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Sample records for effective one-electron description

  1. Parameter-free one-center model potential for an effective one-electron description of molecular hydrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lühr, Armin Christian; Vanne, Yulian; Saenz, Alejandro

    2008-01-01

    For the description of an H2 molecule, an effective one-electron model potential is proposed which is fully determined by the exact ionization potential of the H2 molecule. In order to test the model potential and examine its properties, it is employed to determine excitation energies, transition...... moments, and oscillator strengths in a range of internuclear distances, 0.8  a.u.calculations of the cross sections for photoionization and for partial excitation in collisions with singly charged ions. The comparison of the results...

  2. Effective Conformal Descriptions of Black Hole Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Carlip

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available It is no longer considered surprising that black holes have temperatures and entropies. What remains surprising, though, is the universality of these thermodynamic properties: their exceptionally simple and general form, and the fact that they can be derived from many very different descriptions of the underlying microscopic degrees of freedom. I review the proposal that this universality arises from an approximate conformal symmetry, which permits an effective “conformal dual” description that is largely independent of the microscopic details.

  3. Effective harmonic oscillator description of anharmonic molecular ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... a harmonic oscillator eigenfunction with the centroid and width parameter as variational paraeters. It is found that the effective harmonic oscillator approximation provides a description of the anharmonic eigenstates very similar to the vibrational self consistent field results. Coriolis coupling is also included in these studies.

  4. Effective fluid description of the dark universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cadoni

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose an effective anisotropic fluid description for a generic infrared-modified theory of gravity. In our framework, the additional component of the acceleration, commonly attributed to dark matter, is explained as a radial pressure generated by the reaction of the dark energy fluid to the presence of baryonic matter. Using quite general assumptions, and a microscopic description of the fluid in terms of a Bose–Einstein condensate of gravitons, we find the static, spherically symmetric solution for the metric in terms of the Misner–Sharp mass function and the fluid pressure. At galactic scales, we correctly reproduce the leading MOND-like log⁡(r and subleading (1/rlog⁡(r terms in the weak-field expansion of the potential. Our description also predicts a tiny (of order 10−6 for a typical spiral galaxy Machian modification of the Newtonian potential at galactic scales, which is controlled by the cosmological acceleration.

  5. Effective fluid description of the dark universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadoni, M.; Casadio, R.; Giusti, A.; Mück, W.; Tuveri, M.

    2018-01-01

    We propose an effective anisotropic fluid description for a generic infrared-modified theory of gravity. In our framework, the additional component of the acceleration, commonly attributed to dark matter, is explained as a radial pressure generated by the reaction of the dark energy fluid to the presence of baryonic matter. Using quite general assumptions, and a microscopic description of the fluid in terms of a Bose-Einstein condensate of gravitons, we find the static, spherically symmetric solution for the metric in terms of the Misner-Sharp mass function and the fluid pressure. At galactic scales, we correctly reproduce the leading MOND-like log ⁡ (r) and subleading (1 / r) log ⁡ (r) terms in the weak-field expansion of the potential. Our description also predicts a tiny (of order 10-6 for a typical spiral galaxy) Machian modification of the Newtonian potential at galactic scales, which is controlled by the cosmological acceleration.

  6. One-electron oxidation of DNA: mechanism and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Gary B

    2009-01-01

    All living organisms store the information necessary to maintain life in their DNA. Any process that damages DNA and causes loss or corruption of that information threatens the viability of the organism. One-electron oxidation is such a process. Loss of an electron from DNA generates a radical cation that is located primarily on its nucleobases. The radical cation migrates reversibly through duplex DNA by hopping until it is eventually trapped in an irreversible chemical reaction. The particular sequence of nucleobases in a DNA oligomer determines both the efficiency of hopping and the specific location and nature of the damaging chemical reaction. In its normal aqueous solutions, DNA is a polyanion because of the negative charge carried by its phosphate groups. Counter ions (typically Na(+)) to the phosphate groups play an important role in facilitating both the migration of the radical cation and in its eventual reaction with H(2)O. Irreversible reaction of a radical cation with H(2)O in duplex DNA occurs preferentially at the most reactive site. In normal DNA that is comprised of the four common DNA nucleobases, reaction occurs most commonly at a guanine and results in its conversion primarily to 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-OxoG). Both electronic and steric effects control the outcome of this process. If the DNA oligomer does not contain a suitable guanine, then reaction of the radical cation occurs at the thymine of a TT step primarily by a tandem process. The general outcomes revealed in the one-electron oxidation of DNA oligomers in solution appear to be generally valid also for more complex DNA structures and for the cellular DNA of living organisms.

  7. One-electron atoms in screened modified gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Leong Khim; Davis, Anne-Christine

    2017-05-01

    In a large class of scalar-tensor theories that are potential candidates for dark energy, a nonminimal coupling between the scalar and the photon is possible. The presence of such an interaction grants us the exciting prospect of directly observing dark sector phenomenology in the electromagnetic spectrum. This paper investigates the behavior of one-electron atoms in this class of modified gravity models, exploring their viability as probes of deviations from general relativity in both laboratory and astrophysical settings. Building heavily on earlier studies, our main contribution is threefold: A thorough analysis finds additional fine-structure corrections previously unaccounted for, which now predict a contribution to the Lamb shift that is larger by nearly 4 orders of magnitude. In addition, they also predict a scalar-mediated photon-photon interaction, which now constrains the scalar's coupling to the photon independently of the matter coupling. This was not previously possible with atomic precision tests. Our updated constraints are log10βm≲13.4 and log10βγ≲19.0 for the matter and photon coupling, respectively, although these remain uncompetitive with bounds from other experiments. Second, we include the effects of the nuclear magnetic moment, allowing for the study of hyperfine structure and the 21 cm line, which hitherto have been unexplored in this context. Finally, we also examine how a background scalar leads to equivalence principle violations.

  8. One-Electron Theory of Metals. Cohesive and Structural Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, Hans Lomholt

    by means of the Linear Muffin-Tin Orbital (LMTO) method. It has been the goal of the work to establish how well this one-electron approach describes physical properties such as the crystal structures of the transition metals, the structural phase transitions in the alkali, alkaline earth, and rare earth...... metals, and the localization of 3d, 4f, and 5f electrons in the 3d metal monoxides, the light lanthanides, and the actinides, respectively, as well as the cohesive properties of metals in general.!......The work described in the report r.nd the 16 accompanying publications is based upon a one-electron theory obtained within the local approximation to density-functional theory, and deals with the ground state of metals as obtained from selfconsistent electronic-structure calculations performed...

  9. One-electron quantum cyclotron (and implications for cold antihydrogen)

    CERN Document Server

    Gabrielse, G; Odom, B; D'Urso, B

    2001-01-01

    Quantum jumps between Fock states of a one-electron oscillator reveal the quantum limit of a cyclotron accelerator. The states live for seconds when spontaneous emission is inhibited by a factor of 140 within a cylindrical Penning trap cavity. Averaged over hours the oscillator is in thermal equilibrium with black-body photons in the cavity. At 80 mK, quantum jumps occur only when resonant microwave photons are introduced into the cavity, opening a route to improved measurements of the magnetic moments of the electron and positron. The temperature demonstrated is about 60 times lower than the 4.2 K temperature at which charged elementary particles were previously stored. Implications for the production of cold antihydrogen are discussed. (21 refs).

  10. Effective harmonic oscillator description of anharmonic molecular ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Abstract. The validity of an effective harmonic oscillator approximation for anharmonic molecular vibrations is tested and compared with vibrational self consistent field and vibrational configurational interaction results. The effective harmonic oscillator is constructed variationally, by taking the trial wave function as a harmonic ...

  11. Effective field theory description of halo nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, H.-W.; Ji, C.; Phillips, D. R.

    2017-10-01

    Nuclear halos emerge as new degrees of freedom near the neutron and proton driplines. They consist of a core and one or a few nucleons which spend most of their time in the classically-forbidden region outside the range of the interaction. Individual nucleons inside the core are thus unresolved in the halo configuration, and the low-energy effective interactions are short-range forces between the core and the valence nucleons. Similar phenomena occur in clusters of 4He atoms, cold atomic gases near a Feshbach resonance, and some exotic hadrons. In these weakly-bound quantum systems universal scaling laws for s-wave binding emerge that are independent of the details of the interaction. Effective field theory (EFT) exposes these correlations and permits the calculation of non-universal corrections to them due to short-distance effects, as well as the extension of these ideas to systems involving the Coulomb interaction and/or binding in higher angular-momentum channels. Halo nuclei exhibit all these features. Halo EFT, the EFT for halo nuclei, has been used to compute the properties of single-neutron, two-neutron, and single-proton halos of s-wave and p-wave type. This review summarizes these results for halo binding energies, radii, Coulomb dissociation, and radiative capture, as well as the connection of these properties to scattering parameters, thereby elucidating the universal correlations between all these observables. We also discuss how Halo EFT's encoding of the long-distance physics of halo nuclei can be used to check and extend ab initio calculations that include detailed modeling of their short-distance dynamics.

  12. Accurate band gaps and dielectric properties from one-electron theories (abstract only).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresse, G; Shishkin, M; Marsman, M; Paier, J

    2008-02-13

    For semiconductor modeling, a major shortcoming of density functional theory is that the predicted band gaps are usually significantly too small. It is generally argued that this shortcoming is related to the fact that density functional theory is a ground state theory, and as a result, one is not allowed to associate the one-electron energies with the energies of quasi-particles. Although this fundamental objection is certainly correct, the modeling of the positioning of donor and acceptor levels in semiconductors faces serious limitations with present density functionals. Several solutions to this problem have been suggested. A particular attractive and fairly simple one is the inclusion of a small fraction of the non-local exchange in the Hamiltonian (hybrid functionals). This approach leads to sensible band gaps for most semiconductors, but fails for ionic solids. A more reliable approach is via many-electron Green's function techniques, which have made tremendous advances in recent years. Here GW calculations in various flavors are presented for small gap and large gap systems, comprising typical semiconductors (Si, SiC, GaAs, GaN, ZnO, ZnS, CdS and AlP), small gap semiconductors (PbS, PbSe, PbTe), insulators (C, BN, MgO, LiF) and noble gas solids (Ar, Ne). The general finding is that single-shot G(0)W(0) calculations based on wavefunctions obtained from conventional density functional theory yield too small band gaps, whereas G(0)W(0) calculations following hybrid functional calculations tend to overestimate the band gaps by roughly the same amount. This is at first sight astonishing, since the hybrid functionals yield very good band gaps themselves. The contradiction is resolved by showing that the inclusion of the attractive electron-hole interactions (excitonic effects) is required to obtain good static and dynamic dielectric functions using hybrid functionals. The corrections are usually incorporated in GW calculations using 'vertex corrections', and in

  13. Effect of descriptions and reinforcement on rule-generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Cepeda-Islas

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of verbal descriptions and different amounts of consequences onthe acquisition and transfer of a first order matching-to-sample response,as well as rule-formulation, was assessed. Twenty undergraduate studentswere assigned to four groups, which differentiated regarding the inclusion ofincomplete texts and feedback at the end of each session. The rules, wrotedown at the end of each session, were analyzed using categories derivedfrom previous studies. The effects were observed at the response acquisitionduring the trainings and tests. It is discussed that an effective performancedoes not always lead to precise verbal descriptions and the instructionaleffect of the incomplete texts upon the formulation of effective rules.

  14. Bare and effective fluid description in brane world cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, Norman [Universidad de Santiago, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencia, Casilla 307, Santiago (Chile); Lepe, Samuel; Saavedra, Joel [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Instituto de Fisica, Casilla 4950, Valparaiso (Chile); Pena, Francisco [Universidad de La Frontera, Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Facultad de Ingenieria, Ciencias y Administracion, Avda. Francisco Salazar 01145, Casilla 54-D, Temuco (Chile)

    2010-03-15

    An effective fluid description, for a brane world model in five dimensions, is discussed for both signs of the brane tension. We found several cosmological scenarios where the effective equation differs widely from the bare equation of state. For universes with negative brane tension, with a bare fluid satisfying the strong energy condition, the effective fluid can cross the barrier {omega} {sub eff}=-1. (orig.)

  15. Oxygen dependency of one-electron reactions generating ascorbate radicals and hydrogen peroxide from ascorbic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boatright, William L

    2016-04-01

    The effect of oxygen on the two separate one-electron reactions involved in the oxidation of ascorbic acid was investigated. The rate of ascorbate radical (Asc(-)) formation (and stability) was strongly dependent on the presence of oxygen. A product of ascorbic acid oxidation was measurable levels of hydrogen peroxide, as high as 32.5 μM from 100 μM ascorbic acid. Evidence for a feedback mechanism where hydrogen peroxide generated during the oxidation of ascorbic acid accelerates further oxidation of ascorbic acid is also presented. The second one-electron oxidation reaction of ascorbic acid leading to the disappearance of Asc(-) was also strongly inhibited in samples flushed with argon. In the range of 0.05-1.2 mM ascorbic acid, maximum levels of measurable hydrogen peroxide were achieved with an initial concentration of 0.2 mM ascorbic acid. Hydrogen peroxide generation was greatly diminished at ascorbic acid levels of 0.8 mM or above. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. One-electron reduced density matrices of strongly correlated harmonium atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioslowski, Jerzy

    2015-03-21

    Explicit asymptotic expressions are derived for the reduced one-electron density matrices (the 1-matrices) of strongly correlated two- and three-electron harmonium atoms in the ground and first excited states. These expressions, which are valid at the limit of small confinement strength ω, yield electron densities and kinetic energies in agreement with the published values. In addition, they reveal the ω(5/6) asymptotic scaling of the exchange components of the electron-electron repulsion energies that differs from the ω(2/3) scaling of their Coulomb and correlation counterparts. The natural orbitals of the totally symmetric ground state of the two-electron harmonium atom are found to possess collective occupancies that follow a mixed power/Gaussian dependence on the angular momentum in variance with the simple power-law prediction of Hill's asymptotics. Providing rigorous constraints on energies as functionals of 1-matrices, these results are expected to facilitate development of approximate implementations of the density matrix functional theory and ensure their proper description of strongly correlated systems.

  17. Phenomenological description of anisotropy effects in some ferromagnetic superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shopova, Diana V., E-mail: sho@issp.bas.bg [TCCM Research Group, Institute of Solid State Physics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, BG-1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Todorov, Michail D. [Department of Applied Mathematics and Computer Science, Technical University of Sofia, 1000 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2015-07-03

    We study phenomenologically the role of anisotropy in ferromagnetic superconductors UGe{sub 2}, URhGe, and UCoGe for the description of their phase diagrams. We use the Ginzburg–Landau free energy in its uniform form as we will consider only spatially independent solutions. This is an expansion of previously derived results where the effect of Cooper-pair and crystal anisotropies is not taken into account. The three compounds are separately discussed with the special stress on UGe{sub 2}. The main effect comes from the strong uniaxial anisotropy of magnetization while the anisotropy of Cooper pairs and crystal anisotropy only slightly change the phase diagram in the vicinity of Curie temperature. The limitations of this approach are also discussed. - Highlights: • Anisotropic Landau energy for description of ferromagnetic superconductors is proposed. • Meissner phases are described with their existence and stability conditions. • The application of the model to UGe{sub 2} is discussed. • The limitations to apply the model for description of experimental data are explained.

  18. From information theory to quantitative description of steric effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alipour, Mojtaba; Safari, Zahra

    2016-07-21

    Immense efforts have been made in the literature to apply the information theory descriptors for investigating the electronic structure theory of various systems. In the present study, the information theoretic quantities, such as Fisher information, Shannon entropy, Onicescu information energy, and Ghosh-Berkowitz-Parr entropy, have been used to present a quantitative description for one of the most widely used concepts in chemistry, namely the steric effects. Taking the experimental steric scales for the different compounds as benchmark sets, there are reasonable linear relationships between the experimental scales of the steric effects and theoretical values of steric energies calculated from information theory functionals. Perusing the results obtained from the information theoretic quantities with the two representations of electron density and shape function, the Shannon entropy has the best performance for the purpose. On the one hand, the usefulness of considering the contributions of functional groups steric energies and geometries, and on the other hand, dissecting the effects of both global and local information measures simultaneously have also been explored. Furthermore, the utility of the information functionals for the description of steric effects in several chemical transformations, such as electrophilic and nucleophilic reactions and host-guest chemistry, has been analyzed. The functionals of information theory correlate remarkably with the stability of systems and experimental scales. Overall, these findings show that the information theoretic quantities can be introduced as quantitative measures of steric effects and provide further evidences of the quality of information theory toward helping theoreticians and experimentalists to interpret different problems in real systems.

  19. The Effectiveness of FRESH Technique to Teach Descriptive Paragraph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Faisal

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at knowing the effectiveness of FRESH technique in teaching descriptive paragraph. The method of this study was quasi experimental method. This study was conducted at one of the state madrasah aliyah in academic year 2012/2013. The total sample of this study was 78 respondents divided into two groups: the control class with no treatment and the experimental class with FRESH technique. The data collection technique used essay tests for pre-test and post-test. The evaluation covered content, organization, vocabulary, style, and mechanic. After data analyses, the students in the experimental class had better achievement than those in the control class. The result of t-test computation was 1.968, with t-table value = 1.664 at the significant level α = 0.05. The t-test result was higher than the value of t-table (1.968 > 1.664. It meant that the hypothesis was accepted or FRESH technique was effective in teaching descriptive paragraph to the students of that school in academic year 2012/2013.

  20. Grand-canonical-ensemble representability problem for the one-electron reduced density matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcoba, D. R.; Bochicchio, R. C.; Massacessi, G. E.; Lain, L.; Torre, A.

    2007-01-01

    We deal with many-electron systems having a noninteger number of electrons, which cannot be described properly by means of pure states or by canonical statistical ensemble states. The study of the one-electron reduced density matrix for these systems raises the problem of its representability in statistical ensembles of grand canonical type. We derive the necessary and sufficient conditions for the representability of the one-electron reduced density matrix of grand-canonical statistical ensembles.

  1. Are One-Electron Bonds Any Different from Standard Two-Electron Covalent Bonds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, David Wilian Oliveira de; Nascimento, Marco Antonio Chaer

    2017-09-19

    The nature of the chemical bond is perhaps the central subject in theoretical chemistry. Our understanding of the behavior of molecules developed amazingly in the last century, mostly with the rise of quantum mechanics (QM) and QM-based theories such as valence bond theory and molecular orbital theory. Such theories are very successful in describing molecular properties, but they are not able to explain the origin of the chemical bond. This problem was first analyzed in the 1960s by Ruedenberg, who showed that covalent bonds are the direct result of quantum interference between one-electron states. The generality of this result and its quantification were made possible through the recent development of the generalized product function energy partitioning (GPF-EP) method by our group, which allows the partitioning of the electronic density and energy into their interference and quasi-classical (noninterference) contributions. Furthermore, with GPF wave functions these effects can be analyzed separately for each bond of a molecule. This interference energy analysis has been applied to a large variety of molecules, including diatomics and polyatomics, molecules with single, double, and triple bonds, molecules with different degrees of polarity, linear or branched molecules, cyclic or acyclic molecules, conjugated molecules, and aromatics, in order to verify the role played by quantum interference. In all cases the conclusion is exactly the same: for each bond in each of the molecules considered, the main contribution to its stability comes from the interference term. Two-center one-electron (2c1e) bonds are the simplest kind of chemical bonds. Yet they are often viewed as odd or unconventional cases of bonding. Are they any different from conventional (2c2e) bonds? If so, what differences can we expect in the nature of (2c1e) bonds relative to electron-pair bonds? In this Account, we extend the GPF-EP method to describe bonds involving N electrons in M orbitals (N

  2. Effective liquid drop description for alpha decay of atomic nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavares, O.A.P.; Duarte, S.B. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rodriguez, O.; Guzman, F. [Instituto Superior de Ciencia y Tecnologia Nuclear (ISCTN), La Habana (Cuba); Goncalves, M. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Garcia, F. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    1998-06-01

    Alpha decay half-lives are presented in the framework of an effective liquid drop model for different combination of mass transfer descriptions and inertia coefficients. Calculated half-life-values for ground-state to ground-state favoured alpha transitions are compared with available, updated experimental data. Results have shown that the present model is very suitable to treat the alpha decay process on equal foot as cluster radioactivity and cold fission processes. Better agreement with the data is found when the sub-set of even-even alpha emitters are considered in the calculation. (author) 44 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.; e-mail: telo at ird.gov.br

  3. One-electron singular spectral features of the 1D Hubbard model at finite magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M.P. Carmelo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The momentum, electronic density, spin density, and interaction dependences of the exponents that control the (k,ω-plane singular features of the σ=↑,↓ one-electron spectral functions of the 1D Hubbard model at finite magnetic field are studied. The usual half-filling concepts of one-electron lower Hubbard band and upper Hubbard band are defined in terms of the rotated electrons associated with the model Bethe-ansatz solution for all electronic density and spin density values and the whole finite repulsion range. Such rotated electrons are the link of the non-perturbative relation between the electrons and the pseudofermions. Our results further clarify the microscopic processes through which the pseudofermion dynamical theory accounts for the one-electron matrix elements between the ground state and excited energy eigenstates.

  4. Electronic structure of one electron confined in three-dimensional quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Huda; Nammas, F. S.; Al Shorman, M. M.; Shukri, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    We study the electronic structure of three-dimensional quantum dots with one electron using the canonical formalism. The confining potential is assumed to be spatially isotropic and harmonic. For one electron the energy spectrum, heat capacity and Helmholtz free energy are calculated as a function of temperature and confinement strength. We find that the internal energy for one-electron artificial atoms and the heat capacity are nearly independent of confinement frequency at high temperatures, while at low temperatures the energy-level structure and heat capacity are shown to be strongly dependent on the confinement strength. In addition, the heat capacity decreases less rapidly with increasing confinement frequency at appropriate temperatures and energy levels are almost linear. Also, the Helmholtz-free energy is obtained to test the confinement and stability of the system.

  5. Microscopic description of production cross sections including deexcitation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekizawa, Kazuyuki

    2017-07-01

    Background: At the forefront of the nuclear science, production of new neutron-rich isotopes is continuously pursued at accelerator laboratories all over the world. To explore the currently unknown territories in the nuclear chart far away from the stability, reliable theoretical predictions are inevitable. Purpose: To provide a reliable prediction of production cross sections taking into account secondary deexcitation processes, both particle evaporation and fission, a new method called TDHF+GEMINI is proposed, which combines the microscopic time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) theory with a sophisticated statistical compound-nucleus deexcitation model, GEMINI++. Methods: Low-energy heavy ion reactions are described based on three-dimensional Skyrme-TDHF calculations. Using the particle-number projection method, production probabilities, total angular momenta, and excitation energies of primary reaction products are extracted from the TDHF wave function after collision. Production cross sections for secondary reaction products are evaluated employing GEMINI++. Results are compared with available experimental data and widely used grazing calculations. Results: The method is applied to describe cross sections for multinucleon transfer processes in 40Ca+124Sn (Ec .m .≃128.54 MeV ), 48Ca+124Sn (Ec .m .≃125.44 MeV ), 40Ca+208Pb (Ec .m .≃208.84 MeV ), 58Ni+208Pb (Ec .m .≃256.79 MeV ), 64Ni+238U (Ec .m .≃307.35 MeV ), and 136Xe+198Pt (Ec .m .≃644.98 MeV ) reactions at energies close to the Coulomb barrier. It is shown that the inclusion of secondary deexcitation processes, which are dominated by neutron evaporation in the present systems, substantially improves agreement with the experimental data. The magnitude of the evaporation effects is very similar to the one observed in grazing calculations. TDHF+GEMINI provides better description of the absolute value of the cross sections for channels involving transfer of more than one proton, compared to the grazing

  6. Calculation of two-center one-electron molecular integrals with STOs. [BICEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rico, J.F.; Lopez, R.; Paniagua, M.; Ramirez, G. (Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Quimica Fisica y Quimica Cuantica)

    1991-05-01

    A program for the calculation of two-center one-electron integrals (overlap, nuclear attraction and kinetic energy) between real Slater-type orbitals (STOs) is reported. The integrals are obtained by recursion over simple auxiliary matrices, whose elements are calculated in terms of further auxiliary functions evaluated in a quick and accurate way. (orig.).

  7. Differential cross sections for the one electron two center symmetric systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maidagan, J.M.; Piacentini, R.D. (Universidad Nacional de Rosario (Argentina). Dept. de Fisica); Rivarola, R.D. (Bordeaux-1 Univ., 33 - Talence (France). Lab. d' Astrophysique; Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Quimica Fisica y Quimica Cuantica)

    1982-03-01

    We use the two-state atomic expansion with variable nuclear charge to study charge-exchange differential cross sections for symmetrical one-electron systems at intermediate energy. The nonclassical small angle diffraction scattering is discussed. Our results are compared with data for H/sup +/-H collisions.

  8. HE-2+-H2 COLLISIONS - NONDISSOCIATIVE AND DISSOCIATIVE ONE-ELECTRON CAPTURE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HOEKSTRA, R; FOLKERTS, HO; BEIJERS, JPM; MORGENSTERN, R; DEHEER, FJ

    1994-01-01

    Electron-redistribution processes in collisions of He-2+ ions on H-2 are studied for energies from 1 to 25 keV amu-1. One-electron capture and target excitation cross sections are determined by photon-emission spectroscopy. At energies exceeding approximately 5 keV amu-1 capture into excited states

  9. HE2+-HE COLLISIONS - ONE-ELECTRON CAPTURE AND TARGET-ION EXCITATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    FOLKERTS, HO; BLIEK, FW; MENG, L; OLSON, RE; MORGENSTERN, R; VONHELLERMANN, M; SUMMERS, HP; HOEKSTRA, R

    1994-01-01

    By means of photon emission spectroscopy we have studied state selective one-electron capture and target-ion excitation in collisions of He-2+ with He. The collision energy has been varied from 1 to 75 keV amu-1 Four-body classical trajectory Monte Carlo calculations have been performed in the

  10. COMPUTATIONAL ELECTROCHEMISTRY: AQUEOUS ONE-ELECTRON OXIDATION POTENTIALS FOR SUBSTITUTED ANILINES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semiempirical molecular orbital theory and density functional theory are used to compute one-electron oxidation potentials for aniline and a set of 21 mono- and di-substituted anilines in aqueous solution. Linear relationships between theoretical predictions and experiment are co...

  11. One electron oxidation of 3-methylcholanthrene: A chemical model for its mechanism of carcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehner, Andreas F.; Horn, Jamie; Flesher, James W.

    2017-06-01

    One electron transfer oxidation has long been proposed as a route to the ultimate electrophilic and carcinogenic metabolites of both methylated and non-methylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The carcinogenic hydrocarbon 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC) has a methyl-analogous function at its meso-anthracenic center in the form of a dimethylene bridge, and treatment of this compound with the one electron transfer oxidizing reagent ferric ferricyanide, FeIII(FeIII(CN)6), in mixed aqueous-organic media generated multiple oxygenated species, many of which duplicate those found in mammalian metabolism including known carcinogens 1-hydroxy-3MC and 1-keto-3MC. These results are in agreement with a Unified Theory for PAH Carcinogenicity which predicts in vivo generation of a proximate benzylic alcohol metabolite from the 3-MC procarcinogen and conjugation with a moiety such as sulfate intended for rapid urinary excretion. The sulfate instead acts as a leaving group and generates an electrophilic carbocation capable of reacting with sensitive nucleophiles such as DNA in cellular nuclei. The products of one electron transfer oxidation align well with predictions of the Unified Theory since in many cases these products provide substrates or precursors for conjugation reactions.

  12. One-electron oxidation of antioxidants: a kinetic-thermodynamic correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villata, Laura S; Berkovic, Andrea M; Gonzalez, Mónica C; Mártire, Daniel O

    2013-01-01

    The values of the bimolecular rate constants for the reactions of 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenz-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical cation with epicatechin (((2.4 ± 0.2)) s(-1) M(-1)), and epigallocatechingallate ((29 ± 5) s(-1) M(-1)) were obtained by spectrophotometric measurements. We propose a correlation between the Gibbs energy ΔG(o) for the one-electron charge-transfer reactions from several antioxidants to radical species and the rate constants of the corresponding bimolecular reactions. This correlation can be used to predict rate constants of reactions of known ΔG(o) values.

  13. Descriptive Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigram, Anthony Lewis

    2003-01-01

    starts will allow effect size calculations to be made in order to evaluate effect over time. Given the difficulties in undertaking controlled experimental studies in the creative arts therapies, descriptive research methods offer a way of quantifying effect through descriptive statistical analysis...

  14. Local and global properties of eigenfunctions and one-electron densities of Coulombic Schrödinger operators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fournais, Søren; Hoffmann-Ostenhof, Maria; Hoffmann-Ostenhof, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    We review recent results by the authors on the regularity of molecular eigenfunctions ψ and their corresponding one-electron densities ρ, as well as of the spherically averaged one-electron atomic density ρ. Furthermore, we prove an exponentially decreasing lower bound for ρ in the case when the ...

  15. Communication: Hilbert-space partitioning of the molecular one-electron density matrix with orthogonal projectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanfleteren, Diederik; Van Neck, Dimitri; Bultinck, Patrick; Ayers, Paul W; Waroquier, Michel

    2010-12-21

    A double-atom partitioning of the molecular one-electron density matrix is used to describe atoms and bonds. All calculations are performed in Hilbert space. The concept of atomic weight functions (familiar from Hirshfeld analysis of the electron density) is extended to atomic weight matrices. These are constructed to be orthogonal projection operators on atomic subspaces, which has significant advantages in the interpretation of the bond contributions. In close analogy to the iterative Hirshfeld procedure, self-consistency is built in at the level of atomic charges and occupancies. The method is applied to a test set of about 67 molecules, representing various types of chemical binding. A close correlation is observed between the atomic charges and the Hirshfeld-I atomic charges.

  16. Description of a fire and its effects in the Nylsvley Nature Reserve: a synthesis report

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gandar, MV

    1982-10-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Description of a fire and its effects in the Nylsvley Nature Reserve.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 44 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Description of a fire and its effects... in the Nylsvley Nature Reserve.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  17. Effective description of brane terms in extra dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    del Aguila, Francisco; /CAFPE, Granada; Perez-Victoria, Manuel; /CERN; Santiago, Jose; /Fermilab

    2006-01-01

    We study how theories defined in (extra-dimensional) spaces with localized defects can be described perturbatively by effective field theories in which the width of the defects vanishes. These effective theories must incorporate a ''classical'' renormalization, and we propose a renormalization prescription a la dimensional regularization for codimension 1, which can be easily used in phenomenological applications. As a check of the validity of this setting, we compare some general predictions of the renormalized effective theory with those obtained in a particular ultraviolet completion based on deconstruction.

  18. Effect of impurities in description of surface nanobubbles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, S.; Snoeijer, Jacobus Hendrikus; Lohse, Detlef

    2010-01-01

    Surface nanobubbles emerging at solid-liquid interfaces of submerged hydrophobic surfaces show extreme stability and very small (gas-side) contact angles. In a recent paper Ducker [ W. A. Ducker Langmuir 25 8907 (2009)]. conjectured that these effects may arise from the presence of impurities at the

  19. Effective description of dark matter as a viscous fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floerchinger Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Treating dark matter at large scales as an effectively viscous fluid provides an improved framework for the calculation of the density and velocity power spectra compared to the standard assumption of an ideal pressureless fluid. We discuss how this framework can be made concrete through an appropriate coarse-graining procedure. We also review results that demonstrate that it improves the convergence of cosmological perturbation theory.

  20. Effective description of dark matter as a viscous fluid

    CERN Document Server

    Floerchinger, S.; Tetradis, N.; Wiedemann, U.A.

    2016-10-28

    Treating dark matter at large scales as an effectively viscous fluid provides an improved framework for the calculation of the density and velocity power spectra compared to the standard assumption of an ideal pressureless fluid. We discuss how this framework can be made concrete through an appropriate coarse-graining procedure. We also review results that demonstrate that it improves the convergence of cosmological perturbation theory.

  1. On the chemical and electrochemical one-electron reduction of peroxynitrous acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Christophe; Zeng, Xiuqiong; Hannemann, Stefan; Kissner, Reinhard; Koppenol, Willem H

    2005-02-17

    Peroxynitrous acid was reduced by cathodic linear sweep voltammetry at a gold electrode and by iodide at pH 3.2 and 5.6. The cathodic reduction wave was identified by measuring its decay in time, which was the same as observed by optical spectroscopy. The iodide oxidation was followed by optical measurement of the triiodide formation. Both reductions show one-electron stoichiometry, with the product n(alpha)alpha = 0.23 +/- 0.04 from the electrochemical experiments, in which alpha is the transfer coefficient and n(alpha) the number of electrons transferred, and an diiodine yield of ca. 0.5 equiv per equivalent of peroxynitrous acid. The voltammetric reduction was irreversible up to scan rates of 80 V s(-1). Both reductions were pH independent in the range studied. The voltammetric reduction is most likely an irreversible elemental reaction followed by a chemical decay that cannot be observed directly. Because of the pH independence, we conclude that both reductions have a common short-lived intermediate, namely [HOONO]*-. We estimate the electrode potential of the likely ONOOH/ONOOH*- couple to be larger than 1 V. The commonly used electrode potential E degrees (ONOOH, H+/NO2*, H2O) does not describe the chemistry of peroxynitrous acid.

  2. Flash-quench studies on the one-electron reduction of triiodide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnum, Byron H; Ward, William M; Meyer, Gerald J

    2013-01-18

    The one-electron reduction of triiodide (I(3)(-)) by a series of reduced ruthenium polypyridyl compounds was studied in an acetonitrile solution at room temperature using the flash-quench technique. Reductive quenching of the metal-to-ligand charge-transfer excited state of [Ru(bpy)(2)(deeb)](2+), [Ru(deeb)(2)(bpy)](2+), or [Ru(deeb)(3)](2+), where bpy is 2,2'-bipyridine and deeb is 4,4'-(CO(2)CH(2)CH(3))(2)-2,2'-bipyridine, by iodide generated the reduced ruthenium compounds and diiodide (I(2)(•-)). Charge recombination of the reduced ruthenium compounds and I(2)(•-) occurred with rate constants near the calculated diffusion limit of 2.6 × 10(10) M(-1) s(-1). The reaction of the reduced ruthenium compounds with I(3)(-) was characterized spectroscopically through the addition of I(3)(-) into the experimental solution prior to the laser flash. Transient absorption data indicated that I(2)(•-) was a reaction product of I(3)(-) reduction and appeared with an average second-order rate constant of (5.0 ± 0.6) × 10(9) M(-1) s(-1) for all three compounds. The insensitivity of the rate constants for I(3)(-) reduction over an 80 meV change in the driving force was unexpected. The relevance of these findings to solar energy conversion within dye-sensitized solar cells is discussed.

  3. Spectroelectrochemical Investigation of the One-Electron Reduction of Nonplanar Nickel(II) Porphyrins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Julian; Kupfer, Stephan; Zedler, Linda; Wächtler, Maria; Gräfe, Stefanie; Ryan, Aoife A; Senge, Mathias O; Dietzek, Benjamin

    2016-11-04

    The electrochemical reduction of a series of nickel porphyrins with an increasing number of substituents was investigated in acetonitrile. A one-electron reduction of [5,15-bis(1-ethylpropyl)porphyrinato]nickel(II) leads to π-anion radicals and to efficient formation of phlorin anions, presumably by disproportionation and subsequent protonation of the doubly reduced species. The phlorin anion was identified by using cyclic voltammetry and UV/Vis and resonance Raman spectroelectrochemistry, complemented by quantum-chemical calculations to assign the spectral signatures. The theoretical analysis of the potential-energy landscape of the singly reduced species suggests a thermally activated intersystem crossing that populates the quartet state and thus lowers the energy barrier towards disproportionation channels. Structure-reactivity correlations are investigated by considering different substitution patterns of the investigated nickel(II) porphyrin cores, that is, for the porphyrin with additional β-aryl ([5,15-bis(1-ethylpropyl)-2,8,12,18-tetra(p-tolyl)porphyrinato]nickel(II)) and meso-alkyl substitution ([5,10,15,20-tetrakis(1-ethylpropyl)porphyrinato]nickel(II)), no phlorin anion formation was observed under electrochemical conditions. This observation is correlated either to kinetic inhibition of the disproportionation reaction or to lower reactivity of the subsequently formed doubly reduced species towards protonation. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Mobbing in the Workplace – description and effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Erenkfeit

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Mobbing at workplace is a common and dangerous, at the same time, phenomenon. We are faced with it in the situation when an employee is often and in a longer period of time undergoing harassment, rough time and is treated worse than other employees and experiences a feeling of isolation. The effects of such treatment depend upon the exposure period and individual features of mobbed people and its range is broad and contains biological, psychological,, social and financial aspects. The aim of this work is to draw attention to mobbing problem and the need of systematic surveys In this field. Such surveys may help to increase social awareness and also introduce new solutions in its prevention and overcoming

  5. Anharmonic effects in nuclei in the quantum hydrodynamic description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khodel' , V.A.

    1976-10-01

    Anharmonic effects in the capillary branch of excitations of a Fermi-liquid drop are considered. The limiting transition to classical hydrodynamics is found. It exists when the orbital angular momenta L/sub i/ of the collective excitations are large. The situation of the classical conservation law for the volume of the system is analyzed in the quantum case. It is found that when the frequency of a collective oscillation is small compared with the characteristic single-particle frequencies, the results obtained on the basis of the phenomenological scheme with a phonon-phonon Hamiltonian are reproduced. It is shown that no new parameters are required to calculate the constants of this Hamiltonian in the theory of finite Fermi systems.

  6. Description and effects of sequential behavior practice in teacher education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, T; Lounsbery, M; Bahls, V

    1997-09-01

    This study examined the effects of a sequential behavior feedback protocol on the practice-teaching experiences of undergraduate teacher trainees. The performance competencies of teacher trainees were analyzed using an alternative opportunities for appropriate action measure. Data support the added utility of sequential (Sharpe, 1997a, 1997b) behavior analysis information in systematic observation approaches to teacher education. One field-based undergraduate practicum using sequential behavior (i.e., field systems analysis) principles was monitored. Summarized are the key elements of the (a) classroom instruction provided as a precursor to the practice teaching experience, (b) practice teaching experience, and (c) field systems observation tool used for evaluation and feedback, including multiple-baseline data (N = 4) to support this approach to teacher education. Results point to (a) the strong relationship between sequential behavior feedback and the positive change in four preservice teachers' day-to-day teaching practices in challenging situational contexts, and (b) the relationship between changes in teacher practices and positive changes in the behavioral practices of gymnasium pupils. Sequential behavior feedback was also socially validated by the undergraduate participants and Professional Development School teacher supervisors in the study.

  7. The Effect of Descriptive Norms on Pregaming Frequency: Tests of Five Moderators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Jennifer E; Kenney, Shannon R; Carey, Kate B

    2016-07-02

    Pregaming is highly prevalent on college campuses and associated with heightened levels of intoxication and risk of alcohol consequences. However, research examining the correlates of pregaming behavior is limited. Descriptive norms (i.e., perceptions about the prevalence or frequency of a behavior) are reliable and comparatively strong predictors of general drinking behavior, with recent evidence indicating that they are also associated with pregaming. We tested the hypothesis that higher descriptive norms for pregaming frequency would be associated with personal pregaming frequency. We also tested whether this effect would be stronger in the context of several theory-based moderators: female gender, higher injunctive norms (i.e., perceptions of others' attitudes toward a particular behavior), a more positive attitude toward pregaming, a stronger sense of identification with the drinking habits of other students, and stronger social comparison tendencies. College student drinkers (N = 198, 63% female) participated in an online survey assessing frequency of pregaming, descriptive norms, and hypothesized moderators. A multiple regression model revealed that higher descriptive norms, a more positive attitude toward pregaming, and stronger peer identification were significantly associated with greater pregaming frequency among drinkers. However, no moderators of the association between descriptive norms and pregaming frequency were observed. Descriptive norms are robust predictors of pregaming behavior, for both genders and across levels of several potential moderators. Future research seeking to understand pregaming behavior should consider descriptive norms, as well as personal attitudes and identification with student peers, as targets of interventions designed to reduce pregaming.

