumar, M.; Pramod, K. V.; George, Sudhish N.

    2016-03-01

    This paper proposes a cost effective solution for improving the effectiveness of e-auscultation. Auscultation is the most difficult skill for a doctor, since it can be acquired only through experience. The heart sound mixtures are captured by placing the four numbers of sensors at appropriate auscultation area in the body. These sound mixtures are separated to its relevant components by a statistical method independent component analysis. The separated heartbeat sounds can be further processed or can be stored for future reference. This idea can be used for making a low cost, easy to use portable instrument which will be beneficial to people living in remote areas and are unable to take the advantage of advanced diagnosis methods.

  18. Temporary threshold shifts from exposures to equal equivalent continuous A-weighted sound pressure level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ordoñez, Rodrigo Pizarro; Hammershøi, Dorte

    2014-01-01

    the assumptions made using the A-weighting curve for the assessment of hearing damage. By modifying exposure ratings to compensate for the build-up of energy at mid and high-frequencies (above 1 kHz) due to the presence of the listener in the sound field and for the levels below an effect threshold that does...... not induce changes in hearing (equivalent quiet levels), ratings of the sound exposure that reflect the observed temporary changes in auditory function can be obtained.......According to existing methods for the assessment of hearing damage, signals with the same A-weighted equivalent level should pose the same hazard to the auditory system. As a measure of hazard, it is assumed that Temporary Thresholds Shifts (TTS) reflect the onset of alterations to the hearing...

  19. So small, so loud: extremely high sound pressure level from a pygmy aquatic insect (Corixidae, Micronectinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueur, Jérôme; Mackie, David; Windmill, James F C

    2011-01-01

    To communicate at long range, animals have to produce intense but intelligible signals. This task might be difficult to achieve due to mechanical constraints, in particular relating to body size. Whilst the acoustic behaviour of large marine and terrestrial animals has been thoroughly studied, very little is known about the sound produced by small arthropods living in freshwater habitats. Here we analyse for the first time the calling song produced by the male of a small insect, the water boatman Micronecta scholtzi. The song is made of three distinct parts differing in their temporal and amplitude parameters, but not in their frequency content. Sound is produced at 78.9 (63.6-82.2) SPL rms re 2.10(-5) Pa with a peak at 99.2 (85.7-104.6) SPL re 2.10(-5) Pa estimated at a distance of one metre. This energy output is significant considering the small size of the insect. When scaled to body length and compared to 227 other acoustic species, the acoustic energy produced by M. scholtzi appears as an extreme value, outperforming marine and terrestrial mammal vocalisations. Such an extreme display may be interpreted as an exaggerated secondary sexual trait resulting from a runaway sexual selection without predation pressure.

  20. So small, so loud: extremely high sound pressure level from a pygmy aquatic insect (Corixidae, Micronectinae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Sueur

    Full Text Available To communicate at long range, animals have to produce intense but intelligible signals. This task might be difficult to achieve due to mechanical constraints, in particular relating to body size. Whilst the acoustic behaviour of large marine and terrestrial animals has been thoroughly studied, very little is known about the sound produced by small arthropods living in freshwater habitats. Here we analyse for the first time the calling song produced by the male of a small insect, the water boatman Micronecta scholtzi. The song is made of three distinct parts differing in their temporal and amplitude parameters, but not in their frequency content. Sound is produced at 78.9 (63.6-82.2 SPL rms re 2.10(-5 Pa with a peak at 99.2 (85.7-104.6 SPL re 2.10(-5 Pa estimated at a distance of one metre. This energy output is significant considering the small size of the insect. When scaled to body length and compared to 227 other acoustic species, the acoustic energy produced by M. scholtzi appears as an extreme value, outperforming marine and terrestrial mammal vocalisations. Such an extreme display may be interpreted as an exaggerated secondary sexual trait resulting from a runaway sexual selection without predation pressure.

  1. Locked-in syndrome caused by the pressure exerted by the sound gun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Belin Ozer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 19-year-old male patient who wounded himself with a gun in the cranial region had a Glasgow coma scale of 3E. At posttraumatic day 7, locked-in syndrome was considered upon detection of vertical eye movements, meaningful winks, and quadriplegia. Apart from the classical view, computed tomography (CT and postmortem examination of the brain showed an infarct area in the cerebellum. However, vertebrobasilar artery system was normal. In this case report, we would like to present that unlike cases with ischemia, specific CT findings may not be evident in posttraumatic cases and ischemia may occur in the cerebellum as a result of the pressure exerted by a sound gun.

  2. Thermal and viscous effects on sound waves: revised classical theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Anthony M J; Brenner, Howard

    2012-11-01

    In this paper the recently developed, bi-velocity model of fluid mechanics based on the principles of linear irreversible thermodynamics (LIT) is applied to sound propagation in gases taking account of first-order thermal and viscous dissipation effects. The results are compared and contrasted with the classical Navier-Stokes-Fourier results of Pierce for this same situation cited in his textbook. Comparisons are also made with the recent analyses of Dadzie and Reese, whose molecularly based sound propagation calculations furnish results virtually identical with the purely macroscopic LIT-based bi-velocity results below, as well as being well-supported by experimental data. Illustrative dissipative sound propagation examples involving application of the bi-velocity model to several elementary situations are also provided, showing the disjoint entropy mode and the additional, evanescent viscous mode.

  3. Pressure sound level measurements at an educational environment in Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, J. J. L.; do Nascimento, E. O.; de Oliveira, L. N.; Caldas, L. V. E.

    2018-03-01

    In this work, 25 points located on the ground floor of the Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Goias - IFG - Campus Goiânia, were analyzed in morning periods of two Saturdays. The pressure sound levels were measured at internal and external environments during routine activities seeking to perform an environmental monitoring at this institution. The initial hypothesis was that an amusement park (Mutirama Park) was responsible for originating noise pollution in the institute, but the results showed, within the campus environment, sound pressure levels in accordance with the Municipal legislation of Goiânia for all points.

  4. Effect of bitumen emulsion on setting, strength, soundness and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Effect of bitumen emulsion on setting, strength, soundness and moisture resistance of oxychloride cement. M P S CHANDRAWAT†, T N OJHA and R N YADAV*. Department of Chemistry, R N Ruia Government College, Ramgarh-Shekhawati (Sikar) 331 024, India. †Department of Chemistry, R R Government College, ...

  5. Effects of wind turbine wake on atmospheric sound propagation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barlas, Emre; Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the sound propagation from a wind turbine considering the effects of wake-induced velocity deficit and turbulence. In order to address this issue, an advanced approach was developed in which both scalar and vector parabolic equations in two dimensions are solved. Flow...

  6. Effects of 3D sound on visual scanning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltman, J.A.; Bronkhorst, A.W.; Oving, A.B.

    2000-01-01

    An experiment was conducted in a flight simulator to explore the effectiveness of a 3D sound display as support to visual information from a head down display (HDD). Pilots had to perform two main tasks in separate conditions: intercepting and following a target jet. Performance was measured for

  7. Effects of providing word sounds during printed word learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reitsma, P.; Dongen, van A.J.N.; Custers, E.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of the availability of the spoken sound of words along with the printed forms during reading practice. Firstgrade children from two normal elementary schools practised reading several unfamiliar words in print. For half of the printed words the

  8. Dynamic PIV measurement on the effect of sound wave in upper plenum of boiling water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai, Kosuke; Someya, Satoshi; Okamoto, Koji

    2008-01-01

    In one of the power uprated plants in the United States, the steam dryer breakages due to fatigue fracture occurred. It is conceivable that the increased steam flow passing through the branches caused a self-induced vibration with the propagation of sound wave into the steam-dome. The resonance among the structure, flow and the pressure fluctuation resulted in the breakages. To understand the basic mechanism of the resonance, previous researches were done by a point measurement of the pressure and by a phase averaged measurement of the flow, while it was difficult to detect the interaction among them by the conventional method. In the preliminary study, Dynamic Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) System was applied to investigate the effect of sound on the flow. (author)

  9. Effects of Exposure to the Sound from Seismic Airguns on Pallid Sturgeon and Paddlefish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur N Popper

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of exposure to a single acoustic pulse from a seismic airgun array on caged endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus and on paddlefish (Polyodon spathula in Lake Sakakawea (North Dakota, USA. The experiment was designed to detect the onset of physiological responses including minor to mortal injuries. Experimental fish were held in cages as close as 1 to 3 m from the guns where peak negative sound pressure levels (Peak- SPL reached 231 dB re 1 μPa (205 dB re 1 μPa2·s sound exposure level [SEL]. Additional cages were placed at greater distances in an attempt to develop a dose-response relationship. Treatment and control fish were then monitored for seven days, euthanized, and necropsied to determine injuries. Necropsy results indicated that the probability of delayed mortality associated with pulse pressure following the seven day monitoring period was the same for exposed and control fish of both species. Exposure to a single pulse from a small air gun array (10,160 cm3 was not lethal for pallid sturgeon and paddlefish. However, the risks from exposure to multiple sounds and to sound exposure levels that exceed those reported here remain to be examined.

  10. Sound pressure levels generated at risk volume steps of portable listening devices: types of smartphone and genres of music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gibbeum; Han, Woojae

    2018-05-01

    The present study estimated the sound pressure levels of various music genres at the volume steps that contemporary smartphones deliver, because these levels put the listener at potential risk for hearing loss. Using six different smartphones (Galaxy S6, Galaxy Note 3, iPhone 5S, iPhone 6, LG G2, and LG G3), the sound pressure levels for three genres of K-pop music (dance-pop, hip-hop, and pop-ballad) and a Billboard pop chart of assorted genres were measured through an earbud for the first risk volume that was at the risk sign proposed by the smartphones, as well as consecutive higher volumes using a sound level meter and artificial mastoid. The first risk volume step of the Galaxy S6 and the LG G2, among the six smartphones, had the significantly lowest (84.1 dBA) and highest output levels (92.4 dBA), respectively. As the volume step increased, so did the sound pressure levels. The iPhone 6 was loudest (113.1 dBA) at the maximum volume step. Of the music genres, dance-pop showed the highest output level (91.1 dBA) for all smartphones. Within the frequency range of 20~ 20,000 Hz, the sound pressure level peaked at 2000 Hz for all the smartphones. The results showed that the sound pressure levels of either the first volume step or the maximum volume step were not the same for the different smartphone models and genres of music, which means that the risk volume sign and its output levels should be unified across the devices for their users. In addition, the risk volume steps proposed by the latest smartphone models are high enough to cause noise-induced hearing loss if their users habitually listen to music at those levels.

  11. Mozart Effect: Sound Beginnings? Infants and Toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, Rick

    1999-01-01

    Notes that outcomes of the "Mozart Effect" on early brain development are not thoroughly proven and presents challenges for future research. Points out that it is still unknown at what age exposure to musical concepts should begin, and that parents should allow children to pursue musical interests at their own pace to avoid burnout at a…

  12. Foley Sounds vs Real Sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trento, Stefano; Götzen, Amalia De

    2011-01-01

    This paper is an initial attempt to study the world of sound effects for motion pictures, also known as Foley sounds. Throughout several audio and audio-video tests we have compared both Foley and real sounds originated by an identical action. The main purpose was to evaluate if sound effects...

  13. An analysis of the correlations between the turbulent flow and the sound pressure fields of subsonic jets

    OpenAIRE

    Bogey , Christophe; Bailly , Christophe

    2007-01-01

    International audience; Noise generation is investigated in subsonic isothermal round jets at Mach numbers M =0.6 and M =0.9, with Reynolds numbers ReD =1700 and ReD 105, using causality methods on data provided by large-eddy simulations. The correlations between broadband sound pressure signals and broadband turbulence signals along the jet axis and the shear layer are calculated. The normalized correlations are found to be significant between the pressure emitted in the downstream direction...

  14. Laboratory measurement of elastic anisotropy on spherical rock samples by longitudinal and transverse sounding under confining pressure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lokajíček, Tomáš; Svitek, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 56, February 2015 (2015), s. 294-302 ISSN 0041-624X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH13102; GA ČR GAP104/12/0915; GA ČR GA13-13967S Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : elastic anisotropy * hydrostatic pressure * ultrasonic sounding * high pressure * longitudinal and shear waves Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.954, year: 2015

  15. The Influence of Fundamental Frequency and Sound Pressure Level Range on Breathing Patterns in Female Classical Singing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collyer, Sally; Thorpe, C. William; Callaghan, Jean; Davis, Pamela J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the influence of fundamental frequency (F0) and sound pressure level (SPL) range on respiratory behavior in classical singing. Method: Five trained female singers performed an 8-s messa di voce (a crescendo and decrescendo on one F0) across their musical F0 range. Lung volume (LV) change was estimated, and…

  16. Visualization of the hot chocolate sound effect by spectrograms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trávníček, Zdeněk; Fedorchenko, Alexander I.; Pavelka, Miroslav; Hrubý, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 331, č. 25 (2012), s. 5387-5392 ISSN 0022-460X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA200760801; GA ČR(CZ) GCP101/11/J019 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : hot chocolate effect * gas-liquid mixture * speed of sound Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.613, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022460X12005640

  17. The effect of sound speed profile on shallow water shipping sound maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sertlek, H.Ö.; Binnerts, B.; Ainslie, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Sound mapping over large areas can be computationally expensive because of the large number of sources and large source-receiver separations involved. In order to facilitate computation, a simplifying assumption sometimes made is to neglect the sound speed gradient in shallow water. The accuracy of

  18. Effects of heat treatment to the sound velocity and microstructural changes of ASTM A516 steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norasiah Abdul Kasim; Azali Muhammad; Amry Amin Abas; Zaiton Selamat

    2010-01-01

    Full-text: The used of ultrasonic testing as a thickness measurement for structural components (pipeline and pressure vessel) is among the popular inspection tool widely use in the industrial power plant such as at petrochemical and nuclear power plant. Currently, there are cases where the thickness grows and the result will affect the reliability of the test. There are many factors that can affect the reliability of measurement. One of it is the material under test itself. In the Malaysian Nuclear Agency, initial efforts are underway to study the understanding on the effects of heat treatment to the sound velocity and microstructure changes of ASTM A516 steel. Few samples of thin square shaped prepared were heat treated under the following conditions: austenitization at 9800 degree Celsius - 2 hours, quenching; tempering at various temperature 4000, 5000, 6000 and 7000 degree Celsius. The results show that the microstructure changes and samples exhibit different sound velocity at different heat treatment. (author)

  19. Computer Modeling of the Effects of Atmospheric Conditions on Sound Signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    simulation. 11 5. References 1. Attenborough K. Sound propagation in the atmosphere. In: Rossing TD, editor. Springer handbook of...ARL-TR-7602 ● FEB 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Computer Modeling of the Effects of Atmospheric Conditions on Sound ...Laboratory Computer Modeling of the Effects of Atmospheric Conditions on Sound Signatures by Sarah Wagner Science and Engineering Apprentice

  20. Problems in nonlinear acoustics: Pulsed finite amplitude sound beams, nonlinear acoustic wave propagation in a liquid layer, nonlinear effects in asymmetric cylindrical sound beams, effects of absorption on the interaction of sound beams, and parametric receiving arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Mark F.

    1990-12-01

    This report discusses five projects all of which involve basic theoretical research in nonlinear acoustics: (1) pulsed finite amplitude sound beams are studied with a recently developed time domain computer algorithm that solves the KZK nonlinear parabolic wave equation; (2) nonlinear acoustic wave propagation in a liquid layer is a study of harmonic generation and acoustic soliton information in a liquid between a rigid and a free surface; (3) nonlinear effects in asymmetric cylindrical sound beams is a study of source asymmetries and scattering of sound by sound at high intensity; (4) effects of absorption on the interaction of sound beams is a completed study of the role of absorption in second harmonic generation and scattering of sound by sound; and (5) parametric receiving arrays is a completed study of parametric reception in a reverberant environment.

  1. Sound quality assessment of Diesel combustion noise using in-cylinder pressure components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payri, F.; Broatch, A.; Margot, X.; Monelletta, L.

    2009-01-01

    The combustion process in direct injection (DI) Diesel engines is an important source of noise, and it is thus the main reason why end-users could be reluctant to drive vehicles powered with this type of engine. This means that the great potential of Diesel engines for environment preservation—due to their lower consumption and the subsequent reduction of CO2 emissions—may be lost. Moreover, the advanced combustion concepts—e.g. the HCCI (homogeneous charge compression ignition)—developed to comply with forthcoming emissions legislation, while maintaining the efficiency of current engines, are expected to be noisier because they are characterized by a higher amount of premixed combustion. For this reason many efforts have been dedicated by car manufacturers in recent years to reduce the overall level and improve the sound quality of engine noise. Evaluation procedures are required, both for noise levels and sound quality, that may be integrated in the global engine development process in a timely and cost-effective manner. In previous published work, the authors proposed a novel method for the assessment of engine noise level. A similar procedure is applied in this paper to demonstrate the suitability of combustion indicators for the evaluation of engine noise quality. These indicators, which are representative of the peak velocity of fuel burning and the resonance in the combustion chamber, are well correlated with the combustion noise mark obtained from jury testing. Quite good accuracy in the prediction of the engine noise quality has been obtained with the definition of a two-component regression, which also permits the identification of the combustion process features related to the resulting noise quality, so that corrective actions may be proposed.

  2. Investigation of the Sound Pressure Level (SPL) of earphones during music listening with the use of physical ear canal models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aying, K. P.; Otadoy, R. E.; Violanda, R.

    2015-06-01

    This study investigates on the sound pressure level (SPL) of insert-type earphones that are commonly used for music listening of the general populace. Measurements of SPL from earphones of different respondents were measured by plugging the earphone to a physical ear canal model. Durations of the earphone used for music listening were also gathered through short interviews. Results show that 21% of the respondents exceed the standard loudness/duration relation recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO).

  3. Viscothermal Coupling Effects on Sound Attenuation in Concentrated Colloidal Dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei

    1995-11-01

    This thesis describes a Unified Coupled Phase Continuum (UCPC) model to analyze sound propagation through aerosols, emulsions and suspensions in terms of frequency dependent attenuation coefficient and sound speed. Expressions for the viscous and thermal coupling coefficients explicitly account for the effects of particle size, shape factor, orientation as well as concentration and the sound frequency. The UCPC model also takes into account the intrinsic acoustic absorption within the fluid medium due to its viscosity and heat conductivity. The effective complex wave number as a function of frequency is derived. A frequency- and concentration-dependent complex Nusselt number for the interfacial thermal coupling coefficient is derived using an approximate similarity between the 'viscous skin drag' and 'heat conduction flux' associated with the discontinuous suspended phase, on the basis of a cell model. The theoretical predictions of attenuation spectra provide satisfactory agreement with reported experimental data on two concentrated suspensions (polystyrene latex and kaolin pigment), two concentrated emulsions (toluene -in-water, n-hexadecane-in-water), and two aerosols (oleic acid droplets-in-nitrogen, alumina-in-air), covering a wide range of relative magnitudes (from 10^ {-3} to 10^{3}) of thermal versus viscous contributions, for dispersed phase volume fractions as high as 50%. The relative differences between the additive result of separate viscous and thermal loss estimates and combined viscothermal absorption results are also presented. Effects of particle shape on viscous attenuation of sound in concentrated suspensions of non-spherical clay particles are studied. Attenuation spectra for 18 frequencies from 3 to 100 MHz are measured and analyzed for eleven kaolin clay slurries with solid concentrations ranging from 0.6% to 35% (w/w). A modified viscous drag coefficient that considers frequency, concentration, particle size, shape and orientation of

  4. Sonotropic effects of commercial air transport sound on birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1962-03-01

    The Electra sound spectrum contains an audible chirp which appears identical in frequency and wave form to the chirp of field crickets. Field observations strongly indicate the sound of the taxiing Electra exerts an attraction for starlings, and poss...

  5. Pressure relieving support surfaces (PRESSURE) trial: cost effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Cynthia; Nixon, Jane; Cranny, Gillian; Nelson, E Andrea; Hawkins, Kim; Phillips, Angela; Torgerson, David; Mason, Su; Cullum, Nicky

    2006-06-17

    To assess the cost effectiveness of alternating pressure mattresses compared with alternating pressure overlays for the prevention of pressure ulcers in patients admitted to hospital. Cost effectiveness analysis carried out alongside the pressure relieving support surfaces (PRESSURE) trial; a multicentre UK based pragmatic randomised controlled trial. 11 hospitals in six UK NHS trusts. Intention to treat population comprising 1971 participants. Kaplan Meier estimates of restricted mean time to development of pressure ulcers and total costs for treatment in hospital. Alternating pressure mattresses were associated with lower overall costs (283.6 pounds sterling per patient on average, 95% confidence interval--377.59 pounds sterling to 976.79 pounds sterling) mainly due to reduced length of stay in hospital, and greater benefits (a delay in time to ulceration of 10.64 days on average,--24.40 to 3.09). The differences in health benefits and total costs for hospital stay between alternating pressure mattresses and alternating pressure overlays were not statistically significant; however, a cost effectiveness acceptability curve indicated that on average alternating pressure mattresses compared with alternating pressure overlays were associated with an 80% probability of being cost saving. Alternating pressure mattresses for the prevention of pressure ulcers are more likely to be cost effective and are more acceptable to patients than alternating pressure overlays.

  6. Pressure effects on nanostructured manganites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acha, C.; Garbarino, G.; Leyva, A.G.

    2007-01-01

    We have measured the pressure sensitivity of magnetic properties on La 5/8-y Pr y Ca 3/8 MnO 3 (y=0.3) nanostructured powders. Samples were synthesized following a microwave assisted denitration process and a final heat treatment at different temperatures to control the grain size of the samples. A span in grain diameters from 40 nm to ∼1000 nm was obtained. Magnetization curves as a function of temperature were measured following different thermomagnetic histories. AC susceptibility as a function of temperature was also measured at different hydrostatic pressures (up to 10 kbar) and for different frequencies. Our results indicate that the nanostructuration plays a role of an internal pressure, producing a structural deformation with similar effects to those obtained under an external hydrostatic pressure

  7. 77 FR 20817 - Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Notice of Initiation of Proceeding and Refund Effective Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... the proposed rate reduction by Puget Sound Energy, Inc. Puget Sound Energy, Inc., 138 FERC ] 61,236... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. EL12-46-000] Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Notice of Initiation of Proceeding and Refund Effective Date On March 30, 2012, the...

  8. Effect of pile-driving sounds on the survival of larval fish (abstract)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolle, L.; Jong, C.A.F. de; Bierman, S.M.; Beek, P.J.G. van; Wessels, P.W.; Blom, E.; Damme, C.J.G. van; Winter, H.V.; Dekeling, R.P.A.

    2013-01-01

    In view of the rapid extension of offshore wind farms, there is an urgent need to improve our knowledge on possible adverse effects of underwater sound generated by pile-driving. Mortality and injuries have been observed in fish exposed to loud impulse sounds, but knowledge on the sound levels at

  9. Effects of Freestream Turbulence on Cavity Tone and Sound Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Yokoyama

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To clarify the effects of freestream turbulence on cavity tones, flow and acoustic fields were directly predicted for cavity flows with various intensities of freestream turbulence. The freestream Mach number was 0.09 and the Reynolds number based on the cavity length was 4.0 × 104. The depth-to-length ratio of the cavity, D/L, was 0.5 and 2.5, where the acoustic resonance of a depth-mode occurs for D/L = 2.5. The incoming boundary layer was laminar. The results for the intensity of freestream turbulence of Tu = 2.3% revealed that the reduced level of cavity tones in a cavity flow with acoustic resonance (D/L=2.5 was greater than that without acoustic resonance (D/L=0.5. To clarify the reason for this, the sound source based on Lighthill’s acoustic analogy was computed, and the contributions of the intensity and spanwise coherence of the sound source to the reduction of the cavity tone were estimated. As a result, the effects of the reduction of spanwise coherence on the cavity tone were greater in the cavity flow with acoustic resonance than in that without resonance, while the effects of the intensity were comparable for both flows.

  10. Prediction of the niche effect for single flat panels with or without attached sound absorbing materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgard, Franck; Atalla, Noureddine; Nélisse, Hugues

    2015-01-01

    The sound transmission loss (STL) of a test sample measured in sound transmission facilities is affected by the opening in which it is located. This is called the niche effect. This paper uses a modal approach to study the STL of a rectangular plate with or without an attached porous material located inside a box-shaped niche. The porous material is modeled as a limp equivalent fluid. The proposed model is validated by comparison with finite element/boundary element computations. Using a condensation of the pressure fields in the niche, the niche effect is interpreted in terms of a modification of the modal blocked pressure fields acting on the panel induced by the front cavity and by a modification of the radiation efficiency of the panel modes due to the presence of the back cavity. The modal approach is then used to investigate the impact of (1) the presence of a porous material attached to the panel on the niche effect and (2) the niche effect on the assessment of the porous material insertion loss. A simplified model for the porous material based on a transfer matrix approach is also proposed to predict the STL of the system and its validity is discussed.

  11. Joint reconstruction of the initial pressure and speed of sound distributions from combined photoacoustic and ultrasound tomography measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Thomas P.; Anastasio, Mark A.

    2017-12-01

    The initial pressure and speed of sound (SOS) distributions cannot both be stably recovered from photoacoustic computed tomography (PACT) measurements alone. Adjunct ultrasound computed tomography (USCT) measurements can be employed to estimate the SOS distribution. Under the conventional image reconstruction approach for combined PACT/USCT systems, the SOS is estimated from the USCT measurements alone and the initial pressure is estimated from the PACT measurements by use of the previously estimated SOS. This approach ignores the acoustic information in the PACT measurements and may require many USCT measurements to accurately reconstruct the SOS. In this work, a joint reconstruction method where the SOS and initial pressure distributions are simultaneously estimated from combined PACT/USCT measurements is proposed. This approach allows accurate estimation of both the initial pressure distribution and the SOS distribution while requiring few USCT measurements.

  12. Assessment of the transition strip effect in the transonic flow over the sounding rocket Sonda III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filho, J B P Falcão; Reis, M L C C; Francisco, C P F; Silva, L M

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of normalized pressure distribution are carried out over a 1:8 scale half-model of the Sonda III sounding rocket. The objective is to analyze the effect of the implementation of transition devices on the flow over the vehicle. Measurements show that the presence of the transition devices affect pressure distributions in different Mach numbers around the inter-stage region of Sonda III depending on its location and independently of the turbulent transition method employed. The study of these effects plays a significant role for future developments, since transition phenomena and the modification of the boundary layer behaviour due to the expansion can alter the load distributions and the turbulent structures of the flow. Furthermore, the experimental verification of such phenomena is crucial for the correct implementation of computational fluid dynamics calculations, as they might be able to capture the correct flow behaviour in these regions. (paper)

  13. Exposure to classroom sound pressure level among dance teachers in Porto Alegre (RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nehring, Cristiane

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dance teachers are exposed to high sound intensities. Aim: To verify the sound intensity of music used by dance teachers during classes. Method: This was a transversal and prospective study. Dance teachers were evaluated with a sociodemographic questionnaire, and sound intensity level measurements were taken at the beginning, middle, and end of dance classes. Results: The sample comprised 35 teachers (average age, 31.8 years. The duration of their career as dance teachers was 1-37 years; they worked daily for approximately 1-10 h. Among the classes followed, there were 15 (42.85% classical ballet classes, 4 (11.42% tap dancing lessons, 5 (14.28% jazz dance classes, 2 (5.71 Arab dance lessons, 6 (17.14% street dance classes, and 3 (8.57% ballroom dancing lessons. The average values observed at the beginning, middle, and end of the classes were 80.91 dB (A, 83.22 dB (A, and 85.19 dB (A, respectively. The music played in the street dance classes exposed teachers to the highest sound intensity. Conclusion: The average level of sound intensity of the dance classes in this study was either below or equal to the limit considered harmful for hearing health. Analysis of different class types showed that the sound densities of street, ballroom, and tap dance classes were above the recommended limits.

  14. Leading edge effect in laminar boundary layer excitation by sound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leehey, P.; Shapiro, P.

    1980-01-01

    Essentially plane pure tone sound waves were directed downstream over a heavily damped smooth flat plate installed in a low turbulence (0.04%) subsonic wind tunnel. Laminar boundary layer disturbance growth rates were measured with and without sound excitation and compared with numerical results from spatial stability theory. The data indicate that the sound field and Tollmien-Schlichting (T-S) waves coexist with comparable amplitudes when the latter are damped; moreover, the response is linear. Higher early growth rates occur for excitation by sound than by stream turbulence. Theoretical considerations indicate that the boundary layer is receptive to sound excitation primarily at the test plate leading edge. (orig.)

  15. Sound pressure distribution in a long, narrow hallway: Measurements versus results from a computer model with scattering from surface roughness and diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Lily M.; Rathsam, Jonathan; Christensen, Claus Lynge

    2005-01-01

    The sound pressure level distributrion down a long, narrow hallway due to a sound source at one end does not decrease linearly along the length of the hall. This characteristic may be due to the changing behaviour of scattering that occurs down the length of the hallway, which is distance...

  16. Effect of Filters on the Noise Generated by Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Delivered via a Helmet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Hernández-Molina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the problems that the delivery of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP via a helmet poses is the generation of noise. The objective of our study was to assess the effect that the use of filter has on sound pressure levels generated by the delivery of positive airway pressure at different gas flow rates. Materials and Methods: Sound pressure levels generated by neonatal helmet CPAP delivery were measured at different gas flows (20, 30, and 40 l/min with and without a breathing filter. Noise intensity was measured by installing microphones in the inner ear of dummy heads wearing helmets. Results: The sound pressure level increased by 38% at a gas flow of 40 l/min, as compared to a gas flow of 20 l/min {74 dBA [interquartile range (IQR 2,2] vs 52 dBA (IQR 5,9, respectively}. Using the breathing filter as a diffuser has a variety of effects on sound pressure levels according to the gas flow rate. Conclusion: The intensity of the noise generated by helmet delivery of positive airway pressure depends on the type of helmet used, gas flow, and use or not of a diffuser filter. Breathing filters with gas flows over 30 l/min might not be recommended since they would not attenuate but will rather amplify sound pressure.

  17. Longitudinal sound velocities, elastic anisotropy, and phase transition of high-pressure cubic H2O ice to 82 GPa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriakose, Maju; Raetz, Samuel; Hu, Qing Miao; Nikitin, Sergey M.; Chigarev, Nikolay; Tournat, Vincent; Bulou, Alain; Lomonosov, Alexey; Djemia, Philippe; Gusev, Vitalyi E.; Zerr, Andreas

    2017-10-01

    Water ice is a molecular solid whose behavior under compression reveals the interplay of covalent bonding in molecules and forces acting between them. This interplay determines high-pressure phase transitions, the elastic and plastic behavior of H2O ice, which are the properties needed for modeling the convection and internal structure of the giant planets and moons of the solar system as well as H2O -rich exoplanets. We investigated experimentally and theoretically elastic properties and phase transitions of cubic H2O ice at room temperature and high pressures between 10 and 82 GPa. The time-domain Brillouin scattering (TDBS) technique was used to measure longitudinal sound velocities (VL) in polycrystalline ice samples compressed in a diamond anvil cell. The high spatial resolution of the TDBS technique revealed variations of VL caused by elastic anisotropy, allowing us to reliably determine the fastest and the slowest sound velocity in a single crystal of cubic H2O ice and thus to evaluate existing equations of state. Pressure dependencies of the single-crystal elastic moduli Ci j(P ) of cubic H2O ice to 82 GPa have been obtained which indicate its hardness and brittleness. These results were compared with ab initio calculations. It is suggested that the transition from molecular ice VII to ionic ice X occurs at much higher pressures than proposed earlier, probably above 80 GPa.

  18. Measurement on the effect of sound wave in upper plenum of boiling water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai, Kosuke; Someya, Satoshi; Okamoto, Koji

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, the power uprate of Boiling Water Reactors have been conducted at several existing power plants as a way to improve plant economy. In one of the power uprated plants (117.8% uprates) in the United States, the steam dryer breakages due to fatigue fracture occurred. It is conceivable that the increased steam flow passing through the branches caused a self-induced vibration with the propagation of sound wave into the steam-dome. The resonance among the structure, flow and the pressure fluctuation resulted in the breakages. To understand the basic mechanism of the resonance, previous researches were done by a point measurement of the pressure and by a phase averaged measurement of the flow, while it was difficult to detect the interaction among them by the conventional method. In this study, Dynamic Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) System was applied to investigate the effect of sound on natural convection and forced convection. Especially, when the phases of acoustic sources were different, various acoustic wave effects were checked. (author)

  19. Dynamic PIV measurement of the effect of sound waves in the upper plenum of the boiling water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai, Kosuke; Someya, Satoshi; Okamoto, Koji

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, power uprating of boiling power reactors has been conducted at several existing power plants in order to improve plant economy. In one power uprated plant (117.8% uprate) in the United States, steam dryer breakages due to fatigue fracture occurred. It is conceivable that the increased steam flow passing through the branches caused a self-induced vibration with the propagation of sound waves into the steam-dome. The resonance among the structure, the flow, and the pressure fluctuation resulted in the breakages. In order to clarify the basic mechanism of the resonance, previous studies were performed by conducting a point measurement of the pressure and a phase averaged measurement of the flow, although detecting the interaction among the structure, the flow, and the pressure fluctuation by the conventional method was difficult. In a preliminary study, a dynamic Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) system was used to investigate the effect of sound on the flow. A dynamic PIV system is the newest entrant to the field of fluid flow measurement. Its paramount advantage is the instantaneous global evaluation of conditions over a plane extended across the entire velocity field. Using the dynamic PIV system, the influence of sound waves on the flow field was measured. As a result, when two speakers were placed diagonally and sound waves were presented in the same phase, vertical motion was strongly observed compared to horizontal motion. (author)

  20. Pressure evolution of the high-frequency sound velocity in liquid water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krisch, M.; Sette, F.; D'Astuto, M.; Lorenzen, M.; Mermet, A.; Monaco, G.; Verbeni, R.; Loubeyre, P.; Le Toullec, R.; Ruocco, G.; Cunsolo, A.

    2002-01-01

    The high-frequency sound velocity v ∞ of liquid water has been determined to densities of 1.37 g/cm 3 by inelastic x-ray scattering. In comparison to the hydrodynamic sound velocity v 0 , the increase of v ∞ with density is substantially less pronounced, indicating that, at high density, the hydrogen-bond network is decreasingly relevant to the physical properties of liquid water. Furthermore, we observe an anomaly in v ∞ at densities around 1.12 g/cm 3 , contrasting the smooth density evolution of v 0

  1. Effect which environmental sound causes for memory retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    武良,徹文

    1999-01-01

    The research judges the relation and no relation between the stimulation at prime and the target stimulation with hearing of pleasantness and an unpleasant sound. It is a purpose what influence for you give to examine a reaction time and a miss-rate of responding as an index when the problem is accomplished. The subjects are 50 university students to the graduate school students from one year. The subject was distributed to 21 pleasant sound condition groups, 10 unpleasant sound condition gro...

  2. The Effects of Seamounts on Sound Propagation in Deep Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wen; Li Zheng-Lin; Zhang Ren-He; Qin Ji-Xing; Li Jun; Nan Ming-Xing

    2015-01-01

    A propagation experiment was conducted in the South China Sea in 2014 with a flat bottom and seamounts respectively by using explosive sources. The effects of seamounts on sound propagation are analyzed by using the broadband signals. It is observed that the transmission loss (TL) decreases up to 7 dB for the signals in the first shadow zone due to the seamount reflection. Moreover, the TL might increase more than 30 dB in the converge zone due to the shadowing by seamounts. Abnormal TLs and pulse arrival structures at different ranges are explained by using the ray and wave theory. The experimental TLs and arrival pulses are compared with the numerical results and found to be in good agreement. (paper)

  3. High pressure effects on fruits and vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Timmermans, R.A.H.; Matser, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    The chapter provides an overview on different high pressure based treatments (high pressure pasteurization, blanching, pressure-assisted thermal processing, pressure-shift freezing and thawing) available for the preservation of fruits and vegetable products and extending their shelf life. Pressure treatment can be used for product modification through pressure gelatinization of starch and pressure denaturation of proteins. Key pressure–thermal treatment effects on vitamin, enzymes, flavor, co...

  4. Healthcare performance and the effects of the binaural beats on human blood pressure and heart rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Calvin

    2008-01-01

    Binaural beats are the differences in two different frequencies (in the range of 30-1000 Hz). Binaural beats are played through headphones and are perceived by the superior olivary nucleus of each hemisphere of the brain. The brain perceives the binaural beat and resonates to its frequency (frequency following response). Once the brain is in tune with the binaural beat it produces brainwaves of that frequency altering the listener's state of mind. In this experiment, the effects of the beta and theta binaural beat on human blood pressure and pulse were studied. Using headphones, three sounds were played for 7 minutes each to 12 participants: the control,- the sound of a babbling brook (the background sound to the two binaural beats), the beta binaural beat (20 Hz), and the theta binaural beat (7 Hz). Blood pressure and pulse were recorded before and after each sound was played. Each participant was given 2 minutes in-between each sound. The results showed that the control and the two binaural beats did not affect the 12 participant's blood pressure or pulse (p > 0.05). One reason for this may be that the sounds were not played long enough for the brain to either perceive and/or resonate to the frequency. Another reason why the sounds did not affect blood pressure and pulse may be due to the participant's age since older brains may not perceive the binaural beats as well as younger brains.

  5. The effect of frequency-specific sound signals on the germination of maize seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicient, Carlos M

    2017-07-25

    The effects of sound treatments on the germination of maize seeds were determined. White noise and bass sounds (300 Hz) had a positive effect on the germination rate. Only 3 h treatment produced an increase of about 8%, and 5 h increased germination in about 10%. Fast-green staining shows that at least part of the effects of sound are due to a physical alteration in the integrity of the pericarp, increasing the porosity of the pericarp and facilitating oxygen availability and water and oxygen uptake. Accordingly, by removing the pericarp from the seeds the positive effect of the sound on the germination disappeared.

  6. Intersensory Function in Newborns: Effect of Sound on Visual Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Katharine Rieke; Turkewitz, Gerald

    1980-01-01

    Newborn infants' fixation of a graduated series of visual stimuli significantly differed in the absence and presence of white-noise bursts. Relative to the no-sound condition, sound resulted in the infants' tendency to look more at the low-intensity visual stimulus and less at the high- intensity visual stimulus. (Author/DB)

  7. The effects of bilingualism on children's perception of speech sounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brasileiro, I.

    2009-01-01

    The general topic addressed by this dissertation is that of bilingualism, and more specifically, the topic of bilingual acquisition of speech sounds. The central question in this study is the following: does bilingualism affect children’s perceptual development of speech sounds? The term bilingual

  8. Effect of different sound atmospheres on SnO2:Sb thin films prepared by dip coating technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocyigit, Adem; Ozturk, Erhan; Ejderha, Kadir; Turgut, Guven

    2017-11-01

    Different sound atmosphere effects were investigated on SnO2:Sb thin films, which were deposited with dip coating technique. Two sound atmospheres were used in this study; one of them was nay sound atmosphere for soft sound, another was metallic sound for hard sound. X-ray diffraction (XRD) graphs have indicated that the films have different orientations and structural parameters in quiet room, metallic and soft sound atmospheres. It could be seen from UV-Vis spectrometer measurements that films have different band gaps and optical transmittances with changing sound atmospheres. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and AFM images of the films have been pointed out that surfaces of films have been affected with changing sound atmospheres. The electrical measurements have shown that films have different I-V plots and different sheet resistances with changing sound atmospheres. These sound effects may be used to manage atoms in nano dimensions.

  9. Context effects on processing widely deviant sounds in newborn infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Péter Háden

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Detecting and orienting towards sounds carrying new information is a crucial feature of the human brain that supports adaptation to the environment. Rare, acoustically widely deviant sounds presented amongst frequent tones elicit large event related brain potentials (ERPs in neonates. Here we tested whether these discriminative ERP responses reflect only the activation of fresh afferent neuronal populations (i.e., neuronal circuits not affected by the tones or they also index the processing of contextual mismatch between the rare and the frequent sounds.In two separate experiments, we presented sleeping newborns with 150 different environmental sounds and the same number of white noise bursts. Both sounds served either as deviants in an oddball paradigm with the frequent standard stimulus a tone (Novel/Noise deviant, or as the standard stimulus with the tone as deviant (Novel/Noise standard, or they were delivered alone with the same timing as the deviants in the oddball condition (Novel/Noise alone.Whereas the ERP responses to noise–deviants elicited similar responses as the same sound presented alone, the responses elicited by environmental sounds in the corresponding conditions morphologically differed from each other. Thus whereas the ERP response to the noise sounds can be explained by the different refractory state of stimulus specific neuronal populations, the ERP response to environmental sounds indicated context sensitive processing. These results provide evidence for an innate tendency of context dependent auditory processing as well as a basis for the different developmental trajectories of processing acoustical deviance and contextual novelty.

  10. Converting sunlight into audible sound by means of the photoacoustic effect: The Heliophone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roozen, N B; Glorieux, C; Liu, L; Rychtáriková, M; Van der Donck, T; Jacobs, A

    2016-09-01

    One hundred and thirty-five years after Alexander Graham Bell and his assistant Charles Sumner Tainter explored the photoacoustic effect, and about 40 years after Rosencwaig and Gersho modeled the effect in a photoacoustic cell configuration, the phenomenon is revisited in a "Heliophone" device that converts sunlight into sound. The light is focused on a carbon blackened copper coated Kapton foil in an acoustic cell by means of a compound parabolic collimator, and its intensity is modulated by a mechanical chopper. A horn is employed to make the sound audible without electronic amplification. The description of the photoacoustic effect that was introduced by Rosencwaig and Gersho is extended to a cell-horn configuration, in which the periodically heated air above the foil acts as an oscillating piston, driving acoustic waves in the horn. The pressure in the cavity-horn assembly is calculated by considering the air layer piston as an equivalent volume velocity source. The importance of the carbon black (soot) layer to enhance light absorption, but above all to enhance the photothermal excitation efficiency, is elucidated by means of an experimentally supported physical model.

  11. Peripheral vascular effects on auscultatory blood pressure measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbany, S Y; Drzewiecki, G M; Noordergraaf, A

    1993-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to examine the accuracy of the conventional auscultatory method of blood pressure measurement. The influence of the physiologic state of the vascular system in the forearm distal to the site of Korotkoff sound recording and its impact on the precision of the measured blood pressure is discussed. The peripheral resistance in the arm distal to the cuff was changed noninvasively by heating and cooling effects and by induction of reactive hyperemia. All interventions were preceded by an investigation of their effect on central blood pressure to distinguish local effects from changes in central blood pressure. These interventions were sufficiently moderate to make their effect on central blood pressure, recorded in the other arm, statistically insignificant (i.e., changes in systolic [p cooling experiments was statistically significant (p < 0.001). Moreover, both measured systolic (p < 0.004) and diastolic (p < 0.001) pressure decreases during the reactive hyperemia experiments were statistically significant. The findings demonstrate that alteration in vascular state generates perplexing changes in blood pressure, hence confirming experimental observations by earlier investigators as well as predictions by our model studies.

  12. Competing sound sources reveal spatial effects in cortical processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross K Maddox

    Full Text Available Why is spatial tuning in auditory cortex weak, even though location is important to object recognition in natural settings? This question continues to vex neuroscientists focused on linking physiological results to auditory perception. Here we show that the spatial locations of simultaneous, competing sound sources dramatically influence how well neural spike trains recorded from the zebra finch field L (an analog of mammalian primary auditory cortex encode source identity. We find that the location of a birdsong played in quiet has little effect on the fidelity of the neural encoding of the song. However, when the song is presented along with a masker, spatial effects are pronounced. For each spatial configuration, a subset of neurons encodes song identity more robustly than others. As a result, competing sources from different locations dominate responses of different neural subpopulations, helping to separate neural responses into independent representations. These results help elucidate how cortical processing exploits spatial information to provide a substrate for selective spatial auditory attention.

  13. Algorithmic modeling of the irrelevant sound effect (ISE) by the hearing sensation fluctuation strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlittmeier, Sabine J; Weissgerber, Tobias; Kerber, Stefan; Fastl, Hugo; Hellbrück, Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    Background sounds, such as narration, music with prominent staccato passages, and office noise impair verbal short-term memory even when these sounds are irrelevant. This irrelevant sound effect (ISE) is evoked by so-called changing-state sounds that are characterized by a distinct temporal structure with varying successive auditory-perceptive tokens. However, because of the absence of an appropriate psychoacoustically based instrumental measure, the disturbing impact of a given speech or nonspeech sound could not be predicted until now, but necessitated behavioral testing. Our database for parametric modeling of the ISE included approximately 40 background sounds (e.g., speech, music, tone sequences, office noise, traffic noise) and corresponding performance data that was collected from 70 behavioral measurements of verbal short-term memory. The hearing sensation fluctuation strength was chosen to model the ISE and describes the percept of fluctuations when listening to slowly modulated sounds (f(mod) background sounds, the algorithm estimated behavioral performance data in 63 of 70 cases within the interquartile ranges. In particular, all real-world sounds were modeled adequately, whereas the algorithm overestimated the (non-)disturbance impact of synthetic steady-state sounds that were constituted by a repeated vowel or tone. Implications of the algorithm's strengths and prediction errors are discussed.

  14. Sound Effects for Children's Comprehension of Variably-Paced Television Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, Sandra L.; Scott, M. Catherine

    In this study, children's selective attention to, and comprehension of, variably-paced television programs were examined as a function of sound effects. Sixty-four children, equally distributed by sex and by preschool and fourth grades, were randomly assigned to one of four treatment conditions which crossed two levels of sound effects (presence…

  15. Effect of pile-driving sounds on the survival of larval fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolle, L.J.; Jong, C.A.F. de; Bierman, S.M.; Beek, P.J.G. van van; Wessels, P.W.; Blom, E.; Damme, C.J.G. van; Winter, H.V.; Dekeling, R.P.A.

    2016-01-01

    Concern exists about the potential effects of pile-driving sounds on fish, but evidence is limited, especially for fish larvae. A device was developed to expose larvae to accurately reproduced pile-driving sounds. Controlled exposure experiments were carried out to examine the lethal effects in

  16. Making Sound Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Walter F., III

    2007-01-01

    Sound provides and offers amazing insights into the world. Sound waves may be defined as mechanical energy that moves through air or other medium as a longitudinal wave and consists of pressure fluctuations. Humans and animals alike use sound as a means of communication and a tool for survival. Mammals, such as bats, use ultrasonic sound waves to…

  17. Effect of leading-edge geometry on boundary-layer receptivity to freestream sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Nay; Reed, Helen L.; Saric, W. S.

    1991-01-01

    The receptivity to freestream sound of the laminar boundary layer over a semi-infinite flat plate with an elliptic leading edge is simulated numerically. The incompressible flow past the flat plate is computed by solving the full Navier-Stokes equations in general curvilinear coordinates. A finite-difference method which is second-order accurate in space and time is used. Spatial and temporal developments of the Tollmien-Schlichting wave in the boundary layer, due to small-amplitude time-harmonic oscillations of the freestream velocity that closely simulate a sound wave travelling parallel to the plate, are observed. The effect of leading-edge curvature is studied by varying the aspect ratio of the ellipse. The boundary layer over the flat plate with a sharper leading edge is found to be less receptive. The relative contribution of the discontinuity in curvature at the ellipse-flat-plate juncture to receptivity is investigated by smoothing the juncture with a polynomial. Continuous curvature leads to less receptivity. A new geometry of the leading edge, a modified super ellipse, which provides continuous curvature at the juncture with the flat plate, is used to study the effect of continuous curvature and inherent pressure gradient on receptivity.

  18. Effect of temporary open-air markets on the sound environment and acoustic perception based on the crowd density characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qi; Sun, Yang; Kang, Jian

    2017-12-01

    The sound environment and acoustic perception of open-air markets, which are very common in high-density urban open spaces, play important roles in terms of the urban soundscape. Based on objective and subjective measurements of a typical temporary open-air market in Harbin city, China, the effects of the temporary open-air market on the sound environment and acoustic perception were studied, considering different crowd densities. It was observed that a temporary open-air market without zoning increases the sound pressure level and subjective loudness by 2.4dBA and 0.21dBA, respectively, compared to the absence of a temporary market. Different from the sound pressure level and subjective loudness, the relationship between crowd density and the perceived acoustic comfort is parabolic. Regarding the effect of a temporary open-air market with different zones on the sound environment and acoustic perception, when the crowd densities were the same, subjective loudness in the fruit and vegetable sales area was always higher than in the food sales area and the clothing sales area. In terms of acoustic comfort, with an increase in crowd density, acoustic comfort in the fruit and vegetable sales area decreased, and acoustic comfort in the food sales area and the clothing sales area exhibited a parabolic change trend of increase followed by decrease. Overall, acoustic comfort can be effectively improved by better planning temporary open-air markets in high-density urban open spaces. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of incongruent auditory and visual room-related cues on sound externalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvajal, Juan Camilo Gil; Santurette, Sébastien; Cubick, Jens

    Sounds presented via headphones are typically perceived inside the head. However, the illusion of a sound source located out in space away from the listener’s head can be generated with binaural headphone-based auralization systems by convolving anechoic sound signals with a binaural room impulse...... response (BRIR) measured with miniature microphones placed in the listener’s ear canals. Sound externalization of such virtual sounds can be very convincing and robust but there have been reports that the illusion might break down when the listening environment differs from the room in which the BRIRs were...... recorded [1,2,3]. This may be due to incongruent auditory cues between the recording and playback room during sound reproduction [2]. Alternatively, an expectation effect caused by the visual impression of the room may affect the position of the perceived auditory image [3]. Here, we systematically...

  20. Isotope enrichment effect of gaseous mixtures in standing sound vibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knesebeck, R.L.

    1984-01-01

    When standing acoustic waves are excited in a tube containing a mixture of two gases, a partial zonal fractioning of the components arises as consequence of mass transport by diffusion, driven by the thermal and pressure gradients which are associeted with the standing waves. This effect is present in each zone corresponding to a quarter wavelength, with the heavier component becoming enriched at the nodes fo the standing waves and deplected at the crests. The magnitude of the enrichment in one of the components of a binary gas mixture is given by Δω=ap 2 /lambda [b + (1-bω)] 2 . Where ω is the mass concentration of the component in the mixture, a and b are parameters which are related to molecular proprieties of the gases, p is the relative pressure amplitude of the standing wave and lambda is its wavelength. For a natural mixture of uranium hexafluorate, with 0.715% of the uranium isotope 340 an enrichment of about 2 x 10 -6 % in the concentration of this isotope is theorecticaly attainable per stage consisting of a quarter wavelenght, when a standing acoustical wave of relative pressure amplitude of 0,2 and wavelenght of 20 cm is used. Since standing acoustical waves are easely excited in gas columns, an isotope enrichment plant made of a cascade of tubes in which standing waves are excited, is presumably feasible with relatively low investment and operation costs. (Author) [pt

  1. Towards direct realisation of the SI unit of sound pressure in the audible hearing range based on optical free-field acoustic particle measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koukoulas, Triantafillos, E-mail: triantafillos.koukoulas@npl.co.uk; Piper, Ben [Acoustics Group, National Physical Laboratory, Hampton Road, Teddington, Middlesex TW11 0LW (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-20

    Since the introduction of the International System of Units (the SI system) in 1960, weights, measures, standardised approaches, procedures, and protocols have been introduced, adapted, and extensively used. A major international effort and activity concentrate on the definition and traceability of the seven base SI units in terms of fundamental constants, and consequently those units that are derived from the base units. In airborne acoustical metrology and for the audible range of frequencies up to 20 kHz, the SI unit of sound pressure, the pascal, is realised indirectly and without any knowledge or measurement of the sound field. Though the principle of reciprocity was originally formulated by Lord Rayleigh nearly two centuries ago, it was devised in the 1940s and eventually became a calibration standard in the 1960s; however, it can only accommodate a limited number of acoustic sensors of specific types and dimensions. International standards determine the device sensitivity either through coupler or through free-field reciprocity but rely on the continuous availability of specific acoustical artefacts. Here, we show an optical method based on gated photon correlation spectroscopy that can measure sound pressures directly and absolutely in fully anechoic conditions, remotely, and without disturbing the propagating sound field. It neither relies on the availability or performance of any measurement artefact nor makes any assumptions of the device geometry and sound field characteristics. Most importantly, the required units of sound pressure and microphone sensitivity may now be experimentally realised, thus providing direct traceability to SI base units.

  2. Thunderstorms in my computer : The effect of visual dynamics and sound in a 3D environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtkamp, J.; Schuurink, E.L.; Toet, A.

    2008-01-01

    We assessed the effects of the addition of dynamic visual elements and sounds to a levee patroller training game on the appraisal of the environment and weather conditions, the engagement of the users and their performance. Results show that the combination of visual dynamics and sounds best conveys

  3. Holographic reconstruction of sound fields based on the acousto-optic effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez Grande, Efren; Torras Rosell, Antoni; Jacobsen, Finn

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that it is possible to measure a sound field using acousto-optic tomography. Theacousto-optic effect, i.e., the interaction between sound and light, can be used to measure an arbitrary soundfield by scanning it with a laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) over an aperture; This...

  4. Understanding the Doppler Effect by Analysing Spectrograms of the Sound of a Passing Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubyako, Dmitry; Martinez-Piedra, Gordon; Ushenin, Arthur; Ushenin, Arthur; Denvir, Patrick; Dunlop, John; Hall, Alex; Le Roux, Gus; van Someren, Laurence; Weinberger, Harvey

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how the Doppler effect can be analysed to deduce information about a moving source of sound waves. Specifically, we find the speed of a car and the distance of its closest approach to an observer using sound recordings from smartphones. A key focus of this paper is how this can be achieved in a…

  5. Pressure-driven sound turbulence in a high-β plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenzel, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    In a large laboratory plasma [1 m diamx2 m, n e ≤10 12 cm -3 , β 0 ≅15 G, β e =nkT e /(β 0 2 /2μ 0 )≅0.5], strong density fluctuations (δn/n≅50%) near the lower hybrid frequency (ω ce ω ci ) 1/2 are identified as cross-field sound waves (k perpendicular much-gt k parallel , ω/k perpendicular ≅c s ) driven unstable by the electron diamagnetic drift v d =∇pxB/neβ 2 , v d >c s . Wave steepening and refraction saturate the instability. Wave-enhanced transport but insignificant particle acceleration are observed

  6. A sound pressure field during the quenching of a steel specimen in different water solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Prezelj

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of controlling the quenching process of an orange-hot steel workpiece is to ensure its required surface hardness. A sound in a cooling liquid generated by the quenching process was experimentally analyzed. It contains sufficient information about the ongoing process for its quantification, and it can be used in real time. Traditionally, the quenching and the resultant hardening can be controlled by selecting different process parameters, like, for example the characteristics of the cooling liquid, the velocity of the cooling liquid flow, its temperature, the temperature of the work-piece, and many others. The possibility of controlling the quenching process by using acoustic cavitation is considered in this article.

  7. Effect of sound on gap-junction-based intercellular signaling: Calcium waves under acoustic irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deymier, P A; Swinteck, N; Runge, K; Deymier-Black, A; Hoying, J B

    2015-01-01

    We present a previously unrecognized effect of sound waves on gap-junction-based intercellular signaling such as in biological tissues composed of endothelial cells. We suggest that sound irradiation may, through temporal and spatial modulation of cell-to-cell conductance, create intercellular calcium waves with unidirectional signal propagation associated with nonconventional topologies. Nonreciprocity in calcium wave propagation induced by sound wave irradiation is demonstrated in the case of a linear and a nonlinear reaction-diffusion model. This demonstration should be applicable to other types of gap-junction-based intercellular signals, and it is thought that it should be of help in interpreting a broad range of biological phenomena associated with the beneficial therapeutic effects of sound irradiation and possibly the harmful effects of sound waves on health.

  8. Nonlinear effects in the damping of third-sound pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Browne, D.A.

    1984-01-01

    We show that nonlinearities in the equations of motion for a third-sound pulse in a thick superfluid film lead to the production of short-wavelength solitons. The soliton damping arises from viscous stresses in the film, rather than from coupling to thermal currents in the vapor and the substrate as in the hydrodynamic regime. These solitons are more strongly damped than a long-wavelength third-sound wave and lead to a larger attenuation of the pulse. We show that this mechanism can account for the discrepancy between attenuation calculated theoretically for the long-wavelength limit and the experimentally observed attenuation of low-amplitude third-sound pulses

  9. The effects of viscosity on sound radiation near solid surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morfey, C.L.; Sorokin, Sergey; Gabard, G.

    2012-01-01

    Although the acoustic analogy developed by Lighthill, Curle, and Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings for sound generation by unsteady flow past solid surfaces is formally exact, it has become accepted practice in aeroacoustics to use an approximate version in which viscous quadrupoles are neglected. Her...

  10. The effect of sound sources on soundscape appraisal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bosch, Kirsten; Andringa, Tjeerd

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we explore how the perception of sound sources (like traffic, birds, and the presence of distant people) influences the appraisal of soundscapes (as calm, lively, chaotic, or boring). We have used 60 one-minute recordings, selected from 21 days (502 hours) in March and July 2010.

  11. Auditory Attentional Capture: Effects of Singleton Distractor Sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Polly; Lavie, Nilli

    2004-01-01

    The phenomenon of attentional capture by a unique yet irrelevant singleton distractor has typically been studied in visual search. In this article, the authors examine whether a similar phenomenon occurs in the auditory domain. Participants searched sequences of sounds for targets defined by frequency, intensity, or duration. The presence of a…

  12. Equivalent threshold sound pressure levels (ETSPL) for Sennheiser HDA 280 supra-aural audiometric earphones in the frequency range 125 Hz to 8000 Hz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben; Oakley, Sebastian

    2009-01-01

    Hearing threshold sound pressure levels were measured for the Sennheiser HDA 280 audiometric earphone. Hearing thresholds were measured for 25 normal hearing test subjects at the 11 audiometric test frequencies from 125 Hz to 8000 Hz. Sennheiser HDA 280 is a supra-aural earphone that may be seen...... as a substitute for the classical Telephonics TDH 39. The results are given as the Equivalent Threshold Sound Pressure Level, ETSPL, measured in an acoustic coupler specified in IEC 60318-3. The results are in good agreement with an independent investigation from PTB, Braunschweig, Germany. From acoustic...

  13. Incentive Effects of Peer Pressure in Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Kohei Daido

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies the effects of peer pressure on incentives. We assume that, in addition to the material payoff, each agent's utility includes the psychological payoff from peer pressure generated by a comparison of effort costs. We show that the optimal incentive schemes depend mainly on the degree of peer pressure and of the heterogeneity of agents. Furthermore, we examine the optimal organizational forms in terms of the principal''s intention to make use of the effects of peer pressure.

  14. High levels of sound pressure: acoustic reflex thresholds and auditory complaints of workers with noise exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Scalli Mathias Duarte

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The clinical evaluation of subjects with occupational noise exposure has been difficult due to the discrepancy between auditory complaints and auditory test results. This study aimed to evaluate the contralateral acoustic reflex thresholds of workers exposed to high levels of noise, and to compare these results to the subjects' auditory complaints.METHODS: This clinical retrospective study evaluated 364 workers between 1998 and 2005; their contralateral acoustic reflexes were compared to auditory complaints, age, and noise exposure time by chi-squared, Fisher's, and Spearman's tests.RESULTS: The workers' age ranged from 18 to 50 years (mean = 39.6, and noise exposure time from one to 38 years (mean = 17.3. We found that 15.1% (55 of the workers had bilateral hearing loss, 38.5% (140 had bilateral tinnitus, 52.8% (192 had abnormal sensitivity to loud sounds, and 47.2% (172 had speech recognition impairment. The variables hearing loss, speech recognition impairment, tinnitus, age group, and noise exposure time did not show relationship with acoustic reflex thresholds; however, all complaints demonstrated a statistically significant relationship with Metz recruitment at 3000 and 4000 Hz bilaterally.CONCLUSION: There was no significance relationship between auditory complaints and acoustic reflexes.

  15. Sound velocities of the 23 Å phase at high pressure and implications for seismic velocities in subducted slabs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, N.; Chen, T.; Qi, X.; Inoue, T.; Li, B.

    2017-12-01

    Dense hydrous phases are believed to play an important role in transporting water back into the deep interior of the Earth. Recently, a new Al-bearing hydrous Mg-silicate, named the 23 Å phase (ideal composition Mg12Al2Si4O16(OH)14), was reported (Cai et al., 2015), which could be a very important hydrous phase in subducting slabs. Here for the first time we report the measurements of the compressional and shear wave velocities of the 23 Å phase under applied pressures up to 14 GPa and room temperature, using a bulk sample with a grain size of less than 20 μm and density of 2.947 g/cm3. The acoustic measurements were conducted in a 1000-ton uniaxial split-cylinder multi-anvil apparatus using ultrasonic interferometry techniques (Li et al., 1996). The pressures were determined in situ by using an alumina buffer rod as the pressure marker (Wang et al., 2015). A dual-mode piezoelectric transducer enabled us to measure P and S wave travel times simultaneously, which in turn allowed a precise determination of the sound velocities and elastic bulk and shear moduli at high pressures. A fit to the acoustic data using finite strain analysis combined with a Hashin-Shtrikman (HS) bounds calculation yields: Ks0 = 113.3 GPa, G0 = 42.8 GPa, and K' = 3.8, G' = 1.9 for the bulk and shear moduli and their pressure derivatives. The velocities (especially for S wave) of this 23 Å phase (ambient Vp = 7.53 km/s, Vs = 3.72 km/s) are lower than those of phase A, olivine, pyrope, etc., while the Vp/Vs ratio (from 2.02 to 1.94, decreasing with increasing pressure) is quite high. These results suggest that a hydrous assemblage containing 23 Å phase should be distinguishable from a dry one at high pressure and temperature conditions relevant to Al-bearing subducted slabs.

  16. Effects of shoreline treatment methods on intertidal biota in Prince William Sound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lees, D.C.; Houghton, J.P.; Driskell, W.B.

    1993-01-01

    Several studies conducted in Prince William Sound during 1989 were directed at assessing short term biological effects of treatment methods considered or employed for treating oil contaminated beaches. The four treatment alternatives evaluated in this paper are: low pressure warm water wash (LP-WW); high pressure hot water wash (HP-HW); the dispersant Corexit 7664; and the beach cleaner Corexit 9580 M2. Effects on the biota were assessed primarily on the basis of changes in the abundance of dominant taxa and the magnitude of selected community attributes (such as percent cover by algae or animals, and number of taxa). Significant reductions in one or more community or population attributes, and increases in the percent of dead mussels were observed in response to all types of treatment but the strongest and most consistent effects were observed following high pressure hot water treatment, which was also accompanied by heavy mortality in rockweed. Generally, the programs were not designed to discriminate among the potential causes of damage. However, available data suggest that neither chemical nor LP-WW treatments caused significant thermal impacts in the intertidal biota. In contrast, temperature appeared to cause significant mortality in the dominant plants and grazing and filter-feeding animals in HP-HW treatment sites. Observations of displacement and mortality for clams and mussels suggest that physical effects may be substantial in some cases. Of the types of treatment examined, dispersant and beach cleaner treatments appeared to be accompanied with the smallest number of significant changes in abundance; however, this conclusion is weak because the LP-WW wash accompanying chemical applications during the tests was sometimes less rigorous than when performed by itself. LP-WW treatment was accompanied by an intermediate level of changes whereas HP-HW treatment was accompanied with the highest percentage of changes, nearly all of which were decreases

  17. Effect of the radiofrequency volumetric tissue reduction of inferior turbinate on expiratory nasal sound frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seren, Erdal

    2009-01-01

    We sought to evaluate the short-term efficacy of radiofrequency volumetric tissue reduction (RFVTR) in treatment of inferior turbinate hypertrophy (TH) as measured by expiratory nasal sound spectra. In our study, we aimed to investigate the Odiosoft-rhino (OR) as a new diagnostic method to evaluate the nasal airflow of patients before and after RFVTR. In this study, we have analyzed and recorded the expiratory nasal sound in patients with inferior TH before and after RFVTR. This analysis includes the time expanded waveform, the spectral analysis with time averaged fast Fourier transform (FFT), and the waveform analysis of nasal sound. We found an increase in sound intensity at high frequency (Hf) in the sound analyses of the patients before RFVTR and a decrease in sound intensity at Hf was found in patients after RFVTR. This study indicates that RFVTR is an effective procedure to improve nasal airflow in the patients with nasal obstruction with inferior TH. We found significant decreases in the sound intensity level at Hf in the sound spectra after RFVTR. The OR results from the 2000- to 4000-Hz frequency (Hf) interval may be more useful in assessing patients with nasal obstruction than other frequency intervals. OR may be used as a noninvasive diagnostic tool to evaluate the nasal airflow.

  18. Effects of resistive bodies on DC electrical soundings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Alfano

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Some deep DC electrical soundings, performed in alpine and apenninic areas with the continuous polar dipole-dipole spread, show apparent resistivity curves with positive slopes. Measured values of apparent resistivity reach 30000 Wm. Applying the "surface charges" method we developed three dimensional mathematical models, by means of which we can state simple rules for determining the minimum extensions of the deep resistive bodies, fundamental information for a more precise interpretation of the field results.

  19. Do Sound Public Finances Require Fiscal Rules or Is Market Pressure Enough?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergman, Michael; Hutchison, Michael M.; Hougaard Jensen, Svend E.

    This paper discusses the balance between market pressure and fiscal rules in order to keep public finances on a sustainable path. We provide empirical evidence on market assessments of sovereign default risk to economic news, announcements of national austerity programs, EU programs designed...... to support government finances, and banking fragility emanating from several countries in the euro area affected by the European sovereign debt crisis. We find that, in general, the quality of market signals is an insufficient indicator alone to accurately guide the conduct of fiscal policy, particularly...

  20. Do Sound Public Finances Require Fiscal Rules Or Is Market Pressure Enough?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergman, Ulf Michael; Hutchison, Michael; Jensen, Svend E. Hougaard

    This paper discusses the balance between market pressure and fiscal rules in order to keep public finances on a sustainable path. We provide empirical evidence on market assessments of sovereign default risk to economic news, announcements of national austerity programs, EU programs designed...... to support government finances, and banking fragility emanating from several countries in the euro area affected by the European sovereign debt crisis. We find that, in general, the quality of market signals is an insufficient indicator alone to accurately guide the conduct of fiscal policy, particularly...

  1. Characterization of the Ignition Over-Pressure/Sound Suppression Water in the Space Launch System Mobile Launcher Using Volume of Fluid Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    The Space Launch System (SLS) Vehicle consists of a Core Stage with four RS-25 engines and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRBs). This vehicle is launched from the Launchpad using a Mobile Launcher (ML) which supports the SLS vehicle until its liftoff from the ML under its own power. The combination of the four RS-25 engines and two SRBs generate a significant Ignition Over-Pressure (IOP) and Acoustic Sound environment. One of the mitigations of these environments is the Ignition Over-Pressure/Sound Suppression (IOP/SS) subsystem installed on the ML. This system consists of six water nozzles located parallel to and 24 inches downstream of each SRB nozzle exit plane as well as 16 water nozzles located parallel to and 53 inches downstream of the RS-25 nozzle exit plane. During launch of the SLS vehicle, water is ejected through each water nozzle to reduce the intensity of the transient pressure environment imposed upon the SLS vehicle. While required for the mitigation of the transient pressure environment on the SLS vehicle, the IOP/SS subsystem interacts (possibly adversely) with other systems located on the Launch Pad. One of the other systems that the IOP/SS water is anticipated to interact with is the Hydrogen Burn-Off Igniter System (HBOI). The HBOI system's purpose is to ignite the unburned hydrogen/air mixture that develops in and around the nozzle of the RS-25 engines during engine start. Due to the close proximity of the water system to the HBOI system, the presence of the IOP/SS may degrade the effectiveness of the HBOI system. Another system that the IOP/SS water may interact with adversely is the RS-25 engine nozzles and the SRB nozzles. The adverse interaction anticipated is the wetting, to a significant degree, of the RS-25 nozzles resulting in substantial weight of ice forming and water present to a significant degree upstream of the SRB nozzle exit plane inside the nozzle itself, posing significant additional blockage of the effluent that exits the nozzle

  2. Equivalent threshold sound pressure levels for Sennheiser HDA 200 earphone and Etymotic Research ER-2 insert earphone in the frequency range 125 Hz to 16 kHz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Loc A; Poulsen, Torben

    1998-01-01

    Equivalent Threshold Sound Pressure Levels (ETSPLs) have been determined for the Sennheiser HDA 200 earphone and the Etymotic Research ER-2insert earphone. Thirty-one young normal-hearing test subjects participated and the thresholds were determined for all recommended frequencies in thefrequency...

  3. Is 1/f sound more effective than simple resting in reducing stress response?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Eun-Joo; Cho, Il-Young; Park, Soon-Kwon

    2014-01-01

    It has been previously demonstrated that listening to 1/f sound effectively reduces stress. However, these findings have been inconsistent and further study on the relationship between 1/f sound and the stress response is consequently necessary. The present study examined whether sound with 1/f properties (1/f sound) affects stress-induced electroencephalogram (EEG) changes. Twenty-six subjects who voluntarily participated in the study were randomly assigned to the experimental or control group. Data from four participants were excluded because of EEG artifacts. A mental arithmetic task was used as a stressor. Participants in the experiment group listened to 1/f sound for 5 minutes and 33 seconds, while participants in the control group sat quietly for the same duration. EEG recordings were obtained at various points throughout the experiment. After the experiment, participants completed a questionnaire on the affective impact of the 1/f sound. The results indicated that the mental arithmetic task effectively induced a stress response measurable by EEG. Relative theta power at all electrode sites was significantly lower than baseline in both the control and experimental group. Relative alpha power was significantly lower, and relative beta power was significantly higher in the T3 and T4 areas. Secondly, 1/f sound and simple resting affected task-associated EEG changes in a similar manner. Finally, participants reported in the questionnaire that they experienced a positive feeling in response to the 1/f sound. Our results suggest that a commercialized 1/f sound product is not more effective than simple resting in alleviating the physiological stress response.

  4. Effects of hormone therapy on blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Zeinab; Seely, Ellen W; Rahme, Maya; El-Hajj Fuleihan, Ghada

    2015-04-01

    Although hormone therapy remains the most efficacious option for the management of vasomotor symptoms of menopause, its effects on blood pressure remain unclear. This review scrutinizes evidence of the mechanisms of action of hormone therapy on signaling pathways affecting blood pressure and evidence from clinical studies. Comprehensive Ovid MEDLINE searches were conducted for the terms "hypertension" and either of the following "hormone therapy and menopause" or "selective estrogen receptor modulator" from year 2000 to November 2013. In vitro and physiologic studies did not reveal a clear deleterious effect of hormone therapy on blood pressure. The effect of oral therapy was essentially neutral in large trials conducted in normotensive women with blood pressure as primary outcome. Results from all other trials had several limitations. Oral therapy had a neutral effect on blood pressure in hypertensive women. Transdermal estrogen and micronized progesterone had a beneficial effect on blood pressure in normotensive women and, at most, a neutral effect on hypertensive women. In general, tibolone and raloxifene had a neutral effect on blood pressure in both hypertensive and normotensive women. Large randomized trials are needed to assess the effect of oral hormone therapy on blood pressure as a primary outcome in hypertensive women and the effect of transdermal preparations on both normotensive and hypertensive women. Transdermal preparations would be the preferred mode of therapy for hypertensive women, in view of their favorable physiologic and clinical profiles. The decision regarding the use of hormone therapy should be individualized, and blood pressure should be monitored during the course of treatment.

  5. Loss and persistence of implicit memory for sound: evidence from auditory stream segregation context effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Joel S; Weintraub, David M

    2013-07-01

    An important question is the extent to which declines in memory over time are due to passive loss or active interference from other stimuli. The purpose of the present study was to determine the extent to which implicit memory effects in the perceptual organization of sound sequences are subject to loss and interference. Toward this aim, we took advantage of two recently discovered context effects in the perceptual judgments of sound patterns, one that depends on stimulus features of previous sounds and one that depends on the previous perceptual organization of these sounds. The experiments measured how listeners' perceptual organization of a tone sequence (test) was influenced by the frequency separation, or the perceptual organization, of the two preceding sequences (context1 and context2). The results demonstrated clear evidence for loss of context effects over time but little evidence for interference. However, they also revealed that context effects can be surprisingly persistent. The robust effects of loss, followed by persistence, were similar for the two types of context effects. We discuss whether the same auditory memories might contain information about basic stimulus features of sounds (i.e., frequency separation), as well as the perceptual organization of these sounds.

  6. Study of the Acoustic Effects of Hydrokinetic Tidal Turbines in Admiralty Inlet, Puget Sound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brian Polagye; Jim Thomson; Chris Bassett; Jason Wood; Dom Tollit; Robert Cavagnaro; Andrea Copping

    2012-03-30

    Hydrokinetic turbines will be a source of noise in the marine environment - both during operation and during installation/removal. High intensity sound can cause injury or behavioral changes in marine mammals and may also affect fish and invertebrates. These noise effects are, however, highly dependent on the individual marine animals; the intensity, frequency, and duration of the sound; and context in which the sound is received. In other words, production of sound is a necessary, but not sufficient, condition for an environmental impact. At a workshop on the environmental effects of tidal energy development, experts identified sound produced by turbines as an area of potentially significant impact, but also high uncertainty. The overall objectives of this project are to improve our understanding of the potential acoustic effects of tidal turbines by: (1) Characterizing sources of existing underwater noise; (2) Assessing the effectiveness of monitoring technologies to characterize underwater noise and marine mammal responsiveness to noise; (3) Evaluating the sound profile of an operating tidal turbine; and (4) Studying the effect of turbine sound on surrogate species in a laboratory environment. This study focuses on a specific case study for tidal energy development in Admiralty Inlet, Puget Sound, Washington (USA), but the methodologies and results are applicable to other turbine technologies and geographic locations. The project succeeded in achieving the above objectives and, in doing so, substantially contributed to the body of knowledge around the acoustic effects of tidal energy development in several ways: (1) Through collection of data from Admiralty Inlet, established the sources of sound generated by strong currents (mobilizations of sediment and gravel) and determined that low-frequency sound recorded during periods of strong currents is non-propagating pseudo-sound. This helped to advance the debate within the marine and hydrokinetics acoustic

  7. Sound effects: Multimodal input helps infants find displaced objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinskey, Jeanne L

    2017-09-01

    Before 9 months, infants use sound to retrieve a stationary object hidden by darkness but not one hidden by occlusion, suggesting auditory input is more salient in the absence of visual input. This article addresses how audiovisual input affects 10-month-olds' search for displaced objects. In AB tasks, infants who previously retrieved an object at A subsequently fail to find it after it is displaced to B, especially following a delay between hiding and retrieval. Experiment 1 manipulated auditory input by keeping the hidden object audible versus silent, and visual input by presenting the delay in the light versus dark. Infants succeeded more at B with audible than silent objects and, unexpectedly, more after delays in the light than dark. Experiment 2 presented both the delay and search phases in darkness. The unexpected light-dark difference disappeared. Across experiments, the presence of auditory input helped infants find displaced objects, whereas the absence of visual input did not. Sound might help by strengthening object representation, reducing memory load, or focusing attention. This work provides new evidence on when bimodal input aids object processing, corroborates claims that audiovisual processing improves over the first year of life, and contributes to multisensory approaches to studying cognition. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject Before 9 months, infants use sound to retrieve a stationary object hidden by darkness but not one hidden by occlusion. This suggests they find auditory input more salient in the absence of visual input in simple search tasks. After 9 months, infants' object processing appears more sensitive to multimodal (e.g., audiovisual) input. What does this study add? This study tested how audiovisual input affects 10-month-olds' search for an object displaced in an AB task. Sound helped infants find displaced objects in both the presence and absence of visual input. Object processing becomes more

  8. Effect of a magnetic field on fourth sound in 3He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daly, K.

    1988-01-01

    The influence of a magnetic field on the propagation of fourth sound in superfluid 3 He is studied. The field and temperature dependences of the average superfluid density /anti rho//sub s///rho/ and fourth sound Q are measured. The field dependence of /anti rho//sub s///rho/ is very different in a porous medium than predicted by Ginzburg-Landau theory applied to bulk liquid. In particular, a magnetic suppression of /anti rho//sub s///rho/ is observed in the temperature and pressure ranges corresponding to the A phase in bulk liquid. There is strong evidence of a magnetic suppression of T/sub c/ itself. The measured /anti rho//sub s///rho/ has a slight history dependence in a magnetic field, but none in zero field. The fourth-sound Q values are compared to the theoretical work of Smith, Jensen, and Wolfle. Quantitative confirmation of their work is problematic

  9. Nonlinear frequency compression: effects on sound quality ratings of speech and music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsa, Vijay; Scollie, Susan; Glista, Danielle; Seelisch, Andreas

    2013-03-01

    Frequency lowering technologies offer an alternative amplification solution for severe to profound high frequency hearing losses. While frequency lowering technologies may improve audibility of high frequency sounds, the very nature of this processing can affect the perceived sound quality. This article reports the results from two studies that investigated the impact of a nonlinear frequency compression (NFC) algorithm on perceived sound quality. In the first study, the cutoff frequency and compression ratio parameters of the NFC algorithm were varied, and their effect on the speech quality was measured subjectively with 12 normal hearing adults, 12 normal hearing children, 13 hearing impaired adults, and 9 hearing impaired children. In the second study, 12 normal hearing and 8 hearing impaired adult listeners rated the quality of speech in quiet, speech in noise, and music after processing with a different set of NFC parameters. Results showed that the cutoff frequency parameter had more impact on sound quality ratings than the compression ratio, and that the hearing impaired adults were more tolerant to increased frequency compression than normal hearing adults. No statistically significant differences were found in the sound quality ratings of speech-in-noise and music stimuli processed through various NFC settings by hearing impaired listeners. These findings suggest that there may be an acceptable range of NFC settings for hearing impaired individuals where sound quality is not adversely affected. These results may assist an Audiologist in clinical NFC hearing aid fittings for achieving a balance between high frequency audibility and sound quality.

  10. Effects of spectral complexity and sound duration on automatic complex-sound pitch processing in humans - a mismatch negativity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tervaniemi, M; Schröger, E; Saher, M; Näätänen, R

    2000-08-18

    The pitch of a spectrally rich sound is known to be more easily perceived than that of a sinusoidal tone. The present study compared the importance of spectral complexity and sound duration in facilitated pitch discrimination. The mismatch negativity (MMN), which reflects automatic neural discrimination, was recorded to a 2. 5% pitch change in pure tones with only one sinusoidal frequency component (500 Hz) and in spectrally rich tones with three (500-1500 Hz) and five (500-2500 Hz) harmonic partials. During the recordings, subjects concentrated on watching a silent movie. In separate blocks, stimuli were of 100 and 250 ms in duration. The MMN amplitude was enhanced with both spectrally rich sounds when compared with pure tones. The prolonged sound duration did not significantly enhance the MMN. This suggests that increased spectral rather than temporal information facilitates pitch processing of spectrally rich sounds.

  11. Effects of stratification and fluctuations on sound propagation in the deep ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    March, R.H.

    1979-01-01

    It is noted that even in a homogeneous ocean, the effects of non-thermal noise and sound absorption limit the maximum effective range of detection of acoustic signals from particle cascades to distances of 2 to 10 kilometers, depending on the surface conditions prevailing and the directional characteristics of the detector. In the present paper, the effects of stratification and fluctuations in the sound velocity profile in the deep ocean over distances of this order are examined. Attention is given to two effects of potential significance, refraction and scintillation. It is found that neither effect has any significant consequences at ranges of less than 10 km

  12. Alternating Current Delivered into the Scala Media Alters Sound Pressure at the Eardrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Allyn E.; Mountain, David C.

    1983-11-01

    Alternating current delivered into the scala media of the gerbil cochlea modulates the amplitude of a test tone measured near the eardrum. Variations in the electromechanical effect with acoustic stimulus parameters and observed physiological vulnerability suggest that cochlear hair cells are the biophysical origin of the process. Cochlear hair cells have traditionally been thought of as passive receptor cells, but they may play an active role in cochlear micromechanics.

  13. Effects of musical expertise on oscillatory brain activity in response to emotional sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolden, Sophie; Rigoulot, Simon; Jolicoeur, Pierre; Armony, Jorge L

    2017-08-01

    Emotions can be conveyed through a variety of channels in the auditory domain, be it via music, non-linguistic vocalizations, or speech prosody. Moreover, recent studies suggest that expertise in one sound category can impact the processing of emotional sounds in other sound categories as they found that musicians process more efficiently emotional musical and vocal sounds than non-musicians. However, the neural correlates of these modulations, especially their time course, are not very well understood. Consequently, we focused here on how the neural processing of emotional information varies as a function of sound category and expertise of participants. Electroencephalogram (EEG) of 20 non-musicians and 17 musicians was recorded while they listened to vocal (speech and vocalizations) and musical sounds. The amplitude of EEG-oscillatory activity in the theta, alpha, beta, and gamma band was quantified and Independent Component Analysis (ICA) was used to identify underlying components of brain activity in each band. Category differences were found in theta and alpha bands, due to larger responses to music and speech than to vocalizations, and in posterior beta, mainly due to differential processing of speech. In addition, we observed greater activation in frontal theta and alpha for musicians than for non-musicians, as well as an interaction between expertise and emotional content of sounds in frontal alpha. The results reflect musicians' expertise in recognition of emotion-conveying music, which seems to also generalize to emotional expressions conveyed by the human voice, in line with previous accounts of effects of expertise on musical and vocal sounds processing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The effect of brain lesions on sound localization in complex acoustic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zündorf, Ida C; Karnath, Hans-Otto; Lewald, Jörg

    2014-05-01

    Localizing sound sources of interest in cluttered acoustic environments--as in the 'cocktail-party' situation--is one of the most demanding challenges to the human auditory system in everyday life. In this study, stroke patients' ability to localize acoustic targets in a single-source and in a multi-source setup in the free sound field were directly compared. Subsequent voxel-based lesion-behaviour mapping analyses were computed to uncover the brain areas associated with a deficit in localization in the presence of multiple distracter sound sources rather than localization of individually presented sound sources. Analyses revealed a fundamental role of the right planum temporale in this task. The results from the left hemisphere were less straightforward, but suggested an involvement of inferior frontal and pre- and postcentral areas. These areas appear to be particularly involved in the spectrotemporal analyses crucial for effective segregation of multiple sound streams from various locations, beyond the currently known network for localization of isolated sound sources in otherwise silent surroundings.

  15. Pressure effects on single chain magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mito, M. E-mail: mitoh@elcs.kyutech.ac.jp; Shindo, N.; Tajiri, T.; Deguchi, H.; Takagi, S.; Miyasaka, H.; Yamashita, M.; Clerac, R.; Coulon, C

    2004-05-01

    Pressure effects on a single chain magnet [Mn{sub 2}(saltmen){sub 2}Ni(pao){sub 2}(py){sub 2}](ClO{sub 4}){sub 2} (saltmen{sup 2-}=N,N'-(1,1,2,2-tetramethylethylene)bis(salicylideneiminate), and pao{sup -}=pyridine-2-aldoximate) have been investigated through AC magnetic measurements under pressure (P). The slow relaxation of the magnetization depends on pressure. Both the blocking temperature (T{sub B}) and energy barrier ({delta}) increase by pressurization, and those enhancements saturate at around P=7 kbar.

  16. Side effects of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, M.S. van der; Lenders, J.W.M.; Thien, Th.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the experiences and complaints of patients who underwent 24 h blood pressure monitoring. METHODS: Two groups of hypertensive patients of a tertiary outpatient clinic were asked to fill in a nine-item questionnaire about the side effects of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring

  17. Superior analgesic effect of an active distraction versus pleasant unfamiliar sounds and music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garza Villarreal, Eduardo A.; Brattico, Elvira; Vase, Lene

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown a superior analgesic effect of favorite music over other passive or active distractive tasks. However, it is unclear what mediates this effect. In this study we investigated to which extent distraction, emotional valence and cognitive styles may explain part...... questionnaires concerning cognitive styles (Baron – Cohen and self-report). Active distraction with PASAT led to significantly less pain intensity and unpleasantness as compared to music and sound. In turn, both music and sound relieved pain significantly more than noise. When music and sound had the same level...... of valence they relieved pain to a similar degree. The emotional ratings of the conditions were correlated with the amount of pain relief and cognitive styles seemed to influence the analgesia effect. These findings suggest that the pain relieving effect previously seen in relation to music may be at least...

  18. Effects of hydrostatic pressure on mouse sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, N; Kamangar, P Bahrami; Azadbakht, M; Amini, A; Amiri, I

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the abnormalities in sperm after exposure to hydrostatic pressure. Hydrostatic pressure acting on the cells is one of the fundamental environmental mechanical forces. Disorders of relationship between the cells and this mechanical force, such as when pressure varies beyond physiological limits, can lead to disease or pathological states. Sperm exposed to different range of hydrostatic pressure within male reproductive system and after entering the female reproductive system. Sexually mature male NMRI mice, 8-12 weeks-old were sperm donors. Sperms were separated from the caudal epididymis and maintained in Ham's F-10 culture medium supplemented with 10 % FBS and divided into control and treatments. Sperm suspensions in the treatments were placed within pressure chamber and were subjected to increased hydrostatic pressure of 25, 50 and 100 mmHg (treatment I, II and III) above atmospheric pressure for 2 and 4 h. Sperm viability, motility, morphology, DNA integrity and fertilizing ability were assessed and compared with control. Results showed that hydrostatic pressure dependent on ranges and time manner reduced sperm quality due to adverse effect on viability, motility , morphology, DNA integrity and fertilizing ability in all of treatments, especially after 4h (phydrostatic pressure reduces sperm quality as a consequence of adverse effects on sperm parameters and may cause male infertility or subfertility (Tab. 5, Ref. 5).

  19. The sound of high winds. The effect of atmospheric stability on wind turbine sound and microphone noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Berg, G.P.

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis issues are raised concerning wind turbine noise and its relationship to altitude dependent wind velocity. The following issues are investigated: what is the influence of atmospheric stability on the speed and sound power of a wind turbine?; what is the influence of atmospheric stability on the character of wind turbine sound?; how widespread is the impact of atmospheric stability on wind turbine performance: is it relevant for new wind turbine projects; how can noise prediction take this stability into account?; what can be done to deal with the resultant higher impact of wind turbine sound? Apart from these directly wind turbine related issues, a final aim was to address a measurement problem: how does wind on a microphone affect the measurement of the ambient sound level?

  20. Fetus Sound Stimulation: Cilia Memristor Effect of Signal Transduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Jankovic-Raznatovic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This experimental study evaluates fetal middle cerebral artery (MCA circulation after the defined prenatal acoustical stimulation (PAS and the role of cilia in hearing and memory and could explain signal transduction and memory according to cilia optical-acoustical properties. Methods. PAS was performed twice on 119 no-risk term pregnancies. We analyzed fetal MCA circulation before, after first and second PAS. Results. Analysis of the Pulsatility index basic (PIB and before PAS and Pulsatility index reactive after the first PAS (PIR 1 shows high statistical difference, representing high influence on the brain circulation. Analysis of PIB and Pulsatility index reactive after the second PAS (PIR 2 shows no statistical difference. Cilia as nanoscale structure possess magnetic flux linkage that depends on the amount of charge that has passed between two-terminal variable resistors of cilia. Microtubule resistance, as a function of the current through and voltage across the structure, leads to appearance of cilia memory with the “memristor” property. Conclusion. Acoustical and optical cilia properties play crucial role in hearing and memory processes. We suggest that fetuses are getting used to sound, developing a kind of memory patterns, considering acoustical and electromagnetically waves and involving cilia and microtubules and try to explain signal transduction.

  1. The effect of musical practice on gesture/sound pairing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Mado eProverbio

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Learning to play a musical instrument is a demanding process requiring years of intense practice. Dramatic changes in brain connectivity, volume and functionality have been shown in skilled musicians. It is thought that music learning involves the formation of novel audio visuomotor associations, but not much is known about the gradual acquisition of this ability. In the present study, we investigated whether formal music training enhances audiovisual multisensory processing. To this end, pupils at different stages of education were examined based on the hypothesis that the strength of audio/visuomotor associations would be augmented as a function of the number of years of conservatory study (expertise. The study participants were violin and clarinet students of pre-academic and academic levels and of different chronological ages, ages of acquisition and academic levels. A violinist and a clarinetist each played the same score, and each participant viewed the video corresponding to his or her instrument. Pitch, intensity, rhythm and sound duration were matched across instruments. In half of the trials, the soundtrack did not match (in pitch the corresponding musical gestures. Data analysis indicated a correlation between the number of years of formal training (expertise and the ability to detect an audiomotor incongruence in music performance (relative to the musical instrument practiced, thus suggesting a direct correlation between knowing how to play and perceptual sensitivity.

  2. The Effect of Blindness on Long-Term Episodic Memory for Odors and Sounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stina Cornell Kärnekull

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available We recently showed that compared with sighted, early blind individuals have better episodic memory for environmental sounds, but not odors, after a short retention interval (∼ 8 – 9 min. Few studies have investigated potential effects of blindness on memory across long time frames, such as months or years. Consequently, it was unclear whether compensatory effects may vary as a function of retention interval. In this study, we followed-up participants (N = 57 out of 60 approximately 1 year after the initial testing and retested episodic recognition for environmental sounds and odors, and identification ability. In contrast to our previous findings, the early blind participants (n = 14 performed at a similar level as the late blind (n = 13 and sighted (n = 30 participants for sound recognition. Moreover, the groups had similar recognition performance of odors and identification ability of odors and sounds. These findings suggest that episodic odor memory is unaffected by blindness after both short and long retention intervals. However, the effect of blindness on episodic memory for sounds may vary as a function of retention interval, such that early blind individuals have an advantage over sighted across short but not long time frames. We speculate that the finding of a differential effect of blindness on auditory episodic memory across retention intervals may be related to different memory strategies at initial and follow-up assessments. In conclusion, this study suggests that blindness does not influence auditory or olfactory episodic memory as assessed after a long retention interval.

  3. A three-dimensional integrated nanogenerator for effectively harvesting sound energy from the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinmei; Cui, Nuanyang; Gu, Long; Chen, Xiaobo; Bai, Suo; Zheng, Youbin; Hu, Caixia; Qin, Yong

    2016-02-01

    An integrated triboelectric nanogenerator (ITNG) with a three-dimensional structure benefiting sound propagation and adsorption is demonstrated to more effectively harvest sound energy with improved output performance. With different multifunctional integrated layers working harmonically, it could generate a short-circuit current up to 2.1 mA, an open-circuit voltage up to 232 V and the maximum charging rate can reach 453 μC s-1 for a 1 mF capacitor, which are 4.6 times, 2.6 times and 7.4 times the highest reported values, respectively. Further study shows that the ITNG works well under sound in a wide range of sound intensity levels (SILs) and frequencies, and its output is sensitive to the SIL and frequency of the sound, which reveals that the ITNG can act as a self-powered active sensor for real-time noise surveillance and health care. Moreover, this generator can be used to directly power the Fe(OH)3 sol electrophoresis and shows great potential as a wireless power supply in the electrochemical industry.An integrated triboelectric nanogenerator (ITNG) with a three-dimensional structure benefiting sound propagation and adsorption is demonstrated to more effectively harvest sound energy with improved output performance. With different multifunctional integrated layers working harmonically, it could generate a short-circuit current up to 2.1 mA, an open-circuit voltage up to 232 V and the maximum charging rate can reach 453 μC s-1 for a 1 mF capacitor, which are 4.6 times, 2.6 times and 7.4 times the highest reported values, respectively. Further study shows that the ITNG works well under sound in a wide range of sound intensity levels (SILs) and frequencies, and its output is sensitive to the SIL and frequency of the sound, which reveals that the ITNG can act as a self-powered active sensor for real-time noise surveillance and health care. Moreover, this generator can be used to directly power the Fe(OH)3 sol electrophoresis and shows great potential as a

  4. Equivalent threshold sound pressure levels (ETSPL) for Sennheiser HDA 280 supra-aural audiometric earphones in the frequency range 125 Hz to 8000 Hz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Torben; Oakley, Sebastian

    2009-05-01

    Hearing threshold sound pressure levels were measured for the Sennheiser HDA 280 audiometric earphone. Hearing thresholds were measured for 25 normal-hearing test subjects at the 11 audiometric test frequencies from 125 Hz to 8000 Hz. Sennheiser HDA 280 is a supra-aural earphone that may be seen as a substitute for the classical Telephonics TDH 39. The results are given as the equivalent threshold sound pressure level (ETSPL) measured in an acoustic coupler specified in IEC 60318-3. The results are in good agreement with an independent investigation from PTB, Braunschweig, Germany. From acoustic laboratory measurements ETSPL values are calculated for the ear simulator specified in IEC 60318-1. Fitting of earphone and coupler is discussed. The data may be used for a future update of the RETSPL standard for supra-aural audiometric earphones, ISO 389-1.

  5. Effects of cavity resonances on sound transmission into a thin cylindrical shell. [noise reduction in aircraft fuselage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koval, L. R.

    1978-01-01

    In the context of the transmission of airborne noise into an aircraft fuselage, a mathematical model is presented for the effects of internal cavity resonances on sound transmission into a thin cylindrical shell. The 'noise reduction' of the cylinder is defined and computed, with and without including the effects of internal cavity resonances. As would be expected, the noise reduction in the absence of cavity resonances follows the same qualitative pattern as does transmission loss. Numerical results show that cavity resonances lead to wide fluctuations and a general decrease of noise reduction, especially at cavity resonances. Modest internal absorption is shown to greatly reduce the effect of cavity resonances. The effects of external airflow, internal cabin pressurization, and different acoustical properties inside and outside the cylinder are also included and briefly examined.

  6. Effect of Traffic Noise and Relaxations Sounds on Pedestrian Walking Speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Franěk

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to noise in everyday urban life is considered to be an environmental stressor. A specific outcome of reactions to environmental stress is a fast pace of life that also includes a faster pedestrian walking speed. The present study examined the effect of listening to annoying acoustical stimuli (traffic noise compared with relaxation sounds (forest birdsong on walking speed in a real outdoor urban environment. The participants (N = 83 walked along an urban route of 1.8 km. They listened to either traffic noise or forest birdsong, or they walked without listening to any acoustical stimuli in the control condition. The results showed that participants listening to traffic noise walked significantly faster on the route than both the participants listening to forest birdsong sounds and the participants in the control condition. Participants who listened to forest birdsong walked slightly slower than those under control conditions; however, this difference was not significant. Analysis of the walk experience showed that participants who listened to forest birdsong during the walk liked the route more than those who listened to traffic sounds. The study demonstrated that exposure to traffic noise led to an immediate increase in walking speed. It was also shown that exposure to noise may influence participants’ perception of an environment. The same environment may be more liked in the absence of noise or in the presence of relaxation sounds. The study also documented the positive effect of listening to various kinds of relaxation sounds while walking in an outdoor environment with traffic noise.

  7. Understanding the Doppler effect by analysing spectrograms of the sound of a passing vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubyako, Dmitry; Martinez-Piedra, Gordon; Ushenin, Arthur; Denvir, Patrick; Dunlop, John; Hall, Alex; Le Roux, Gus; van Someren, Laurence; Weinberger, Harvey

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how the Doppler effect can be analysed to deduce information about a moving source of sound waves. Specifically, we find the speed of a car and the distance of its closest approach to an observer using sound recordings from smartphones. A key focus of this paper is how this can be achieved in a classroom, both theoretically and experimentally, to deepen students’ understanding of the Doppler effect. Included are our own experimental data (48 sound recordings) to allow others to reproduce the analysis, if they cannot repeat the whole experiment themselves. In addition to its educational purpose, this paper examines the percentage errors in our results. This enabled us to determine sources of error, allowing those conducting similar future investigations to optimize their accuracy.

  8. Pressure effect on iron based superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arumugam, S.; Kanagaraj, M.

    2011-01-01

    A tuning of macroscopic thermo dynamical parameters such as temperature, pressure and volume play a crucial role in strongly correlated electron systems especially high T c superconductors, which leads to increasing conductivity as well as effective way of reducing intrinsic magnetic moments. Application of chemical and external pressure exhibits significant increases of critical temperature of recently discovered iron pnictides and chalcogenides superconductors. In this present report, we have investigated hydrostatic pressure effects on resistivity and magnetization of some 1111 type based oxypnictide superconductors such as Co doped CeFeAsO, La 0.8 Th 0.2 FeAsO, Ce 0.6 Y 0.4 FeAsO 0.8 F 0.2 and Yb doped CeFeAsO systems respectively. The initially applied pressure increases the T c and its down to lower value when beyond increasing pressure also has been observed and pressure effects on crystal structure were also discussed. From that all the obtained results reveal that controlling of magnetic instability and structure distortion at higher pressure is a dominant way to further developing of T c of these new ferropnictides compounds. (author)

  9. Sounding the Alert: Designing an Effective Voice for Earthquake Early Warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, E. R.; Given, D. D.

    2015-12-01

    The USGS is working with partners to develop the ShakeAlert Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) system (http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2014/3083/) to protect life and property along the U.S. West Coast, where the highest national seismic hazard is concentrated. EEW sends an alert that shaking from an earthquake is on its way (in seconds to tens of seconds) to allow recipients or automated systems to take appropriate actions at their location to protect themselves and/or sensitive equipment. ShakeAlert is transitioning toward a production prototype phase in which test users might begin testing applications of the technology. While a subset of uses will be automated (e.g., opening fire house doors), other applications will alert individuals by radio or cellphone notifications and require behavioral decisions to protect themselves (e.g., "Drop, Cover, Hold On"). The project needs to select and move forward with a consistent alert sound to be widely and quickly recognized as an earthquake alert. In this study we combine EEW science and capabilities with an understanding of human behavior from the social and psychological sciences to provide insight toward the design of effective sounds to help best motivate proper action by alert recipients. We present a review of existing research and literature, compiled as considerations and recommendations for alert sound characteristics optimized for EEW. We do not yet address wording of an audible message about the earthquake (e.g., intensity and timing until arrival of shaking or possible actions), although it will be a future component to accompany the sound. We consider pitch(es), loudness, rhythm, tempo, duration, and harmony. Important behavioral responses to sound to take into account include that people respond to discordant sounds with anxiety, can be calmed by harmony and softness, and are innately alerted by loud and abrupt sounds, although levels high enough to be auditory stressors can negatively impact human judgment.

  10. Assessment of the health effects of low-frequency sounds and infra-sounds from wind farms. ANSES Opinion. Collective expertise report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepoutre, Philippe; Avan, Paul; Cheveigne, Alain de; Ecotiere, David; Evrard, Anne-Sophie; Hours, Martine; Lelong, Joel; Moati, Frederique; Michaud, David; Toppila, Esko; Beugnet, Laurent; Bounouh, Alexandre; Feltin, Nicolas; Campo, Pierre; Dore, Jean-Francois; Ducimetiere, Pierre; Douki, Thierry; Flahaut, Emmanuel; Gaffet, Eric; Lafaye, Murielle; Martinsons, Christophe; Mouneyrac, Catherine; Ndagijimana, Fabien; Soyez, Alain; Yardin, Catherine; Cadene, Anthony; Merckel, Olivier; Niaudet, Aurelie; Cadene, Anthony; Saddoki, Sophia; Debuire, Brigitte; Genet, Roger

    2017-03-01

    The French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety (ANSES) reiterates that wind turbines emit infra-sounds (sound below 20 Hz) and low-frequency sounds. There are also other sources of infra-sound emissions that can be natural (wind in particular) or anthropogenic (heavy-goods vehicles, heat pumps, etc.). The measurement campaigns undertaken during the expert appraisal enabled these emissions from three wind farms to be characterised. In general, only very high intensities of infra-sound can be heard or perceived by humans. At the minimum distance (of 500 metres) separating homes from wind farm sites set out by the regulations, the infra-sounds produced by wind turbines do not exceed hearing thresholds. Therefore, the disturbance related to audible noise potentially felt by people around wind farms mainly relates to frequencies above 50 Hz. The expert appraisal showed that mechanisms for health effects grouped under the term 'vibro-acoustic disease', reported in certain publications, have no serious scientific basis. There have been very few scientific studies on the potential health effects of infra-sounds and low frequencies produced by wind turbines. The review of these experimental and epidemiological data did not find any adequate scientific arguments for the occurrence of health effects related to exposure to noise from wind turbines, other than disturbance related to audible noise and a nocebo effect, which can help explain the occurrence of stress-related symptoms experienced by residents living near wind farms. However, recently acquired knowledge on the physiology of the cochlea-vestibular system has revealed physiological effects in animals induced by exposure to high-intensity infra-sounds. These effects, while plausible in humans, have yet to be demonstrated for exposure to levels comparable to those observed in residents living near wind farms. Moreover, the connection between these physiological effects and the occurrence of

  11. Effect of thermal-treatment sequence on sound absorbing and mechanical properties of porous sound-absorbing/thermal-insulating composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Chen-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to recent rapid commercial and industrial development, mechanical equipment is supplemented massively in the factory and thus mechanical operation causes noise which distresses living at home. In livelihood, neighborhood, transportation equipment, jobsite construction noises impact on quality of life not only factory noise. This study aims to preparation technique and property evaluation of porous sound-absorbing/thermal-insulating composites. Hollow three-dimensional crimp PET fibers blended with low-melting PET fibers were fabricated into hollow PET/low-melting PET nonwoven after opening, blending, carding, lapping and needle-bonding process. Then, hollow PET/low-melting PET nonwovens were laminated into sound-absorbing/thermal-insulating composites by changing sequence of needle-bonding and thermal-treatment. The optimal thermal-treated sequence was found by tensile strength, tearing strength, sound-absorbing coefficient and thermal conductivity coefficient tests of porous composites.