  8. Anomalous one-electron processes in the chemistry of uranium nitrogen multiple bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullane, Kimberly C; Lewis, Andrew J; Yin, Haolin; Carroll, Patrick J; Schelter, Eric J

    2014-09-02

    Novel reaction pathways are illustrated in the synthesis of uranium(IV), uranium(V), and uranium(VI) monoimido complexes. In contrast to the straightforward preparation of U(V)(═NSiMe3)[N(SiMe3)2]3 (1), the synthesis of a uranium(V) tritylimido complex, U(V)(═NCPh3)[N(SiMe3)2]3 (4), from U(III)[N(SiMe3)2]3 and Ph3CN3 was found to proceed through multiple one-electron steps. Whereas the oxidation of 1 with copper(II) salts produced the uranium(VI) monoimido complexes U(VI)(═NSiMe3)X[N(SiMe3)2]3 (X = Cl, Br), the reaction of 4 with CuBr2 undergoes sterically induced reduction to form the uranium(VI) monoimido complex U(VI)(═NCPh3)Br2[N(SiMe3)2]2, demonstrating a striking difference in reactivity based on imido substituent. The facile reduction of compounds 1 and 4 with KC8 allowed for the synthesis of the uranium(IV) monoimido derivatives, K[U(IV)(═NSiMe3)[N(SiMe3)2]3] (1-K) and K[U(IV)(═NCPh3)[N(SiMe3)2]3] (4-K), respectively. In contrast, an analogous uranium(IV) monoimido complex, K[U(IV)(═NPh(F))[N(SiMe3)Ph(F)

  9. The Effect of Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition Technique on Students' Reading Descriptive Text Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainuddin

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed at finding out the effectiveness of applying Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition (CIRC) Technique on Students' Reading Descriptive Text Achievement. In other words, the objective of this study was to find out if there was a significant effect of applying Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition (CIRC)…

  10. Novel reactions of one-electron oxidized radicals of selenomethionine in comparison with methionine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, B; Sharma, A; Naumov, S; Priyadarsini, K I

    2009-05-28

    Pulse radiolysis studies on hydroxyl (*OH) radical reactions of selenomethionine (SeM), a selenium analogue of methionine, were carried out, and the resultant transient radical cations and their subsequent reactions have been reported. At pHSe*-OH radical adducts produced on reaction of SeM with *OH radical were converted to selenium centered radical cations (Se*+M), which react with another molecule of SeM to form dimer radical cation M(Se therefore Se)M+. At pH 7, the >Se*-OH radical adducts were converted to a monomer radical of the type (Se therefore N)M+ that acquires intramolecular stability through interaction with the lone pair of the N atom and this radical is denoted as SeM*+. SeM*+ decayed by first order kinetics, and the reduction potential of the couple SeM*+/SeM was determined to be 1.21+/-0.05 V vs NHE at pH 7. SeM*+ oxidized ABTS2- and TMPD with rate constants of (2.5+/-0.1)x10(8) and (6.1+/-0.2)x10(8) M(-1) s(-1), respectively, and reacted with hydroxide ion with a rate constant of (3.8+/-0.9)x10(5) M(-1) s(-1). SeM*+ reacts with molecular oxygen, and the rate constant for this reaction was determined to be (4.3+/-0.2)x10(8) M(-1) s(-1); similar reaction with methionine could not be observed experimentally. Like methionine radical cations, SeM*+ undergoes decarboxylation, although with lesser yield, to produce reducing 3-methyl-selenopropyl amino radicals (referred as alpha-amino radicals). The formation of these radicals was confirmed both by the estimation of the liberated CO2 and by one-electron reduction of MV2+, thionine, and PNAP. These results have been supported by quantum chemical calculations. Implications of these results in the biological role of SeM have also been briefly discussed.

  11. Role descriptions induce gender mismatch effects in eye movements during reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reali, Chiara; Esaulova, Yulia; Öttl, Anton; von Stockhausen, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    The present eye-tracking study investigates the effect of gender typicality on the resolution of anaphoric personal pronouns in English. Participants read descriptions of a person performing a typically male, typically female or gender-neutral occupational activity. The description was followed by an anaphoric reference (he or she) which revealed the referent's gender. The first experiment presented roles which were highly typical for men (e.g., blacksmith) or for women (e.g., beautician), the second experiment presented role descriptions with a moderate degree of gender typicality (e.g., psychologist, lawyer). Results revealed a gender mismatch effect in early and late measures in the first experiment and in early stages in the second experiment. Moreover, eye-movement data for highly typical roles correlated with explicit typicality ratings. The results are discussed from a cross-linguistic perspective, comparing natural gender languages and grammatical gender languages. An interpretation of the cognitive representation of typicality beliefs is proposed.

  12. The Effect of Progressive Sentence Development Activities on 5th Graders' Description Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzadayi, Ergun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of progressive sentence development activities on 5th graders' description skills. The study was conducted based on the pretest-posttest quasi-experimental model with a control group. A total of 58 students participated in the study; 29 in the control group, and 29 in the experimental group. The…

  13. Electronic phase diagram of half-doped perovskite manganites on the plane of quenched disorder versus one-electron bandwidth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomioka, Y.; Ito, T.; Sawa, A.

    2018-01-01

    For half-doped manganese oxides that have a perovskite structure, R E1 -xA ExMn O3 (x =0.5 ) (RE and AE are rare-earth and alkaline-earth elements, respectively), the phase competition (stability) between the antiferromagnetic charge- or orbital-ordered insulator (CO/OO AFI), ferromagnetic metal (FM), layered (A-type) antiferromagnetic phase [AF(A)], and spin-glass-like insulator (SGI), have been studied using single crystals prepared by the floating zone method. The CO/OO AFI, FM, AF(A), and SGI are displayed on the plane of the disorder (the variance of the RE and AE cations) versus the effective one-electron bandwidth (the averaged ionic radius of the RE and AE). In the plane of the disorder versus the effective one-electron bandwidth, similar to the phase diagram of R E1 -xA ExMn O3 (x =0.45 ), the CO/OO AFI, FM, and SGI dominate at the lower-left, right, and upper regions, respectively. However, the CO/OO AFI for x =0.5 is more stable than that for x =0.45 , and it expands to the plane points that correspond to the R E0.5S r0.5Mn O3 (R E =Nd and Sm) specimens as the hole concentration is commensurate with the ordering of M n3 + /M n4 + with a ratio of 1/1. The y -dependent electronic phases for R E0.5(Sr1-yB ay ) 0.5Mn O3 (0 ≤y ≤0.5 ) (R E =Sm , N d0.5S m0.5 , Nd, and Pr) show that the AF(A) intervenes between the CO/OO AFI and FM. Besides the region around (La1-yP ry ) 0.5S r0.5Mn O3 (0 ≤y ≤1 ) that has a smaller disorder, the AF(A) also exists at the regions around R E0.5(Sr1-yB ay ) 0.5Mn O3 (0 indicates that the AF(A) is rather robust against the increased disorder, even though an ordering of the (x2-y2 ) orbital occurs. This study has comprehensively investigated the effects of the disorder on the AF(A) as well as on the competition between the CO/OO AFI, FM, and AF(A) that is unique to x =0.5 . The comparison of phase diagrams between x =0.45 and 0.5 brings further insights into the understanding of the rich electronic phases of manganites.

  14. Relativistic calculations of quasi-one-electron atoms and ions using Laguerre and Slater spinors

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Jun; Cheng, Yongjun; Bromley, Michael W J

    2016-01-01

    A relativistic description of the structure of heavy alkali atoms and alkali-like ions using S-spinors and L-spinors has been developed. The core wavefunction is defined by a Dirac-Fock calculation using an S-spinors basis. The S-spinor basis is then supplemented by a large set of L-spinors for the calculation of the valence wavefunction in a frozen-core model. The numerical stability of the L-spinor approach is demonstrated by computing the energies and decay rates of several low-lying hydrogen eigenstates, along with the polarizabilities of a $Z=60$ hydrogenic ion. The approach is then applied to calculate the dynamic polarizabilities of the $5s$, $4d$ and $5p$ states of Sr$^+$. The magic wavelengths at which the Stark shifts between different pairs of transitions are zero are computed. Determination of the magic wavelengths for the $5s \\to 4d_{\\frac32}$ and $5s \\to 4d_{\\frac52}$ transitions near $417$~nm (near the wavelength for the $5s \\to 5p_j$ transitions) would allow a determination of the oscillator s...

  15. Electrochemical One-Electron Oxidation of Low-Generation Polyamidoamine-Type Dendrimers with a 1,4-Phenylenediamine Core

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammerich, Ole; Hansen, Thomas; Thorvildsen, Asbjørn

    2009-01-01

    A series of polyamidoamine (PAMAM)-type dendrimers with a 1,4-phenylenediamine (PD) core is prepared from PD by procedures including Michael addition of methyl acrylate followed by aminolysis with 1,2-ethanediamine. Their one-electron oxidation potentials are determined by differential pulse volt...

  16. Oxidatively generated base damage to cellular DNA by hydroxyl radical and one-electron oxidants: similarities and differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadet, Jean; Wagner, J Richard

    2014-09-01

    Hydroxyl radical (OH) and one-electron oxidants that may be endogenously formed through oxidative metabolism, phagocytosis, inflammation and pathological conditions constitute the main sources of oxidatively generated damage to cellular DNA. It is worth mentioning that exposure of cells to exogenous physical agents (UV light, high intensity UV laser, ionizing radiation) and chemicals may also induce oxidatively generated damage to DNA. Emphasis is placed in this short review article on the mechanistic aspects of OH and one-electron oxidant-mediated formation of single and more complex damage (tandem lesions, intra- and interstrand cross-links, DNA-protein cross-links) in cellular DNA arising from one radical hit. This concerns DNA modifications that have been accurately measured using suitable analytical methods such as high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Evidence is provided that OH and one-electron oxidants after generating neutral radicals and base radical cations respectively may partly induce common degradation pathways. In addition, selective oxidative reactions giving rise to specific degradation products of OH and one-electron oxidation reactions that can be used as representative biomarkers of these oxidants have been identified. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effective description of dark matter self-interactions in small dark matter haloes★

    OpenAIRE

    Kummer, Janis; Kahlhoefer, Felix; Schmidt-Hoberg, Kai

    2018-01-01

    Self-interacting dark matter may have striking astrophysical signatures, such as observable offsets between galaxies and dark matter in merging galaxy clusters. Numerical N-body simulations used to predict such observables typically treat the galaxies as collisionless test particles, a questionable assumption given that each galaxy is embedded in its own dark matter halo. To enable a more accurate treatment, we develop an effective description of small dark matter haloes taking into account t...

  18. Effective description of dark matter self-interactions in small dark matter haloes

    OpenAIRE

    Kummer, Janis; Kahlhoefer, Felix; Schmidt-Hoberg, Kai

    2017-01-01

    Self-interacting dark matter may have striking astrophysical signatures, such as observable offsets between galaxies and dark matter in merging galaxy clusters. Numerical N-body simulations used to predict such observables typically treat the galaxies as collisionless test particles, a questionable assumption given that each galaxy is embedded in its own dark matter halo. To enable a more accurate treatment we develop an effective description of small dark matter haloes taking into account th...

  19. Stockholder projector analysis: a Hilbert-space partitioning of the molecular one-electron density matrix with orthogonal projectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanfleteren, Diederik; Van Neck, Dimitri; Bultinck, Patrick; Ayers, Paul W; Waroquier, Michel

    2012-01-07

    A previously introduced partitioning of the molecular one-electron density matrix over atoms and bonds [D. Vanfleteren et al., J. Chem. Phys. 133, 231103 (2010)] is investigated in detail. Orthogonal projection operators are used to define atomic subspaces, as in Natural Population Analysis. The orthogonal projection operators are constructed with a recursive scheme. These operators are chemically relevant and obey a stockholder principle, familiar from the Hirshfeld-I partitioning of the electron density. The stockholder principle is extended to density matrices, where the orthogonal projectors are considered to be atomic fractions of the summed contributions. All calculations are performed as matrix manipulations in one-electron Hilbert space. Mathematical proofs and numerical evidence concerning this recursive scheme are provided in the present paper. The advantages associated with the use of these stockholder projection operators are examined with respect to covalent bond orders, bond polarization, and transferability.

  20. R-matrix-incorporating-time theory of one-electron atomic and molecular systems in intense laser fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broin, Cathal Ó.; Nikolopoulos, L. A. A.

    2017-02-01

    In this thesis tutorial we discuss the R-matrix-incorporating-time ab initio theoretical framework for the solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation of one-electron atomic and molecular systems under strong electromagnetic fields. Within this approach, a division-of-space method is developed with the configuration space of the electron’s coordinates separated over two regions, the inner and outer regions. In the inner region the quantum system’s time-dependent wavefunction is expanded on the eigenstate basis set of its field-free Hamiltonian representation while in the outer region its grid representation is considered. The present tutorial describes in detail the theoretical formulation for one-electron quantum systems. Example calculations are discussed for atomic hydrogen, H, and the molecular hydrogen ion, {{{H}}}2+, in intense laser fields.

  1. Role descriptions induce gender mismatch effects in eye movements during reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara eReali

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The present eye-tracking study investigates the effect of gender typicality on the resolution of anaphoric personal pronouns in English. Participants read descriptions of a person performing a typically male, typically female or gender-neutral occupational activity. The description was followed by an anaphoric reference (he or she which revealed the referent's gender. The first experiment presented roles which were highly typical for men (e.g., blacksmith or for women (e.g., beautician, the second experiment presented role descriptions with a moderate degree of gender typicality (e.g., psychologist, lawyer. Results revealed a gender mismatch effect in early and late measures in the first experiment and in an early measure in the second experiment. Moreover, eye-movement data for highly typical roles correlated with explicit typicality ratings. The results are discussed from a cross-linguistic perspective, comparing natural gender languages and grammatical gender languages. An interpretation of the cognitive representation of typicality beliefs is proposed.

  2. The effects of liking norms and descriptive norms on vegetable consumption: a randomised experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Michael Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence that social norm messages can be used to promote the selection of fruit and vegetables in low habitual consumers of these foods but it is unclear whether this effect is sustained over time. It is also unclear whether information about others’ liking for a food (liking norm could have the same effect. Using a 2 x 5 x 2 experimental design we investigated the effects of exposure to various messages on later intake from a food buffet and whether any effects were sustained 24 hours after exposure in both low and high consumers of vegetables. There were three factors: delay (immediate food selection versus food selection 24 hours after exposure, message type (liking norm, descriptive norm, health message, food-based vegetable variety control, and neutral control message and habitual consumption (low versus high. The buffet consisted of three raw vegetables, three energy-dense foods and two dips. For vegetables and non-vegetables there were no main effects of message type, nor any main effect of delay. There was a significant message x habitual vegetable consumption interaction for vegetable consumption; however, follow up tests did not yield any significant effects. Examining each food individually, there were no main effects of message type, nor any main effect of delay, for any of the foods; however, there was a message x habitual vegetable consumption interaction for broccoli. Consumption of broccoli in the health message and descriptive norm conditions did not differ from the control neutral condition. However, habitually low consumers of vegetables increased their consumption of broccoli in the food-based vegetable variety control and liking norm conditions relative to habitual low vegetable consumers in the neutral control condition (p < 0.05. Further investigation of the effects of the liking norm and vegetable variety message on vegetable intake is warranted. This trial is listed as NCT02618174 at clinicaltrials.gov.

  3. First-principles linear response description of the spin Nernst effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, S.; Ködderitzsch, D.; Chadova, K.; Ebert, H.

    2013-11-01

    A first-principles description of the spin Nernst effect, denoting the occurrence of a transverse spin current due to a temperature gradient, is presented. The approach, based on an extension to the Kubo-Středa equation for spin transport, supplies in particular the formal basis for investigations of diluted as well as concentrated alloys. Results for corresponding applications to the alloy system AuxCu1-x give the intrinsic and extrinsic contributions to the relevant transport coefficients. Using scaling laws allows in addition splitting the extrinsic contribution into its skew scattering and side-jump parts.

  4. Effective description of dark matter self-interactions in small dark matter haloes★

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummer, Janis; Kahlhoefer, Felix; Schmidt-Hoberg, Kai

    2018-02-01

    Self-interacting dark matter may have striking astrophysical signatures, such as observable offsets between galaxies and dark matter in merging galaxy clusters. Numerical N-body simulations used to predict such observables typically treat the galaxies as collisionless test particles, a questionable assumption given that each galaxy is embedded in its own dark matter halo. To enable a more accurate treatment we develop an effective description of small dark matter haloes taking into account the two major effects due to dark matter self-scatterings: deceleration and evaporation. We point out that self-scatterings can have a sizeable impact on the trajectories of galaxies, diminishing the separation between galaxies and dark matter in merging clusters. This effect depends sensitively on the underlying particle physics, in particular the angular dependence of the self-scattering cross section, and cannot be predicted from the momentum transfer cross section alone.

  5. Achieving Low Overpotential Li-O₂ Battery Operations by Li₂O₂ Decomposition through One-Electron Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jin; Dong, Qi; Madden, Ian; Yao, Xiahui; Cheng, Qingmei; Dornath, Paul; Fan, Wei; Wang, Dunwei

    2015-12-09

    As a promising high-capacity energy storage technology, Li-O2 batteries face two critical challenges, poor cycle lifetime and low round-trip efficiencies, both of which are connected to the high overpotentials. The problem is particularly acute during recharge, where the reactions typically follow two-electron mechanisms that are inherently slow. Here we present a strategy that can significantly reduce recharge overpotentials. Our approach seeks to promote Li2O2 decomposition by one-electron processes, and the key is to stabilize the important intermediate of superoxide species. With the introduction of a highly polarizing electrolyte, we observe that recharge processes are successfully switched from a two-electron pathway to a single-electron one. While a similar one-electron route has been reported for the discharge processes, it has rarely been described for recharge except for the initial stage due to the poor mobilities of surface bound superoxide ions (O2(-)), a necessary intermediate for the mechanism. Key to our observation is the solvation of O2(-) by an ionic liquid electrolyte (PYR14TFSI). Recharge overpotentials as low as 0.19 V at 100 mA/g(carbon) are measured.

  6. One-electron spectra and susceptibilities of the three-dimensional electron gas from self-consistent solutions of Hedin's equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutepov, A. L.; Kotliar, G.

    2017-07-01

    A few approximate schemes to solve the Hedin equations self-consistently introduced in Phys. Rev. B 94, 155101 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevB.94.155101 are explored and tested for the three-dimensional (3D) electron gas at metallic densities. We calculate one-electron spectra, dielectric properties, compressibility, and correlation energy. Considerable reduction in the calculated bandwidth (as compared to the self-consistent G W result) has been found when vertex correction was used for both polarizability and self-energy. Generally, it is advantageous to obtain the diagrammatic representation of polarizability from the definition of this quantity as a functional derivative of the electronic density with respect to the total field (external plus induced). For self-energy, the first-order vertex correction seems to be sufficient for the range of densities considered. Whenever it is possible, we compare the accuracy of our vertex-corrected schemes with the accuracy of the self-consistent quasiparticle G W approximation (QSGW), which is less expensive computationally. We show that the QSGW approach performs poorly and we relate this poor performance with an inaccurate description of the screening in the QSGW method (with an error comprising a factor 2-3 in the physically important range of momenta).

  7. Descriptions of membrane mechanics from microscopic and effective two-dimensional perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomholt, Michael Andersen; Miao, L.

    2006-01-01

    the membrane appears as a thin layer of finite thickness and with highly inhomogeneous material and force distributions in its transverse direction, and an effective, two-dimensional perspective, in which the membrane is treated as an infinitely thin surface, with effective material and mechanical properties......Mechanics of fluid membranes may be described in terms of the concepts of mechanical deformations and stresses or in terms of mechanical free-energy functions. In this paper, each of the two descriptions is developed by viewing a membrane from two perspectives: a microscopic perspective, in which....... A connection between these two perspectives is then established. Moreover, the functional dependence of the variation in the mechanical free energy of the membrane on its mechanical deformations is first studied in the microscopic perspective. The result is then used to examine to what extent different...

  8. Particle number projecting method for description of pairing effects in metal clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzmenko, N. [Khlopin Radium Institute, St. Peterburg (Russian Federation); Nesterenko, V.; Pashkevich, V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation). Lab. of Theoretical Physics; Frauendorf, S. [Institut fuer Kern- und Hadronenphysik, Forshungszentrum Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany)

    1996-05-01

    The particle number projecting method for the description of pairing effects in metal clusters is proposed. In contrast with the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer method (BCS) which does not conserve the particle number (thus not providing the necessary accuracy of calculations for small clusters) and has no solutions at sufficiently weak pairing, the projecting method can be applied to both small and large clusters with any pairing strength. As an example, the projection method is used to check the assertion on the pairing origin of the odd-even staggering (OES) in the ionization potentials (IP) of sodium clusters. Both effects of pairing and shape deformation are taken into account simultaneously. In general, the results obtained show that the existence of pairing in sodium clusters is doubtful.

  9. Neural evidence for description dependent reward processing in the framing effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongjun eYu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Human decision making can be influenced by emotionally valenced contexts, known as the framing effect. We used event-related brain potentials to investigate how framing influences the encoding of reward. We found that the feedback related negativity (FRN, which indexes the worse than expected negative prediction error in the anterior cingulate cortex, was more negative for the negative frame than for the positive frame in the win domain. Consistent with previous findings that the FRN is not sensitive to better than expected positive prediction error, the FRN did not differentiate the positive and negative frame in the loss domain. Our results provide neural evidence that the description invariance principle which states that reward representation and decision making are not influenced by how options are presented is violated in the framing effect.

  10. The Effectiveness of Mind Mapping in Improving Students Descriptive Writing Ability at Cokroaminoto University of Palopo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juwita Crestiani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to find out whether or not mind mapping improves the students’ descriptive writing ability covering content, organization, vocabulary, language use and mechanics components; which aspects is dominantly improved by the effectiveness of mind mapping. This research applied quasi experimental method. This research consisted of assigned two groups namely experimental group and control group. Each group consisted of 30 students. The sample was chosen by purposive random sampling technique. The instrument of this research was writing test. In collecting data, this research used some procedures namely pre test, treatment, post test. In the experimental group, the students were given material through mind mapping for five times while in control group, the students were also given treatment through conventional way (lecturing method for five times. The researcher used writing test both in experimental and control group. The data of students’ writing ability were analyzed by using inferential statistics through SPSS 17.0 version. The effectiveness of mind mapping improved the students’ writing ability in descriptive text. This is proved by the mean score of experimental group in posttest was 81.61 (good classification. While the mean score of control group in posttest was 49.86 (poor classifications. It was also proved by the different improvement of writing components (content, organization, vocabulary, language use, and mechanics of both groups in the posttest which was taken from both valuators. Those improvements showed that effectiveness of mind mapping improved the students’ writing ability in the experimental group. It is more effective to improve the students’ writing ability. It indicated that the alternative hypothesis (H1 was significantly approved. Component in writing dominantly improved is content. The data result proves such conclusion which is based on the data from researcher and lecturer in

  11. Direct observation of pure one-electron capture from the target inner shell in low-energy p+Na collisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoop, S; Morgenstern, R; Hoekstra, R

    2004-01-01

    One-electron removal in the p+Na collision system has been investigated at low energy (4-25 keV) by means of recoil ion momentum spectroscopy. The focus will be on the contribution of one-electron capture from the Na 2p inner shell into the hydrogen ground state, thereby leaving the Na+ target ion

  12. Activated aging dynamics and effective trap model description in the random energy model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baity-Jesi, M.; Biroli, G.; Cammarota, C.

    2018-01-01

    We study the out-of-equilibrium aging dynamics of the random energy model (REM) ruled by a single spin-flip Metropolis dynamics. We focus on the dynamical evolution taking place on time-scales diverging with the system size. Our aim is to show to what extent the activated dynamics displayed by the REM can be described in terms of an effective trap model. We identify two time regimes: the first one corresponds to the process of escaping from a basin in the energy landscape and to the subsequent exploration of high energy configurations, whereas the second one corresponds to the evolution from a deep basin to the other. By combining numerical simulations with analytical arguments we show why the trap model description does not hold in the former but becomes exact in the second.

  13. Effects of data anonymization by cell suppression on descriptive statistics and predictive modeling performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno-Machado, L; Vinterbo, S A; Dreiseitl, S

    2001-01-01

    Protecting individual data in disclosed databases is essential. Data anonymization strategies can produce table ambiguation by suppression of selected cells. Using table ambiguation, different degrees of anonymization can be achieved, depending on the number of individuals that a particular case must become indistinguishable from. This number defines the level of anonymization. Anonymization by cell suppression does not necessarily prevent inferences from being made from the disclosed data. Preventing inferences may be important to preserve confidentiality. We show that anonymized data sets can preserve descriptive characteristics of the data, but might also be used for making inferences on particular individuals, which is a feature that may not be desirable. The degradation of predictive performance is directly proportional to the degree of anonymity. As an example, we report the effect of anonymization on the predictive performance of a model constructed to estimate the probability of disease given clinical findings.

  14. Previously reappraised: the lasting effect of description type on picture-elicited electrocortical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macnamara, Annmarie; Ochsner, Kevin N; Hajcak, Greg

    2011-06-01

    To examine whether reappraisal modifies responses to subsequent encounters with stimuli, participants viewed neutral and unpleasant pictures that were preceded by negative or neutral descriptions which served as reappraisal frames. A half an hour later, the same pictures were presented, without preceding frames; EEG was recorded and participants rated each picture on arousal and valence. In line with previous work, unpleasant compared to neutral pictures elicited more positive early- (359 ms), mid- (1074 ms) and late-latency (2436 ms) centrally-distributed ERP components. Pictures previously preceded by negative compared to neutral reappraisal frames were rated as more unpleasant and more emotionally arousing; these pictures elicited a larger mid-latency (1074 ms) occipital positivity. Together, the data suggest that reappraisal exerts an enduring effect on both subjective and neural responses to stimuli.

  15. A descriptive study of effect-size reporting in research reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Judith A

    2017-06-01

    To describe effect-size reporting in research reviews completed in support of evidence-based practice in nursing. Many research reviews report nurses' critical appraisal of level, quality and overall strength of evidence available to address clinical questions. Several studies of research-review quality suggest effect-size information would be useful to include in these reviews, but none focused on reviewers' attention to effect sizes. Descriptive. One hundred and four reviews indexed in CINAHL as systematic reviews and published from July 2012-February 2014 were examined. Papers were required to be peer-reviewed, written in English, contain an abstract and have at least one nurse author. Reviews were excluded if they did not use critical appraisal methods to address evidence of correlation, prediction or effectiveness. Data from remaining papers (N = 73) were extracted by three or more independent coders using a structured coding form and detailed codebook. Data were stored, viewed and analysed using Microsoft Office Excel® spreadsheet functions. Sixteen percent (n = 12) of the sample contained effect-size information. Of the 12, six included all the effect-size information recommended by APA guidelines. Independent of completeness of reporting, seven contained discussion of effect sizes in the paper, but none included effect-size information in abstracts. Research reviews available to practicing nurses often fail to include information needed to accurately assess how much improvement may result from implementation of evidence-based policies, programs, protocols or practices. Manuscript reviewers are urged to hold authors to APA standards for reporting/discussing effect-size information in both primary research reports and research reviews. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. The effect of simplifying the building description on the numerical modeling of its thermal performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stetiu, Corina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1993-07-01

    A thermal building simulation program is a numerical model that calculates the response of the building envelopes to weather and human activity, simulates dynamic heating and cooling loads, and heating and cooling distribution systems, and models building equipment operation. The scope of the research is to supply the users of such programs with information about the dangers and benefits of simplifying the input to their models. The Introduction describes the advantages of modeling the heat transfer mechanisms in a building. The programs that perform this type of modeling have, however, limitations. The user is therefore often put in the situation of simplifying the floor plans of the building under study, but not being able to check the effects that this approximation introduces in the results of the simulation. Chapter 1 is a description of methods. It also introduces the floor plans for the office building under study and the ``reasonable`` floor plans simplifications. Chapter 2 presents DOE-2, the thermal building simulation program used in the sensitivity study. The evaluation of the accuracy of the DOE-2 program itself is also presented. Chapter 3 contains the sensitivity study. The complicated nature of the process of interpreting the temperature profile inside a space leads to the necessity of defining different building modes. The study compares the results from the model of the detailed building description with the results from the models of the same building having simplified floor plans. The conclusion is reached that a study of the effects of simplifying the floor plans of a building is important mainly for defining the cases in which this approximation is acceptable. Different results are obtained for different air conditioning/load regimes of the building. 9 refs., 24 figs.

  17. Nursing students' perspectives on clinical instructors' effective teaching strategies: A descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiee, Sina; Moridi, Glorokh; Khaledi, Shahnaz; Garibi, Fardin

    2016-01-01

    An important factor contributing to the quality of clinical education is instructors' teaching performance. The aim of this study was to identify clinical instructors' most effective teaching strategies from nursing and midwifery students' perspectives. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. All third- and fourth-year bachelor's nursing and midwifery students studying at the Nursing and Midwifery Faculty of Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences were recruited to the study by using the census method. The study instrument consisted of a demographic questionnaire and the self-report 30-item Clinical Instructors' Effective Teaching Strategies Inventory. The SPSS v.16.0 was used for data analysis. The most effective teaching strategies of clinical instructors from nursing and midwifery students' perspectives were respectively 'treating students, clients, and colleagues with respect' and 'being eager for guiding students and manage their problems'. Clinical instructors need to be eager for education and also be able to establish effective communication with students. Empowering clinical instructors in specialized and technical aspects of clinical education seems necessary. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Effect of Dialogue Journal Writing on EFL Learners' Descriptive Writing Performance: A Quantitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Dabbagh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to evaluate the effect of dialogue journal writing on writing performance as well as its different sub-components, namely content, organization, vocabulary, language use, and mechanics (Following Polio, 2013. Participants were 84 EFL intermediate learners who were selected based on their performance on Oxford Quick Placement Test (2004 and divided randomly into experimental and control groups. While the participants in the control group took part in descriptive writing pre and post-tests only, their counterparts in experimental group were asked to write 3 journals a week for about 6 months in the period between the pre- and post-tests. The instructor of the experimental group provided feedback to each journal entry mostly on its content and message to which the participants replied in a dialogic manner. Results of independent sample t-test located a significant difference between the experimental and control group regarding the overall writing performance, as well as the sub-components of content, organization, and vocabulary in the post-test. However, the obtained results did not reveal a significant effect of dialogue journal writing on language use and mechanics of writing performance. The results which promise implications for writing instructors, curriculum developers, and material designers are fully discussed.

  19. The verbal facilitation effect: re-reading person descriptions as a system variable to improve identification performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sporer, Siegfried L; Kaminski, Kristina S; Davids, Maike C; McQuiston, Dawn

    2016-11-01

    When witnesses report a crime, police usually ask for a description of the perpetrator. Several studies suggested that verbalising faces leads to a detriment in identification performance (verbal overshadowing effect [VOE]) but the effect has been difficult to replicate. Here, we sought to reverse the VOE by inducing context reinstatement as a system variable through re-reading one's own description before an identification task. Participants (N = 208) watched a video film and were then dismissed (control group), only described the perpetrator, or described and later re-read their own descriptions before identification in either target-present or target-absent lineups after a 2-day or a 5-week delay. Identification accuracy was significantly higher after re-reading (85.0%) than in the no description control group (62.5%) irrespective of target presence. Data were internally replicated using a second target and corroborated by several small meta-analyses. Identification accuracy was related to description quality. Moreover, there was a tendency towards a verbal facilitation effect (VFE) rather than a VOE. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses confirm that our findings are not due to a shift in response bias but truly reflect improvement of recognition performance. Differences in the ecological validity of study paradigms are discussed.

  20. Consistent Probabilistic Description of the Neutral Kaon System: Novel Observable Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Bernabeu, J.; Villanueva-Perez, P.

    2013-01-01

    The neutral Kaon system has both CP violation in the mass matrix and a non-vanishing lifetime difference in the width matrix. This leads to an effective Hamiltonian which is not a normal operator, with incompatible (non-commuting) masses and widths. In the Weisskopf-Wigner Approach (WWA), by diagonalizing the entire Hamiltonian, the unphysical non-orthogonal "stationary" states $K_{L,S}$ are obtained. These states have complex eigenvalues whose real (imaginary) part does not coincide with the eigenvalues of the mass (width) matrix. In this work we describe the system as an open Lindblad-type quantum mechanical system due to Kaon decays. This approach, in terms of density matrices for initial and final states, provides a consistent probabilistic description, avoiding the standard problems because the width matrix becomes a composite operator not included in the Hamiltonian. We consider the dominant-decay channel to two pions, so that one of the Kaon states with definite lifetime becomes stable. This new approa...

  1. Representation-free description of light-pulse atom interferometry including non-inertial effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinert, Stephan, E-mail: stephan.kleinert@uni-ulm.de [Institut für Quantenphysik and Center for Integrated Quantum Science and Technology (IQST), Universität Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, D-89081 Ulm (Germany); Kajari, Endre; Roura, Albert [Institut für Quantenphysik and Center for Integrated Quantum Science and Technology (IQST), Universität Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, D-89081 Ulm (Germany); Schleich, Wolfgang P. [Institut für Quantenphysik and Center for Integrated Quantum Science and Technology (IQST), Universität Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, D-89081 Ulm (Germany); Texas A& M University Institute for Advanced Study (TIAS), Institute for Quantum Science and Engineering (IQSE) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A& M University College Station, TX 77843-4242 (United States)

    2015-12-30

    Light-pulse atom interferometers rely on the wave nature of matter and its manipulation with coherent laser pulses. They are used for precise gravimetry and inertial sensing as well as for accurate measurements of fundamental constants. Reaching higher precision requires longer interferometer times which are naturally encountered in microgravity environments such as drop-tower facilities, sounding rockets and dedicated satellite missions aiming at fundamental quantum physics in space. In all those cases, it is necessary to consider arbitrary trajectories and varying orientations of the interferometer set-up in non-inertial frames of reference. Here we provide a versatile representation-free description of atom interferometry entirely based on operator algebra to address this general situation. We show how to analytically determine the phase shift as well as the visibility of interferometers with an arbitrary number of pulses including the effects of local gravitational accelerations, gravity gradients, the rotation of the lasers and non-inertial frames of reference. Our method conveniently unifies previous results and facilitates the investigation of novel interferometer geometries.

  2. The Effect of Positive Group Psychotherapy and Motivational Interviewing on Smoking Cessation: A Qualitative Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Jin

    The purpose of this study was to describe the process and evaluate the effect of positive group psychotherapy and motivational interviewing as an intervention for smoking cessation. A qualitative descriptive study was conducted at a university in South Korea. Positive group psychotherapy and motivational interviewing were attended by 36 smokers for 1 hour once a week, for 6 hours. A recorded exit interview was conducted after the intervention. The resulting transcripts were analyzed with content analysis and thematic analysis. Among the 36 study participants, the importance of stopping smoking was rated higher in the successful cessation (defined as those who ceased smoking for at least 3 months; hereafter, success group) group (8.6 ± 0.4, n = 10) than in the failed cessation (defined as those who did not cease smoking for at least 3 months; hereafter, failure group) group (7.75 ± 0.3, n = 26; p compliments about efforts for smoking cessation." The importance of and confidence in smoking cessation were predictors for successful cessation for 3-6 months. Motivational interviewing increased motivations, whereas positive group psychotherapy increased positive thoughts and confidence.

  3. Theoretical description of protein field effects on electronic excitations of biological chromophores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varsano, Daniele; Caprasecca, Stefano; Coccia, Emanuele

    2017-01-01

    Photoinitiated phenomena play a crucial role in many living organisms. Plants, algae, and bacteria absorb sunlight to perform photosynthesis, and convert water and carbon dioxide into molecular oxygen and carbohydrates, thus forming the basis for life on Earth. The vision of vertebrates is accomplished in the eye by a protein called rhodopsin, which upon photon absorption performs an ultrafast isomerisation of the retinal chromophore, triggering the signal cascade. Many other biological functions start with the photoexcitation of a protein-embedded pigment, followed by complex processes comprising, for example, electron or excitation energy transfer in photosynthetic complexes. The optical properties of chromophores in living systems are strongly dependent on the interaction with the surrounding environment (nearby protein residues, membrane, water), and the complexity of such interplay is, in most cases, at the origin of the functional diversity of the photoactive proteins. The specific interactions with the environment often lead to a significant shift of the chromophore excitation energies, compared with their absorption in solution or gas phase. The investigation of the optical response of chromophores is generally not straightforward, from both experimental and theoretical standpoints; this is due to the difficulty in understanding diverse behaviours and effects, occurring at different scales, with a single technique. In particular, the role played by ab initio calculations in assisting and guiding experiments, as well as in understanding the physics of photoactive proteins, is fundamental. At the same time, owing to the large size of the systems, more approximate strategies which take into account the environmental effects on the absorption spectra are also of paramount importance. Here we review the recent advances in the first-principle description of electronic and optical properties of biological chromophores embedded in a protein environment. We show

  4. Long-term neuropsychological effects of opioid use in children: a descriptive literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Gaurav; Mahendra, Vijaita; Singhal, Sarita; Dzara, Kristina; Pilla, Trinadha R; Manworren, Renee; Kaye, Alan D

    2014-01-01

    Use of opioids in the management of pain and its consequences in children presents a substantial challenge. A significant concern in pediatric pain management is the long-term neuropsychological consequences of opioids. The authors aim to provide a descriptive review of the current literature surrounding the neuropsychological impact of opioid use in children, along with possible extrapolations from their use in adults and animal models. Systematic review of published literature. Various universities in the United States. The electronic review for papers published between January 1992 and December 2012 was conducted using Medline/Pubmed, PsychInfo, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library database, and Google Scholar. Findings assessing pediatric pain patients treated with opioids demonstrated no significant differences in intelligence, behavior, vocabulary, or motor skills. One study reported a decrease in a visuo-constructional ability, which measured higher order executive function. Studies from prenatal illicit opioid exposure found poorer performance on measures of language, verbal ability, mathematics, reading, impulse control, and school readiness skills. The literature from adult prescribed opioid users has mixed results. Some showed impairment in the neuropsychological domains of memory, decision-making, attention, concentration, information processing, psychomotor speed, visual special skills, and hand-eye coordination, while others found no differences or revealed improved perceptual-cognitive status, possibly due to the removal of pain as a stressor. Very few studies looked into the long term neuropsychological and cognitive effects of the opioids in pediatric population. In an attempt to extrapolate from other groups, this review also included literature from adult patients, prenatal opioid exposure, and animal studies. Opioid medications have the potential to produce long-lasting neuropsychological side effects. However, given the negative consequences of

  5. Movie Description

    OpenAIRE

    Rohrbach, A; A Torabi; Rohrbach, M.; Tandon, N.; C.; Pal; Larochelle, H; Courville, A.; Schiele, B.

    2017-01-01

    Audio Description (AD) provides linguistic descriptions of movies and allows visually impaired people to follow a movie along with their peers. Such descriptions are by design mainly visual and thus naturally form an interesting data source for computer vision and computational linguistics. In this work we propose a novel dataset which contains transcribed ADs, which are temporally aligned to full length movies. In addition we also collected and aligned movie scripts used in prior work and co...

  6. The effect of altering self-descriptive behavior on self-concept and classroom behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, J; Muller, D

    1977-09-01

    This research examined the impact of operant reinforcement of positive self-descriptive behavior on the self-concepts and classroom behavior of 60 fifth-grade students. Three groups of 10 male and 10 female low self-concept students wrote a series of eight essays describing their school performance. The first group (P) received written reinforcement for positive self-descriptions of their school performance. The second group (G) received an equal number of reinforcements for general statements. The third group (C) received no reinforcement for written statements. Three areas of self-concept were measured with the Primary Self-Concept Inventory: personal-self, social-self, and intellectual-self. A frequency count was also made of nine classroom behaviors thought to be influenced by self-concept. The P group displayed increases in the frequency of positive self-descriptive statement and in intellectual self-concept but no changes in personal self-concept, social self-concept, or the nine classroom behaviors. The G and C groups showed no change in self-description, self-concept, or the nine classroom behaviors.