  12. Effects of selective attention on the electrophysiological representation of concurrent sounds in the human auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidet-Caulet, Aurélie; Fischer, Catherine; Besle, Julien; Aguera, Pierre-Emmanuel; Giard, Marie-Helene; Bertrand, Olivier

    2007-08-29

    In noisy environments, we use auditory selective attention to actively ignore distracting sounds and select relevant information, as during a cocktail party to follow one particular conversation. The present electrophysiological study aims at deciphering the spatiotemporal organization of the effect of selective attention on the representation of concurrent sounds in the human auditory cortex. Sound onset asynchrony was manipulated to induce the segregation of two concurrent auditory streams. Each stream consisted of amplitude modulated tones at different carrier and modulation frequencies. Electrophysiological recordings were performed in epileptic patients with pharmacologically resistant partial epilepsy, implanted with depth electrodes in the temporal cortex. Patients were presented with the stimuli while they either performed an auditory distracting task or actively selected one of the two concurrent streams. Selective attention was found to affect steady-state responses in the primary auditory cortex, and transient and sustained evoked responses in secondary auditory areas. The results provide new insights on the neural mechanisms of auditory selective attention: stream selection during sound rivalry would be facilitated not only by enhancing the neural representation of relevant sounds, but also by reducing the representation of irrelevant information in the auditory cortex. Finally, they suggest a specialization of the left hemisphere in the attentional selection of fine-grained acoustic information.

  13. Effectiveness of sound therapy in patients with tinnitus resistant to previous treatments: importance of adjustments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Alencar de Barros Suzuki

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: The difficulty in choosing the appropriate therapy for chronic tinnitus relates to the variable impact on the quality of life of affected patients and, thus, requires individualization of treatment. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of using sound generators with individual adjustments to relieve tinnitus in patients unresponsive to previous treatments. METHODS: A prospective study of 10 patients with chronic tinnitus who were unresponsive to previous drug treatments, five males and five females, with ages ranging from 41 to 78 years. Bilateral sound generators (Reach 62 or Mind 9 models were used daily for at least 6 h during 18 months. The patients were evaluated at the beginning, after 1 month and at each 3 months until 18 months through acuphenometry, minimum masking level, the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory, visual analog scale, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. The sound generators were adjusted at each visit. RESULTS: There was a reduction of Tinnitus Handicap Inventory in nine patients using a protocol with a customized approach, independent of psychoacoustic characteristics of tinnitus. The best response to treatment occurred in those with whistle-type tinnitus. A correlation among the adjustments and tinnitus loudness and minimum masking level was found. Only one patient, who had indication of depression by Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, did not respond to sound therapy. CONCLUSION: There was improvement in quality of life (Tinnitus Handicap Inventory, with good response to sound therapy using customized settings in patients who did not respond to previous treatments for tinnitus.

  14. Effect of perforation on the sound transmission through a double-walled cylindrical shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qunlin; Mao, Yijun; Qi, Datong

    2017-12-01

    An analytical model is developed to study the sound transmission loss through a general double-walled cylindrical shell system with one or two walls perforated, which is excited by a plane wave in the presence of external mean flow. The shell motion is governed by the classical Donnell's thin shell theory, and the mean particle velocity model is employed to describe boundary conditions at interfaces between the shells and fluid media. In contrast to the conventional solid double-walled shell system, numerical results show that perforating the inner shell in the transmission side improves sound insulation performance over a wide frequency band, and removes fluctuation of sound transmission loss with frequency at mid-frequencies in the absence of external flow. Both the incidence and azimuthal angles have nearly negligible effect on the sound transmission loss over the low and middle frequency range when perforating the inner shell. Width of the frequency band with continuous sound transmission loss can be tuned by the perforation ratio.

  15. Nuclear sound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wambach, J.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclei, like more familiar mechanical systems, undergo simple vibrational motion. Among these vibrations, sound modes are of particular interest since they reveal important information on the effective interactions among the constituents and, through extrapolation, on the bulk behaviour of nuclear and neutron matter. Sound wave propagation in nuclei shows strong quantum effects familiar from other quantum systems. Microscopic theory suggests that the restoring forces are caused by the complex structure of the many-Fermion wavefunction and, in some cases, have no classical analogue. The damping of the vibrational amplitude is strongly influenced by phase coherence among the particles participating in the motion. (author)

  16. Effects of pressure on doped Kondo insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chengchung; Xu, Wang

    1999-08-01

    The effects of pressure on the doped Kondo insulators (KI) are studied in the framework of the slave-boson mean-field theory under the coherent potential approximation (CPA). A unified picture for both electron-type KI and hole-type KI is presented. The density of states of the f-electrons under the applied pressures and its variation with the concentration of the Kondo holes are calculated self-consistently. The specific heat coefficient, the zero-temperature magnetic susceptibility as well as the low temperature electric resistivity of the doped KI under various pressures are obtained. The two contrasting pressure-dependent effects observed in the doped KI systems can be naturally explained within a microscopic model. (author)

  17. An investigation of sound fields based on the acousto-optic effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torras Rosell, Antoni; Barrera Figueroa, Salvador; Jacobsen, Finn

    2011-01-01

    Various types of transducers are nowadays capable of translating different properties of sound waves into mechanical/electrical quantities, which can afterwards be reinterpreted into acoustical ones. However, in certain applications, for example when using microphone arrays, the presence of bulk...... range, and in two different measurement scenarios where the sound field is well-known: in a rectangular duct and in an anechoic room. Models for predicting the acousto-optic effect in such scenarios are derived and measurements are carried out with a laser Doppler vibrometer. The results show a fairly...

  18. Anticipated Effectiveness of Active Noise Control in Propeller Aircraft Interiors as Determined by Sound Quality Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Clemans A.; Sullivan, Brenda M.

    2004-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted, using sound quality engineering practices, to determine the subjective effectiveness of hypothetical active noise control systems in a range of propeller aircraft. The two tests differed by the type of judgments made by the subjects: pair comparisons in the first test and numerical category scaling in the second. Although the results of the two tests were in general agreement that the hypothetical active control measures improved the interior noise environments, the pair comparison method appears to be more sensitive to subtle changes in the characteristics of the sounds which are related to passenger preference.

  19. Effect of Listening to the Al-Quran on Heart Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daud, N. F.; Sharif, Z.

    2018-03-01

    This paper investigates the effect on the heart sounds upon listening to the chosen verses of the Al Quran. A signal of the heart sounds is extracted using Thinklabs Phonocardiography software and then the frequency components are extracted using MATLAB 7.11.0. Frequency components during diastolic are compared for two sessions; before and during listening sessions. Diastolic is a period where the chamber of the heart is filled with the blood when the heart muscle is in a relaxed condition. From this study, it is found that the frequency of the heart sound during listening to Al-Quran is lower than the one before listening to Al-Quran. This indicates that, the state of calmness can be achieved by listening to this selected verses of the Al-Quran.

  20. [Effect of early scream sound stress on learning and memory in female rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lili; Han, Bo; Zhao, Xiaoge; Mi, Lihua; Song, Qiang; Huang, Chen

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the effect of early scream sound stress on the ability of spatial learning and memory, the levels of norepinephrine (NE) and corticosterone (CORT) in serum, and the morphology of adrenal gland.
 Female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were treated daily with scream sound from postnatal day 1(P1) for 21 d. Morris water maze was used to measure the spatial learning and memory ability. The levels of serum NE and CORT were determined by radioimmunoassay. Adrenal gland of SD rats was collected and fixed in formalin, and then embedded with paraffin. The morphology of adrenal gland was observed by HE staining.
 Exposure to early scream sound decreased latency of escape and increased times to cross the platform in Morris water maze test (Psound stress can enhance spatial learning and memory ability in adulthood, which is related to activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and sympathetic nervous system.

  1. Effect of Poisson's loss factor of rubbery material on underwater sound absorption of anechoic coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jie; Zhao, Honggang; Yang, Haibin; Yin, Jianfei; Wen, Jihong

    2018-06-01

    Rubbery coatings embedded with air cavities are commonly used on underwater structures to reduce reflection of incoming sound waves. In this paper, the relationships between Poisson's and modulus loss factors of rubbery materials are theoretically derived, the different effects of the tiny Poisson's loss factor on characterizing the loss factors of shear and longitudinal moduli are revealed. Given complex Young's modulus and dynamic Poisson's ratio, it is found that the shear loss factor has almost invisible variation with the Poisson's loss factor and is very close to the loss factor of Young's modulus, while the longitudinal loss factor almost linearly decreases with the increase of Poisson's loss factor. Then, a finite element (FE) model is used to investigate the effect of the tiny Poisson's loss factor, which is generally neglected in some FE models, on the underwater sound absorption of rubbery coatings. Results show that the tiny Poisson's loss factor has a significant effect on the sound absorption of homogeneous coatings within the concerned frequency range, while it has both frequency- and structure-dependent influence on the sound absorption of inhomogeneous coatings with embedded air cavities. Given the material parameters and cavity dimensions, more obvious effect can be observed for the rubbery coating with a larger lattice constant and/or a thicker cover layer.

  2. Implementation and effectiveness of sound mitigation measures on Texas highways (HB 790) : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The 84th Texas Legislature passed House Bill (HB) 790 directing the Texas A&M Transportation Institute (TTI) to perform a study on the implementation and effectiveness of sound mitigation measures on the state highway system and certain toll roads an...

  3. Effect of cocoa on blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ried, Karin; Fakler, Peter; Stocks, Nigel P

    2017-04-25

    High blood pressure is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease, contributing to about 50% of cardiovascular events worldwide and 37% of cardiovascular-related deaths in Western populations. Epidemiological studies suggest that cocoa-rich products reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Flavanols found in cocoa have been shown to increase the formation of endothelial nitric oxide which promotes vasodilation and therefore blood pressure reduction. Here we update previous meta-analyses on the effect of cocoa on blood pressure. To assess the effects on blood pressure of chocolate or cocoa products versus low-flavanol products or placebo in adults with or without hypertension when consumed for two weeks or longer. This is an updated version of the review initially published in 2012. In this updated version, we searched the following electronic databases from inception to November 2016: Cochrane Hypertension Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE and Embase. We also searched international trial registries, and the reference lists of review articles and included trials. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the effects of chocolate or cocoa products on systolic and diastolic blood pressure in adults for a minimum of two weeks duration. Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the risks of bias in each trial. We conducted random-effects meta-analyses on the included studies using Review Manager 5. We explored heterogeneity with subgroup analyses by baseline blood pressure, flavanol content of control group, blinding, age and duration. Sensitivity analyses explored the influence of unusual study design. Thirty-five trials (including 40 treatment comparisons) met the inclusion criteria. Of these, we added 17 trials (20 treatment comparisons) to the 18 trials (20 treatment comparisons) in the previous version of this updated review.Trials provided participants with 30 to 1218 mg of flavanols (mean = 670 mg) in 1.4 to 105

  4. Sound field control for a low-frequency test facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christian Sejer; Møller, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    The two largest problems in controlling the reproduction of low-frequency sound for psychoacoustic experiments is the effect of the room due to standing waves and the relatively large sound pressure levels needed. Anechoic rooms are limited downward in frequency and distortion may be a problem even...... at moderate levels, while pressure-field playback can give higher sound pressures but is limited upwards in frequency. A new solution that addresses both problems has been implemented in the laboratory of Acoustics, Aalborg University. The solution uses one wall with 20 loudspeakers to generate a plane wave...... that is actively absorbed when it reaches the 20 loudspeakers on the opposing wall. This gives a homogeneous sound field in the majority of the room with a flat frequency response in the frequency range 2-300 Hz. The lowest frequencies are limited to sound pressure levels in the order of 95 dB. If larger levels...

  5. Effect of total pressure on graphite oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnette, R.D.; Hoot, C.G.

    1983-04-01

    Graphite corrosion in the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) is calculated using two key assumptions: (1) the kinetic, catalysis, and transport characteristics of graphite determined by bench-scale tests apply to large components at reactor conditions and (2) the effects of high pressure and turbulent flow are predictable. To better understand the differences between laboratory tests and reactor conditions, a high-pressure test loop (HPTL) has been constructed and used to perform tests at reactor temperature, pressure, and flow conditions. The HPTL is intended to determine the functional dependence of oxidation rate and characteristics on total pressure and gas velocity and to compare the oxidation results with calculations using models and codes developed for the reactor

  6. Propagation of sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlberg, Magnus; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    2017-01-01

    properties can be modified by sound absorption, refraction, and interference from multi paths caused by reflections.The path from the source to the receiver may be bent due to refraction. Besides geometrical attenuation, the ground effect and turbulence are the most important mechanisms to influence...... communication sounds for airborne acoustics and bottom and surface effects for underwater sounds. Refraction becomes very important close to shadow zones. For echolocation signals, geometric attenuation and sound absorption have the largest effects on the signals....

  7. Modeling of Pressure Effects in HVDC Cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szabo, Peter; Hassager, Ole; Strøbech, Esben

    1999-01-01

    A model is developed for the prediction of pressure effects in HVDC mass impregnatedcables as a result of temperature changes.To test the model assumptions, experiments were performed in cable like geometries.It is concluded that the model may predict the formation of gas cavities.......A model is developed for the prediction of pressure effects in HVDC mass impregnatedcables as a result of temperature changes.To test the model assumptions, experiments were performed in cable like geometries.It is concluded that the model may predict the formation of gas cavities....

  8. Effect of transmitter turn-off time on transient soundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitterman, D.V.; Anderson, W.L.

    1987-01-01

    A general procedure for computing the effect of non-zero turn-off time on the transient electromagnetic response is presented which can be applied to forward and inverse calculation methods for any transmitter-receiver configuration. We consider in detail the case of a large transmitter loop which has a receiver coil located at the center of the loop (central induction or in-loop array). For a linear turn-off ramp of width t0, the voltage response is shown to be the voltage due to an ideal step turn-off averaged over windows of width t0. Thus the effect is similar to that obtained by using averaging windows in the receiver. In general when time zero is taken to be the end of the ramp, the apparent resistivity increases for a homogeneous half-space over a limited time range. For time zero taken to be the start of the ramp the apparent resistivity is affected in the opposite direction. The effect of the ramp increases with increasing t0 and first-layer resistivity, is largest during the intermediate stage, and decreases with increasing time. It is shown that for a ramp turn-off, there is no effect in the early and late stages. For two-layered models with a resistive first layer (??1>??2), the apparent resistivity is increased in the intermediate stage. When the first layer is more conductive than the second layer (??1interpretation as shown by field examples; the influence is the greatest on near-surface layer parameters. ?? 1987.

  9. Effects of Natural Sounds on Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial with Patients Receiving Mechanical Ventilation Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadatmand, Vahid; Rejeh, Nahid; Heravi-Karimooi, Majideh; Tadrisi, Sayed Davood; Vaismoradi, Mojtaba; Jordan, Sue

    2015-08-01

    Nonpharmacologic pain management in patients receiving mechanical ventilation support in critical care units is under investigated. Natural sounds may help reduce the potentially harmful effects of anxiety and pain in hospitalized patients. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of pleasant, natural sounds on self-reported pain in patients receiving mechanical ventilation support, using a pragmatic parallel-arm, randomized controlled trial. The study was conducted in a general adult intensive care unit of a high-turnover teaching hospital, in Tehran, Iran. Between October 2011 and June 2012, we recruited 60 patients receiving mechanical ventilation support to the intervention (n = 30) and control arms (n = 30) of a pragmatic parallel-group, randomized controlled trial. Participants in both arms wore headphones for 90 minutes. Those in the intervention arm heard pleasant, natural sounds, whereas those in the control arm heard nothing. Outcome measures included the self-reported visual analog scale for pain at baseline; 30, 60, and 90 minutes into the intervention; and 30 minutes post-intervention. All patients approached agreed to participate. The trial arms were similar at baseline. Pain scores in the intervention arm fell and were significantly lower than in the control arm at each time point (p natural sounds via headphones is a simple, safe, nonpharmacologic nursing intervention that may be used to allay pain for up to 120 minutes in patients receiving mechanical ventilation support. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Squeal vibrations, glass sounds, and the stick-slip effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patitsas, A.J.

    2010-01-01

    The origin of the squeal acoustic emissions when a chalk is rubbed on a blackboard or better on a ceramic plate, and those when a wet finger is rubbed on a smooth surface, such as a glass surface, is sought in the stick-slip effect between the rubbing surfaces. In the case of the squealing chalk, the stick-slip effect is anchored by shear modes of vibration in about a 0.3 mm thick chalk powder band at the rubbing interface, while in the case of the wet finger on glass, by such modes in a band comprising the finger skin. Furthermore, there are the interfacial bands at the contact areas that result in the decrease of the friction coefficient with relative velocity of slide, i.e., the condition for the stick-slip effect to occur. Such bands are basically composed of the asperities on the surface of the chalk band and of the epidermis ridges and the water layer, respectively. (author)

  11. Directional sound radiation from substation transformers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maybee, N.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presented the results of a study in which acoustical measurements at two substations were analyzed to investigate the directional behaviour of typical arrays having 2 or 3 transformers. Substation transformers produce a characteristic humming sound that is caused primarily by vibration of the core at twice the frequency of the power supply. The humming noise radiates predominantly from the tank enclosing the core. The main components of the sound are harmonics of 120 Hz. Sound pressure level data were obtained for various directions and distances from the arrays, ranging from 0.5 m to over 100 m. The measured sound pressure levels of the transformer tones displayed substantial positive and negative excursions from the calculated average values for many distances and directions. The results support the concept that the directional effects are associated with constructive and destructive interference of tonal sound waves emanating from different parts of the array. Significant variations in the directional sound pattern can occur in the near field of a single transformer or an array, and the extent of the near field is significantly larger than the scale of the array. Based on typical dimensions for substation sites, the distance to the far field may be much beyond the substation boundary and beyond typical setbacks to the closest dwellings. As such, the directional sound radiation produced by transformer arrays introduces additional uncertainty in the prediction of substation sound levels at dwellings within a few hundred meters of a substation site. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  12. Compressibility, zero sound, and effective mass of a fermionic dipolar gas at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kestner, J. P.; Das Sarma, S.

    2010-01-01

    The compressibility, zero-sound dispersion, and effective mass of a gas of fermionic dipolar molecules is calculated at finite temperature for one-, two-, and three-dimensional uniform systems, and in a multilayer quasi-two-dimensional system. The compressibility is nonmonotonic in the reduced temperature, T/T F , exhibiting a maximum at finite temperature. This effect might be visible in a quasi-low-dimensional experiment, providing a clear signature of the onset of many-body quantum degeneracy effects. The collective mode dispersion and effective mass show similar nontrivial temperature and density dependence. In a quasi-low-dimensional system, the zero-sound mode may propagate at experimentally attainable temperatures.

  13. Effects of temperature on sound production and auditory abilities in the Striped Raphael catfish Platydoras armatulus (Family Doradidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Papes

    Full Text Available Sound production and hearing sensitivity of ectothermic animals are affected by the ambient temperature. This is the first study investigating the influence of temperature on both sound production and on hearing abilities in a fish species, namely the neotropical Striped Raphael catfish Platydoras armatulus.Doradid catfishes produce stridulation sounds by rubbing the pectoral spines in the shoulder girdle and drumming sounds by an elastic spring mechanism which vibrates the swimbladder. Eight fish were acclimated for at least three weeks to 22°, then to 30° and again to 22°C. Sounds were recorded in distress situations when fish were hand-held. The stridulation sounds became shorter at the higher temperature, whereas pulse number, maximum pulse period and sound pressure level did not change with temperature. The dominant frequency increased when the temperature was raised to 30°C and the minimum pulse period became longer when the temperature decreased again. The fundamental frequency of drumming sounds increased at the higher temperature. Using the auditory evoked potential (AEP recording technique, the hearing thresholds were tested at six different frequencies from 0.1 to 4 kHz. The temporal resolution was determined by analyzing the minimum resolvable click period (0.3-5 ms. The hearing sensitivity was higher at the higher temperature and differences were more pronounced at higher frequencies. In general, latencies of AEPs in response to single clicks became shorter at the higher temperature, whereas temporal resolution in response to double-clicks did not change.These data indicate that sound characteristics as well as hearing abilities are affected by temperatures in fishes. Constraints imposed on hearing sensitivity at different temperatures cannot be compensated even by longer acclimation periods. These changes in sound production and detection suggest that acoustic orientation and communication are affected by temperature changes in

  14. On the relevance of source effects in geomagnetic pulsations for induction soundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neska, Anne; Tadeusz Reda, Jan; Leszek Neska, Mariusz; Petrovich Sumaruk, Yuri

    2018-03-01

    This study is an attempt to close a gap between recent research on geomagnetic pulsations and their usage as source signals in electromagnetic induction soundings (i.e., magnetotellurics, geomagnetic depth sounding, and magnetovariational sounding). The plane-wave assumption as a precondition for the proper performance of these methods is partly violated by the local nature of field line resonances which cause a considerable portion of pulsations at mid latitudes. It is demonstrated that and explained why in spite of this, the application of remote reference stations in quasi-global distances for the suppression of local correlated-noise effects in induction arrows is possible in the geomagnetic pulsation range. The important role of upstream waves and of the magnetic equatorial region for such applications is emphasized. Furthermore, the principal difference between application of reference stations for local transfer functions (which result in sounding curves and induction arrows) and for inter-station transfer functions is considered. The preconditions for the latter are much stricter than for the former. Hence a failure to estimate an inter-station transfer function to be interpreted in terms of electromagnetic induction, e.g., because of field line resonances, does not necessarily prohibit use of the station pair for a remote reference estimation of the impedance tensor.

  15. Hearing Mouth Shapes: Sound Symbolism and the Reverse McGurk Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Spence

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In their recent article, Sweeny, Guzman-Martinez, Ortega, Grabowecky, and Suzuki (2012 demonstrate that heard speech sounds modulate the perceived shape of briefly presented visual stimuli. Ovals, whose aspect ratio (relating width to height varied on a trial-by-trial basis, were rated as looking wider when a /woo/ sound was presented, and as taller when a /wee/ sound was presented instead. On the one hand, these findings add to a growing body of evidence demonstrating that audiovisual correspondences can have perceptual (as well as decisional effects. On the other hand, they prompt a question concerning their origin. Although the currently popular view is that crossmodal correspondences are based on the internalization of the natural multisensory statistics of the environment (see Spence, 2011, these new results suggest instead that certain correspondences may actually be based on the sensorimotor responses associated with human vocalizations. As such, the findings of Sweeny et al. help to breathe new life into Sapir's (1929 once-popular “embodied” explanation of sound symbolism. Furthermore, they pose a challenge for those psychologists wanting to determine which among a number of plausible accounts best explains the available data on crossmodal correspondences.

  16. On the relevance of source effects in geomagnetic pulsations for induction soundings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Neska

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study is an attempt to close a gap between recent research on geomagnetic pulsations and their usage as source signals in electromagnetic induction soundings (i.e., magnetotellurics, geomagnetic depth sounding, and magnetovariational sounding. The plane-wave assumption as a precondition for the proper performance of these methods is partly violated by the local nature of field line resonances which cause a considerable portion of pulsations at mid latitudes. It is demonstrated that and explained why in spite of this, the application of remote reference stations in quasi-global distances for the suppression of local correlated-noise effects in induction arrows is possible in the geomagnetic pulsation range. The important role of upstream waves and of the magnetic equatorial region for such applications is emphasized. Furthermore, the principal difference between application of reference stations for local transfer functions (which result in sounding curves and induction arrows and for inter-station transfer functions is considered. The preconditions for the latter are much stricter than for the former. Hence a failure to estimate an inter-station transfer function to be interpreted in terms of electromagnetic induction, e.g., because of field line resonances, does not necessarily prohibit use of the station pair for a remote reference estimation of the impedance tensor.

  17. Effects of small variations of speed of sound in optoacoustic tomographic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deán-Ben, X. Luís; Ntziachristos, Vasilis; Razansky, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Speed of sound difference in the imaged object and surrounding coupling medium may reduce the resolution and overall quality of optoacoustic tomographic reconstructions obtained by assuming a uniform acoustic medium. In this work, the authors investigate the effects of acoustic heterogeneities and discuss potential benefits of accounting for those during the reconstruction procedure. Methods: The time shift of optoacoustic signals in an acoustically heterogeneous medium is studied theoretically by comparing different continuous and discrete wave propagation models. A modification of filtered back-projection reconstruction is subsequently implemented by considering a straight acoustic rays model for ultrasound propagation. The results obtained with this reconstruction procedure are compared numerically and experimentally to those obtained assuming a heuristically fitted uniform speed of sound in both full-view and limited-view optoacoustic tomography scenarios. Results: The theoretical analysis showcases that the errors in the time-of-flight of the signals predicted by considering the straight acoustic rays model tend to be generally small. When using this model for reconstructing simulated data, the resulting images accurately represent the theoretical ones. On the other hand, significant deviations in the location of the absorbing structures are found when using a uniform speed of sound assumption. The experimental results obtained with tissue-mimicking phantoms and a mouse postmortem are found to be consistent with the numerical simulations. Conclusions: Accurate analysis of effects of small speed of sound variations demonstrates that accounting for differences in the speed of sound allows improving optoacoustic reconstruction results in realistic imaging scenarios involving acoustic heterogeneities in tissues and surrounding media

  18. Hybridization and pressure effects in UTX compounds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alsmadi, A. M.; Sechovský, V.; Lacerda, A. H.; Prokes, K.; Kamarád, Jiří; Chang, S.; Jung, M. H.; Nakotte, H.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 91, - (2002), s. 8123-8125 ISSN 0021-8979 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : UTX intermetallic compounds * pressure effects magnetoresistance Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.281, year: 2002

  19. Effect of longitudinal vibration of fluid-filled pipe with elastic wall on sound transmission character

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DONG Peng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available When one end of a fluid-filled pipe with an elastic wall is fixed and a harmonic force effect acts on the other end,a steady longitudinal vibration will be produced. Compared to the pipeline resonance mode,the amplitude of the steady longitudinal vibration of an elastic pipe is greater,and the effect on the sound is also greater. The study of the steady longitudinal vibration of pipes can better describe the effects of fluid-filled pipelines on the radiation sound field of the pipe opening. Through the contrast between the analysis calculation of the equivalent beam model and the experimental results,the accuracy of the equivalent beam model for the calculation of the steady longitudinal vibration of pipelines is verified,and a method of isolating the steady longitudinal vibration state is proposed and verified.

  20. The effect of positive end-expiratory pressure on pulse pressure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of positive end-expiratory pressure on pulse pressure variation. FJ Smith, M Geyser, I Schreuder, PJ Becker. Abstract. Objectives: To determine the effect of different levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on pulse pressure variation (PPV). Design: An observational study. Setting: Operating theatres of a ...

  1. OMNIDIRECTIONAL SOUND SOURCE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1996-01-01

    A sound source comprising a loudspeaker (6) and a hollow coupler (4) with an open inlet which communicates with and is closed by the loudspeaker (6) and an open outlet, said coupler (4) comprising rigid walls which cannot respond to the sound pressures produced by the loudspeaker (6). According...

  2. Sound algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    De Götzen , Amalia; Mion , Luca; Tache , Olivier

    2007-01-01

    International audience; We call sound algorithms the categories of algorithms that deal with digital sound signal. Sound algorithms appeared in the very infancy of computer. Sound algorithms present strong specificities that are the consequence of two dual considerations: the properties of the digital sound signal itself and its uses, and the properties of auditory perception.

  3. [Preventive effects of sound insulation windows on the indoor noise levels in a street residential building in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Bin; Huang, Jing; Guo, Xin-biao

    2015-06-18

    To evaluate the preventive effects of sound insulation windows on traffic noise. Indoor noise levels of the residential rooms (on both the North 4th ring road side and the campus side) with closed sound insulation windows were measured using the sound level meter, and comparisons with the simultaneously measured outdoor noise levels were made. In addition, differences of indoor noise levels between rooms with closed sound insulation windows and open sound insulation windows were also compared. The average outdoor noise levels of the North 4th ring road was higher than 70 dB(A), which exceeded the limitation stated in the "Environmental Quality Standard for Noise" (GB 3096-2008) in our country. However, with the sound insulation windows closed, the indoor noise levels reduced significantly to the level under 35 dB(A) (Pwindows had significant influence on the indoor noise levels (Pwindow, when the sound insulation windows were closed, the indoor noise levels reduced 18.8 dB(A) and 8.3 dB(A) in residential rooms facing North 4th ring road side and campus side, respectively. The results indicated that installation of insulation windows had significant noise reduction effects on street residential buildings especially on the rooms facing major traffic roads. Installation of the sound insulation windows has significant preventive effects on indoor noise in the street residential building.

  4. The effect of interaural-level-difference fluctuations on the externalization of sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catic, Jasmina; Santurette, Sébastien; Buchholz, Jörg M.

    2013-01-01

    Real-world sound sources are usually perceived as externalized and thus properly localized in both direction and distance. This is largely due to (1) the acoustic filtering by the head, torso, and pinna, resulting in modifications of the signal spectrum and thereby a frequency-dependent shaping...... of interaural cues and (2) interaural cues provided by the reverberation inside an enclosed space. This study first investigated the effect of room reverberation on the spectro-temporal behavior of interaural level differences (ILDs) by analyzing dummy-head recordings of speech played at different distances...... in a standard listening room. Next, the effect of ILD fluctuations on the degree of externalization was investigated in a psychoacoustic experiment performed in the same listening room. Individual binaural impulse responses were used to simulate a distant sound source delivered via headphones. The ILDs were...

  5. Effects of interface pressure distribution on human sleep quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongyong Chen

    Full Text Available High sleep quality promotes efficient performance in the following day. Sleep quality is influenced by environmental factors, such as temperature, light, sound and smell. Here, we investigated whether differences in the interface pressure distribution on healthy individuals during sleep influenced sleep quality. We defined four types of pressure models by differences in the area distribution and the subjective feelings that occurred when participants slept on the mattresses. One type of model was showed "over-concentrated" distribution of pressure; one was displayed "over-evenly" distributed interface pressure while the other two models were displayed intermediate distribution of pressure. A polysomnography analysis demonstrated an increase in duration and proportion of non-rapid-eye-movement sleep stages 3 and 4, as well as decreased number of micro-arousals, in subjects sleeping on models with pressure intermediately distributed compared to models with over-concentrated or over-even distribution of pressure. Similarly, higher scores of self-reported sleep quality were obtained in subjects sleeping on the two models with intermediate pressure distribution. Thus, pressure distribution, at least to some degree, influences sleep quality and self-reported feelings of sleep-related events, though the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. The regulation of pressure models imposed by external sleep environment may be a new direction for improving sleep quality. Only an appropriate interface pressure distribution is beneficial for improving sleep quality, over-concentrated or -even distribution of pressure do not help for good sleep.

  6. Pressure and graphite effects on electrical conductivity in pyroxene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D.; Liu, T.; Shen, K.; Li, B.

    2017-12-01

    The geophysical observations including magnetotelluric (MT) and geomagnetic deep sounding show the distribution of electrical conductivity in the Earth's interior. The laboratory-based conductivity measurements of minerals and rocks are usually used to interpret the geophysical observations. Pyroxene is the second most abundant components in the upper mantle, and the electrical conductivity of pyroxene is important to understanding the bulk electrical conductivity. The electrical conductivity of a mineral is affected by many factors, such as its chemical composition, temperature, pressure. Here we report the effects of pressure and graphite on the electrical conductivity of pyroxene and applied to interpretation of MT observation. The starting materials are natural of orthopyroxene and clinopyroxe crystals. A powder sample with grain size 10 um was packed in a Mo capsule and hot-pressed at high pressures and temperatures using a 1000-ton Walker-type uniaxial split-cylinder apparatus. A mixture of pyroxene and a few percent of diamond was annealed at high pressure and temperature. All the hot-pressed samples before and after electrical conductivity measurements, were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-Transform Infrared and Raman spectroscopy. High pressure conductivity experiments were carried out in a Walker-type multi-anvil apparatus using a 14/8 assembly. We use a Solartron 1260 Impedance/Gain -phase analyzer with 1V applied voltage within a frequency range of 1M-0.1 Hz to collect data. Complex impedance data on were collected in several heating and cooling cycles The electrical conductivity of pyroxene was made at 4,7,10 GPa, and electrical conductivity of the graphite-bearing pyroxene was measured at 4GPa. The results show the electrical conductivity decrease with the increasing of pressure, which may correspond to the transform from orthopyroxene to clinopyroxene. The results can be used to explain a drop of the electrical conductivity in

  7. Thermoelastic properties of liquid Fe-C revealed by sound velocity and density measurements at high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoyama, Yuta; Terasaki, Hidenori; Urakawa, Satoru; Takubo, Yusaku; Kuwabara, Soma; Kishimoto, Shunpachi; Watanuki, Tetsu; Machida, Akihiko; Katayama, Yoshinori; Kondo, Tadashi

    2016-11-01

    Carbon is one of the possible light elements in the cores of the terrestrial planets. The P wave velocity (VP) and density (ρ) are important factors for estimating the chemical composition and physical properties of the core. We simultaneously measured the VP and ρ of Fe-3.5 wt % C up to 3.4 GPa and 1850 K by using ultrasonic pulse-echo method and X-ray absorption methods. The VP of liquid Fe-3.5 wt % C decreased linearly with increasing temperature at constant pressure. The addition of carbon decreased the VP of liquid Fe by about 2% at 3 GPa and 1700 K and decreased the Fe density by about 2% at 2 GPa and 1700 K. The bulk modulus of liquid Fe-C and its pressure (P) and temperature (T) effects were precisely determined from directly measured ρ and VP data to be K0,1700 K = 83.9 GPa, dKT/dP = 5.9(2), and dKT/dT = -0.063 GPa/K. The addition of carbon did not affect the isothermal bulk modulus (KT) of liquid Fe, but it decreased the dK/dT of liquid Fe. In the ρ-VP relationship, VP increases linearly with ρ and can be approximated as VP (m/s) = -6786(506) + 1537(71) × ρ (g/cm3), suggesting that Birch's law is valid for liquid Fe-C at the present P-T conditions. Our results imply that at the conditions of the lunar core, the elastic properties of an Fe-C core are more affected by temperature than those of Fe-S core.

  8. Stress concentration effects in high pressure components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aller, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the stress concentration effects of sideholes in thick walled, high pressure cylinders. It has been shown that the theoretical stress concentration factor at the intersection of a small crossbore in a closed end, thick walled cylinder varies between 3.0 and 4.0. Tests have shown that this effect can be greatly reduced in practice by carefully radiusing the bore intersection and autofrettaging the cylinder. It has also been shown that the minimum stress concentration factor occurs when the main bore and sidehole or crossbore have the same diameter, and the radius of the intersection is approximately equal to the sidehole radius. When the bore and sidehole intersection angle decreases from 90 degrees, the stress concentration factor increases significantly. Knowledge of these fundamental relationships can be used in maintaining, as well ad designing, high pressure equipment

  9. Effects of pressure anisotropy on plasma transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zawaideh, E.; Najmabadi, F.; Conn, R.W.

    1986-03-01

    In a recent paper a new set of generalized two-field equations is derived which describes plasma transport along the field lines of a space and time dependent magnetic field. These equations are valid for collisional to weakly collisional plasmas; they reduce to the conventional fluid equations of Braginskii for highly collisional plasmas. An important feature of these equations is that the anisotropy in the ion pressure is explicitly included. In this paper, these generalized transport equations are applied to a model problem of plasma flow through a magnetic mirror field. The profiles of the plasma parameters (density, flow speed, and pressures) are numerically calculated for plasma in different collisionality regimes. These profiles are explained by examining the competing terms in the transport equation. The pressure anisotropy is found to profoundly impact the plasma flow behavior. As a result, the new generalized equations predict flow behavior more accurately than the conventional transport equations. A large density and pressure drop is predicted as the flow passes through a magnetic mirror. Further, the new equations uniquely predict oscillations in the density profile, an effect missing in results from the conventional equations

  10. Effect of lemon juice on blood pressure

    OpenAIRE

    SARI, Aysel; SELİM, Nevzat; DİLEK, Melda; AYDOĞDU, Turkan; ADIBELLİ, Zelal; BÜYÜKKAYA, Piltan; AKPOLAT, Tekin

    2012-01-01

    Lemon juice has commonly been used by hypertensive patients in order to lower blood pressure (BP) acutely when BP is raised or as an alternative/complementary therapy for expectation of chronic improvement. Grapefruit, a citrus fruit like lemon, causes clinically significant interactions with a variety of drugs including calcium antagonists. The aims of this study were to investigate acute and chronic effects of lemon juice on BP among hypertensive patients. Ninty-eight patients were included...

  11. Bibliography on vapour pressure isotope effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illy, H.; Jancso, G.

    1976-03-01

    The bibliography of research on vapour pressure isotope effects from 1919 to December 1975 is presented in chronological order. Within each year the references are listed alphabetically according to the name of the first author of each work. The bibliography is followed by a Compound Index containing the names o compounds, but the type of isotopic substituation is not shown. The Author Index includes all authors of the papers. (Sz.N.Z.)

  12. Profile temperature, salinity, and hydrostatic pressure from CTD casts in McMurdo Sound from 2011-11-26 to 2011-12-03 (NCEI Accession 0131073)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Full-depth CTD profiles taken on along-sound and cross-sound transects of McMurdo Sound. Eleven stations with six independent sites were visited.

  13. Fully automatized apparatus for determining speed of sound for liquids in the temperature and pressure interval (283.15–343.15) K and (0.1–95) MPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yebra, Francisco; Troncoso, Jacobo; Romaní, Luis

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • An apparatus for measuring speed of sound of liquids is described. • Pressure and temperature control is fully automatized. • Uncertainty of the measurements is estimated in 0.1%. • Comparison with literature data confirms the reliability of the methodology. - Abstract: An instrument for determining the speed of sound as a function of temperature and pressure for liquids is described. It was totally automatized: pressure and temperature values are controlled and time of flight of the ultrasonic wave data were acquired using a digital system which automatically made all required actions. The instrument calibration was made only at atmospheric pressure using high quality data of water and methanol. For higher pressures, the calibration parameters were predicted using a model for the high pressure cell, through finite-element calculations (FEM), in order to realistically determine the changes in the cell induced by the compression. Uncertainties in pressure and temperature were 20 mK and 0.1 MPa, respectively and in speed of sound it was estimated to be about 0.1%. The speeds of sound for water, methanol, hexane, heptane, octane, toluene, ethanol and 1-propanol were determined in the temperature and pressure ranges (283.15–343.15) K and (0.1–95) MPa. Comparison with literature data reveals the high reliability of the experimental procedure.

  14. The effect of high frequency sound on Culicoides numbers collected with suction light traps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert J. Venter

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Culicoides midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae, are involved in the transmission of various pathogens that cause important diseases of livestock worldwide. The use of insect repellents to reduce the attack rate of these insects on livestock could play an important role as part of an integrated control programme against diseases transmitted by these midges. The objective of this study was to determine whether high frequency sound has any repellent effect on Culicoides midges. The number of midges collected with 220 V Onderstepoort white light traps fitted with electronic mosquito repellents (EMRs, emitting 5-20 KHz multi-frequency sound waves, was compared with that of two untreated traps. Treatments were rotated in two replicates of a 4 x 4 randomised Latin square design. Although fewer midges were collected in the two traps fitted with EMRs, the average number collected over eight consecutive nights was not significantly different. The EMRs also had no influence on any of the physiological groups of Culicoides imicola Kieffer or the species composition of the Culicoides population as determined with light traps. The results indicate that high frequency sound has no repellent effect on Culicoides midges. There is therefore no evidence to support their promotion or use in the protection of animals against pathogens transmitted by Culicoides midges.

  15. Effect of the three-dimensional microstructure on the sound absorption of foams: A parametric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevillotte, Fabien; Perrot, Camille

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this work is to systematically study the effect of the throat and the pore sizes on the sound absorbing properties of open-cell foams. The three-dimensional idealized unit cell used in this work enables to mimic the acoustical macro-behavior of a large class of cellular solid foams. This study is carried out for a normal incidence and also for a diffuse field excitation, with a relatively large range of sample thicknesses. The transport and sound absorbing properties are numerically studied as a function of the throat size, the pore size, and the sample thickness. The resulting diagrams show the ranges of the specific throat sizes and pore sizes where the sound absorption grading is maximized due to the pore morphology as a function of the sample thickness, and how it correlates with the corresponding transport parameters. These charts demonstrate, together with typical examples, how the morphological characteristics of foam could be modified in order to increase the visco-thermal dissipation effects.

  16. The effect of vocal fold vertical stiffness gradient on sound production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Biao; Xue, Qian; Zheng, Xudong

    2015-11-01

    It is observed in some experimental studies on canine vocal folds (VFs) that the inferior aspect of the vocal fold (VF) is much stiffer than the superior aspect under relatively large strain. Such vertical difference is supposed to promote the convergent-divergent shape during VF vibration and consequently facilitate the production of sound. In this study, we investigate the effect of vertical variation of VF stiffness on sound production using a numerical model. The vertical variation of stiffness is produced by linearly increasing the Young's modulus and shear modulus from the superior to inferior aspects in the cover layer, and its effect on phonation is examined in terms of aerodynamic and acoustic quantities such as flow rate, open quotient, skewness of flow wave form, sound intensity and vocal efficiency. The flow-induced vibration of the VF is solved with a finite element solver coupled with 1D Bernoulli equation, which is further coupled with a digital waveguide model. This study is designed to find out whether it's beneficial to artificially induce the vertical stiffness gradient by certain implanting material in VF restoring surgery, and if it is beneficial, what gradient is the most favorable.

  17. [Music therapy in adults with cochlear implants : Effects on music perception and subjective sound quality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutter, E; Grapp, M; Argstatter, H

    2016-12-01

    People with severe hearing impairments and deafness can achieve good speech comprehension using a cochlear implant (CI), although music perception often remains impaired. A novel concept of music therapy for adults with CI was developed and evaluated in this study. This study included 30 adults with a unilateral CI following postlingual deafness. The subjective sound quality of the CI was rated using the hearing implant sound quality index (HISQUI) and musical tests for pitch discrimination, melody recognition and timbre identification were applied. As a control 55 normally hearing persons also completed the musical tests. In comparison to normally hearing subjects CI users showed deficits in the perception of pitch, melody and timbre. Specific effects of therapy were observed in the subjective sound quality of the CI, in pitch discrimination into a high and low pitch range and in timbre identification, while general learning effects were found in melody recognition. Music perception shows deficits in CI users compared to normally hearing persons. After individual music therapy in the rehabilitation process, improvements in this delicate area could be achieved.

  18. Sound Visualisation

    OpenAIRE

    Dolenc, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This thesis contains a description of a construction of subwoofer case that has an extra functionality of being able to produce special visual effects and display visualizations that match the currently playing sound. For this reason, multiple lighting elements made out of LED (Light Emitting Diode) diodes were installed onto the subwoofer case. The lighting elements are controlled by dedicated software that was also developed. The software runs on STM32F4-Discovery evaluation board inside a ...

  19. Statistical Analysis for Subjective and Objective Evaluations of Dental Drill Sounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomomi Yamada

    Full Text Available The sound produced by a dental air turbine handpiece (dental drill can markedly influence the sound environment in a dental clinic. Indeed, many patients report that the sound of a dental drill elicits an unpleasant feeling. Although several manufacturers have attempted to reduce the sound pressure levels produced by dental drills during idling based on ISO 14457, the sound emitted by such drills under active drilling conditions may negatively influence the dental clinic sound environment. The physical metrics related to the unpleasant impressions associated with dental drill sounds have not been determined. In the present study, psychological measurements of dental drill sounds were conducted with the aim of facilitating improvement of the sound environment at dental clinics. Specifically, we examined the impressions elicited by the sounds of 12 types of dental drills in idling and drilling conditions using a semantic differential. The analysis revealed that the impressions of dental drill sounds varied considerably between idling and drilling conditions and among the examined drills. This finding suggests that measuring the sound of a dental drill in idling conditions alone may be insufficient for evaluating the effects of the sound. We related the results of the psychological evaluations to those of measurements of the physical metrics of equivalent continuous A-weighted sound pressure levels (LAeq and sharpness. Factor analysis indicated that impressions of the dental drill sounds consisted of two factors: "metallic and unpleasant" and "powerful". LAeq had a strong relationship with "powerful impression", calculated sharpness was positively related to "metallic impression", and "unpleasant impression" was predicted by the combination of both LAeq and calculated sharpness. The present analyses indicate that, in addition to a reduction in sound pressure level, refining the frequency components of dental drill sounds is important for creating a

  20. High pressure effects on fruits and vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, R.A.H.; Matser, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    The chapter provides an overview on different high pressure based treatments (high pressure pasteurization, blanching, pressure-assisted thermal processing, pressure-shift freezing and thawing) available for the preservation of fruits and vegetable products and extending their shelf life. Pressure

  1. Condensation effects in a pressurizer scaled from a pressurized water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loomis, G.G.; Shaw, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents results from an experimental investigation of phenomena associated with pressurizer auxiliary spray during an abnormal plant transient in a commercial PWR. If normal pressurizer spray is unavailable (main coolant pumps are off) or the pressurizer power operated relief valve cannot be used during abnormal transients, pressurizer auxiliary spray can be used to reduce primary system pressure. Results from both transient integral experiments involving pressurizer auxiliary spray during tube rupture and separate effects spray experiments are presented. The experimental investigation was conducted in the Semiscale MOD-2B facility. Phenomenon of interest that occurred in the pressurizer during the pressurized auxiliary spray was desuperheating of the pressurizer steam space and quenching of metal walls followed by dropwise condensation of the pressurizer steam. The data from both the transient integral experiments and the separate effects experiments are compared to RELAP5 computer calculations and the capability of existing models in the code is discussed

  2. The effect of scattering on sound field control with a circular double-layer array of loudspeakers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, Jiho; Jacobsen, Finn

    2012-01-01

    A recent study has shown that a circular double-layer array of loudspeakers makes it possible to achieve a sound field control that can generate a controlled field inside the array and reduce sound waves propagating outside the array. This is useful if it is desirable not to disturb people outside...... the array or to prevent the effect of reflections from the room. The study assumed free field condition, however in practice a listener will be located inside the array. The listener scatters sound waves, which propagate outward. Consequently, the scattering effect can be expected to degrade the performance...

  3. Sound field separation with cross measurement surfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Mao

    Full Text Available With conventional near-field acoustical holography, it is impossible to identify sound pressure when the coherent sound sources are located on the same side of the array. This paper proposes a solution, using cross measurement surfaces to separate the sources based on the equivalent source method. Each equivalent source surface is built in the center of the corresponding original source with a spherical surface. According to the different transfer matrices between equivalent sources and points on holographic surfaces, the weighting of each equivalent source from coherent sources can be obtained. Numerical and experimental studies have been performed to test the method. For the sound pressure including noise after separation in the experiment, the calculation accuracy can be improved by reconstructing the pressure with Tikhonov regularization and the L-curve method. On the whole, a single source can be effectively separated from coherent sources using cross measurement.

  4. The effect of natural sounds on the anxiety of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javad Amiri

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aims to investigate the effect of natural sounds on the anxiety of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG. Methods In this clinical trial, 90 patients, who were candidates for CABG in an urban area of Iran, were selected and randomly assigned to intervention and control groups by the minimization method. In the intervention group, natural sounds were broadcast through headphones for 30 min. In the control group, headphones connected to a silent device were used. The research instruments were a demographic questionnaire and the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI. These were used before the intervention, 30 min after the music, and before the surgery in the waiting room for both groups. Data was analyzed using SPSS software. Results The mean anxiety level of the intervention group has been found to be significantly lower than that of the control group half an hour after the intervention as well as in the waiting room in the preoperative period (p = 0.001. Moreover, the mean anxiety of the intervention group decreases, while it increases for the control group over time (p < 0.001. Conclusion Natural sounds can be used as a non-pharmacological way to reduce the anxiety of patients undergoing CABG. Trial registration I RCT2017011723190N3 , Registered 1 March 2017.

  5. Effectiveness of commercial microbial products in enhancing oil degradation in Prince William Sound field plots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venosa, A.D.; Haines, J.R.; Allen, D.M.

    1991-01-01

    In the spring of 1990, previously reported laboratory experiments were conducted on 10 commercial microbial products to test for enhanced biodegradation of weathered crude oil from the Exxon Valdez oil spill. The laboratory tests measured the rate and extent of oil degradation in closed flasks. Weathered oil from the beaches in Alaska and seawater from Prince William Sound were used in the tests. Two of the 10 products were found to provide significantly greater alkane degradation than flasks supplemented with mineral nutrients alone. These two products were selected for further testing on a beach in Prince William Sound. A randomized complete block experiment was designed to compare the effectiveness of these two products in enhancing oil degradation compared to simple fertilizer alone. Four small plots consisting of a no nutrient control, a mineral nutrient plot, and two plots receiving mineral nutrients plus the two products, were laid out on a contaminated beach. These four plots comprised a 'block' of treatments, and this block was replicated four times on the same beach. Triplicate samples of beach sediment were collected at four equally spaced time intervals and analyzed for oil residue weight and alkane hydrocarbon profile changes with time. The objective was to determine if either of the two commercial microbiological products was able to enhance bioremediation of an oil-contaminated beach in Prince William Sound to an extent greater than that achievable by simple fertilizer application. Results indicated no significant differences among the four treatments in the 27-day period of the experiment

  6. Masking release by combined spatial and masker-fluctuation effects in the open sound field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlebrooks, John C

    2017-12-01

    In a complex auditory scene, signals of interest can be distinguished from masking sounds by differences in source location [spatial release from masking (SRM)] and by differences between masker-alone and masker-plus-signal envelopes. This study investigated interactions between those factors in release of masking of 700-Hz tones in an open sound field. Signal and masker sources were colocated in front of the listener, or the signal source was shifted 90° to the side. In Experiment 1, the masker contained a 25-Hz-wide on-signal band plus flanking bands having envelopes that were either mutually uncorrelated or were comodulated. Comodulation masking release (CMR) was largely independent of signal location at a higher masker sound level, but at a lower level CMR was reduced for the lateral signal location. In Experiment 2, a brief signal was positioned at the envelope maximum (peak) or minimum (dip) of a 50-Hz-wide on-signal masker. Masking was released in dip more than in peak conditions only for the 90° signal. Overall, open-field SRM was greater in magnitude than binaural masking release reported in comparable closed-field studies, and envelope-related release was somewhat weaker. Mutual enhancement of masking release by spatial and envelope-related effects tended to increase with increasing masker level.