  7. Corpus-based Grammar and the Heineken Effect: Lexico-grammatical Description for Language Learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Charles

    1993-01-01

    The current status of corpus-based lexico-grammar is assessed. Particular reference is to the one substantial descriptive grammar of English to have made use of the new computational techniques, the Collins COBUILD English Grammar. (39 references) (Author/LB)

  8. Effects of Modeling Instruction on Descriptive Writing and Observational Skills in Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Do-Yong; Logsdon, Cindy

    2015-01-01

    Before science can be completely understood, one of the fundamental skills that must be developed is observation. Improving descriptive writing and investigating students' observational skills in the classroom is the purpose of this study. The study was designed to determine if such skills, practiced through modeling activities, serve as a way to…

  9. Effect of maturity stage and storage on flavor compounds and sensory description of berrycactus (Myrtillocactus geometrizans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez-Cruz, Moises Alejandro; Jimenez-Garcia, Sandra Neli; Torres-Pacheco, Irineo; Guzman-Maldonado, Salvador Horacio; Guevara-Gonzalez, Ramon Gerardo; Miranda-Lopez, Rita

    2012-04-01

    Descriptive sensory analysis combined with a chemical analysis, provided insight regarding sensory significance for a better understanding of berrycactus' flavor. This study was based on the volatile components derived from the gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) analysis. Four different ripening stages were used for the experiments: unripe, red, transition, and over-ripe. Besides red and transition stages were stored in sealed plastic bags for 7 d at 5 °C as an additional treatment in order to establish comparisons with fresh samples. GC-O analysis was performed following OSME (time-intensity) method. Moreover, chemical characterization was achieved through GC-MS analysis, each compound was tentatively identified by comparing its mass spectra with the spectra from the library NIST02, by its aroma notes and Kovats Index. The aroma descriptors found were: caramel, fruity, acetic acid, fresh, citrus, floral, and phenolics. Nine volatile compounds are among the most important in flavor of berrycactus: furfural, 5-methyl-2-furancarboxaldehyde, 2(5H)-furanone, 5-acetoxymethyl-2-furaldehyde, 2-cyclohexen-1-ol, octanoic acid ethyl ester, decanoic acid ethyl ester, octanoic acid, and phenylethyl alcohol. To better reflect the real responses of these compounds, the regression analysis of concentrations to ripening stages were performed. The 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-(4H)-pyran-4-one was found in berrycactus, it has been reported in chemical profile of other berries as a product of heat-induced reactions, however, this compound has no aroma activity. The data suggest that both furanones and esters contribute to the aroma of berrycactus. On the other hand, solid phase microextraction was found to be more useful in detecting esters and acids whereas solvent extraction was more effective in detecting furanones and ketones. This information could contribute to setting up favorable processing conditions; in order to retain the best sensory characteristics of

  10. Sex effects in leader behavior self-descriptions and job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartol, K M; Wortman, M S

    1976-11-01

    This study investigated possible sex differences in leadership among supervisory employees (N = 72) of a large psychiatric hospital by comparing male and female self-descriptions of their own leader behaviors, as well as their satisfaction with various aspects of their jobs. Female leaders described themselves as performing more consideration and tolerance of uncertainty leader behaviors and as being more satisfied with co-workers than male leaders. The possibility, suggested by sex role stereotypes, that self-perceptions of consideration behavior for females and initiating structure for males are related to job satisfaction was not affirmed by the findings. Although some differences were found, the results generally support indications from studies based on subordinate descriptions that there actually may be few job-related differences between male and female leaders.

  11. Exploring Environmental Effects of Accidents During Marine Transport of Dangerous Goods by Use of Accident Descriptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rømer, Hans Gottberg; Haastrup, P.; Petersen, H J Styhr

    1996-01-01

    On the basis of 1776 descriptions of water transport accidents involving dangerous goods, environmental problems in connection with releases of this kind are described and discussed. It was found that most detailed descriptions of environmental consequences concerned oil accidents, although most...... information on consequences to living organisms, and only 10% contained any information on consequences to ecosystems. A relationship was found between the minimum kilometers of shore polluted and the tonnes released in the case of shore pollution from oil accidents. Oil slicks were shown to be five times...... of the consequences were described as reversible changes. It was shown that crude oil releases, on average, are approximately five times larger than releases of oil products and that oil product releases are approximately five times larger than other chemicals. Only 2% of the 1776 accidents described contained...

  12. Exploring environmental effects of accidents during marine transport of dangerous goods by use of accident descriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rømer, Hans; Haastrup, Palle; Petersen, H. J. Styhr

    1996-09-01

    On the basis of 1776 descriptions of water transport accidents involving dangerous goods, environmental problems in connection with releases of this kind are described and discussed. It was found that most detailed descriptions of environmental consequences concerned oil accidents, although most of the consequences were described as reversible changes. It was shown that crude oil releases, on average, are approximately five times larger than releases of oil products and that oil product releases are approximately five times larger than other chemicals. Only 2% of the 1776 accidents described contained information on consequences to living organisms, and only 10% contained any information on consequences to ecosystems. A relationship was found between the minimum kilometers of shore polluted and the tonnes released in the case of shore pollution from oil accidents. Oil slicks were shown to be five times longer than broad. Gravity scales used to describe and evaluate environmental consequences were discussed.

  13. The Effect of Roundtable and Clustering Teaching Techniques and Students’ Personal Traits on Students’ Achievement in Descriptive Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megawati Sinaga

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Objectives of this paper as an experimental research was to investigate the effect of Roundtable and Clustering teaching techniques and students’ personal traits on students’ achievement in descriptive writing. The students in grade ix of SMP Negeri 2 Pancurbatu 2016/2017 school academic year were chose as the population of this research.. The research design was experimental research by using factorial design 2x2. The students were divided into two experimental groups. The experimental group was treated by using Roundtable teaching technique and control group was treated by using Clustering teaching technique. The students are classified into the introvert and extrovert personal traits by conducting the questionnaire and the students’ achievement in descriptive writing was measured by using writing test, namely ‘Analytic Scoring’ by Weigle. The data were analyzed by applying two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA at the level of significance α = 0.05. The result reveals that (1 students’ achievement in descriptive writing taught by using  Roundtable teaching technique was higher than that taught by Clustering teaching technique, with Fobs = 4.59>Ftab=3.97, (2 students’ achievement in descriptive writing with introvert  personal trait was higher than that with extrovert personal traits with Fobs=4.90 Ftable=3.97, (3 there is interaction between teaching techniques and personal traits on students’ achievement in descriptive writing with Fobs =6,58 Ftable=3.97. After computing the Tuckey-Test, the result showed that introvert students got higher achievement if they were taught by using Roundtable teaching technique while extrovert students got higher achievement if they were taught by using Clustering teaching technique.

  14. Descriptive statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Runhua; McLarty, Jerry W

    2009-10-01

    In this article, we introduced basic concepts of statistics, type of distributions, and descriptive statistics. A few examples were also provided. The basic concepts presented herein are only a fraction of the concepts related to descriptive statistics. Also, there are many commonly used distributions not presented herein, such as Poisson distributions for rare events and exponential distributions, F distributions, and logistic distributions. More information can be found in many statistics books and publications.

  15. Descriptive set theory

    CERN Document Server

    Moschovakis, YN

    1987-01-01

    Now available in paperback, this monograph is a self-contained exposition of the main results and methods of descriptive set theory. It develops all the necessary background material from logic and recursion theory, and treats both classical descriptive set theory and the effective theory developed by logicians.

  16. Role of hepatic microsomal and purified cytochrome P-450 in one-electron reduction of two quinone imines and concomitant reduction of molecular oxygen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Straat, R; de Vries, J; Vermeulen, N P

    1987-01-01

    The possible role of cytochrome P-450 in one-electron reduction of quinoid compounds as well as in the formation of reduced oxygen species was investigated in hepatic microsomal and reconstituted systems of purified cytochrome P-450 and purified NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase using electron spin

  17. 'Chemobrain': concentration and memory effects in people receiving chemotherapy - a descriptive phenomenological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, T; Turton, P

    2011-07-01

    There is an international literature which claims that there is a link between chemotherapeutic agents and cognitive impairment. Deficits in concentration and memory can have a major impact on decision making about education and careers, and on general quality of life. The literature to date is generally anecdotal, or reports on quantitative research that does not address patients' interpretations of impaired cognition. It was the intention of this study to capture experiences and perceptions of cognitive impairment as told by people receiving chemotherapy. A descriptive phenomenological approach was employed and four participants were interviewed twice. Analysis was conducted using Nvivo software alongside Hycner's analysis framework so that researchers could produce narratives to represent experiences for each case. The description for each case illuminates uniqueness and commonality. 'Chemobrain' is a significant and important issue for many patients but they are often unaware, prior to chemotherapy, that cognition may be affected. There is no shared understanding between patients and healthcare professionals and there is a lack of information about the phenomena which disempower patients. Healthcare professionals should develop knowledge and skills to recognise and address chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Quantum-like model of diauxie in Escherichia coli: operational description of precultivation effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Masanari; Basieva, Irina; Khrennikov, Andrei; Ohya, Masanori; Tanaka, Yoshiharu; Yamato, Ichiro

    2012-12-07

    In this paper we apply the quantum-like (QL) approach to microbiology to present an operational description of the complex process of diauxie in Escherichia coli. We take as guaranteed that dynamics in cells is adaptive, i.e., it depends crucially on the microbiological context. This very general assumption is sufficient to appeal to quantum and more general QL probabilistic models. The next step is to find the operational representation - by operators in complex Hilbert space (as in quantum physics). To determine QL operators, we used the statistical data from Inada et al. (1996). To improve the QL-representation, we needed better experimental data. Corresponding experiments were recently done by two of the authors and in this paper we use these new data. In these data we found that bio-chemical context of precultivation of populations of E. coli plays a crucial role in E. coli preferences with respect to sugars. Hence, the form of the QL operator representing lactose operon activation also depends crucially on precultivation. One of our results is decomposition of the lactose operon activation operator to extract the factor determined by precultivation. The QL operational approach developed in this paper can be used not only for description of the process of diauxie in E. coli, but also other processes of gene expression. However, new experimental statistical data are demanded. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Towards a more accurate microscopic description of the moving contact line problem - incorporating nonlocal effects through a statistical mechanics framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nold, Andreas; Goddard, Ben; Sibley, David; Kalliadasis, Serafim

    2014-03-01

    Multiscale effects play a predominant role in wetting phenomena such as the moving contact line. An accurate description is of paramount interest for a wide range of industrial applications, yet it is a matter of ongoing research, due to the difficulty of incorporating different physical effects in one model. Important small-scale phenomena are corrections to the attractive fluid-fluid and wall-fluid forces in inhomogeneous density distributions, which often previously have been accounted for by the disjoining pressure in an ad-hoc manner. We systematically derive a novel model for the description of a single-component liquid-vapor multiphase system which inherently incorporates these nonlocal effects. This derivation, which is inspired by statistical mechanics in the framework of colloidal density functional theory, is critically discussed with respect to its assumptions and restrictions. The model is then employed numerically to study a moving contact line of a liquid fluid displacing its vapor phase. We show how nonlocal physical effects are inherently incorporated by the model and describe how classical macroscopic results for the contact line motion are retrieved. We acknowledge financial support from ERC Advanced Grant No. 247031 and Imperial College through a DTG International Studentship.

  20. Flash-quench technique employed to study the one-electron reduction of triiodide in acetonitrile: evidence for a diiodide reaction product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnum, Byron H; Gardner, James M; Meyer, Gerald J

    2010-11-15

    The one-electron reduction of triiodide (I(3)(-)) by a reduced ruthenium polypyridyl compound was studied in an acetonitrile solution with the flash-quench technique. Reductive quenching of the metal-to-ligand charge-transfer excited state of [Ru(II)(deeb)(3)](2+) by iodide generated the reduced ruthenium compound [Ru(II)(deeb(-))(deeb)(2)](+) and diiodide (I(2)(•-)). The subsequent reaction of [Ru(II)(deeb(-))(deeb)(2)](+) with I(3)(-) indicated that I(2)(•-) was a product that appeared with a second-order rate constant of (5.1 ± 0.2) × 10(9) M(-1) s(-1). After correction for diffusion and some assumptions, Marcus theory predicted a formal potential of -0.58 V (vs SCE) for the one-electron reduction of I(3)(-). The relevance of this reaction to solar energy conversion is discussed.

  1. A CALCULATION OF SEMI-EMPIRICAL ONE-ELECTRON WAVE FUNCTIONS FOR MULTI-ELECTRON ATOMS USED FOR ELEMENTARY PROCESS SIMULATION IN NONLOCAL PLASMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Tchernycheva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. The paper deals with development outcomes for creation method of one-electron wave functions of complex atoms, relatively simple, symmetrical for all atom electrons and free from hard computations. The accuracy and resource intensity of the approach are focused on systematic calculations of cross sections and rate constants of elementary processes of inelastic collisions of atoms or molecules with electrons (ionization, excitation, excitation transfer, and others. Method. The method is based on a set of two iterative processes. At the first iteration step the Schrödinger equation was solved numerically for the radial parts of the electron wave functions in the potential of the atomic core self-consistent field. At the second iteration step the new approximationfor the atomic core field is created that uses found solutions for all one-electron wave functions. The solution optimization for described multiparameter problem is achieved by the use of genetic algorithm. The suitability of the developed method was verified by comparing the calculation results with numerous data on the energies of atoms in the ground and excited states. Main Results. We have created the run-time version of the program for creation of sets of one-electron wave functions and calculation of the cross sections and constants of collisional transition rates in the first Born approximation. The priori available information about binding energies of the electrons for any many-particle system for creation of semi-empirical refined solutions for the one-electron wave functions can be considered at any step of this procedure. Practical Relevance. The proposed solution enables a simple and rapid preparation of input data for the numerical simulation of nonlocal gas discharge plasma. The approach is focused on the calculation of discharges in complex gas mixtures requiring inclusion in the model of a large number of elementary collisional and radiation

  2. Phenomenological description of spin effects in electromagnetic and strong interactions of quarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silenko Alexander J.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenomenological description of interactions of relativistic quarks by the Dirac equation with the Cornell potential is given. The general form of the initial equation containing the vector and scalar parts of the Cornell potential is used at the arbitrary connection between these parts. The Hamiltonian in the Foldy-Wouthuysen representation is derived in the general form with allowance for the electromagnetic interactions. Unlike precedent investigations, it is relativistic and exact for terms of the zeroth and first powers in the Planck constant and also for such terms of the second power which describe contact interactions. General quantum mechanical equations of motion for the momentum and the spin are derived and the classical limit of the Hamiltonian and the equations of motion are found for the first time. A connection between the angular velocity of the quark spin precession and the force acting on it is determined. The energy of the spin-orbit interaction is rather high (of the order of 100 MeV. The terms describing the spin-orbit and contact interactions have opposite signs for the scalar and the vector parts of the Cornell potential. The evolution of the quark helicity and the spin-spin interaction of the quarks are also calculated.

  3. DESCRIPTION OF DENTAL CARIES AND EFFECTS OF FOODS ON TOOTH DESTRUCTION IN SKULLS OF PAWON MAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalina Ahmad

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The skeleton of Pawon Man’s that lived in Mesolitic era aged 5,660±170 BP - 9,500± 200 BP (Before Present years before Christ (BC has been used for forensic odontology research.  However, there has not been any research on dental caries of Pawon Man. The aim of this research was to describe the dental caries in skulls of Pawon Man. The type of the research was descriptive by using purposive sampling. The samples were from four Pawon Man skulls and their teeth. The research was conducted by using clinical examination. All aspects were recorded, collected and presented in tabular form. The result shows that 12.5% of the samples from 32 teeth of skulls of Pawon Man I, III, IV and V had experienced dental caries. Clinical examination shows presence of dental caries in samples of Pawon Man III of  permanent mandibular third molar tooth of region 4(48 in lingual area and buccal lesion of lower left third molar (38. In Pawon IV, lingual lesion of lower left permanent second molar (37 and in lower left permanent third molar (38. All lesions are only in enamel which is code 1 according to ICDAS code. In conclusion, the dental caries in skulls of Pawon Man was low due to their low sugar diets from fruits and sugar-rich plants (fructose sugars. Consumption of hard foods and evidence of presence of animal teeth and mollusks had contributed to the higher percentage of dental attrition compared to dental caries.   Keywords: dental caries, clinical, pawon man

  4. [Descriptive statistics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendón-Macías, Mario Enrique; Villasís-Keever, Miguel Ángel; Miranda-Novales, María Guadalupe

    2016-01-01

    Descriptive statistics is the branch of statistics that gives recommendations on how to summarize clearly and simply research data in tables, figures, charts, or graphs. Before performing a descriptive analysis it is paramount to summarize its goal or goals, and to identify the measurement scales of the different variables recorded in the study. Tables or charts aim to provide timely information on the results of an investigation. The graphs show trends and can be histograms, pie charts, "box and whiskers" plots, line graphs, or scatter plots. Images serve as examples to reinforce concepts or facts. The choice of a chart, graph, or image must be based on the study objectives. Usually it is not recommended to use more than seven in an article, also depending on its length.

  5. The Effect of Dialogue Journal Writing on EFL Learners' Descriptive Writing Performance: A Quantitative Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dabbagh, Ali

    2017-01-01

    This study sought to evaluate the effect of dialogue journal writing on writing performance as well as its different sub-components, namely content, organization, vocabulary, language use, and mechanics...

  6. Failure to confirm the Rauscher and Shaw description of recovery of the Mozart effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, K M; Brown, J D; Stoecker, J A

    1999-06-01

    The Mozart effect is an increase in spatial reasoning scores detected immediately after listening to the first movement of a Mozart piano sonata. Rauscher and Shaw (1998) suggested that failure to produce a Mozart effect could arise from carryover effects of a spatial reasoning pretest which may interfere with the effect of listening to Mozart. They cited an unpublished study in which a verbal distractor was inserted between the pretest and listening condition, and the manipulation produced the recovery of a Mozart effect. This experiment attempted to confirm the unpublished study. 206 college students were exposed to one of three sequences, pretest-Verbal distractor material-Mozart, pretest-Mozart-Verbal distractor material, and pretest-Verbal distractor material. An immediate posttest indicated no significant difference on solution of paper folding and cutting items among the three groups. The results do not support Rauscher and Shaw (1998). Our negative results are consistent with prior failures in other laboratories to produce a Mozart effect.

  7. Description of the CEEH health effect model. CEEH scientific report no. 7a

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boenloekke, J.H.; Sigsgaard, T. (Aarhus Univ. Dept. of of Public Health, AArhus (Denmark)); Brandt, J.; Frohn, L.M. (Aarhus Univ. National Environmental Research Institute, Dept. of Atmospheric Environment, Roskilde (Denmark)); Flachs, E.M.; Broennum-Hansen, H. (Univ. of Southern Denmark. National Institute of Public Health, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Siggaard-Andersen4, M.-L. (Univ. of Copenhagen. Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen (Denmark))

    2011-11-15

    This report is based on a number of up-to-date reviews of the existing literature on health effects from air pollution at the population level and conclude with recommendations for CEEH. The pollutants in the CEEH models have been selected based on the following criteria: 1) They stem from combustion sources either directly or via chemical transformations. This may include evaporation or dust from the energy sources themselves (i.e. from wear and tear). Other pollution derived from energy production but not liberated to the air is not included (e.g. heavy metals in soil deposits). However, heavy metals, dioxins and possibly PAHs that are emitted to the air, deposit on soil or in water and end up by being ingested should ideally be covered by CEEH. 2) Be possible to model in the CEEH settings both in terms of emissions, chemical transformations and transport. 3) Be sufficiently investigated in terms of documented health effects and in terms of the costs associated with these health effects. Combustion sources and accordingly combustion products are highly diverse and widespread. In practice, therefore, not all sources that contribute to health effects in humans can be included in the CEEH models. Other sources than combustion contribute some of the pollutants and as a result a brief discussion of the relevance and effect of such non-combustion derived air pollutants is included in this report. For a more comprehensive discussion of secondary pollutants from e.g. agricultural activities the reader is referred to CEEH report no. 3. The EVA model was based on existing European models such as EcoSense 4.0 from ExternE and used the same air pollution products as these in the versions available in 2003-4. With time EVA has changed independently from its predecessors. A more recent version of the ExternE methods is now available (ExternE, 2005). The pollutants ontained by ExternE are provided in table 1. Pollutants originally included in EVA are the following: SO2, O3, PM2

  8. The Effect of Critical Thinking Instruction on Verbal Descriptions of Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Daniel C.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of critical thinking instruction on music listening skills of fifth-grade students as measured by written responses to music listening. The researcher compared instruction that included opportunities for critical thinking (Critical Thinking Instruction, CTI) with parallel instruction without…

  9. Effectiveness of a MP-blocking Splint and Therapy in Rheumatoid Arthritis : A Descriptive Pilot Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Formsma, S. A.; van der Sluis, C. K.; Dijkstra, P. U.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose was to evaluate the effect of a metacarpal phalangeal joint blocking splint combined with exercises, aimed at regaining strength, manipulative skills, and a normal pattern of movement of the hands in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). All patients were measured three times: before

  10. Modeling fuels and fire effects in 3D: Model description and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francois Pimont; Russell Parsons; Eric Rigolot; Francois de Coligny; Jean-Luc Dupuy; Philippe Dreyfus; Rodman R. Linn

    2016-01-01

    Scientists and managers critically need ways to assess how fuel treatments alter fire behavior, yet few tools currently exist for this purpose.We present a spatially-explicit-fuel-modeling system, FuelManager, which models fuels, vegetation growth, fire behavior (using a physics-based model, FIRETEC), and fire effects. FuelManager's flexible approach facilitates...

  11. Effects of freezing-thawing on sensory descriptive profiles of cooked poultry breast meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freezing is a common method used by consumers to extend meat shelf life and by researchers to allow for subsequent meat quality assessments and processing. However, the effects of freezing on the sensory quality of cooked poultry breast meat are not well documented. The objective of this study was t...

  12. Writing Simple Sentences and Descriptive Paragraphs: Effects of an Intervention on Adolescents with Writing Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datchuk, Shawn M.

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of a multicomponent intervention on the writing behavior of adolescents with writing difficulties. A single-case design consisting of a combination of multiple-probe design across participants and pre-post test was used. Four participants completed two intervention phases: (a) sentence instruction and…

  13. Preparation of mono- or zerovalent nickel by single or successive one-electron-transfer steps in the photoreduction of silica-supported nickel catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonneviot, L.; Cai, F.X.; Che, M.; Kermarec, M.; Legendre, O.; Lepetit, C.; Olivier, D.

    1987-11-05

    Ni/SiO/sub 2/ supported catalysts prepared by competitive cation exchange can be reduced by UV irradiation in hydrogen at 77 K to lead by a one-electron process to Ni/sup +/ species. These Ni/sup +/ ions which exhibit an EPR signal at g/sub 1/ = 2.68, g/sub 2/ = 2.32, and g/sub 3/ = 2.007 and a band at 838 nm in the UV-vis and near-IR reflectance spectra bind molecular hydrogen to form (similarly ordered Ni(H/sub 2/))/sup +/ pseudotetrahedral surface complexes. The photoreduction process in carbon monoxide occurs appreciably only at 25/sup 0/C and depends on the CO pressure. It is a one-electron-reduction process, and (Ni(CO)/sub n/)/sup +/ species (n = 2-4) are observed by EPR and IR for pressures above 10 Torr. For lower pressures, the formation of metal is observed by IR and ferromagnetic resonance via the reduction by two consecutive one-electron-transfer steps. The first step proceeds from the photoproduction of (Ni/sup +/-O/sup -/)* excited states. The second step is due to the release of electrons from a reservoir which has been tentatively identified to pseudo-carbonates characterized by IR bands at 1750-1850 cm/sup -1/ and by TPD peaks of CO at 803 K and of CO/sub 2/ at 513 and 803 K. The formation of the latter species is the result of the quenching of the excited state by CO molecules which react with the O/sup -/ activated surface oxygens to lead to CO/sub 2//sup -/ which with O/sup 2 -/ ions generates CO/sub 3//sup 3 -/ radical ions.

  14. Measurement of the oxidation-reduction potentials for one-electron and two-electron reduction of electron-transfer flavoprotein from pig liver.

    OpenAIRE

    Husain, M.; Stankovich, M T; Fox, B G

    1984-01-01

    Potentiometric titrations of pig liver electron-transfer flavoprotein (ETF) were performed at pH 7.5 and 4 degrees C, both in the reductive and oxidative directions. Reduction of ETF to the hydroquinone form required a total of two reducing equivalents/mol of ETF with the formation of sub-stoichiometric amounts of anionic semiquinone as an intermediate. The oxidation-reduction potentials for the two one-electron couples, oxidized ETF/ETF semiquinone and ETF semiquinone/fully reduced ETF, are ...

  15. Whack-A-Mole Model: Towards unified description of biological effect caused by radiation-exposure

    CERN Document Server

    Manabe, Yuichiro; Tsunoyama, Yuichi; Nakajima, Hiroo; Nakamura, Issei; Bando, Masako

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel model to estimate biological effects caused by artificial radiation exposure, Whack-a-mole (WAM) model. It is important to take account of the recovery effects during the time course of the cellular reactions. The inclusion of the dose-rate dependence is essential in the risk estimation of low dose radiation, while nearly all the existing theoretical models relies on the total dose dependence only. By analyzing the experimental data of the relation between the radiation dose and the induced mutation frequency of 5 organisms, mouse, drosophila, chrysanthemum, maize and tradescantia, we found that all the data can be reproduced by WAM model. Most remarkably, a scaling function, which is derived from WAM model, consistently accounts for the observed mutation frequencies of 5 organisms. This is the first rationale to account for the dose rate dependence as well as to give a unified understanding of a general feature of organisms.

  16. An analytical approach to the description of absorption and reemission effects in large scintillation counters

    CERN Document Server

    Ranucci, G

    2000-01-01

    It is well known that the absorption-reemission process in scintillators plays an important role in determining the features of the detected photons. In this paper a methodology capable of leading to a quantitative assessment of such an effect is described, extending the usual simplified approach to the complex case of large size detectors. In particular, the mathematics describing the phenomenon is thoroughly developed for the special geometry of spherical detectors.

  17. On the importance of nonlocal effects on the description of emitter-plasmon coupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tserkezis, Christos; Wubs, Martijn; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2017-01-01

    light to subwavelength regions, and largely modify the local density of states, on which their interaction with an emitter mainly depends, thus paving new routes for exploring light-matter interactions. Advances in nanotechnology and nanofabrication have recently led to the minimisation of relative...... become relevant [1, 2]. Here we explore the influence of the latter, larger-scale effect, on the coupling of various emitters with canonical plasmonic nanostructures....

  18. Survivors of childhood cancer in South Australia attending a late-effects clinic: a descriptive report of psychological, cognitive, and academic late-effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Rachel M; Robins, Tamara; Gannoni, Anne F; Tapp, Heather

    2014-01-01

    This study provides a description of psychological late effects among a heterogeneous cohort of pediatric cancer survivors (N = 70) attending the South Australian Late-effects Clinic. Survivors reported more problems on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and the Child Behavior Checklist compared to normative data but no differences in Sluggish Cognitive Tempo scores. Forty-six percent of the sample reported school difficulties, and 12% of the sample age older than 15 reported smoking. Late-effects clinics should continue to monitor psychological well-being and health behaviors. Further research is recommended to determine whether sluggish cognitive tempo is a useful concept for the assessment of survivors.

  19. Effective metrics and a fully covariant description of constitutive tensors in electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Sebastian; Visser, Matt

    2017-12-01

    Using electromagnetism to study analogue space-times is tantamount to considering consistency conditions for when a given (meta-) material would provide an analogue space-time model or—vice versa—characterizing which given metric could be modeled with a (meta-) material. While the consistency conditions themselves are by now well known and studied, the form the metric takes once they are satisfied is not. This question is mostly easily answered by keeping the formalisms of the two research fields here in contact as close to each other as possible. While fully covariant formulations of the electrodynamics of media have been around for a long while, they are usually abandoned for (3 +1 )- or six-dimensional formalisms. Here we use the fully unified and fully covariant approach. This enables us even to generalize the consistency conditions for the existence of an effective metric to arbitrary background metrics beyond flat space-time electrodynamics. We also show how the familiar matrices for permittivity ɛ , permeability μ-1, and magnetoelectric effects ζ can be seen as the three independent pieces of the Bel decomposition for the constitutive tensor Za b c d, i.e., the components of an orthogonal decomposition with respect to a given observer with four-velocity Va. Finally, we use the Moore-Penrose pseudoinverse and the closely related pseudodeterminant to then gain the desired reconstruction of the effective metric in terms of the permittivity tensor ɛa b, the permeability tensor [μ-1]a b, and the magnetoelectric tensor ζa b, as an explicit function geff(ɛ ,μ-1,ζ ).

  20. Holographic description of the Schwinger effect in electric and magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yoshiki; Yoshida, Kentaroh

    2013-04-01

    We consider a generalization of the holographic Schwinger effect proposed by Semenoff and Zarembo to the case with constant electric and magnetic fields. There are two ways to turn on magnetic fields, i) the probe D3-brane picture and ii) the string world-sheet picture. In the former picture, magnetic fields both perpendicular and parallel to the electric field are activated by a Lorentz transformation and a spatial rotation. In the latter one, the classical solutions of the string world-sheet corresponding to circular Wilson loops is generalized to contain two additional parameters encoding the presence of magnetic fields.

  1. Stark Effects on Rigid-Rotor Wavefunctions: A Quantum Description of Dipolar Rotors Trapped in Electric Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Giles; Logsdon, Brad

    1995-11-01

    Chemists have had few opportunities to study the effects of molecular orientations on reactions. At ordinary temperatures, it is impractical to orient gas phase molecules with electric fields because their rotational kinetic energies are large compared to the interaction energy of molecular dipoles with accessible laboratory fields. This study uses a variational matrix method and computer graphics to illustrate how orientational probability of molecules cooled by supersonic expansions are dramatically influenced by electric fields. These calculations reveal how free rotor wavefunctions evolve into harmonic oscillator type functions as dipolar molecules become trapped by the laboratory field as Stark pendulum oscillators. A supplement to this article that includes computer animated descriptions of the molecular motions described here are available at JCE Internet.

  2. Systematic description of the effect of particle shape on the strength properties of granular media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azéma Emilien

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we explore numerically the effect of particle shape on the mechanical behavior of sheared granular packings. In the framework of the Contact Dynamic (CDMethod, we model angular shape as irregular polyhedral particles, non-convex shape as regular aggregates of four overlapping spheres, elongated shape as rounded cap rectangles and platy shape as square-plates. Binary granular mixture consisting of disks and elongated particles are also considered. For each above situations, the number of face of polyhedral particles, the overlap of spheres, the aspect ratio of elongated and platy particles, are systematically varied from spheres to very angular, non-convex, elongated and platy shapes. The level of homogeneity of binary mixture varies from homogenous packing to fully segregated packings. Our numerical results suggest that the effects of shape parameters are nonlinear and counterintuitive. We show that the shear strength increases as shape deviate from spherical shape. But, for angular shapes it first increases up to a maximum value and then saturates to a constant value as the particles become more angular. For mixture of two shapes, the strength increases with respect of the increase of the proportion of elongated particles, but surprisingly it is independent with the level of homogeneity of the mixture. A detailed analysis of the contact network topology, evidence that various contact types contribute differently to stress transmission at the micro-scale.

  3. Systematic description of the effect of particle shape on the strength properties of granular media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azéma, Emilien; Estrada, Nicolas; Preechawuttipong, Itthichai; Delenne, Jean-Yves; Radjai, Farhang

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we explore numerically the effect of particle shape on the mechanical behavior of sheared granular packings. In the framework of the Contact Dynamic (CD)Method, we model angular shape as irregular polyhedral particles, non-convex shape as regular aggregates of four overlapping spheres, elongated shape as rounded cap rectangles and platy shape as square-plates. Binary granular mixture consisting of disks and elongated particles are also considered. For each above situations, the number of face of polyhedral particles, the overlap of spheres, the aspect ratio of elongated and platy particles, are systematically varied from spheres to very angular, non-convex, elongated and platy shapes. The level of homogeneity of binary mixture varies from homogenous packing to fully segregated packings. Our numerical results suggest that the effects of shape parameters are nonlinear and counterintuitive. We show that the shear strength increases as shape deviate from spherical shape. But, for angular shapes it first increases up to a maximum value and then saturates to a constant value as the particles become more angular. For mixture of two shapes, the strength increases with respect of the increase of the proportion of elongated particles, but surprisingly it is independent with the level of homogeneity of the mixture. A detailed analysis of the contact network topology, evidence that various contact types contribute differently to stress transmission at the micro-scale.

  4. Gold Bead Implantation in Acupoints for Coxofemoral Arthrosis in Dogs: Method Description and Adverse Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jæger, Gry T; Stigen, Øyvind; Devor, Morten; Moe, Lars

    2012-09-04

    Gold bead implantation has been used for years as an alternative method to improve function in chronic joint disease both in humans and dogs. The aims of the present study were to describe the technique of implanting 24-karat gold beads around the hip joints of dogs with chronic hip dysplasia, and to record any side effects or complications of such treatment. A prospective placebo-controlled double-blinded clinical trial was performed. Eighty dogs were randomly allocated to treatment or placebo, with 38 in the gold implantation group and 42 in the placebo group, and followed intensely for six months. The implantation technique was simple to perform, using fluoroscopy and with the dogs under inhalation anesthesia for about 30 minutes. Adverse effects, measured as pain or discomfort, were seen for a period of up to four weeks in 15 of the dogs in the gold implantation group, compared to six dogs in the placebo group. During implantation, a technical difficulty occurred as 82% of the dogs showed leakage of blood and/or synovia from the needles. The dogs in the gold implantation group were radiographed 18 months later. Of the 30 dogs that were radiographed at both inclusion and 24 months, 80% (24 dogs) showed a deterioration of the coxofemoral arthrosis, the other six had stable disease evaluated by radiography. Migration of gold beads was only observed in one dog.

  5. Gold Bead Implantation in Acupoints for Coxofemoral Arthrosis in Dogs: Method Description and Adverse Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Moe

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Gold bead implantation has been used for years as an alternative method to improve function in chronic joint disease both in humans and dogs. The aims of the present study were to describe the technique of implanting 24-karat gold beads around the hip joints of dogs with chronic hip dysplasia, and to record any side effects or complications of such treatment. A prospective placebo-controlled double-blinded clinical trial was performed. Eighty dogs were randomly allocated to treatment or placebo, with 38 in the gold implantation group and 42 in the placebo group, and followed intensely for six months. The implantation technique was simple to perform, using fluoroscopy and with the dogs under inhalation anesthesia for about 30 minutes. Adverse effects, measured as pain or discomfort, were seen for a period of up to four weeks in 15 of the dogs in the gold implantation group, compared to six dogs in the placebo group. During implantation, a technical difficulty occurred as 82% of the dogs showed leakage of blood and/or synovia from the needles. The dogs in the gold implantation group were radiographed 18 months later. Of the 30 dogs that were radiographed at both inclusion and 24 months, 80% (24 dogs showed a deterioration of the coxofemoral arthrosis, the other six had stable disease evaluated by radiography. Migration of gold beads was only observed in one dog.

  6. Effective description of the short-time dynamics in open quantum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Matteo A. C.; Foti, Caterina; Cuccoli, Alessandro; Trapani, Jacopo; Verrucchi, Paola; Paris, Matteo G. A.

    2017-09-01

    We address the dynamics of a bosonic system coupled to either a bosonic or a magnetic environment and derive a set of sufficient conditions that allow one to describe the dynamics in terms of the effective interaction with a classical fluctuating field. We find that for short interaction times the dynamics of the open system is described by a Gaussian noise map for several different interaction models and independently on the temperature of the environment. In order to go beyond a qualitative understanding of the origin and physical meaning of the above short-time constraint, we take a general viewpoint and, based on an algebraic approach, suggest that any quantum environment can be described by classical fields whenever global symmetries lead to the definition of environmental operators that remain well defined when increasing the size, i.e., the number of dynamical variables, of the environment. In the case of the bosonic environment this statement is exactly demonstrated via a constructive procedure that explicitly shows why a large number of environmental dynamical variables and, necessarily, global symmetries, entail the set of conditions derived in the first part of the work.

  7. Phenomenological description of the association of protein subunits subjected to conformational drift. Effects of dilution and of hydrostatic pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, G

    1986-06-17

    The native conformation of oligomers may be expected to undergo reversible changes when they separate upon dissociation of the original aggregate. When these changes are slow in comparison with the time of an association-dissociation (AD) cycle, they give rise to characteristic effects in the dependence of the dissociation: upon dilution, at constant pressure, and upon the applied pressure, at constant concentration. The phenomenological description of these effects is examined by comparing two possible models: The first model assumes a continuous loss in free energy of association with the extent of dissociation; the second supposes the existence of two or more distinct aggregates differing in subunit affinity and present in proportions that vary with the extent of dissociation. The latter model fits better the experimental data available, with regard to both the concentration and the pressure dependence of the association, and gives a particularly simple explanation of the hysteresis phenomena observed in several oligomeric proteins after application of pressure. The validity of the principle of detailed balance, often assumed in dealing with complex equilibria, is discussed in detail as it does not appear possible to reconcile it with some of the experimental observations or with the proposed model.

  8. A manganese(V)-oxo π-cation radical complex: influence of one-electron oxidation on oxygen-atom transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokop, Katharine A; Neu, Heather M; de Visser, Sam P; Goldberg, David P

    2011-10-12

    One-electron oxidation of Mn(V)-oxo corrolazine 2 affords 2(+), the first example of a Mn(V)(O) π-cation radical porphyrinoid complex, which was characterized by UV-vis, EPR, LDI-MS, and DFT methods. Access to 2 and 2(+) allowed for a direct comparison of their reactivities in oxygen-atom transfer (OAT) reactions. Both complexes are capable of OAT to PPh(3) and RSR substrates, and 2(+) was found to be a more potent oxidant than 2. Analysis of rate constants and activation parameters, together with DFT calculations, points to a concerted OAT mechanism for 2(+) and 2 and indicates that the greater electrophilicity of 2(+) likely plays a dominant role in enhancing its reactivity. These results are relevant to comparisons between Compound I and Compound II in heme enzymes.

  9. One-electron oxidation pathway of thiols by peroxynitrite in biological fluids: bicarbonate and ascorbate promote the formation of albumin disulphide dimers in human blood plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorza, G; Minetti, M

    1998-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that peroxynitrite oxidizes thiol groups through competing one- and two-electron pathways. The two-electron pathway is mediated by the peroxynitrite anion and prevails quantitatively over the one-electron pathway, which is mediated by peroxynitrous acid or a reactive species derived from it. In CO2-containing fluids the oxidation of thiols might follow a different mechanism owing to the rapid formation of a different oxidant, the nitrosoperoxycarbonate anion (ONOOCO2(-)). Here we present evidence that in blood plasma peroxynitrite induces the formation of a disulphide cross-linked protein identified by immunological (anti-albumin antibodies) and biochemical criteria (peptide mapping) as a dimer of serum albumin. The albumin dimer did not form in plasma devoid of CO2 and its formation was enhanced by ascorbate. However, analysis of thiol groups showed that reconstituting dialysed plasma with NaHCO3 protected protein thiols against the oxidation mediated by peroxynitrite and that the simultaneouspresence of ascorbate provided further protection. Ascorbate alone did not protect thiol groups from peroxynitrite-mediated oxidation. ESR spin-trapping studies with N-t-butyl-alpha-phenylnitrone (PBN) revealed that peroxynitrite induced the formation of protein thiyl radicals and their intensity was markedly decreased by plasma dialysis and restored by reconstitution with NaHCO3. PBN completely inhibited the formation of albumin dimer. Moreover, the addition of iron-diethyldithiocarbamate to plasma demonstrated that peroxynitrite induced the formation of protein S-nitrosothiols and/or S-nitrothiols. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that NaHCO3 favours the one-electron oxidation of thiols by peroxynitrite with formation of thiyl radicals, ;NO2, and RSNOx. Thiyl radicals, in turn, are involved in chain reactions by which thiols are oxidized to disulphides. PMID:9425126

  10. Antipsychotic Medication in Children and Adolescents : A Descriptive Review of the Effects on Prolactin Level and Associated Side Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roke, Yvette; van Harten, Peter N.; Boot, Annemieke M.; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    Objective: This review reports the incidence of hyperprolactinemia, its relationship with genotype, and prolactin-related side effects in children and adolescents treated with antipsychotics. Method: Data on prolactin levels were available for haloperidol, pimozide, risperidone, olanzapine,

  11. Description of Weak Halogen Bonding Using Various Levels of Symmetry-Adapted Perturbation Theory Combined with Effective Core Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Matczak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work starts with providing a description of the halogen bonding (XB interaction between the halogen atom of MH3X (where M = C–Pb and X = I, At and the N atom of HCN. This interaction leads to the formation of stable yet very weakly bound MH3X⋯NCH complexes for which the interaction energy (Eint between MH3X and HCN is calculated using various symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (SAPT methods combined with the def2-QZVPP basis set and midbond functions. This basis set assigns effective core potentials (ECPs not only to the I or At atom directly participating in the XB interaction with HCN but also to the M atom when substituted with Sn or Pb. Twelve SAPT methods (or levels are taken into consideration. According to the SAPT analysis of Eint, the XB interaction in the complexes shows mixed electrostatic-dispersion nature. Next, the accuracy of SAPT Eint is evaluated by comparing with CCSD(T reference data. This comparison reveals that high-order SAPT2+(3 method and the much less computationally demanding SAPT(DFT method perform very well in describing Eint of the complexes. However, the accuracy of these methods decreases dramatically if they are combined with the so-called Hartree-Fock correction.

  12. Effects of previous fruit intake, descriptive majority norms, and message framing on fruit intake intentions and behaviours in Dutch adults across a 1-week period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruijn, G.J.; Visscher, I.; Mollen, S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To test the effects of descriptive norm and message framing on fruit intake (intentions) in Dutch adults. Design Randomized pretest-posttest study using a 2 × 2 design. Setting Internet-based. Participants Dutch adults recruited via leaflets and announcements on intranet and Internet and

  13. The Self-Regulation Effect of Fertility Status on Inbreeding Aversion: When Fertile, Disgust Increases more in Response to Descriptions of One's Own than of Others' Inbreeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Antfolk

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The ovulatory shift modulates emotions related to female sexuality. Because fertility status only affects the individual's own opportunity cost, the adaptive value of this shift is expected to stem from self-regulation. To test this assumption we asked women to contemplate various inbreeding descriptions: 1 they themselves having sex with male relatives; 2 their sister having sex with their common male relatives; and 3 an unrelated woman having sex with her male relatives (in 1, but not 2 and 3, negative fitness consequences are affected by the participant's fertility. We dichotomized the dependent variable disgust (ceiling vs. non-ceiling and analyzed the interaction between fertility status and description type. The ovulatory shift was stronger in descriptions where they themselves were described as engaging in inbreeding. A smaller increase was also found in reactions to others engaging in inbreeding. We explain the latter effect as due to self-reflection.

  14. Pain control methods in use and perceived effectiveness by patients with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Karen; Caldwell, Karen; Forehand, Samantha; Davis, Keith

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the pain control methods in use by patients who have Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (EDS), a group of connective tissue disorders, and their perceived effectiveness. This descriptive study involved 1179 adults diagnosed with EDS who completed an anonymous on-line survey. The survey consisted of demographics information, the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Pain-Behavior, PROMIS Pain-Interference, and Neuro QOL Satisfaction with Social Roles and Activities scales, as well as a modified version of the Pain Management Strategies Survey. Respondents reported having to seek out confirmation of their EDS diagnosis with multiple healthcare providers, which implies the difficulty many people with EDS face when trying to gain access to appropriate treatment. Patients with EDS experience higher levels of pain interference and lower satisfaction with social roles and activities compared to national norms. Among the treatment modalities in this study, those perceived as most helpful for acute pain control were opioids, surgical interventions, splints and braces, avoidance of potentially dangerous activities and heat therapy. Chronic pain treatments rated as most helpful were opioids, splints or braces and surgical interventions. For methods used for both acute and chronic pain, those perceived as most helpful were opioids, massage therapies, splints or braces, heat therapy and avoiding potentially dangerous activities. EDS is a complex, multi-systemic condition that can be difficult to diagnose and poses challenges for healthcare practitioners who engage with EDS patients in holistic care. Improved healthcare provider knowledge of EDS is needed, and additional research on the co-occurring diagnoses with EDS may assist in comprehensive pain management for EDS patients. Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (EDS) is a group of connective tissue disorders associated with defective production of collagen, which can dramatically

  15. One-electron oxidation of diclofenac by human cytochrome P450s as a potential bioactivation mechanism for formation of 2'-(glutathion-S-yl)-deschloro-diclofenac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerma, Jan Simon; Vermeulen, Nico P E; Commandeur, Jan N M

    2014-01-25

    Reactive metabolites have been suggested to play a role in the idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity observed with diclofenac (DF). By structural identification of the GSH conjugates formed after P450-catalyzed bioactivation of DF, it was shown that three types of reactive intermediates were formed: p-benzoquinone imines, o-imine methide and arene-oxide. Recently, detection of 2'-(glutathion-S-yl)-deschloro-diclofenac (DDF-SG), resulting from chlorine substitution, suggested the existence of a fourth type of P450-dependent reactive intermediate whose inactivation by GSH is completely dependent on presence of glutathione S-transferase. In this study, fourteen recombinant cytochrome P450s and three flavin-containing monooxygenases were tested for their ability to produce oxidative DF metabolites and their corresponding GSH conjugates. Concerning the hydroxymetabolites and their GSH conjugates, results were consistent with previous studies. Unexpectedly, all tested recombinant P450s were able to form DDF-SG to almost similar extent. DDF-SG formation was found to be partially independent of NADPH and even occurred by heat-inactivated P450. However, product formation was fully dependent on both GSH and glutathione-S-transferase P1-1. DDF-SG formation was also observed in reactions with horseradish peroxidase in absence of hydrogen peroxide. Because DDF-SG was not formed by free iron, it appears that DF can be bioactivated by iron in hemeproteins. This was confirmed by DDF-SG formation by other hemeproteins such as hemoglobin. As a mechanism, we propose that DF is subject to heme-dependent one-electron oxidation. The resulting nitrogen radical cation, which might activate the chlorines of DF, then undergoes a GST-catalyzed nucleophilic aromatic substitution reaction in which the chlorine atom of the DF moiety is replaced by GSH. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. One electron reduced square planar bis(benzene-1,2-dithiolato) copper dianionic complex and redox switch by O2/HO(-).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Biplab K; Maia, Luisa B; Pal, Kuntal; Pakhira, Bholanath; Avilés, Teresa; Moura, Isabel; Pauleta, Sofia R; Nuñez, José L; Rizzi, Alberto C; Brondino, Carlos D; Sarkar, Sabyasachi; Moura, José J G

    2014-12-15

    The complex [Ph4P]2[Cu(bdt)2] (1(red)) was synthesized by the reaction of [Ph4P]2[S2MoS2CuCl] with H2bdt (bdt = benzene-1,2-dithiolate) in basic medium. 1(red) is highly susceptible toward dioxygen, affording the one electron oxidized diamagnetic compound [Ph4P][Cu(bdt)2] (1(ox)). The interconversion between these two oxidation states can be switched by addition of O2 or base (Et4NOH = tetraethylammonium hydroxide), as demonstrated by cyclic voltammetry and UV-visible and EPR spectroscopies. Thiomolybdates, in free or complex forms with copper ions, play an important role in the stability of 1(red) during its synthesis, since in its absence, 1(ox) is isolated. Both 1(red) and 1(ox) were structurally characterized by X-ray crystallography. EPR experiments showed that 1(red) is a Cu(II)-sulfur complex and revealed strong covalency on the copper-sulfur bonds. DFT calculations confirmed the spin density delocalization over the four sulfur atoms (76%) and copper (24%) atom, suggesting that 1(red) has a "thiyl radical character". Time dependent DFT calculations identified such ligand to ligand charge transfer transitions. Accordingly, 1(red) is better described by the two isoelectronic structures [Cu(I)(bdt2, 4S(3-,)*)](2-) ↔ [Cu(II)(bdt2, 4S(4-))](2-). On thermodynamic grounds, oxidation of 1(red) (doublet state) leads to 1(ox) singlet state, [Cu(III)(bdt2, 4S(4-))](1-).

  17. [Effectivity and satisfaction with the treatment for dyslipidemia with pitavastatin. Multicentric, descriptive, post authorised and observational study (REINA study)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Arroyo, Luis Alberto; Díaz Rodríguez, Angel; Pintó Sala, Xavier; Coca Payeras, Antonio; Rius Tarruella, Joan

    2014-01-01

    Evaluating the therapeutical adherence as well as the patient' satisfaction with the treatment should be considered to optimize lipidic control. The REINA Study evaluates the grade of satisfaction in dyslipidemic patients treated with pitavastatin. The current study was observational, descriptive, transversal and multi-centric with patients from our country only. The following data were collected in each case: Morisky-Green test and TSQM-9 for patients older than 18 years old, with dyslipidemia treated with pitavastatin in the last 12 weeks. We studied 6,489 patients (60.0% males) from Primary Health (52.7%) and Specialised Health (47.3%), with age (mean) = 60.9 ± 11.2 years by aleatory sampling. 72.3% of patients achieved an adequate control with 2mg/day of pitavastatin. General satisfaction with the treatment was 73.20 points (95% CI: 58.17-87.23). Patients who followed the treatment (65%) showed better data of satisfaction with the drug (77.70 [95% CI: 65.20-90.20]), of global satisfaction (75.00 [95% CI: 61.50-88.50]) and their satisfaction with the drug efficiency was higher (72.50 [95% CI: 57.70-87.30]) than in the patients who did not finish the treatment (72.70 [95% CI: 59.30-85.74]; 68.5 [95% CI: 53.20-83.80] and 67.80 [95% CI: 53.70-81.90], respectively), P < .0001, without any difference between the two primary care systems. The validation of the satisfaction is a crucial indicator in the evaluation of the services offered in health. Patients with the highest grade of satisfaction present better therapeutical adherence, and such a relation is bidirectional. The individuals who are satisfied and who followed the treatment obtained better clinical results. Pitavastatin is an effective therapeutic alternative for patients with dyslipidemia. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of visual demonstration, verbal instructions, and prompted verbal descriptions on the performance of human subjects in conditional discriminations

    OpenAIRE

    Ribes-Iñesta, Emilio; Cepeda, Ma. Luisa; Hickman, Hortencia; Moreno, Diana; Peñalosa, Eduardo

    1992-01-01

    A study was conducted to confirm prior results concerning the role of prompted verbal descriptions of visually demonstrated stimulus relations in the acquisition and transfer of identity, difference, and similarity-matching relations (Ribes et al., 1988). Four groups of human adults were trained with these three matching relations under four different procedures: (1) visual demonstration without response requirement, (2) verbal instructions, (3) visual demonstration plus prompted verbal descr...

  19. Implementing a Description Grammar Interpreter : A Notation for Descriptions and Description Rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stouffs, R.M.F.

    2015-01-01

    Description grammars represent a formalism for generating verbal descriptions of designs, used in conjunction with shape grammars. A description grammar constitutes a set of description rules that define a language of descriptions. A description grammar interpreter implements the mechanisms to

  20. Effects of visual demonstration, verbal instructions, and prompted verbal descriptions on the performance of human subjects in conditional discriminations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribes-Iñesta, Emilio; Cepeda, Ma. Luisa; Hickman, Hortencia; Moreno, Diana; Peñalosa, Eduardo

    1992-01-01

    A study was conducted to confirm prior results concerning the role of prompted verbal descriptions of visually demonstrated stimulus relations in the acquisition and transfer of identity, difference, and similarity-matching relations (Ribes et al., 1988). Four groups of human adults were trained with these three matching relations under four different procedures: (1) visual demonstration without response requirement, (2) verbal instructions, (3) visual demonstration plus prompted verbal description, and (4) visual demonstration plus verbal instructions. These procedures were presented at the beginning of the training period before subjects could respond to the experimental task. Although most subjects in the four groups acquired the conditional discrimination under the three matching relations, only those in the two instruction-related groups showed some intramodal and extramodal transfer in tests with stimuli that had not been used in training. These results suggest the importance of measuring extra-situational and trans-situational generalization, and raise the need to distinguish between formal and functional verbal factors in the regulation of human behavior. ImagesFig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:22477044

  1. Acquisition of teleological descriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, David W.

    1992-03-01

    Teleology descriptions capture the purpose of an entity, mechanism, or activity with which they are associated. These descriptions can be used in explanation, diagnosis, and design reuse. We describe a technique for acquiring teleological descriptions expressed in the teleology language TeD. Acquisition occurs during design by observing design modifications and design verification. We demonstrate the acquisition technique in an electronic circuit design.

  2. A description of ligand field effects in the Di-m-Azido-Bis [{Azido(N,N-Diethylethylenediamine}Copper(II] compound by the simple overlap model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malta O.L.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a theoretical description of ligand field effects in the di-mu-azido- bis[{azido( N,N-diethylethylenediamine} copper(II] compound by the Simple Overlap Model. The ligand field Hamiltonian is expressed in terms of irreducible tensor operators for an assumed D3h site symmetry occupied by the copper ion. The ligand field parameters, calculated from the available structural data, indicate that the copper ion is under the influence of a very strong ligand field. The energy of the d-d absorption band is well reproduced phenomenologically by the model.

  3. DESCRIPTION OF EFFECTIVENESS OF CILOSTAZOL AND ASPIRIN AS ADJUVANT OF DIABETIC FOOT WAGNER GRADE II AND III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandji Winata Nurikhwan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Inflammation in patients with diabetic foot will activate platelets and cause aggregation and lead to stasis of blood flow. This inflammation is caused by infection of the diabetic foot. Management of diabetic foot infections in patients is the use of antibiotics. However, the presence of vascularization disorders causing antibiotic delivery to the site of infection to be disrupted so that the process of eradication of infection would be inhibited. One of inflamation markers on patient with diabetic foot is increasing of Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESRs.The general objective of this study was to determine the efficacy difference between cilostazol and aspirin as an adjuvant to accelerate tissue healing of diabetic foot care Wagner Grade II – III based on erythrocyte sedimentation rate. This study is a descriptive study using the double-blind and randomized pretest-posttest design. A total of 14 samples is obtained by consecutive sampling. The results showed that four patients given cilostazol showed a 35% reduction in ESR and ten patients were given aspirin showed a 35% reduction in ESR. It can be concluded giving cilostazol and aspirin as adjuvant diabetic foot Wagner II and III showed a decrease in ESR.

  4. Short and long term health effects of parental tobacco smoking during pregnancy and lactation: a descriptive review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Banderali, G; Martelli, A; Landi, M; Moretti, F; Betti, F; Radaelli, G; Lassandro, C; Verduci, E

    2015-01-01

    .... The aim of this paper is to discuss the current evidence regarding short and long-term health effects on child health of parental smoking during pregnancy and lactation and the potential underlying mechanisms...

  5. Effectiveness of muscle strengthening and description of protocols for preventing falls in the elderly: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Ishigaki,Erika Y.; Ramos,Lidiane G.; Carvalho,Elisa S.; Lunardi, Adriana C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Falls are a geriatric syndrome that is considered a significant public health problem in terms of morbidity and mortality because they lead to a decline in functional capacity and an impaired quality of life in the elderly. Lower limb muscle strengthening seems to be an effective intervention for preventing falls; however, there is no consensus regarding the best method for increasing lower limb muscle strength. Objectives: To analyze the effectiveness of lower limb muscle stren...

  6. Effect Sizes as Result Interpretation Aids in Single-Subject Experimental Research: Description and Application of Four Nonoverlap Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakap, Salih

    2015-01-01

    Single-subject experimental research (SSER), one of the most commonly used research methods in special education and applied behaviour analysis, is a scientific, rigorous and valid method to evaluate the effectiveness of behavioural, educational and psychological treatments. However, studies using single-subject experimental research designs are…

  7. A Descriptive Study of the Effects of Mentoring and Induction Programs on Novice Teacher Self-Efficacy Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, John M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of mentoring and induction programs on the self-efficacy beliefs of novice teachers. As school districts in Pennsylvania attempt to maintain highly qualified staff in all curricular areas, supporting newly hired teachers is at the forefront of educational policy in the United States. Beyond training novice teachers,…

  8. YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE DESCRIPTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.M. Simmons

    2004-04-16

    The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' summarizes, in a single document, the current state of knowledge and understanding of the natural system at Yucca Mountain. It describes the geology; geochemistry; past, present, and projected future climate; regional hydrologic system; and flow and transport within the unsaturated and saturated zones at the site. In addition, it discusses factors affecting radionuclide transport, the effect of thermal loading on the natural system, and tectonic hazards. The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' is broad in nature. It summarizes investigations carried out as part of the Yucca Mountain Project since 1988, but it also includes work done at the site in earlier years, as well as studies performed by others. The document has been prepared under the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management quality assurance program for the Yucca Mountain Project. Yucca Mountain is located in Nye County in southern Nevada. The site lies in the north-central part of the Basin and Range physiographic province, within the northernmost subprovince commonly referred to as the Great Basin. The basin and range physiography reflects the extensional tectonic regime that has affected the region during the middle and late Cenozoic Era. Yucca Mountain was initially selected for characterization, in part, because of its thick unsaturated zone, its arid to semiarid climate, and the existence of a rock type that would support excavation of stable openings. In 1987, the United States Congress directed that Yucca Mountain be the only site characterized to evaluate its suitability for development of a geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.

  9. Description and effects of 1988 drought on ground-water levels, streamflow, and reservoir levels in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, K.K.

    1992-01-01

    Documentation of the 1988 drought in Indiana was undertaken to aid water-management agencies and planners concerned with periods of below-normal precipitation and their effect on commercial, agricultural, and residential water use. Precipitation, temperature, Palmer Drought Severity Indices, and ground- and surface-water levels from water years 1988 and 1989 were compared to the historical record to evaluate severity, extent, and duration of the 1988 drought in Indiana.

  10. A phenomenological relative biological effectiveness approach for proton therapy based on an improved description of the mixed radiation field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mairani, A.; Dokic, I.; Magro, G.; Tessonnier, T.; Bauer, J.; Böhlen, T. T.; Ciocca, M.; Ferrari, A.; Sala, P. R.; Jäkel, O.; Debus, J.; Haberer, T.; Abdollahi, A.; Parodi, K.

    2017-02-01

    Proton therapy treatment planning systems (TPSs) are based on the assumption of a constant relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of 1.1 without taking into account the found in vitro experimental variations of the RBE as a function of tissue type, linear energy transfer (LET) and dose. The phenomenological RBE models available in literature are based on the dose-averaged LET (LET D ) as an indicator of the physical properties of the proton radiation field. The LET D values are typically calculated taking into account primary and secondary protons, neglecting the biological effect of heavier secondaries. In this work, we have introduced a phenomenological RBE approach which considers the biological effect of primary protons, and of secondary protons, deuterons, tritons (Z  =  1) and He fragments (3He and 4He, Z  =  2). The calculation framework, coupled with a Monte Carlo (MC) code, has been successfully benchmarked against clonogenic in vitro data measured in this work for two cell lines and then applied to determine biological quantities for spread-out Bragg peaks and a prostate and a head case. The introduced RBE formalism, which depends on the mixed radiation field, the dose and the ratio of the linear-quadratic model parameters for the reference radiation {{≤ft(α /β \\right)}\\text{ph}} , predicts, when integrated in an MC code, higher RBE values in comparison to LET D -based parameterizations. This effect is particular enhanced in the entrance channel of the proton field and for low {{≤ft(α /β \\right)}\\text{ph}} tissues. For the prostate and the head case, we found higher RBE-weighted dose values up to about 5% in the entrance channel when including or neglecting the Z  =  2 secondaries in the RBE calculation. TPSs able to proper account for the mixed radiation field in proton therapy are thus recommended for an accurate determination of the RBE in the whole treatment field.

  11. Microwave ablation of the liver: a description of lesion evolution over time and an investigation of the heat sink effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, N; Dormer, J; Ahmad, F; Strickland, A D; Gravante, G; West, K; Dennison, A R; Lloyd, D M

    2011-12-01

    Microwave ablation has been successfully used to treat unresectable liver tumours for many years. However, despite its widespread use, there seems to be a relative paucity of experimental data regarding lesion evolution and the effects of any surrounding vasculature on ablation morphology. The aim of this study was to investigate the principal pathological changes in the liver following microwave ablation, in particular the heat sink effect. In addition we carefully reviewed the available literature to provide an overview of all relevant pathological studies. Microwave ablation was carried out on male rats at various distances from the hilum. Histological (H&E) and immunocytochemical (caspase 3) analyses of the lesion were performed at various time points; 0, 4, 24, 48  hours, 2 weeks and 1 month. A literature review was carried out using Medline, Embase and the Cochrane database to identify all relevant histological studies. The lesion underwent complete coagulative necrosis and was extremely regular at the ablation edge with no evidence of any influence from surrounding blood vessels at all time points. H&E and caspase 3 results were consistent and microwave caused little collateral damage outside the intended ablation zone. This study suggests that microwave ablation is extremely concise and is minimally affected by the heat sink effect. Comparative investigations with other treatment modalities are required.

  12. How consumers are affected by product descriptions in online shopping: Event-related potentials evidence of the attribute framing effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jia; Zhang, Wuke; Chen, Mingliang

    2017-12-01

    Due to the limitations of the human ability to process information, e-consumers' decisions are likely to be influenced by various cognitive biases, such as the attribute framing effect. This effect has been well studied by numerous scholars; however, the associated underlying neural mechanisms with a critical temporal resolution have not been revealed. Thus, this study applies the measurement of event-related potentials (ERPs) to directly examine the role of attribute framing in information processing and decision-making in online shopping. The behavioral results showed that participants demonstrated a higher purchase intention with a shorter reaction time under a positive framing condition compared to participants under a negative framing condition. Compared with positive framing messages, the results of ERPs indicated that negative framing messages attracted more attention resources at the early stage of rapid automatic processing (larger P2 amplitude) and resulted in greater cognitive conflict and decision difficulty (larger P2-N2 complex). Moreover, compared with negative messages, positive framing messages allowed consumers to perceive a better future performance of products and classify these products as a categorization of higher evaluation (larger LPP amplitude) at the late cognitive processing stage of evaluation. Based on these results, we provide evidence for a better understanding of how different attribute framing messages are processed and ultimately lead to the framing effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  13. Effectiveness of muscle strengthening and description of protocols for preventing falls in the elderly: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishigaki, Erika Y; Ramos, Lidiane G; Carvalho, Elisa S; Lunardi, Adriana C

    2014-01-01

    Falls are a geriatric syndrome that is considered a significant public health problem in terms of morbidity and mortality because they lead to a decline in functional capacity and an impaired quality of life in the elderly. Lower limb muscle strengthening seems to be an effective intervention for preventing falls; however, there is no consensus regarding the best method for increasing lower limb muscle strength. To analyze the effectiveness of lower limb muscle strengthening and to investigate and describe the protocols used for preventing falls in elderly subjects. We performed a systematic review of randomized and controlled clinical trials published between 2002 and 2012 in the databases PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, and PEDro that cited some type of lower limb muscle strengthening protocol and that evaluated the incidence of falls as the primary outcome exclusively in elderly subjects. Twelve studies met the inclusion criteria. Qualitative analysis was performed by independent reviewers applying the PEDro scale. The data obtained from the selected studies showed lower fall rates in the intervention groups compared to controls. Six studies described the lower limb muscle strengthening protocol in detail. High methodological quality was found in 6 studies (PEDro score ≥ 7/10 points). The methodological quality of the studies in this area appears to leave little doubt regarding the effectiveness of lower limb strengthening exercises for preventing falls in elderly subjects, however the interventions in these studies were poorly reported.

  14. Effectiveness of muscle strengthening and description of protocols for preventing falls in the elderly: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Y. Ishigaki

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Falls are a geriatric syndrome that is considered a significant public health problem in terms of morbidity and mortality because they lead to a decline in functional capacity and an impaired quality of life in the elderly. Lower limb muscle strengthening seems to be an effective intervention for preventing falls; however, there is no consensus regarding the best method for increasing lower limb muscle strength. Objectives: To analyze the effectiveness of lower limb muscle strengthening and to investigate and describe the protocols used for preventing falls in elderly subjects. Method: We performed a systematic review of randomized and controlled clinical trials published between 2002 and 2012 in the databases PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, and PEDro that cited some type of lower limb muscle strengthening protocol and that evaluated the incidence of falls as the primary outcome exclusively in elderly subjects. Twelve studies met the inclusion criteria. Qualitative analysis was performed by independent reviewers applying the PEDro scale. Results: The data obtained from the selected studies showed lower fall rates in the intervention groups compared to controls. Six studies described the lower limb muscle strengthening protocol in detail. High methodological quality was found in 6 studies (PEDro score ≥7/10 points. Conclusions: The methodological quality of the studies in this area appears to leave little doubt regarding the effectiveness of lower limb strengthening exercises for preventing falls in elderly subjects, however the interventions in these studies were poorly reported.

  15. One-electron reduction of N-chlorinated and N-brominated species is a source of radicals and bromine atom formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattison, David I; O'Reilly, Robert J; Skaff, Ojia; Radom, Leo; Anderson, Robert F; Davies, Michael J

    2011-03-21

    Hypochlorous (HOCl) and hypobromous (HOBr) acids are strong bactericidal oxidants that are generated by the human immune system but are implicated in the development of many human inflammatory diseases (e.g., atherosclerosis, asthma). These oxidants react readily with sulfur- and nitrogen-containing nucleophiles, with the latter generating N-halogenated species (e.g., chloramines/bromamines (RR'NX; X = Cl, Br)) as initial products. Redox-active metal ions and superoxide radicals (O(2)(•-)) can reduce N-halogenated species to nitrogen- and carbon-centered radicals. N-Halogenated species and O(2)(•-) are generated simultaneously at sites of inflammation, but the significance of their interactions remains unclear. In the present study, rate constants for the reduction of N-halogenated amines, amides, and imides to model potential biological substrates have been determined. Hydrated electrons reduce these species with k(2) > 10(9) M(-1) s(-1), whereas O(2)(•-) reduced only N-halogenated imides with complex kinetics indicative of chain reactions. For N-bromoimides, heterolytic cleavage of the N-Br bond yielded bromine atoms (Br(•)), whereas for other substrates, N-centered radicals and Cl(-)/Br(-) were produced. High-level quantum chemical procedures have been used to calculate gas-phase electron affinities and aqueous solution reduction potentials. The effects of substituents on the electron affinities of aminyl, amidyl, and imidyl radicals are rationalized on the basis of differential effects on the stabilities of the radicals and anions. The calculated reduction potentials are consistent with the experimental observations, with Br(•) production predicted for N-bromosuccinimide, while halide ion formation is predicted in all other cases. These data suggest that interaction of N-halogenated species with O(2)(•-) may produce deleterious N-centered radicals and Br(•).

  16. Expanding the Description of Spaceflight Effects beyond Bone Mineral Density [BMD]: Trabecular Bone Score [TBS] in ISS Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibonga, J. D.; Spector, E. R.; King, L. J.; Evans, H. J.; Smith, S. A.

    2014-01-01

    Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry [DXA] is the widely-applied bone densitometry method used to diagnose osteoporosis in a terrestrial population known to be at risk for age-related bone loss. This medical test, which measures areal bone mineral density [aBMD] of clinically-relevant skeletal sites (e.g., hip and spine), helps the clinician to identify which persons, among postmenopausal women and men older than 50 years, are at high risk for low trauma or fragility fractures and might require an intervention. The most recognized osteoporotic fragility fracture is the vertebral compression fracture which can lead to kyphosis or hunched backs typically seen in the elderly. DXA measurement of BMD however is recognized to be insufficient as a sole index for assessing fracture risk. DXA's limitation may be related to its inability to monitor changes in structural parameters, such as trabecular vs. cortical bone volumes, bone geometry or trabecular microarchitecture. Hence, in order to understand risks to human health and performance due to space exposure, NASA needs to expand its measurements of bone to include other contributors to skeletal integrity. To this aim, the Bone and Mineral Lab conducted a pilot study for a novel measurement of bone microarchitecture that can be obtained by retrospective analysis of DXA scans. Trabecular Bone Score (TBS) assesses changes to trabecular microarchitecture by measuring the grey color "texture" information extracted from DXA images of the lumbar spine. An analysis of TBS in 51 ISS astronauts was conducted to assess if TBS could detect 1) an effect of spaceflight and 2) a response to countermeasures independent of DXA BMD. In addition, changes in trunk body lean tissue mass and in trunk body fat tissue mass were also evaluated to explore an association between body composition, as impacted by ARED exercise, and bone microarchitecture. The pilot analysis of 51 astronaut scans of the lumbar spine suggests that, following an ISS

  17. Description logics of context

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Klarman, S

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We introduce Description Logics of Context (DLCs) - an extension of Description Logics (DLs) for context-based reasoning. Our approach descends from J. McCarthy's tradition of treating contexts as formal objects over which one can quantify...

  18. Shallow groundwater effect on land surface temperature and surface energy balance under bare soil conditions: modeling and description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Alkhaier

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding when and how groundwater affects surface temperature and energy fluxes is significant for utilizing remote sensing in groundwater studies and for integrating aquifers within land surface models. To investigate the shallow groundwater effect under bare soil conditions, we numerically exposed two soil profiles to identical metrological forcing. One of the profiles had shallow groundwater. The different responses that the two profiles manifested were inspected regarding soil moisture, temperature and energy balance at the land surface. The findings showed that the two profiles differed in three aspects: the absorbed and emitted amounts of energy, the portioning out of the available energy and the heat fluency in the soil. We concluded that due to their lower albedo, shallow groundwater areas reflect less shortwave radiation and consequently get a higher magnitude of net radiation. When potential evaporation demand is sufficiently high, a large portion of the energy received by these areas is consumed for evaporation. This increases the latent heat flux and reduces the energy that could have heated the soil. Consequently, lower magnitudes of both sensible and ground heat fluxes are caused to occur. The higher soil thermal conductivity in shallow groundwater areas facilitates heat transfer between the top soil and the subsurface, i.e. soil subsurface is more thermally connected to the atmosphere. For the reliability of remote sensors in detecting shallow groundwater effect, it was concluded that this effect can be sufficiently clear to be detected if at least one of the following conditions occurs: high potential evaporation and high contrast between day and night temperatures. Under these conditions, most day and night hours are suitable for shallow groundwater depth detection.

  19. Effective two-mode description of a few ultra-cold bosons in a double-well potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrzyniecki, Jacek; Sowiński, Tomasz

    2018-02-01

    We present a construction of an improved two-mode model for modeling the dynamics of interacting ultra-cold bosons confined in a one-dimensional double well trap. Unlike in the typically used two-mode model based on the lowest single-particle eigenstates of the external potential, the improved model uses a basis of properly chosen effective wave functions originating in the many-body model. Accuracy of the improved model is examined and it is shown that within a certain limit of inter-particle interaction strength, the model recovers an exact evolution of the wells' populations much more closely than the traditional two-mode model.

  20. Photocatalytic Conversion of Nitrobenzene to Aniline through Sequential Proton-Coupled One-Electron Transfers from a Cadmium Sulfide Quantum Dot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Stephen C; Homan, Stephanie Bettis; Weiss, Emily A

    2016-02-10

    This paper describes the use of cadmium sulfide quantum dots (CdS QDs) as visible-light photocatalysts for the reduction of nitrobenzene to aniline through six sequential photoinduced, proton-coupled electron transfers. At pH 3.6-4.3, the internal quantum yield of photons-to-reducing electrons is 37.1% over 54 h of illumination, with no apparent decrease in catalyst activity. Monitoring of the QD exciton by transient absorption reveals that, for each step in the catalytic cycle, the sacrificial reductant, 3-mercaptopropionic acid, scavenges the excitonic hole in ∼5 ps to form QD(•-); electron transfer to nitrobenzene or the intermediates nitrosobenzene and phenylhydroxylamine then occurs on the nanosecond time scale. The rate constants for the single-electron transfer reactions are correlated with the driving forces for the corresponding proton-coupled electron transfers. This result suggests, but does not prove, that electron transfer, not proton transfer, is rate-limiting for these reactions. Nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of the QD-molecule systems shows that the photoproduct aniline, left unprotonated, serves as a poison for the QD catalyst by adsorbing to its surface. Performing the reaction at an acidic pH not only encourages aniline to desorb but also increases the probability of protonated intermediates; the latter effect probably ensures that recruitment of protons is not rate-limiting.

  1. Ignoring Grounded Description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney G. Glaser, PhD, Hon. PhD

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Why is there so much grounded description? The simplest, direct answer is that to many a researcher this is GT. This view is supported by several factors. It is easy and natural to describe accurately. So slipping into grounded description comes naturally and is ok as GT. Also departmental support for description is strongly supported by perspective and academic rewards and history and routine QDA. Also many researchers and readers of research cannot conceptualize very well if at all. They want accurate description about the data in the study. They are not into taking a core category as a general category applicable to general implications applicable to much data elsewhere. Their study is about explaining processes the data, NOT in studying the implications of core and sub-core categories as they are integrated into an explanatory theory. I trust the reader can think of other sources of letting GT research slip into conceptual description.

  2. I've got 99 problems but a phone ain't one: Electronic and mobile health in low and middle income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pratap; Paton, Chris; Kirigia, Doris

    2016-10-01

    Mobile technology is very prevalent in Kenya-mobile phone penetration is at 88% and mobile data subscriptions form 99% of all internet subscriptions. While there is great potential for such ubiquitous technology to revolutionise access and quality of healthcare in low-resource settings, there have been few successes at scale. Implementations of electronic health (e-Health) and mobile health (m-Health) technologies in countries like Kenya are yet to tackle human resource constraints or the political, ethical and financial considerations of such technologies. We outline recent innovations that could improve access and quality while considering the costs of healthcare. One is an attempt to create a scalable clinical decision support system by engaging a global network of specialist doctors and reversing some of the damaging effects of medical brain drain. The other efficiently extracts digital information from paper-based records using low-cost and locally produced tools such as rubber stamps to improve adherence to clinical practice guidelines. By bringing down the costs of remote consultations and clinical audit, respectively, these projects offer the potential for clinics in resource-limited settings to deliver high-quality care. This paper makes a case for continued and increased investment in social enterprises that bridge academia, public and private sectors to deliver sustainable and scalable e-Health and m-Health solutions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. Re-examination of Advertising Effectiveness in Selected Soft Drink Companies in Lagos State, Nigeria: A Descriptive Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adefulu Adesoga

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper reexamined the effectiveness of Advertising in Selected Soft Drink Companies in Lagos, Nigeria. The study linked with past researches through its extensive conceptual, theoretical and empirical literature review. The methodology adopted was survey research design. The study population was the staff in marketing positions in the selected companies. Questionnaire was administered on samples from the selected Companies. The weighted means and percentage values of the respondents were used in the analysis and decision making. The findings showed the need for a better understanding of organizational factors that determine the commitment of organizational resources to drive achievement of advertising goals because of its impacts on customers’ awareness and product adoption.. The study concluded that advertising is a potent and veritable tool for achieving marketing goals. The study recommended that firms should identify the best advertising program to achieve its advertising goals. By implication, marketing decision maker should incorporate advertising expenditures in the marketing budget in appreciation of its role.

  4. Effect of speech-language therapy after low-level laser therapy in patients with TMD: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchior, Melissa de Oliveira; Machado, Bárbara Cristina Zanandréa; Magri, Lais Valencise; Mazzetto, Marcelo Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Increased pain and/or discomfort during chewing, speaking, and swallowing have been commonly reported by patients with Temporomandibular Dysfunction (TMD). Speech-language pathology therapy (orofacial myofunctional therapy - OMT) has been proposed as part of the treatment for this condition; however, it is a modality that should be introduced when the TMD context and the pain are not accentuated, so that they do not prevent or hinder the performance of exercises. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of OMT on the treatment of patients with TMD, according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD), after analgesia with low-level laser therapy (LLLT), regarding orofacial myofunctional conditions (OMC) and the perception of TMD symptoms. Five patients aged 50 to 61 years were evaluated 30 days after completion of LLLT. An experienced speech-language pathologist conducted, pre- and post-OMT, the application of the ProDTM Multi-questionnaire - to investigate the self-perception of TMD symptomatology, and the Orofacial Myofunctional Evaluation with Scores (OMES) clinical examination - to confirm the orofacial myofunctional conditions. OMC presented increased OMT scores, indicating an increase in myofunctional orofacial balance. According to the patients' perception, TMD signs and symptoms were relieved after the application of OMT. According to the self-perception of the treated patients, introduction of OMT after LLLT analgesia promoted a balance of the orofacial functions of the sample studied, as well as a decrease in the remaining TMD signs and symptoms.

  5. Effects of exchange-correlation potentials on the density-functional description of C60 versus C240 photoionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jinwoo; Chang, EonHo; Anstine, Dylan M.; Madjet, Mohamed El-Amine; Chakraborty, Himadri S.

    2017-02-01

    We study the photoionization properties of the C60 versus C240 molecule in a spherical jellium frame of the density-functional method. Two prototypical approximations of the exchange-correlation (xc) functional are used: (i) the Gunnarsson-Lundqvist parametrization [Gunnarsson and Lundqvist, Phys. Rev. B 13, 4274 (1976), 10.1103/PhysRevB.13.4274] with a correction for the electron self-interaction (SIC) introduced artificially from the outset and (ii) a gradient-dependent augmentation of approximation (i) using the van Leeuwen and Baerends model potential [van Leeuwen and Baerends, Phys. Rev. A 49, 2421 (1994), 10.1103/PhysRevA.49.2421], in lieu of SIC, that restores electrons' asymptotic properties intrinsically within the formalism. Ground-state results from the two schemes for both molecules show differences in the shapes of mean-field potentials and bound-level properties. The choice of an xc scheme also significantly alters the dipole single-photoionization cross sections obtained by an ab initio method that incorporates linear-response dynamical correlations. Differences in the structures and ionization responses between C60 and C240 uncover the effect of molecular size on the underlying physics. Analysis indicates that the collective plasmon resonances with the gradient-based xc option produce results noticeably closer to the experimental data available for C60.

  6. Towards a conceptual framework demonstrating the effectiveness of audiovisual patient descriptions (patient video cases: a review of the current literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Damian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Technological advances have enabled the widespread use of video cases via web-streaming and online download as an educational medium. The use of real subjects to demonstrate acute pathology should aid the education of health care professionals. However, the methodology by which this effect may be tested is not clear. Methods We undertook a literature review of major databases, found relevant articles relevant to using patient video cases as educational interventions, extracted the methodologies used and assessed these methods for internal and construct validity. Results A review of 2532 abstracts revealed 23 studies meeting the inclusion criteria and a final review of 18 of relevance. Medical students were the most commonly studied group (10 articles with a spread of learner satisfaction, knowledge and behaviour tested. Only two of the studies fulfilled defined criteria on achieving internal and construct validity. The heterogeneity of articles meant it was not possible to perform any meta-analysis. Conclusions Previous studies have not well classified which facet of training or educational outcome the study is aiming to explore and had poor internal and construct validity. Future research should aim to validate a particular outcome measure, preferably by reproducing previous work rather than adopting new methods. In particular cognitive processing enhancement, demonstrated in a number of the medical student studies, should be tested at a postgraduate level.