  7. The effects of 5.1 sound presentations on the perception of stereoscopic imagery in video games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Brian; Galperin, Daniel; Collins, Karen; Hogue, Andrew; Kapralos, Bill

    2013-03-01

    Stereoscopic 3D (S3D) content in games, film and other audio-visual media has been steadily increasing over the past number of years. However, there are still open, fundamental questions regarding its implementation, particularly as it relates to a multi-modal experience that involves sound and haptics. Research has shown that sound has considerable impact on our perception of 2D phenomena, but very little research has considered how sound may influence stereoscopic 3D. Here we present the results of an experiment that examined the effects of 5.1 surround sound (5.1) and stereo loudspeaker setups on depth perception in relation to S3D imagery within a video game environment. Our aim was to answer the question: "can 5.1 surround sound enhance the participant's perception of depth in the stereoscopic field when compared to traditional stereo sound presentations?" In addition, our study examined how the presence or absence of Doppler frequency shift and frequency fall-off audio effects can also influence depth judgment under these conditions. Results suggest that 5.1 surround sound presentations enhance the apparent depth of stereoscopic imagery when compared to stereo presentations. Results also suggest that the addition of audio effects such as Doppler shift and frequency fall-off filters can influence the apparent depth of S3D objects.

  8. A pressure plate study on fore and hindlimb loading and the association with hoof contact area in sound ponies at the walk and trot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterlinck, M; Pille, F; Back, W; Dewulf, J; Gasthuys, F

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between fore- and hind-hoof contact area and limb loading. Data from a previous study on forelimb loading and symmetry were compared with data on hindlimb kinetics, and the fore- and hind-hoof contact area at the walk and trot was evaluated. Five sound ponies, selected for symmetrical feet, were walked and trotted over a pressure plate embedded in a custom-made runway. The hindlimb peak vertical force (PVF) and vertical impulse (VI) were found to be significantly lower than in the forelimb, whereas their high symmetry ratios (>95%) did not show a significant difference from forelimb data. Hindlimb PVF in ponies was found to be slightly higher when compared to data reported for horses even though the ponies moved at a similar or lower relative velocity. The contact area had low intra-individual variability and was significantly smaller in the hind- than in the fore-hooves. A larger contact area was significantly associated with lower peak vertical pressure (PVP) but higher PVF and VI. No significant differences between left and right sides were found for contact area or loading variables. Pressure plate measurements demonstrated a significant association between hoof contact area and limb loading, in addition to intrinsic differences between fore and hindlimb locomotor function. The pressure plate provides the clinician with a tool to quantify simultaneously contralateral differences in hoof contact area and limb loading. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Background noise exerts diverse effects on the cortical encoding of foreground sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, B J; Heiser, Marc A; Beitel, Ralph E; Schreiner, Christoph E

    2017-08-01

    In natural listening conditions, many sounds must be detected and identified in the context of competing sound sources, which function as background noise. Traditionally, noise is thought to degrade the cortical representation of sounds by suppressing responses and increasing response variability. However, recent studies of neural network models and brain slices have shown that background synaptic noise can improve the detection of signals. Because acoustic noise affects the synaptic background activity of cortical networks, it may improve the cortical responses to signals. We used spike train decoding techniques to determine the functional effects of a continuous white noise background on the responses of clusters of neurons in auditory cortex to foreground signals, specifically frequency-modulated sweeps (FMs) of different velocities, directions, and amplitudes. Whereas the addition of noise progressively suppressed the FM responses of some cortical sites in the core fields with decreasing signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs), the stimulus representation remained robust or was even significantly enhanced at specific SNRs in many others. Even though the background noise level was typically not explicitly encoded in cortical responses, significant information about noise context could be decoded from cortical responses on the basis of how the neural representation of the foreground sweeps was affected. These findings demonstrate significant diversity in signal in noise processing even within the core auditory fields that could support noise-robust hearing across a wide range of listening conditions. NEW & NOTEWORTHY The ability to detect and discriminate sounds in background noise is critical for our ability to communicate. The neural basis of robust perceptual performance in noise is not well understood. We identified neuronal populations in core auditory cortex of squirrel monkeys that differ in how they process foreground signals in background noise and that may

  10. Effect of sound intensity on tonotopic fMRI maps in the unanesthetized monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanji, Kazuyo; Leopold, David A; Ye, Frank Q; Zhu, Charles; Malloy, Megan; Saunders, Richard C; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2010-01-01

    The monkey's auditory cortex includes a core region on the supratemporal plane (STP) made up of the tonotopically organized areas A1, R, and RT, together with a surrounding belt and a lateral parabelt region. The functional studies that yielded the tonotopic maps and corroborated the anatomical division into core, belt, and parabelt typically used low-amplitude pure tones that were often restricted to threshold-level intensities. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging in awake rhesus monkeys to determine whether, and if so how, the tonotopic maps and the pattern of activation in core, belt, and parabelt are affected by systematic changes in sound intensity. Blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) responses to groups of low- and high-frequency pure tones 3-4 octaves apart were measured at multiple sound intensity levels. The results revealed tonotopic maps in the auditory core that reversed at the putative areal boundaries between A1 and R and between R and RT. Although these reversals of the tonotopic representations were present at all intensity levels, the lateral spread of activation depended on sound amplitude, with increasing recruitment of the adjacent belt areas as the intensities increased. Tonotopic organization along the STP was also evident in frequency-specific deactivation (i.e. "negative BOLD"), an effect that was intensity-specific as well. Regions of positive and negative BOLD were spatially interleaved, possibly reflecting lateral inhibition of high-frequency areas during activation of adjacent low-frequency areas, and vice versa. These results, which demonstrate the strong influence of tonal amplitude on activation levels, identify sound intensity as an important adjunct parameter for mapping the functional architecture of auditory cortex.

  11. PREFACE: Aerodynamic sound Aerodynamic sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akishita, Sadao

    2010-02-01

    The modern theory of aerodynamic sound originates from Lighthill's two papers in 1952 and 1954, as is well known. I have heard that Lighthill was motivated in writing the papers by the jet-noise emitted by the newly commercialized jet-engined airplanes at that time. The technology of aerodynamic sound is destined for environmental problems. Therefore the theory should always be applied to newly emerged public nuisances. This issue of Fluid Dynamics Research (FDR) reflects problems of environmental sound in present Japanese technology. The Japanese community studying aerodynamic sound has held an annual symposium since 29 years ago when the late Professor S Kotake and Professor S Kaji of Teikyo University organized the symposium. Most of the Japanese authors in this issue are members of the annual symposium. I should note the contribution of the two professors cited above in establishing the Japanese community of aerodynamic sound research. It is my pleasure to present the publication in this issue of ten papers discussed at the annual symposium. I would like to express many thanks to the Editorial Board of FDR for giving us the chance to contribute these papers. We have a review paper by T Suzuki on the study of jet noise, which continues to be important nowadays, and is expected to reform the theoretical model of generating mechanisms. Professor M S Howe and R S McGowan contribute an analytical paper, a valuable study in today's fluid dynamics research. They apply hydrodynamics to solve the compressible flow generated in the vocal cords of the human body. Experimental study continues to be the main methodology in aerodynamic sound, and it is expected to explore new horizons. H Fujita's study on the Aeolian tone provides a new viewpoint on major, longstanding sound problems. The paper by M Nishimura and T Goto on textile fabrics describes new technology for the effective reduction of bluff-body noise. The paper by T Sueki et al also reports new technology for the

  12. Frequencies of inaudible high-frequency sounds differentially affect brain activity: positive and negative hypersonic effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariko Fukushima

    Full Text Available The hypersonic effect is a phenomenon in which sounds containing significant quantities of non-stationary high-frequency components (HFCs above the human audible range (max. 20 kHz activate the midbrain and diencephalon and evoke various physiological, psychological and behavioral responses. Yet important issues remain unverified, especially the relationship existing between the frequency of HFCs and the emergence of the hypersonic effect. In this study, to investigate the relationship between the hypersonic effect and HFC frequencies, we divided an HFC (above 16 kHz of recorded gamelan music into 12 band components and applied them to subjects along with an audible component (below 16 kHz to observe changes in the alpha2 frequency component (10-13 Hz of spontaneous EEGs measured from centro-parieto-occipital regions (Alpha-2 EEG, which we previously reported as an index of the hypersonic effect. Our results showed reciprocal directional changes in Alpha-2 EEGs depending on the frequency of the HFCs presented with audible low-frequency component (LFC. When an HFC above approximately 32 kHz was applied, Alpha-2 EEG increased significantly compared to when only audible sound was applied (positive hypersonic effect, while, when an HFC below approximately 32 kHz was applied, the Alpha-2 EEG decreased (negative hypersonic effect. These findings suggest that the emergence of the hypersonic effect depends on the frequencies of inaudible HFC.

  13. Frequencies of inaudible high-frequency sounds differentially affect brain activity: positive and negative hypersonic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Ariko; Yagi, Reiko; Kawai, Norie; Honda, Manabu; Nishina, Emi; Oohashi, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    The hypersonic effect is a phenomenon in which sounds containing significant quantities of non-stationary high-frequency components (HFCs) above the human audible range (max. 20 kHz) activate the midbrain and diencephalon and evoke various physiological, psychological and behavioral responses. Yet important issues remain unverified, especially the relationship existing between the frequency of HFCs and the emergence of the hypersonic effect. In this study, to investigate the relationship between the hypersonic effect and HFC frequencies, we divided an HFC (above 16 kHz) of recorded gamelan music into 12 band components and applied them to subjects along with an audible component (below 16 kHz) to observe changes in the alpha2 frequency component (10-13 Hz) of spontaneous EEGs measured from centro-parieto-occipital regions (Alpha-2 EEG), which we previously reported as an index of the hypersonic effect. Our results showed reciprocal directional changes in Alpha-2 EEGs depending on the frequency of the HFCs presented with audible low-frequency component (LFC). When an HFC above approximately 32 kHz was applied, Alpha-2 EEG increased significantly compared to when only audible sound was applied (positive hypersonic effect), while, when an HFC below approximately 32 kHz was applied, the Alpha-2 EEG decreased (negative hypersonic effect). These findings suggest that the emergence of the hypersonic effect depends on the frequencies of inaudible HFC.

  14. Abnormal sound detection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Izumi; Matsui, Yuji.

    1995-01-01

    Only components synchronized with rotation of pumps are sampled from detected acoustic sounds, to judge the presence or absence of abnormality based on the magnitude of the synchronized components. A synchronized component sampling means can remove resonance sounds and other acoustic sounds generated at a synchronously with the rotation based on the knowledge that generated acoustic components in a normal state are a sort of resonance sounds and are not precisely synchronized with the number of rotation. On the other hand, abnormal sounds of a rotating body are often caused by compulsory force accompanying the rotation as a generation source, and the abnormal sounds can be detected by extracting only the rotation-synchronized components. Since components of normal acoustic sounds generated at present are discriminated from the detected sounds, reduction of the abnormal sounds due to a signal processing can be avoided and, as a result, abnormal sound detection sensitivity can be improved. Further, since it is adapted to discriminate the occurrence of the abnormal sound from the actually detected sounds, the other frequency components which are forecast but not generated actually are not removed, so that it is further effective for the improvement of detection sensitivity. (N.H.)

  15. Air conducted and body conducted sound produced by own voice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mie Østergaard

    1998-01-01

    When we speak, sound reaches our ears both through the air, from the mouth to ear, and through our body, as vibrations. The ratio between the air borne and body conducted sound has been studied in a pilot experiment where the air borne sound was eliminated by isolating the ear with a large...... attenuation box. The ratio was found to lie between -15 dB to -7 dB, below 1 kHz, comparable with theoretical estimations. This work is part of a broader study of the occlusion effect and the results provide important input data for modelling the sound pressure change between an open and an occluded ear canal....

  16. Tearing modes with pressure gradient effect in pair plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Huishan; Li Ding; Zheng Jian

    2009-01-01

    The general dispersion relation of tearing mode with pressure gradient effect in pair plasmas is derived analytically. If the pressure gradients of positron and electron are not identical in pair plasmas, the pressure gradient has significant influence at tearing mode in both collisionless and collisional regimes. In collisionless regime, the effects of pressure gradient depend on its magnitude. For small pressure gradient, the growth rate of tearing mode is enhanced by pressure gradient. For large pressure gradient, the growth rate is reduced by pressure gradient. The tearing mode can even be stabilized if pressure gradient is large enough. In collisional regime, the growth rate of tearing mode is reduced by the pressure gradient. While the positron and electron have equal pressure gradient, tearing mode is not affected by pressure gradient in pair plasmas.

  17. Evaluative pressure overcomes perceptual load effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normand, Alice; Autin, Frédérique; Croizet, Jean-Claude

    2015-06-01

    Perceptual load has been found to be a powerful bottom-up determinant of distractibility, with high perceptual load preventing distraction by any irrelevant information. However, when under evaluative pressure, individuals exert top-down attentional control by giving greater weight to task-relevant features, making them more distractible from task-relevant distractors. One study tested whether the top-down modulation of attention under evaluative pressure overcomes the beneficial bottom-up effect of high perceptual load on distraction. Using a response-competition task, we replicated previous findings that high levels of perceptual load suppress task-relevant distractor response interference, but only for participants in a control condition. Participants under evaluative pressure (i.e., who believed their intelligence was assessed) showed interference from task-relevant distractor at all levels of perceptual load. This research challenges the assumptions of the perceptual load theory and sheds light on a neglected determinant of distractibility: the self-relevance of the performance situation in which attentional control is solicited.

  18. Pressurization rate effect on ligament rupture and burst pressures of cracked steam generator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumdar, S.; Kasza, K.

    2009-01-01

    The question of whether ligament rupture pressure or unstable burst pressure may vary significantly with pressurization rate at room temperature arose from the results of pressure tests by industry on tubes with machined part-throughwall notches. Slow (quasi-static) and fast 14 MPa/s (2000 psi/s) pressurization rate tests on specimens with nominally the same notch geometry appeared to show a significant effect of the rate of pressurization on the unstable burst pressure. Unfortunately, the slow and fast loading rate tests were conducted following two different test procedures, which could confound the results. The current series of tests were conducted on a variety of specimen geometries using a consistent test procedure to better establish the effect of pressurization rate on ligament rupture and burst pressures. (author)

  19. Pressurization rate effect on ligament rupture and burst pressures of cracked steam generator tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majumdar, S.; Kasza, K. [Argonne National Laboratory, Nuclear Energy Division, Lemont, Illinois (United States)

    2009-07-01

    The question of whether ligament rupture pressure or unstable burst pressure may vary significantly with pressurization rate at room temperature arose from the results of pressure tests by industry on tubes with machined part-throughwall notches. Slow (quasi-static) and fast 14 MPa/s (2000 psi/s) pressurization rate tests on specimens with nominally the same notch geometry appeared to show a significant effect of the rate of pressurization on the unstable burst pressure. Unfortunately, the slow and fast loading rate tests were conducted following two different test procedures, which could confound the results. The current series of tests were conducted on a variety of specimen geometries using a consistent test procedure to better establish the effect of pressurization rate on ligament rupture and burst pressures. (author)

  20. Neural Decoding of Bistable Sounds Reveals an Effect of Intention on Perceptual Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billig, Alexander J; Davis, Matthew H; Carlyon, Robert P

    2018-03-14

    Auditory signals arrive at the ear as a mixture that the brain must decompose into distinct sources based to a large extent on acoustic properties of the sounds. An important question concerns whether listeners have voluntary control over how many sources they perceive. This has been studied using pure high (H) and low (L) tones presented in the repeating pattern HLH-HLH-, which can form a bistable percept heard either as an integrated whole (HLH-) or as segregated into high (H-H-) and low (-L-) sequences. Although instructing listeners to try to integrate or segregate sounds affects reports of what they hear, this could reflect a response bias rather than a perceptual effect. We had human listeners (15 males, 12 females) continuously report their perception of such sequences and recorded neural activity using MEG. During neutral listening, a classifier trained on patterns of neural activity distinguished between periods of integrated and segregated perception. In other conditions, participants tried to influence their perception by allocating attention either to the whole sequence or to a subset of the sounds. They reported hearing the desired percept for a greater proportion of time than when listening neutrally. Critically, neural activity supported these reports; stimulus-locked brain responses in auditory cortex were more likely to resemble the signature of segregation when participants tried to hear segregation than when attempting to perceive integration. These results indicate that listeners can influence how many sound sources they perceive, as reflected in neural responses that track both the input and its perceptual organization. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Can we consciously influence our perception of the external world? We address this question using sound sequences that can be heard either as coming from a single source or as two distinct auditory streams. Listeners reported spontaneous changes in their perception between these two interpretations while

  1. Effects of capacity limits, memory loss, and sound type in change deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Melissa K; Irsik, Vanessa C; Snyder, Joel S

    2017-11-01

    Change deafness, the inability to notice changes to auditory scenes, has the potential to provide insights about sound perception in busy situations typical of everyday life. We determined the extent to which change deafness to sounds is due to the capacity of processing multiple sounds and the loss of memory for sounds over time. We also determined whether these processing limitations work differently for varying types of sounds within a scene. Auditory scenes composed of naturalistic sounds, spectrally dynamic unrecognizable sounds, tones, and noise rhythms were presented in a change-detection task. On each trial, two scenes were presented that were same or different. We manipulated the number of sounds within each scene to measure memory capacity and the silent interval between scenes to measure memory loss. For all sounds, change detection was worse as scene size increased, demonstrating the importance of capacity limits. Change detection to the natural sounds did not deteriorate much as the interval between scenes increased up to 2,000 ms, but it did deteriorate substantially with longer intervals. For artificial sounds, in contrast, change-detection performance suffered even for very short intervals. The results suggest that change detection is generally limited by capacity, regardless of sound type, but that auditory memory is more enduring for sounds with naturalistic acoustic structures.

  2. Sound Effects: The Oral/Aural Dimensions of Literature in English Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Jones

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available _Sound Effects_ traces the history of the relationship between oral conditions and aural effect in English literature from its beginnings in the Anglo-Saxon period through to the twenty-first century. Few collections nowadays, other than textbook histories, would attempt a survey of their field from the early middle ages to the present day, and it is not our intention here to offer a continuous narrative. But despite the many centuries covered by this collection, the reader will find that certain themes recur in different contexts and that the individual essays speak to each other, often over long distances of time. It ends where it might have begun, with Homer, though in modern English form. The effect of this pattern is to create an “envelope” structure in which the ancient oral forms of Greek and Anglo-Saxon verse reappear as contexts for understanding how these forms survive and how sound works in the poetry of the modern world. The scope of the volume is also determined by its subject, since we are concerned with tradition as well as with the oral and aural. In particular, we are concerned with how literary production and reception respond to the different waves of media evolution from oral to written, manuscript to print (and the theater, and the later development of machine technology. We are not specifically concerned with the computer and the Internet, though they are an unstated presence behind the project as a whole. A subsidiary theme is the way in which sound, understood in both oral and aural terms, provides the agency through which high and low, elite and popular cultures are brought into conjunction throughout English literature.

  3. Pressure plate analysis of toe-heel and medio-lateral hoof balance at the walk and trot in sound sport horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterlinck, M; Hardeman, L C; van der Meij, B R; Veraa, S; van der Kolk, J H; Wijnberg, I D; Pille, F; Back, W

    2013-12-01

    Empirically, equine distal limb lameness is often linked to hoof imbalance. To objectively quantify dynamic toe-heel and medio-lateral hoof balance of the vertical ground reaction force in sound sport horses, seven Royal Dutch Sport Horses were led at the walk and trot over a dynamically calibrated pressure plate. Forelimb hoof prints were divided into a toe and heel region and a medial and lateral zone. Toe-heel and medio-lateral hoof balance of the vertical ground reaction force were calculated throughout the stance. Toe-heel balance was highly symmetrical between contralateral limbs at both gaits. At the walk, medio-lateral balance of both forelimbs presented higher loading in the lateral part of the hoof throughout the stance. However, at the trot, left medio-lateral balance presented higher loading of the medial part of the hoof at impact, whereas the right limb showed higher loading of the lateral part of the hoof in all horses, and both limbs presented increased lateral loading at the end of the stance. This study provides objective data for toe-heel and medio-lateral hoof balance in sound sport horses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of high pressure on mesophilic lactic fermentation streptococci

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reps, A; Kuzmicka, M; Wisniewska, K [Chair of Food Biotechnology, University of Warmia and Mazury, ul. Heweliusza 1, 10-724 Olsztyn (Poland)], E-mail: arnold.reps@uwm.edu.pl

    2008-07-15

    The research concerned the effect of high pressure on mesophilic lactic fermentation streptococci, present in two cheese-making commercial inocula produced by Christian-Hansen. Water solutions of inocula were pressurized at 50-800 MPa, at room temperature, for 30-120 min. Pressurization at 50-100 MPa slightly increased or reduced the number of lactic streptococci, depending on the inoculum and pressurization time. Pressurization at 200 MPa caused a reduction in the number of streptococci by over 99.9%, whereas the pressure of 400 MPa and above almost completely inactivated streptococci. Pressurization also reduced the dynamics of microorganism growth and acidification, to the degree depending on the pressure.

  5. Passenger comfort on high-speed trains: effect of tunnel noise on the subjective assessment of pressure variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanok, Sandra; Mendolia, Franco; Wittkowski, Martin; Rooney, Daniel; Putzke, Matthias; Aeschbach, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    When passing through a tunnel, aerodynamic effects on high-speed trains may impair passenger comfort. These variations in atmospheric pressure are accompanied by transient increases in sound pressure level. To date, it is unclear whether the latter influences the perceived discomfort associated with the variations in atmospheric pressure. In a pressure chamber of the DLR-Institute of Aerospace Medicine, 71 participants (M = 28.3 years ± 8.1 SD) rated randomised pressure changes during two conditions according to a crossover design. The pressure changes were presented together with tunnel noise such that the sound pressure level was transiently elevated by either +6 dB (low noise condition) or +12 dB (high noise condition) above background noise level (65 dB(A)). Data were combined with those of a recent study, in which identical pressure changes were presented without tunnel noise (Schwanitz et al., 2013, 'Pressure Variations on a Train - Where is the Threshold to Railway Passenger Discomfort?' Applied Ergonomics 44 (2): 200-209). Exposure-response relationships for the combined data set comprising all three noise conditions show that pressure discomfort increases with the magnitude and speed of the pressure changes but decreases with increasing tunnel noise. Practitioner Summary: In a pressure chamber, we systematically examined how pressure discomfort, as it may be experienced by railway passengers, is affected by the presence of tunnel noise during pressure changes. It is shown that across three conditions (no noise, low noise (+6 dB), high noise (+12 dB)) pressure discomfort decreases with increasing tunnel noise.

  6. Perceiving blocks of emotional pictures and sounds:Effects on physiological variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Marie eBrouwer

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Most studies on physiological effects of emotion inducing images and sounds examine stimulus locked variables reflecting a state of at most a few seconds. We here aimed to induce longer lasting emotional states using blocks of repetitive visual, auditory and bimodal stimuli corresponding to specific valence and arousal levels. The duration of these blocks enabled us to reliably measure heart rate variability as a possible indicator of arousal. In addition, heart rate and skin conductance were determined without taking stimulus timing into account. Heart rate was higher for pleasant and low arousal stimuli compared to unpleasant and high arousal stimuli. Heart rate variability and skin conductance increased with arousal. Effects of valence and arousal on cardiovascular measures habituated or remained the same over 2-minute intervals whereas the arousal effect on skin conductance increased. We did not find any effect of stimulus modality. Our results indicate that blocks of images and sounds of specific valence and arousal levels consistently influence different physiological parameters. These parameters need not be stimulus locked. We found no evidence for differences in emotion induction between visual and auditory stimuli, nor did we find bimodal stimuli to be more potent than unimodal stimuli. The latter could be (partly due to the fact that our bimodal stimuli were not optimally congruent.

  7. Towards Predicting Room Acoustical Effects on Sound-Field ASSR from Stimulus Modulation Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zapata Rodriguez, Valentina; Laugesen, Søren; Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    ) is considered. Instead of using insert earphones to deliver the stimuli, as is customary, the auditory signals are reproduced from a loudspeaker placed in front of the subject, so as to include the hearing aid in the transmission path. Loudspeaker presentation of the stimulus can lower its effective modulation...... properties of the measurement room has not been considered. The present work explores the relation between the stimulus modulation power and the ASSR amplitude in a simulated sound-field ASSR data set with varying reverberation time. Three rooms were simulated using the Green's function approach...

  8. The effects of a sound-field amplification system on managerial time in middle school physical education settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Stu

    2009-04-01

    The focus of this research effort was to examine the effect of a sound-field amplification system on managerial time in the beginning of class in a physical education setting. A multiple baseline design across participants was used to measure change in the managerial time of 2 middle school female physical education teachers using a portable sound-field amplification system. Managerial time is defined as the cumulative amount of time that students spend on organizational, transitional, and nonsubject matter tasks in a lesson. The findings showed that the amount of managerial time at the beginning of class clearly decreased when the teacher used sound-field amplification feedback to physical education students. Findings indicate an immediate need for administrators to determine the most appropriate, cost-effective procedure to support sound-field amplification systems in existing physical education settings.

  9. What characterizes changing-state speech in affecting short-term memory? An EEG study on the irrelevant sound effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlittmeier, Sabine J; Weisz, Nathan; Bertrand, Olivier

    2011-12-01

    The irrelevant sound effect (ISE) describes reduced verbal short-term memory during irrelevant changing-state sounds which consist of different and distinct auditory tokens. Steady-state sounds lack such changing-state features and do not impair performance. An EEG experiment (N=16) explored the distinguishing neurophysiological aspects of detrimental changing-state speech (3-token sequence) compared to ineffective steady-state speech (1-token sequence) on serial recall performance. We analyzed evoked and induced activity related to the memory items as well as spectral activity during the retention phase. The main finding is that the behavioral sound effect was exclusively reflected by attenuated token-induced gamma activation most pronounced between 50-60 Hz and 50-100 ms post-stimulus onset. Changing-state speech seems to disrupt a behaviorally relevant ongoing process during target presentation (e.g., the serial binding of the items). Copyright © 2011 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  10. Experimental and Numerical Study of the Effects of Acoustic Sound Absorbers on the Cooling Performance of Thermally Active Building Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domínguez, L. Marcos; Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Rage, Nils

    2017-01-01

    Free-hanging horizontal and vertical sound absorbers are commonly used in buildings for room acoustic control; however, when these sound absorbers are used in combination with Thermally Active Building Systems, they will decrease the cooling performance of Thermally Active Building Systems...... and this will affect the thermal indoor environment in that space. Therefore, it is crucial to be able to quantify and model these effects in the design phase. This study quantifies experimentally the effects of horizontal and vertical free-hanging sound absorbers on the cooling performance of Thermally Active......%, respectively. With vertical sound absorbers, the decrease in cooling performance was 8%, 12%, and 14% for the corresponding cases, respectively. The numerical model predicted closely the cooling performance reduction, air temperatures and ceiling surface temperatures in most cases, while there were differences...

  11. The effects of pulse pressure from seismic water gun technology on Northern Pike

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Jackson A.; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Wilmoth, Siri K.; Wagner, Tristany L.; Shields, Patrick A; Fox, Jeffrey R.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the efficacy of sound pressure pulses generated from a water gun for controlling invasive Northern Pike Esox lucius. Pulse pressures from two sizes of water guns were evaluated for their effects on individual fish placed at a predetermined random distance. Fish mortality from a 5,620.8-cm3 water gun (peak pressure source level = 252 dB referenced to 1 μP at 1 m) was assessed every 24 h for 168 h, and damage (intact, hematoma, or rupture) to the gas bladder, kidney, and liver was recorded. The experiment was replicated with a 1,966.4-cm3 water gun (peak pressure source level = 244 dB referenced to 1 μP at 1 m), but fish were euthanized immediately. The peak sound pressure level (SPLpeak), peak-to-peak sound pressure level (SPLp-p), and frequency spectrums were recorded, and the cumulative sound exposure level (SELcum) was subsequently calculated. The SPLpeak, SPLp-p, and SELcum were correlated, and values varied significantly by treatment group for both guns. Mortality increased and organ damage was greater with decreasing distance to the water gun. Mortality (31%) by 168 h was only observed for Northern Pike exhibiting the highest degree of organ damage. Mortality at 72 h and 168 h postexposure was associated with increasing SELcum above 195 dB. The minimum SELcum calculated for gas bladder rupture was 199 dB recorded at 9 m from the 5,620.8-cm3 water gun and 194 dB recorded at 6 m from the 1,966.4-cm3water gun. Among Northern Pike that were exposed to the large water gun, 100% of fish exposed at 3 and 6 m had ruptured gas bladders, and 86% exposed at 9 m had ruptured gas bladders. Among fish that were exposed to pulse pressures from the smaller water gun, 78% exhibited gas bladder rupture. Results from these initial controlled experiments underscore the potential of water guns as a tool for controlling Northern Pike.

  12. Study of the effect of finite extent on sound transmission loss of single panel using a waveguide model

    OpenAIRE

    Prasetiyo , Iwan; Thompson , David

    2012-01-01

    International audience; The sound transmission loss (STL) of a panel is often estimated using an infinite plate model. However, some discrepancies are found between these predicted results and experimental ones. One of the sources of such discrepancies corresponds to the finite extent that is naturally found in real structures. In the present study an analytical waveguide model of sound transmission is used to study the effect of finite dimensions in one direction for a panel which is long in...

  13. Importance of correlation effects in hcp iron revealed by a pressure-induced electronic topological transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazyrin, K; Pourovskii, L V; Dubrovinsky, L; Narygina, O; McCammon, C; Hewener, B; Schünemann, V; Wolny, J; Muffler, K; Chumakov, A I; Crichton, W; Hanfland, M; Prakapenka, V B; Tasnádi, F; Ekholm, M; Aichhorn, M; Vildosola, V; Ruban, A V; Katsnelson, M I; Abrikosov, I A

    2013-03-15

    We discover that hcp phases of Fe and Fe(0.9)Ni(0.1) undergo an electronic topological transition at pressures of about 40 GPa. This topological change of the Fermi surface manifests itself through anomalous behavior of the Debye sound velocity, c/a lattice parameter ratio, and Mössbauer center shift observed in our experiments. First-principles simulations within the dynamic mean field approach demonstrate that the transition is induced by many-electron effects. It is absent in one-electron calculations and represents a clear signature of correlation effects in hcp Fe.

  14. Effect of pitch–space correspondence on sound-induced visual motion perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hidaka, Souta; Teramoto, Wataru; Keetels, Mirjam; Vroomen, J.H.M.

    2013-01-01

    The brain tends to associate specific features of stimuli across sensory modalities. The pitch of a sound is for example associated with spatial elevation such that higher-pitched sounds are felt as being “up” in space and lower-pitched sounds as being “down.” Here we investigated whether changes in

  15. The Harley effect : Internal and external factors that facilitate positive experiences with product sounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozcan Vieira, E.

    2014-01-01

    Everyday activities are laden with emotional experiences involving sound. Our interactions with products (shavers, hairdryers, electric drills) often cause sounds that are typically unpleasant to the ear. Yet, we may get excited with the sound of an accelerating Harley Davidson because the rumbling

  16. Evidence for habituation of the irrelevant-sound effect on serial recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röer, Jan P; Bell, Raoul; Buchner, Axel

    2014-05-01

    Working memory theories make opposing predictions as to whether the disruptive effect of task-irrelevant sound on serial recall should be attenuated after repeated exposure to the auditory distractors. Although evidence of habituation has emerged after a passive listening phase, previous attempts to observe habituation to to-be ignored distractors on a trial-by-trial basis have proven to be fruitless. With the present study, we suggest that habituation to auditory distractors occurs, but has often been overlooked because past attempts to measure habituation in the irrelevant-sound paradigm were not sensitive enough. In a series of four experiments, the disruptive effects of to-be-ignored speech and music relative to a quiet control condition were markedly reduced after eight repetitions, regardless of whether trials were presented in blocks (Exp. 1) or in a random order (Exp. 2). The auditory distractor's playback direction (forward, backward) had no effect (Exp. 3). The same results were obtained when the auditory distractors were only presented in a retention interval after the presentation of the to-be-remembered items (Exp. 4). This pattern is only consistent with theoretical accounts that allow for attentional processes to interfere with the maintenance of information in working memory.

  17. Effects of pressurization procedures on calibration results for precise pressure transducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajikawa, Hiroaki; Kobata, Tokihiko

    2010-01-01

    The output of electromechanical pressure gauges depends on not only the currently applied pressure, but also the pressurization history. Thus, the calibration results of gauges are affected by the pressurization procedure. In this paper, among several important factors influencing the results, we report the effects of the interval between the calibration cycles and the effects of the preliminary pressurizations. In order to quantitatively evaluate these effects, we developed a fully automated system that uses a pressure balance to calibrate pressure gauges. Subsequently, gauges containing quartz Bourdon-type pressure transducers were calibrated in a stepwise manner for pressures between 10 MPa and 100 MPa. The typical standard deviation of the data over three cycles was reduced to a few parts per million (ppm). The interval between the calibration cycles, which ranges from zero to more than 12 h, exerts a strong influence on the results in the process of increasing the pressure, where at 10 MPa the maximum difference between the results was approximately 40 ppm. The preliminary pressurization immediately before the calibration cycle reduces the effects of the interval on the results in certain cases. However, in turn, the influence of the waiting time between the preliminary pressurization and the main calibration cycle becomes strong. In the present paper, we outline several possible measures for obtaining calibration results with high reproducibility

  18. Investigation of the effect of pressure increasing in condensing heat-exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murmanskii, I. B.; Aronson, K. E.; Brodov, Yu M.; Galperin, L. G.; Ryabchikov, A. Yu.; Brezgin, D. V.

    2017-11-01

    The effect of pressure increase was observed in steam condensation in the intermediate coolers of multistage steam ejector. Steam pressure increase for ejector cooler amounts up to 1.5 kPa in the first ejector stage, 5 kPa in the second and 7 kPa in the third one. Pressure ratios are equal to 2.0, 1.3 and 1.1 respectively. As a rule steam velocities at the cooler inlets do not exceed 40…100 m/s and are subsonic in all regimes. The report presents a computational model that describes the effect of pressure increase in the cooler. The steam entering the heat exchanger tears the drops from the condensate film flowing down vertical tubes. At the inlet of heat exchanger the steam flow capturing condensate droplets forms a steam-water mixture in which the sound velocity is significantly reduced. If the flow rate of steam-water mixture in heat exchanger is greater than the sound velocity, there occurs a pressure shock in the wet steam. On the basis of the equations of mass, momentum and energy conservation the authors derived the expressions for calculation of steam flow dryness degree before and after the shock. The model assumes that droplet velocity is close to the velocity of the steam phase (slipping is absent); drops do not come into thermal interaction with the steam phase; liquid phase specific volume compared to the volume of steam is neglected; pressure shock is calculated taking into account the gas-dynamic flow resistance of the tube bundle. It is also assumed that the temperature of steam after the shock is equal to the saturation temperature. The calculations have shown that the rise of steam pressure and temperature in the shock results in dryness degree increase. For calculated flow parameters the velocity value before the shock is greater than the sound velocity. Thus, on the basis of generally accepted physics knowledge the computational model has been formulated for the effect of steam pressure rise in the condensing heat exchanger.

  19. Effect of external pressure environment on the internal noise level due to a source inside a cylindrical tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clevenson, S. A.; Roussos, L. A.

    1984-01-01

    A small cylindrical tank was used to study the effect on the noise environment within a tank of conditions of atmospheric (sea level) pressure or vacuum environments on the exterior. Experimentally determined absorption coefficients were used to calculate transmission loss, transmissibility coefficients and the sound pressure (noise) level differences in the interior. The noise level differences were also measured directly for the two exterior environments and compared to various analytical approximations with limited agreement. Trend study curves indicated that if the tank transmission loss is above 25 dB, the difference in interior noise level between the vacuum and ambient pressure conditions are less than 2 dB.

  20. Brief report: sound output of infant humidifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, Allison K; Wilson, Paul F; Royer, Mark C; Miyamoto, Richard T

    2015-06-01

    The sound pressure levels (SPLs) of common infant humidifiers were determined to identify the likely sound exposure to infants and young children. This primary investigative research study was completed at a tertiary-level academic medical center otolaryngology and audiology laboratory. Five commercially available humidifiers were obtained from brick-and-mortar infant supply stores. Sound levels were measured at 20-, 100-, and 150-cm distances at all available humidifier settings. Two of 5 (40%) humidifiers tested had SPL readings greater than the recommended hospital infant nursery levels (50 dB) at distances up to 100 cm. In this preliminary study, it was demonstrated that humidifiers marketed for infant nurseries may produce appreciably high decibel levels. Further characterization of the effect of humidifier design on SPLs and further elucidation of ambient sound levels associated with hearing risk are necessary before definitive conclusions and recommendations can be made. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  1. Effects of Sound on the Behavior of Wild, Unrestrained Fish Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Louise; Cheesman, Samuel; Hawkins, Anthony D

    2016-01-01

    To assess and manage the impact of man-made sounds on fish, we need information on how behavior is affected. Here, wild unrestrained pelagic fish schools were observed under quiet conditions using sonar. Fish were exposed to synthetic piling sounds at different levels using custom-built sound projectors, and behavioral changes were examined. In some cases, the depth of schools changed after noise playback; full dispersal of schools was also evident. The methods we developed for examining the behavior of unrestrained fish to sound exposure have proved successful and may allow further testing of the relationship between responsiveness and sound level.

  2. Application effect of TEM sounding survey on prospecting and target area selection of sandstone-type uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Jianguo; Liang Shanming; Zhao Cuiping

    2006-01-01

    Based on the results of transient electromagnetic (TEM) sounding survey during recent years regional geological reconnaissance with drilling (1:250000), the application effect of TEM sounding survey during regional reconnaissance is summarized in this paper. It is suggested that the data of TEM sounding are useful in judging hydrodynamic conditions of groundwater and determining favorable areas for uranium ore-formation; TEM sounding in large areas may be proper for prospecting in gobi-desert areas and be beneficial for regional reconnaissance and target area selection, and may reduce the target area and provide basis for further drilling program. It is of popularized significance in the prospecting for sandstone-type uranium deposits. (authors)

  3. Sound Scattering by a Flexible Plate Embedded on Free Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eldad J. Avital

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sound wave scattering by a flexible plate embedded on water surface is considered. Linear acoustics and plate elasticity are assumed. The aim is to assess the effect of the plate’s flexibility on sound scattering and the potential in using that flexibility for this purpose. A combined sound-structure solution is used, which is based on a Fourier transform of the sound field and a finite-difference numerical-solution of the plate’s dynamics. The solution is implemented for a circular plate subject to a perpendicular incoming monochromatic sound wave. A very good agreement is achieved with a finite-difference solution of the sound field. It is shown that the flexibility of the plate dampens its scattered sound wave regardless of the type of the plate’s edge support. A hole in the plate is shown to further scatter the sound wave to form maxima in the near sound field. It is suggested that applying an external oscillatory pressure on the plate can reduce significantly and even eliminate its scattered wave, thus making the plate close to acoustically invisible. A uniformly distributed external pressure is found capable of achieving that aim as long as the plate is free edged or is not highly acoustically noncompact.

  4. Effects of Sound Frequency on Audiovisual Integration: An Event-Related Potential Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weiping; Yang, Jingjing; Gao, Yulin; Tang, Xiaoyu; Ren, Yanna; Takahashi, Satoshi; Wu, Jinglong

    2015-01-01

    A combination of signals across modalities can facilitate sensory perception. The audiovisual facilitative effect strongly depends on the features of the stimulus. Here, we investigated how sound frequency, which is one of basic features of an auditory signal, modulates audiovisual integration. In this study, the task of the participant was to respond to a visual target stimulus by pressing a key while ignoring auditory stimuli, comprising of tones of different frequencies (0.5, 1, 2.5 and 5 kHz). A significant facilitation of reaction times was obtained following audiovisual stimulation, irrespective of whether the task-irrelevant sounds were low or high frequency. Using event-related potential (ERP), audiovisual integration was found over the occipital area for 0.5 kHz auditory stimuli from 190-210 ms, for 1 kHz stimuli from 170-200 ms, for 2.5 kHz stimuli from 140-200 ms, 5 kHz stimuli from 100-200 ms. These findings suggest that a higher frequency sound signal paired with visual stimuli might be early processed or integrated despite the auditory stimuli being task-irrelevant information. Furthermore, audiovisual integration in late latency (300-340 ms) ERPs with fronto-central topography was found for auditory stimuli of lower frequencies (0.5, 1 and 2.5 kHz). Our results confirmed that audiovisual integration is affected by the frequency of an auditory stimulus. Taken together, the neurophysiological results provide unique insight into how the brain processes a multisensory visual signal and auditory stimuli of different frequencies.

  5. Effects of vegetarian diets on blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yokoyama Y

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Yoko Yokoyama,1,2 Kazuo Tsubota,2,3 Mitsuhiro Watanabe1,2,4,5 1Graduate School of Media and Governance, Keio University, Fujisawa, Kanagawa, 2Health Science Laboratory, 3Department of Ophthalmology, 4Department of Internal Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, 5Faculty of Environment and Information Studies, Keio University, Fujisawa, Kanagawa, Japan Abstract: Hypertension is a major independent risk factor for coronary artery diseases, and the prevalence of hypertension is continuously increasing. Diet is an important factor that can be modified to prevent hypertension. According to the US Department of Health and Human Services, dietary patterns are defined as the quantities, proportions, and variety or combinations of different foods and beverages in diets and the frequency with which they are habitually consumed. In this review, the vegetarian dietary pattern is introduced with a focus on the effect on blood pressure (BP. Although the available evidence is limited, according to a previous meta-analysis of controlled trials, vegetarian dietary patterns significantly reduced systolic and diastolic BPs. One of the common features of a vegetarian diet is weight loss, which might, at least partially, explain the effect on BP. Other possible factors such as sodium, potassium, protein, amino acids, vitamin B-12, antioxidants, fiber, and the microbiome are introduced as possible mechanisms. Further studies are needed with non-Western populations to determine the most effective vegetarian dietary pattern and to explore the exact mechanisms by which these dietary patterns affect BP. Keywords: vegetarian diet, plant-based diet, blood pressure, hypertension, meta-analysis

  6. Nonlinear effects in the propagation of shortwave transverse sound in pure superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gal'perin, Y.

    1982-01-01

    Various mechanisms are analyzed which lead to nonlinear phenomena (e.g., the dependence of the absorption coefficient and of the velocity of sound on its intensity) in the propagation of transverse shortwave sound in pure superconductors (the wavelength of the sound being much less than the mean free path of the quasiparticles). It is shown that the basic mechanism, over a wide range of superconductor parameters and of the sound intensity, is the so-called momentum nonlinearity. The latter is due to the distortion (induced by the sound wave) of the quasimomentum distribution of resonant electrons interacting with the wave. The dependences of the absorption coefficient and of the sound velocity on its intensity and on the temperature are analyzed in the vicinity of the superconducting transition point. The feasibility of an experimental study of nonlinear acoustic phenomena in the case of transverse sound is considered

  7. Imagining Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimshaw, Mark; Garner, Tom Alexander

    2014-01-01

    We make the case in this essay that sound that is imagined is both a perception and as much a sound as that perceived through external stimulation. To argue this, we look at the evidence from auditory science, neuroscience, and philosophy, briefly present some new conceptual thinking on sound...... that accounts for this view, and then use this to look at what the future might hold in the context of imagining sound and developing technology....

  8. Sensing line effects on PWR-based differential pressure measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, R.P.; Neff, G.G.

    1982-01-01

    An incorrrect configuration of the fluid-filled pressure sensing lines connecting differential pressure transducers to the pressure taps in a pressurized water reactor system can cause errors in the measurement and, during rapid pressure transients, could cause the transducer to fail. Testing was performed in both static and dynamic modes to experimentally determine the effects of sensing lines of various lengths, diameters, and materials. Testing was performed at ambient temperature with absolute line pressures at about 17 MPa using water as the pressure transmission fluid

  9. Texture-dependent effects of pseudo-chewing sound on perceived food texture and evoked feelings in response to nursing care foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Hiroshi; Ino, Shuichi; Fujisaki, Waka

    2017-09-01

    Because chewing sounds influence perceived food textures, unpleasant textures of texture-modified diets might be improved by chewing sound modulation. Additionally, since inhomogeneous food properties increase perceived sensory intensity, the effects of chewing sound modulation might depend on inhomogeneity. This study examined the influences of texture inhomogeneity on the effects of chewing sound modulation. Three kinds of nursing care foods in two food process types (minced-/puréed-like foods for inhomogeneous/homogeneous texture respectively) were used as sample foods. A pseudo-chewing sound presentation system, using electromyogram signals, was used to modulate chewing sounds. Thirty healthy elderly participants participated in the experiment. In two conditions with and without the pseudo-chewing sound, participants rated the taste, texture, and evoked feelings in response to sample foods. The results showed that inhomogeneity strongly influenced the perception of food texture. Regarding the effects of the pseudo-chewing sound, taste was less influenced, the perceived food texture tended to change in the minced-like foods, and evoked feelings changed in both food process types. Though there were some food-dependent differences in the effects of the pseudo-chewing sound, the presentation of the pseudo-chewing sounds was more effective in foods with an inhomogeneous texture. In addition, it was shown that the pseudo-chewing sound might have positively influenced feelings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Physics of thermo-acoustic sound generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daschewski, M.; Boehm, R.; Prager, J.; Kreutzbruck, M.; Harrer, A.

    2013-09-01

    We present a generalized analytical model of thermo-acoustic sound generation based on the analysis of thermally induced energy density fluctuations and their propagation into the adjacent matter. The model provides exact analytical prediction of the sound pressure generated in fluids and solids; consequently, it can be applied to arbitrary thermal power sources such as thermophones, plasma firings, laser beams, and chemical reactions. Unlike existing approaches, our description also includes acoustic near-field effects and sound-field attenuation. Analytical results are compared with measurements of sound pressures generated by thermo-acoustic transducers in air for frequencies up to 1 MHz. The tested transducers consist of titanium and indium tin oxide coatings on quartz glass and polycarbonate substrates. The model reveals that thermo-acoustic efficiency increases linearly with the supplied thermal power and quadratically with thermal excitation frequency. Comparison of the efficiency of our thermo-acoustic transducers with those of piezoelectric-based airborne ultrasound transducers using impulse excitation showed comparable sound pressure values. The present results show that thermo-acoustic transducers can be applied as broadband, non-resonant, high-performance ultrasound sources.

  11. The baffle influence on sound radiation characteristics of a plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The acoustic radiation characteristics of the baffle plates and unbaffle plates are calculated and compared by single-layer potential and double-layer potential. Based on the boundary integral equation, the sound pressure integral equation of the baffle and the baffle are deduced respectively. According to the boundary compatibility condition, the sound pressure and the vibration velocity of the plates are obtained. Further, the dynamic equation of the structure is substituted into the vibration equation in the form of the baffle plate and the baffle plate. The sound pressure difference and the displacement of a plate surface are in the form of the vibration mode superposition and the acoustic radiation impedance of the double integral form is obtained, which determines vibration mode coefficient and sound radiation parameters. The effect of the baffle on the acoustic radiation characteristics of the thin plate is analyzed by comparing the acoustic radiation parameters with the simple and simple rectangular plate in water.

  12. The Effects of Audible Sound for Enhancing the Growth Rate of Microalgae Haematococcus pluvialis in Vegetative Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelinus Christwardana

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Physico-stimulant like audible sound is one of the new promising methods for enhancing microalgae growth rate. Here, microalgae Haematococcus pluvialis was cultivated with the addition of audible sound with titles “Blues for Elle” and “Far and Wide.” The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of audible sound to the growth and productivity of microalgae. The experiment has been conducted by exposing the audible sound for 8 h in 22 days to microalgae cultivation. The result showed that microalgae H. pluvialis treated by the music “Blues for Elle” shows the highest growth rate (0.03 per day, and 58% higher than the one without audible sound. The average number of cells in stationary phase is 0.76 × 104 cells/mL culture and the productivity is 3.467 × 102 cells/mL/day. The pH of microalgae medium slightly decreases because of proton production during photosynthesis process. The kinetic rate constant (kapp is 0.078 per day, reaction half-life (t1/2 is 8.89 days, and catalytic surface (Ksurf is 1.66 × 10−5/day/cm2. In conclusion, this audible sound is very useful to stimulate microalgae growth rate, especially H. pluvialis.

  13. InfoSound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Gopinath, B.; Haberman, Gary O.

    1990-01-01

    The authors explore ways to enhance users' comprehension of complex applications using music and sound effects to present application-program events that are difficult to detect visually. A prototype system, Infosound, allows developers to create and store musical sequences and sound effects with...

  14. Hamiltonian Algorithm Sound Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    大矢, 健一

    2013-01-01

    Hamiltonian Algorithm (HA) is an algorithm for searching solutions is optimization problems. This paper introduces a sound synthesis technique using Hamiltonian Algorithm and shows a simple example. "Hamiltonian Algorithm Sound Synthesis" uses phase transition effect in HA. Because of this transition effect, totally new waveforms are produced.

  15. Exploring Noise: Sound Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1979-01-01

    Part one of a three-part series about noise pollution and its effects on humans. This section presents the background information for teachers who are preparing a unit on sound. The next issues will offer learning activities for measuring the effects of sound and some references. (SA)

  16. Deuterium isotope differences in 2-propanone (CH3)2CO/(CD3)2CO: a high-pressure sound-speed, density, and heat capacities study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szydlowski, J.; Gomes de Azevedo, R.; Rebelo, L.P.N.; Esperanca, J.M.S.S.; Guedes, H.J.R.