  7. Closed flux tubes in D=2+1SU(N) gauge theories: dynamics and effective string description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Athenodorou, Andreas [Department of Physics, University of Cyprus,POB 20537, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus); Computation-based Science and Technology Research Center, The Cyprus Institute,20 Kavafi Str., Nicosia 2121 (Cyprus); Teper, Michael [Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford,1 Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3NP (United Kingdom)

    2016-10-18

    We extend our earlier calculations of the spectrum of closed flux tubes in SU(N) gauge theories in 2+1 dimensions, with a focus on questions raised by recent theoretical progress on the effective string action of long flux tubes and the world-sheet action for flux tubes of moderate lengths. Our new calculations in SU(4) and SU(8) provide evidence that the leading O(1/l{sup γ}) non-universal correction to the flux tube ground state energy does indeed have a power γ≥7. We perform a study in SU(2), where we can traverse the length at which the Nambu-Goto ground state becomes tachyonic, to obtain an all-N view of the spectrum. Our comparison of the k=2 flux tube excitation energies in SU(4) and SU(6) suggests that the massive world sheet excitation associated with the k=2 binding has a scale that knows about the group and hence the theory in the bulk, and we comment on the potential implications of world sheet massive modes for the bulk spectrum. We provide a quantitative analysis of the surprising (near-)orthogonality of flux tubes carrying flux in different SU(N) representations, which implies that their screening by gluons is highly suppressed even at small N.

  8. A descriptive study of older adults with persistent pain: Use and perceived effectiveness of pain management strategies [ISRCTN11899548

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersek Mary

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Persistent pain is a common, often debilitating, problem in older adults; however, few studies have focused on the experiences of older adults in managing their pain. The objective of this study was to describe the use and perceived effectiveness of pain management strategies in a sample of older adults and to explore the associations of these variables with demographic and psychosocial characteristics. Methods Adults ≥ 65 years old and living in retirement facilities who reported persistent pain (N = 235, mean age = 82 years, 84% female, 94% white completed measures of demographics, pain, depression, self-efficacy for managing pain, and a Pain Management Strategies Survey. Participants identified current and previous-year use of 42 pain management strategies and rated helpfulness of each on a 5-point scale. Results Acetaminophen, regular exercise, prayer, and heat and cold were the most frequently used pain management strategies (61%, 58%, 53%, and 48%, respectively. Strategies used by >25% of the sample that were rated moderately or more helpful (i.e., >2 on a 0 to 4 scale were prayer [mean (SD = 2.9 (0.9], opioids [2.6 (0.8], regular exercise [2.5 (1.0], heat/cold [2.5 (1.0], nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs [2.4 (1.0], and acetaminophen [2.3 (1.0]. Young-old (65–74 years study participants reported use of more strategies than did old-old (85+ years participants (p = .03. Perceived helpfulness of strategy use was significantly associated with pain intensity (r = -.14, p Conclusion On average, older adults view the strategies they use for persistent pain as only moderately helpful. The associations between perceived helpfulness and self-efficacy and depression suggest avenues of pain management that are focused less on specific treatments and more on how persons with persistent pain think about their pain.

  9. On Meanings and Descriptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieke Bal

    1981-09-01

    Full Text Available Although descriptive passages would appear to be of marginal importance in narrative texts, they are, in fact, of both logical and semantic necessity. Narratology, therefore, must take these segments into account. In this article, I shall survey the present situation in this field and compare rival points of view. I shall also offer several suggestions for analyzing descriptions. The following topics will be discussed: the nature of description as a specific type of discourse which makes it recognizable as such; the internal structure of description; the place and function of descriptions in the text as a whole. In the latter section, the semantic impact of descriptions in the overall meaning of narrative texts will be accounted for. This article is intended as a contribution to the theory of description as a part of narratology. It also has a didactic purpose, since it proposes a model for the analysis of texts which can be used for systematic text-study, both in a historical and a comparative perspective.

  10. Open Coding Descriptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney G. Glaser, PhD, Hon PhD

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Open coding is a big source of descriptions that must be managed and controlled when doing GT research. The goal of generating a GT is to generate an emergent set of concepts and their properties that fit and work with relevancy to be integrated into a theory. To achieve this goal, the researcher begins his research with open coding, that is coding all his data in every possible way. The consequence of this open coding is a multitude of descriptions for possible concepts that often do not fit in the emerging theory. Thus in this case the researcher ends up with many irrelevant descriptions for concepts that do not apply. To dwell on descriptions for inapplicable concepts ruins the GT theory as it starts. It is hard to stop. Confusion easily sets in. Switching the study to a QDA is a simple rescue. Rigorous focusing on emerging concepts is vital before being lost in open coding descriptions. It is important, no matter how interesting the description may become. Once a core is possible, selective coding can start which will help control against being lost in multiple descriptions.

  11. Surveillance for the safety and effectiveness of artemether-lumefantrine in patients with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in the USA: a descriptive analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Alyson M; Arguin, Paul M; Hamed, Kamal

    2015-09-17

    Data from clinical studies show that artemether-lumefantrine (AL) is effective and well tolerated in adults and children with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. However, data on effectiveness and safety of AL in patients in non-endemic settings are limited. A 5-year surveillance plan included all AL-treated adult and paediatric patients with confirmed or suspected P. falciparum malaria in the USA, as reported to the National Malaria Surveillance System at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Descriptive analyses included demographics, baseline characteristics, clinical effectiveness, and safety. From May 2010 to April 2015, demographics and baseline characteristics were collected for 203 patients and safety data for 108 patients. Treatment effectiveness data at day 7 were collected for 117 patients and at day 28 for 98 patients. The majority of patients were male (58.6 %), Black (62.6 %), non-Hispanic (92.6 %), and likely malaria non-immune (80.8 %). The median age was 32 (range 1-88) years and the median body mass index was 25.5 (range 13.8-42.4) kg/m(2). All patients with effectiveness data had confirmed (n = 116) or suspected (n = 1) malaria. The overall cure rate for patients treated with AL was 91.5 % (95 % CI 84.8-95.8 %) at day 7 and 96.9 % (95 % CI 91.3-99.4 %) at day 28. Adverse events were reported in four (3.7 %) patients, and there were no new or unexpected safety signals. AL was effective and well tolerated in the treatment of likely non-immune patients with P. falciparum malaria.

  12. Crystal structure from one-electron theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, H. L.

    1985-01-01

    The authors have studied the crystal structure of all the 3d, 4d, and 5d transition metals at zero pressure and temperature by means of the linear muffin-tin orbital method and Andersen's force theorem. They find that, although the structural energy differences seem to be overestimated by the the......The authors have studied the crystal structure of all the 3d, 4d, and 5d transition metals at zero pressure and temperature by means of the linear muffin-tin orbital method and Andersen's force theorem. They find that, although the structural energy differences seem to be overestimated...

  13. Description of vegetation types

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document provides descriptions of five vegetation types found in Iowa- oak savannah, mature hardwoods, floodplain woods, scrub woods, and riparian woods. Oak...

  14. Descriptive sensory evaluations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehlholm, Christian

    . The new methods were compared to the Flash Profile, Napping and conventional descriptive profiling. Furthermore, an approach for applying confidence ellipses to Multiple Factor Analysis (MFA) results from the statistical package R were suggested for the graphical validation and comparisons. PN allowed...... descriptive methodology is proposed and, based on the findings and evaluations of the studies, a concept scale that combines holistic and analytic assessor responses is proposed for future evaluations....

  15. Exploring The effects Of An online asynchronous mindfulness meditation intervention with nursing students On Stress, mood, And Cognition: A descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spadaro, Kathleen C; Hunker, Diane F

    2016-04-01

    Nurses returning to school while working, raising families, and maintaining other roles, can experience stress, mood changes and cognition disturbance that negatively impact their academic success. To explore the effect of an online mindfulness meditation intervention with distance nursing students on stress, mood and cognition. A 24 week descriptive study. An 8 week online intervention was offered to all undergraduate and graduate nursing students, of three nursing programs of a middle-sized university in mid-Atlantic US. A total of 26 nursing students completed the study. An 8 week online, asynchronous mindfulness intervention was provided through the learning management system with a 16 week follow-up. Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and Attention Network Test (ANT). Stress was significantly reduced (F(2,24)=4.163, p=.019). A decreasing trend for anxiety was noted with significant difference between time points (F(1,23)=6.889, p=.015) when practice frequency was weekly to daily. Cognition: ability to shift attention, attention selection, concentration, and accuracy improved. Findings from this study may illuminate the usefulness of a mindfulness based stress reduction program offered to distance nursing students. Further studies are needed to better demonstrate the effectiveness of the intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. GROUNDWATER PROTECTION MANAGEMENT PROGRAM DESCRIPTION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PAQUETTE,D.E.; BENNETT,D.B.; DORSCH,W.R.; GOODE,G.A.; LEE,R.J.; KLAUS,K.; HOWE,R.F.; GEIGER,K.

    2002-05-31

    THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ORDER 5400.1, GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION PROGRAM, REQUIRES THE DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A GROUNDWATER PROTECTION PROGRAM. THE BNL GROUNDWATER PROTECTION MANAGEMENT PROGRAM DESCRIPTION PROVIDES AN OVERVIEW OF HOW THE LABORATORY ENSURES THAT PLANS FOR GROUNDWATER PROTECTION, MONITORING, AND RESTORATION ARE FULLY DEFINED, INTEGRATED, AND MANAGED IN A COST EFFECTIVE MANNER THAT IS CONSISTENT WITH FEDERAL, STATE, AND LOCAL REGULATIONS.

  17. Reliability of semiology description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Jae-Hyeok; Kim, Dong Wook; Lee, Seo-Young; Cho, Jinwhan; Lee, Sang-Kun; Nam, Hyunwoo

    2008-01-01

    Seizure semiology is important for classifying patients' epilepsy. Physicians usually get most of the seizure information from observers though there have been few reports on the reliability of the observers' description. This study aims at determining the reliability of observers' description of the semiology. We included 92 patients who had their habitual seizures recorded during video-EEG monitoring. We compared the semiology described by the observers with that recorded on the videotape, and reviewed which characteristics of the observers affected the reliability of their reported data. The classification of seizures and the individual components of the semiology based only on the observer-description was somewhat discordant compared with the findings from the videotape (correct classification, 85%). The descriptions of some ictal behaviors such as oroalimentary automatism, tonic/dystonic limb posturing, and head versions were relatively accurate, but those of motionless staring and hand automatism were less accurate. The specified directions by the observers were relatively correct. The accuracy of the description was related to the educational level of the observers. Much of the information described by well-educated observers is reliable. However, every physician should keep in mind the limitations of this information and use this information cautiously.

  18. 3,4-Dihydro-1,3-2H-benzoxazines: Novel reducing agents through one electron donation mechanism and their application as the formation of nano-metallic silver coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaewvilai, Attaphon [Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kasetsart University, Chatuchak, Bangkok, 10900 (Thailand); Wattanathana, Worawat [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Chatuchak, Bangkok, 10900 (Thailand); Jongrungruangchok, Suchada [Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Rangsit University, Pathumthani, 12000 (Thailand); Veranitisagul, Chatchai [Department of Material and Metallurgical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Rajamangala University of Technology Thanyaburi, Klong 6, Thanyaburi, Pathumthani, 12110 (Thailand); Koonsaeng, Nattamon [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Chatuchak, Bangkok, 10900 (Thailand); Laobuthee, Apirat, E-mail: fengapl@ku.ac.th [Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kasetsart University, Chatuchak, Bangkok, 10900 (Thailand)

    2015-11-01

    3,4-dihydro-1,3-2H-benzoxazines as novel one-electron donators for silver(I) ion into nano-metallic silver was firstly found and reported. The silver formation from nano-spherical particles to coral-like and dendrite-like structures was presented. With respect to the characterization results, the feasible reaction mechanism of the silver formation was proposed as an electron donated from benzoxazine to silver(I) ion, resulting in a radical cationic species of benzoxazine and silver(0). Based on this reduction process, a new approach for nano-silver coating on various surfaces such as fumed silica (SiO{sub 2}), titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}), carbon black (CB), chitosan (CS) including plastic sheet (polycarbonate, PC) and pellet (polyvinyl alcohol, PVA), was also revealed. Besides the nano-silver coated products were applied as antimicrobials fillers for Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Micrococcus luteus ATCC 9341, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 2785 and Candida albicans ATCC 10231. - Highlights: • Benzoxazines were discovered to be novel reducing agents for silver(I) ion. • The speculated mechanism of the one electron donation process was investigated. • Dendrite structure of silver was formed from spherical silver nanoparticles. • A new approach for nano metallic-silver coating on various surfaces was revealed. • The nano-silver coated products were applied as antimicrobials fillers.

  19. Computational studies of the geometry and electronic structure of an all-inorganic and homogeneous tetra-Ru-polyoxotungstate catalyst for water oxidation and its four subsequent one-electron oxidized forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiñonero, David; Kaledin, Alexey L; Kuznetsov, Aleksey E; Geletii, Yurii V; Besson, Claire; Hill, Craig L; Musaev, Djamaladdin G

    2010-01-14

    Geometry and electronic structure of five species [{Ru(4)O(4)(OH)(2)(H(2)O)(4)}(gamma-SiW(10)O(36))(2)](10-) (1), [{Ru(4)O(4)(OH)(2)(H(2)O)(4)}(gamma-SiW(10)O(36))(2)](9-) (2), [{Ru(4)O(4)(OH)(2)(H(2)O)(4)}(gamma-SiW(10)O(36))(2)](8-) (3), [{Ru(4)O(4)(OH)(2)(H(2)O)(4)}(gamma-SiW(10)O(36))(2)](7-) (4), and [{Ru(4)O(4)(OH)(2)(H(2)O)(4)}(gamma-SiW(10)O(36))(2)](6-) (5) with different oxidation states of Ru centers were studied at the density functional and COSMO levels of theory. These species are expected to be among the possible intermediates of the recently reported 1-catalyzed water oxidation (Geletii, Y. V.; Botar, B.; Kogerler, P.; Hillesheim, D. A.; Musaev, D. G.; Hill, C. L. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2008, 47, 3896-3899 and Sartorel, A.; Carraro, M.; Scorrano, G.; Zorzi, R. D.; Geremia, S.; McDaniel, N. D.; Bernhard, S.; Bonchio, M. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2008, 130, 5006-5007). It was shown that RI-BP86 correctly describes the geometry and energy of the low-lying electronic states of compound 1, whereas the widely used B3LYP approach overestimates the energy of its high-spin states. Including the solvent and/or countercation effects into calculations improves the agreement between the calculated and experimental data. It was found that the several HOMOs and LUMOs of the studied complexes are bonding and antibonding orbitals of the [Ru(4)O(4)(OH)(2)(H(2)O)(4)](6+) core, and four subsequent one-electron oxidations of 1, leading to formation of 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively, involve only {Ru(4)} core orbitals. In other words, catalyst instability due to ligand oxidation in the widely studied Ru-blue dimer, [(bpy)(2)(O)Ru(V)-(mu-O)-Ru(V)(O)(bpy)(2)](4+), is not operable for 1: the latter all-inorganic catalyst is predicted to be stable under water oxidation turnover conditions. The calculated HOMOs and LUMOs of all the studied species are very close in energy and exhibit a "quasi-continuum" or "nanoparticle-type" electronic structure similar to that of nanosized transition

  20. Career Path Descriptions

    CERN Document Server

    Charkiewicz, A

    2000-01-01

    Before the Career Path system, jobs were classified according to grades with general statutory definitions, guided by the "Job Catalogue" which defined 6 evaluation criteria with example illustrations in the form of "typical" job descriptions. Career Paths were given concise statutory definitions necessitating a method of description and evaluation adapted to their new wider-band salary concept. Evaluations were derived from the same 6 criteria but the typical descriptions became unusable. In 1999, a sub-group of the Standing Concertation Committee proposed a new guide for describing Career Paths, adapted to their wider career concept by expanding the 6 evaluation criteria into 9. For each criterion several levels were established tracing the expected evolution of job level profiles and personal competencies over their longer salary ranges. While providing more transparency to supervisors and staff, the Guide's official use would be by services responsible for vacancy notices, Career Path evaluations and rela...

  1. Effect of dry-air chilling on sensory descriptive profiles of cooked broiler breast meat deboned four hours after the initiation of chilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, H; Savage, E M; Smith, D P; Berrang, M E

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a dry air-chilling (AC) method on sensory texture and flavor descriptive profiles of broiler pectoralis major (fillet) and pectoralis minor (tender). The profiles of the muscles immersion-chilled and deboned at the same postmortem time and the profiles of the muscles hot-boned (or no chill) were used for the comparison. A total of 108 eviscerated carcasses (6-wk-old broilers) were obtained from a commercial processing line before the chillers. Carcasses were transported to a laboratory facility where they were either i) chilled by a dry AC method (0.7 degrees C, 150 min in a cold room), ii) chilled by immersion chilling (IC; 0.3 degrees C, 50 min in a chiller), or iii) not chilled (9 birds per treatment per replication). Both IC and AC fillets and tenders were removed from the bone at 4 h after the initiation of chilling (approximately 4.75 h postmortem) in a processing area (18 degrees C). The no-chill muscles were removed immediately upon arrival. The sensory properties (21 attributes) of cooked broiler breast meat were evaluated by trained panelists using 0- to 15-point universal intensity scales. The average intensity scores of the 9 flavor attributes analyzed ranged from 0.9 to 4.0. Regardless of breast muscle type, there were no significant differences in sensory flavor descriptive profiles between the 3 treatments. The average intensity scores of the 12 texture attributes ranged from 1.5 to 7.5 and there were no significant differences between the AC and IC samples. The average intensity scores of the texture attributes, cohesiveness, hardness, cohesiveness of mass, rate of breakdown, and chewiness of the no chill fillets and tenders were significantly higher than those of either of the chilled samples. These results demonstrate that chicken breast meat from AC retains sensory flavor profile characteristics but AC results in sensory texture profile differences when compared with no-chill meat. Sensory

  2. Olkiluoto site description 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-12-15

    This fourth version of the Olkiluoto Site Report, produced by the OMTF (Olkiluoto Modelling Task Force), updates the Olkiluoto Site Report 2008 with the data and knowledge obtained up to December 2010. A descriptive model of the site (the Site Descriptive Model, SDM), i.e. a model describing the geological and hydrogeological structure of the site, properties of the bedrock and the groundwater and its flow, and the associated interacting processes and mechanisms. The SDM is divided into six parts: surface system, geology, rock mechanics, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry and transport properties.

  3. CRAC2 model description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritchie, L.T.; Alpert, D.J.; Burke, R.P.; Johnson, J.D.; Ostmeyer, R.M.; Aldrich, D.C.; Blond, R.M.

    1984-03-01

    The CRAC2 computer code is a revised version of CRAC (Calculation of Reactor Accident Consequences) which was developed for the Reactor Safety Study. This document provides an overview of the CRAC2 code and a description of each of the models used. Significant improvements incorporated into CRAC2 include an improved weather sequence sampling technique, a new evacuation model, and new output capabilities. In addition, refinements have been made to the atmospheric transport and deposition model. Details of the modeling differences between CRAC2 and CRAC are emphasized in the model descriptions.

  4. Plot Description (PD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Keane

    2006-01-01

    The Plot Description (PD) form is used to describe general characteristics of the FIREMON macroplot to provide ecological context for data analyses. The PD data characterize the topographical setting, geographic reference point, general plant composition and cover, ground cover, fuels, and soils information. This method provides the general ecological data that can be...

  5. A descriptive study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Complementary medicine use among Moroccan patients with cancer: A descriptive study. ... Complementary medicine must benefit, as well as conventional medicine, from scientific studies to evaluate potential benefits, toxicity and interactions with the conventional treatment to enable the oncologist better inform his patients ...

  6. Generalizing: The descriptive struggle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney G. Glaser, Ph.D.; Hon Ph.D.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The literature is not kind to the use of descriptive generalizations. Authors struggle and struggle to find and rationalize a way to use them and then fail in spite of trying a myriad of work-arounds. And then we have Lincoln and Guba’s famous statement: “The only generalization is: there is no generalization” in referring to qualitative research. (op cit, p. 110 They are referring to routine QDA yielding extensive descriptions, but which tacitly include conceptual generalizations without any real thought of knowledge about them. In this chapter I wish to explore this struggle for the purpose of explaining that the various contra arguments to using descriptive generalizations DO NOT apply to the ease of using conceptual generalizations yielded in SGT and especially FGT. I will not argue for the use of descriptive generalization. I agree with Lincoln and Guba with respect to QDA, “the only generalization is: there is no generalization.” It is up to the QDA methodologists, of whom there are many; to continue the struggle and I wish them well.

  7. One-Electron Oxidation of [M(P(t) Bu3 )2 ] (M=Pd, Pt): Isolation of Monomeric [Pd(P(t) Bu3 )2 ](+) and Redox-Promoted C-H Bond Cyclometalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troadec, Thibault; Tan, Sze-Yin; Wedge, Christopher J; Rourke, Jonathan P; Unwin, Patrick R; Chaplin, Adrian B

    2016-03-07

    Oxidation of zero-valent phosphine complexes [M(P(t) Bu3 )2 ] (M=Pd, Pt) has been investigated in 1,2-difluorobenzene solution using cyclic voltammetry and subsequently using the ferrocenium cation as a chemical redox agent. In the case of palladium, a mononuclear paramagnetic Pd(I) derivative was readily isolated from solution and fully characterized (EPR, X-ray crystallography). While in situ electrochemical measurements are consistent with initial one-electron oxidation, the heavier congener undergoes C-H bond cyclometalation and ultimately affords the 14 valence-electron Pt(II) complex [Pt(κ(2) PC -P(t) Bu2 CMe2 CH2 )(P(t) Bu3 )](+) with concomitant formation of [Pt(P(t) Bu3 )2 H](+) . © 2016 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  8. Comparison of the one-electron oxidations of CO-bridged vs unbridged bimetallic complexes: Electron-transfer chemistry of Os2Cp2(CO)4 and Os2Cp∗2(μ-CO)2(CO)2 (Cp = η5-C5H5, Cp∗ = η5-C5Me5)

    KAUST Repository

    Laws, Derek R.

    2014-09-22

    The one-electron oxidations of two dimers of half-sandwich osmium carbonyl complexes have been examined by electrochemistry, spectro-electrochemistry, and computational methods. The all-terminal carbonyl complex Os2Cp2(CO)4 (1, Cp = η5-C5H5) undergoes a reversible one-electron anodic reaction at E1/2 = 0.41 V vs ferrocene in CH2Cl2/0.05 M [NBu4][B(C6F5)4], giving a rare example of a metal-metal bonded radical cation unsupported by bridging ligands. The IR spectrum of 1+ is consistent with an approximately 1:1 mixture of anti and gauche structures for the 33 e- radical cation in which it has retained all-terminal bonding of the CO ligands. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations, including orbital-occupancy-perturbed Mayer bond-order analyses, show that the highest-occupied molecular orbitals (HOMOs) of anti-1 and gauche-1 are metal-ligand delocalized. Removal of an electron from 1 has very little effect on the Os-Os bond order, accounting for the resistance of 1+ to heterolytic cleavage. The Os-Os bond distance is calculated to decrease by 0.10 å and 0.06 å as a consequence of one-electron oxidation of anti-1 and gauche-1, respectively. The CO-bridged complex Os2Cp∗2(μ-CO)2(CO)2 (Cp∗ = η5-C5Me5), trans-2, undergoes a more facile oxidation, E1/2 = -0.11 V, giving a persistent radical cation shown by solution IR analysis to preserve its bridged-carbonyl structure. However, ESR analysis of frozen solutions of 2+ is interpreted in terms of the presence of two isomers, most likely anti-2+ and trans-2+, at low temperature. Calculations show that the HOMO of trans-2 is highly delocalized over the metal-ligand framework, with the bridging carbonyls accounting for about half of the orbital makeup. The Os-Os bond order again changes very little with removal of an electron, and the Os-Os bond length actually undergoes minor shortening. Calculations suggest that the second isomer of 2+ has the anti all-terminal CO structure. (Figure Presented) © 2014 American

  9. How Do DFT-DCP, DFT-NL, and DFT-D3 Compare for the Description of London-Dispersion Effects in Conformers and General Thermochemistry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerigk, Lars

    2014-03-11

    The dispersion-core-potential corrected B3LYP-DCP method (Torres and DiLabio J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2012, 3, 1738) is for the first time thoroughly assessed and compared with the B3LYP-NL (Hujo and Grimme J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2011, 7, 3866) and B3LYP-D3 (Grimme et al. J. Comput. Chem. 2011, 32, 1456) methods for a broad range of chemical problems that particularly shed light on intramolecular London-dispersion effects in conformers and general thermochemistry. The analysis is based on a compilation of 473 reference cases, the majority of which are taken from the GMTKN30 database (Goerigk and Grimme J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2010, 6, 107; 2011, 7, 291). The results confirm previous findings that B3LYP-DCP indeed predicts very good binding energies for noncovalently bound complexes, particularly with small basis sets. However, problems are identified for the description of intramolecular effects in some conformers and chemical reactions, for which B3LYP-DCP sometimes gives results similar or worse than uncorrected B3LYP. Surprisingly large errors for total atomization energies reveal an unwanted influence of the DCPs on the short-range electronic structure of the investigated systems. However, a recently modified carbon potential for B3LYP-DCP (DiLabio et al. Theor. Chem. Acc. 2013, 132, 1389) was additionally tested that seems to solve most of those problems and provides improved results. An overall comparison between all tested methods shows that B3LYP-NL is the most robust and accurate approach, closely followed by B3LYP-D3. This is also true when small basis sets of double-ζ quality are applied for which those methods have not been parametrized. However, binding energies of noncovalently bound complexes can be more strongly influenced by basis-set superposition-error effects than for B3LYP-DCP. Finally, it is noted that the DFT-D3 and DFT-NL schemes are readily applicable to a large range of chemical elements and they are therefore particularly recommended for

  10. Polemic and Descriptive Negations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horslund, Camilla Søballe

    2011-01-01

    to semantics and pragmatics, negations can be used in three different ways, which gives rise to a typology of three different types of negations: 1) the descriptive negation, 2) the polemic negation, and 3) the meta-linguistic negation (Nølke 1999, 4). This typology illuminates the fact that the negation...... as such may be more or less central to the meaning of the utterance. The present paper investigates the role of morphosyntactic and prosodic prominence as well as register and social setting on the interpretation of negations. It seems plausible to expect that if the negation as such is central to the meaning...... of the utterance (as in polemic negations), the negation will be articulated prominently in order to emphasise this importance. Likewise, if the negation is not central to the meaning of the utterance, it should not be articulated prominently. Moreover, it is plausible to expect descriptive negations to be more...

  11. Multidimensional nonlinear descriptive analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Nishisato, Shizuhiko

    2006-01-01

    Quantification of categorical, or non-numerical, data is a problem that scientists face across a wide range of disciplines. Exploring data analysis in various areas of research, such as the social sciences and biology, Multidimensional Nonlinear Descriptive Analysis presents methods for analyzing categorical data that are not necessarily sampled randomly from a normal population and often involve nonlinear relations. This reference not only provides an overview of multidimensional nonlinear descriptive analysis (MUNDA) of discrete data, it also offers new results in a variety of fields. The first part of the book covers conceptual and technical preliminaries needed to understand the data analysis in subsequent chapters. The next two parts contain applications of MUNDA to diverse data types, with each chapter devoted to one type of categorical data, a brief historical comment, and basic skills peculiar to the data types. The final part examines several problems and then concludes with suggestions for futu...

  12. Understanding descriptive statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Murray J; Marshall, Andrea P

    2009-05-01

    There is an increasing expectation that critical care nurses use clinical research when making decisions about patient care. This article is the second in a series which addresses statistics for clinical nursing practice. In this article we provide an introduction to the use of descriptive statistics. Concepts such as levels of measurement, measures of central tendency and dispersion are described and their use in clinical practice is illustrated.

  13. Description of a Heart Team approach to coronary revascularization and its beneficial long-term effect on clinical events after PCI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonzel, Tassilo; Schächinger, Volker; Dörge, Hilmar

    2016-05-01

    We present a first description of a Heart Team (HT)-guided approach to coronary revascularization and its long-term effect on clinical events after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The HT approach is a structured process to decide for coronary bypass grafting (CABG), PCI or conservative therapy in ad hoc situations as well as in HT conferences. As a hypothesis, during the long-term course after a PCI performed according to HT rules, a low number of late revascularizations, especially CABGs, are expected (F-PCI study). In this monocentric study, the HT approach to an all-comer population was first analyzed and described in general with the help of a database. Next the use of a HT approach was described for a more homogeneous subgroup with newly detected CAD (1.CAD). Those patients in whom the HT decision was PCI (which was a 1.PCI) were then studied with the help of questionnaires for clinical events during a very long-term follow-up. Events were CABG, PCI, diagnostic catheterization (DCath) and death. A significant number of patients were presented to HT conferences: 22 % out of all 11,174 catheterizations, 24 % out of all 7867 CAD cases and 35 % out of 3408 1.CAD cases. Most of these patients had multi-vessel disease (MVD). Conference decisions were isolated CABG in 46-66 %, PCI in 10-14 %, valvular surgery in 9-16 %, HTx in 10-21 % (Endstage heart failure candidates for surgery) and conservative therapy (Medical or no therapy, additional diagnostic procedures or no adherence to recommended therapy) in 2-3 %. However, most PCIs, ad hoc and elective, were performed under Heart Team rules, but without conference. During follow-up of 1.PCI patients (Kaplan-Meier analysis), CABG occurred in only 15 % of patients, PCI in 37 % and DCath in 65 %; mortality of any course was 51 %. Mortalities were similar in one-vessel disease and in a population of the same year, matched for age and sex (p approach is an effective tool for ad hoc and conference

  14. Semiclassical description of resonant tunnel effect: bifurcations and periodic orbits in the resonant current; Description semiclassique de l`effet tunnel resonant: bifurcations et orbites periodiques dans le courant resonant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouben, D.C

    1997-11-28

    A semiclassical method for resonant tunneling in a quantum well in the presence of a magnetic field tilted with regard to an electric field is developed. In particular a semiclassical formula is derived for the total current of electrons after the second barrier of the quantum well. The contribution of the stable and unstable orbits is studied. It appears that the parameters which describe the classical chaos in the quantum well have an important effect on the tunneling current. A numerical experiment is led, the contributions to the current of some particular orbits are evaluated and the results are compared with those given by the quantum theory. (A.C.) 70 refs.

  15. A Prospective, Descriptive Study to Assess the Effect of Dietary and Pharmacological Strategies to Manage Constipation in Patients with a Stoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krokowicz, Lukasz; Bobkiewicz, Adam; Borejsza-Wysocki, Maciej; Kuczynska, Barbara; Lisowska, Aleksandra; Skowronska-Piekarska, Urszula; Paszkowski, Jacek; Walkowiak, Jaroslaw; Drews, Michal; Banasiewicz, Tomasz

    2015-12-01

    The term constipation with regard to patients with a stoma is defined as impaired bowel movements associated with increased stool consistency or long periods without bowel movements that lead to discomfort, flatulence, and abdominal pain. Information about constipation in patients with a stoma is limited. A prospective, descriptive study was conducted among patients attending ostomy and proctology outpatient clinics in Poznan, Poland between January 2011 and December 2014 to assess the role of dietary and pharmacological strategies in the management of constipation in patients with a stoma. Patients were included if they experienced a 3-day period without bowel movements leading to abdominal discomfort and bloating. Patients who were terminally ill from neoplastic disease or could not provide informed consent for study participation were not eligible to participate. Patients underwent 3 evaluations 3 months apart: the first assessed problems with passing stool through the stoma, at which time patients were told to increase fiber and fluid intake. During the next 2 visits, patients were asked if their symptoms had improved. If dietary changes were not successful, first-line pharmacological interventions were suggested (laxatives, osmotic agents, and probiotics). If no improvement was reported during the third assessment, second line pharmacologic therapy (eg, stimulant laxatives) were prescribed. Of the 405 patients initially assessed for participation, 331 met the initial screening criteria and were scheduled for followup. Of those, 93 (28%) had constipation; 50 (15%) required a surgical referral for morphological stoma changes and 43 (12.9%) met the study inclusion criteria for dietary recommendations. Almost all (42) had a colostomy and most (28) had a history of stoma creation due to diverticular disease. Twenty-five (25) men and 18 women (average age 55.9 ± 9.3 years) received dietary recommendations during the first visit. Diet modifications were effective

  16. Description logic rules

    CERN Document Server

    Krötzsch, M

    2010-01-01

    Ontological modelling today is applied in many areas of science and technology,including the Semantic Web. The W3C standard OWL defines one of the most important ontology languages based on the semantics of description logics. An alternative is to use rule languages in knowledge modelling, as proposed in the W3C's RIF standard. So far, it has often been unclear how to combine both technologies without sacrificing essential computational properties. This book explains this problem and presents new solutions that have recently been proposed. Extensive introductory chapters provide the necessary

  17. Cyclopalladated complexes containing 2-C6R4PPh2 ligands (R = H, F): one-electron electrochemical reduction leading to metal-carbon σ-bond cleavage via palladium(I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Gopa; Privér, Steven H; Jones, Lathe A; Guo, Si-Xuan; Torriero, Angel A J; Bond, Alan M; Bennett, Martin A; Bhargava, Suresh K

    2015-02-21

    Three new ortho-metallated palladium complexes, [Pd(O,O'-hfacac)(κ(2)-2-C6F4PPh2)] (), [Pd2(O,O'-hfacac)2(μ-2-C6F4PPh2)2] () and [Pd(O,O'-hfacac)(κC-2-C6F4PPh2)(PPh3)] () (hfacac = hexafluoroacetylacetonate), have been prepared and fully characterised. The electrochemical reductions of complexes , together with those of other cyclopalladated complexes containing 2-C6R4PPh2 ligands (R = H, F) were studied by cyclic, rotating disk and microelectrode voltammetry. Evidence for the one-electron reduction of [PdI(κ(2)-2-C6F4PPh2)(PPh2Fc)] () was obtained from coulometric analysis, although the product is unstable and undergoes further chemical processes. Preparative electro-reduction of [Pd2(μ-Br)2(κ(2)-2-C6F4PPh2)2] () in CH2Cl2 causes reductive cleavage of its Pd-C σ-bonds and formation of the complex [PdBr2{PPh2(2-C6F4H)}2] (); possible mechanisms are discussed.

  18. Descriptions of self-mutilation among Finnish adolescents: a qualitative descriptive inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissanen, Marja-Liisa; Kylmä, Jari; Laukkanen, Eila

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe self-mutilation from the perspectives of self-mutilating adolescents. A qualitative descriptive design was adopted. Self-mutilating adolescents were asked to write descriptions of their self-mutilation. Data analysis revealed three major categories: descriptions of the factors contributing to self-mutilation, descriptions of the act of self-mutilation, and descriptions of the sequels of self-mutilation. This study adds to our understanding of self-mutilation and the experiences of self-mutilating adolescents. In nursing practice and education, self-mutilation should be discussed based on existing knowledge to make nurses more familiar with it. Nurses should understand this phenomenon as a challenge for developing effective nursing practices.

  19. Metaphorical descriptions of wrongdoers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dryll Ewa Marta

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available What is a metaphoric picture of an evil person made of? In a study devoted to the development of the ability to use metaphorical descriptions of humans, the semantic fields of four target metaphors - Human-Swamp, Human-Snake, Human-Knife, and Human-Nettle - were established and compared. Subjects (365 young adults were asked to decipher the metaphors’ meanings. The results were obtained mainly by qualitative analysis, with frequency analysis of clusters containing synonymous meanings. The results indicate that when creating imaginary characteristics of evil people, young adults seem to be more concerned about the possibility of suffering verbal harassment (most commonly: vulgarity, mockery, gossip, jeering than the threat of actual physical assault. The results may prove useful for developmental comparisons.

  20. From description to prescription

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McQuaid, Sara Dybris

    with official policy documents makes for an interesting intertextual site of conflict interpretation and the dis/connections between these discourses in approaching diversity. Through an analysis of three seminal works which categorises theoretical interpretations of the conflict (Lijphart: The Northern Ireland......From Description to Prescription: Politics of Recognition, Consociational Theory and the Conflict in Northern Ireland. Within academic discourses on Northern Ireland the politics of recognition and particularly the theory of consociational democracy has made a profound impact. First introduced...... Problem: cases, theories and solutions (1975); Whyte: Interpreting Northern Ireland (1990); McGarry and O’Leary Explaining Northern Ireland (1995)), the paper will trace the historical development of intellectual understandings of the conflict as well as the propelling of consociational theory to its...

  1. Task Description Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Reid; Apfelbaum, David

    2005-01-01

    Task Description Language (TDL) is an extension of the C++ programming language that enables programmers to quickly and easily write complex, concurrent computer programs for controlling real-time autonomous systems, including robots and spacecraft. TDL is based on earlier work (circa 1984 through 1989) on the Task Control Architecture (TCA). TDL provides syntactic support for hierarchical task-level control functions, including task decomposition, synchronization, execution monitoring, and exception handling. A Java-language-based compiler transforms TDL programs into pure C++ code that includes calls to a platform-independent task-control-management (TCM) library. TDL has been used to control and coordinate multiple heterogeneous robots in projects sponsored by NASA and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). It has also been used in Brazil to control an autonomous airship and in Canada to control a robotic manipulator.

  2. Computation of the free energy change associated with one-electron reduction of coenzyme immersed in water: a novel approach within the framework of the quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical method combined with the theory of energy representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hideaki; Ohno, Hajime; Kishi, Ryohei; Nakano, Masayoshi; Matubayasi, Nobuyuki

    2008-11-28

    The isoalloxazine ring (flavin ring) is a part of the coenzyme flavin adenine dinucleotide and acts as an active site in the oxidation of a substrate. We have computed the free energy change Deltamicro(red) associated with one-electron reduction of the flavin ring immersed in water by utilizing the quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical method combined with the theory of energy representation (QM/MM-ER method) recently developed. As a novel treatment in implementing the QM/MM-ER method, we have identified the excess charge to be attached on the flavin ring as a solute while the remaining molecules, i.e., flavin ring and surrounding water molecules, are treated as solvent species. Then, the reduction free energy can be decomposed into the contribution Deltamicro(red)(QM) due to the oxidant described quantum chemically and the free energy Deltamicro(red)(MM) due to the water molecules represented by a classical model. By the sum of these contributions, the total reduction free energy Deltamicro(red) has been given as -80.1 kcal/mol. To examine the accuracy and efficiency of this approach, we have also conducted the Deltamicro(red) calculation using the conventional scheme that Deltamicro(red) is constructed from the solvation free energies of the flavin rings at the oxidized and reduced states. The conventional scheme has been implemented with the QM/MM-ER method and the calculated Deltamicro(red) has been estimated as -81.0 kcal/mol, showing excellent agreement with the value given by the new approach. The present approach is efficient, in particular, to compute free energy change for the reaction occurring in a protein since it enables ones to circumvent the numerical problem brought about by subtracting the huge solvation free energies of the proteins in two states before and after the reduction.

  3. Theory buried under heavy description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian B. Martin Ph.D.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In journalism when a reporter puts the main news or point of the story deep down in the text, we say she’s buried the lead, the lead being the main point of the story and usually the first paragraph. In Children in Genocide: extreme traumatization and affect regulation, psychoanalyst Suzanne Kaplan buries her theory. Her study of the after effects of trauma among Holocaust survivors who were children during their persecution and survivors of atrocities during the Rwandan atrocities of the 1990s, is filled with highly descriptive material from the many interviews that serve as data. An interesting grounded theory is peeking out from under all the disciplinary discourse and historical background one must read through to get to what grounded theory readers will consider the juicy parts: concepts on affect regulation in trauma survivors.

  4. Comparison of the One-electron Oxidations of CO-Bridged vs Unbridged Bimetallic Complexes: Electron-transfer Chemistry of Os2Cp2(CO)4 and Os2Cp*2(μ-CO)2(CO)2 (Cp = η5-C5H5, Cp* = η5-C5Me5)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laws, Derek R.; Bullock, R. Morris; Lee, Richmond; Huang, Kuo-Wei; Geiger, William J.

    2014-09-22

    The one-electron oxidations of two dimers of half-sandwich osmium carbonyl complexes have been examined by electrochemistry, spectro-electrochemistry, and computational methods. The all-terminal carbonyl complex Os2Cp2(CO)4 (1, Cp = η5-C5H5) undergoes a reversible one-electron anodic reaction at E1/2 = 0.41 V vs ferrocene in CH2Cl2/0.05 M [NBu4][B(C6F5)4], giving a rare example of a metal-metal bonded radical cation unsupported by bridging ligands. The IR spectrum of 1+ is consistent with an approximately 1:1 mixture of anti and gauche structures for the 33 e- radical cation in which it has retained all-terminal bonding of the CO ligands. DFT calculations, including orbital-occupancy-perturbed Mayer bond-order analyses, show that the HOMOs of anti-1 and gauche-1 are metal-ligand delocalized. Removal of an electron from 1 has very little effect on the Os-Os bond order, accounting for the resistance of 1+ to heterolytic cleavage. The Os-Os bond distance is calculated to decrease by 0.10 Å and 0.06 Å as a consequence of one-electron oxidation of anti-1 and gauche-1, respectively. The CO-bridged complex Os2Cp*2(μ-CO)2(CO)2 (Cp* = η5-C5Me5), trans-2, undergoes a more facile oxidation, E1/2 = - 0.11 V, giving a persistent radical cation shown by solution IR analysis to preserve its bridged-carbonyl structure. However, ESR analysis of frozen solutions of 2+ is interpreted in terms of the presence of two isomers, most likely anti-2+ and trans-2+, at low temperature. Calculations show that the HOMO of trans-2 is highly delocalized over the metal-ligand framework, with the bridging carbonyls accounting for about half of the orbital makeup. The Os-Os bond order again changes very little with removal of an electron, and the Os-Os bond length actually undergoes minor shortening. Calculations suggest that the second isomer of 2+ has both the trans CO-bridged and the anti all-terminal CO structures. DRL and WEG acknowledge the support of the National Science Foundation under

  5. Descriptive approaches to landscape analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Burton Litton Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Descriptive landscape analyses include various procedures used to document visual/scenic resources. Historic and regional examples of landscape description represent desirable insight for contemporary professional inventory work. Routed and areal landscape inventories are discussed as basic tools. From them, qualitative and quantitative evaluations can be developed...

  6. Quality Assurance Program Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halford, Vaughn Edward [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ryder, Ann Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Effective May 1, 2017, led by a new executive leadership team, Sandia began operating within a new organizational structure. National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia (Sandia’s) Quality Assurance Program (QAP) was established to assign responsibilities and authorities, define workflow policies and requirements, and provide for the performance and assessment of work.

  7. A Descriptive Study to Explore the Effect of Peristomal Skin Complications on Quality of Life of Adults With a Permanent Ostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maydick-Youngberg, Diane

    2017-05-01

    Approximately 1 million people are living with an ostomy, and 100 000 to 130 000 new ostomies are created each year. The exact incidence and prevalence of complications are unknown but have been reported to be as high as 70% and to affect quality of life (QoL). Using convenience sampling methods, a descriptive study was conducted to explore QoL scores and peristomal complications reported by adults with a permanent ostomy attending the 2009 United Ostomy Associations of America conference. Attendees who had a permanent ileostomy, colostomy, or urostomy; were at least 18 years of age; and able to read and speak English were invited to participate. Participants completed a paper/pen survey containing questions about demographics (age, gender, marital status), ostomy (time since and reason for surgery, ostomy type), and peristomal complication variables (number and type, who provided help, and satisfaction with treatment rated on a Likert-type scale from 0 [not satisfied] to 100 [completely satisfied]). QoL data were collected using the City of Hope-Quality of Life-Ostomy Questionnaire (COH-QOL-OQ), which consists of 2 sections - Lifestyle Impact and Quality of Life Impact - and measures 4 QoL domains on a scale of 1 (lower) to 10 (higher) QoL. Descriptive statistics (means, standard deviation, frequencies, percentages) were used to describe the demographic, ostomy, and peristomal complication variables. Univariate analyses of covariance were used to investigate the relationships among QoL scores and peristomal complications, and the number of different complications was correlated with the QoL total score using hierarchical multiple regression analysis. Of the 230 eligible participants invited, 140 (the majority women [83, 59.3%], with an ileostomy [86, 61.4%], and a diagnosis of ulcerative colitis [55, 39.3%]) met inclusion criteria and completed the survey. The majority of participants were married both before (97, 69.3%) and after (88, 62.9%) surgery; the mean Qo

  8. [Descriptive analysis of work and trends in anaesthesiology from 2005 to 2006: quantitative and qualitative aspects of effects and evaluation of anaesthesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majstorović, Branislava M; Simić, Snezana; Milaković, Branko D; Vucović, Dragan S; Aleksić, Valentina V

    2010-01-01

    In anaesthesiology, economic aspects have been insufficiently studied. The aim of this paper was the assessment of rational choice of the anaesthesiological services based on the analysis of the scope, distribution, trend and cost. The costs of anaesthesiological services were counted based on "unit" prices from the Republic Health Insurance Fund. Data were analysed by methods of descriptive statistics and statistical significance was tested by Student's t-test and chi2-test. The number of general anaesthesia was higher and average time of general anaesthesia was shorter, without statistical significance (t-test, p = 0.436) during 2006 compared to the previous year. Local anaesthesia was significantly higher (chi2-test, p = 0.001) in relation to planned operation in emergency surgery. The analysis of total anaesthesiological procedures revealed that a number of procedures significantly increased in ENT and MFH surgery, and ophthalmology, while some reduction was observed in general surgery, orthopaedics and trauma surgery and cardiovascular surgery (chi2-test, p = 0.000). The number of analgesia was higher than other procedures (chi2-test, p = 0.000). The structure of the cost was 24% in neurosurgery, 16% in digestive (general) surgery,14% in gynaecology and obstetrics, 13% in cardiovascular surgery and 9% in emergency room. Anaesthesiological services costs were the highest in neurosurgery, due to the length anaesthesia, and digestive surgery due to the total number of general anaesthesia performed. It is important to implement pharmacoeconomic studies in all departments, and to separate the anaesthesia services for emergency and planned operations. Disproportions between the number of anaesthesia, surgery interventions and the number of patients in surgical departments gives reason to design relation database.

  9. Towards Reproducible Descriptions of Neuronal Network Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordlie, Eilen; Gewaltig, Marc-Oliver; Plesser, Hans Ekkehard

    2009-01-01

    Progress in science depends on the effective exchange of ideas among scientists. New ideas can be assessed and criticized in a meaningful manner only if they are formulated precisely. This applies to simulation studies as well as to experiments and theories. But after more than 50 years of neuronal network simulations, we still lack a clear and common understanding of the role of computational models in neuroscience as well as established practices for describing network models in publications. This hinders the critical evaluation of network models as well as their re-use. We analyze here 14 research papers proposing neuronal network models of different complexity and find widely varying approaches to model descriptions, with regard to both the means of description and the ordering and placement of material. We further observe great variation in the graphical representation of networks and the notation used in equations. Based on our observations, we propose a good model description practice, composed of guidelines for the organization of publications, a checklist for model descriptions, templates for tables presenting model structure, and guidelines for diagrams of networks. The main purpose of this good practice is to trigger a debate about the communication of neuronal network models in a manner comprehensible to humans, as opposed to machine-readable model description languages. We believe that the good model description practice proposed here, together with a number of other recent initiatives on data-, model-, and software-sharing, may lead to a deeper and more fruitful exchange of ideas among computational neuroscientists in years to come. We further hope that work on standardized ways of describing—and thinking about—complex neuronal networks will lead the scientific community to a clearer understanding of high-level concepts in network dynamics, and will thus lead to deeper insights into the function of the brain. PMID:19662159

  10. Towards reproducible descriptions of neuronal network models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eilen Nordlie

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Progress in science depends on the effective exchange of ideas among scientists. New ideas can be assessed and criticized in a meaningful manner only if they are formulated precisely. This applies to simulation studies as well as to experiments and theories. But after more than 50 years of neuronal network simulations, we still lack a clear and common understanding of the role of computational models in neuroscience as well as established practices for describing network models in publications. This hinders the critical evaluation of network models as well as their re-use. We analyze here 14 research papers proposing neuronal network models of different complexity and find widely varying approaches to model descriptions, with regard to both the means of description and the ordering and placement of material. We further observe great variation in the graphical representation of networks and the notation used in equations. Based on our observations, we propose a good model description practice, composed of guidelines for the organization of publications, a checklist for model descriptions, templates for tables presenting model structure, and guidelines for diagrams of networks. The main purpose of this good practice is to trigger a debate about the communication of neuronal network models in a manner comprehensible to humans, as opposed to machine-readable model description languages. We believe that the good model description practice proposed here, together with a number of other recent initiatives on data-, model-, and software-sharing, may lead to a deeper and more fruitful exchange of ideas among computational neuroscientists in years to come. We further hope that work on standardized ways of describing--and thinking about--complex neuronal networks will lead the scientific community to a clearer understanding of high-level concepts in network dynamics, and will thus lead to deeper insights into the function of the brain.

  11. Action description using point clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenping; Jiang, Yongfeng; Wang, Haili; Zhang, Liang

    2017-06-01

    An action description method named as Motion History Point Cloud (MHPC) is proposed in this paper. MHPC compresses an action into a three-dimensional point cloud in which depth information is required. In MHPC, the spatial coordinate channels are used to record the motion foreground, and the color channels are used to record the temporal variation. Due to containing depth information, MHPC can depict an action more meticulous than Motion History Image (MHI). MHPC can serve as a pre-processed input for various classification methods, such as Bag of Words and Deep Learning. An action recognition scheme is provided as an application example of MHPC. In this scheme, Harris3D detector and Fast Point Feature Histogram (FPFH) are used to extract and describe features from MHPC. Then, Bag of Words and multiple classification Support Vector Machine (SVM) are used to do action recognition. The experiments show that rich features can be extracted from MHPC to support the subsequent action recognition even after downsampling. The feasibility and effectiveness of MHPC are also verified by comparing the above scheme with two similar methods.

  12. A Cross-Sectional Descriptive Study of Graduate Students' Perceptions of Learning Effectiveness in Face-to-Face and Online Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Nicole Stayton

    2013-01-01

    The measurement of student perceptions of learning effectiveness is often used as a tool at universities to enhance the quality of course offerings. The recent growth in online course offerings creates new challenges in evaluating learning effectiveness. This study used three principles of adult learning theory, foundation, self-concept, and…

  13. Effectiveness of two intensive treatment methods for smoking cessation and relapse prevention in patients with coronary heart disease: study protocol and baseline description

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berndt, N.; Bolman, C.; Lechner, L.; Mudde, A.; Verheugt, F.W.A.; Vries, H. de

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is no more effective intervention for secondary prevention of coronary heart disease than smoking cessation. Yet, evidence about the (cost-)effectiveness of smoking cessation treatment methods for cardiac inpatients that also suit nursing practice is scarce. This protocol describes

  14. Thick-Big Descriptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lai, Signe Sophus

    The paper discusses the rewards and challenges of employing commercial audience measurements data – gathered by media industries for profitmaking purposes – in ethnographic research on the Internet in everyday life. It questions claims to the objectivity of big data (Anderson 2008), the assumption...... 2010; Webster 2014). This study evolved around industry stakeholders resisting and negotiating changes, as they are happening, in media consumption dynamics and measurement standards, which inevitably reconceptualize future institutionally effective audiences (Ettema & Whitney 1994). With digital...... that bigger is always better, and the many legacy decisions and rules that ultimately govern how audiences are ‘made’ in commercial measurement companies. As such, the paper extends the discussions of a previous empirical study (Lai 2016) on how media organizations imagine their audiences (Ang 1991; Napoli...

  15. Multiple Descriptions Using Sparse Decompositions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm; Østergaard, Jan; Dahl, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    and furthermore are able to refine each other. In this paper, we form descriptions using convex optimization with l1-norm minimization and Euclidean distortion constraints on the reconstructions and show that with this method we can obtain non-trivial descriptions. We give an algorithm based on recently developed...... first-order method to the proposed convex problem such that we can solve large-scale instances for image sequences....

  16. Land reclamation program description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-05-01

    The Land Reclamation Program will address the need for coordinated applied and basic research into the physical and ecological problems of land reclamation, and advance the development of cost-effective techniques for reclaiming and rehabilitating mined coal land to productive end uses. The purpose of this new program is to conduct integrated research and development projects focused on near- and long-term reclamation problems in all major U.S. coal resource regions including Alaska and to coordinate, evaluate, and disseminate the results of related studies conducted at other research institutions. The activities of the Land Reclamation Laboratory program will involve close cooperation with industry and focus on establishing a comprehensive field and laboratory effort. Research demonstration sites will be established throughout the United States to address regional and site-specific problems. Close cooperation with related efforts at academic institutions and other agencies, to transfer pertinent information and avoid duplication of effort, will be a primary goal of the program. The major effort will focus on the complete coal extraction/reclamation cycle where necessary to develop solutions to ameliorating the environmental impacts of coal development. A long-range comprehensive national reclamation program will be established that can schedule and prioritize research activities in all of the major coal regions. A fully integrated data management system will be developed to store and manage relevant environmental and land use data. Nine research demonstration sites have been identified.

  17. Beyond transition state theory: accurate description of nuclear quantum effects on the rate and equilibrium constants of chemical reactions using Feynman path integrals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanícek, Jirí

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear tunneling and other nuclear quantum effects have been shown to play a significant role in molecules as large as enzymes even at physiological temperatures. I discuss how these quantum phenomena can be accounted for rigorously using Feynman path integrals in calculations of the equilibrium and kinetic isotope effects as well as of the temperature dependence of the rate constant. Because these calculations are extremely computationally demanding, special attention is devoted to increasing the computational efficiency by orders of magnitude by employing efficient path integral estimators.

  18. TINTE. Nuclear calculation theory description report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerwin, H.; Scherer, W.; Lauer, A. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (DE). Institut fuer Energieforschung (IEF), Sicherheitsforschung und Reaktortechnik (IEF-6); Clifford, I. [Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (Pty) Ltd. (South Africa)

    2010-01-15

    The Time Dependent Neutronics and Temperatures (TINTE) code system deals with the nuclear and the thermal transient behaviour of the primary circuit of the High-temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR), taking into consideration the mutual feedback effects in twodimensional axisymmetric geometry. This document contains a complete description of the theoretical basis of the TINTE nuclear calculation, including the equations solved, solution methods and the nuclear data used in the solution. (orig.)

  19. The Effectiveness of Corpus-Based Approach to Language Description in Creating Corpus-Based Exercises to Teach Writing Personal Statements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almutairi, Norah Dhawi

    2016-01-01

    Using corpora in language teaching has revolutionized language research with its "authentic" appeal. Corpus tools have enabled linguistic researchers and teachers to investigate actual usages and the characteristics of certain genres in order to improve syllabus design and infer more effective classroom exercises. From this perspective,…

  20. A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY ON BEHAVIOR ASSOCIATED WITH MOBILE PHONE USAGE AND ITS EFFECT ON HEALTH AMONG ME D ICAL STUDENTS IN CHENNAI

    OpenAIRE

    Balaji; Swapna; Saranya

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND : Mobile phone usage has created undeniable health problems. The purpose of the current study is to describe patterns of mobile phone usage and associated effects on health. MATERIALS AND METHODS : The study questionnaire was administered to (n = 213) the Medical students of ACS Medical College which covered the socio - demographic profile, behavior patterns like repeated checking, midnight checking etc., benefits as well as health problems encou...

  1. Comprehensive review of the evidence regarding the effectiveness of community-based primary health care in improving maternal, neonatal and child health: 1. rationale, methods and database description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Henry B; Rassekh, Bahie M; Gupta, Sundeep; Wilhelm, Jess; Freeman, Paul A

    2017-06-01

    Community-based primary health care (CBPHC) is an approach used by health programs to extend preventive and curative health services beyond health facilities into communities and even down to households. Evidence of the effectiveness of CBPHC in improving maternal, neonatal and child health (MNCH) has been summarized by others, but our review gives particular attention to not only the effectiveness of specific interventions but also their delivery strategies at the community level along with their equity effects. This is the first article in a series that summarizes and analyzes the assessments of programs, projects, and research studies (referred to collectively as projects) that used CBPHC to improve MNCH in low- and middle-income countries. The review addresses the following questions: (1) What kinds of projects were implemented? (2) What were the outcomes of these projects? (3) What kinds of implementation strategies were used? (4) What are the implications of these findings? 12 166 reports were identified through a search of articles in the National Library of Medicine database (PubMed). In addition, reports in the gray literature (available online but not published in a peer-reviewed journal) were also reviewed. Reports that describe the implementation of one or more community-based interventions or an integrated project in which an assessment of the effectiveness of the project was carried out qualified for inclusion in the review. Outcome measures that qualified for inclusion in the review were population-based indicators that defined some aspect of health status: changes in population coverage of evidence-based interventions or changes in serious morbidity, in nutritional status, or in mortality. 700 assessments qualified for inclusion in the review. Two independent reviewers completed a data extraction form for each assessment. A third reviewer compared the two data extraction forms and resolved any differences. The maternal interventions assessed

  2. Description of Insecticide Effect in Vitro of the Commercial Diatom on Melophagus Ovinus From the Municipality of Oicatá (Boyacá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herney Cuevas Morales

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Among the ectoparasites affecting sheep is the hematophagous diptera (“false tick” or “fly-louse of sheep”, found in temperate and cold zones in South America, which can cause dermatitis and damage of fleece, in addition to acting as a vector for different diseases. Therefore, they are controlled with commercial insecticides that are toxic to humans and animals, disrupting the ecosystem and generating toxic residues on the food; in addition, in some areas, these have become ineffective. In some sheep located in the municipality of Oicatá, a high prevalence of this parasite can be found with limited effectiveness in treatments with traditional insecticides. Hence, the aim of this study was to describe the in vitro efficacy of the commercial diatom in the control of the M. ovinus. 240 individuals of M. ovinus were collected from naturally parasitized animals, from which 120 were divided randomly into four groups of 10 parasites each, running each test three times (replicas. In all cases, the immersion technique was used for adults, to describe the efficacy of the diatom, observing the mortality percentage for each group. After 12 hours of exposure, mortality was higher in the groups exposed to concentrations of diatom (g of diatom: ml of water of 0.1:1, 0.2:1 and 0.3:1. Around the 24th hour, mortality increased to 90%, with diatom in concentrations of 0.1:1 and 0.3:1 and after 48 hours the higher mortality values were obtained with diatom 0.3:1 followed by diatom 0.2:1 and 0.1:1. With the results obtained, we can mention that the diatom has an insecticide effect that exceeds the minimum effective of 60 %.

  3. Effect of animal-source food supplement prior to and during pregnancy on birthweight and prematurity in rural Vietnam: a brief study description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Ngu; King, Janet C; Dirren, Henri; Thu, Hoang Nga; Ngoc, Quyen Phi; Diep, Anh Nguyen Thi

    2014-12-01

    Maternal nutritional status is an important predictor of infant birthweight. Most previous attempts to improve birthweight through multiple micronutrient supplementation have been initiated after women are pregnant. Interventions to improve maternal nutritional status prior to conception may be more effective in preventing low birthweight and improving other infant health outcomes. To compare the effects of maternal supplementation with animal-source food from preconception to term or from mid-gestation to term with routine prenatal care on birthweight, the prevalence of preterm births, intrauterine growth restriction, and infant growth during the first 12 months of life and on maternal nutrient status and the incidence of maternal and infant infections. Young women from 29 rural communes in northwestern Vietnam were recruited when they registered to marry and were randomized to one of three interventions: animal-source food supplement 5 days per week from marriage to term (approximately 13 months), animal-source food supplement 5 days per week from 16 weeks of gestation to term (approximately 5 months), or routine prenatal care without supplementalfeeding. Data on infant birthweight and gestational age, maternal and infant anthropometry, micronutrient status, and infections in the infant and mother were collected at various time points. In a preliminary study of women of reproductive age in this area of Vietnam, 40% of the women were underweight (body mass index nutritional interventions to improve maternal and infant health.

  4. Statistical Description of Turbulent Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamps, Oliver; Wilczek, Michael

    In this article we review two different approaches to the statistical description of turbulent flows in terms of evolution equations for probability density functions (PDFs), namely a description of the turbulent cascade by a Fokker- Planck equation, as well as kinetic equations in terms of the theoretical framework of the Lundgren-Monin-Novikov hierarchy. In both cases conditional averages are the building blocks that allow to make a connection to experimental or numerical data. Professor Dr. Rudolf Friedrich made central contributions to both of these approaches, which we want to highlight here.

  5. Towards an accurate description of anharmonic infrared spectra in solution within the polarizable continuum model: reaction field, cavity field and nonequilibrium effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelli, Chiara; Lipparini, Filippo; Bloino, Julien; Barone, Vincenzo

    2011-09-14

    We present a newly developed and implemented methodology to perturbatively evaluate anharmonic vibrational frequencies and infrared (IR) intensities of solvated systems described by means of the polarizable continuum model (PCM). The essential aspects of the theoretical model and of the implementation are described and some numerical tests are shown, with special emphasis towards the evaluation of IR intensities, for which the quality of the present method is compared to other methodologies widely used in the literature. Proper account of an incomplete solvation regime in the treatment of the molecular vibration is also considered, as well as inclusion of the coupling between the solvent and the probing field (cavity field effects). In order to assess the quality of our approach, comparison with experimental findings is reported for selected cases. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  6. Towards an accurate description of anharmonic infrared spectra in solution within the polarizable continuum model: Reaction field, cavity field and nonequilibrium effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelli, Chiara; Lipparini, Filippo; Bloino, Julien; Barone, Vincenzo

    2011-09-01

    We present a newly developed and implemented methodology to perturbatively evaluate anharmonic vibrational frequencies and infrared (IR) intensities of solvated systems described by means of the polarizable continuum model (PCM). The essential aspects of the theoretical model and of the implementation are described and some numerical tests are shown, with special emphasis towards the evaluation of IR intensities, for which the quality of the present method is compared to other methodologies widely used in the literature. Proper account of an incomplete solvation regime in the treatment of the molecular vibration is also considered, as well as inclusion of the coupling between the solvent and the probing field (cavity field effects). In order to assess the quality of our approach, comparison with experimental findings is reported for selected cases.

  7. Prevalence and perceived health effect of alcohol use among male undergraduate students in Owerri, South-East Nigeria: a descriptive cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayowa Morakinyo O

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol use during adolescence and young adulthood remains a prominent public health problem. Despite growing problems of global alcohol abuse, accurate information on the prevalence and pattern of use in Nigeria remain sparse. This study examines the prevalence and perceived health effects of alcohol use among undergraduate students in Owerri, Nigeria. Method The prevalence and perceived health effects of alcohol was estimated for 482 male undergraduates of four higher institutions in Owerri, South-East Nigeria between October 2008 and March 2009. Information was obtained using a semi-structured, self-administered questionnaire. Result The mean age of the students was 24.7 years. Majority of the respondents confirmed they were current users of alcohol given a prevalence of 78.4%, with twenty-seven percent of them being heavy drinkers (≥4 drinks per day. Reasons given by respondents for alcohol drinking include: makes them feel high (24.4%; makes them belong to the group of "most happening guys" on campus (6.6%; makes them feel relaxed (52.6% while (16.4% drinks it because their best friends do. Perceived health impacts of alcohol use among current users include: it enhances pleasure during moment of sex (51.1%, causes drowsiness and weakness (63.8%, may precipitate defective memory and impaired perception (64.3% and serves as risk factor for most chronic diseases (68.5%. Conclusion High prevalence of alcohol use was established among study groups. Evaluation of full-scale community-level intervention, including community mobilisation and media advocacy aimed at supporting changes in policies on drinking, access and sales of alcohol to young people, could be helpful in reducing the trend.

  8. Prevalence and perceived health effect of alcohol use among male undergraduate students in Owerri, South-East Nigeria: a descriptive cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikere, Ebirim I C; Mayowa, Morakinyo O

    2011-02-18

    Alcohol use during adolescence and young adulthood remains a prominent public health problem. Despite growing problems of global alcohol abuse, accurate information on the prevalence and pattern of use in Nigeria remain sparse. This study examines the prevalence and perceived health effects of alcohol use among undergraduate students in Owerri, Nigeria. The prevalence and perceived health effects of alcohol was estimated for 482 male undergraduates of four higher institutions in Owerri, South-East Nigeria between October 2008 and March 2009. Information was obtained using a semi-structured, self-administered questionnaire. The mean age of the students was 24.7 years. Majority of the respondents confirmed they were current users of alcohol given a prevalence of 78.4%, with twenty-seven percent of them being heavy drinkers (≥ 4 drinks per day). Reasons given by respondents for alcohol drinking include: makes them feel high (24.4%); makes them belong to the group of "most happening guys" on campus (6.6%); makes them feel relaxed (52.6%) while (16.4%) drinks it because their best friends do. Perceived health impacts of alcohol use among current users include: it enhances pleasure during moment of sex (51.1%), causes drowsiness and weakness (63.8%), may precipitate defective memory and impaired perception (64.3%) and serves as risk factor for most chronic diseases (68.5%). High prevalence of alcohol use was established among study groups. Evaluation of full-scale community-level intervention, including community mobilisation and media advocacy aimed at supporting changes in policies on drinking, access and sales of alcohol to young people, could be helpful in reducing the trend.

  9. Description of self-reported fluid intake and its effects on body weight, symptoms, quality of life and physical capacity in patients with stable chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holst, Marie; Strömberg, Anna; Lindholm, Maud; Willenheimer, Ronnie

    2008-09-01

    To describe the self-reported fluid intake and its effects on body weight, signs and symptoms of heart failure, quality of life, physical capacity and thirst, in patients with stabilised chronic heart failure. Patients with chronic heart failure are often recommended a fluid restriction of 1.5 l/day but there is no evidence in the literature for this recommendation and little is known about the fluid intake consequences. Crossover study. Chronic heart failure patients, clinically stabilised after an unstable state, were randomised to a 32-week cross-over study assessing the clinical importance of fluid prescription. In a secondary analysis of 63 patients, efficacy variables were analysed in relation to the self-reported median fluid intake of 19 ml/kg body weight/day. The mean fluid intake was 16 ml/kg/day in the below-median group and 24 ml/kg/day in the above-median group. No between-group differences were found in change in body weight, signs and symptoms, diuretic use, quality of life or physical capacity. However, the above-median group significantly decreased sense of thirst and difficulties to adhere to the fluid prescription compared with the below-median group. In clinically stabilised chronic heart failure patients on optimal pharmacological treatment, a larger fluid intake was associated with decreasing thirst without any measurable negative effects on signs and symptoms of heart failure, diuretic use or physical capacity. Thus, a more liberal fluid intake may be advisable in chronic heart failure patients who have been stabilised after an initial unstable clinical state. Nurses involved in the care for patients with heart failure known how troublesome thirst can be and how difficult it can be to follow a restricted fluid intake. This study indicates that it is possible to reassess and recommend a less strict fluid intake in stabilised patients with chronic heart failure.

  10. Emplacement Drift System Description Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric Loros

    2001-07-31

    The Emplacement Drift System is part of the Engineered Barrier System and provides the interface between the various waste package (WP) systems and the Ground Control System. In conjunction with the various WPs, the Emplacement Drift System limits the release and transport of radionuclides from the WP to the Natural Barrier following waste emplacement. Collectively, the Emplacement Drift System consists of the structural support hardware (emplacement drift invert and WP emplacement pallet) and any performance-enhancing barriers (drip shields and invert ballast) installed or placed in the emplacement drifts. The Emplacement Drift System is entirely located within the emplacement drifts in the subsurface portion of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR); specifically, it is physically bounded by the Subsurface Facility System, the Ground Support System, and the Natural Barrier. The Emplacement Drift System supports the key MGR functions of limiting radionuclide release to the Natural Barrier, minimizing the likelihood of a criticality external to the WPs, limiting natural and induced environmental effects, and providing WP support. The Emplacement Drift System limits radionuclide release to the Natural Barrier by controlling the movement of radionuclides within the emplacement drift and to the Natural Barrier, and by limiting water contact with the WPs. The Emplacement Drift System provides physical support and barriers for emplaced WPs that reduce water contact. The Emplacement Drift WP spacing supports the thermal loading performance by complimenting drift layout and orientation as described in the system description document for the Subsurface Facility System. The Emplacement Drift System supports the WP and also provides an environment that aids in enhancing WP confinement performance. As part of the Engineered Barrier System, the Emplacement Drift System interfaces with the WP systems. The Emplacement Drift System also interfaces with the Natural Barrier

  11. Perception of late effects among long-term survivors after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation: Descriptive analysis and validation of the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire. A sub-study of the PROVIVO study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenta, Sabine; De Geest, Sabina; Fierz, Katharina; Beckmann, Sonja; Halter, Jörg; Schanz, Urs; Nair, Gayathri; Kirsch, Monika

    2017-04-01

    To give a first description of the perception of late effects among long-term survivors after Allogeneic Haematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT) and to validate the German Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (BIPQ). This is a secondary analysis of data from the cross-sectional, mixed-method PROVIVO study, which included 376 survivors from two Swiss HSCT-centres. First, we analysed the sample characteristics and the distribution for each BIPQ item. Secondly, we tested three validity types following the American Educational Research Association (AERA)Standards: content validity indices (CVIs) were assessed based on an expert survey (n = 9). A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) explored the internal structure, and correlations tested the validity in relations to other variables including data from the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the number and burden of late effects and clinical variables. In total, 319 HSCT recipients returned completed BIPQs. For this sample, the most feared threat for post-transplant life was long lasting late effects (median = 8/10). The expert-survey revealed an overall acceptable CVI (0.82), three items-on personal control, treatment control and causal representation-yielded low CVIs (perceptions of HSCT late effects. However, as three items revealed potential problems, improvements and adaptions in translation are therefore required. Following these revisions, validity evidence should be re-examined through an in-depth patient survey. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Analysis of the orientational order effect on n-alkanes: Evidences on experimental response functions and description using Monte Carlo molecular simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessières, D.; Piñeiro, M. M.; De Ferron, G.; Plantier, F.

    2010-08-01

    Short-range correlations of the molecular orientations in liquid n-alkanes have been extensively studied from depolarized Rayleigh scattering and thermodynamic measurements. These correlations between segments induce structural anisotropy in the fluid bulk. This phenomenon, which is characteristic of linear chain molecules when the constituting segments are nor freely jointed, but interact through a given angular potential, is then present in the linear n-Cn series, increasing its magnitude with chain length, and it is therefore less relevant or even completely absent in branched alkanes. This intermolecular effect is clearly revealed in second-order excess magnitudes such as heat capacities when the linear molecule is mixed with one whose structure approaches sphericity. The mixing process of different aspect ratio chain molecules is thought to modify the original pure fluid structure, by producing a diminution of the orientational order previously existing between pure n-alkane chains. However, second-order thermodynamics quantities of pure liquids CP, (∂v/∂T)P, and (∂v/∂P)P are known to be very sensitive to the specific interactions occurring at the microscopic level. In other words, the behavior of these derived properties versus temperature and pressure can be regarded as response functions of the complexity of the microscopic interactions. Thus, the purpose of the present work is to rationalize the orientational order evolution with both temperature and molecular chain length from the analysis of pure fluid properties. To this aim, we focused on two linear alkanes, n-octane (n-C8) and n-hexadecane (n-C16), and two of their branched isomers, i.e., 2,2,4-trimethylpentane (br-C8) and 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethylnonane (br-C16). For each compound, we propose a combined study from direct experimental determination of second-order derivative properties and Monte Carlo simulations. We performed density ρ, speed of sound c, and isobaric heat capacity CP

  13. a Description and Evaluation of the Effects of a Preengineering Program for Underrepresented, Low-Income And/or First Generation College Students at the University of Akron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Paul C.; Mawasha, P. Ruby; Doverspike, Dennis; McClain, Bradley; Vesalo, John

    This article summarizes the 5-year effort of a preengineering program to improve the recruitment and retention of underrepresented college students to pursue careers in science, mathematics, engineering, and technology (SMET) at The University of Akron. The purpose of this study is to assess The University of Akron's successful operation of the special high school Upward Bound and preengineering Academic Achievement Programs to increase the number of underrepresented students in SMET. The programs are in collaboration with the College of Engineering's Minority Engineering Program, Increasing Diversity in Engineering Academics. The effectiveness of the programs is measured using the following parameters: (1) average high school grade point average before and after participating in preengineering programs, (2) high school math and science achievement, (3) retention rate for students returning from the previous year, and (4) percentage of students committed to SMET upon graduation. The end results of using these strategies are that the targeted students, who have expressed an interest in mathematics and science, are highly motivated and excited about exploring SMET.

  14. Assessing the Effect of Timing of Availability for Carbon Dioxide Storage in the Largest Oil and Gas Pools in the Alberta Basin: Description of Data and Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahowski, Robert T.; Bachu, Stefan

    2007-03-05

    Carbon dioxide capture from large stationary sources and storage in geological media is a technologically-feasible mitigation measure for the reduction of anthropogenic emissions of CO2 to the atmosphere in response to climate change. Carbon dioxide (CO2) can be sequestered underground in oil and gas reservoirs, in deep saline aquifers, in uneconomic coal beds and in salt caverns. The Alberta Basin provides a very large capacity for CO2 storage in oil and gas reservoirs, along with significant capacity in deep saline formations and possible unmineable coal beds. Regional assessments of potential geological CO2 storage capacity have largely focused so far on estimating the total capacity that might be available within each type of reservoir. While deep saline formations are effectively able to accept CO2 immediately, the storage potential of other classes of candidate storage reservoirs, primarily oil and gas fields, is not fully available at present time. Capacity estimates to date have largely overlooked rates of depletion in these types of storage reservoirs and typically report the total estimated storage capacity that will be available upon depletion. However, CO2 storage will not (and cannot economically) begin until the recoverable oil and gas have been produced via traditional means. This report describes a reevaluation of the CO2 storage capacity and an assessment of the timing of availability of the oil and gas pools in the Alberta Basin with very large storage capacity (>5 MtCO2 each) that are being looked at as likely targets for early implementation of CO2 storage in the region. Over 36,000 non-commingled (i.e., single) oil and gas pools were examined with effective CO2 storage capacities being individually estimated. For each pool, the life expectancy was estimated based on a combination of production decline analysis constrained by the remaining recoverable reserves and an assessment of economic viability, yielding an estimated depletion date, or year

  15. Epsilon. A System Description Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kyng, Morten

    This paper discusses the use of Petri nets as a semantic tool in the design of languages and in the construction and analysis of system descriptions. The topics treated are: -- Languages based on nets. -- The problem of time in nets. -- Nets and related models. -- Nets and formal semantics...

  16. Use cases versus task descriptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauesen, Søren; Kuhail, Mohammad Amin

    2011-01-01

    to specify require-ments for the same project: Acquire a new system to support a hotline. [Princi-pal ideas/results] Among the 15 replies, eight used traditional use cases that specified a dialog between users and system. Seven used a related technique, task description, which specified the customer's needs...

  17. Manufacturer Usage Description Specification Implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasan, Kaushik

    2017-01-01

    Manufacturer Usage Description Specification (MUDS) is aframework under RFC development that aims to automate Internet access control rules for IoT devices . These access controls prevent malicious IoT devices from attacking other devices and also protect the IoT devices from being attacked by other devices.We are implementing this framework and trying to improve its security.

  18. Natural Language Description of Emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemzadeh, Abe

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation studies how people describe emotions with language and how computers can simulate this descriptive behavior. Although many non-human animals can express their current emotions as social signals, only humans can communicate about emotions symbolically. This symbolic communication of emotion allows us to talk about emotions that we…

  19. Geotechnical Description of Mineral Deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasvári Tibor

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Performing various mineral deposits extraction methods requires thorough knowledge of the rock masses` geomechanical parameters. In the geotechnical description of mineral deposits there is proposed a methodical approarch at the collection, registration, and evaluation of rock masses` geological properties for geotechnics being applied within the mining industry.

  20. Oligarchy as a phase transition: The effect of wealth-attained advantage in a Fokker-Planck description of asset exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boghosian, Bruce M.; Devitt-Lee, Adrian; Johnson, Merek; Li, Jie; Marcq, Jeremy A.; Wang, Hongyan

    2017-06-01

    The ;Yard-Sale Model; of asset exchange is known to result in complete inequality-all of the wealth in the hands of a single agent. It is also known that, when this model is modified by introducing a simple model of redistribution based on the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, it admits a steady state exhibiting some features similar to the celebrated Pareto Law of wealth distribution. In the present work, we analyze the form of this steady-state distribution in much greater detail, using a combination of analytic and numerical techniques. We find that, while Pareto's Law is approximately valid for low redistribution, it gives way to something more similar to Gibrat's Law when redistribution is higher. Additionally, we prove in this work that, while this Pareto or Gibrat behavior may persist over many orders of magnitude, it ultimately gives way to gaussian decay at extremely large wealth. Also in this work, we introduce a bias in favor of the wealthier agent-what we call Wealth-Attained Advantage (WAA)-and show that this leads to the phenomenon of ;wealth condensation; when the bias exceeds a certain critical value. In the wealth-condensed state, a finite fraction of the total wealth of the population ;condenses; to the wealthiest agent. We examine this phenomenon in some detail, and derive the corresponding modification to the Fokker-Planck equation. We observe a second-order phase transition to a state of coexistence between an oligarch and a distribution of non-oligarchs. Finally, by studying the asymptotic behavior of the distribution in some detail, we show that the onset of wealth condensation has an abrupt reciprocal effect on the character of the non-oligarchical part of the distribution. Specifically, we show that the above-mentioned gaussian decay at extremely large wealth is valid both above and below criticality, but degenerates to exponential decay precisely at criticality.

  1. Effects of music intervention on anxiety and pain reduction in ambulatory maxillofacial and otorhinolaryngology surgery: a descriptive survey of 27 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keilani, Chafik; Simondet, Nicolas; Maalouf, Ramzi; Yigitoglu, Ahmet; Bougrine, Alexandre; Simon, Didier; Fligny, Isabelle

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study is to determine patients' opinion regarding listening to music before an ambulatory maxillofacial surgery and effects on anxiety and pain reduction. This study was conducted on outpatients having a maxillofacial surgery between December 2015 and April 2016 at Poissy/Saint-Germain-en-Laye hospital (France). Patients listened with headphones to an easy-listening music in the operation theater before the first ambulation. A questionnaire including a visual analog scale (VAS) for pain and anxiety was given to participants. The primary endpoint was to determine patients' opinion regarding listening to music before surgery. Secondary endpoints were to determine VAS pain mean, VAS anxiety mean before surgery, VAS anxiety mean after surgery, and if patients wanted to listen to their own playlist. We decided to compare VAS anxiety and pain mean between patients who accepted to listen to music (ALM) and who refused to listen to music (RLM). Nineteen patients ALM and 8 patients RLM to music. 78.9% of patients considered that listening to music before surgery decreased their anxiety. In patients who ALM, the mean (standard deviation, SD) of VAS pain after surgery was 3.42 (1.95), the mean (SD) of VAS anxiety before surgery was 3.1 (2.3), and the mean (SD) of VAS anxiety was 1.21 (0.85). There was a statistically significantly difference of the VAS anxiety mean (SD) before surgery between patients who ALM 3.10 (2.30) and who RLM 6.12 (1.88) (p = 0.005). There was a statistically significantly difference of the VAS anxiety mean (SD) after surgery between patients who ALM 1.21 (0.85) and who RLM 2.62 (1.30) (p = 0.009). Fifty percent of the patients wanted to choose their own music. Music seems to reduce anxiety before maxillofacial surgery. An interventional randomized study is needed to demonstrate the positive impact of music on anxiety before maxillofacial surgery.