    2005-01-01

    A new high-pressure, non-intrusive ultrasonic microcell [J. Chem. Thermodyn. 36 (2004) 211-222] was used to carry out sound-speed measurements in deuteriated 2-propanone (acetone-d 6 ) in broad ranges of temperature (288 6 . (p, ρ, T) data for acetone-d 6 were also determined but in a narrower T, p range (298 to 333 K; 0.1 to 60 MPa). In this interval, several thermodynamic properties were thus determined, such as: isentropic (κ s ) and isothermal (κ T ) compressibility, isobaric thermal expansivity (α p ), isobaric (c p ) and isochoric (c v ) specific heat capacity, and the thermal pressure coefficient (γ v ). Comparisons with our data for acetone-h 6 enabled us to establish the magnitude and sign of deuterium isotope effects for identical properties. These effects are a consequence of distinct vibrational mode frequencies in an isotope-invariant force constants' field. Molar heat capacities and their isotope effects were theoretically determined by employing an Einstein-like model for the vibrational frequencies of acetone-h 6 and acetone-d 6

  17. Effects of seismic survey sound on cetaceans in the Northwest Atlantic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moulton, Valerie D.; Holst, Meike [LGL Limited, Environmental Research Associates (Canada)

    2010-06-15

    Hydrocarbon exploration with marine seismic programs in the Canadian Beaufort Sea is expected to continue in the future. However the effect of those seismic surveys on cetaceans is a controversial subject, the sound emitted by airguns might result in hearing impairment or injury to marine mammals if they are at close range. The aim of this paper is to determine the behavior of cetaceans during seismic surveys. From 2003 to 2008, studies were conducted for 9180 hours over 8 seismic programs to observe the difference in number, sighting distance and behavior of marine mammals between seismic and non-seismic periods. Results showed that mysticetes and baleen whales tend to avoid the active airgun array while large toothed whales showed no difference in sighting rate and distances whether the airgun was active or not. This study showed that the effectiveness of ramping up the airgun to alert cetaceans of seismic operations depends on the species.

  18. Cell type-specific suppression of mechanosensitive genes by audible sound stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumeta, Masahiro; Takahashi, Daiji; Takeyasu, Kunio; Yoshimura, Shige H

    2018-01-01

    Audible sound is a ubiquitous environmental factor in nature that transmits oscillatory compressional pressure through the substances. To investigate the property of the sound as a mechanical stimulus for cells, an experimental system was set up using 94.0 dB sound which transmits approximately 10 mPa pressure to the cultured cells. Based on research on mechanotransduction and ultrasound effects on cells, gene responses to the audible sound stimulation were analyzed by varying several sound parameters: frequency, wave form, composition, and exposure time. Real-time quantitative PCR analyses revealed a distinct suppressive effect for several mechanosensitive and ultrasound-sensitive genes that were triggered by sounds. The effect was clearly observed in a wave form- and pressure level-specific manner, rather than the frequency, and persisted for several hours. At least two mechanisms are likely to be involved in this sound response: transcriptional control and RNA degradation. ST2 stromal cells and C2C12 myoblasts exhibited a robust response, whereas NIH3T3 cells were partially and NB2a neuroblastoma cells were completely insensitive, suggesting a cell type-specific response to sound. These findings reveal a cell-level systematic response to audible sound and uncover novel relationships between life and sound.

  19. Erratum: Correction to Table 3, in: Equivalent threshold sound pressure levels (ETSPL) for Sennheiser HDA 280 supra-aural audiometric earphones in the frequency range 125 Hz to 8000 Hz (International Journal of Audiology (2009) 48 (271-276))

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    The main results in Poulsen & Oakley (2009) are given as the equivalent threshold sound pressure level, ETSPL, measured in an acoustic coupler specifi ed in IEC 60318-3. These results are all correct. The ETSPL values for the ear simulator specifi ed in IEC 60318-1 were calculated from acoustic...

  20. Effects of lung elasticity on the sound propagation in the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoneda, Takahiro; Wada, Shigeo; Nakamura, Masanori; Horii, Noriaki; Mizushima, Koichiro

    2011-01-01

    Sound propagation in the lung was simulated for gaining insight into its acoustic properties. A thorax model consisting of lung parenchyma, thoracic bones, trachea and other tissues was made from human CT images. Acoustic nature of the lung parenchyma and bones was expressed with the Biot model of poroelastic material, whereas trachea and tissues were modeled with gas and an elastic material. A point sound source of white noises was placed in the first bifurcation of trachea. The sound propagation in the thorax model was simulated in a frequency domain. The results demonstrated the significant attenuation of sound especially in frequencies larger than 1,000 Hz. Simulations with a stiffened lung demonstrated suppression of the sound attenuation for higher frequencies observed in the normal lung. These results indicate that the normal lung has the nature of a low-pass filter, and stiffening helps the sound at higher frequencies to propagate without attenuations. (author)

  1. EFFECT OF NATURE SOUND THERAPY ON THE LEVEL OF CORTISOL IN POSTPARTUM PRIMIPARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulinda Laska

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prevalence of postpartum blues for Asia between 26-85%, while the prevalence in Indonesia is 50-70%. Of all women postpartum can experience this is experiencing stress, almost 80% of primiparous moms experience feelings of sadness after childbirth. These stresses can trigger an increase in cortisol. Music raises changes in brain wave status and stress hormones. Nature Sound music is music that has a slow tempo and can cause feelings relaxed and comfortable. Objective: To examine the effect of the nature music therapy on on cortisol levels in postpartum primipara. Methods: This was a true experimental study with pretest-posttest control group design. The study was conducted in the postpartum ward in the General Hospital of Semarang from November 2016 to January 2017. There were 39 postpartum primipara recruited in this study using simple random sampling divided into three groups: 1 the experiment group who received the nature music therapy for 15 minutes, 2 the experiment group who received the nature music therapy for 30 minutes, and 3 the control group. One-way ANOVA test was performed for data analysis. Results: One-way anova test showed p-value 0.010 (<0.05, which indicated that there was a statistically significant effect of the nature sound therapy on the cortisol level in the postpartum primipara. Conclusion: There was a significant effect of the nature music therapy on the cortisol levels in postpartum primipara. Thus, the application of nature music therapy can be an alternative therapy especially for postpartum primipara who experience emotional stress, physical, anxiety, and fatigue.

  2. Sound Symbolism in Basic Vocabulary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Wichmann

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between meanings of words and their sound shapes is to a large extent arbitrary, but it is well known that languages exhibit sound symbolism effects violating arbitrariness. Evidence for sound symbolism is typically anecdotal, however. Here we present a systematic approach. Using a selection of basic vocabulary in nearly one half of the world’s languages we find commonalities among sound shapes for words referring to same concepts. These are interpreted as due to sound symbolism. Studying the effects of sound symbolism cross-linguistically is of key importance for the understanding of language evolution.

  3. A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE FILMSTRIP, SOUND FILMSTRIP, AND FILMOGRAPH FOR TEACHING FACTS AND CONCEPTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FINN, JAMES D.; MCBEATH, RONALD J.

    THIS STUDY COMPARED THE RELATIVE EFFECTIVENESS IN FACTUAL LEARNING OF (1) A CAPTIONED FILMSTRIP, (2) A CAPTIONED FILMSTRIP WITH NARRATION, (3) A SOUND FILMSTRIP, AND (4) A FILMOGRAPH. (THE FILMOGRAPH WAS MADE BY PHOTOGRAPHING STILL PICTURES ON MOTION PICTURE FILM.) THE STUDY TESTED THE HYPOTHESIS THAT THE FILMOGRAPHY COULD TEACH MORE EFFECTIVELY.…

  4. Seed disinfection effect of atmospheric pressure plasma and low pressure plasma on Rhizoctonia solani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishioka, Terumi; Takai, Yuichiro; Kawaradani, Mitsuo; Okada, Kiyotsugu; Tanimoto, Hideo; Misawa, Tatsuya; Kusakari, Shinichi

    2014-01-01

    Gas plasma generated and applied under two different systems, atmospheric pressure plasma and low pressure plasma, was used to investigate the inactivation efficacy on the seedborne pathogenic fungus, Rhizoctonia solani, which had been artificially introduced to brassicaceous seeds. Treatment with atmospheric plasma for 10 min markedly reduced the R. solani survival rate from 100% to 3% but delayed seed germination. The low pressure plasma treatment reduced the fungal survival rate from 83% to 1.7% after 10 min and the inactivation effect was dependent on the treatment time. The seed germination rate after treatment with the low pressure plasma was not significantly different from that of untreated seeds. The air temperature around the seeds in the low pressure system was lower than that of the atmospheric system. These results suggested that gas plasma treatment under low pressure could be effective in disinfecting the seeds without damaging them.

  5. Pressure Effects on the Thermal De-NOx Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Karsten; Glarborg, Peter; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    1996-01-01

    effect of the pressure but also cause a slight decrease in the NO reduction potential. The results are consistent with recent atmospheric pressure experiments of thermal de-NOx covering a wide range of reactant partial pressures. Comparisons of the experimental data with the recent chemical kinetic model......The effect of pressure on the thermal de-NOx process has been investigated in flow reactor experiments. The experiments were performed at pressures from 1 to 10 bar and temperatures ranging from 925 to 1375 K. The inlet O-2 level was varied from 1000 ppm to 10%, while NH3 and NO were maintained...... at 1000 and 500 ppm, respectively At the highest pressure, CO was added to shift the regime for NO reduction to lower temperatures. The results show that the pressure affects the location and the width of the temperature window for NO reduction. As the pressure is increased, both the lower and the higher...

  6. Superior Analgesic Effect of an Active Distraction versus Pleasant Unfamiliar Sounds and Music: The Influence of Emotion and Cognitive Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza Villarreal, Eduardo A.; Brattico, Elvira; Vase, Lene; Østergaard, Leif; Vuust, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Listening to music has been found to reduce acute and chronic pain. The underlying mechanisms are poorly understood; however, emotion and cognitive mechanisms have been suggested to influence the analgesic effect of music. In this study we investigated the influence of familiarity, emotional and cognitive features, and cognitive style on music-induced analgesia. Forty-eight healthy participants were divided into three groups (empathizers, systemizers and balanced) and received acute pain induced by heat while listening to different sounds. Participants listened to unfamiliar Mozart music rated with high valence and low arousal, unfamiliar environmental sounds with similar valence and arousal as the music, an active distraction task (mental arithmetic) and a control, and rated the pain. Data showed that the active distraction led to significantly less pain than did the music or sounds. Both unfamiliar music and sounds reduced pain significantly when compared to the control condition; however, music was no more effective than sound to reduce pain. Furthermore, we found correlations between pain and emotion ratings. Finally, systemizers reported less pain during the mental arithmetic compared with the other two groups. These findings suggest that familiarity may be key in the influence of the cognitive and emotional mechanisms of music-induced analgesia, and that cognitive styles may influence pain perception. PMID:22242169

  7. Superior analgesic effect of an active distraction versus pleasant unfamiliar sounds and music: the influence of emotion and cognitive style.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo A Garza Villarreal

    Full Text Available Listening to music has been found to reduce acute and chronic pain. The underlying mechanisms are poorly understood; however, emotion and cognitive mechanisms have been suggested to influence the analgesic effect of music. In this study we investigated the influence of familiarity, emotional and cognitive features, and cognitive style on music-induced analgesia. Forty-eight healthy participants were divided into three groups (empathizers, systemizers and balanced and received acute pain induced by heat while listening to different sounds. Participants listened to unfamiliar Mozart music rated with high valence and low arousal, unfamiliar environmental sounds with similar valence and arousal as the music, an active distraction task (mental arithmetic and a control, and rated the pain. Data showed that the active distraction led to significantly less pain than did the music or sounds. Both unfamiliar music and sounds reduced pain significantly when compared to the control condition; however, music was no more effective than sound to reduce pain. Furthermore, we found correlations between pain and emotion ratings. Finally, systemizers reported less pain during the mental arithmetic compared with the other two groups. These findings suggest that familiarity may be key in the influence of the cognitive and emotional mechanisms of music-induced analgesia, and that cognitive styles may influence pain perception.

  8. Superior analgesic effect of an active distraction versus pleasant unfamiliar sounds and music: the influence of emotion and cognitive style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Eduardo A Garza; Brattico, Elvira; Vase, Lene; Østergaard, Leif; Vuust, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Listening to music has been found to reduce acute and chronic pain. The underlying mechanisms are poorly understood; however, emotion and cognitive mechanisms have been suggested to influence the analgesic effect of music. In this study we investigated the influence of familiarity, emotional and cognitive features, and cognitive style on music-induced analgesia. Forty-eight healthy participants were divided into three groups (empathizers, systemizers and balanced) and received acute pain induced by heat while listening to different sounds. Participants listened to unfamiliar Mozart music rated with high valence and low arousal, unfamiliar environmental sounds with similar valence and arousal as the music, an active distraction task (mental arithmetic) and a control, and rated the pain. Data showed that the active distraction led to significantly less pain than did the music or sounds. Both unfamiliar music and sounds reduced pain significantly when compared to the control condition; however, music was no more effective than sound to reduce pain. Furthermore, we found correlations between pain and emotion ratings. Finally, systemizers reported less pain during the mental arithmetic compared with the other two groups. These findings suggest that familiarity may be key in the influence of the cognitive and emotional mechanisms of music-induced analgesia, and that cognitive styles may influence pain perception.

  9. Sound Propagation in Saturated Gas-Vapor-Droplet Suspensions Considering the Effect of Transpiration on Droplet Evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandula, Max

    2012-01-01

    The Sound attenuation and dispersion in saturated gas-vapor-droplet mixtures with evaporation has been investigated theoretically. The theory is based on an extension of the work of Davidson (1975) to accommodate the effects of transpiration on the linear particle relaxation processes of mass, momentum and energy transfer. It is shown that the inclusion of transpiration in the presence of mass transfer improves the agreement between the theory and the experimental data of Cole and Dobbins (1971) for sound attenuation in air-water fogs at low droplet mass concentrations. The results suggest that transpiration has an appreciable effect on both sound absorption and dispersion for both low and high droplet mass concentrations.

  10. Pressure effect on grain boundary diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnova, E.S.; Chuvil'deev, V.N.

    1997-01-01

    The influence of hydrostatic pressure on grain boundary diffusion and grain boundary migration in metallic materials is theoretically investigated. The model is suggested that permits describing changes in activation energy of grain boundary self-diffusion and diffusion permeability of grain boundaries under hydrostatic pressure. The model is based on the ideas about island-type structure of grain boundaries as well as linear relationship of variations in grain boundary free volume to hydrostatic pressure value. Comparison of theoretical data with experimental ones for a number of metals and alloys (α-Zr, Sn-Ge, Cu-In with Co, In, Al as diffusing elements) shows a qualitative agreement

  11. Bodily Sensory Inputs and Anomalous Bodily Experiences in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: Evaluation of the Potential Effects of Sound Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Tajadura-Jiménez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Neuroscientific studies have shown that human's mental body representations are not fixed but are constantly updated through sensory feedback, including sound feedback. This suggests potential new therapeutic sensory approaches for patients experiencing body-perception disturbances (BPD. BPD can occur in association with chronic pain, for example in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS. BPD often impacts on emotional, social, and motor functioning. Here we present the results from a proof-of-principle pilot study investigating the potential value of using sound feedback for altering BPD and its related emotional state and motor behavior in those with CRPS. We build on previous findings that real-time alteration of the sounds produced by walking can alter healthy people's perception of their own body size, while also resulting in more active gait patterns and a more positive emotional state. In the present study we quantified the emotional state, BPD, pain levels and gait of twelve people with CRPS Type 1, who were exposed to real-time alteration of their walking sounds. Results confirm previous reports of the complexity of the BPD linked to CRPS, as participants could be classified into four BPD subgroups according to how they mentally visualize their body. Further, results suggest that sound feedback may affect the perceived size of the CRPS affected limb and the pain experienced, but that the effects may differ according to the type of BPD. Sound feedback affected CRPS descriptors and other bodily feelings and emotions including feelings of emotional dominance, limb detachment, position awareness, attention and negative feelings toward the limb. Gait also varied with sound feedback, affecting the foot contact time with the ground in a way consistent with experienced changes in body weight. Although, findings from this small pilot study should be interpreted with caution, they suggest potential applications for regenerating BDP and its related

  12. Bodily Sensory Inputs and Anomalous Bodily Experiences in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: Evaluation of the Potential Effects of Sound Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajadura-Jiménez, Ana; Cohen, Helen; Bianchi-Berthouze, Nadia

    2017-01-01

    Neuroscientific studies have shown that human's mental body representations are not fixed but are constantly updated through sensory feedback, including sound feedback. This suggests potential new therapeutic sensory approaches for patients experiencing body-perception disturbances (BPD). BPD can occur in association with chronic pain, for example in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS). BPD often impacts on emotional, social, and motor functioning. Here we present the results from a proof-of-principle pilot study investigating the potential value of using sound feedback for altering BPD and its related emotional state and motor behavior in those with CRPS. We build on previous findings that real-time alteration of the sounds produced by walking can alter healthy people's perception of their own body size, while also resulting in more active gait patterns and a more positive emotional state. In the present study we quantified the emotional state, BPD, pain levels and gait of twelve people with CRPS Type 1, who were exposed to real-time alteration of their walking sounds. Results confirm previous reports of the complexity of the BPD linked to CRPS, as participants could be classified into four BPD subgroups according to how they mentally visualize their body. Further, results suggest that sound feedback may affect the perceived size of the CRPS affected limb and the pain experienced, but that the effects may differ according to the type of BPD. Sound feedback affected CRPS descriptors and other bodily feelings and emotions including feelings of emotional dominance, limb detachment, position awareness, attention and negative feelings toward the limb. Gait also varied with sound feedback, affecting the foot contact time with the ground in a way consistent with experienced changes in body weight. Although, findings from this small pilot study should be interpreted with caution, they suggest potential applications for regenerating BDP and its related bodily feelings in

  13. Unsound Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knakkergaard, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the change in premise that digitally produced sound brings about and how digital technologies more generally have changed our relationship to the musical artifact, not simply in degree but in kind. It demonstrates how our acoustical conceptions are thoroughly challenged...... by the digital production of sound and, by questioning the ontological basis for digital sound, turns our understanding of the core term substance upside down....

  14. First, second and fourth sound in relativistic superfluidity theory with account for dissipative effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyil'chins'kij, S.Yi.

    1993-01-01

    The equations describing the propagation of the first, second and fourth sound in the relativistic theory of superfluidity are derived with account for dissipation. The expressions for the velocity of the first, second and fourth sound are obtained. (author). 4 refs

  15. Embedded audio without beeps: synthesis and sound effects from cheap to steep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møbius, Nikolaj; Overholt, Dan

    2015-01-01

    , and wireless devices for the control of sound or music generated remotely. For example, studio creations can synthesize sound directly with an Arduino or a more powerful "Create USB Interface" board via Direct Digital Synthesis. Alternatively, they can control a program such as Pure Data (or other common...

  16. Predicating magnetorheological effect of magnetorheological elastomers under normal pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, X; Qi, M; Ma, N; Ou, J

    2013-01-01

    Magnetorheological elastomers (MREs) present reversible change in shear modulus in an applied magnetic field. For applications and tests of MREs, a normal pressure must be applied on the materials. However, little research paid attention on the effect of the normal pressure on properties of MREs. In this study, a theoretical model is established based on the effective permeability rule and the consideration of the normal pressure. The results indicate that the normal pressure have great influence on magnetic field-induced shear modulus. The shear modulus of MREs increases with increasing normal pressure, such dependence is more significant at high magnetic field levels.

  17. Wave effects on a pressure sensor

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joseph, A.; DeSa, E; Desa, E; McKeown, J.; Peshwe, V.B.

    Wave flume experiments indicated that for waves propagating on quiescent waters the sensor's performance improved (i.e. the difference Delta P between the average hydrostatic and measured pressures was small and positive) when the inlet...

  18. Sound source measurement by using a passive sound insulation and a statistical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragonetti, Raffaele; Di Filippo, Sabato; Mercogliano, Francesco; Romano, Rosario A.

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes a measurement technique developed by the authors that allows carrying out acoustic measurements inside noisy environments reducing background noise effects. The proposed method is based on the integration of a traditional passive noise insulation system with a statistical approach. The latter is applied to signals picked up by usual sensors (microphones and accelerometers) equipping the passive sound insulation system. The statistical approach allows improving of the sound insulation given only by the passive sound insulation system at low frequency. The developed measurement technique has been validated by means of numerical simulations and measurements carried out inside a real noisy environment. For the case-studies here reported, an average improvement of about 10 dB has been obtained in a frequency range up to about 250 Hz. Considerations on the lower sound pressure level that can be measured by applying the proposed method and the measurement error related to its application are reported as well.

  19. Sound Absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, H. V.; Möser, M.

    Sound absorption indicates the transformation of sound energy into heat. It is, for instance, employed to design the acoustics in rooms. The noise emitted by machinery and plants shall be reduced before arriving at a workplace; auditoria such as lecture rooms or concert halls require a certain reverberation time. Such design goals are realised by installing absorbing components at the walls with well-defined absorption characteristics, which are adjusted for corresponding demands. Sound absorbers also play an important role in acoustic capsules, ducts and screens to avoid sound immission from noise intensive environments into the neighbourhood.

  20. Constraining the Speed of Sound inside Neutron Stars with Chiral Effective Field Theory Interactions and Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tews, I.; Carlson, J.; Gandolfi, S.; Reddy, S.

    2018-06-01

    The dense matter equation of state (EOS) determines neutron star (NS) structure but can be calculated reliably only up to one to two times the nuclear saturation density, using accurate many-body methods that employ nuclear interactions from chiral effective field theory constrained by scattering data. In this work, we use physically motivated ansatzes for the speed of sound c S at high density to extend microscopic calculations of neutron-rich matter to the highest densities encountered in stable NS cores. We show how existing and expected astrophysical constraints on NS masses and radii from X-ray observations can constrain the speed of sound in the NS core. We confirm earlier expectations that c S is likely to violate the conformal limit of {c}S2≤slant {c}2/3, possibly reaching values closer to the speed of light c at a few times the nuclear saturation density, independent of the nuclear Hamiltonian. If QCD obeys the conformal limit, we conclude that the rapid increase of c S required to accommodate a 2 M ⊙ NS suggests a form of strongly interacting matter where a description in terms of nucleons will be unwieldy, even between one and two times the nuclear saturation density. For typical NSs with masses in the range of 1.2–1.4 M ⊙, we find radii between 10 and 14 km, and the smallest possible radius of a 1.4 M ⊙ NS consistent with constraints from nuclear physics and observations is 8.4 km. We also discuss how future observations could constrain the EOS and guide theoretical developments in nuclear physics.

  1. The effect of increased intra-abdominal pressure on orbital subarachnoid space width and intraocular pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Su-Meng; Wang, Ning-Li; Zuo, Zhen-Tao; Chen, Wei-Wei; Yang, Di-Ya; Li, Zhen; Cao, Yi-Wen

    2018-02-01

    In accordance with the trans-lamina cribrosa pressure difference theory, decreasing the trans-lamina cribrosa pressure difference can relieve glaucomatous optic neuropathy. Increased intracranial pressure can also reduce optic nerve damage in glaucoma patients, and a safe, effective and noninvasive way to achieve this is by increasing the intra-abdominal pressure. The purpose of this study was to observe the changes in orbital subarachnoid space width and intraocular pressure at elevated intra-abdominal pressure. An inflatable abdominal belt was tied to each of 15 healthy volunteers, aged 22-30 years (12 females and 3 males), at the navel level, without applying pressure to the abdomen, before they laid in the magnetic resonance imaging machine. The baseline orbital subarachnoid space width around the optic nerve was measured by magnetic resonance imaging at 1, 3, 9, and 15 mm behind the globe. The abdominal belt was inflated to increase the pressure to 40 mmHg (1 mmHg = 0.133 kPa), then the orbital subarachnoid space width was measured every 10 minutes for 2 hours. After removal of the pressure, the measurement was repeated 10 and 20 minutes later. In a separate trial, the intraocular pressure was measured for all the subjects at the same time points, before, during and after elevated intra-abdominal pressure. Results showed that the baseline mean orbital subarachnoid space width was 0.88 ± 0.1 mm (range: 0.77-1.05 mm), 0.77 ± 0.11 mm (range: 0.60-0.94 mm), 0.70 ± 0.08 mm (range: 0.62-0.80 mm), and 0.68 ± 0.08 mm (range: 0.57-0.77 mm) at 1, 3, 9, and 15 mm behind the globe, respectively. During the elevated intra-abdominal pressure, the orbital subarachnoid space width increased from the baseline and dilation of the optic nerve sheath was significant at 1, 3 and 9 mm behind the globe. After decompression of the abdominal pressure, the orbital subarachnoid space width normalized and returned to the baseline value. There was no significant difference in the

  2. Rainforests as concert halls for birds: Are reverberations improving sound transmission of long song elements?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nemeth, Erwin; Dabelsteen, Torben; Pedersen, Simon Boel

    2006-01-01

    that longer sounds are less attenuated. The results indicate that higher sound pressure level is caused by superimposing reflections. It is suggested that this beneficial effect of reverberations explains interspecific birdsong differences in element length. Transmission paths with stronger reverberations......In forests reverberations have probably detrimental and beneficial effects on avian communication. They constrain signal discrimination by masking fast repetitive sounds and they improve signal detection by elongating sounds. This ambivalence of reflections for animal signals in forests is similar...... to the influence of reverberations on speech or music in indoor sound transmission. Since comparisons of sound fields of forests and concert halls have demonstrated that reflections can contribute in both environments a considerable part to the energy of a received sound, it is here assumed that reverberations...

  3. The effects of endurance and resistance training on blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, R S; Hirth, V A

    1995-10-01

    There now exists substantial clinical data supporting a blood pressure lowering effect of endurance training. Though the effect is modest (5-10 mmHg), epidemiologic studies indicate the possibility of protection against the development of hypertension and also indicate significantly reduced cardiovascular mortality and increased longevity associated with chronic endurance exercise. The data for blood pressure lowering effects of resistive training are much less compelling, and this area requires additional investigation. However, it appears that resistance training is not associated with chronic elevations in blood pressure. Future studies need to focus on: 1) the relative efficacy of low-, moderate- and high-intensity training on lowering blood pressure; 2) the effect of training on ambulatory blood pressure; 3) targeting of at risk and high responding populations; and 4) the importance of insulinemia, SNS tone and central adiposity in the mechanism of any blood pressure lowering effect of training.

  4. Intra- and Intersexual swim bladder dimorphisms in the plainfin midshipman fish (Porichthys notatus): Implications of swim bladder proximity to the inner ear for sound pressure detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Robert A; Whitchurch, Elizabeth A; Anderson, Ryan D; Forlano, Paul M; Fay, Richard R; Ketten, Darlene R; Cox, Timothy C; Sisneros, Joseph A

    2017-11-01

    The plainfin midshipman fish, Porichthys notatus, is a nocturnal marine teleost that uses social acoustic signals for communication during the breeding season. Nesting type I males produce multiharmonic advertisement calls by contracting their swim bladder sonic muscles to attract females for courtship and spawning while subsequently attracting cuckholding type II males. Here, we report intra- and intersexual dimorphisms of the swim bladder in a vocal teleost fish and detail the swim bladder dimorphisms in the three sexual phenotypes (females, type I and II males) of plainfin midshipman fish. Micro-computerized tomography revealed that females and type II males have prominent, horn-like rostral swim bladder extensions that project toward the inner ear end organs (saccule, lagena, and utricle). The rostral swim bladder extensions were longer, and the distance between these swim bladder extensions and each inner-ear end organ type was significantly shorter in both females and type II males compared to that in type I males. Our results revealed that the normalized swim bladder length of females and type II males was longer than that in type I males while there was no difference in normalized swim bladder width among the three sexual phenotypes. We predict that these intrasexual and intersexual differences in swim bladder morphology among midshipman sexual phenotypes will afford greater sound pressure sensitivity and higher frequency detection in females and type II males and facilitate the detection and localization of conspecifics in shallow water environments, like those in which midshipman breed and nest. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Effect of nature-based sounds' intervention on agitation, anxiety, and stress in patients under mechanical ventilator support: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadatmand, Vahid; Rejeh, Nahid; Heravi-Karimooi, Majideh; Tadrisi, Sayed Davood; Zayeri, Farid; Vaismoradi, Mojtaba; Jasper, Melanie

    2013-07-01

    Few studies have been conducted to investigate the effect of nature-based sounds (N-BS) on agitation, anxiety level and physiological signs of stress in patients under mechanical ventilator support. Non-pharmacological nursing interventions such as N-BS can be less expensive and efficient ways to alleviate anxiety and adverse effects of sedative medications in patients under mechanical ventilator support. This study was conducted to identify the effect of the nature-based sounds' intervention on agitation, anxiety level and physiological stress responses in patients under mechanical ventilation support. A randomized placebo-controlled trial design was used to conduct this study. A total of 60 patients aged 18-65 years under mechanical ventilation support in an intensive care unit were randomly assigned to the control and experimental groups. The patients in the intervention group received 90 min of N-BS. Pleasant nature sounds were played to the patients using media players and headphones. Patients' physiological signs were taken immediately before the intervention and at the 30th, 60th, 90th minutes and 30 min after the procedure had finished. The physiological signs of stress assessed were heart rate, respiratory rate, and blood pressure. Data were collected over eight months from Oct 2011 to June 2012. Anxiety levels and agitation were assessed using the Faces Anxiety Scale and Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale, respectively. The experimental group had significantly lower systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, anxiety and agitation levels than the control group. These reductions increased progressively in the 30th, 60th, 90th minutes, and 30 min after the procedure had finished indicating a cumulative dose effect. N-BS can provide an effective method of decreasing potentially harmful physiological responses arising from anxiety in mechanically ventilated patients. Nurses can incorporate N-BS intervention as a non-pharmacologic intervention into the

  6. Integrated sound absorption in thermally activated concrete ceilings - acoustic and thermal effectiveness of sound-absorber strips spaced at intervals; Integrierte Schallabsorption in thermisch aktivierten Betondecken - akustische und thermische Wirksamkeit periodischer Schallabsorberstreifen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drotleff, Horst; Wack, Roman; Leistner, Philip; Holm, Andreas; Ziegler, Matthias; Sedlbauer, Klaus [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Bauphysik IBP, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    From the perspectives of energy as well as indoor climate, thermally activated concrete ceilings make sense. Used in office buildings, however, their drawback becomes apparent: they are acoustically reflective. The conventional approaches use sound-absorbing suspended sails and absorber baffles or heat-conducting sound absorbers embedded in large areas of the concrete. In this paper, an alternative approach is presented and is evaluated acoustically and thermally. A few strips of sound absorber, arranged at intervals, are mounted flush into the concrete ceiling. To calculate the sound-absorption spectrum, an already widely publicised model (the Rayleigh approach) is used. It predicts the sound-absorption spectrum for normal sound incidence very well. For diffuse sound incidence, the difference to reverberation chamber measurements is greater, presumably because of the edge effect. The sound- absorption coefficient of the design can be tuned by skilful choice of the strip geometry, and it is significantly higher than the expected average value for the surface. On the one hand, the thermal efficiency of the components is determined by comparing the heat fluxes in the ceilings with absorber strips to an untreated reference ceiling. On the other hand, the indoor climate is investigated using a room model for office rooms of both solid and lightweight constructions. The influence of the strips (proportion of absorber area 20 %) on the thermal efficiency and indoor climate is low. Two absorber materials are examined in the strip approach: open-cell foam glass and a micro-perforated metallic absorber. While the metallic absorber displays thermal advantages, its sound absorption spectrum - even at high surface-coverage proportions - exhibits a much lower absorption coefficient than, for example, open-cell foam glass strips with only 20 % ceiling coverage. A demonstration in situ shows the potential of the absorber strips spaced at intervals. However, the method chosen in

  7. Comparing the effect of pressure and temperature on ion mobilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabrizchi, Mahmoud; Rouholahnejad, Fereshteh

    2005-01-01

    The effect of pressure on ion mobilities has been investigated and compared with that of temperature. In this connection, an ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) cell, which employs a corona discharge as the ionization source, has been designed and constructed to allow varying pressure inside the drift region. IMS spectra were recorded at various pressures ranging from 15 Torr up to atmospheric pressure. The results show that IMS peaks shift perfectly linear with pressure which is in excellent agreement with the ion mobility theory. However, experimental ion mobilities versus temperature show deviation from the theoretical trend. The deviation is attributed to formation of clusters. The different behaviour of pressure and temperature was explained on the basis of the different impact of pressure and temperature on hydration and clustering of ions. Pressure affects the clustering reactions linearly but temperature affects it exponentially

  8. Measuring the 'complexity' of sound

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cate that specialized regions of the brain analyse different types of sounds [1]. Music, ... The left panel of figure 1 shows examples of sound–pressure waveforms from the nat- ... which is shown in the right panels in the spectrographic representation using a 45 Hz .... Plot of SFM(t) vs. time for different environmental sounds.

  9. Feature-Specific Event-Related Potential Effects to Action- and Sound-Related Verbs during Visual Word Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Margot; Trumpp, Natalie M; Kiefer, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Grounded cognition theories suggest that conceptual representations essentially depend on modality-specific sensory and motor systems. Feature-specific brain activation across different feature types such as action or audition has been intensively investigated in nouns, while feature-specific conceptual category differences in verbs mainly focused on body part specific effects. The present work aimed at assessing whether feature-specific event-related potential (ERP) differences between action and sound concepts, as previously observed in nouns, can also be found within the word class of verbs. In Experiment 1, participants were visually presented with carefully matched sound and action verbs within a lexical decision task, which provides implicit access to word meaning and minimizes strategic access to semantic word features. Experiment 2 tested whether pre-activating the verb concept in a context phase, in which the verb is presented with a related context noun, modulates subsequent feature-specific action vs. sound verb processing within the lexical decision task. In Experiment 1, ERP analyses revealed a differential ERP polarity pattern for action and sound verbs at parietal and central electrodes similar to previous results in nouns. Pre-activation of the meaning of verbs in the preceding context phase in Experiment 2 resulted in a polarity-reversal of feature-specific ERP effects in the lexical decision task compared with Experiment 1. This parallels analogous earlier findings for primed action and sound related nouns. In line with grounded cognitions theories, our ERP study provides evidence for a differential processing of action and sound verbs similar to earlier observation for concrete nouns. Although the localizational value of ERPs must be viewed with caution, our results indicate that the meaning of verbs is linked to different neural circuits depending on conceptual feature relevance.

  10. Sound generator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    2008-01-01

    A sound generator, particularly a loudspeaker, configured to emit sound, comprising a rigid element (2) enclosing a plurality of air compartments (3), wherein the rigid element (2) has a back side (B) comprising apertures (4), and a front side (F) that is closed, wherein the generator is provided

  11. Sound generator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    2010-01-01

    A sound generator, particularly a loudspeaker, configured to emit sound, comprising a rigid element (2) enclosing a plurality of air compartments (3), wherein the rigid element (2) has a back side (B) comprising apertures (4), and a front side (F) that is closed, wherein the generator is provided

  12. Sound generator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    2007-01-01

    A sound generator, particularly a loudspeaker, configured to emit sound, comprising a rigid element (2) enclosing a plurality of air compartments (3), wherein the rigid element (2) has a back side (B) comprising apertures (4), and a front side (F) that is closed, wherein the generator is provided

  13. The Effects of Musician's Earplugs on Acoustic and Perceptual Measures of Choral and Solo Sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook-Cunningham, Sheri L

    2017-10-25

    The purpose of this investigation was to assess the effects of earplugs on acoustical and perceptual measures of choral and solo sound. The researcher tested the effects of musician's earplugs on choral and solo timbre and singer perceptions. Members of an intact women's university choir recorded Dona Nobis Pacem under two conditions, no earplugs and with earplugs over time. Approximately half of the choir members also participated as soloists, recording Over the Rainbow under the same two conditions. All recordings were analyzed using long-term average spectra (LTAS). After participating in each recording session, the participants responded to a questionnaire about ability to hear self (solo and choral context) and ability to hear others (choral context) under two conditions, no earplugs and with earplugs. LTAS results revealed that wearing earplugs in a choral setting caused decreased mean signal energy (>1 dB), resulting in less resonant singing. LTAS results also indicated that wearing earplugs in a solo setting had less effect on mean signal energy, resulting in a mean difference solo setting. Findings from this study could provide important information when structuring hearing conservation strategies. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of sound amplification in self-perception of tinnitus and hearing loss in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago de Melo Araujo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of the use of hearing aids in self-perception of tinnitus and hearing loss in the elderly. METHODS: A total of 24 elderly patients between 60 and 70 years of age with moderate-grade sensorineural hearing loss were evaluated and divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of tinnitus. All volunteers were fitted with binaural micro-channel hearing aids of the same brand and model and submitted to tests, scales, and questionnaires relevant to this topic. The evaluations were performed before and after one and three months of effective use of these hearing aids. RESULTS: Acoustic stimulation through the effective use of hearing aids caused a reduction in the perception of tinnitus sound intensity (especially in evaluations with the prosthesis on and in nuisance associated with this symptom and with hearing loss. In addition, all participants were satisfied with the use of hearing aids. CONCLUSION: The continuous use of hearing aids is beneficial for the treatment of tinnitus and hearing loss, bringing satisfaction to users.

  15. A multipole-expanded effective field theory for vortex ring-sound interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Saenz, Sebastian; Mitsou, Ermis; Nicolis, Alberto

    2018-02-01

    The low-energy dynamics of a zero temperature superfluid or of the compressional modes of an ordinary fluid can be described by a simple effective theory for a scalar field — the superfluid `phase'. However, when vortex lines are present, to describe all interactions in a local fashion one has to switch to a magnetic-type dual two-form description, which comes with six degrees of freedom (in place of one) and an associated gauge redundancy, and is thus considerably more complicated. Here we show that, in the case of vortex rings and for bulk modes that are much longer than the typical ring size, one can perform a systematic multipole expansion of the effective action and recast it into the simpler scalar field language. In a sense, in the presence of vortex rings the non-single valuedness of the scalar can be hidden inside the rings, and thus out of the reach of the multipole expansion. As an application of our techniques, we compute by standard effective field theory methods the sound emitted by an oscillating vortex ring.

  16. Study on The Effectiveness of Egg Tray and Coir Fibre as A Sound Absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaamin, Masiri; Farah Atiqah Ahmad, Nor; Ngadiman, Norhayati; Kadir, Aslila Abdul; Razali, Siti Nooraiin Mohd; Mokhtar, Mardiha; Sahat, Suhaila

    2018-03-01

    Sound or noise pollution has become one major issues to the community especially those who lived in the urban areas. It does affect the activity of human life. This excessive noise is mainly caused by machines, traffic, motor vehicles and also any unwanted sounds that coming from outside and even from the inside of the building. Such as a loud music. Therefore, the installation of sound absorption panel is one way to reduce the noise pollution inside a building. The selected material must be a porous and hollow in order to absorb high frequency sound. This study was conducted to evaluate the potential of egg tray and coir fibre as a sound absorption panel. The coir fibre has a good coefficient value which make it suitable as a sound absorption material and can replace the traditional material; syntactic and wooden material. The combination of pyramid shape of egg tray can provide a large surface for uniform sound reflection. This study was conducted by using a panel with size 1 m x 1 m with a thickness of 6 mm. This panel consist of egg tray layer, coir fibre layer and a fabric as a wrapping for the aesthetic value. Room reverberation test has been carried to find the loss of reverberation time (RT). Result shows that, a reverberation time reading is on low frequency, which is 125 Hz to 1600 Hz. Within these frequencies, this panel can shorten the reverberation time of 5.63s to 3.60s. Hence, from this study, it can be concluded that the selected materials have the potential as a good sound absorption panel. The comparison is made with the previous research that used egg tray and kapok as a sound absorption panel.

  17. Study on The Effectiveness of Egg Tray and Coir Fibre as A Sound Absorber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaamin Masiri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sound or noise pollution has become one major issues to the community especially those who lived in the urban areas. It does affect the activity of human life. This excessive noise is mainly caused by machines, traffic, motor vehicles and also any unwanted sounds that coming from outside and even from the inside of the building. Such as a loud music. Therefore, the installation of sound absorption panel is one way to reduce the noise pollution inside a building. The selected material must be a porous and hollow in order to absorb high frequency sound. This study was conducted to evaluate the potential of egg tray and coir fibre as a sound absorption panel. The coir fibre has a good coefficient value which make it suitable as a sound absorption material and can replace the traditional material; syntactic and wooden material. The combination of pyramid shape of egg tray can provide a large surface for uniform sound reflection. This study was conducted by using a panel with size 1 m x 1 m with a thickness of 6 mm. This panel consist of egg tray layer, coir fibre layer and a fabric as a wrapping for the aesthetic value. Room reverberation test has been carried to find the loss of reverberation time (RT. Result shows that, a reverberation time reading is on low frequency, which is 125 Hz to 1600 Hz. Within these frequencies, this panel can shorten the reverberation time of 5.63s to 3.60s. Hence, from this study, it can be concluded that the selected materials have the potential as a good sound absorption panel. The comparison is made with the previous research that used egg tray and kapok as a sound absorption panel.

  18. Acquired Apraxia of Speech: The Effects of Repeated Practice and Rate/Rhythm Control Treatments on Sound Production Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wambaugh, Julie L.; Nessler, Christina; Cameron, Rosalea; Mauszycki, Shannon C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This investigation was designed to elucidate the effects of repeated practice treatment on sound production accuracy in individuals with apraxia of speech (AOS) and aphasia. A secondary purpose was to determine if the addition of rate/rhythm control to treatment provided further benefits beyond those achieved with repeated practice.…

  19. 78 FR 78822 - Draft Guidance for Assessing the Effects of Anthropogenic Sound on Marine Mammals-Acoustic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... Guidance for Assessing the Effects of Anthropogenic Sound on Marine Mammals--Acoustic Threshold Levels for... available in electronic form via the Internet at http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/pr/acoustics/ . You may submit...: Acoustic Guidance. Instructions: All comments received are a part of the public record and will generally...

  20. Pow, Punch, Pika, and Chu : The Structure of Sound Effects in Genres of American Comics and Japanese Manga

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pratha, Nimish K.; Avunjian, Natalie; Cohn, Neil

    2016-01-01

    As multimodal works, comics are characterized as much by their use of language as by the style of their images. Sound effects in particular are exemplary of comics’ language-use, and we explored this facet of comics by analyzing a corpus of books from genres in the United States (mainstream and

  1. Method transfer from high-pressure liquid chromatography to ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography. II. Temperature and pressure effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åsberg, Dennis; Samuelsson, Jörgen; Leśko, Marek; Cavazzini, Alberto; Kaczmarski, Krzysztof; Fornstedt, Torgny

    2015-07-03

    The importance of the generated temperature and pressure gradients in ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) are investigated and compared to high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The drug Omeprazole, together with three other model compounds (with different chemical characteristics, namely uncharged, positively and negatively charged) were used. Calculations of the complete temperature profile in the column at UHPLC conditions showed, in our experiments, a temperature difference between the inlet and outlet of 16 °C and a difference of 2 °C between the column center and the wall. Through van't Hoff plots, this information was used to single out the decrease in retention factor (k) solely due to the temperature gradient. The uncharged solute was least affected by temperature with a decrease in k of about 5% while for charged solutes the effect was more pronounced, with k decreases up to 14%. A pressure increase of 500 bar gave roughly 5% increase in k for the uncharged solute, while omeprazole and the other two charged solutes gave about 25, 20 and 15% increases in k, respectively. The stochastic model of chromatography was applied to estimate the dependence of the average number of adsorption/desorption events (n) and the average time spent by a molecule in the stationary phase (τs) on temperature and pressure on peak shape for the tailing, basic solute. Increasing the temperature yielded an increase in n and decrease in τs which resulted in less skew at high temperatures. With increasing pressure, the stochastic modeling gave interesting results for the basic solute showing that the skew of the peak increased with pressure. The conclusion is that pressure effects are more pronounced for both retention and peak shape than the temperature effects for the polar or charged compounds in our study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Sound propagation in narrow tubes including effects of viscothermal and turbulent damping with application to charge air coolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutsson, Magnus; Åbom, Mats

    2009-02-01

    Charge air coolers (CACs) are used on turbocharged internal combustion engines to enhance the overall gas-exchange performance. The cooling of the charged air results in higher density and thus volumetric efficiency. It is also important for petrol engines that the knock margin increases with reduced charge air temperature. A property that is still not very well investigated is the sound transmission through a CAC. The losses, due to viscous and thermal boundary layers as well as turbulence, in the narrow cooling tubes result in frequency dependent attenuation of the transmitted sound that is significant and dependent on the flow conditions. Normally, the cross-sections of the cooling tubes are neither circular nor rectangular, which is why no analytical solution accounting for a superimposed mean flow exists. The cross-dimensions of the connecting tanks, located on each side of the cooling tubes, are large compared to the diameters of the inlet and outlet ducts. Three-dimensional effects will therefore be important at frequencies significantly lower than the cut-on frequencies of the inlet/outlet ducts. In this study the two-dimensional finite element solution scheme for sound propagation in narrow tubes, including the effect of viscous and thermal boundary layers, originally derived by Astley and Cummings [Wave propagation in catalytic converters: Formulation of the problem and finite element scheme, Journal of Sound and Vibration 188 (5) (1995) 635-657] is used to extract two-ports to represent the cooling tubes. The approximate solutions for sound propagation, accounting for viscothermal and turbulent boundary layers derived by Dokumaci [Sound transmission in narrow pipes with superimposed uniform mean flow and acoustic modelling of automobile catalytic converters, Journal of Sound and Vibration 182 (5) (1995) 799-808] and Howe [The damping of sound by wall turbulent shear layers, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 98 (3) (1995) 1723-1730], are

  3. Effect of fenofibrate on blood pressure reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A K Lipatenkova

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Реферат по материалам статей 1. Gilbert K, Nian H, Yu C, Luther JM, Brown NJ. Fenofibrate lowers blood pressure in salt-sensitive but not salt-resistant hypertension. J Hypertens. 2013 Apr;31(4:820-9. doi: 10.1097/HJH.0b013e32835e8227. 2. Kwang K. K. Does Fenofibrate Lower Blood Pressure? Hypertension. 2013 Mar;61(3:e27. doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.111.00792.

  4. Common sole larvae survive high levels of pile-driving sound in controlled exposure experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loes J Bolle

    Full Text Available In view of the rapid extension of offshore wind farms, there is an urgent need to improve our knowledge on possible adverse effects of underwater sound generated by pile-driving. Mortality and injuries have been observed in fish exposed to loud impulse sounds, but knowledge on the sound levels at which (sub-lethal effects occur is limited for juvenile and adult fish, and virtually non-existent for fish eggs and larvae. A device was developed in which fish larvae can be exposed to underwater sound. It consists of a rigid-walled cylindrical chamber driven by an electro-dynamical sound projector. Samples of up to 100 larvae can be exposed simultaneously to a homogeneously distributed sound pressure and particle velocity field. Recorded pile-driving sounds could be reproduced accurately in the frequency range between 50 and 1000 Hz, at zero to peak pressure levels up to 210 dB re 1µPa(2 (zero to peak pressures up to 32 kPa and single pulse sound exposure levels up to 186 dB re 1µPa(2s. The device was used to examine lethal effects of sound exposure in common sole (Solea solea larvae. Different developmental stages were exposed to various levels and durations of pile-driving sound. The highest cumulative sound exposure level applied was 206 dB re 1µPa(2s, which corresponds to 100 strikes at a distance of 100 m from a typical North Sea pile-driving site. The results showed no statistically significant differences in mortality between exposure and control groups at sound exposure levels which were well above the US interim criteria for non-auditory tissue damage in fish. Although our findings cannot be extrapolated to fish larvae in general, as interspecific differences in vulnerability to sound exposure may occur, they do indicate that previous assumptions and criteria may need to be revised.

  5. Effects of occupational noise exposure on changes in blood pressure of workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Ali Yousefi Rizi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available    BACKGROUND: In most industries, workers are exposed to loud noise. Noise is considered as a nonspecific biological stressor that have adverse effects on human physiology. It is associated with hypertension which is in turn one of the most important preventable risk factors of cardiovascular disorders. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of noise on changes of workers' blood pressure.    METHODS: This cross-sectional study was performed on 90 individuals who were exposed to noise at one of the industries in Isfahan, Iran. Noise levels (in dBA were measured by means of a sound level meter. Data was collected using a demographic questionnaire and physical examination. Blood pressure was measured by a sphygmomanometer at workplace. The collected data was analyzed by t-tests.    RESULTS: The workers aged 31.5 ± 5.2 years and were exposed to mean noise level of 97.5 ± 10.1 dBA which was significantly above the standard level (85 dBA.The relationships between blood pressure, heart rate, and noise level were not significant. However, Pearson’s correlation indicated systolic blood pressure to have significant correlations with age (correlation coefficient = 0.302 and work experience (correlation coefficient = 0.299.    CONCLUSION: Workers exposed to noise levels above the standard, especially in the metal industry but their blood pressures haven’t any associated with noise. it mention that any changes in blood pressure resulting from occupational noise are likely to be small, careful controls, large sample sizes, and long time exposure to noise would be take to identify significant effects.       Keywords: Noise Exposure, Blood Pressure, Young Workers, Cardiovascular Disease, Metal Industries

  6. Bibliography on vapor pressure isotope effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jancso, G.

    1980-04-01

    The first Bibliography on Vapour Pressure Isotope and covered the literature of the period from 1919 through December 1975. The present Supplement reviews the literature from January 1976 through December 1979. The bibliography is arranged in chronological order; within each year the references are listed alphabetically according to the name of the first author of each work. (author)

  7. Students' Pressure, Time Management and Effective Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hechuan; Yang, Xiaolin

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to survey the status quo of the student pressure and the relationship between their daily time management and their learning outcomes in three different types of higher secondary schools at Shenyang, the capital city of Liaoning Province in mainland China. Design/methodology/approach: An investigation was carried out in 14…

  8. High Pressure and Temperature Effects in Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucknall, David; Arrighi, Valeria; Johnston, Kim; Condie, Iain

    Elastomers are widely exploited as the basis for seals in gas and fluid pipelines. The underlying behaviour of these elastomer at the high pressure, elevated temperatures they experience in operation is poorly understood. Consequently, the duty cycle of these materials is often deliberately limited to a few hours, and in order to prevent failure, production is stopped in order to change the seals in critical joints. The result is significant time lost due to bringing down production to change the seals as well as knock on financial costs. In order to address the fundamental nature of the elastomers at their intended operating conditions, we are studying the gas permeation behaviour of hydrogenated natural butyl rubber (HNBR) and fluorinated elastomers (FKM) at a high pressure and elevated temperature. We have developed a pressure system that permits gas permeation studies at gas pressures of up to 5000 psi and operating temperatures up to 150° C. In this paper, we will discuss the nature of the permeation behaviour at these extreme operating conditions, and how this relates to the changes in the polymer structure. We will also discuss the use of graphene-polymer thin layer coatings to modify the gas permeation behaviour of the elastomers.