  2. Description and design considerations of a randomized clinical trial investigating the effect of a multidisciplinary cognitive-behavioural intervention for patients undergoing lumbar spinal fusion surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolving, Nanna; Oestergaard, Lisa Gregersen; Willert, Morten Vejs; Christensen, Finn Bjarke; Blumensaat, Frank; Bünger, Cody; Nielsen, Claus Vinther

    2014-03-03

    The ideal rehabilitation strategy following lumbar spinal fusion surgery has not yet been established. This paper is a study protocol, describing the rationale behind and the details of a cognitive-behavioural rehabilitation intervention for lumbar spinal fusion patients based on the best available evidence. Predictors of poor outcome following spine surgery have been identified to provide targets for the intervention, and the components of the intervention were structured in accordance with the cognitive-behavioural model. The study aims to compare the clinical and economical effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioural rehabilitation strategy to that of usual care for patients undergoing lumbar spinal fusion surgery. The study is a randomized clinical trial including 96 patients scheduled for lumbar spinal fusion surgery due to degenerative disease or spondylolisthesis. Patients were recruited in the period October 2011 to July 2013, and the follow-up period is one year from date of surgery. Patients are allocated on a 1:2 ratio (control: intervention) to either treatment as usual (control group), which implies surgery and the standard postoperative rehabilitation, or in addition to this, a patient education focusing on pain behaviour and pain coping (intervention group). It takes place in a hospital setting, and consists of six group-based sessions, managed by a multidisciplinary team of health professionals.The primary outcomes are disability (Oswestry Disability Index) and sick leave, while secondary outcomes include coping (Coping Strategies Questionnaire), fear-avoidance belief (Fear Avoidance Belief Questionnaire), pain (Low Back Pain Rating Scale, pain index), mobility during hospitalization (Cumulated Ambulation Score), generic health-related quality of life (EQ-5D) and resource use. Outcomes are measured using self report questionnaires, medical records and national registers. It is expected that the intervention can provide better functional outcome, less

  3. Effect of thromboelastography (TEG®) and rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM®) on diagnosis of coagulopathy, transfusion guidance and mortality in trauma: descriptive systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Luz, Luis Teodoro; Nascimento, Bartolomeu; Shankarakutty, Ajith Kumar; Rizoli, Sandro; Adhikari, Neill Kj

    2014-09-27

    , but predictive performance was not consistently superior to routine tests. One observational study suggested that a ROTEM®-based transfusion algorithm reduced blood-product transfusion, but TEG®/ROTEM®-based resuscitation was not associated with lower mortality in most studies. Limited evidence from observational data suggest that TEG®/ROTEM® tests diagnose early trauma coagulopathy and may predict blood-product transfusion and mortality in trauma. Effects on blood-product transfusion, mortality, and other patient-important outcomes remain unproven in randomized trials.

  4. Macroscopic Description for Networks of Spiking Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montbrió, Ernest; Pazó, Diego; Roxin, Alex

    2015-04-01

    A major goal of neuroscience, statistical physics, and nonlinear dynamics is to understand how brain function arises from the collective dynamics of networks of spiking neurons. This challenge has been chiefly addressed through large-scale numerical simulations. Alternatively, researchers have formulated mean-field theories to gain insight into macroscopic states of large neuronal networks in terms of the collective firing activity of the neurons, or the firing rate. However, these theories have not succeeded in establishing an exact correspondence between the firing rate of the network and the underlying microscopic state of the spiking neurons. This has largely constrained the range of applicability of such macroscopic descriptions, particularly when trying to describe neuronal synchronization. Here, we provide the derivation of a set of exact macroscopic equations for a network of spiking neurons. Our results reveal that the spike generation mechanism of individual neurons introduces an effective coupling between two biophysically relevant macroscopic quantities, the firing rate and the mean membrane potential, which together govern the evolution of the neuronal network. The resulting equations exactly describe all possible macroscopic dynamical states of the network, including states of synchronous spiking activity. Finally, we show that the firing-rate description is related, via a conformal map, to a low-dimensional description in terms of the Kuramoto order parameter, called Ott-Antonsen theory. We anticipate that our results will be an important tool in investigating how large networks of spiking neurons self-organize in time to process and encode information in the brain.

  5. Job Descriptions for Cooperative and Distributive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Frederick A.

    1977-01-01

    Guidelines for writing job descriptions (with consideration given to cooperative and distributive education) are presented. Areas of discussion are procedure for job analysis, questions that gather information for job descriptions, writing the job description, and validity. A sample job description is included. (TA)

  6. Light microscopic description and histopathological effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A species of Coccidia, Eimeria was found infecting the Nile catfish Chrysichthys auratus. The parasite was found aggregated in mucosa, submucosa and connective tissue between muscle bundles of the intestine, and also in the parenchymal tissue of the liver and the pancreas. The recorded stages were the maturing ...

  7. College Readiness -- A Simple Description

    OpenAIRE

    Jerome Dancis

    2012-01-01

    To survive academically the first year of college, students basically need the three Rs, Reading, wRiting and aRithmetic, albeit all on high school levels. No Statistics needed.Reading means reading with understanding the expository and descriptive text in science and social studies textbooks, not literature. This includes following written directions. Writing means writing a coherent summary of each chapter in the science and social studies textbooks, and relating the chapter to material ...

  8. Vector description of nonlinear magnetization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rysak, A. E-mail: rysak@tytan.umcs.lublin.pl; Korczak, S.Z

    2001-06-01

    The definition of the nonlinear magnetization, which is usually applied in investigating superconductors is discussed in this paper. The nonlinear magnetization of the superconductor, as the response to the alternating magnetic field, is a periodic time function and is determined by the sequence of complex numbers {chi}{sub n}={chi}{sub n}'+i{chi}{sub n}'', n=1,2,3,.... The sequence {chi}{sub n} is named harmonic susceptibility. Finding some limits in this definition we propose a new description, substituting the complex sequence {chi}{sub n} with the sequence of real covariant vectors. Such a definition of the nonlinear magnetization, allows to determine function M(t) of an investigated system for an arbitrary initial phase {theta}{sub o} of the inducing magnetic field H{sub ac}=h{sub ac} sin({omega}t+{theta}{sub o}). Vector description, in our opinion, is superior to the complex one in respect of explicitness, simplicity, and universality. Circular diagrams are used to illustrate the new vector description. We also show how the vectors of the harmonic susceptibility can be derived from both numeric calculations and experimental data.

  9. Theoretical Description of the Fission Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witold Nazarewicz

    2003-07-01

    The main goals of the project can be summarized as follows: Development of effective energy functionals that are appropriate for the description of heavy nuclei. Our goal is to improve the existing energy density (Skyrme) functionals to develop a force that will be used in calculations of fission dynamics. Systematic self-consistent calculations of binding energies and fission barriers of actinide and trans-actinide nuclei using modern density functionals. This will be followed by calculations of spontaneous fission lifetimes and mass and charge divisions using dynamic adiabatic approaches based on the WKB approximation. Investigate novel microscopic (non-adiabatic) methods to study the fission process.

  10. Horizons of description: Black holes and complementarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokulich, Peter Joshua Martin

    dissertation is that we have as much to learn from the limitations facing our scientific descriptions as we do from the successes they enjoy. Because all of our scientific theories offer at best limited, effective accounts of the world, an important part of our interpretive efforts will be assessing the borders of these domains of description.

  11. ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Maniyar

    2004-06-22

    The purpose of this revision of the System Description Document (SDD) is to establish requirements that drive the design of the electrical power system and their bases to allow the design effort to proceed to License Application. This SDD is a living document that will be revised at strategic points as the design matures over time. This SDD identifies the requirements and describes the system design as they exist at this time, with emphasis on those attributes of the design provided to meet the requirements. This SDD has been developed to be an engineering tool for design control. Accordingly, the primary audience are design engineers. This type of SDD leads and follows the design process. It leads the design process with regard to the flow down of upper tier requirements onto the system. Knowledge of these requirements is essential to performing the design process. This SDD follows the design with regard to the description of the system. The description provided in the SDD is a reflection of the results of the design process to date. Functional and operational requirements applicable to this system are obtained from ''Project Functional and Operational Requirements'' (F&OR) (Siddoway, 2003). Other requirements to support the design process have been taken from higher level requirements documents such as ''Project Design Criteria Document'' (PDC) (Doraswamy 2004), the fire hazards analyses, and the preclosure safety analysis. The above mentioned low-level documents address ''Project Requirements Document'' (PRD) (Canori and Leitner 2003) requirements. This SDD includes several appendices with supporting information. Appendix B lists key system charts, diagrams, drawings, and lists; and Appendix C is a list of system procedures.

  12. ELECTRICAL SUPPORT SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Roy

    2004-06-24

    The purpose of this revision of the System Design Description (SDD) is to establish requirements that drive the design of the electrical support system and their bases to allow the design effort to proceed to License Application. This SDD is a living document that will be revised at strategic points as the design matures over time. This SDD identifies the requirements and describes the system design as they exist at this time, with emphasis on those attributes of the design provided to meet the requirements. This SDD has been developed to be an engineering tool for design control. Accordingly, the primary audience/users are design engineers. This type of SDD both ''leads'' and ''trails'' the design process. It leads the design process with regard to the flow down of upper tier requirements onto the system. Knowledge of these requirements is essential in performing the design process. The SDD trails the design with regard to the description of the system. The description provided in the SDD is a reflection of the results of the design process to date. Functional and operational requirements applicable to electrical support systems are obtained from the ''Project Functional and Operational Requirements'' (F&OR) (Siddoway 2003). Other requirements to support the design process have been taken from higher-level requirements documents such as the ''Project Design Criteria Document'' (PDC) (Doraswamy 2004), and fire hazards analyses. The above-mentioned low-level documents address ''Project Requirements Document'' (PRD) (Canon and Leitner 2003) requirements. This SDD contains several appendices that include supporting information. Appendix B lists key system charts, diagrams, drawings, and lists, and Appendix C includes a list of system procedures.

  13. Hadl: HUMS Architectural Description Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukkamala, R.; Adavi, V.; Agarwal, N.; Gullapalli, S.; Kumar, P.; Sundaram, P.

    2004-01-01

    Specification of architectures is an important prerequisite for evaluation of architectures. With the increase m the growth of health usage and monitoring systems (HUMS) in commercial and military domains, the need far the design and evaluation of HUMS architectures has also been on the increase. In this paper, we describe HADL, HUMS Architectural Description Language, that we have designed for this purpose. In particular, we describe the features of the language, illustrate them with examples, and show how we use it in designing domain-specific HUMS architectures. A companion paper contains details on our design methodology of HUMS architectures.

  14. College Readiness -- A Simple Description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome Dancis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To survive academically the first year of college, students basically need the three Rs, Reading, wRiting and aRithmetic, albeit all on high school levels. No Statistics needed.Reading means reading with understanding the expository and descriptive text in science and social studies textbooks, not literature. This includes following written directions. Writing means writing a coherent summary of each chapter in the science and social studies textbooks, and relating the chapter to material previously studied. Arithmetic means Arithmetic, including fractions, decimals, percents, measurement and multi-step Arithmetic word problems, along with “generalized” Arithmetic, better known as Algebra.

  15. Inflationary universe in fluid description

    CERN Document Server

    Bamba, Kazuharu

    2016-01-01

    We investigate a fluid description of inflationary cosmology. It is shown that the three observables of the inflationary universe: the spectral index of the curvature perturbations, the tensor-to-scalar ratio of the density perturbations, and the running of the spectral index, can be compatible with the Planck analysis. In addition, we reconstruct the equation of state (EoS) for a fluid from the spectral index of the curvature perturbations consistent with the Planck results. We explicitly demonstrate that the universe can gracefully exit from inflation in the reconstructed fluid models. Furthermore, we explore the singular inflation for a fluid model.

  16. Addressing the Language Description Deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ali Bolgiin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Well-described language features are key to successful teaching and learning, especially for achieving advanced levels of proficiency. Other measures, such as simply increasing the number of reading and listening passages in a language program alone are not enough to bring the student to a higher level in a given skill. In fact, even being present in the target culture does not suffice. Angelelli and Degueldre (2002 argue that at advanced levels, even spending time in a country where the language is spoken is not necessarily sufficient for learners: "They do not need just exposure; they need answers to questions and explanations that they can rarely get by simply being immersed in a language/ culture." Less commonly taught languages (LCTLs lack descriptions that have such answers and explanations (cf. Fotos, 2002. It is argued in this paper that corpuslinguistic analyses help to provide actual usage-based, rather than intuition-based, descriptions and explanations of language features. Such approach is illustrated through English and Turkish examples.

  17. Compact and Hybrid Feature Description for Building Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z.; Liu, Y.; Hu, Y.; Li, P.; Ding, Y.

    2017-05-01

    Building extraction in aerial orthophotos is crucial for various applications. Currently, deep learning has been shown to be successful in addressing building extraction with high accuracy and high robustness. However, quite a large number of samples is required in training a classifier when using deep learning model. In order to realize accurate and semi-interactive labelling, the performance of feature description is crucial, as it has significant effect on the accuracy of classification. In this paper, we bring forward a compact and hybrid feature description method, in order to guarantees desirable classification accuracy of the corners on the building roof contours. The proposed descriptor is a hybrid description of an image patch constructed from 4 sets of binary intensity tests. Experiments show that benefiting from binary description and making full use of color channels, this descriptor is not only computationally frugal, but also accurate than SURF for building extraction.

  18. Chasing the limits of the one electron approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kędziera, Dariusz [Department of Chemistry, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Gagarina 7, 87-100 Toruń (Poland); Mentel, Łukasz M. [Section of Theoretical Chemistry, VU University, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2014-10-06

    Rapid progress in the development of computational methods for quantum chemistry is not properly balanced by the development of basis sets. Even in the case of few-electron systems it is hard to find basis set which are able to reproduce the ECG benchmarks with the mhartree accuracy. In this paper we show early work on improvements of the basis sets for small atomic and molecular systems. As a starting point the ground state of lithium atom and the lowest states of lithium dimer will be investigated. The exploratory optimization of the exponents of primitive gaussians will be based on even tempered scheme combined with CISD method.

  19. Archival Descriptions from the National Archives Catalog

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — Archival Descriptions from the National Archives Catalog data set provides archival descriptions of the permanent holdings of the federal government in the custody...

  20. Semantic foundation for preferential description logics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Britz, K

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Description logics are a well-established family of knowledge representation formalisms in Artificial Intelligence. Enriching description logics with non-monotonic reasoning capabilities, especially preferential reasoning as developed by Lehmann...

  1. 40 CFR 123.22 - Program description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... employees. The State need not submit complete job descriptions for every employee carrying out the State... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Program description. 123.22 Section... PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS State Program Submissions § 123.22 Program description. Any State that seeks to...

  2. Do children prefer mentalistic descriptions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dore, Rebecca A; Lillard, Angeline S

    2014-01-01

    Against a long tradition of childhood realism (Piaget, 1929), A. S. Lillard and J. H. Flavell (1990) found that 3-year-olds prefer to characterize people by their mental states (beliefs, desires, emotions) than by their visible behaviors. In this exploratory study, we extend this finding to a new cohort of 3-year-olds, examine how these preferences change from 3-4 years, and explore relationships with theory of mind and parental mind-mindedness. The results showed a developmental change and a possible cohort difference: at 3 years, children in the sample preferred behavioral descriptions, although by 4 years of age, they preferred mentalistic ones. Interestingly, mentalistic preferences were unrelated to theory of mind or parental mind-mindedness, concurrently or over time. Perspective-taking skills at 3 years, however, predicted an increase in mentalistic responses from 3 years to 4 years. Possible explanations for each finding are discussed.

  3. FLOWTRAN-TF code description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, G.P. (ed.)

    1990-12-01

    FLOWTRAN-TF is a two-component (air-water), two-phase thermal-hydraulics code designed for performing accident analyses of SRS reactor fuel assemblies during the Emergency Cooling System (ECS) phase of a Double Ended Guillotine Break (DEGB) Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA). This report provides a brief description of the physical models in the version of FLOWTRAN-TF used to compute the Recommended K-Reactor Restart ECS Power Limit. This document is viewed as an interim report and should ultimately be superseded by a comprehensive user/programmer manual. In general, only high level discussions of governing equations and constitutive laws are presented. Numerical implementation of these models, code architecture and user information are not generally covered. A companion document describing code benchmarking is available.

  4. FLOWTRAN-TF code description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, G.P. (ed.)

    1991-09-01

    FLOWTRAN-TF is a two-component (air-water), two-phase thermal-hydraulics code designed for performing accident analyses of SRS reactor fuel assemblies during the Emergency Cooling System (ECS) phase of a Double Ended Guillotine Break (DEGB) Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA). This report provides a brief description of the physical models in the version of FLOWTRAN-TF used to compute the Recommended K-Reactor Restart ECS Power Limit. This document is viewed as an interim report and should ultimately be superseded by a comprehensive user/programmer manual. In general, only high level discussions of governing equations and constitutive laws are presented. Numerical implementation of these models, code architecture and user information are not generally covered. A companion document describing code benchmarking is available.

  5. High Luminosity LHC Project Description

    CERN Document Server

    Apollinari, Giorgio; Rossi, Lucio

    2014-01-01

    The High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) is a novel configuration of the Large Hadron Collider, aiming at increasing the luminosity by a factor five or more above the nominal LHC design, to allow increasing the integrated luminosity, in the high luminosity experiments ATLAS and CMS, from the 300 fb-1 of the LHC original design up to 3000 fb-1 or more. This paper contains a short description of the main machine parameters and of the main equipment that need to be developed and installed. The preliminary cost evaluation and the time plan are presented, too. Finally, the international collaboration that is supporting the project, the governance and the project structure are discussed, too.

  6. Reversible gates and circuits descriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracki, Krzystof

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents basic methods of reversible circuit description. To design reversible circuit a set of gates has to be chosen. Most popular libraries are composed of three types of gates so called CNT gates (Control, NOT and Toffoli). The gate indexing method presented in this paper is based on the CNT gates set. It introduces a uniform indexing of the gates used during synthesis process of reversible circuits. The paper is organized as follows. Section 1 recalls basic concepts of reversible logic. In Section 2 and 3 a graphical representation of the reversible gates and circuits is described. Section 4 describes proposed uniform NCT gates indexing. The presented gate indexing method provides gate numbering scheme independent of lines number of the designed circuit. The solution for a circuit consisting of smaller number of lines is a subset of solution for a larger circuit.

  7. Mathematical description of bacterial traveling pulses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Saragosti

    Full Text Available The Keller-Segel system has been widely proposed as a model for bacterial waves driven by chemotactic processes. Current experiments on Escherichia coli have shown the precise structure of traveling pulses. We present here an alternative mathematical description of traveling pulses at the macroscopic scale. This modeling task is complemented with numerical simulations in accordance with the experimental observations. Our model is derived from an accurate kinetic description of the mesoscopic run-and-tumble process performed by bacteria. This can account for recent experimental observations with E. coli. Qualitative agreements include the asymmetry of the pulse and transition in the collective behaviour (clustered motion versus dispersion. In addition, we can capture quantitatively the traveling speed of the pulse as well as its characteristic length. This work opens several experimental and theoretical perspectives since coefficients at the macroscopic level are derived from considerations at the cellular scale. For instance, the particular response of a single cell to chemical cues turns out to have a strong effect on collective motion. Furthermore, the bottom-up scaling allows us to perform preliminary mathematical analysis and write efficient numerical schemes. This model is intended as a predictive tool for the investigation of bacterial collective motion.

  8. Theoretical description of metabolism using queueing theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evstigneev, Vladyslav P; Holyavka, Marina G; Khrapatiy, Sergii V; Evstigneev, Maxim P

    2014-09-01

    A theoretical description of the process of metabolism has been developed on the basis of the Pachinko model (see Nicholson and Wilson in Nat Rev Drug Discov 2:668-676, 2003) and the queueing theory. The suggested approach relies on the probabilistic nature of the metabolic events and the Poisson distribution of the incoming flow of substrate molecules. The main focus of the work is an output flow of metabolites or the effectiveness of metabolism process. Two simplest models have been analyzed: short- and long-living complexes of the source molecules with a metabolizing point (Hole) without queuing. It has been concluded that the approach based on queueing theory enables a very broad range of metabolic events to be described theoretically from a single probabilistic point of view.

  9. Handbook of Manufacturing Control Fundamentals, description, configuration

    CERN Document Server

    Lödding, Hermann

    2013-01-01

    This first-time English publication of one of Germany’s leading manufacturing control handbooks provides a comprehensive overview of the state of the art, with detailed and easy to understand descriptions of numerous control techniques from Kanban to CONWIP to Backlog Control. Based on the proven funnel model and written for the industry, this book clearly illustrates how companies can use manufacturing control to effectively improve on-time delivery, reduce inventories and cut down throughput times. “This book distinguishes itself with its convincing systematic approach based on thorough international research. Its clear presentation and direct applicability for analysing and configuring the manufacturing control make this handbook an outstanding and unique publication on PPC.” Hans-Peter Wiendahl “The field of manufacturing control is very convincingly reviewed and presented from a theoretical and methodological perspective. Both researchers as well as practitioners will profit from it.” Peter N...

  10. XML Translator for Interface Descriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroson, Elizabeth R.

    2009-01-01

    A computer program defines an XML schema for specifying the interface to a generic FPGA from the perspective of software that will interact with the device. This XML interface description is then translated into header files for C, Verilog, and VHDL. User interface definition input is checked via both the provided XML schema and the translator module to ensure consistency and accuracy. Currently, programming used on both sides of an interface is inconsistent. This makes it hard to find and fix errors. By using a common schema, both sides are forced to use the same structure by using the same framework and toolset. This makes for easy identification of problems, which leads to the ability to formulate a solution. The toolset contains constants that allow a programmer to use each register, and to access each field in the register. Once programming is complete, the translator is run as part of the make process, which ensures that whenever an interface is changed, all of the code that uses the header files describing it is recompiled.

  11. A comparison of two follow-up analyses after multiple analysis of variance, analysis of variance, and descriptive discriminant analysis: A case study of the program effects on education-abroad programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvin H. Yu; Garry. Chick

    2010-01-01

    This study compared the utility of two different post-hoc tests after detecting significant differences within factors on multiple dependent variables using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). We compared the univariate F test (the Scheffé method) to descriptive discriminant analysis (DDA) using an educational-tour survey of university study-...

  12. Building Program Models Incrementally from Informal Descriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-10-01

    AD-AOB6 50 STANFORD UNIV CA DEPT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE F/G 9/2 BUILDING PROGRAM MODELS INCREMENTALLY FROM INFORMAL DESCRIPTION--ETC(U) OCT 79 B P...port SCI.ICS.U.79.2 t Building Program Models Incrementally from Informal Descriptions by Brian P. McCune Research sponsored by Defense Advanced...TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Building Program Models Incrementally from Informal Descriptions. , technical, October 1979 6. PERFORMING ORG

  13. Towards Music Captioning: Generating Music Playlist Descriptions

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Keunwoo; Fazekas, George; McFee, Brian; Cho, Kyunghyun; Sandler, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Descriptions are often provided along with recommendations to help users' discovery. Recommending automatically generated music playlists (e.g. personalised playlists) introduces the problem of generating descriptions. In this paper, we propose a method for generating music playlist descriptions, which is called as music captioning. In the proposed method, audio content analysis and natural language processing are adopted to utilise the information of each track.

  14. Visual unit analysis: a descriptive approach to landscape assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. J. Tetlow; S. R. J. Sheppard

    1979-01-01

    Analysis of the visible attributes of landscapes is an important component of the planning process. When landscapes are at regional scale, economical and effective methodologies are critical. The Visual Unit concept appears to offer a logical and useful framework for description and evaluation. The concept subdivides landscape into coherent, spatially-defined units....

  15. Description of disintegration in a three-body system

    CERN Document Server

    Takibaev, N Z

    2000-01-01

    In the frame of approach based on the effective potential of interaction between constituents, description of inelastic transition, in particularly, the processes of system disintegration. Relationship is shown between the approach results and those of the theory of final state interaction where coefficients of reaction gaining factor are determined. (author)

  16. Global phenomenological descriptions of nuclear odd-even mass staggering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hove, Dennis; Jensen, Aksel Stenholm; Riisager, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    by the main nuclear shells, and a clear change in this dependency is found at Z=50 for both neutrons and protons. A further separation into odd and even neutron (proton) number produces very accurate local descriptions of the mass differences for each type of nucleons. These odd-even effects are combined...

  17. Logical Characterisation of Ontology Construction using Fuzzy Description Logics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badie, Farshad; Götzsche, Hans

    had the extension of ontologies with Fuzzy Logic capabilities which plan to make proper backgrounds for ontology driven reasoning and argumentation on vague and imprecise domains. This presentation conceptualises learning from fuzzy classes using the Inductive Logic Programming framework. Then......, employs Description Logics in characterising and analysing fuzzy statements. And finally, provides a conceptual framework describing fuzzy concept learning in ontologies using the Inductive Logic Programming.......Ontologies based on Description Logics (DLs) have proved to be effective in formally sharing knowledge across semantic technologies, e.g. Semantic Web, Natural Language Processing, Text Analytics, Business intelligence. Our main goal is analysing ontology construction considering vagueness. We have...

  18. A Full Hydro- and Morphodynamic Description of Breaker Bar Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Niels Gjøl

    as part of this work. The numerical model is applied onto several physical settings. Firstly, the morphological response is turned off, and the hydrodynamics and the sediment transport patterns in the surf zone are described. The description considers these processes as a function of several non......-dimensional variables, namely the surf similarity parameter, $\\zeta_0$, and Dean's parameter in various forms, $\\Omega$ and $\\Omega_{HK}$. This investigation has an emphasis on (i) the spatial and temporal lag-effects in the hydrodynamics, and between the hydrodynamics and the sediment transport and (ii) the integrated...... speed. This description is undertaken with and without a coupling to the morphology....

  19. LEXICAL CHOICES: THE DESCRIPTION OF WOMEN IN LITERARY DISCOURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elis de Almeida Cardoso Caretta

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to show, through the lexical choices made by an author, what aesthetic effect achieved in the description of women in literary discourse. For this, we take as example of descriptive passages important novels published in the nineteenth century, taking into consideration the significance and value of notional words selected, and the expressiveness of semantic networks, with the intention of verifying how the lexical choices featuring female characters, placing them in the context of the work and in your universe. From the analysis presented is intended to show that the works of renowned Brazilian literature can be worked in the classroom with linguistic approach.

  20. Task complexity moderates the influence of descriptions in decisions from experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss-Cohen, Leonardo; Konstantinidis, Emmanouil; Speekenbrink, Maarten; Harvey, Nigel

    2018-01-01

    Decisions-makers often have access to a combination of descriptive and experiential information, but limited research so far has explored decisions made using both. Three experiments explore the relationship between task complexity and the influence of descriptions. We show that in simple experience-based decision-making tasks, providing congruent descriptions has little influence on task performance in comparison to experience alone without descriptions, since learning via experience is relatively easy. In more complex tasks, which are slower and more demanding to learn experientially, descriptions have stronger influence and help participants identify their preferred choices. However, when the task gets too complex to be concisely described, the influence of descriptions is reduced hence showing a non-monotonic pattern of influence of descriptions according to task complexity. We also propose a cognitive model that incorporates descriptive information into the traditional reinforcement learning framework, with the impact of descriptions moderated by task complexity. This model fits the observed behavior better than previous models and replicates the observed non-monotonic relationship between impact of descriptions and task complexity. This research has implications for the development of effective warning labels that rely on simple descriptive information to trigger safer behavior in complex environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Scalable Multiple-Description Image Coding Based on Embedded Quantization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moerman Ingrid

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Scalable multiple-description (MD coding allows for fine-grain rate adaptation as well as robust coding of the input source. In this paper, we present a new approach for scalable MD coding of images, which couples the multiresolution nature of the wavelet transform with the robustness and scalability features provided by embedded multiple-description scalar quantization (EMDSQ. Two coding systems are proposed that rely on quadtree coding to compress the side descriptions produced by EMDSQ. The proposed systems are capable of dynamically adapting the bitrate to the available bandwidth while providing robustness to data losses. Experiments performed under different simulated network conditions demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed scalable MD approach for image streaming over error-prone channels.

  2. Scalable Multiple-Description Image Coding Based on Embedded Quantization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustin I. Gavrilescu

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Scalable multiple-description (MD coding allows for fine-grain rate adaptation as well as robust coding of the input source. In this paper, we present a new approach for scalable MD coding of images, which couples the multiresolution nature of the wavelet transform with the robustness and scalability features provided by embedded multiple-description scalar quantization (EMDSQ. Two coding systems are proposed that rely on quadtree coding to compress the side descriptions produced by EMDSQ. The proposed systems are capable of dynamically adapting the bitrate to the available bandwidth while providing robustness to data losses. Experiments performed under different simulated network conditions demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed scalable MD approach for image streaming over error-prone channels.

  3. User-oriented understanding of descriptive, proscriptive and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: description, dictionary function, empirical basis, exactly descriptive dictionary, exactly proscriptive dictionary, explicitly pre-scriptive dictionary, introspection, linguistic survey, not exactly de-scriptive dictionary, not exactly proscriptive dictionary, prescription, proscription, strongly descriptive dictionary, strongly ...

  4. 34 CFR 675.32 - Program description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Program description. 675.32 Section 675.32 Education..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL WORK-STUDY PROGRAMS Job Location and Development Program § 675.32 Program description. An institution may expend up to the lesser of $50,000 or 10 percent of its FWS allocation and...

  5. Descriptions and pressupositions: Strawson vs. Russel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Descriptions and pressupositions: Strawson vs. Russel. M Ramachandran. Abstract. A Russellian theory of (definite) descriptions takes an utterance of the form 'The F is G' to express a purely general proposition that affirms the existence of a (contextually) unique F: there is exactly one F [which is C] and it is G. Strawson, ...

  6. 40 CFR 145.23 - Program description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... description of and schedule for the State's program to ban Class IV wells prohibited under § 144.13; and (11) A description of and schedule for the State's program to establish an inventory of Class V wells and... water to contamination from Class V injection wells when developing their plan. Within the schedule for...

  7. Personnel Supervision: A Descriptive Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Vernon J.; Housego, Ian

    1980-01-01

    Presents a generalized model of personnel supervision that may assist in describing a given supervisory program, facilitating interorganizational comparison, guiding further study of supervision, developing an overall approach to supervision, and assessing the effectiveness of supervision programs. (Author/IRT)

  8. Audio Description as a Pedagogical Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Kleege

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Audio description is the process of translating visual information into words for people who are blind or have low vision. Typically such description has focused on films, museum exhibitions, images and video on the internet, and live theater. Because it allows people with visual impairments to experience a variety of cultural and educational texts that would otherwise be inaccessible, audio description is a mandated aspect of disability inclusion, although it remains markedly underdeveloped and underutilized in our classrooms and in society in general. Along with increasing awareness of disability, audio description pushes students to practice close reading of visual material, deepen their analysis, and engage in critical discussions around the methodology, standards and values, language, and role of interpretation in a variety of academic disciplines. We outline a few pedagogical interventions that can be customized to different contexts to develop students' writing and critical thinking skills through guided description of visual material.

  9. Comorbid psychopathology and everyday functioning in a brief intervention study to reduce khat use among Somalis living in Kenya: description of baseline multimorbidity, its effects of intervention and its moderation effects on substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmann, Marina; Apondi, Bernice; Musau, Abednego; Warsame, Abdulkadir Hussein; Isse, Maimuna; Mutiso, Victoria; Veltrup, Clemens; Ndetei, David; Odenwald, Michael

    2017-11-01

    Migration and khat use were found to correlate with high rates of psychopathology. In this paper we aimed for assessing baseline multimorbidity and its interactions with a Brief Intervention. In the RCT, 330 male Somali khat users were assigned to treatment conditions (khat use is a predominantly male habit). The ASSIST-linked BI for khat users was administered. Using the TLFB Calendar, the PHQ-9, a Somali short version of the PDS and parts from the CIDI, khat use and comorbidity was assessed. With a regression analysis we tested for the influence of comorbidity and with mixed effect models group differences over time in sleep duration, khat use-time and everyday functioning. We found high rates of baseline multimorbidity: 51% (N = 168) for depression, 22% (N = 74) for PTSD and 23% (N = 73) for khat-psychotic symptoms. Depression and khat-psychotic symptoms, but not PTSD symptoms decreased without group differences. Khat use-time decreased and functional time increased with significant time × group interactions (p ≤ 0.046). Depression and PTSD did not influence therapy success but in participants without comorbid psychopathology, more khat use reduction after the intervention was found (p = 0.024). Somali khat users in Kenya are highly burdened by multimorbidity of depression, PTSD and khat-psychotic symptoms. The main effects for time and differences in healthy vs. mentally ill khat users indicate potential of unspecific support and the specific need for mental health care in combination with substance abuse treatment. The increase of everyday functioning promises more options for alternative activities, preventing excessive use and addiction.

  10. Task descriptions versus use cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauesen, Søren; Kuhail, Mohammad Amin

    2011-01-01

    Use cases are widely used as a substantial part of requirements, also when little programming is expected (COTS-based systems, Commercial-Off-The-Shelf). Are use cases effective as requirements? To answer this question, we invited professionals and researchers to specify requirements for the same...

  11. Converting Taxonomic Descriptions to New Digital Formats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Cui

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract.--The majority of taxonomic descriptions is currently in print format. The majority of digital descriptions are in formats such as DOC, HTML, or PDF and for human readers. These formats do not convey rich semantics in taxonomic descriptions for computer-aided process. Newer digital formats such as XML and RDF accommodate semantic annotations that allow computers to process the rich semantics on human's behalf, thus open up opportunities for a wide range of innovative usages of taxonomic descriptions, such as searching in more precise and flexible ways, integrating with gnomic and geographic information, generating taxonomic keys automatically, and text data mining and information visualization etc. This paper discusses the challenges in automated conversion of multiple collections of descriptions to XML format and reports an automated system, MARTT. MARTT is a machine-learning system that makes use of training examples to tag new descriptions into XML format. A number of utilities are implemented as solutions to the challenges. The utilities are used to reduce the effort for training example preparation, to facilitate the creation of a comprehensive schema, and to predict system performance on a new collection of descriptions. The system has been tested with several plant and alga taxonomic publications including Flora of China and Flora of North America.

  12. Formalizing the Problem of Music Description

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturm, Bob L.; Bardeli, Rolf; Langlois, Thibault

    2015-01-01

    The lack of a formalism for “the problem of music descrip- tion” results in, among other things: ambiguity in what problem a music description system must address, how it should be evaluated, what criteria define its success, and the paradox that a music description system can reproduce the “ground...... truth” of a music dataset without attending to the music it contains. To address these issues, we formal- ize the problem of music description such that all elements of an instance of it are made explicit. This can thus inform the building of a system, and how it should be evaluated in a meaningful way...

  13. Information resource description creating and managing metadata

    CERN Document Server

    Hider, Philip

    2012-01-01

    An overview of the field of information organization that examines resource description as both a product and process of the contemporary digital environment.This timely book employs the unifying mechanism of the semantic web and the resource description framework to integrate the various traditions and practices of information and knowledge organization. Uniquely, it covers both the domain-specific traditions and practices and the practices of the ?metadata movement' through a single lens ? that of resource description in the broadest, semantic web sense.This approach more readily accommodate

  14. Crosswalking EAD: Collaboration in Archival Description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy McCrory

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Different library departments must work together, both formally and informally, in implementing encoded archival description and in repackaging descriptive information about archival collections to other formats, particularly machine-readable cataloging. The authors, one a technical services librarian and the other a special collections archivist, describe their experiences collaborating in these processes at The Ohio State University. Although other institutions may differ in their organizational structure, the authors hope to provide technical guidance, as well as a model of collaboration between archivists and technical services personnel. Careful dialogue and planning are essential to transcend the traditional divide between archival and library descriptive practices and systems.

  15. Description of the properties of magic nuclei in the quasiparticle Lagrangian approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapershtein, E.; Khodel' , V.A.

    1983-10-01

    The quasiparticle Lagrangian method is used to calculate the characteristics of magic nuclei. It is shown that allowance for the effects of the energy dependence of the effective internucleon interaction is important for the simultaneous description of the masses, radii, and single-particle spectra of nuclei. The proposed approach incorporates these effects in a natural way, and thus provides a better description of the entire set of phenomena than the Hartree--Fock method with effective forces.

  16. Colony Collapse Disorder: A Descriptive Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    vanEngelsdorp, Dennis; Evans, Jay D.; Saegerman, Claude; Mullin, Chris; Haubruge, Eric; Nguyen, Bach Kim; Frazier, Maryann; Frazier, Jim; Cox-Foster, Diana; Chen, Yanping; Underwood, Robyn; Tarpy, David R.; Pettis, Jeffery S.

    2009-01-01

    Background Over the last two winters, there have been large-scale, unexplained losses of managed honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies in the United States. In the absence of a known cause, this syndrome was named Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) because the main trait was a rapid loss of adult worker bees. We initiated a descriptive epizootiological study in order to better characterize CCD and compare risk factor exposure between populations afflicted by and not afflicted by CCD. Methods and Principal Findings Of 61 quantified variables (including adult bee physiology, pathogen loads, and pesticide levels), no single measure emerged as a most-likely cause of CCD. Bees in CCD colonies had higher pathogen loads and were co-infected with a greater number of pathogens than control populations, suggesting either an increased exposure to pathogens or a reduced resistance of bees toward pathogens. Levels of the synthetic acaricide coumaphos (used by beekeepers to control the parasitic mite Varroa destructor) were higher in control colonies than CCD-affected colonies. Conclusions/Significance This is the first comprehensive survey of CCD-affected bee populations that suggests CCD involves an interaction between pathogens and other stress factors. We present evidence that this condition is contagious or the result of exposure to a common risk factor. Potentially important areas for future hypothesis-driven research, including the possible legacy effect of mite parasitism and the role of honey bee resistance to pesticides, are highlighted. PMID:19649264

  17. Colony collapse disorder: a descriptive study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Vanengelsdorp

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Over the last two winters, there have been large-scale, unexplained losses of managed honey bee (Apis mellifera L. colonies in the United States. In the absence of a known cause, this syndrome was named Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD because the main trait was a rapid loss of adult worker bees. We initiated a descriptive epizootiological study in order to better characterize CCD and compare risk factor exposure between populations afflicted by and not afflicted by CCD. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Of 61 quantified variables (including adult bee physiology, pathogen loads, and pesticide levels, no single measure emerged as a most-likely cause of CCD. Bees in CCD colonies had higher pathogen loads and were co-infected with a greater number of pathogens than control populations, suggesting either an increased exposure to pathogens or a reduced resistance of bees toward pathogens. Levels of the synthetic acaricide coumaphos (used by beekeepers to control the parasitic mite Varroa destructor were higher in control colonies than CCD-affected colonies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first comprehensive survey of CCD-affected bee populations that suggests CCD involves an interaction between pathogens and other stress factors. We present evidence that this condition is contagious or the result of exposure to a common risk factor. Potentially important areas for future hypothesis-driven research, including the possible legacy effect of mite parasitism and the role of honey bee resistance to pesticides, are highlighted.

  18. Hot Spot Removal System: System description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    Hazardous wastes contaminated with radionuclides, chemicals, and explosives exist across the Department of Energy complex and need to be remediated due to environmental concerns. Currently, an opportunity is being developed to dramatically reduce remediation costs and to assist in the acceleration of schedules associated with these wastes by deploying a Hot Spot Removal System. Removing the hot spot from the waste site will remove risk driver(s) and enable another, more cost effective process/option/remedial alternative (i.e., capping) to be applied to the remainder of the site. The Hot Spot Removal System consists of a suite of technologies that will be utilized to locate and remove source terms. Components of the system can also be used in a variety of other cleanup activities. This Hot Spot Removal System Description document presents technologies that were considered for possible inclusion in the Hot Spot Removal System, technologies made available to the Hot Spot Removal System, industrial interest in the Hot Spot Removal System`s subsystems, the schedule required for the Hot Spot Removal System, the evaluation of the relevant technologies, and the recommendations for equipment and technologies as stated in the Plan section.