  9. The effect of age on involuntary capture of attention by irrelevant sounds: a test of the frontal hypothesis of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés, Pilar; Parmentier, Fabrice B R; Escera, Carles

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of aging on the involuntary capture of attention by irrelevant sounds (distraction) and the use of these sounds as warning cues (alertness) in an oddball paradigm. We compared the performance of older and younger participants on a well-characterized auditory-visual distraction task. Based on the dissociations observed in aging between attentional processes sustained by the anterior and posterior attentional networks, our prediction was that distraction by irrelevant novel sounds would be stronger in older adults than in young adults while both groups would be equally able to use sound as an alert to prepare for upcoming stimuli. The results confirmed both predictions: there was a larger distraction effect in the older participants, but the alert effect was equivalent in both groups. These results give support to the frontal hypothesis of aging [Raz, N. (2000). Aging of the brain and its impact on cognitive performance: integration of structural and functional finding. In F.I.M. Craik & T.A. Salthouse (Eds.) Handbook of aging and cognition (pp. 1-90). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum; West, R. (1996). An application of prefrontal cortex function theory to cognitive aging. Psychological Bulletin, 120, 272-292].

  10. Blood pressure lowering effect of Tylophora hirsuta wall | Ahmad ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crude hydromethanolic extract of Tylophora hirsuta (Th.Cr) was studied in spontaneous hypertensive Wistar rats for possible effects on high blood pressure and heart rate. In the absence of atropine, fall in arterial blood pressure was 64±7 mmHg at the dose of 100 mg/kg while in the presence of atropine, there was no effect ...

  11. Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa on Blood Pressure and Electrolyte ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa on Blood Pressure and Electrolyte Profile of Mild to Moderate Hypertensive Nigerians: A Comparative Study with Hydrochlorothiazide. ... Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of HS consumption on blood pressure (BP) and electrolytes of mild to moderate hypertensive Nigerians ...

  12. Effects of aging on blood pressure variability in resting conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerman, D. P.; Imholz, B. P.; Wieling, W.; Karemaker, J. M.; van Montfrans, G. A.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of aging on beat-to-beat blood pressure and pulse interval variability in resting conditions and to determine the effect of aging on the sympathetic and vagal influence on the cardiovascular system by power spectral analysis of blood pressure

  13. Nonlinear effects during sound propagation in n-InSb at 4.20K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilisavskij, Yu.V.; Chiplis, D.

    1975-01-01

    The absorption of transverse sound and the influence of longitudinal electric and magnetic fields thereon were studied in n-InSb at 4.2 0 K over a wide range of frequencies and intensities. The electron absorption of sound was found to depend strongly on input intensity due to the heating of electrons by the sound wave. It was discovered that the observed non-linearity was suppressed by the electric field. On the basis of comparison of the experimental results with the existing theories it is concluded that during the heating of electrons by sound, apart from changes in mobility, the carrier concentration in the conductivity band is also substantially changed. The measurements in the magnetic field agree qualitatively with the two-band conductivity model. (author)

  14. Acute effects of consumption of energy drinks on intraocular pressure and blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilechie AA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A Alex Ilechie, Sandra TettehDepartment of Optometry, University of Cape Coast, GhanaBackground: Energy drinks contain a wide variety of ingredients including caffeine, for which there have been conflicting reports regarding its effects on intraocular pressure (IOP and blood pressure. The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effects of an energy drink (Red Bull® on the IOP and blood pressure of healthy young adults.Methods: Thirty healthy university students of either gender, aged 18–30 (mean 23.20 ± 2.81 years were randomly selected to participate in this study. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups (experimental and control and were asked to abstain from caffeine for 48 hours prior to and during the study. Baseline IOP and blood pressure were measured. The experimental group (n = 15 consumed one can of the energy drink (containing 85 mg of caffeine in 250 mL and measurements were repeated at 30, 60, and 90 minutes, while the control group drank 250 mL of water and were tested over the same time period.Results: When compared with baseline, a significant decrease (P < 0.05 in mean IOP at 60 and 90 minutes was observed in the experimental group. There was no corresponding change in systolic or diastolic blood pressure.Conclusion: Our results suggest that energy drinks (ie, Red Bull produce a significant reduction in IOP but have no effect on blood pressure. These findings may be interpreted as reflecting the effect of the combination of caffeine and taurine in the Red Bull energy drink. This effect may result from the known hypotensive effect of taurine, and warrants further study.Keywords: acute effect, intraocular pressure, blood pressure, glaucoma, caffeine, taurine

  15. Effects of task-switching on neural representations of ambiguous sound input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Elyse S; Bregman, Albert S; Lee, Wei-Wei

    2014-11-01

    The ability to perceive discrete sound streams in the presence of competing sound sources relies on multiple mechanisms that organize the mixture of the auditory input entering the ears. Many studies have focused on mechanisms that contribute to integrating sounds that belong together into one perceptual stream (integration) and segregating those that come from different sound sources (segregation). However, little is known about mechanisms that allow us to perceive individual sound sources within a dynamically changing auditory scene, when the input may be ambiguous, and heard as either integrated or segregated. This study tested the question of whether focusing on one of two possible sound organizations suppressed representation of the alternative organization. We presented listeners with ambiguous input and cued them to switch between tasks that used either the integrated or the segregated percept. Electrophysiological measures indicated which organization was currently maintained in memory. If mutual exclusivity at the neural level was the rule, attention to one of two possible organizations would preclude neural representation of the other. However, significant MMNs were elicited to both the target organization and the unattended, alternative organization, along with the target-related P3b component elicited only to the designated target organization. Results thus indicate that both organizations (integrated and segregated) were simultaneously maintained in memory regardless of which task was performed. Focusing attention to one aspect of the sounds did not abolish the alternative, unattended organization when the stimulus input was ambiguous. In noisy environments, such as walking on a city street, rapid and flexible adaptive processes are needed to help facilitate rapid switching to different sound sources in the environment. Having multiple representations available to the attentive system would allow for such flexibility, needed in everyday situations to

  16. Pressure effects on high temperature steam oxidation of Zircaloy-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kwangheon; Kim, Kwangpyo; Ryu, Taegeun

    2000-01-01

    The pressure effects on Zircaloy-4 (Zry-4) cladding in high temperature steam have been analyzed. A double layer autoclave was made for the high pressure, high temperature oxidation tests. The experimental test temperature range was 700 - 900 deg C, and pressures were 0.1 - 15 MPa. Steam partial pressure turns out to be an important one rather than total pressure. Steam pressure enhances the oxidation rate of Zry-4 exponentially. The enhancement depends on the temperature, and the maximum exists between 750 - 800 deg C. Pre-existing oxide layer decreases the enhancement about 40 - 60%. The acceleration of oxidation rate by high pressure team seems to be originated from the formation of cracks by abrupt transformation of tetragonal phase in oxide, where the un-stability of tetragonal phase comes from the reduction of surface energy by steam. (author)

  17. Effect of temperature on density, sound velocity, and their derived properties for the binary systems glycerol with water or alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negadi, Latifa; Feddal-Benabed, Badra; Bahadur, Indra; Saab, Joseph; Zaoui-Djelloul-Daouadji, Manel; Ramjugernath, Deresh; Negadi, Amina

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Densities (ρ) and sound velocities (u) for glycerol, +water, +methanol, or +ethanol systems were measured. • The derived properties (excess molar volume, isentropic compressibility and deviation in isentropic compressibility) were calculated. • The Redlich–Kister polynomial was used to fit the experimental results. - Abstract: Densities and sound velocities of three binary systems containing glycerol + (water, methanol, or ethanol) have been measured over the entire composition range at temperatures ranging from (283.15 to 313.15) K in 10 K intervals, at atmospheric pressure. A vibrating u-tube densimeter and sound velocity analyzer (Anton Paar DSA 5000M) was used for the measurements. Thermodynamic properties were derived from the measured data, viz. excess molar volume, isentropic compressibility, and deviation in isentropic compressibility. The property data were correlated with the Redlich-Kister polynomial. In all cases, the excess molar volumes and deviation in isentropic compressibility are negative over the entire composition range for all binary mixtures studied and become increasingly negative with an increase in the temperature. These properties provide important information about different interactions that take place between like-like, like-unlike and unlike-unlike molecules in the mixtures.

  18. Reducing the sound emission of TR 07 and effects on the German regulation ``Schall-Transrapid``

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, K P [Industrieanlagen-Betriebsgesellschaft mbH, Magnetbahn-Versuchsanlage, Lathen/Ems (Germany); Wolters, C [Industrieanlagen-Betriebsgesellschaft mbH, Magnetbahn-Versuchsanlage, Lathen/Ems (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    To introduce a new maglev train systems in modern Germany it is important to know its sound emission. Conventional sound measurements were done on the maglev train TRANSRAPID 07 (TR07) to get all the values that are important for planning a new line. Furthermore a microphone array equipment was used to detect the dominant sound sources and their positions on the surface of the train. In a second step the shape was optimazed based on the acoustical investigations. The changes were made especially in the lower part of the bow. This configuration was measured again; the reduction of the noise emission was 3 dB(A) for the changed vehicle. As an example for the low sound emissions the planned schedule for the in service trains of the link between Hamburg and Berlin is reflected on the german regulations for the sound immissions. The result is that there is nearly no need of sound barriers. To use a speed of 200 km/h within the cities a distance of 16 m from the centreline to an immission point is needed. Outside the cities speeds of 400 km/h are possible for a distance of more than 53 m during the nighttime and of more than 23 m during the daytime. (orig.)

  19. The effect of looming and receding sounds on the perceived in-depth orientation of depth-ambiguous biological motion figures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Schouten

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The focus in the research on biological motion perception traditionally has been restricted to the visual modality. Recent neurophysiological and behavioural evidence, however, supports the idea that actions are not represented merely visually but rather audiovisually. The goal of the present study was to test whether the perceived in-depth orientation of depth-ambiguous point-light walkers (plws is affected by the presentation of looming or receding sounds synchronized with the footsteps. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In Experiment 1 orthographic frontal/back projections of plws were presented either without sound or with sounds of which the intensity level was rising (looming, falling (receding or stationary. Despite instructions to ignore the sounds and to only report the visually perceived in-depth orientation, plws accompanied with looming sounds were more often judged to be facing the viewer whereas plws paired with receding sounds were more often judged to be facing away from the viewer. To test whether the effects observed in Experiment 1 act at a perceptual level rather than at the decisional level, in Experiment 2 observers perceptually compared orthographic plws without sound or paired with either looming or receding sounds to plws without sound but with perspective cues making them objectively either facing towards or facing away from the viewer. Judging whether either an orthographic plw or a plw with looming (receding perspective cues is visually most looming becomes harder (easier when the orthographic plw is paired with looming sounds. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present results suggest that looming and receding sounds alter the judgements of the in-depth orientation of depth-ambiguous point-light walkers. While looming sounds are demonstrated to act at a perceptual level and make plws look more looming, it remains a challenge for future research to clarify at what level in the processing hierarchy receding sounds

  20. Cost-effectiveness of pressure-relieving devices for the prevention and treatment of pressure ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleurence, Rachael L

    2005-01-01

    The cost-effectiveness of alternating pressure-relieving devices, mattress replacements, and mattress overlays compared with a standard hospital (high-specification foam mattress) for the prevention and treatment of pressure ulcers in hospital patients in the United Kingdom was investigated. A decision-analytic model was constructed to evaluate different strategies to prevent or treat pressure ulcers. Three scenarios were evaluated: the prevention of pressure ulcers, the treatment of superficial ulcers, and the treatment of severe ulcers. Epidemiological and effectiveness data were obtained from the clinical literature. Expert opinion using a rating scale technique was used to obtain quality of life data. Costs of the devices were obtained from manufacturers, whereas costs of treatment were obtained from the literature. Uncertainty was explored through probabilistic sensitivity analysis. Using 30,000 pounds sterling/QALY (quality-adjusted life year) as the decision-maker's cut off point (the current UK standard), in scenario 1 (prevention), the cost-effective strategy was the mattress overlay at 1, 4, and 12 weeks. In scenarios 2 and 3, the cost-effective strategy was the mattress replacement at 1, 4, and 12 weeks. Standard care was a dominated intervention in all scenarios for values of the decision-maker's ceiling ratio ranging from 5,000 pounds sterling to 100,000 pounds sterling/QALY. However, the probabilistic sensitivity analysis results reflected the high uncertainty surrounding the choice of devices. Current information suggests that alternating pressure mattress overlays may be cost-effective for the prevention of pressure ulcers, whereas alternating pressure mattress replacements appears to be cost-effective for the treatment of superficial and severe pressure ulcers.

  1. Sound Zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Martin Bo; Olsen, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Sound zones, i.e. spatially confined regions of individual audio content, can be created by appropriate filtering of the desired audio signals reproduced by an array of loudspeakers. The challenge of designing filters for sound zones is twofold: First, the filtered responses should generate...... an acoustic separation between the control regions. Secondly, the pre- and post-ringing as well as spectral deterioration introduced by the filters should be minimized. The tradeoff between acoustic separation and filter ringing is the focus of this paper. A weighted L2-norm penalty is introduced in the sound...

  2. Eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) in Prince William Sound, Alaska: effects of the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, T.A.; Smith, R.O.; Stekoll, M.S.; Jewett, S.C.; Hose, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    Possible injury to, and recovery of, populations of eelgrass Zostera marine L., in Prince William Sound were assessed following the Exxon Valdez oil spill by comparing populations at oiled vs reference sites between 1990 and 1995. Eelgrass beds in heavily oiled bays were exposed to moderate concentrations of hydrocarbons. In 1990, a year after the spill, concentrations of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons average nearly 4000 ng g -1 dry weight of sediment at oiled sites compared to less than 700 ng g -1 at reference sites. Injuries to eelgrass, if any, appeared to be slight and did not persist for more than a year after the spill. There were possible effects on the average density of shoots and flowering shoots, as these were 24 and 62% lower at oiled than at reference sites in 1990 (p < 0.10 for both). However, there were no differences between oiled and reference sites with respect to eelgrass biomass, seed density, seed germination or the incidence of normal mitosis in seedlings, and there were no signs of the elimination of eelgrass beds. (author)

  3. Influence of sound source location on the behavior and physiology of the precedence effect in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dent, Micheal L; Tollin, Daniel J; Yin, Tom C T

    2009-08-01

    Psychophysical experiments on the precedence effect (PE) in cats have shown that they localize pairs of auditory stimuli presented from different locations in space based on the spatial position of the stimuli and the interstimulus delay (ISD) between the stimuli in a manner similar to humans. Cats exhibit localization dominance for pairs of transient stimuli with |ISDs| from approximately 0.4 to 10 ms, summing localization for |ISDs| 10 ms, which is the approximate echo threshold. The neural correlates to the PE have been described in both anesthetized and unanesthetized animals at many levels from auditory nerve to cortex. Single-unit recordings from the inferior colliculus (IC) and auditory cortex of cats demonstrate that neurons respond to both lead and lag sounds at ISDs above behavioral echo thresholds, but the response to the lag is reduced at shorter ISDs, consistent with localization dominance. Here the influence of the relative locations of the leading and lagging sources on the PE was measured behaviorally in a psychophysical task and physiologically in the IC of awake behaving cats. At all configurations of lead-lag stimulus locations, the cats behaviorally exhibited summing localization, localization dominance, and breakdown of fusion. Recordings from the IC of awake behaving cats show neural responses paralleling behavioral measurements. Both behavioral and physiological results suggest systematically shorter echo thresholds when stimuli are further apart in space.

  4. Effect of four dental varnishes on the colonization of cariogenic bacteria on exposed sound root surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekenbäck, S B; Linder, L E; Lönnies, H

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of four different dental varnishes on the colonization of mutans streptococci, total streptococci and lactobacilli on exposed sound root surfaces. Sixty-five individuals were randomly allotted to one of four groups for treatment with Cervitec((R) ) varnish containing 1% chlorhexidine and 1% thymol, a thymol varnish or one of two different fluoride varnishes, Fluor Protector and Duraphat. The varnish was applied to three buccal root surfaces in each patient at baseline and after 1 week. Dental plaque from the root surfaces was collected and analysed on four different occasions: at baseline, after 1 week, 1 month and 6 months. The Cervitec varnish caused a statistically significant reduction in the number of mutans streptococci over time. The reduction was significant at 1 week and 1 month relative to baseline. The numbers of total streptococci and lactobacilli were not significantly affected by treatment with Cervitec. No statistically significant difference over time was found for mutans streptococci, lactobacilli or total streptococci after treatment with the fluoride varnishes or the thymol varnish.

  5. Discordant effect of body mass index on bone mineral density and speed of sound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagag Philippe

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased BMI may affect the determination of bone mineral density (BMD by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA and speed of sound (SOS measured across bones. Preliminary data suggest that axial SOS is less affected by soft tissue. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of body mass index (BMI on BMD and SOS measured along bones. Methods We compared axial BMD determined by DXA with SOS along the phalanx, radius and tibia in 22 overweight (BMI > 27 kg/m2, and 11 lean (BMI = 21 kg/m2 postmenopausal women. Serum bone specific alkaline phosphatase and urinary deoxypyridinoline excretion determined bone turnover. Results Mean femoral neck – but not lumbar spine BMD was higher in the overweight – as compared with the lean group (0.70 ± 0.82, -0.99 ± 0.52, P P Conclusions The high BMI of postmenopausal women may result in spuriously high BMD. SOS measured along bones may be a more appropriate means for evaluating bones of overweight women.

  6. Quantifying the effectiveness of shoreline armoring removal on coastal biota of Puget Sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Timothy S; Toft, Jason D; Cordell, Jeffery R; Dethier, Megan N; Adams, Jeffrey W; Kelly, Ryan P

    2018-01-01

    Shoreline armoring is prevalent around the world with unprecedented human population growth and urbanization along coastal habitats. Armoring structures, such as riprap and bulkheads, that are built to prevent beach erosion and protect coastal infrastructure from storms and flooding can cause deterioration of habitats for migratory fish species, disrupt aquatic-terrestrial connectivity, and reduce overall coastal ecosystem health. Relative to armored shorelines, natural shorelines retain valuable habitats for macroinvertebrates and other coastal biota. One question is whether the impacts of armoring are reversible, allowing restoration via armoring removal and related actions of sediment nourishment and replanting of native riparian vegetation. Armoring removal is targeted as a viable option for restoring some habitat functions, but few assessments of coastal biota response exist. Here, we use opportunistic sampling of pre- and post-restoration data for five biotic measures (wrack % cover, saltmarsh % cover, number of logs, and macroinvertebrate abundance and richness) from a set of six restored sites in Puget Sound, WA, USA. This broad suite of ecosystem metrics responded strongly and positively to armor removal, and these results were evident after less than one year. Restoration responses remained positive and statistically significant across different shoreline elevations and temporal trajectories. This analysis shows that removing shoreline armoring is effective for restoration projects aimed at improving the health and productivity of coastal ecosystems, and these results may be widely applicable.

  7. Effect of a serrated trailing edge on sound radiation from nearby quadrupoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Mahmoud; Croaker, Paul; Kinns, Roger; Kessissoglou, Nicole

    2017-05-01

    A periodic boundary element technique is implemented to study the noise reduction capability of a plate with a serrated trailing edge under quadrupole excitation. It is assumed for this purpose that the quadrupole source tensor is independent of the trailing edge configuration and that the effect of the trailing edge shape is to modify sound radiation from prescribed boundary layer sources. The flat plate is modelled as a continuous structure with a finite repetition of small spanwise segments. The matrix equation formulated by the periodic boundary element method for this 3D acoustic scattering problem is represented as a block Toeplitz matrix. The discrete Fourier transform is employed in an iterative algorithm to solve the block Toeplitz system. The noise reduction mechanism for a serrated trailing edge in the near field is investigated by comparing contour plots obtained from each component of the quadrupole for unserrated and serrated trailing edge plate models. The noise reduction due to the serrated trailing edge is also examined as a function of the source location.

  8. Quantifying the effectiveness of shoreline armoring removal on coastal biota of Puget Sound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy S. Lee

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Shoreline armoring is prevalent around the world with unprecedented human population growth and urbanization along coastal habitats. Armoring structures, such as riprap and bulkheads, that are built to prevent beach erosion and protect coastal infrastructure from storms and flooding can cause deterioration of habitats for migratory fish species, disrupt aquatic–terrestrial connectivity, and reduce overall coastal ecosystem health. Relative to armored shorelines, natural shorelines retain valuable habitats for macroinvertebrates and other coastal biota. One question is whether the impacts of armoring are reversible, allowing restoration via armoring removal and related actions of sediment nourishment and replanting of native riparian vegetation. Armoring removal is targeted as a viable option for restoring some habitat functions, but few assessments of coastal biota response exist. Here, we use opportunistic sampling of pre- and post-restoration data for five biotic measures (wrack % cover, saltmarsh % cover, number of logs, and macroinvertebrate abundance and richness from a set of six restored sites in Puget Sound, WA, USA. This broad suite of ecosystem metrics responded strongly and positively to armor removal, and these results were evident after less than one year. Restoration responses remained positive and statistically significant across different shoreline elevations and temporal trajectories. This analysis shows that removing shoreline armoring is effective for restoration projects aimed at improving the health and productivity of coastal ecosystems, and these results may be widely applicable.

  9. SoleSound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zanotto, Damiano; Turchet, Luca; Boggs, Emily Marie

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the design of SoleSound, a wearable system designed to deliver ecological, audio-tactile, underfoot feedback. The device, which primarily targets clinical applications, uses an audio-tactile footstep synthesis engine informed by the readings of pressure and inertial sensors...... embedded in the footwear to integrate enhanced feedback modalities into the authors' previously developed instrumented footwear. The synthesis models currently implemented in the SoleSound simulate different ground surface interactions. Unlike similar devices, the system presented here is fully portable...

  10. Effects of endurance training on blood pressure, blood pressure-regulating mechanisms, and cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, Véronique A; Fagard, Robert H

    2005-10-01

    Previous meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials on the effects of chronic dynamic aerobic endurance training on blood pressure reported on resting blood pressure only. Our aim was to perform a comprehensive meta-analysis including resting and ambulatory blood pressure, blood pressure-regulating mechanisms, and concomitant cardiovascular risk factors. Inclusion criteria of studies were: random allocation to intervention and control; endurance training as the sole intervention; inclusion of healthy sedentary normotensive or hypertensive adults; intervention duration of > or =4 weeks; availability of systolic or diastolic blood pressure; and publication in a peer-reviewed journal up to December 2003. The meta-analysis involved 72 trials, 105 study groups, and 3936 participants. After weighting for the number of trained participants and using a random-effects model, training induced significant net reductions of resting and daytime ambulatory blood pressure of, respectively, 3.0/2.4 mm Hg (Phypertensive study groups (-6.9/-4.9) than in the others (-1.9/-1.6; Pendurance training decreases blood pressure through a reduction of vascular resistance, in which the sympathetic nervous system and the renin-angiotensin system appear to be involved, and favorably affects concomitant cardiovascular risk factors.

  11. Probabilistic Modeling of Intracranial Pressure Effects on Optic Nerve Biomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethier, C. R.; Feola, Andrew J.; Raykin, Julia; Myers, Jerry G.; Nelson, Emily S.; Samuels, Brian C.

    2016-01-01

    Altered intracranial pressure (ICP) is involved/implicated in several ocular conditions: papilledema, glaucoma and Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome. The biomechanical effects of altered ICP on optic nerve head (ONH) tissues in these conditions are uncertain but likely important. We have quantified ICP-induced deformations of ONH tissues, using finite element (FE) and probabilistic modeling (Latin Hypercube Simulations (LHS)) to consider a range of tissue properties and relevant pressures.

  12. Effects of positive end-expiratory pressure on renal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järnberg, P O; de Villota, E D; Eklund, J; Granberg, P O

    1978-01-01

    The effects were studied positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on renal function in eight patients with acute respiratory failure, requiring mechanical ventilation. On application of PEEP + 10 cm H2O, central venous pressure increased, systolic blood pressure decreased, urine flow and PAH-clearance were reduced, while inulin clearance remained stable. There was a marked increase in fractional sodium reabsorption and a concurrent decrease in fractional osmolal excretion. Fractional free-water clearance and the ratio UOsm/POsm did change.

  13. Assessment of the effects of superior canal dehiscence location and size on intracochlear sound pressures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niesten, Marlien E F; Stieger, Christof; Lee, Daniel J; Merchant, Julie P; Grolman, Wilko; Rosowski, John J; Nakajima, Hideko Heidi

    2015-01-01

    Superior canal dehiscence (SCD) is a defect in the bony covering of the superior semicircular canal. Patients with SCD present with a wide range of symptoms, including hearing loss, yet it is unknown whether hearing is affected by parameters such as the location of the SCD. Our previous human

  14. Sound intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crocker, Malcolm J.; Jacobsen, Finn

    1998-01-01

    This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique.......This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique....

  15. Sound Intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crocker, M.J.; Jacobsen, Finn

    1997-01-01

    This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique.......This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique....

  16. Variation in effectiveness of a cardiac auscultation training class with a cardiology patient simulator among heart sounds and murmurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagaya, Yutaka; Tabata, Masao; Arata, Yutaro; Kameoka, Junichi; Ishii, Seiichi

    2017-08-01

    Effectiveness of simulation-based education in cardiac auscultation training is controversial, and may vary among a variety of heart sounds and murmurs. We investigated whether a single auscultation training class using a cardiology patient simulator for medical students provides competence required for clinical clerkship, and whether students' proficiency after the training differs among heart sounds and murmurs. A total of 324 fourth-year medical students (93-117/year for 3 years) were divided into groups of 6-8 students; each group participated in a three-hour training session using a cardiology patient simulator. After a mini-lecture and facilitated training, each student took two different tests. In the first test, they tried to identify three sounds of Category A (non-split, respiratory split, and abnormally wide split S2s) in random order, after being informed that they were from Category A. They then did the same with sounds of Category B (S3, S4, and S3+S4) and Category C (four heart murmurs). In the second test, they tried to identify only one from each of the three categories in random order without any category information. The overall accuracy rate declined from 80.4% in the first test to 62.0% in the second test (pauscultation training. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Sleep disturbance caused by meaningful sounds and the effect of background noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namba, Seiichiro; Kuwano, Sonoko; Okamoto, Takehisa

    2004-10-01

    To study noise-induced sleep disturbance, a new procedure called "noise interrupted method"has been developed. The experiment is conducted in the bedroom of the house of each subject. The sounds are reproduced with a mini-disk player which has an automatic reverse function. If the sound is disturbing and subjects cannot sleep, they are allowed to switch off the sound 1 h after they start to try to sleep. This switch off (noise interrupted behavior) is an important index of sleep disturbance. Next morning they fill in a questionnaire in which quality of sleep, disturbance of sounds, the time when they switched off the sound, etc. are asked. The results showed a good relationship between L and the percentages of the subjects who could not sleep in an hour and between L and the disturbance reported in the questionnaire. This suggests that this method is a useful tool to measure the sleep disturbance caused by noise under well-controlled conditions.

  18. Effects of musical training on sound pattern processing in high-school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenjung; Staffaroni, Laura; Reid, Errold; Steinschneider, Mitchell; Sussman, Elyse

    2009-05-01

    Recognizing melody in music involves detection of both the pitch intervals and the silence between sequentially presented sounds. This study tested the hypothesis that active musical training in adolescents facilitates the ability to passively detect sequential sound patterns compared to musically non-trained age-matched peers. Twenty adolescents, aged 15-18 years, were divided into groups according to their musical training and current experience. A fixed order tone pattern was presented at various stimulus rates while electroencephalogram was recorded. The influence of musical training on passive auditory processing of the sound patterns was assessed using components of event-related brain potentials (ERPs). The mismatch negativity (MMN) ERP component was elicited in different stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) conditions in non-musicians than musicians, indicating that musically active adolescents were able to detect sound patterns across longer time intervals than age-matched peers. Musical training facilitates detection of auditory patterns, allowing the ability to automatically recognize sequential sound patterns over longer time periods than non-musical counterparts.

  19. Radiation effects on reactor pressure vessel supports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.E.

    1996-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to present the findings from the work done in accordance with the Task Action Plan developed to resolve the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Generic Safety Issue No. 15, (GSI-15). GSI-15 was established to evaluate the potential for low-temperature, low-flux-level neutron irradiation to embrittle reactor pressure vessel (RPV) supports to the point of compromising plant safety. An evaluation of surveillance samples from the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) had suggested that some materials used for RPV supports in pressurized-water reactors could exhibit higher than expected embrittlement rates. However, further tests designed to evaluate the applicability of the HFIR data to reactor RPV supports under operating conditions led to the conclusion that RPV supports could be evaluated using traditional method. It was found that the unique HFIR radiation environment allowed the gamma radiation to contribute significantly to the embrittlement. The shielding provided by the thick steel RPV shell ensures that degradation of RPV supports from gamma irradiation is improbable or minimal. The findings reported herein were used, in part, as the basis for technical resolution of the issue

  20. The effects of cigarette smoking on intraocular pressure and arterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to determine the effects of cigarette Smoking on intra ocular pressure and arterial blood pressure of normotensive young male adults. Fifty male students (who met the screening conditions and devoid of obvious ocular pathology and systemic diseases and nonsmokers) had their intra ocular ...

  1. Effect of high pressurized carbon dioxide on Escherichia coli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carbon dioxide at high pressure can retard microbial growth and sometimes kill microorganisms depending on values of applied pressure, temperature and exposure time. In this study the effect of high pressurised carbon dioxide (HPCD) on Escherichia coli was investigated. Culture of E. coli was subjected to high ...

  2. Effects of Malaria on Blood Pressure, Heart Rate, Electrocardiogram ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of malaria on blood pressure, heart rate, electrocardiogram and the cardiovascular responses to postural change were studied in malaria patients. Blood pressure was measured by the sphygmomanometric-auscultatory method. Standard ECG machine was used to record the electrocardiogram. Heart rate was ...

  3. Inferring the high-pressure strength of copper by measurement of longitudinal sound speed in a symmetric impact and release experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Stephen; Edwards, Rhys; Vogler, Tracy J.; Furnish, M. D.

    2012-03-01

    Velocity-time histories of free- or windowed-surfaces have been used to calculate wave speeds and hence deduce the shear moduli for materials at high pressure. This is important to high velocity impact phenomena, e.g. shaped-charge jets, long rod penetrators, and other projectile/armour interactions. Historically the shock overtake method has required several experiments with different depths of material to account for the effect of the surface on the arrival time of the release. A characteristics method, previously used for analysis of isentropic compression experiments, has been modified to account for the effect of the surface interactions, thus only one depth of material is required. This analysis has been applied to symmetric copper impacts performed at Sandia National Laboratory's Star Facility. A shear modulus of 200GPa, at a pressure of ~180GPa, has been estimated. These results are in broad agreement with previous work by Hayes et al.

  4. Sound generator associated with the counseling in the treatment of tinnitus: evaluation of the effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Andressa Vital; Mondelli, Maria Fernanda Capoani Garcia

    The relations between the tinnitus and the hearing loss are due to the sensory deprivation caused by hearing loss, since this is followed by the functional and structural alteration of the auditory system as a whole. The cochlear lesions are accompanied by a reduction in the activity of the cochlear nerve, and the neural activity keeps increased in mainly all the central auditory nervous system to compensate this deficit. This study aimed to verify the effectiveness of the sound generator (SG) associated with the counseling in the treatment of the tinnitus in individuals with and without hearing loss regarding the improvement of the nuisance through Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI) and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). The sample consisted of 30 individuals of both genders divided into two groups: Group 1 (G1) was comprised of 15 individuals with tinnitus and normal hearing, adapted to SG; Group 2 (G2) was comprised of 15 individuals with complaints of hearing acuity and tinnitus, adapted with SG and an individual hearing aid device (HA). Both groups underwent the following procedures: anamnesis and history of complaint, high frequency audiometry (HFA), imitanciometry, acuphenometry with the survey of psychoacoustic pitch and loudness thresholds and application of the tools THI and VAS. All of them were adapted with HA and Siemens SG and participated in a session of counseling. The individuals were assessed in three situations: initial assessment (before the adaptation of the HA and SG), monitoring and final assessment (6 months after adaptation). The comparison of the tinnitus nuisance and handicap in the three stages of assessment showed a significant improvement for both groups. The use of the SG was similarly effective in the treatment of the tinnitus in individuals with and without hearing loss, causing an improvement of the nuisance and handicap. Copyright © 2016 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier

  5. Effect of High Pressure and Heat on Bacterial Toxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Margosch

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Even though the inactivation of microorganisms by high pressure treatment is a subject of intense investigations, the effect of high pressure on bacterial toxins has not been studied so far. In this study, the influence of combined pressure/temperature treatment (0.1 to 800 MPa and 5 to 121 °C on bacterial enterotoxins was determined. Therefore, heat-stable enterotoxin (STa of cholera toxin (CT from Vibrio cholerae, staphylococcal enterotoxins A-E, haemolysin BL (HBL from Bacillus cereus, and Escherichia coli (STa were subjected to different treatment schemes. Structural alterations were monitored in enzyme immunoassays (EIAs. Cytotoxicity of the pressure treated supernatant of toxigenic B. cereus DSM 4384 was investigated with Vero cells. High pressure of 200 to 800 MPa at 5 °C leads to a slight increase of the reactivity of the STa of E. coli. However, reactivity decreased at 800 MPa and 80 °C to (66±21 % after 30 min and to (44±0.3 % after 128 min. At ambient pressure no decrease in EIA reactivity could be observed after 128 min. Pressurization (0.1 to 800 MPa of heat stable monomeric staphylococcal toxins at 5 and 20 °C showed no effect. A combined heat (80 °C and pressure (0.1 to 800 MPa treatment lead to a decrease in the immuno-reactivity to 20 % of its maximum. For cholera toxin a significant loss in latex agglutination was observable only at 80 °C and 800 MPa for holding times higher than 20 min. Interestingly, the immuno-reactivity of B. cereus HBL toxin increased with the increase of pressure (182 % at 800 MPa, 30 °C, and high pressure showed only minor effects on cytotoxicity to Vero cells. Our results indicate that pressurization can increase inactivation observed by heat treatment, and combined treatments may be effective at lower temperatures and/or shorter incubation time.

  6. The effect of high pressure on nitrogen compounds of milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kielczewska, Katarzyna; Czerniewicz, Maria; Michalak, Joanna; Brandt, Waldemar

    2004-01-01

    The effect of pressurization at different pressures (from 200 to 1000 MPa, at 200 MPa intervals, t const. = 15 min) and periods of time (from 15 to 35 min, at 10 min intervals, p const. = 800 MPa) on the changes of proteins and nitrogen compounds of skimmed milk was studied. The pressurization caused an increase in the amount of soluble casein and denaturation of whey proteins. The level of nonprotein nitrogen compounds and proteoso-peptone nitrogen compounds increased as a result of the high-pressure treatment. These changes increased with an increase in pressure and exposure time. High-pressure treatment considerably affected the changes in the conformation of milk proteins, which was reflected in the changes in the content of proteins sedimenting and an increase in their degree of hydration

  7. Warm Pressurant Gas Effects on the Static Bubble Point Pressure for Cryogenic LADs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, Jason W.; McQuillen, John; Chato, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents experimental results for the liquid hydrogen and nitrogen bubble point tests using warm pressurant gases conducted at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The purpose of the test series was to determine the effect of elevating the temperature of the pressurant gas on the performance of a liquid acquisition device (LAD). Three fine mesh screen samples (325x2300, 450x2750, 510x3600) were tested in liquid hydrogen and liquid nitrogen using cold and warm non-condensable (gaseous helium) and condensable (gaseous hydrogen or nitrogen) pressurization schemes. Gases were conditioned from 0K - 90K above the liquid temperature. Results clearly indicate degradation in bubble point pressure using warm gas, with a greater reduction in performance using condensable over non-condensable pressurization. Degradation in the bubble point pressure is inversely proportional to screen porosity, as the coarsest mesh demonstrated the highest degradation. Results here have implication on both pressurization and LAD system design for all future cryogenic propulsion systems. A detailed review of historical heated gas tests is also presented for comparison to current results.

  8. A randomized controlled trial on the beneficial effects of training letter-speech sound integration on reading fluency in children with dyslexia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraga González, G.; Žarić, G.; Tijms, J.; Bonte, M.; Blomert, L.; van der Molen, M.W.

    2015-01-01

    A recent account of dyslexia assumes that a failure to develop automated letter-speech sound integration might be responsible for the observed lack of reading fluency. This study uses a pre-test-training-post-test design to evaluate the effects of a training program based on letter-speech sound

  9. Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial Evaluating the Effectiveness of Computer-Assisted Intervention Delivered by Educators for Children with Speech Sound Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Sharynne; Baker, Elise; McCormack, Jane; Wren, Yvonne; Roulstone, Sue; Crowe, Kathryn; Masso, Sarah; White, Paul; Howland, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of computer-assisted input-based intervention for children with speech sound disorders (SSD). Method: The Sound Start Study was a cluster-randomized controlled trial. Seventy-nine early childhood centers were invited to participate, 45 were recruited, and 1,205 parents and educators of 4- and…

  10. Effects of pressure and temperature on gate valve unwedging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damerell, P.S.; Harrison, D.H.; Hayes, P.W.; Simons, J.W.; Walker, T.A.

    1996-12-01

    The stem thrust required to unwedge a gate valve is influenced by the pressure and temperature when the valve is closed and by the changes in these conditions between closure and opening. {open_quotes}Pressure locking{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}thermal binding{close_quotes} refer to situations where pressure and temperature effects cause the unwedging load to be much higher than normal. A model of these phenomena has been developed. Wedging (closure) is modeled as developing an {open_quotes}interference{close_quotes} between the disk and its seat rings in the valve. The effects of pressure and temperature are analyzed to determine the change in this disk-to-seat {open_quotes}interference{close_quotes}. Flexibilities, of the disk, body, stem and yoke strongly influence the unwedging thrust. Calculations and limited comparisons to data have been performed for a range of valve designs and scenarios. Pressure changes can increase the unwedging load when there is either a uniform pressure decrease, or a situation where the bonnet pressure exceeds the pressures in the adjacent piping. Temperature changes can increase the unwedging load when: (1) valve closure at elevated system temperature produces a delayed stem expansion, (2) a temperature increase after closure produces a bonnet pressure increase, or (3) a temperature change after closure produces an increase in the disk-to-seat {open_quotes}interference{close_quotes} or disk-to-seat friction.

  11. Effects of pressure and temperature on gate valve unwedging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damerell, P.S.; Harrison, D.H.; Hayes, P.W.; Simons, J.W.; Walker, T.A.

    1996-01-01

    The stem thrust required to unwedge a gate valve is influenced by the pressure and temperature when the valve is closed and by the changes in these conditions between closure and opening. open-quotes Pressure lockingclose quotes and open-quotes thermal bindingclose quotes refer to situations where pressure and temperature effects cause the unwedging load to be much higher than normal. A model of these phenomena has been developed. Wedging (closure) is modeled as developing an open-quotes interferenceclose quotes between the disk and its seat rings in the valve. The effects of pressure and temperature are analyzed to determine the change in this disk-to-seat open-quotes interferenceclose quotes. Flexibilities, of the disk, body, stem and yoke strongly influence the unwedging thrust. Calculations and limited comparisons to data have been performed for a range of valve designs and scenarios. Pressure changes can increase the unwedging load when there is either a uniform pressure decrease, or a situation where the bonnet pressure exceeds the pressures in the adjacent piping. Temperature changes can increase the unwedging load when: (1) valve closure at elevated system temperature produces a delayed stem expansion, (2) a temperature increase after closure produces a bonnet pressure increase, or (3) a temperature change after closure produces an increase in the disk-to-seat open-quotes interferenceclose quotes or disk-to-seat friction

  12. Effects of Interaural Level and Time Differences on the Externalization of Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Torsten; Catic, Jasmina; Santurette, Sébastien

    Distant sound sources in our environment are perceived as externalized and are thus properly localized in both direction and distance. This is due to the acoustic filtering by the head, torso, and external ears, which provides frequency dependent shaping of binaural cues, such as interaural level...... differences (ILDs) and interaural time differences (ITDs). Further, the binaural cues provided by reverberation in an enclosed space may also contribute to externalization. While these spatial cues are available in their natural form when listening to real-world sound sources, hearing-aid signal processing...... is consistent with the physical analysis that showed that a decreased distance to the sound source also reduced the fluctuations in ILDs....

  13. The effects of intervening interference on working memory for sound location as a function of inter-comparison interval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, Dennis T; Hamilton, Traci R; Grossmann, Aurora J

    2010-09-01

    This study examined the effects of inter-comparison interval duration and intervening interference on auditory working memory (AWM) for auditory location. Interaural phase differences were used to produce localization cues for tonal stimuli and the difference limen for interaural phase difference (DL-IPD) specified as the equivalent angle of incidence between two sound sources was measured in five different conditions. These conditions consisted of three different inter-comparison intervals [300 ms (short), 5000 ms (medium), and 15,000 ms (long)], the medium and long of which were presented both in the presence and absence of intervening tones. The presence of intervening stimuli within the medium and long inter-comparison intervals produced a significant increase in the DL-IPD compared to the medium and long inter-comparison intervals condition without intervening tones. The result obtained in the condition with a short inter-comparison interval was roughly equivalent to that obtained for the medium inter-comparison interval without intervening tones. These results suggest that the ability to retain information about the location of a sound within AWM decays slowly; however, the presence of intervening sounds readily disrupts the retention process. Overall, the results suggest that the temporal decay of information within AWM regarding the location of a sound from a listener's environment is so gradual that it can be maintained in trace memory for tens of seconds in the absence of intervening acoustic signals. Conversely, the presence of intervening sounds within the retention interval may facilitate the use of context memory, even for shorter retention intervals, resulting in a less detailed, but relevant representation of the location that is resistant to further degradation. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Harmonic Frequency Lowering: Effects on the Perception of Music Detail and Sound Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchberger, Martin; Russo, Frank A

    2016-02-01

    A novel algorithm for frequency lowering in music was developed and experimentally tested in hearing-impaired listeners. Harmonic frequency lowering (HFL) combines frequency transposition and frequency compression to preserve the harmonic content of music stimuli. Listeners were asked to make judgments regarding detail and sound quality in music stimuli. Stimuli were presented under different signal processing conditions: original, low-pass filtered, HFL, and nonlinear frequency compressed. Results showed that participants reported perceiving the most detail in the HFL condition. In addition, there was no difference in sound quality across conditions. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Effect of Elevated Intracranial Pressure on Amplitudes and Frequency Tuning of Ocular Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials Elicited by Bone-Conducted Vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürkov, Robert; Speierer, Guillaume; Wittwer, Luis; Kalla, Roger

    Recently, it could be demonstrated that an increased intracranial pressure causes a modulation of the air conducted sound evoked ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potential (oVEMP). The mechanism for this modulation is not resolved and may depend on a change of either receptor excitability or sound energy transmission. oVEMPs were elicited in 18 healthy subjects with a minishaker delivering 500 and 1000 Hz tone bursts, in supine and tilted positions. The study could confirm the frequency tuning of oVEMP. However, at neither stimulus frequency could a modulating effect of increased intracranial pressure be observed. These data suggest that the observed modulation of the oVEMP response by an increased intracranial pressure is primarily due to the effect of an increased intralabyrinthine pressure onto the stiffness of the inner ear contents and the middle ear-inner ear junction. Future studies on the effect of intracranial pressure on oVEMP should use air-conducted sound and not bone-conducted vibration.

  16. Effects of external and gap mean flows on sound transmission through a double-wall sandwich panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Sebastian, Alexis

    2015-05-01

    This paper studies analytically the effects of an external mean flow and an internal gap mean flow on sound transmission through a double-wall sandwich panel lined with poroelastic materials. Biot's theory is employed to describe wave propagation in poroelastic materials, and the transfer matrix method with three types of boundary conditions is applied to solve the system simultaneously. The random incidence transmission loss in a diffuse field is calculated numerically, and the limiting angle of incidence due to total internal reflection is discussed in detail. The numerical predictions suggest that the sound insulation performance of such a double-wall panel is enhanced considerably by both external and gap mean flows particularly in the high-frequency range. Similar effects on transmission loss are observed for the two mean flows. It is shown that the effect of the gap mean flow depends on flow velocity, flow direction, gap depth and fluid properties and also that the fluid properties within the gap appear to influence the transmission loss more effectively than the gap flow. Despite the implementation difficulty in practice, an internal gap flow provides more design space for tuning the sound insulation performance of a double-wall sandwich panel and has great potential for active/passive noise control.

  17. Cost-effectiveness of Intensive Blood Pressure Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richman, Ilana B; Fairley, Michael; Jørgensen, Mads Emil

    2016-01-01

    Importance: Among high-risk patients with hypertension, targeting a systolic blood pressure of 120 mm Hg reduces cardiovascular morbidity and mortality compared with a higher target. However, intensive blood pressure management incurs additional costs from treatment and from adverse events......-effectiveness of intensive blood pressure management among 68-year-old high-risk adults with hypertension but not diabetes. We used the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) to estimate treatment effects and adverse event rates. We used Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Life Tables to project age...... and accrued $155 261 in lifetime costs, while intensive management yielded 10.5 QALYs and accrued $176 584 in costs. Intensive blood pressure management cost $23 777 per QALY gained. In a sensitivity analysis, serious adverse events would need to occur at 3 times the rate observed in SPRINT and be 3 times...

  18. Dual and mixed nonsymmetric stress-based variational formulations for coupled thermoelastodynamics with second sound effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Balázs

    2018-03-01

    Some new dual and mixed variational formulations based on a priori nonsymmetric stresses will be developed for linearly coupled irreversible thermoelastodynamic problems associated with second sound effect according to the Lord-Shulman theory. Having introduced the entropy flux vector instead of the entropy field and defining the dissipation and the relaxation potential as the function of the entropy flux, a seven-field dual and mixed variational formulation will be derived from the complementary Biot-Hamilton-type variational principle, using the Lagrange multiplier method. The momentum-, the displacement- and the infinitesimal rotation vector, and the a priori nonsymmetric stress tensor, the temperature change, the entropy field and its flux vector are considered as the independent field variables of this formulation. In order to handle appropriately the six different groups of temporal prescriptions in the relaxed- and/or the strong form, two variational integrals will be incorporated into the seven-field functional. Then, eliminating the entropy from this formulation through the strong fulfillment of the constitutive relation for the temperature change with the use of the Legendre transformation between the enthalpy and Gibbs potential, a six-field dual and mixed action functional is obtained. As a further development, the elimination of the momentum- and the velocity vector from the six-field principle through the a priori satisfaction of the kinematic equation and the constitutive relation for the momentum vector leads to a five-field variational formulation. These principles are suitable for the transient analyses of the structures exposed to a thermal shock of short temporal domain or a large heat flux.

  19. Hydrostatic pressure effects on the dielectric response of potassium cyanide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz Lopez, J.

    1992-01-01

    The complex dielectric constant of crystalline KCN was measured under hydrostatic pressures up to 6.1 kbar in the temperature and frequency ranges of 50-300 K and 10-10 5 Hz, respectively. It is found that the pressure derivative of the real part of the dielectric constant at all measured temperatures is negative. From these results we obtain estimates for the pressure and volume derivatives of polarizabilities. The anomaly in the real part of the dielectric constant at the elastic order-disorder transition shifts to higher temperatures with increasing pressure at a rate of 2.05 K/kbar. By carefully avoiding thermal cycling through this transition we find no evidence of the monoclinic phase reported to exist in the P-T phase diagram of KCN at relatively low pressures. Dielectric loss measurements show thermally-activated CN - reorientation rates in the elastically ordered phase with pressure-independent reorientational barriers and decreasing attempt frequencies for increasing pressures. Additional pressure effects on dielectric loss allow to obtain the pressure derivative of the antiferroelectric transition temperature as 1.97 K/kbar. (Author)

  20. Improving the Sound Pressure Level of Two-Dimensional Audio Actuators by Coating Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes on Piezoelectric Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, Keehong

    2015-10-01

    As devices for amplifying or transforming electronic signals into audible signals through electromechanical operations, acoustic actuators in the form of loudspeakers are usually solid structures in three dimensional space. Recently there has been increasing demand for mobile electronic devices, such as mobile phones, to become smaller, thinner, and lighter. In contrast to a three dimensional audio system with magnets, we have invented a new type of flexible two dimensional device by utilizing the reverse piezoelectric effect in certain piezoelectric materials. Crystalline piezoelectric materials show electromechanical interaction between the mechanical state and the electrically-charged state. The piezoelectric effect is a reversible process in that materials exhibiting the direct piezoelectric effect (the internal generation of electrical charge resulting from an applied mechanical force) also exhibit the reverse piezoelectric effect (the internal generation of a mechanical strain resulting from an applied electrical field). We have adopted the plasma surface treatment in order to put coating materials on the surface of piezoelectric film. We compared two kinds of coating material, indium tin oxide and single-walled carbon nanotube, and found that single-walled carbon nanotube shows better performance. The results showed improvement of output power in a wider range of operating frequency; for the surface resistance of 0.5 kΩ/square, the single-walled CNT shows the range of operating frequency to be 0.75-17.5 kHz, but ITO shows 2.5-13.4 kHz. For the surface resistance of 1 kΩ/square, single-walled CNT shows the range of operating frequency to be 0.81-17 kHz, but ITO shows it cannot generate audible sound.

  1. Care planning for pressure ulcers in hospice: the team effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberger, Andrew; Zeleznik, Jomarie

    2004-09-01

    The standards of care for patients at risk for or with a pressure ulcer in hospitals and nursing homes focus on prevention and ulcer healing using an interdisciplinary approach. Although not a primary hospice condition, pressure ulcers are not uncommon in dying patients. Their management in hospices, particularly the involvement of family caregivers, has not been studied. The objective of this study is to identify the factors that influence care planning for the prevention and treatment of pressure ulcers in hospice patients and develop a taxonomy to use for further study. A telephone survey was conducted with 18 hospice directors of clinical services and 10 direct-care nurses. Descriptive qualitative data analysis using grounded theory was utilized. The following three themes were identified: (1) the primary role of the hospice nurse is an educator rather than a wound care provider; (2) hospice providers perceive the barriers and burdens of family caregiver involvement in pressure ulcer care to be bodily location of the pressure ulcer, unpleasant wound characteristics, fear of causing pain, guilt, and having to acknowledge the dying process when a new pressure ulcer develops; and (3) the "team effect" describes the collaboration between family caregivers and the health care providers to establish individualized achievable goals of care ranging from pressure ulcer prevention to acceptance of a pressure ulcer and symptom palliation. Pressure ulcer care planning is a model of collaborative decision making between family caregivers and hospice providers for a condition that occurs as a secondary condition in hospice. A pressure ulcer places significant burdens on family caregivers distinct from common end-of-life symptoms whose treatment is directed at the patient. Because the goals of pressure ulcer care appear to be individualized for a dying patient and their caregivers, the basis of quality-of-care evaluations should be the process of care rather than the outcome

  2. Predicting outdoor sound

    CERN Document Server

    Attenborough, Keith; Horoshenkov, Kirill

    2014-01-01

    1. Introduction  2. The Propagation of Sound Near Ground Surfaces in a Homogeneous Medium  3. Predicting the Acoustical Properties of Outdoor Ground Surfaces  4. Measurements of the Acoustical Properties of Ground Surfaces and Comparisons with Models  5. Predicting Effects of Source Characteristics on Outdoor Sound  6. Predictions, Approximations and Empirical Results for Ground Effect Excluding Meteorological Effects  7. Influence of Source Motion on Ground Effect and Diffraction  8. Predicting Effects of Mixed Impedance Ground  9. Predicting the Performance of Outdoor Noise Barriers  10. Predicting Effects of Vegetation, Trees and Turbulence  11. Analytical Approximations including Ground Effect, Refraction and Turbulence  12. Prediction Schemes  13. Predicting Sound in an Urban Environment.

  3. Effects of the wind profile at night on wind turbine sound

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, GP

    2004-01-01

    Since the start of the operation of a 30 MW, 17 turbine wind park, residents living 500 in and more from the park have reacted strongly to the noise; residents up to 1900 in distance expressed annoyance. To assess actual sound immission, long term measurements (a total of over 400 night hours in 4

  4. Numerical simulation of the sound reflection effects of noise barriers in near and far field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutgendorf, D.; Roo, F. de; Eerden, F.J.M. van der; Jean, P.; Ecotière, D.; Dutilleux, G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the first stages of the development of a new test method for evaluating the reflectivity performance of noise barriers. The reflectivity performance describes the increase in sound level at a receiver due to the presence of the noise barrier. First the current test method for

  5. Three-dimensional reconstruction of sound fields based on the acousto-optic effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez Grande, Efren; Torras Rosell, Antoni

    2013-01-01

    -optic tomography via scanning the field with a laser Doppler vibrometer. Consequently, the spatial characteristics of the sound field are captured in the measurement, implicitly bearing the potential for a full holographic reconstruction in a three-dimensional space. Recent studies have examined the reconstruction......, and compares the results to the ones obtained from conventional microphone array measurements....

  6. Effect of gap detection threshold on consistency of speech in children with speech sound disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayyahi, Fateme; Soleymani, Zahra; Akbari, Mohammad; Bijankhan, Mahmood; Dolatshahi, Behrooz

    2017-02-01

    The present study examined the relationship between gap detection threshold and speech error consistency in children with speech sound disorder. The participants were children five to six years of age who were categorized into three groups of typical speech, consistent speech disorder (CSD) and inconsistent speech disorder (ISD).The phonetic gap detection threshold test was used for this study, which is a valid test comprised six syllables with inter-stimulus intervals between 20-300ms. The participants were asked to listen to the recorded stimuli three times and indicate whether they heard one or two sounds. There was no significant difference between the typical and CSD groups (p=0.55), but there were significant differences in performance between the ISD and CSD groups and the ISD and typical groups (p=0.00). The ISD group discriminated between speech sounds at a higher threshold. Children with inconsistent speech errors could not distinguish speech sounds during time-limited phonetic discrimination. It is suggested that inconsistency in speech is a representation of inconsistency in auditory perception, which causes by high gap detection threshold. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Effects of Bilingualism on Infant Language Development : The Acquisition of Sounds and Words

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Liquan

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation reports on the influence of bilingualism on infants’ sound and word acquisition in the first two years of life. It targets the question of whether mono- and bilingual infants follow the same developmental trajectory of language acquisition, it displays similarities and differences

  8. Effects of Hydrostatic Pressure on Carcinogenic Properties of Epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuda, Shinsaku; Kim, Young Hak; Matsumoto, Hisako; Muro, Shigeo; Hirai, Toyohiro; Mishima, Michiaki; Furuse, Mikio

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between chronic inflammation and cancer is well known. The inflammation increases the permeability of blood vessels and consequently elevates pressure in the interstitial tissues. However, there have been only a few reports on the effects of hydrostatic pressure on cultured cells, and the relationship between elevated hydrostatic pressure and cell properties related to malignant tumors is less well understood. Therefore, we investigated the effects of hydrostatic pressure on the cultured epithelial cells seeded on permeable filters. Surprisingly, hydrostatic pressure from basal to apical side induced epithelial stratification in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) I and Caco-2 cells, and cavities with microvilli and tight junctions around their surfaces were formed within the multi-layered epithelia. The hydrostatic pressure gradient also promoted cell proliferation, suppressed cell apoptosis, and increased transepithelial ion permeability. The inhibition of protein kinase A (PKA) promoted epithelial stratification by the hydrostatic pressure whereas the activation of PKA led to suppressed epithelial stratification. These results indicate the role of the hydrostatic pressure gradient in the regulation of various epithelial cell functions. The findings in this study may provide clues for the development of a novel strategy for the treatment of the carcinoma.

  9. Effects of anthropogenic sound on digging behavior, metabolism, Ca2+/Mg2+ ATPase activity, and metabolism-related gene expression of the bivalve Sinonovacula constricta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chao; Zhao, Xinguo; Liu, Saixi; Shi, Wei; Han, Yu; Guo, Cheng; Jiang, Jingang; Wan, Haibo; Shen, Tiedong; Liu, Guangxu

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic sound has increased significantly in the past decade. However, only a few studies to date have investigated its effects on marine bivalves, with little known about the underlying physiological and molecular mechanisms. In the present study, the effects of different types, frequencies, and intensities of anthropogenic sounds on the digging behavior of razor clams (Sinonovacula constricta) were investigated. The results showed that variations in sound intensity induced deeper digging. Furthermore, anthropogenic sound exposure led to an alteration in the O:N ratios and the expression of ten metabolism-related genes from the glycolysis, fatty acid biosynthesis, tryptophan metabolism, and Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle (TCA cycle) pathways. Expression of all genes under investigation was induced upon exposure to anthropogenic sound at ~80 dB re 1 μPa and repressed at ~100 dB re 1 μPa sound. In addition, the activity of Ca2+/Mg2+-ATPase in the feet tissues, which is directly related to muscular contraction and subsequently to digging behavior, was also found to be affected by anthropogenic sound intensity. The findings suggest that sound may be perceived by bivalves as changes in the water particle motion and lead to the subsequent reactions detected in razor clams. PMID:27063002

  10. Effects of anthropogenic sound on digging behavior, metabolism, Ca(2+)/Mg(2+) ATPase activity, and metabolism-related gene expression of the bivalve Sinonovacula constricta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chao; Zhao, Xinguo; Liu, Saixi; Shi, Wei; Han, Yu; Guo, Cheng; Jiang, Jingang; Wan, Haibo; Shen, Tiedong; Liu, Guangxu

    2016-04-11

    Anthropogenic sound has increased significantly in the past decade. However, only a few studies to date have investigated its effects on marine bivalves, with little known about the underlying physiological and molecular mechanisms. In the present study, the effects of different types, frequencies, and intensities of anthropogenic sounds on the digging behavior of razor clams (Sinonovacula constricta) were investigated. The results showed that variations in sound intensity induced deeper digging. Furthermore, anthropogenic sound exposure led to an alteration in the O:N ratios and the expression of ten metabolism-related genes from the glycolysis, fatty acid biosynthesis, tryptophan metabolism, and Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle (TCA cycle) pathways. Expression of all genes under investigation was induced upon exposure to anthropogenic sound at ~80 dB re 1 μPa and repressed at ~100 dB re 1 μPa sound. In addition, the activity of Ca(2+)/Mg(2+)-ATPase in the feet tissues, which is directly related to muscular contraction and subsequently to digging behavior, was also found to be affected by anthropogenic sound intensity. The findings suggest that sound may be perceived by bivalves as changes in the water particle motion and lead to the subsequent reactions detected in razor clams.

  11. Effects of anthropogenic sound on digging behavior, metabolism, Ca2+/Mg2+ ATPase activity, and metabolism-related gene expression of the bivalve Sinonovacula constricta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chao; Zhao, Xinguo; Liu, Saixi; Shi, Wei; Han, Yu; Guo, Cheng; Jiang, Jingang; Wan, Haibo; Shen, Tiedong; Liu, Guangxu

    2016-04-01

    Anthropogenic sound has increased significantly in the past decade. However, only a few studies to date have investigated its effects on marine bivalves, with little known about the underlying physiological and molecular mechanisms. In the present study, the effects of different types, frequencies, and intensities of anthropogenic sounds on the digging behavior of razor clams (Sinonovacula constricta) were investigated. The results showed that variations in sound intensity induced deeper digging. Furthermore, anthropogenic sound exposure led to an alteration in the O:N ratios and the expression of ten metabolism-related genes from the glycolysis, fatty acid biosynthesis, tryptophan metabolism, and Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle (TCA cycle) pathways. Expression of all genes under investigation was induced upon exposure to anthropogenic sound at ~80 dB re 1 μPa and repressed at ~100 dB re 1 μPa sound. In addition, the activity of Ca2+/Mg2+-ATPase in the feet tissues, which is directly related to muscular contraction and subsequently to digging behavior, was also found to be affected by anthropogenic sound intensity. The findings suggest that sound may be perceived by bivalves as changes in the water particle motion and lead to the subsequent reactions detected in razor clams.

  12. Effect of porosity, tissue density, and mechanical properties on radial sound speed in human cortical bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eneh, C. T. M., E-mail: chibuzor.eneh@uef.fi, E-mail: markus.malo@uef.fi, E-mail: janne.karjalainen@boneindex.fi, E-mail: jukka.liukkonen@gmail.com, E-mail: juha.toyras@uef.fi; Töyräs, J., E-mail: chibuzor.eneh@uef.fi, E-mail: markus.malo@uef.fi, E-mail: janne.karjalainen@boneindex.fi, E-mail: jukka.liukkonen@gmail.com, E-mail: juha.toyras@uef.fi; Jurvelin, J. S., E-mail: jukka.jurvelin@uef.fi [Department of Applied Physics, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, Kuopio FI-70211, Finland and Diagnostic Imaging Center, Kuopio University Hospital, P.O. Box 100, Kuopio FI-70029 (Finland); Malo, M. K. H., E-mail: chibuzor.eneh@uef.fi, E-mail: markus.malo@uef.fi, E-mail: janne.karjalainen@boneindex.fi, E-mail: jukka.liukkonen@gmail.com, E-mail: juha.toyras@uef.fi; Liukkonen, J., E-mail: chibuzor.eneh@uef.fi, E-mail: markus.malo@uef.fi, E-mail: janne.karjalainen@boneindex.fi, E-mail: jukka.liukkonen@gmail.com, E-mail: juha.toyras@uef.fi [Department of Applied Physics, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, Kuopio FI-70211 (Finland); Karjalainen, J. P., E-mail: chibuzor.eneh@uef.fi, E-mail: markus.malo@uef.fi, E-mail: janne.karjalainen@boneindex.fi, E-mail: jukka.liukkonen@gmail.com, E-mail: juha.toyras@uef.fi [Bone Index Finland Ltd., P.O. Box 1188, Kuopio FI-70211 (Finland)

    2016-05-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of simultaneous changes in cortical porosity, tissue mineral density, and elastic properties on radial speed of sound (SOS) in cortical bone. The authors applied quantitative pulse-echo (PE) ultrasound techniques that hold much potential especially for screening of osteoporosis at primary healthcare facilities. Currently, most PE measurements of cortical thickness, a well-known indicator of fracture risk, use a predefined estimate for SOS in bone to calculate thickness. Due to variation of cortical bone porosity, the use of a constant SOS value propagates to an unknown error in cortical thickness assessment by PE ultrasound. Methods: The authors conducted 2.25 and 5.00 MHz focused PE ultrasound time of flight measurements on femoral diaphyses of 18 cadavers in vitro. Cortical porosities of the samples were determined using microcomputed tomography and related to SOS in the samples. Additionally, the effect of cortical bone porosity and mechanical properties of the calcified matrix on SOS was investigated using numerical finite difference time domain simulations. Results: Both experimental measurements and simulations demonstrated significant negative correlation between radial SOS and cortical porosity (R{sup 2} ≥ 0.493, p < 0.01 and R{sup 2} ≥ 0.989, p < 0.01, respectively). When a constant SOS was assumed for cortical bone, the error due to variation of cortical bone porosity (4.9%–16.4%) was about 6% in the cortical thickness assessment in vitro. Conclusions: Use of a predefined, constant value for radial SOS in cortical bone, i.e., neglecting the effect of measured variation in cortical porosity, propagated to an error of 6% in cortical thickness. This error can be critical as characteristic cortical thinning of 1.10% ± 1.06% per yr decreases bending strength of the distal radius and results in increased fragility in postmenopausal women. Provided that the cortical porosity can be estimated

  13. Effect of porosity, tissue density, and mechanical properties on radial sound speed in human cortical bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eneh, C. T. M.; Töyräs, J.; Jurvelin, J. S.; Malo, M. K. H.; Liukkonen, J.; Karjalainen, J. P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of simultaneous changes in cortical porosity, tissue mineral density, and elastic properties on radial speed of sound (SOS) in cortical bone. The authors applied quantitative pulse-echo (PE) ultrasound techniques that hold much potential especially for screening of osteoporosis at primary healthcare facilities. Currently, most PE measurements of cortical thickness, a well-known indicator of fracture risk, use a predefined estimate for SOS in bone to calculate thickness. Due to variation of cortical bone porosity, the use of a constant SOS value propagates to an unknown error in cortical thickness assessment by PE ultrasound. Methods: The authors conducted 2.25 and 5.00 MHz focused PE ultrasound time of flight measurements on femoral diaphyses of 18 cadavers in vitro. Cortical porosities of the samples were determined using microcomputed tomography and related to SOS in the samples. Additionally, the effect of cortical bone porosity and mechanical properties of the calcified matrix on SOS was investigated using numerical finite difference time domain simulations. Results: Both experimental measurements and simulations demonstrated significant negative correlation between radial SOS and cortical porosity (R"2 ≥ 0.493, p < 0.01 and R"2 ≥ 0.989, p < 0.01, respectively). When a constant SOS was assumed for cortical bone, the error due to variation of cortical bone porosity (4.9%–16.4%) was about 6% in the cortical thickness assessment in vitro. Conclusions: Use of a predefined, constant value for radial SOS in cortical bone, i.e., neglecting the effect of measured variation in cortical porosity, propagated to an error of 6% in cortical thickness. This error can be critical as characteristic cortical thinning of 1.10% ± 1.06% per yr decreases bending strength of the distal radius and results in increased fragility in postmenopausal women. Provided that the cortical porosity can be estimated in vivo

  14. Transforming Conflict into Effective Action: A Case Study on the Effects of Anthropogenic Sound on Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Jill K.

    Like many wicked environmental problems of our time, marine sound and its potential effects on marine mammals is characterized by high levels of scientific uncertainty, diversified values across many stakeholder groups, political and regulatory complexities, and a continually evolving ecological and social environment. Further, the history of conflict and the relationships between major actors has rooted the issue firmly in identity conflict where prejudices lead to avoidance of working together. What results is continuing controversy, failed management decisions, litigation and an increasing frustration by all parties on why a better solution cannot be found. Ultimately, the intractability of the issue is not about the science, nor will the science ever tame the issue on its own. Rather, the issue is intractable because of the conflict between people about the most appropriate path forward. It is then imperative to understand, address, and transform this conflict in order to move off the decision carousel toward improved conservation outcomes and sustainable decisions for all. This research used an explanatory case study approach to quantitatively and qualitatively investigate the context and reasoning underlying conflict on this issue. Three methods were used in order to triangulate the data, and thus add rigor, including: (1) a document review of 230 publications: (2) exploratory interviews with 10 collaborative action experts and semi-structured interviews with 58 marine mammals and sound stakeholders; and (3) participant review of selected analyses. Data elucidate how different stakeholder groups define the problem and potential solutions, how they see their role and view the role of other stakeholders, specific experiences that increased or decrease conflict, and design preferences for a collaborative effort. These data are combined with conflict transformation principles to provide recommendations for a collaborative, transformative framework designed to

  15. Fluid Sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Explorations and analysis of soundscapes have, since Canadian R. Murray Schafer's work during the early 1970's, developed into various established research - and artistic disciplines. The interest in sonic environments is today present within a broad range of contemporary art projects and in arch......Explorations and analysis of soundscapes have, since Canadian R. Murray Schafer's work during the early 1970's, developed into various established research - and artistic disciplines. The interest in sonic environments is today present within a broad range of contemporary art projects...... and in architectural design. Aesthetics, psychoacoustics, perception, and cognition are all present in this expanding field embracing such categories as soundscape composition, sound art, sonic art, sound design, sound studies and auditory culture. Of greatest significance to the overall field is the investigation...

  16. The pressure effects on two-phase anaerobic digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yuling; Rößler, Benjamin; Zielonka, Simon; Lemmer, Andreas; Wonneberger, Anna-Maria; Jungbluth, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The pressure effect on anaerobic digestion up to 9 bar was examined. • Increasing pressure decreased pH value in the anaerobic filter. • Increasing pressure increased methane content. • Increasing pressure decreased specific methane yield slightly. • The pressurized methane reactor was very stable and performed well. - Abstract: Two-phase pressurized anaerobic digestion is a novel process aimed at facilitating injection of the produced biogas into the natural gas grid by integrating the fermentative biogas production and upgrading it to substitute natural gas. In order to understand the mechanisms, knowledge of pressure effects on anaerobic digestion is required. To examine the effects of pressure on the anaerobic digestion process, a two-phase anaerobic digestion system was built up in laboratory scale, including three acidogenesis-leach-bed-reactors and one pressure-resistant anaerobic filter. Four different pressure levels (the absolute pressure of 1 bar, 3 bar, 6 bar and 9 bar) were applied to the methane reactor in sequence, with the organic loading rate maintained at approximately 5.1 kgCOD m −3 d −1 . Gas production, gas quality, pH value, volatile fatty acids, alcohol, ammonium-nitrogen, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and alkaline buffer capacity were analyzed. No additional caustic chemicals were added for pH adjustment throughout the experiment. With the pressure increasing from 1.07 bar to 8.91 bar, the pH value decreased from 7.2 to 6.5, the methane content increased from 66% to 75%, and the specific methane yield was slightly reduced from 0.33 l N g −1 COD to 0.31 l N g −1 COD. There was almost no acid-accumulation during the entire experiment. The average COD-degradation grade was always more than 93%, and the average alkaline buffering capacity (VFA/TIC ratio) did not exceed 0.2 at any pressure level. The anaerobic filter showed a very stable performance, regardless of the pressure variation

  17. Sound Settlements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Peder Duelund; Hornyanszky, Elisabeth Dalholm; Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    2013-01-01

    Præsentation af projektresultater fra Interreg forskningen Sound Settlements om udvikling af bæredygtighed i det almene boligbyggerier i København, Malmø, Helsingborg og Lund samt europæiske eksempler på best practice......Præsentation af projektresultater fra Interreg forskningen Sound Settlements om udvikling af bæredygtighed i det almene boligbyggerier i København, Malmø, Helsingborg og Lund samt europæiske eksempler på best practice...

  18. Characteristic sounds facilitate visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iordanescu, Lucica; Guzman-Martinez, Emmanuel; Grabowecky, Marcia; Suzuki, Satoru

    2008-06-01

    In a natural environment, objects that we look for often make characteristic sounds. A hiding cat may meow, or the keys in the cluttered drawer may jingle when moved. Using a visual search paradigm, we demonstrated that characteristic sounds facilitated visual localization of objects, even when the sounds carried no location information. For example, finding a cat was faster when participants heard a meow sound. In contrast, sounds had no effect when participants searched for names rather than pictures of objects. For example, hearing "meow" did not facilitate localization of the word cat. These results suggest that characteristic sounds cross-modally enhance visual (rather than conceptual) processing of the corresponding objects. Our behavioral demonstration of object-based cross-modal enhancement complements the extensive literature on space-based cross-modal interactions. When looking for your keys next time, you might want to play jingling sounds.

  19. From the Bob/Kirk effect to the Benoit/Éric effect: Testing the mechanism of name sound symbolism in two languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, David M; Pexman, Penny M; Saint-Aubin, Jean

    2016-09-01

    Although it is often assumed that language involves an arbitrary relationship between form and meaning, many studies have demonstrated that nonwords like maluma are associated with round shapes, while nonwords like takete are associated with sharp shapes (i.e., the Maluma/Takete effect, Köhler, 1929/1947). The majority of the research on sound symbolism has used nonwords, but Sidhu and Pexman (2015) recently extended this effect to existing labels: real English first names (i.e., the Bob/Kirk effect). In the present research we tested whether the effects of name sound symbolism generalize to French speakers (Experiment 1) and French names (Experiment 2). In addition, we assessed the underlying mechanism of name sound symbolism, investigating the roles of phonology and orthography in the effect. Results showed that name sound symbolism does generalize to French speakers and French names. Further, this robust effect remained the same when names were presented in a curved vs. angular font (Experiment 3), or when the salience of orthographic information was reduced through auditory presentation (Experiment 4). Together these results suggest that the Bob/Kirk effect is pervasive, and that it is based on fundamental features of name phonemes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Vehicle surge detection and pathway discrimination by pedestrians who are blind: Effect of adding an alert sound to hybrid electric vehicles on performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Shik; Emerson, Robert Wall; Naghshineh, Koorosh; Pliskow, Jay; Myers, Kyle

    2012-05-01

    This study examined the effect of adding an artificially generated alert sound to a quiet vehicle on its detectability and localizability with 15 visually impaired adults. When starting from a stationary position, the hybrid electric vehicle with an alert sound was significantly more quickly and reliably detected than either the identical vehicle without such added sound or the comparable internal combustion engine vehicle. However, no significant difference was found between the vehicles in respect to how accurately the participants could discriminate the path of a given vehicle (straight vs. right turn). These results suggest that adding an artificial sound to a hybrid electric vehicle may help reduce delay in street crossing initiation by a blind pedestrian, but the benefit of such alert sound may not be obvious in determining whether the vehicle in his near parallel lane proceeds straight through the intersection or turns right in front of him.

  1. Effect of echolocation behavior-related constant frequency-frequency modulation sound on the frequency tuning of inferior collicular neurons in Hipposideros armiger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jia; Fu, Zi-Ying; Wei, Chen-Xue; Chen, Qi-Cai

    2015-08-01

    In constant frequency-frequency modulation (CF-FM) bats, the CF-FM echolocation signals include both CF and FM components, yet the role of such complex acoustic signals in frequency resolution by bats remains unknown. Using CF and CF-FM echolocation signals as acoustic stimuli, the responses of inferior collicular (IC) neurons of Hipposideros armiger were obtained by extracellular recordings. We tested the effect of preceding CF or CF-FM sounds on the shape of the frequency tuning curves (FTCs) of IC neurons. Results showed that both CF-FM and CF sounds reduced the number of FTCs with tailed lower-frequency-side of IC neurons. However, more IC neurons experienced such conversion after adding CF-FM sound compared with CF sound. We also found that the Q 20 value of the FTC of IC neurons experienced the largest increase with the addition of CF-FM sound. Moreover, only CF-FM sound could cause an increase in the slope of the neurons' FTCs, and such increase occurred mainly in the lower-frequency edge. These results suggested that CF-FM sound could increase the accuracy of frequency analysis of echo and cut-off low-frequency elements from the habitat of bats more than CF sound.

  2. Effects of End CAP and Aspect Ratio on Transmission of Sound across a Truss-Like Periodic Double Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    EL-RAHEB, M.; WAGNER, P.

    2002-02-01

    Transmission of sound across 2-D truss-like periodic double panels separated by an air gap and in contact with an acoustic fluid on the external faces is analyzed. Each panel is made of repeated cells. Combining the transfer matrices of the unit cell forms a set of equations for the overall elastic frequency response. The acoustic pressure in the fluids is expressed using a source boundary element method. Adding rigid reflecting end caps confines the air in the gap between panels which influences sound transmission. Measured values of transmission loss differ from the 2-D model by the wide low-frequency dip of the mass-spring-mass or “msm” resonance also termed the “air gap resonance”. In this case, the panels act as rigid masses and the air gap acts as an adiabatic air spring. Results from the idealized 3-D and 2-D models, incorporating rigid cavities and elastic plates, reveal that the “msm” dip is absent in 2-D models radiating into a semi-infinite medium. The dip strengthens as aspect ratio approaches unity. Even when the dip disappears in 2-D, TL rises more steeply for frequencies above the “msm” frequency.

  3. Sound Settlements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Peder Duelund; Hornyanszky, Elisabeth Dalholm; Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    2013-01-01

    Præsentation af projektresultater fra Interreg forskningen Sound Settlements om udvikling af bæredygtighed i det almene boligbyggerier i København, Malmø, Helsingborg og Lund samt europæiske eksempler på best practice...

  4. Second Sound

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 6. Second Sound - The Role of Elastic Waves. R Srinivasan. General Article Volume 4 Issue 6 June 1999 pp 15-19. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/004/06/0015-0019 ...

  5. Effect of humidity on the filter pressure drop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vendel, J.; Letourneau, P.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of humidity on the filter pressure drop have been reported in some previous studies in which it is difficult to draw definite conclusions. These studies show contradictory effects of humidity on the pressure drop probably due to differences in the hygroscopicity of the test aerosols. The objective of this paper is to present experimental results on the evolution of the filter pressure drop versus mass loading, for different test aerosols and relative humidities. Present results are compared to those found in various publication. An experimental device has been designed to measure filter pressure drop as the function of the areal density for relative humidity varying in the range of 9 % to 85 %. Experiments have been conducted with hygroscopic: (CsOH) and nonhygroscopic aerosols (TiO 2 ). Cesium hydroxyde (CsOH) of size of 2 μ M AMMD has been generated by an ultrasonic generator and the 0.7 μm AMMD titanium oxyde has been dispersed by a open-quotes turn-tableclose quotes generator. As it is noted in the BISWAS'publication [3], present results show, in the case of nonhygroscopic aerosols, a linear relationship of pressure drop to mass loading. For hygroscopic aerosols two cases must be considered: for relative humidity below the deliquescent point of the aerosol, the relationship of pressure drop to mass loading remains linear; above the deliquescent point, the results show a sudden increase in the pressure drop and the mass capacity of the filter is drastically reduced

  6. Effect of high pressure on physicochemical properties of meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckow, Roman; Sikes, Anita; Tume, Ron

    2013-01-01

    The application of high pressure offers some interesting opportunities in the processing of muscle-based food products. It is well known that high-pressure processing can prolong the shelf life of meat products in addition to chilling but the pressure-labile nature of protein systems limits the commercial range of applications. High pressure can affect the texture and gel-forming properties of myofibrillar proteins and, hence, has been suggested as a physical and additive-free alternative to tenderize and soften or restructure meat and fish products. However, the rate and magnitude at which pressure and temperature effects take place in muscles are variable and depend on a number of circumstances and conditions that are still not precisely known. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of the effects of high pressure on muscle tissue over a range of temperatures as it relates to meat texture, microstructure, color, enzymes, lipid oxidation, and pressure-induced gelation of myofibrillar proteins.

  7. Effect of humidity on the filter pressure drop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vendel, J.; Letourneau, P. [Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1995-02-01

    The effects of humidity on the filter pressure drop have been reported in some previous studies in which it is difficult to draw definite conclusions. These studies show contradictory effects of humidity on the pressure drop probably due to differences in the hygroscopicity of the test aerosols. The objective of this paper is to present experimental results on the evolution of the filter pressure drop versus mass loading, for different test aerosols and relative humidities. Present results are compared to those found in various publication. An experimental device has been designed to measure filter pressure drop as the function of the areal density for relative humidity varying in the range of 9 % to 85 %. Experiments have been conducted with hygroscopic: (CsOH) and nonhygroscopic aerosols (TiO{sub 2}). Cesium hydroxyde (CsOH) of size of 2 {mu} M AMMD has been generated by an ultrasonic generator and the 0.7 {mu}m AMMD titanium oxyde has been dispersed by a {open_quotes}turn-table{close_quotes} generator. As it is noted in the BISWAS`publication [3], present results show, in the case of nonhygroscopic aerosols, a linear relationship of pressure drop to mass loading. For hygroscopic aerosols two cases must be considered: for relative humidity below the deliquescent point of the aerosol, the relationship of pressure drop to mass loading remains linear; above the deliquescent point, the results show a sudden increase in the pressure drop and the mass capacity of the filter is drastically reduced.

  8. Effects of middle ear quasi-static stiffness on sound transmission quantified by a novel 3-axis optical force sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrev, Ivo; Sim, Jae Hoon; Aqtashi, Baktash; Huber, Alexander M; Linder, Thomas; Röösli, Christof

    2018-01-01

    Intra-operative quantification of the ossicle mobility could provide valuable feedback for the current status of the patient's conductive hearing. However, current methods for evaluation of middle ear mobility are mostly limited to the surgeon's subjective impression through manual palpation of the ossicles. This study investigates how middle ear transfer function is affected by stapes quasi-static stiffness of the ossicular chain. The stiffness of the middle ear is induced by a) using a novel fiber-optic 3-axis force sensor to quantify the quasi-static stiffness of the middle ear, and b) by artificial reduction of stapes mobility due to drying of the middle ear. Middle ear transfer function, defined as the ratio of the stapes footplate velocity versus the ear canal sound pressure, was measured with a single point LDV in two conditions. First, a controlled palpation force was applied at the stapes head in two in-plane (superior-inferior or posterior-anterior) directions, and at the incus lenticular process near the incudostapedial joint in the piston (lateral-medial) direction with a novel 3-axis PalpEar force sensor (Sensoptic, Losone, Switzerland), while the corresponding quasi-static displacement of the contact point was measured via a 3-axis micrometer stage. The palpation force was applied sequentially, step-wise in the range of 0.1-20 gF (1-200 mN). Second, measurements were repeated with various stages of stapes fixation, simulated by pre-load on the stapes head or drying of the temporal bone, and with severe ossicle immobilization, simulated by gluing of the stapes footplate. Simulated stapes fixation (forced drying of 5-15 min) severely decreases (20-30 dB) the low frequency (4 kHz) response. Stapes immobilization (gluing of the footplate) severely reduces (20-40 dB) the low and mid frequency response (force (Force-displacement measurements around the incudostapedial joint showed quasi-static stiffness in the range of 200-500 N/m for normal middle

  9. The effect of fish oil supplements on blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofgren, R P; Wilt, T J; Nichol, K L; Crespin, L; Pluhar, R; Eckfeldt, J

    1993-01-01

    We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study to determine the effects of fish oil supplementation on blood pressure in middle-aged men. Subjects were randomly assigned to consume either 20 g of fish oil or safflower oil for 12 weeks and then consume the other oil for an additional 12 weeks after a 4-week washout period. We found no significant changes from the pretreatment value in systolic or diastolic blood pressure with the use of fish oil supplements. In addition, there were no significant differences in the posttreatment blood pressures comparing the fish and safflower oil phases of the study. PMID:8427339

  10. Pressure effects on lipids and bio-membrane assemblies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas J. Brooks

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Membranes are amongst the most important biological structures; they maintain the fundamental integrity of cells, compartmentalize regions within them and play an active role in a wide range of cellular processes. Pressure can play a key role in probing the structure and dynamics of membrane assemblies, and is also critical to the biology and adaptation of deep-sea organisms. This article presents an overview of the effect of pressure on the mesostructure of lipid membranes, bilayer organization and lipid–protein assemblies. It also summarizes recent developments in high-pressure structural instrumentation suitable for experiments on membranes.

  11. The effect of air flow, panel curvature, and internal pressurization on field-incidence transmission loss. [acoustic propagation through aircraft fuselage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koval, L. R.

    1975-01-01

    In the context of sound transmission through aircraft fuselage panels, equations for the field-incidence transmission loss (TL) of a single-walled panel are derived that include the effects of external air flow, panel curvature, and internal fuselage pressurization. These effects are incorporated into the classical equations for the TL of single panels, and the resulting double integral for field-incidence TL is numerically evaluated for a specific set of parameters.

  12. The effect of isotopic mass on the velocity of sound in liquid Li

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAlister, S.P.; Crozier, E.D.; Cochran, J.F.

    1976-01-01

    Results are presented for the velocity of ultrasound in liquid 6 Li- 7 Li alloys of composition 4.5, 49.7 and 99.9 at % Li for temperatures up to 700 0 C. At the melting point the ratio of the velocity of sound in 6 Li to that in 7 Li was found within experimental error to equal (M 7 /M 6 )sup(1/2), the result expected for classical liquids which differ only in the isotopic mass M. In the alloy of 49.7 at % 7 Li the sound velocity exceeded by 0.6% the value expected for a thermodynamically ideal alloy. This result is discussed in terms of the theoretical treatment by Parrinello et al, (J. Phys. C.: Solid St. Phys.; 7:2577 (1974)) of collective excitations in binary isotopic fluids. (author)

  13. Numerical simulation of the effects of hanging sound absorbers on TABS cooling performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rage, Nils; Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2016-01-01

    simulating a two-person office of 20 m2, with a typical cooling load of 42 W/m2. The results show that covering 60% of the ceiling surface with sound absorbers hanging at 300 mm from the ceiling active deck is expected to reduce the cooling capacity coefficient of TABS by 15.8%. This drops to 25......Recently there has been a considerable increase in the use of Thermally-Active Building Systems (TABS) in Europe as an energy-efficient and economical cooling and heating solution for buildings. However, this widespread solution requires large uncovered hard surfaces indoors, which can lead...... to a degradation of the room acoustic comfort. Therefore, challenges arise when this system has to be combined with acoustic requirements. Soffit-hanging sound absorbers embody a promising solution. This study focuses on quantifying their impact on the cooling performance of TABS, assessed by means of the cooling...

  14. Effect of pressure on thermal expansion of UNiGa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, F.; Andreev, A.V.; Havela, L.; Prokes, K.; Sechovsky, V.

    1997-01-01

    The thermal expansion of single crystalline UNiGa has been measured along the crystallographic axes (a and c) under pressures up to 1.1 GPa. The linear thermal expansion both in the paramagnetic and antiferromagnetic ranges is strongly anisotropic. The antiferromagnetic ordering is accompanied by considerable (10 -4 ) linear spontaneous magnetostrictions (along the a- and c-axis) of different signs (-0.8 x 10 -4 and 1.8 x 10 -4 ). The mutual compensation of these two effects causes the volume effect to be rather small (∝10 -5 ). Two of the four magnetic phase transitions in UNiGa indicated by the expansion anomalies under ambient pressure are suppressed by pressures above 0.5 GPa. Results of our experiments allow to construct a pressure-temperature (p-T) magnetic phase diagram. (orig.)

  15. Pressure effects on magnetism in the uranium and neptunium monopnictides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braithwaite, D.; Demuer, A.; Ichas, V.; Rebizant, J.; Spirlet, J.C.; Zwirner, S.; Vogt, O.

    1998-01-01

    The magnetic properties of the cubic NaCl uranium and neptunium monopnictides (UX, NpX; X=N, P, As, Sb, Bi) have been widely studied at ambient pressure. Properties ranging from itinerant to localized magnetism, and a variety of ordered magnetic structures have been observed. In particular the profusion of non-collinear double-k or triple-k structures is a consequence of strongly anisotropic exchange interactions. The application of pressure is a clean way of continuously varying the lattice parameter, and the exchange interactions, from one compound to another. A number of studies have been performed using different high pressure techniques. Some of the effects of pressure can be understood in a simple picture of a continuous variation of the lattice parameter, but some highly anomalous effects are also found which are discussed in relation to the possible nature of the magnetic interactions. (orig.)

  16. Effect of overtime work on 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, T; Kobayashi, Y; Yamaoka, K; Yano, E

    1996-10-01

    Recently, the adverse effects of long working hours on the cardiovascular systems of workers in Japan, including "Karoshi" (death from overwork), have been the focus of social concern. However, conventional methods of health checkups are often unable to detect the early signs of such adverse effects. To evaluate the influence of overtime work on the cardiovascular system, we compared 24-hour blood pressure measurements among several groups of male white-collar workers. As a result, for those with normal blood pressure and those with mild hypertension, the 24-hour average blood pressure of the overtime groups was higher than that of the control groups; for those who periodically did overtime work, the 24-hour average blood pressure and heart rate during the busy period increased. These results indicate that the burden on the cardiovascular system of white-collar workers increases with overtime work.

  17. Synergistic effect of high pressure processing and Lactobacillus casei antimicrobial activity against pressure resistant Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hyun-Jung; Yousef, Ahmed E

    2010-09-30

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate combinations of high pressure processing (HPP) and Lactobacillus casei antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes strains with variation in pressure resistance in culture and in a food model. In culture, combination of HPP (350 MPa, for 1-20 min) and Lb. casei cell extract (CE, 32 CEAU/ml) showed a significant synergistic bactericidal effect (P5 log(10)CFU/ml. Synergy between CE and HPP was most evident in the pressure-resistant strain, OSY-8578. Similar result was observed in meat products where high pressure (500 MPa for 1 min), and high-activity CE (100 CEAU/g) caused >5 log reduction in the viability of L. monocytogenes Scott A. The combination treatment resulted in the absence of peaks associated with cellular components in DSC thermogram suggesting that the presence of CE may have caused a considerable damage to cellular components during the high pressure treatment. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Mechanical effects on the reactor pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goeller, B.; Krieg, R.; Stach, T.

    1995-01-01

    The mechanical RPV effects of a steam explosion are to be studied in an experimental program focusing on the BERDA tests. The BERDA facility has been completed. The analytical avaluation is difficult. Therefore the similarity attainable between the fluid/structure bouncing phenomena on different scales is investigated by the FLIPPER experiments. For an analytical description of the problem a model was used which had beeen developed by the CEA for the PLEXUS code. It is based on a discretization of the fluid plug by an assembly of spheres. The computational results, however, do not compare well with the FLIPPER tests and are also in disagreement with the continuum theoretical SLUGDY model. (orig.)

  19. The effect of multimicrophone noise reduction systems on sound source localization by users of binaural hearing aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Bogaert, Tim; Doclo, Simon; Wouters, Jan; Moonen, Marc

    2008-07-01

    This paper evaluates the influence of three multimicrophone noise reduction algorithms on the ability to localize sound sources. Two recently developed noise reduction techniques for binaural hearing aids were evaluated, namely, the binaural multichannel Wiener filter (MWF) and the binaural multichannel Wiener filter with partial noise estimate (MWF-N), together with a dual-monaural adaptive directional microphone (ADM), which is a widely used noise reduction approach in commercial hearing aids. The influence of the different algorithms on perceived sound source localization and their noise reduction performance was evaluated. It is shown that noise reduction algorithms can have a large influence on localization and that (a) the ADM only preserves localization in the forward direction over azimuths where limited or no noise reduction is obtained; (b) the MWF preserves localization of the target speech component but may distort localization of the noise component. The latter is dependent on signal-to-noise ratio and masking effects; (c) the MWF-N enables correct localization of both the speech and the noise components; (d) the statistical Wiener filter approach introduces a better combination of sound source localization and noise reduction performance than the ADM approach.

  20. Transfer Effect of Speech-sound Learning on Auditory-motor Processing of Perceived Vocal Pitch Errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhaocong; Wong, Francis C K; Jones, Jeffery A; Li, Weifeng; Liu, Peng; Chen, Xi; Liu, Hanjun

    2015-08-17

    Speech perception and production are intimately linked. There is evidence that speech motor learning results in changes to auditory processing of speech. Whether speech motor control benefits from perceptual learning in speech, however, remains unclear. This event-related potential study investigated whether speech-sound learning can modulate the processing of feedback errors during vocal pitch regulation. Mandarin speakers were trained to perceive five Thai lexical tones while learning to associate pictures with spoken words over 5 days. Before and after training, participants produced sustained vowel sounds while they heard their vocal pitch feedback unexpectedly perturbed. As compared to the pre-training session, the magnitude of vocal compensation significantly decreased for the control group, but remained consistent for the trained group at the post-training session. However, the trained group had smaller and faster N1 responses to pitch perturbations and exhibited enhanced P2 responses that correlated significantly with their learning performance. These findings indicate that the cortical processing of vocal pitch regulation can be shaped by learning new speech-sound associations, suggesting that perceptual learning in speech can produce transfer effects to facilitating the neural mechanisms underlying the online monitoring of auditory feedback regarding vocal production.

  1. Effects of pressure on thermal transport in plutonium oxide powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bielenberg, Patricia; Prenger, F. Coyne; Veirs, Douglas Kirk; Jones, Jerry

    2004-01-01

    Radial temperature profiles in plutonium oxide (PuO 2 ) powder were measured in a cylindrical vessel over a pressure range of 0.055 to 334.4 kPa with two different fill gases, helium and argon. The fine PuO 2 powder provides a very uniform self-heating medium amenable to relatively simple mathematical descriptions. At low pressures ( 2 powder has small particle sizes (on the order of 1 to 10 μm), random particle shapes, and high porosity so a more general model was required for this system. The model correctly predicts the temperature profiles of the powder over the wide pressure range for both argon and helium as fill gases. The effective thermal conductivity of the powder bed exhibits a pressure dependence at higher pressures because the pore sizes in the interparticle contact area are relatively small (less than 1 μm) and the Knudsen number remains above the continuum limit at these conditions for both fill gases. Also, the effective thermal conductivity with argon as a fill gas is higher than expected at higher pressures because the solid pathways account for over 80% of the effective powder conductivity. The results obtained from this model help to bring insight to the thermal conductivity of very fine ceramic powders with different fill gases.

  2. Microflown based monopole sound sources for reciprocal measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bree, H.E. de; Basten, T.G.H.

    2008-01-01

    Monopole sound sources (i.e. omni directional sound sources with a known volume velocity) are essential for reciprocal measurements used in vehicle interior panel noise contribution analysis. Until recently, these monopole sound sources use a sound pressure transducer sensor as a reference sensor. A

  3. Effects of the imposed pressure differential conditions on duoplasmatron performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oztarhan, A.

    1988-01-01

    The duoplasmatron plasma source (D.P.T.) was modified to allow access to the arc discharge (to measure the discharge properties) and to vary independently the pressures in different volumes of the arc with the aim of seeing if this freedom would help in optimising the output. The duoplasmatron plasma source was operated under normal running condition (N.R.C.), positive imposed pressure differential condition (P.I.P.D.C.) and negative imposed pressure differential condition (N.I.P.D.C.) and the corresponding properties of the plasma output were measured. Running the duoplasmatron under P.I.P.D. condition did not seem to improve the output as compared to that under N.R.C. However, running the duoplasmatron under N.I.P.D. condition seemed to be advantageous as the output increased by about 30%. It was observed that the back pressure was critical in maintaining the arc and the gap pressure could be lowered much below the normal minimum (while the arc was on) if back pressure was kept above a critical value. The results showed that the effects of varying the dimensions of the intermediate electrode nozzle on the output could be understood in terms of the effect of changes in these dimensions on the relative pressures. An empirical expression for the effect of the pressure ratio was developed from the observations and compared with the experimental results. The reasons for various results can be related to the plasma emission mechanism. (author). 8 refs, 6 figs, 1 tab

  4. Effect of pressure fluctuations on Richtmyer-Meshkov coherent structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmick, Aklant K.; Abarzhi, Snezhana

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the formation and evolution of Richtmyer Meshkov bubbles after the passage of a shock wave across a two fluid interface in the presence of pressure fluctuations. The fluids are ideal and incompressible and the pressure fluctuations are scale invariant in space and time, and are modeled by a power law time dependent acceleration field with exponent -2. Solutions indicate sensitivity to pressure fluctuations. In the linear regime, the growth of curvature and bubble velocity is linear. The growth rate is dominated by the initial velocity for weak pressure fluctuations, and by the acceleration term for strong pressure fluctuations. In the non-linear regime, the bubble curvature is constant and the solutions form a one parameter family (parametrized by the bubble curvature). The solutions are shown to be convergent and asymptotically stable. The physical solution (stable fastest growing) is a flat bubble for small pressure fluctuations and a curved bubble for large pressure fluctuations. The velocity field (in the frame of references accounting for the background motion) involves intense motion of the fluids in a vicinity of the interface, effectively no motion of the fluids away from the interfaces, and formation of vortical structures at the interface. The work is supported by the US National Science Foundation.

  5. Warm Pressurant Gas Effects on the Liquid Hydrogen Bubble Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, Jason W.; McQuillen, John B.; Chato, David J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents experimental results for the liquid hydrogen bubble point tests using warm pressurant gases conducted at the Cryogenic Components Cell 7 facility at the NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. The purpose of the test series was to determine the effect of elevating the temperature of the pressurant gas on the performance of a liquid acquisition device. Three fine mesh screen samples (325 x 2300, 450 x 2750, 510 x 3600) were tested in liquid hydrogen using cold and warm noncondensible (gaseous helium) and condensable (gaseous hydrogen) pressurization schemes. Gases were conditioned from 0 to 90 K above the liquid temperature. Results clearly indicate a degradation in bubble point pressure using warm gas, with a greater reduction in performance using condensable over noncondensible pressurization. Degradation in the bubble point pressure is inversely proportional to screen porosity, as the coarsest mesh demonstrated the highest degradation. Results here have implication on both pressurization and LAD system design for all future cryogenic propulsion systems. A detailed review of historical heated gas tests is also presented for comparison to current results.

  6. Effect of Dynamic Pressure on the Performance of Thermoacoustic Refrigerator with Aluminium (Al) Resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Bheemsha; Nayak, B. Ramesh; Shivakumara, N. V.

    2018-04-01

    In practice the refrigerants are being used in the conventional refrigeration system to get the required cooling effect. These refrigerants produce Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and Hydro chlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) which are highly harmful to the environment, particularly depleting of ozone layers resulting in green house emissions. In order to overcome these effects, the research needs to be focused on the development of an ecofriendly refrigeration system. The thermoacoustic refrigeration system is one among such system where the sound waves are used to compress and expand the gas particles. This study focuses on the effect of dynamic pressure on the thermoacoustic refrigerator made of aluminium with overall length of 748.82 mm, and the entire inner surface of the resonator tube was coated with 2mm thickness of polyurethane to minimize the heat losses to the atmosphere. Experiments were conducted with different stack geometries i.e. parallel plates having 0.119 mm thick with spacing between the plates maintained at 0.358 mm, 1mm diameter pipes, 2mm diameter pipes and 4 mm diameter pipes. Experiments were also conducted with different drive ratios of 0.6%, 1% and 1.6% for a constant dynamic pressure of 2 bar and 10 bar for helium and air as working medium. The results were plotted with the help of graphs, the variation of coefficient of performance (COP) and the relative coefficient of performance (COPR) for the above said conditions were calculated.

  7. Integrative Strategy for Effective Teaching of Density and Pressure in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Integrative Strategy for Effective Teaching of Density and Pressure in Senior Secondary Schools: A Guide to Physics teachers. U Stephen, J T Mkpanang. Abstract. The problem of many teachers throughout the world is not what to teach but how to teach what. In this paper, integrative strategy for effective teaching of density ...

  8. The effects of occupational noise on blood pressure and heart rate of workers in an automotive parts industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantary, Saba; Dehghani, Ali; Yekaninejad, Mir Saeed; Omidi, Leila; Rahimzadeh, Mitra

    2015-07-01

    One of the most important impacts of industrial noise is physiological and psychological effects. The increases in workers' blood pressure and heart rate were detected during and after exposure to high levels of noise. The objectives of this research were to determine whether the noise exposures have any effects on blood pressure and heart rate of workers in the automotive parts industry. This case study was done in 2011 at different units of an automotive parts manufacturing in Tehran. Sound pressure level was measured at different units of the factory with a calibrated instrument. Demographic features of workers were gathered with an appropriate questionnaire. Heart rate and blood pressure were measured twice in a day in the start time of work day (before exposure to noise) and middle shift hours (during exposure to noise) in the occupational physician office. For analyzing data, chi-square, independent sample t-test, paired t-test, and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) were used. P industrial noise may increase the heart rate of workers. Although rises in heart rate, systolic, and diastolic blood pressure of workers in the case group were observed after exposure to noise, the values of heart rate, systolic, and diastolic blood pressure were in the normal range. Further experimental investigations are needed to determine the relationships between these variables.

  9. Effect of high pressure hydrogen on low-cycle fatigue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rie, K.T.; Kohler, W.

    1979-01-01

    It has been shown that the fatigue life can be influenced in low-cycle range by high pressure hydrogen while the effect of high pressure hydrogen on high-cycle fatigue will not be as significant. The paper reports the details and the results of the investigations of the effect of high pressure hydrogen on the low-cycle endurance of commercially pure titanium. The results of this study indicate that: 1. The degradation of the fatigue life in low-cycle region for commercially pure titanium under high pressure hydrogen can be described by Nsub(cr)sup(α x Δepsilon)sub(pl)sup(=c) 2. The fatigue life decreases with decreasing strain rate. 3. The fatigue life decreases with increasing hydrogen pressure. It was found that the semilogarithmic plot of the fatigue life versus the hydrogen pressure gives a linear relationship. The Sievert's law does not hold in low-cycle fatigue region. 4. HAC in titanium in low-cycle fatigue region is the result of the disolution of hydrogen at the crack tip and of the strain-induced hybride formation. (orig.) 891 RW/orig. 892 RKD [de

  10. Pressure effects on the thermal stability of silicon carbide fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaskowiak, Martha H.; Dicarlo, James A.

    1989-01-01

    Commercially available polymer derived SiC fibers were treated at temperatures from 1000 to 2200 C in vacuum and argon gas pressure of 1 and 1360 atm. Effects of gas pressure on the thermal stability of the fibers were determined through property comparison between the pressure treated fibers and vacuum treated fibers. Investigation of the thermal stability included studies of the fiber microstructure, weight loss, grain growth, and tensile strength. The 1360 atm argon gas treatment was found to shift the onset of fiber weight loss from 1200 to above 1500 C. Grain growth and tensile strength degradation were correlated with weight loss and were thus also inhibited by high pressure treatments. Additional heat treatment in 1 atm argon of the fibers initially treated at 1360 atm argon caused further weight loss and tensile strength degradation, thus indicating that high pressure inert gas conditions would be effective only in delaying fiber strength degradation. However, if the high gas pressure could be maintained throughout composite fabrication, then the composites could be processed at higher temperatures.

  11. ATMOSPHERE PRESSURE EFFECT ON THE FIBER OPTIC GYROSCOPE OUTPUT SYGNAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya A. Sharkov

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes research results of the atmospheric pressure effect on the output signal of a fiber optic gyroscope (FOG. In the course of experiments, FOG was placed into a hermetic chamber. The atmosphere pressure was varying in the range from 0.8 to 1.5 atm. All the data, including the FOG output signal, temperature, and data from the pressure sensor installed inside the FOG, were synchronously registered with the computer software. The separation of scale factor change from zero offset in the experiment was carried out by setting the sensitive FOG axis at 0°, 90° and 270° relative to the East (the FOG was set perpendicular to the horizon. After the data processing it was concluded that the FOG signal error associated with the pressure affects mainly on the additive component. The pressure effect on the multiplicative component appeared to be negligible at rotational velocities used in the experiment (0 - 130 /h. At the same time, the FOG signal has a high linear correlation coefficient with the derivative of pressure over time (in some cases, more than 0.9. The experiment was repeated several times and the high degree of the drift repeatability was shown. That makes it possible to implement the compensation algorithm. Application of the simplest algorithmic compensation based on the polynomial of the first degree (ax + b enabled to reduce the root-mean-square (RMS and drift of the signal by 2-9 times.

  12. On the permanent hip-stabilizing effect of atmospheric pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prietzel, Torsten; Hammer, Niels; Schleifenbaum, Stefan; Kaßebaum, Eric; Farag, Mohamed; von Salis-Soglio, Georg

    2014-08-22

    Hip joint dislocations related to total hip arthroplasty (THA) are a common complication especially in the early postoperative course. The surgical approach, the alignment of the prosthetic components, the range of motion and the muscle tone are known factors influencing the risk of dislocation. A further factor that is discussed until today is atmospheric pressure which is not taken into account in the present THA concepts. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of atmospheric pressure on hip joint stability. Five joint models (Ø 28-44 mm), consisting of THA components were hermetically sealed with a rubber capsule, filled with a defined amount of fluid and exposed to varying ambient pressure. Displacement and pressure sensors were used to record the extent of dislocation related to intraarticular and ambient pressure. In 200 experiments spontaneous dislocations of the different sized joint models were reliably observed once the ambient pressure was lower than 6.0 kPa. Increasing the ambient pressure above 6.0 kPa immediately and persistently reduced the joint models until the ambient pressure was lowered again. Displacement always exceeded half the diameter of the joint model and was independent of gravity effects. This experimental study gives strong evidence that the hip joint is permanently stabilized by atmospheric pressure, confirming the theories of Weber and Weber (1836). On basis of these findings the use of larger prosthetic heads, capsular repair and the deployment of an intracapsular Redon drain are proposed to substantially decrease the risk of dislocation after THA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Transient heating effects in high pressure Diesel injector nozzles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strotos, George; Koukouvinis, Phoevos; Theodorakakos, Andreas; Gavaises, Manolis; Bergeles, George

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Simulation of friction-induced heating in high pressure Diesel fuel injectors. • Injection pressures up to 3000 bar. • Simulations with variable fuel properties significantly affect predictions. • Needle motion affects flow and temperature fields. • Possible heterogeneous boiling as injection pressures increase above 2000 bar. - Abstract: The tendency of today’s fuel injection systems to reach injection pressures up to 3000 bar in order to meet forthcoming emission regulations may significantly increase liquid temperatures due to friction heating; this paper identifies numerically the importance of fuel pressurization, phase-change due to cavitation, wall heat transfer and needle valve motion on the fluid heating induced in high pressure Diesel fuel injectors. These parameters affect the nozzle discharge coefficient (C d ), fuel exit temperature, cavitation volume fraction and temperature distribution within the nozzle. Variable fuel properties, being a function of the local pressure and temperature are found necessary in order to simulate accurately the effects of depressurization and heating induced by friction forces. Comparison of CFD predictions against a 0-D thermodynamic model, indicates that although the mean exit temperature increase relative to the initial fuel temperature is proportional to (1 − C d 2 ) at fixed needle positions, it can significantly deviate from this value when the motion of the needle valve, controlling the opening and closing of the injection process, is taken into consideration. Increasing the inlet pressure from 2000 bar, which is the pressure utilized in today’s fuel systems to 3000 bar, results to significantly increased fluid temperatures above the boiling point of the Diesel fuel components and therefore regions of potential heterogeneous fuel boiling are identified

  14. The pressure-dependent MR effect of magnetorheological elastomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Xufeng; Qi, Min; Chen, Ran; Ma, Ning; Li, Jinhai; Ou, Jinping

    2012-01-01

    The mechanism for the influence of the normal pressure on the magnetic-induced shear modulus of magnetorheological elastomers (MREs) was analyzed. Pre-structured MRE samples with 30% micro-sized (∼4 μm) carbonyl iron particles by volume fraction and silicon rubber were prepared under a constant magnetic field of 200 kA m −1 . A parallel-plate MR rheometer was used to conduct dynamic measurements. Under constant strain amplitude (1%) and frequency (10 Hz), different normal pressures (32–128 kPa) were applied on the samples to investigate the normal pressure-dependence properties of MREs. The results indicated that as the normal pressure increases, the magnetic-induced shear modulus of an MRE increases, while the relative MR effect decreases. (paper)

  15. Effect of gas pressure on active screen plasma nitriding response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimoto, Akio; Nagatsuka, Kimiaki; Narita, Ryota; Nii, Hiroaki; Akamatsu, Katsuya

    2010-01-01

    An austenitic stainless steel AISI 304 was active screen plasma nitrided using a 304 steel screen to investigate the effect of the gas pressure on the ASPN response. The sample was treated for 18 ks at 723 K in 25% N2 + 75% H2 gases. The gas pressure was changed to 100, 600 and 1200 Pa. The distance between screen and sample was also changed to 10, 30 and 50 mm. The nitrided samples were characterized by appearance observation, surface roughness, optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and microhardness testing. After nitriding, polygonal particles with a normal distribution were observed at the center and edges of all the ASPN-treated sample surfaces. Particles on the sample surfaces were finer with an increase in the gas pressure. The nitrided layer with a greater and homogeneous thickness was obtained at a low gas pressure of 100 Pa. (author)

  16. Sound therapies for tinnitus management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastreboff, Margaret M

    2007-01-01

    Many people with bothersome (suffering) tinnitus notice that their tinnitus changes in different acoustical surroundings, it is more intrusive in silence and less profound in the sound enriched environments. This observation led to the development of treatment methods for tinnitus utilizing sound. Many of these methods are still under investigation in respect to their specific protocol and effectiveness and only some have been objectively evaluated in clinical trials. This chapter will review therapies for tinnitus using sound stimulation.

  17. On cloud ice induced absorption and polarisation effects in microwave limb sounding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Eriksson

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Microwave limb sounding in the presence of ice clouds was studied by detailed simulations, where clouds and other atmospheric variables varied in three dimensions and the full polarisation state was considered. Scattering particles were assumed to be horizontally aligned oblate spheroids with a size distribution parameterized in terms of temperature and ice water content. A general finding was that particle absorption is significant for limb sounding, which is in contrast to the down-looking case, where it is usually insignificant. Another general finding was that single scattering can be assumed for cloud optical paths below about 0.1, which is thus an important threshold with respect to the complexity and accuracy of retrieval algorithms. The representation of particle sizes during the retrieval is also discussed. Concerning polarisation, specific findings were as follows: Firstly, no significant degree of circular polarisation was found for the considered particle type. Secondly, for the ±45° polarisation components, differences of up to 4 K in brightness temperature were found, but differences were much smaller when single scattering conditions applied. Thirdly, the vertically polarised component has the smallest cloud extinction. An important goal of the study was to derive recommendations for future limb sounding instruments, particularly concerning their polarisation setup. If ice water content is among the retrieval targets (and not just trace gas mixing ratios, then the simulations show that it should be best to observe any of the ±45° and circularly polarised components. These pairs of orthogonal components also make it easier to combine information measured from different positions and with different polarisations.

  18. Influence of effective stress on swelling pressure of expansive soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baille Wiebke

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The volume change and shear strength behaviour of soils are controlled by the effective stress. Recent advances in unsaturated soil mechanics have shown that the effective stress as applicable to unsaturated soils is equal to the difference between the externally applied stress and the suction stress. The latter can be established based on the soil-water characteristic curve (SWCC of the soil. In the present study, the evolution of swelling pressure in compacted bentonite-sand mixtures was investigated. Comparisons were made between magnitudes of applied suction, suction stress, and swelling pressure.

  19. Magnetic pressure effects in a plasma-liner interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rubio, F.; Sanz, J.

    2018-04-01

    A theoretical analysis of magnetic pressure effects in a magnetized liner inertial fusion-like plasma is presented. In previous publications [F. García-Rubio and J. Sanz, Phys. Plasmas 24, 072710 (2017)], the evolution of a hot magnetized plasma in contact with a cold unmagnetized plasma, aiming to represent the hot spot and liner, respectively, was investigated in planar geometry. The analysis was made in a double limit low Mach and high thermal to magnetic pressure ratio β. In this paper, the analysis is extended to an arbitrary pressure ratio. Nernst, Ettingshausen, and Joule effects come into play in the energy balance. The region close to the liner is governed by thermal conduction, while the Joule dissipation becomes predominant far from it when the pressure ratio is low. Mass ablation, thermal energy, and magnetic flux losses are reduced with plasma magnetization, characterized by the electron Hall parameter ω e τ e , until β values of order unity are reached. From this point forward, increasing the electron Hall parameter no longer improves the magnetic flux conservation, and mass ablation is enhanced due to the magnetic pressure gradients. A thoughtful simplification of the problem that allows to reduce the order of the system of governing equations while still retaining the finite β effects is presented and compared to the exact case.

  20. Experimental studies on radiation effects under high pressure oxygen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimura, E [Osaka Univ. (Japan). School of Dentistry

    1974-06-01

    The effect of oxygen tension on the radiosensitivity of tumor cells is well known, but its clinical application for radiotherapy is not yet established. Rabbits with V x 2 carcinoma in the maxilla were irradiated by /sup 60/Co under high pressure oxygen (experimental group), and compared with those treated in air (control group). For the purpose of examining the clinical effects of high pressure oxygen, an experiment was made in vivo. The following items were compared respectively: a) Tumor regression effect b) Tumor clearance rate c) Survival days d) Half size reduction time e) Inhibition of DNA synthesis in the tumor tissue. Results obtained were as follows: a) 56 per cent of animals showed tumor regression in the experimental group, whereas it occured 26 per cent in the control group. b) 53 per cent of animals showed tumor disappearance in the experimental group, while it was observed only in 13 per cent in the control group. c) Only 2 of 30 rabbits irradiated in air survived over 180 days, whereas 11 of 30 rabbits survived meanwhile in the group irradiated under high pressure oxygen. d) About 11 days were necessary to reduce the tumor size by half after irradiation in the group under high pressure oxygen, while it took 17 days in the group treated in normal air. e) DNA synthesis was inhibited more prominently in the group irradiated under high pressure oxygen in normal air.

  1. Temperature effect compensation for fast differential pressure decay testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Yan; Tong, Xiaomeng; Cai, Maolin

    2014-01-01

    To avoid the long temperature recovery period with differential pressure decay for leak detection, a novel method with temperature effect compensation is proposed to improve the testing efficiency without full stabilization of temperature. The mathematical model of conventional differential pressure decay testing is established to analyze the changes of temperature and pressure during the measuring period. Then the differential pressure is divided into two parts: the exponential part caused by temperature recovery and the linear part caused by leak. With prior information obtained from samples, parameters of the exponential part can be identified precisely, and the temperature effect will be compensated before it fully recovers. To verify the effect of the temperature compensated method, chambers with different volumes are tested under various pressures and the experiments show that the improved method is faster with satisfactory precision, and an accuracy less than 0.25 cc min −1  can be achieved when the compensation time is proportional to four times the theoretical thermal-time constant. (paper)

  2. Sound production treatment for acquired apraxia of speech: Effects of blocked and random practice on multisyllabic word production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wambaugh, Julie; Nessler, Christina; Wright, Sandra; Mauszycki, Shannon; DeLong, Catharine

    2016-10-01

    This study was designed to examine the effects of practice schedule, blocked vs random, on outcomes of a behavioural treatment for acquired apraxia of speech (AOS), Sound Production Treatment (SPT). SPT was administered to four speakers with chronic AOS and aphasia in the context of multiple baseline designs across behaviours and participants. Treatment was applied to multiple sound errors within three-to-five syllable words. All participants received both practice schedules: SPT-Random (SPT-R) and SPT-Blocked (SPT-B). Improvements in accuracy of word production for trained items were found for both treatment conditions for all participants. One participant demonstrated better maintenance effects associated with SPT-R. Response generalisation to untreated words varied across participants, but was generally modest and unstable. Stimulus generalisation to production of words in sentence completion was positive for three of the participants. Stimulus generalisation to production of phrases was positive for two of the participants. Findings provide additional efficacy data regarding SPT's effects on articulation of treated items and extend knowledge of the treatment's effects when applied to multiple targets within multisyllabic words.

  3. Effects of fasting on Blood pressure in normotensive males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Samad

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Muslims all over the world fast in the holy month of Ramadan. Fasting means abstinence from drinking any liquids, eating, smoking and taking anything parenterally.  It is intermittent in nature from the start of dawn to end at dusk. Fasting has various physiological effects on different biological parameters of the human body. Previous studies that look at effect of Ramadan fasting on blood pressure have focused mainly on hypertensive patients and patients with already established heart disease.(1,2There is very limited data regarding the effect of fasting on the normal population. (3,4 A few previous studies have advocated a hypotensive role of fasting.(5 In our study published in Journal of Ayub Medical College Abbottabad (JAMC in 2015, “Effects of Ramadan Fasting on Blood pressure in normotensive males”, we investigated the effect of Ramadan fasting on blood pressure of normotensive men. We conducted a repeated measure observational study in Karachi, Pakistan on 70 individuals who were normotensive, non-smokers between the ages of 18–50 years. . Blood pressure, pulse, BMI of each participant was recorded one week before the start of Ramadan and in the first, second and third week of Ramadan. The results of our study show that intermittent fasting has a hypotensive effect in normotensive males as proven in animal models and certain human population. There was an average drop of 8/3 mmHg and while the results are significant, their clinical relevance needs to be analysed. Studies on animal models have suggested atrial natriuretic peptide, catecholamines, opiates and body mass index as possible reasons for the decrease in blood pressure due to fasting.(3, 6  Dewanti et al suggested that the cause of drop in blood pressure was the drop in BMI however in our study we found that a drop in BMI only occurred before Iftar towards the end of the fast. There was no significant drop in post-Iftar BMI although there was a significant drop in blood

  4. The effects of polarized light therapy in pressure ulcer healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurović Aleksandar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Neglecting polarized light as an adjuvant therapy for pressure ulcers and methodology distinctions in the trials engaging polarized light are the reasons for many dilemmas and contradictions. The aim of this study was to establish the effects of polarized light therapy in pressure ulcer healing. Methods. This prospective randomized single-blind study involved 40 patients with stage I-III of pressure ulcer. The patients in the experimental group (E were subjected, besides polarized light therapy, to standard wound cleaning and dressing. Standard wound cleaning and dressing were the only treatment used in the control group (C. A polarized light source was a Bioptron lamp. Polarized light therapy was applied for six min daily, five times a week, four weeks. The Pressure Ulcer Scale for Healing (PUSH was used in the assessment of outcome. Statistic analysis included Mann Whitney Test, Fisher Exact Test, Wilcoxon Signed Rank test. Results. There were significant differences between the groups at the end of the treatment regarding the surface of pressure ulcer (E: 10.80±19.18; C: 22,97±25,47; p = 0.0005, rank of pressure ulcer (E: 5.90±2.48; C: 8.6±1.05; p = 0.0005 and total PUSH score (E: 7.35±3.17; C: 11.85±2.35; p = 0,0003. The patients in the experimental group had significantly better values of the parameters monitored than the patients in the control group. Conclusion. After a four-week polarized light therapy 20 patients with stage I-III ulcer had significant improvement in pressure ulcer healing, so it could be useful to apply polarized light in the treatment of pressure ulcers.

  5. The effects of polarized light therapy in pressure ulcer healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durović, Aleksandar; Marić, Dragan; Brdareski, Zorica; Jevtić, Miodrag; Durdević, Slavisa

    2008-12-01

    Neglecting polarized light as an adjuvant therapy for pressure ulcers and methodology distinctions in the trials engaging polarized light are the reasons for many dilemmas and contradictions. The aim of this study was to establish the effects of polarized light therapy in pressure ulcer healing. This prospective randomized single-blind study involved 40 patients with stage I-III of pressure ulcer. The patients in the experimental group (E) were subjected, besides polarized light therapy, to standard wound cleaning and dressing. Standard wound cleaning and dressing were the only treatment used in the control group (C). A polarized light source was a Bioptron lamp. Polarized light therapy was applied for six min daily, five times a week, four weeks. The Pressure Ulcer Scale for Healing (PUSH) was used in the assessment of outcome. Statistic analysis included Mann Whitney Test, Fisher Exact Test, Wilcoxon Signed Rank test. There were significant differences between the groups at the end of the treatment regarding the surface of pressure ulcer (E: 10.80 +/- 19.18; C: 22,97 +/- 25,47; p = 0.0005), rank of pressure ulcer (E: 5.90 +/- 2.48; C: 8.6 +/- 1.05; p = 0.0005) and total PUSH score (E: 7.35 +/- 3.17; C: 11.85 +/- 2.35; p = 0,0003). The patients in the experimental group had significantly better values of the parameters monitored than the patients in the control group. After a four-week polarized light therapy 20 patients with stage I-III ulcer had significant improvement in pressure ulcer healing, so it could be useful to apply polarized light in the treatment of pressure ulcers.

  6. Sound Velocity in Soap Foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Gong-Tao; Lü Yong-Jun; Liu Peng-Fei; Li Yi-Ning; Shi Qing-Fan

    2012-01-01

    The velocity of sound in soap foams at high gas volume fractions is experimentally studied by using the time difference method. It is found that the sound velocities increase with increasing bubble diameter, and asymptotically approach to the value in air when the diameter is larger than 12.5 mm. We propose a simple theoretical model for the sound propagation in a disordered foam. In this model, the attenuation of a sound wave due to the scattering of the bubble wall is equivalently described as the effect of an additional length. This simplicity reasonably reproduces the sound velocity in foams and the predicted results are in good agreement with the experiments. Further measurements indicate that the increase of frequency markedly slows down the sound velocity, whereas the latter does not display a strong dependence on the solution concentration

  7. Development of Prediction Tool for Sound Absorption and Sound Insulation for Sound Proof Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshio Kurosawa; Takao Yamaguchi

    2015-01-01

    High frequency automotive interior noise above 500 Hz considerably affects automotive passenger comfort. To reduce this noise, sound insulation material is often laminated on body panels or interior trim panels. For a more effective noise reduction, the sound reduction properties of this laminated structure need to be estimated. We have developed a new calculate tool that can roughly calculate the sound absorption and insulation properties of laminate structure and handy ...

  8. Atmospheric pressure loading effects on Global Positioning System coordinate determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandam, Tonie M.; Blewitt, Geoffrey; Heflin, Michael B.

    1994-01-01

    Earth deformation signals caused by atmospheric pressure loading are detected in vertical position estimates at Global Positioning System (GPS) stations. Surface displacements due to changes in atmospheric pressure account for up to 24% of the total variance in the GPS height estimates. The detected loading signals are larger at higher latitudes where pressure variations are greatest; the largest effect is observed at Fairbanks, Alaska (latitude 65 deg), with a signal root mean square (RMS) of 5 mm. Out of 19 continuously operating GPS sites (with a mean of 281 daily solutions per site), 18 show a positive correlation between the GPS vertical estimates and the modeled loading displacements. Accounting for loading reduces the variance of the vertical station positions on 12 of the 19 sites investigated. Removing the modeled pressure loading from GPS determinations of baseline length for baselines longer than 6000 km reduces the variance on 73 of the 117 baselines investigated. The slight increase in variance for some of the sites and baselines is consistent with expected statistical fluctuations. The results from most stations are consistent with approximately 65% of the modeled pressure load being found in the GPS vertical position measurements. Removing an annual signal from both the measured heights and the modeled load time series leaves this value unchanged. The source of the remaining discrepancy between the modeled and observed loading signal may be the result of (1) anisotropic effects in the Earth's loading response, (2) errors in GPS estimates of tropospheric delay, (3) errors in the surface pressure data, or (4) annual signals in the time series of loading and station heights. In addition, we find that using site dependent coefficients, determined by fitting local pressure to the modeled radial displacements, reduces the variance of the measured station heights as well as or better than using the global convolution sum.

  9. The beat is getting stronger : The effect of atmospheric stability on low frequency modulated sound of wind turbines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, G P

    2005-01-01

    Sound from wind turbines involves a number of sound production mechanisms related to different interactions between the turbine blades and the air. An important contribution to the low frequency part of the sound spectrum is due to the sudden variation in air flow which the blade encounters when it

  10. What’s in a name? The effects of sound symbolism and package shape on consumer responses to food products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fenko, Anna; Lotterman, Henriët; Galetzka, Mirjam

    2016-01-01

    In the global market, consumers are exposed to multiple brand names in unfamiliar languages. Even meaningless words can trigger certain semantic associations. This phenomenon is known as sound symbolism, i.e., the direct link between a sound and a meaning. Sound symbolism helps consumers to form

  11. Pressure effects in Debye-Waller factors and in EXAFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen Van Hung, E-mail: hungnv@vnu.edu.v [University of Science, VNU Hanoi, 334 Nguyen Trai, Thanh Xuan, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Vu Van Hung [Hanoi National University of Education, 136 Xuan Thuy, Cau Giay, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Ho Khac Hieu [University of Science, VNU Hanoi, 334 Nguyen Trai, Thanh Xuan, Hanoi (Viet Nam); National University of Civil Engineering, 55 Giai Phong, Hai Ba Trung, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Frahm, Ronald R. [Bergische Universitaet-Gesamthochschule Wuppertal, FB: 8-Physik, Gauss Strasse 20, 42097 Wuppertal (Germany)

    2011-02-01

    Anharmonic correlated Einstein model (ACEM) and statistical moment method (SMM) have been developed to derive analytical expressions for pressure dependence of the lattice bond length, effective spring constant, correlated Einstein frequency and temperature, Debye-Waller factors (DWF) or second cumulant, first and third cumulants in Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) at a given temperature. Numerical results for pressure-dependent DWF of Kr and Cu agree well with experiment and other theoretical values. Simulated EXAFS of Cu and its Fourier transform magnitude using our calculated pressure-induced change in the 1st shell are found to be in a reasonable agreement with those using X-ray diffraction (XRD) experimental results. -- Research Highlights: {yields} We have developed anharmonic correlated Einstein model and statistical moment method. {yields} The pressure effects in cumulants including DWF and in EXAFS has been investigated. {yields} Calculated pressure-dependent DWF for Kr, Cu agree with experiment and other results. {yields} Simulated EXAFS and Fourier transform magnitude of Cu agree with those using XRD data.

  12. Pressure effects in Debye-Waller factors and in EXAFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Van Hung; Vu Van Hung; Ho Khac Hieu; Frahm, Ronald R.

    2011-01-01

    Anharmonic correlated Einstein model (ACEM) and statistical moment method (SMM) have been developed to derive analytical expressions for pressure dependence of the lattice bond length, effective spring constant, correlated Einstein frequency and temperature, Debye-Waller factors (DWF) or second cumulant, first and third cumulants in Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) at a given temperature. Numerical results for pressure-dependent DWF of Kr and Cu agree well with experiment and other theoretical values. Simulated EXAFS of Cu and its Fourier transform magnitude using our calculated pressure-induced change in the 1st shell are found to be in a reasonable agreement with those using X-ray diffraction (XRD) experimental results. -- Research Highlights: → We have developed anharmonic correlated Einstein model and statistical moment method. → The pressure effects in cumulants including DWF and in EXAFS has been investigated. → Calculated pressure-dependent DWF for Kr, Cu agree with experiment and other results. → Simulated EXAFS and Fourier transform magnitude of Cu agree with those using XRD data.

  13. Effect of hydrostatic pressure on gas solubilization in micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Bin; Ashbaugh, Henry S

    2015-03-24

    Molecular dynamics simulations of anionic sodium decylsulfate and nonionic pentaethylene glycol monodecyl ether micelles in water have been performed to examine the impact of hydrostatic pressure on argon solubilization as a function of pressure. The potential-of-mean force between the micelles and argon demonstrates that nonpolar gases are attracted to the interiors of both micelles. The affinity of argon for micelle interiors, however, decreases with increasing pressure as a result of the comparatively higher molar volume of argon inside assemblies. We evaluate solubility enhancement coefficients, which describe the drop in the solute chemical potential as a function of the micellized surfactant concentration, to quantify the impact of micellization on gas solubilization. While argon is similarly attracted to the hydrophobic cores of both micelles, the gas is more effectively sequestered within nonionic micelles compared with anionic micelles as a result of salting out by charged head groups and accompanying counterions. The solubility enhancement coefficients of both micelles decrease with increasing pressure, reflecting the changing forces observed in the potentials-of-mean force. An analytical liquid drop model is proposed to describe the pressure dependence of argon solubilization within micelles that captures the simulation solubility enhancement coefficients after fitting an effective micelle radius for each surfactant.

  14. Influence of Baseline Diastolic Blood Pressure on Effects of Intensive Compared With Standard Blood Pressure Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beddhu, Srinivasan; Chertow, Glenn M; Cheung, Alfred K; Cushman, William C; Rahman, Mahboob; Greene, Tom; Wei, Guo; Campbell, Ruth C; Conroy, Margaret; Freedman, Barry I; Haley, William; Horwitz, Edward; Kitzman, Dalane; Lash, James; Papademetriou, Vasilios; Pisoni, Roberto; Riessen, Erik; Rosendorff, Clive; Watnick, Suzanne G; Whittle, Jeffrey; Whelton, Paul K

    2018-01-09

    In individuals with a low diastolic blood pressure (DBP), the potential benefits or risks of intensive systolic blood pressure (SBP) lowering are unclear. SPRINT (Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial) was a randomized controlled trial that compared the effects of intensive (target baseline DBP. Mean baseline SBP and DBP were 139.7±15.6 and 78.1±11.9 mm Hg, respectively. Regardless of the randomized treatment, baseline DBP had a U-shaped association with the hazard of the primary cardiovascular disease outcome. However, the effects of the intensive SBP intervention on the primary outcome were not influenced by baseline DBP level ( P for interaction=0.83). The primary outcome hazard ratio for intensive versus standard treatment was 0.78 (95% confidence interval, 0.57-1.07) in the lowest DBP quintile (mean baseline DBP, 61±5 mm Hg) and 0.74 (95% confidence interval, 0.61-0.90) in the upper 4 DBP quintiles (mean baseline DBP, 82±9 mm Hg), with an interaction P value of 0.78. Results were similar for all-cause death and kidney events. Low baseline DBP was associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease events, but there was no evidence that the benefit of the intensive SBP lowering differed by baseline DBP. URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01206062. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Sounds of Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurnett, D. A.

    2005-12-01

    Starting in the early 1960s, spacecraft-borne plasma wave instruments revealed that space is filled with an astonishing variety of radio and plasma wave sounds, which have come to be called "sounds of space." For over forty years these sounds have been collected and played to a wide variety of audiences, often as the result of press conferences or press releases involving various NASA projects for which the University of Iowa has provided plasma wave instruments. This activity has led to many interviews on local and national radio programs, and occasionally on programs haviang world-wide coverage, such as the BBC. As a result of this media coverage, we have been approached many times by composers requesting copies of our space sounds for use in their various projects, many of which involve electronic synthesis of music. One of these collaborations led to "Sun Rings," which is a musical event produced by the Kronos Quartet that has played to large audiences all over the world. With the availability of modern computer graphic techniques we have recently been attempting to integrate some of these sound of space into an educational audio/video web site that illustrates the scientific principles involved in the origin of space plasma waves. Typically I try to emphasize that a substantial gas pressure exists everywhere in space in the form of an ionized gas called a plasma, and that this plasma can lead to a wide variety of wave phenomenon. Examples of some of this audio/video material will be presented.

  16. The Effect of Microphone Placement on Interaural Level Differences and Sound Localization Across the Horizontal Plane in Bilateral Cochlear Implant Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Heath G; Kan, Alan; Litovsky, Ruth Y

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effect of microphone placement on the interaural level differences (ILDs) available to bilateral cochlear implant (BiCI) users, and the subsequent effects on horizontal-plane sound localization. Virtual acoustic stimuli for sound localization testing were created individually for eight BiCI users by making acoustic transfer function measurements for microphones placed in the ear (ITE), behind the ear (BTE), and on the shoulders (SHD). The ILDs across source locations were calculated for each placement to analyze their effect on sound localization performance. Sound localization was tested using a repeated-measures, within-participant design for the three microphone placements. The ITE microphone placement provided significantly larger ILDs compared to BTE and SHD placements, which correlated with overall localization errors. However, differences in localization errors across the microphone conditions were small. The BTE microphones worn by many BiCI users in everyday life do not capture the full range of acoustic ILDs available, and also reduce the change in cue magnitudes for sound sources across the horizontal plane. Acute testing with an ITE placement reduced sound localization errors along the horizontal plane compared to the other placements in some patients. Larger improvements may be observed if patients had more experience with the new ILD cues provided by an ITE placement.

  17. Mossbauer effect studies at pressures to 300 kbar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    In a recent experiment carried out at Los Alamos National Laboratory in collaboration with Prof. Moshe Paz Pasternak of Tel Aviv University, we have used the diamond anvil cell for a Mossbauer effect absorber experiment. A high-atomic-weight gasket material was developed; it served both to contain the pressure and to collimate the 27.8-keV Mossbauer effect gamma rays and nearby K x-rays emitted from the source. Elemental iodine is known to transform with pressure becoming metallic near 160 kbar. Furthermore, it has been reported that I 2 becomes monatomic at about 215 kbar. The Mossbauer effect of iodine-129 was employed to check this latter supposition. The Mossbauer effect ''fingerprint'' of I 2 was found to change slowly with pressure up to about 160 kbar whereupon a new high pressure phase or site began to appear. At 300 kbar the Mossbauer spectrum shows about half of the low temperature phase (I 2 ) is still present. This contradiction with x-ray results and or their interpretation is still under investigation

  18. Effect of simulated pulpal pressure on composite bond strength to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Statistical significance was determined by T-test (p < 0.05). There was a statistically significant difference in the mean microtensile bond strengths between the groups (p < 0.0005). Simulated pulpal pressure had a negative effect on microtensile bond strength of laser ablated dentin when Single Bond adhesive system was ...

  19. Effects of time pressure and accountability to constituents on negotiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mosterd, I.; Rutte, C.G.

    2000-01-01

    A laboratory experiment examined the effects of time pressure (high versus low) and accountability to constituents (not-accountable-to-constituents versus accountable-to-constituents) on the competitiveness of negotiators' interaction and on the outcome (i.e., agreement or impasse) of the

  20. "Deflategate": Time, Temperature, and Moisture Effects on Football Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, Jack; Beljak, Lauren; Macatangay, Dahlia-Marie; Helmuth-Malone, Lilly; McWilliams, Catharina; Raptis, Sofia

    2016-01-01

    In a recent paper in "The Physics Teacher (TPT)", DiLisi and Rarick used the National Football League "Deflategate" controversy to introduce to physics students the physics of a bouncing ball. In this paper, we measure and analyze the environmental effects of time, ambient temperature, and moisture on the internal pressure of…

  1. Effect of stocking pressure on selected diet quality, intake and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABUBAKER

    Effect of different grazing pressures by lambs grazing Lolium perenne and ... Animal productivity and efficiency of production are functions of the level of nutrition, ... among the different parts of a plant, choice of parts can markedly affect a .... is a decline in DM intake per bite and a tendency to increase the time spent grazing.

  2. Some central nervous system and blood pressure lowering effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The methanol extract of the leaves of Spondias mombin (SP) was evaluated for some central nervous system and blood pressure lowering effect in albino wistar rats and mice. The extract was administered to pre-weighed mice (20-35 g), divided into five groups of five mice each at the doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg for the ...

  3. Effect of Training Frequency on Maximum Expiratory Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Supraja; El-Bashiti, Nour; Sapienza, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the effects of expiratory muscle strength training (EMST) frequency on maximum expiratory pressure (MEP). Method: We assigned 12 healthy participants to 2 groups of training frequency (3 days per week and 5 days per week). They completed a 4-week training program on an EMST trainer (Aspire Products, LLC). MEP was the primary…

  4. Comparative Effects of Snoring Sound between Two Minimally Invasive Surgeries in the Treatment of Snoring: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Li-Ang; Yu, Jen-Fang; Lo, Yu-Lun; Chen, Ning-Hung; Fang, Tuan-Jen; Huang, Chung-Guei; Cheng, Wen-Nuan; Li, Hsueh-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Background Minimally invasive surgeries of the soft palate have emerged as a less-invasive treatment for habitual snoring. To date, there is only limited information available comparing the effects of snoring sound between different minimally invasive surgeries in the treatment of habitual snoring. Objective To compare the efficacy of palatal implant and radiofrequency surgery, in the reduction of snoring through subjective evaluation of snoring and objective snoring sound analysis. Patients and Method Thirty patients with habitual snoring due to palatal obstruction (apnea-hypopnea index ≤15, body max index ≤30) were prospectively enrolled and randomized to undergo a single session of palatal implant or temperature-controlled radiofrequency surgery of the soft palate under local anesthesia. Snoring was primarily evaluated by the patient with a 10 cm visual analogue scale (VAS) at baseline and at a 3-month follow-up visit and the change in VAS was the primary outcome. Moreover, life qualities, measured by snore outcomes survey, and full-night snoring sounds, analyzed by a sound analytic program (Snore Map), were also investigated at the same time. Results Twenty-eight patients completed the study; 14 received palatal implant surgery and 14 underwent radiofrequency surgery. The VAS and snore outcomes survey scores were significantly improved in both groups. However, the good response (postoperative VAS ≤3 or postoperative VAS ≤5 plus snore outcomes survey score ≥60) rate of the palatal implant group was significantly higher than that of the radiofrequency group (79% vs. 29%, P = 0.021). The maximal loudness of low-frequency (40–300 Hz) snores was reduced significantly in the palatal implant group. In addition, the snoring index was significantly reduced in the radiofrequency group. Conclusions Both palatal implants and a single-stage radiofrequency surgery improve subjective snoring outcomes, but palatal implants have a greater effect on most measures

  5. Effect of plasma colloid osmotic pressure on intraocular pressure during haemodialysis

    OpenAIRE

    Tokuyama, T.; Ikeda, T.; Sato, K.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND—In a previous case report, it was shown that an increase in plasma colloid osmotic pressure induced by the removal of fluid during haemodialysis was instrumental in decreasing intraocular pressure. The relation between changes in intraocular pressure, plasma osmolarity, plasma colloid osmotic pressure, and body weight before and after haemodialysis is evaluated.
METHODS—Intraocular pressure, plasma osmolarity, plasma colloid osmotic pressure, and body weight were evaluated before a...

  6. Two Dimensional Finite Element Analysis for the Effect of a Pressure Wave in the Human Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce L., Ernesto; Ponce S., Daniel

    2008-11-01

    Brain injuries in people of all ages is a serious, world-wide health problem, with consequences as varied as attention or memory deficits, difficulties in problem-solving, aggressive social behavior, and neuro degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. Brain injuries can be the result of a direct impact, but also pressure waves and direct impulses. The aim of this work is to develop a predictive method to calculate the stress generated in the human brain by pressure waves such as high power sounds. The finite element method is used, combined with elastic wave theory. The predictions of the generated stress levels are compared with the resistance of the arterioles that pervade the brain. The problem was focused to the Chilean mining where there are some accidents happen by detonations and high sound level. There are not formal medical investigation, however these pressure waves could produce human brain damage.

  7. New pressure and temperature effects on bacterial spores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathys, A.; Heinz, V.; Knorr, D.

    2008-07-01

    C, and then dual stained with the fluorescent dyes SYTO 16 and propidium iodide. For pressure treated spores four distinct populations were detected by flow cytometry, and for these we suggest a three step model of inactivation involving a germination step following hydrolysis of the spore cortex, an unknown step, and finally an inactivation step with physical compromise of the spore inner membrane. An understanding of these effects and mechanisms will aid the safety assessment of pressure assisted thermal sterilisation, in turn facilitating the adoption by industry and commercialisation of such processes.

  8. New pressure and temperature effects on bacterial spores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathys, A; Knorr, D [Berlin University of Technology, Department of Food Biotechnology and Food Process Engineering, Koenigin-Luise-Str. 22, D-14195 Berlin (Germany); Heinz, V [German Institute of Food Technology, p. o. box 1165, D-49601, Quackenbrueck (Germany)], E-mail: alexander.mathys@tu-berlin.de

    2008-07-15

    with 37 deg. C, and then dual stained with the fluorescent dyes SYTO 16 and propidium iodide. For pressure treated spores four distinct populations were detected by flow cytometry, and for these we suggest a three step model of inactivation involving a germination step following hydrolysis of the spore cortex, an unknown step, and finally an inactivation step with physical compromise of the spore inner membrane. An understanding of these effects and mechanisms will aid the safety assessment of pressure assisted thermal sterilisation, in turn facilitating the adoption by industry and commercialisation of such processes.

  9. New pressure and temperature effects on bacterial spores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathys, A; Knorr, D; Heinz, V

    2008-01-01

    with 37 deg. C, and then dual stained with the fluorescent dyes SYTO 16 and propidium iodide. For pressure treated spores four distinct populations were detected by flow cytometry, and for these we suggest a three step model of inactivation involving a germination step following hydrolysis of the spore cortex, an unknown step, and finally an inactivation step with physical compromise of the spore inner membrane. An understanding of these effects and mechanisms will aid the safety assessment of pressure assisted thermal sterilisation, in turn facilitating the adoption by industry and commercialisation of such processes

  10. Effect of pressurized steam on AA1050 aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jariyaboon, Manthana; Møller, Per; Ambat, Rajan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to understand the effect of pressurized steam on surface changes, structures of intermetallic particles and corrosion behavior of AA1050 aluminium. Design/methodology/approach - Industrially pure aluminium (AA1050, 99.5 per cent) surfaces were exposed...... reactivities was observed due to the formation of the compact oxide layer. Originality/value - This paper reveals a detailed investigation of how pressurized steam can affect the corrosion behaviour of AA1050 aluminium and the structure of Fe-containing intermetallic particles....

  11. Coherence of the irrelevant-sound effect: individual profiles of short-term memory and susceptibility to task-irrelevant materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Emily M; Cowan, Nelson

    2005-06-01

    We examined individual and developmental differences in the disruptive effects of irrelevant sounds on serial recall of printed lists. In Experiment 1, we examined adults (N = 205) receiving eight-item lists to be recalled. Although their susceptibility to disruption of recall by irrelevant sounds was only slightly related to memory span, regression analyses documented highly reliable individual differences in this susceptibility across speech and tone distractors, even with variance from span level removed. In Experiment 2, we examined adults (n = 64) and 8-year-old children (n = 63) receiving lists of a length equal to a predetermined span and one item shorter (span-1). We again found significant relationships between measures of span and susceptibility to irrelevant sounds, although in only two of the measures. We conclude that some of the cognitive processes helpful in performing a span task may not be beneficial in the presence of irrelevant sounds.

  12. Neutron irradiation effects in pressure vessel steels and weldments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ianko, L [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria). Div. of Nuclear Power; Davies, L M

    1994-12-31

    This paper deals with the effects of neutron irradiation on the steel and welds used for the pressure vessels which house the reactor cores in light water reactors: irradiation effects on mechanical properties and the shift in ductile-brittle transition temperature, importance of the knowledge of the neutron fluence and of the monitoring and surveillance programmes; empirical and mechanistic modelling of irradiation effects and the necessity of data extension to new operational limits; consequences on the manufacturing and structural design of materials and structures; mitigation of irradiation effects by annealing; international activities and programmes in the field of neutron irradiation effects on PV steels and welds. 37 refs., 22 figs.

  13. Use of a Deep Recurrent Neural Network to Reduce Wind Noise: Effects on Judged Speech Intelligibility and Sound Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarzi, Mahmoud; Goehring, Tobias; Zakis, Justin; Turner, Richard E.; Moore, Brian C. J.

    2018-01-01

    Despite great advances in hearing-aid technology, users still experience problems with noise in windy environments. The potential benefits of using a deep recurrent neural network (RNN) for reducing wind noise were assessed. The RNN was trained using recordings of the output of the two microphones of a behind-the-ear hearing aid in response to male and female speech at various azimuths in the presence of noise produced by wind from various azimuths with a velocity of 3 m/s, using the “clean” speech as a reference. A paired-comparison procedure was used to compare all possible combinations of three conditions for subjective intelligibility and for sound quality or comfort. The conditions were unprocessed noisy speech, noisy speech processed using the RNN, and noisy speech that was high-pass filtered (which also reduced wind noise). Eighteen native English-speaking participants were tested, nine with normal hearing and nine with mild-to-moderate hearing impairment. Frequency-dependent linear amplification was provided for the latter. Processing using the RNN was significantly preferred over no processing by both subject groups for both subjective intelligibility and sound quality, although the magnitude of the preferences was small. High-pass filtering (HPF) was not significantly preferred over no processing. Although RNN was significantly preferred over HPF only for sound quality for the hearing-impaired participants, for the results as a whole, there was a preference for RNN over HPF. Overall, the results suggest that reduction of wind noise using an RNN is possible and might have beneficial effects when used in hearing aids. PMID:29708061

  14. Use of a Deep Recurrent Neural Network to Reduce Wind Noise: Effects on Judged Speech Intelligibility and Sound Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarzi, Mahmoud; Goehring, Tobias; Zakis, Justin; Turner, Richard E; Moore, Brian C J

    2018-01-01

    Despite great advances in hearing-aid technology, users still experience problems with noise in windy environments. The potential benefits of using a deep recurrent neural network (RNN) for reducing wind noise were assessed. The RNN was trained using recordings of the output of the two microphones of a behind-the-ear hearing aid in response to male and female speech at various azimuths in the presence of noise produced by wind from various azimuths with a velocity of 3 m/s, using the "clean" speech as a reference. A paired-comparison procedure was used to compare all possible combinations of three conditions for subjective intelligibility and for sound quality or comfort. The conditions were unprocessed noisy speech, noisy speech processed using the RNN, and noisy speech that was high-pass filtered (which also reduced wind noise). Eighteen native English-speaking participants were tested, nine with normal hearing and nine with mild-to-moderate hearing impairment. Frequency-dependent linear amplification was provided for the latter. Processing using the RNN was significantly preferred over no processing by both subject groups for both subjective intelligibility and sound quality, although the magnitude of the preferences was small. High-pass filtering (HPF) was not significantly preferred over no processing. Although RNN was significantly preferred over HPF only for sound quality for the hearing-impaired participants, for the results as a whole, there was a preference for RNN over HPF. Overall, the results suggest that reduction of wind noise using an RNN is possible and might have beneficial effects when used in hearing aids.

  15. Water cycles in closed ecological systems: effects of atmospheric pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rygalov, Vadim Y; Fowler, Philip A; Metz, Joannah M; Wheeler, Raymond M; Bucklin, Ray A

    2002-01-01

    In bioregenerative life support systems that use plants to generate food and oxygen, the largest mass flux between the plants and their surrounding environment will be water. This water cycle is a consequence of the continuous change of state (evaporation-condensation) from liquid to gas through the process of transpiration and the need to transfer heat (cool) and dehumidify the plant growth chamber. Evapotranspiration rates for full plant canopies can range from ~1 to 10 L m-2 d-1 (~1 to 10 mm m-2 d-1), with the rates depending primarily on the vapor pressure deficit (VPD) between the leaves and the air inside the plant growth chamber. VPD in turn is dependent on the air temperature, leaf temperature, and current value of relative humidity (RH). Concepts for developing closed plant growth systems, such as greenhouses for Mars, have been discussed for many years and the feasibility of such systems will depend on the overall system costs and reliability. One approach for reducing system costs would be to reduce the operating pressure within the greenhouse to reduce structural mass and gas leakage. But managing plant growth environments at low pressures (e.g., controlling humidity and heat exchange) may be difficult, and the effects of low-pressure environments on plant growth and system water cycling need further study. We present experimental evidence to show that water saturation pressures in air under isothermal conditions are only slightly affected by total pressure, but the overall water flux from evaporating surfaces can increase as pressure decreases. Mathematical models describing these observations are presented, along with discussion of the importance for considering "water cycles" in closed bioregenerative life support systems.

  16. The effect of high pressures on actinide metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedict, U.

    1987-01-01

    The solid state properties of the actinides are controlled by the dualism of the localized and itinerant (delocalized) configuration of the 5f electrons. This dualism allows to define two main subgroups. At ambient pressures the first subgroup, of elements with atomic number 91 to 94, is characterized by 5f electrons in an itinerant state and the second subgroup, atomic number 95 to 98, by 5f electrons in a localized state. The latter means that these electrons have well defined energy levels and do not contribute to the metallic bond. The other two subgroups consist of thorium, as a subgroup of its own because its 5f levels are practically unoccupied in the ground state configuration, and of the five heaviest elements with atomic number 99 to 103. The most remarkable effect of pressure on the actinide metals is that due to closer contact between the lattice atoms, localized 5f electrons can become itinerant, hybridise with the conduction electrons and participate in the metallic bond. In this chapter the high-pressure structural behaviour of actinide metals is reviewed. Section 3 gives an introduction into the techniques of generating and measuring pressure and of determining various physical properties of the actinides under pressure and describes a few high-pressure devices and methods. Sections 4 to 7 treat the high-pressure results for each subgroup separately. In section 8 the results of the preceding sections are brought together in a graphical representation which consists of interconnecting binary phase diagrams of neighbouring actinide metals. 155 refs.; 14 figs.; 7 tabs. (H.W.)

  17. Water cycles in closed ecological systems: effects of atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rygalov, Vadim Y.; Fowler, Philip A.; Metz, Joannah M.; Wheeler, Raymond M.; Bucklin, Ray A.; Sager, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    In bioregenerative life support systems that use plants to generate food and oxygen, the largest mass flux between the plants and their surrounding environment will be water. This water cycle is a consequence of the continuous change of state (evaporation-condensation) from liquid to gas through the process of transpiration and the need to transfer heat (cool) and dehumidify the plant growth chamber. Evapotranspiration rates for full plant canopies can range from 1 to 10 L m-2 d-1 (1 to 10 mm m-2 d-1), with the rates depending primarily on the vapor pressure deficit (VPD) between the leaves and the air inside the plant growth chamber. VPD in turn is dependent on the air temperature, leaf temperature, and current value of relative humidity (RH). Concepts for developing closed plant growth systems, such as greenhouses for Mars, have been discussed for many years and the feasibility of such systems will depend on the overall system costs and reliability. One approach for reducing system costs would be to reduce the operating pressure within the greenhouse to reduce structural mass and gas leakage. But managing plant growth environments at low pressures (e.g., controlling humidity and heat exchange) may be difficult, and the effects of low-pressure environments on plant growth and system water cycling need further study. We present experimental evidence to show that water saturation pressures in air under isothermal conditions are only slightly affected by total pressure, but the overall water flux from evaporating surfaces can increase as pressure decreases. Mathematical models describing these observations are presented, along with discussion of the importance for considering "water cycles" in closed bioregenerative life support systems.

  18. Effects of airgun sounds on bowhead whale calling rates: evidence for two behavioral thresholds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna B Blackwell

    Full Text Available In proximity to seismic operations, bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus decrease their calling rates. Here, we investigate the transition from normal calling behavior to decreased calling and identify two threshold levels of received sound from airgun pulses at which calling behavior changes. Data were collected in August-October 2007-2010, during the westward autumn migration in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea. Up to 40 directional acoustic recorders (DASARs were deployed at five sites offshore of the Alaskan North Slope. Using triangulation, whale calls localized within 2 km of each DASAR were identified and tallied every 10 minutes each season, so that the detected call rate could be interpreted as the actual call production rate. Moreover, airgun pulses were identified on each DASAR, analyzed, and a cumulative sound exposure level was computed for each 10-min period each season (CSEL10-min. A Poisson regression model was used to examine the relationship between the received CSEL10-min from airguns and the number of detected bowhead calls. Calling rates increased as soon as airgun pulses were detectable, compared to calling rates in the absence of airgun pulses. After the initial increase, calling rates leveled off at a received CSEL10-min of ~94 dB re 1 μPa2-s (the lower threshold. In contrast, once CSEL10-min exceeded ~127 dB re 1 μPa2-s (the upper threshold, whale calling rates began decreasing, and when CSEL10-min values were above ~160 dB re 1 μPa2-s, the whales were virtually silent.

  19. Effect of air flow, panel curvature, and internal pressurization on field-incidence transmission loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koval, L. R.

    1976-01-01

    In the context of sound transmission through aircraft fuselage panels, equations for the field-incidence transmission loss (TL) of a single-walled panel are derived that include the effects of external air flow, panel curvature, and internal fuselage pressurization. Flow is shown to provide a modest increase in TL that is uniform with frequency up to the critical frequency. The increase is about 2 dB at Mach number M = 0.5, and about 3.5 dB at M = 1. Above the critical frequency where TL is damping controlled, the increase can be slightly larger at certain frequencies. Curvature is found to stiffen the panel, thereby increasing the TL at low frequencies, but also to introduce a dip at the 'ring frequency' of a full cylinder having the same radius as the panel. Pressurization appears to produce a slight decrease in TL throughout the frequency range, and also slightly shifts the dips at the critical frequency and at the ring frequency.

  20. Pressure and temperature effects in homopolymer blends and diblock copolymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frielinghaus, H.; Schwahn, D.; Mortensen, K.

    1997-01-01

    Thermal composition fluctuations in a homogeneous binary polymer blend and in a diblock copolymer were measured by small-angle neutron scattering as a function of temperature and pressure. The experimental data were analyzed with theoretical expressions, including the important effect of thermal...... fluctuations. Phase boundaries, the Flory-Huggins interaction parameter and the Ginzburg number were obtained. The packing of the molecules changes with pressure. Therefore, the degree of thermal fluctuation as a function of packing and temperature was studied. While in polymer blends packing leads, in some...... respects, to a universal behaviour, such behaviour is not found in diblock copolymers. It is shown that the Ginzburg number decreases with pressure sensitively in blends, while it is constant in diblock copolymers. The Ginzburg number is an estimation of the transition between the universality classes...