  19. Space Telescope Systems Description Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of the Space Telescope Project is to orbit a high quality optical 2.4-meter telescope system by the Space Shuttle for use by the astronomical community in conjunction with NASA. The scientific objectives of the Space Telescope are to determine the constitution, physical characteristics, and dynamics of celestial bodies; the nature of processes which occur in the extreme physical conditions existing in stellar objects; the history and evolution of the universe; and whether the laws of nature are universal in the space-time continuum. Like ground-based telescopes, the Space Telescope was designed as a general-purpose instrument, capable of utilizing a wide variety of scientific instruments at its focal plane. This multi-purpose characteristic will allow the Space Telescope to be effectively used as a national facility, capable of supporting the astronomical needs for an international user community and hence making contributions to man's needs. By using the Space Shuttle to provide scientific instrument upgrading and subsystems maintenance, the useful and effective operational lifetime of the Space Telescope will be extended to a decade or more.

  20. Scripps Sediment Description File- OCSEAP Portion

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Scripps Institution of Oceanography compiled descriptions of sediment samples in the Alaskan Outer Continental Shelf area, funded through the NOAA Outer...

  1. Description of Sizewell B nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, G.; Stokke, E. [Inst. for Energiteknikk, Halden (Norway)

    1997-09-01

    The intention of this report is to present a condensed technical description of Sizewell B in a language understandable to non-technical personnel. It is unavoidable that some parts will be less precise than the technically initiated would like to see, but hopefully the content still give a realistic picture of Sizewell B. The technical description is based on publicly available material, of which the Sizewell B safety report has been particularly useful. Nearly all figures and drawings found in this description are reproductions of corresponding material in the safety report. To keep the description from becoming too voluminous it has been necessary to condense some background material down to a small volume. Hopefully this has not introduced any errors or inaccuracies, possible oversimplification at certain points must be weighed against the wish to cover most of the topics in the agreed table of contents for these NKS reports. (au).

  2. An Application for Descriptive Nearness: Iris Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polat Kadirhan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Near Set Theory has various applications in the literature. In this paper, using the concept descriptive nearness, we show how to perform iris recognition. This process has a few algorithms given via Mathematica Script Language.

  3. The Year's Work in Descriptive Cataloging, 1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, Gunnar

    1993-01-01

    Examines the descriptive cataloging literature of 1992. Topics discussed include cataloging simplification and improved practices; artificial intelligence and expert systems; Anglo-American Cataloging Rules, MARC format, and cataloging standards; authority control and bibliographic maintenance; retrospective conversion; romanization and…

  4. Colony Collapse Disorder: A Descriptive Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    vanEngelsdorp, Dennis; Evans, Jay D; Saegerman, Claude; Mullin, Chris; Haubruge, Eric; Nguyen, Bach Kim; Frazier, Maryann; Frazier, Jim; Cox-Foster, Diana; Chen, Yanping; Underwood, Robyn; Tarpy, David R; Pettis, Jeffery S; Brown, Justin

    2009-01-01

    ...) because the main trait was a rapid loss of adult worker bees. We initiated a descriptive epizootiological study in order to better characterize CCD and compare risk factor exposure between populations afflicted by and not afflicted by CCD...

  5. SIO Ferromanganese Nodule Description file - IDOE Portion

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Scripps Institution of Oceanography compiled descriptions of sediment samples related to ferromanganese deposits, funded through the International Decade of...

  6. 7 CFR 52.1001 - Product description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Dates Product Description, Styles, and... dactylifera) which may or may not be softened by hydration. For the purposes of the standards in this subpart... softened by hydration. ...

  7. CODE: Description Language for Wireless Collaborating Objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marin Perianu, Raluca; Scholten, Johan; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces CODE, a Description Language for Wireless Collaborating Objects (WCO), with the specific aim of enabling service management in smart environments. WCO extend the traditional model of wireless sensor networks by transferring additional intelligence and responsibility from the

  8. Mining skeletal phenotype descriptions from scientific literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudor Groza

    Full Text Available Phenotype descriptions are important for our understanding of genetics, as they enable the computation and analysis of a varied range of issues related to the genetic and developmental bases of correlated characters. The literature contains a wealth of such phenotype descriptions, usually reported as free-text entries, similar to typical clinical summaries. In this paper, we focus on creating and making available an annotated corpus of skeletal phenotype descriptions. In addition, we present and evaluate a hybrid Machine Learning approach for mining phenotype descriptions from free text. Our hybrid approach uses an ensemble of four classifiers and experiments with several aggregation techniques. The best scoring technique achieves an F-1 score of 71.52%, which is close to the state-of-the-art in other domains, where training data exists in abundance. Finally, we discuss the influence of the features chosen for the model on the overall performance of the method.

  9. Reachability modules for the description logic SRIQ

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nortje, R

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available -1 Logic for Programming, Artificial Intelligence, and Reasoning (LPAR) 19 Conference, 14-19 December 2013, Stellenbosch, South Africa Reachability modules for the Description Logic SRIQ Riku Nortje, Katarina Britz, and Thomas Meyer Center...

  10. Description of aromaticity in porphyrinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Judy I; Fernández, Israel; Schleyer, Paul v R

    2013-01-09

    Like the larger nonplanar Möbius rings, porphyrinoid aromaticity is not due primarily to the macrocyclic π conjugation of the corresponding annulene perimeters. The block-localized wave function (BLW)-derived aromatic stabilization energies (ASE) of several porphyrinoids reveal that, on a per atom basis, the appended 6π electron heterocycles of porphyrinoids confer aromaticity much more effectively than the macrocyclic 4n+2 π electron conjugations. There is no direct relationship between thermochemical stability of porphyrinoids and their macrocyclic 4n or 4n+2 π electron counts. Porphyrinoids having an "antiaromatic" macrocyclic 4n+2 π electron conjugation pathway (e.g., 4) as well as those having no macrocyclic conjugation (e.g., 9) can be stabilized by aromaticity. Computed nucleus independent chemical shifts (NICS) and the anisotropy of the induced current density (ACID) disclose the intricate local versus macrocyclic circulation interplay for several porphyrinoids.

  11. Nuclear Employment Planning. Volume 2. Functional Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    Materials. PROCESS DESCRIPTION: To specify the nuclear employment planning nodes at which communications security and encryption devices are needed...FSCOORD, Commander. 1.3.2.1.2 Encrypt Signal. PROCESS DESCRIPTION: To encrypt the audio or digital signal by which information is to be transferred...locations; Projected enemy locations; Aimpoint selection procedures; Terrain and wep "ier analysis. OUTPUTS: Unit(s) to fire; Weapons to be employed

  12. A Descriptive Study on the Military Leadership

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammed Kürşad Özlen; Anes Zukic

    2013-01-01

    This study provides more complete deliberation of the current practices of leadership in the surveyed Armed Forces. This study aims to descriptively identify the degree of motivating military leadership, military environment, characteristics of military leaders and military leadership benefits in the selected army. The research method conducted was based on survey of 200 respondents in Armed Forces of Bosnia and Herzegovina and descriptive analyses of the survey data. According to the results...

  13. Moral Judgments as Descriptions of Institutional Facts

    OpenAIRE

    Ferber, Rafael

    1994-01-01

    It deals with the question of what a moral judgment is. On the one hand, a satisfactory theory of moral judgments must take into account the descriptive character of moral judgments and the realistic language of morals. On the other hand, it must also meet the non-descriptive character of moral judgments that consists in the recommending or condemning element and in the fact that normative statements are derived from moral judgments. However, cognitivism and emotivism or “normativism” are...

  14. Generating descriptive statistics from the MXFLS

    OpenAIRE

    Alicia Santana Cartas

    2010-01-01

    In this presentation, I aim to show how to produce informative descriptive statistics from a longitudinal survey using the Mexican Family Life Survey (MXFLS) as an example. I will introduce the audience to the MXFLS and discuss its main innovative features, such as the sample design, the attitudes toward the risk module, and the migration module (including the monitoring and rate of recontact). Then I will show how to tabulate the data in an informative way and how to produce descriptive stat...

  15. Description of Measurements on Biogas Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Novosád

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses mainly on performance analysis for three biogas stations situated within the territory of the Czech Republic. This paper contains basic details of the individual biogas stations as well as description of their types. It also refers to the general description of the measurement gauge involved, with specifications of its potential use. The final part of this paper deals with the analysis of course data obtained, with special regard to voltage, current, active power and reactive power data.

  16. Parameter Description Language Version 1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwolf, Carlo Maria; Harrison, Paul; Garrido, Julian; Ruiz, Jose Enrique; Le Petit, Franck; Zwolf, Carlo Maria

    2014-05-01

    This document discusses the definition of the Parameter Description Language (PDL). In this language parameters are described in a rigorous data model. With no loss of generality, we will represent this data model using XML. It intends to be a expressive language for self-descriptive web services exposing the semantic nature of input and output parameters, as well as all necessary complex constraints. PDL is a step forward towards true web services interoperability.

  17. Server Interface Descriptions for Automated Testing of JavaScript Web Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Casper Svenning; Møller, Anders; Su, Zhendong

    2013-01-01

    server interface descriptions are useful in automated testing of JavaScript web applications for separating the concerns of the client and the server. Second, to support the construction of server interface descriptions for existing applications, we introduce an effective inference technique that learns...

  18. 76 FR 56658 - Video Description Implementation of the Twenty-First Century Communications and Video...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 73 and 79 Video Description Implementation of the Twenty-First Century Communications and Video Accessibility Act of 2010 Action: Final rules; announcement of effective date. SUMMARY: In... issues relating to the video description rules. The final information collection requirements were...

  19. Qualitative Descriptive Methods in Health Science Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorafi, Karen Jiggins; Evans, Bronwynne

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this methodology paper is to describe an approach to qualitative design known as qualitative descriptive that is well suited to junior health sciences researchers because it can be used with a variety of theoretical approaches, sampling techniques, and data collection strategies. It is often difficult for junior qualitative researchers to pull together the tools and resources they need to embark on a high-quality qualitative research study and to manage the volumes of data they collect during qualitative studies. This paper seeks to pull together much needed resources and provide an overview of methods. A step-by-step guide to planning a qualitative descriptive study and analyzing the data is provided, utilizing exemplars from the authors' research. This paper presents steps to conducting a qualitative descriptive study under the following headings: describing the qualitative descriptive approach, designing a qualitative descriptive study, steps to data analysis, and ensuring rigor of findings. The qualitative descriptive approach results in a summary in everyday, factual language that facilitates understanding of a selected phenomenon across disciplines of health science researchers. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Shifting sands - from descriptions to solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, R; Pettman, T L; Waters, E

    2014-06-01

    Public health practitioners and policymakers value research evidence as one of many resources to use in evidence-informed decision making (EIDM) for public health. However, both researchers and decision-makers have described persistent barriers and facilitators involved in using research evidence for public health practice and policy. This is likely to affect the extent to which research evidence is influential or useful in decisions. Numerous taxonomies, typologies and frameworks are available to guide action in EIDM, but their application in practice is relatively unknown. The Public Health Evidence group based in Australia, which incorporates The Cochrane Collaboration's Public Health Review Group, have adapted a number of conceptualizations of research use and types of evidence into a practical typology that defines and illustrates three main types of evidence used in evidence-informed public health: data (Type 1), intervention effectiveness (Type 2) and implementation evidence (Type 3). The authors have actively used this typology within our primary research, evidence synthesis, workforce development and stakeholder engagement strategies, which has enabled practical application of these concepts. To test the relevance of the typology in practice, relevant findings from our applied research and evaluation (including two exploratory studies of evidence use in decision-making and evaluations of the use and impact of systematic reviews among end-users) were triangulated. The typology has been useful in stakeholder interactions when defining evidence, and identifying processes for EIDM. There was a preference for defining evidence as descriptive evidence (data) rather than impact evidence and implementation evidence. Practitioners were confident and competent at generating and using data and community views descriptively for priority setting (describing the problem). However, finding and using impact and implementation evidence appropriate for strategy development

  1. Description of a multimode gamma spectrometer; Description d'un spectrometre gamma multimode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chardine, J.; Haouat, G.; Humeau, C.; Lachkar, J.; Sigaud, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes; Roquefort, H. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    A 'multimode' gamma spectrometer known as the 'SGMM 10' has been studied and built. It can detect photons by one of three different modes: total absorption, photoelectric and anti-Compton effect, or the pair effect. These results are recorded in such a way that the experimenter can interpret the measurements according to the mode which is the best adapted to the energy of the photons under study. The instrument is made up of a central detector, a Ge(Li) semi-conductor with its cryostat, and an annular crystal, a large volume NaI(Tl) scintillator consisting of four optically isolated sectors. The energy and time data produced by these detectors are processed by an electronic unit. The document entitled 'description of a multi-mode gamma spectrometer' gives an overall description of the SGMM 10 type device and its mode of operation; it also details the laboratory results obtained with this apparatus. (authors) [French] Il a ete etudie et realise un spectrometre gamma 'multimode', designe sous le sigle 'SGMM 10' qui permet la detection des photons suivant l'un des trois modes: absorption totale, effet photoelectrique et anti-Compton, ou effet de paires. L'enregistrement des resultats est concu de facon que l'utilisateur puisse indifferemment interpreter les donnees experimentales suivant le mode le mieux adapte a l'energie des photons. Il se compose d'un detecteur central, semiconducteur Ge(Li) avec son cryostat, et d'un cristal annulaire, scintillateur INa(Tl) de gros volume, forme de quatre secteurs optiquement isoles. Les informations en energie et en temps provenant de ces detecteurs sont traitees par un ensemble electronique. Le document 'description d'un spectrometre gamma multimode' decrit l'ensemble du dispositif type SGMM 10, son mode de fonctionnement, et precise les resultats des essais en laboratoire. (auteurs)

  2. Graphic Description: The Mystery of Ibn Khafaja\\'s Success in Description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    جواد رنجبر

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Graphic Description:   The Mystery of Ibn Khafaja's Success in Description    Ali Bagher Taheriniya *  Javad Ranjbar **      Abstract Ibn Khafaja is one of the poets and men of letters in Spain. He is titled to Sanobari of Spain. He is one of the masters of description. Hence, the analysis of successful techniques he has used in the descriptive art could illuminate the way for others. Al-Taswir al-harfi (graphic description is a term which denotes the highest and most detailed poems. On this basis, the best descriptive poem is one which is closer to a painting. He has used some elements called conforming elements of description which contain: imagination, feeling, faculty, and dialogue as well as three other elements: to be inborn in description, enchanting nature and convenient life. This article is going to give an analysis of the reasons for Ibn Khafaja’s success in description and portrait making.   Key words: Ibn Khafaja, poetry, description, portrait   * Associate Professor, Bu Ali Sina University of Hamadan E-mail: bTaheriniya@yahoo.com  ** M.A. in Arabic Language and Literature

  3. Classical description of the Zitterbewegung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzuti, Bruno Ferreira; Alves, Pericles Vale [UFAM, Manaus, AM (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: Two years after Dirac published his original paper underlying the quantum theory of the electron, Schroedinger analyzed the time evolution for the position operators rising from the Dirac equation. Strange enough, he found besides the rectilinear movement with constant velocity, an oscillatory one, denoted by Zitterbewegung, which means trembling motion. It was faced as a problem once we expect no acceleration for the Dirac electron: it was supposed to describe a free particle. Analogous systems that are described by a Dirac-type equation and simulate Zitterbewegung are under intensive study in different physical set-ups, including graphene, trapped ions, photonic lattices and ultracold atoms. In this work, we present a semiclassical Hamiltonian model that produce both Dirac equation and gamma-matrices in the course of canonical quantization. Our main objective is to discuss the classical counterpart of the model. We obtain the general solution to the classical equations of motion and enumerate similarities between our analogous model of the Dirac equation and the two-body system subject to confining potential which admits elliptic orbits of the order of de Broglie wave-length. We exhibit coordinates similar to those of the center-of-mass and the relative position of a two-body system subjected to a central field. The Dirac equation dictates the perpendicularity of the elliptic orbits to the direction of center of- mass motion. Classical analysis of the model may be interesting for example, for describing spin effects even before quantization. (author)

  4. Description of magic nuclei properties in quasi-particle Lagrangian approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapershtejn, Eh.E.; Khodel' , V.A.

    1983-10-01

    The quasi-particle Lagrangian method is applied to calculate characteristics of magic nuclei. It is shown that an account for the energy dependence of the effective nucleon interaction is essential for a simultaneous description of masses and radii of atomic nuclei and their single-particle spectra. The approach presented here incorporates the effects of the energy dependence naturally so one gets a better description of the totality of phenomena, than that provided by the Hartree-Fock method with effective forces.

  5. Use of sugammadex on burn patients: descriptive study

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Sánchez M., Eduardo; Martínez Torres, Concepción; Herrera Calo, Pablo; Jiménez, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: A burn patient is a challenge for any anesthesiologist, undergoing several surgeries during admission, and requiring general anesthesia and muscle relaxation most of the times. The victim may have respiratory system impairment and a response to muscle relaxants that differs from the healthy patient, thus proper monitoring and reversal is crucial. We analyzed sugammadex effectiveness and safety in this population.MATERIALS AND METHODS: It was a prospectively descriptive study, incl...

  6. A room with a viewpoint revisited: descriptive norms and hotel guests' towel reuse behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohner, Gerd; Schlüter, Lena E

    2014-01-01

    Field experiments on descriptive norms as a means to increase hotel guests' towel reuse [1] were replicated and extended. In two hotels in Germany (Study 1: N = 724; Study 2: N = 204), descriptive norm messages suggesting that 75% of guests had reused their towels, or a standard message appealing to environmental concerns, were placed in guests' bathrooms. Descriptive norm messages varied in terms of proximity of the reference group ("hotel guests" vs. "guests in this room") and temporal proximity (currently vs. two years previous). Reuse of towels was unobtrusively recorded. Results showed that reuse rates were high overall and that both standard and descriptive norm messages increased reuse rates compared to a no-message baseline. However, descriptive norm messages were not more effective than the standard message, and effects of proximity were inconsistent across studies. Discussion addresses cultural and conceptual issues in comparing the present findings with previous ones.

  7. Math Description Engine Software Development Kit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Robert O.; Smith, Stephanie L.; Dexter, Dan E.; Hodgson, Terry R.

    2010-01-01

    The Math Description Engine Software Development Kit (MDE SDK) can be used by software developers to make computer-rendered graphs more accessible to blind and visually-impaired users. The MDE SDK generates alternative graph descriptions in two forms: textual descriptions and non-verbal sound renderings, or sonification. It also enables display of an animated trace of a graph sonification on a visual graph component, with color and line-thickness options for users having low vision or color-related impairments. A set of accessible graphical user interface widgets is provided for operation by end users and for control of accessible graph displays. Version 1.0 of the MDE SDK generates text descriptions for 2D graphs commonly seen in math and science curriculum (and practice). The mathematically rich text descriptions can also serve as a virtual math and science assistant for blind and sighted users, making graphs more accessible for everyone. The MDE SDK has a simple application programming interface (API) that makes it easy for programmers and Web-site developers to make graphs accessible with just a few lines of code. The source code is written in Java for cross-platform compatibility and to take advantage of Java s built-in support for building accessible software application interfaces. Compiled-library and NASA Open Source versions are available with API documentation and Programmer s Guide at http:/ / prim e.jsc.n asa. gov.

  8. [Descriptive study on basal cell eyelid carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, M J; Pfeiffer, N; Valor, C

    2015-09-01

    To describe a series of cases of basal cell carcinomas of the eyelid. A descriptive and retrospective study was conducted by reviewing the medical outcome, histopathological history, and photographic images of 200 patients with basal cell eyelid carcinomas. All were treated in the Herzog Carl Theodor Eye Hospital in Munich, Germany, between 2000 and 2013. In the present study, it was found that females are more affected than males. The mean age of presentation of the tumor occurred at the age of 70 years. In 50% of the cases the tumor was found on the lower lid, especially medially from the center of the lid. The lid margin was involved in 47% of all tumors. The mean diameter was 9.2mm. The recurrence rate after surgery with histologically clear resection margins was 5%. There was a significant relationship between tumor diameter and age. As tumors where located farther away from medial and closer to the lid margin, they became larger. There is a predominance of women affected by this tumor. This may be related to the fact that the sample was taken from those attending an oculoplastic surgery clinic, where there are generally more women than men attending. The formation of basal cell carcinomas increases with age. The infrequent involvement of the upper lid could be explained by the protection of the the eyebrow. The frequent involvement of the lower lid may be due to the light reflection (total reflection) by the cornea on the lower lid margin. Also chemical and physical effects of the tears may be more harmful on the lower lid. Patients tend to ask for medical help when they are females, younger, when the tumor is closer to the medial canthus or when the tumor is away from the lid margin. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. SURFACE INDUSTRIAL HVAC SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.M. Ansari

    2005-04-05

    The purpose of this system description document (SDD) is to establish requirements that drive the design of the surface industrial heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system and its bases to allow the design effort to proceed to license application. This SDD will be revised at strategic points as the design matures. This SDD identifies the requirements and describes the system design, as it currently exists, with emphasis on attributes of the design provided to meet the requirements. This SDD is an engineering tool for design control; accordingly, the primary audience and users are design engineers. This SDD is part of an iterative design process. It leads the design process with regard to the flowdown of upper tier requirements onto the system. Knowledge of these requirements is essential to performing the design process. The SDD follows the design with regard to the description of the system. The description that provided in this SDD reflects the current results of the design process.

  10. A Domain Description Language for Data Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Keith

    2003-01-01

    We discuss an application of planning to data processing, a planning problem which poses unique challenges for domain description languages. We discuss these challenges and why the current PDDL standard does not meet them. We discuss DPADL (Data Processing Action Description Language), a language for describing planning domains that involve data processing. DPADL is a declarative, object-oriented language that supports constraints and embedded Java code, object creation and copying, explicit inputs and outputs for actions, and metadata descriptions of existing and desired data. DPADL is supported by the IMAGEbot system, which we are using to provide automation for an ecological forecasting application. We compare DPADL to PDDL and discuss changes that could be made to PDDL to make it more suitable for representing planning domains that involve data processing actions.

  11. Automated digital mapping of geological colour descriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Chris

    2002-12-01

    Sediment colour data are delivered by geologists as Munsell codes (Rock Color Chart) and linguistic descriptions. Using new software suitable for very large data sets, the two types can be brought into conformance and mapped together digitally. The native codes are extracted. For linguistic descriptions chromatic terms are identified with Munsell codes, then mixed in a temporary transform of psychometrically linear CIE colour space. Adjustments are made for dark/light and pale/strong modifiers. The output Munsell codes are statistically validated and mapped using special GIS legends to render them in true colour. The output displays provide a new view of marine sediment facies, comparable to remotely sensed colour imagery.

  12. Description of the RDCDS Meteorological Component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pekour, Mikhail S.; Berg, Larry K.

    2007-10-01

    This report provides a detailed description of the Rapidly Deployable Chemical Defense System (RDCDS) Meteorological Component. The Meteorological Component includes four surface meteorological stations, miniSODAR, laptop computers, and communications equipment. This report describes the equipment that is used, explains the operation of the network, and gives instructions for setting up the Component and replacing defective parts. A detailed description of operation and use of the individual sensors, including the data loggers is not covered in the current document, and the interested reader should refer to the manufacturer’s documentation.

  13. Qualitative Description of Spatial Quality in Inclusive Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryhl, Camilla; Kajita, Masashi; Sørensen, René

    2016-01-01

    Universal design (UD) has gained global significance and is in the process of institutionalisation in the Nordic Region. This is despite an urgent necessity for developing the theoretical basis and practical applicability of UD. Reflecting this need for furthering the comprehensive understanding of spatial implication of UD, this paper aims to contribute for articulating a means to assess the quality of UD in architecture. Drawing upon numerous cases from research conducted at the Danish Building Research Institute, the paper focuses on sensory aspects of spatial quality, and discusses as well as reflects an applied method for producing the qualitative description of selected buildings that embody UD through creative solutions. The qualitative description of collected examples appears to be effective in delineating sensory aspects of spatial experience; however the systematic development of assessment criteria is essential in order to support students and designers to make responsible decisions in shaping built environments that are accessible and inclusive but also enjoyable.

  14. Qualitative Description of Spatial Quality in Inclusive Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryhl, Camilla; Kajita, Masashi; Sørensen, Rene

    2016-01-01

    Universal design (UD) has gained global significance and is in the process of institutionalisation in the Nordic Region. This is despite an urgent necessity for developing the theoretical basis and practical applicability of UD. Reflecting this need for furthering the comprehensive understanding...... of spatial implication of UD, this paper aims to contribute for articulating a means to assess the quality of UD in architecture. Drawing upon numerous cases from research conducted at the Danish Building Research Institute, the paper focuses on sensory aspects of spatial quality, and discusses as well...... as reflects an applied method for producing the qualitative description of selected buildings that embody UD through creative solutions. The qualitative description of collected examples appears to be effective in delineating sensory aspects of spatial experience; however the systematic development...

  15. Multilevel model of polycrystalline materials: grain boundary sliding description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifullina, E.; Shveykin, A.; Trusov, P.

    2017-12-01

    Material behavior description in a wide range of thermomechanical effects is one of the topical areas in mathematical modeling. Inclusion of grain boundary sliding as an important mechanism of polycrystalline material deformation at elevated temperatures and predominant deformation mechanism of metals and alloys in structural superplasticity allows to simulate various deformation regimes and their transitions (including superplasticity regime with switch-on and switch-off regimes). The paper is devoted to description of grain boundary sliding in structure of two-level model, based on crystal plasticity, and relations for determination the contribution of this mechanism to inelastic deformation. Some results are presented concerning computational experiments of polycrystalline representative volume deformation using developed model.

  16. Description of surface systems. Preliminary site description Simpevarp sub area - Version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindborg, Tobias (ed.)

    2005-03-01

    Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co is currently conducting site characterisation in the Simpevarp area. The area is divided into two subareas, the Simpevarp and the Laxemar subarea. The two subareas are surrounded by a common regional model area, the Simpevarp area. This report describes both the regional area and the subareas. This report is an interim version (model version 1.2) of the description of the surface systems at the Simpevarp area, and should be seen as a background report to the site description of the Simpevarp area, version 1.2, SKB-R--05-08. The basis for this description is quality-assured field data available in the SKB SICADA and GIS databases, together with generic data from the literature. The Surface system, here defined as everything above the bedrock, comprises a number of separate disciplines (e.g. hydrology, geology, topography, oceanography and ecology). Each discipline has developed descriptions and models for a number of properties that together represent the site description. The current methodology for developing the surface system description and the integration to ecosystem models is documented in a methodology strategy report SKB-R--03-06. The procedures and guidelines given in that report were followed in this report. Compared with version 1.1 of the surface system description SKB-R--04-25, this report presents considerable additional features, especially in the ecosystem description (Chapter 4) and in the description of the surface hydrology (Section 3.4). A first attempt has also been made to connect the flow of matter (carbon) between the different ecosystems into an overall ecosystem model at a landscape level. A summarised version of this report is also presented in SKB-R--05-08 together with geological-, hydrogeological-, transport properties-, thermal properties-, rock mechanics- and hydrogeochemical descriptions.

  17. Descriptive data of JENDL-3.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, Keiichi (ed.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2003-01-01

    The third revision of JENDL-3 (JENDL-3.3) was released in 2002. The library contains evaluated neutron nuclear data for 337 nuclides. This report presents a brief description of the evaluation method which is given in the MF1 part of JENDL-3.3. (author)

  18. Description of the Wetlands Research Programme

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Walmsley, RD

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents a rationale to the development of a multidisciplinary South African Wetland Research Programme. A definition of what is meant by the term wetland is given along with a general description of what types of wetland occur in South...

  19. Descriptive data of JENDL-3.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, Keiichi; Narita, Tsutomu [eds.] [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-02-01

    The second revision of JENDL-3 (JENDL-3.2) was released in 1994. The library contains evaluated neutron nuclear data for 340 nuclides which are needed for the design of fission and fusion reactors and for shielding calculation. This report presents a brief description of the evaluation method which is given in the File-1 part of JENDL-3.2. (author)

  20. Chiikuhane/Chisubiya ideophones: A descriptive study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is a taxonomic and descriptive study of Chiikuhane (Chisubiya) ideophones. It demonstrates that just like many other Bantu languages, Chiikuhane has a list of ideophones which, phonologically, fall into three categories: monosyllabic, disyllabic and the reduplicated forms. Their tonal patterns vary as they are all ...

  1. 42 CFR 84.1130 - Respirators; description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Respirators; description. 84.1130 Section 84.1130 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist...

  2. Atom–surface diffraction: a trajectory description

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guantes, R; Sanz, A.S; Margalef-Roig, J; Miret-Artés, S

    2004-01-01

    ... with the electron diffraction experiments performed by Davisson and Germer [3] ), paving the way for the new description of matter. However, putting aside their conceptual implications, diffraction experiments have been widely used with practical purposes. Nowadays low energy He-atom diffraction from surfaces has become a well established and valuabl...

  3. A DESCRIPTIVE INDONESIAN GRAMMAR--PRELIMINARY EDITION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DYEN, ISIDORE

    THIS PRELIMINARY EDITION COMPRISES A DESCRIPTIVE GRAMMAR OF INDONESIAN (BAHASA INDONESIA), THE OFFICIAL LANGUAGE OF THE REPUBLIC OF INDONESIA. THE THREE SECTIONS--PHONOLOGY, SYNTAX, AND MORPHOLOGY--PRESENT A COMPREHENSIVE LINGUISTIC ANALYSIS OF INDONESIAN, WITH OCCASIONAL CONTRASTIVE REFERENCE TO MALAY, JAVANESE, SUNDANESE, AND SUMATRAN. THIS…

  4. Descriptive and Functional Classifications of Drug Abusers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlin, Albert S.; Stauss, Fred F.

    1977-01-01

    Polydrug (non-opiate-drug) abusers have previously been classified by a variety of typologies that can be characterized as either descriptive, functional, or a combination of both. This investigation proposes two objective scoring systems that classify polydrug users on a streetwise/straight dimension and on a self-medication/recreational-use…

  5. 7 CFR 295.2 - Organizational description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Organizational description. 295.2 Section 295.2... AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION AND RECORDS TO THE PUBLIC § 295.2 Organizational... of FNS headquarters and field organizational units and their functions. ...

  6. A logical interface description language for components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Arbab (Farhad); M.M. Bonsangue (Marcello); F.S. de Boer (Frank)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractMotivated by our earlier work on the IWIM model and the Manifold language, in this paper, we attend to some of the basic issues in component-based software. We present a formal model for such systems, a formal-logic-based component interface description language that

  7. MPEG DASH SRD : Spatial Relationship Description

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niamut, O.A.; Thomas, E.D.R.; D'Acunto, L.; Concolato, C.; Denoual, F.; Yong Lim, S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the Spatial Representation Description (SRD)feature of the second amendment of MPEG DASH standard part 1, 23009-1:2014 [1]. SRD is an approach for streaming only spatial sub-parts of a video to display devices, in combination with the form of adaptive multi-rate streaming that is

  8. Description of Euler bricks using Fibonacci's identity

    OpenAIRE

    Safin, Boris

    2013-01-01

    We show how the Fibonacci's identity is used to obtain Euler bricks. Also,we put forward the relation between Fibonacci's identity and Euler's formula, which provides the description of Euler's bricks with noninteger spatial diagonal. Finally,we establish a relation between the Euler bricks with integer and noninteger spatial diagonals.

  9. 15 CFR 291.1 - Program description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PARTNERSHIP; ENVIRONMENTAL PROJECTS § 291.1 Program description. (a) In accordance with the provisions of the... production; chemical, biotechnology, and other materials processing; electronic component and system... projects through workshops. The time and place of the workshop(s) will be contained in a Commerce Business...

  10. California's forest products industry: a descriptive analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd A. Morgan; Charles E. Keegan; Thale Dillon; Alfred L. Chase; Jeremy S. Fried; Marc N. Weber

    2004-01-01

    This report traces the flow of California’s 2000 timber harvest through the wood-using industries; provides a description of the structure, operations, and condition of California’s primary forest products industry; and briefly summarizes timber inventory and growth. Historical wood products industry changes are discussed, as well as trends in harvest, production, and...

  11. Microprocessor Design Using Hardware Description Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mita, Rosario; Palumbo, Gaetano

    2008-01-01

    The following paper has been conceived to deal with the contents of some lectures aimed at enhancing courses on digital electronic, microelectronic or VLSI systems. Those lectures show how to use a hardware description language (HDL), such as the VHDL, to specify, design and verify a custom microprocessor. The general goal of this work is to teach…

  12. Enriching a Descriptive Grammar with Treebank Queries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, G.; van Koppen, J.M.; Landsbergen, Frank; Odijk, J.E.J.M.; van der Wouden, Ton; van de Camp, Matje

    2015-01-01

    The Syntax of Dutch (SoD) is a descriptive and detailed grammar of Dutch, that provides data for many issues raised in linguistic theory. We present the results of a pilot project that investigated the possibility of enriching the online version of the text with links to queries that provide

  13. TWRS information locator database system design description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knutson, B.J.

    1996-09-13

    This document gives an overview and description of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Information Locator Database (ILD)system design. The TWRS ILD system is an inventory of information used in the TWRS Systems Engineering process to represent the TWRS Technical Baseline. The inventory is maintained in the form of a relational database developed in Paradox 4.5.

  14. 48 CFR 5416.203-1 - Description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 5416.203-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE TYPES OF CONTRACTS Fixed Price Contracts 5416.203-1 Description. (a)(S-90) Adjustments based on established prices. Established prices may reflect industry-wide and/or geographically based market price...

  15. Network architecture functional description and design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stans, L.; Bencoe, M.; Brown, D.; Kelly, S.; Pierson, L.; Schaldach, C.

    1989-05-25

    This report provides a top level functional description and design for the development and implementation of the central network to support the next generation of SNL, Albuquerque supercomputer in a UNIX{reg sign} environment. It describes the network functions and provides an architecture and topology.

  16. Fair rate allocation of scalable multiple description video for many clients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taal, Jacco R.; Lagendijk, Reginald L.

    2005-07-01

    Peer-to-peer networks (P2P) form a distributed communication infrastructure that is particularly well matched to video streaming using multiple description coding. We form M descriptions using MDC-FEC building on a scalable version of the "Dirac" video coder. The M descriptions are streamed via M different application layer multicast (ALM) trees embedded in the P2P network. Client nodes (peers in the network) receive a number of descriptions m video qualities, taking into account the distribution of the clients' bandwidth. We propose three "fairness" criteria to define the criterion to be optimized. Numerical results illustrate the effects of the different fairness criteria and client bandwidth distributions on the rates allocated to the compressed video layers and multiple descriptions.

  17. Too much detention? Street Triage and detentions under Section 136 Mental Health Act in the North-East of England: a descriptive study of the effects of a Street Triage intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keown, Patrick; French, Jo; Gibson, Graham; Newton, Eddy; Cull, Steve; Brown, Paul; Parry, Jo; Lyons, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To describe the impact of Street Triage (ST) on the number and rate of Section 136 Mental Health Act (S136) detentions in one NHS Mental Health and Disability Trust (Northumberland, Tyne and Wear (NTW)). Design Comparative descriptive study of numbers and rates of S136 detentions prior to and following the introduction of ST in NTW. More detailed data were obtained from one local authority in the NTW area. Setting NTW, a secondary care NHS Foundation Trust providing mental health and disability services in the north-east of England, in conjunction with Northumbria Police Service. Participants People being detained under S136 Mental Health Act (MHA). Routine data on S136 detentions and ST interventions were obtained from NTW, Northumbria Police, Sunderland Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust and Sunderland Local Authority. Interventions Introduction of a ST service in NTW. The main outcome measures were routinely collected data on the number and rate of ST interventions as well as patterns of the numbers and rates of S136 detentions. These were collected retrospectively. Results The annual rate of S136 detentions reduced by 56% in the first year of ST (from 59.8 per 100 000 population to 26.4 per 100 000). There was a linear relationship between the rate of ST in each locality and the reduction in rate of S136 detentions. There were 1623 ST contacts in the first 3 localities to have a ST service during its first year; there were also 403 fewer S136 detentions. Data from Sunderland indicate a 78% reduction in S136 use and a significant reduction in the number and proportion of adult admissions that originated from S136 detentions. Conclusions There is evidence to support the hypothesis that ST decreases the rate of s136 detention. When operating across the whole of NTW, ST resulted in 50 fewer S136 detentions a month, which represents a substantial reduction. PMID:27872112

  18. Reducing uncertainty in geostatistical description with well testing pressure data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, A.C.; He, Nanqun [Univ. of Tulsa, OK (United States); Oliver, D.S. [Chevron Petroleum Technology Company, La Habra, CA (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Geostatistics has proven to be an effective tool for generating realizations of reservoir properties conditioned to static data, e.g., core and log data and geologic knowledge. Due to the lack of closely spaced data in the lateral directions, there will be significant variability in reservoir descriptions generated by geostatistical simulation, i.e., significant uncertainty in the reservoir descriptions. In past work, we have presented procedures based on inverse problem theory for generating reservoir descriptions (rock property fields) conditioned to pressure data and geostatistical information represented as prior means for log-permeability and porosity and variograms. Although we have shown that the incorporation of pressure data reduces the uncertainty below the level contained in the geostatistical model based only on static information (the prior model), our previous results assumed did not explicitly account for uncertainties in the prior means and the parameters defining the variogram model. In this work, we investigate how pressure data can help detect errors in the prior means. If errors in the prior means are large and are not taken into account, realizations conditioned to pressure data represent incorrect samples of the a posteriori probability density function for the rock property fields, whereas, if the uncertainty in the prior mean is incorporated properly into the model, one obtains realistic realizations of the rock property fields.

  19. Psychotic patients' impressions of a person from written descriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchins, A S; Luchins, E H

    1984-02-01

    The present study examined the impressions of personality formed from written descriptions of behavior by over 200 hospitalized male schizophrenics, tested individually when they seemed in contact with reality. One description was of extrovert (E) behavior by a youth named Jim; another was of his introvert (I) behavior in similar settings. Combined communications gave one description immediately after the other. After 150 patients read one of the communications, they were generally willing and able to respond to a 36-item questionnaire about Jim. This also occurred when 96 patients were asked to answer it before any communication, on the basis of their expectations about Jim; 56 subsequently received a communication, followed by readministration of the questionnaire. Patients' responses, before or after the communications, revealed few pathological signs and, like those of normal Ss, could usually be classified as E or I. Patients had less differential effects, and far fewer I responses than normal Ss. Patients and normals showed preconceptions of Jim as extrovertive. Results were discussed in light of the projective hypothesis and other theories.

  20. Description of surface systems. Preliminary site description. Forsmark area Version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindborg, Tobias (ed.)

    2005-06-01

    Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) started site investigations for a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel in 2002 at two different sites in Sweden, Forsmark and Oskarshamn. The investigations should provide necessary information for a license application aimed at starting underground exploration. For this reason, ecosystem data need to be interpreted and assessed into site descriptive models, which in turn are used for safety assessment studies and for environmental impact assessment. Descriptions of the surface system are also needed for further planning of the site investigations. This report describes the surface ecosystems of the Forsmark site (e.g. hydrology, Quaternary deposits, chemistry, vegetation, animals and the human land use). The ecosystem description is an integration of the site and its regional setting, covering the current state of the biosphere as well as the ongoing natural processes affecting the longterm development. Improving the descriptions is important during both the initial and the complete site investigation phase. Before starting of the initial phase in Forsmark, version 0 of the site descriptive model was developed. The results of the initial site investigation phase is compiled into a preliminary site description of Forsmark (version 1.2) in June 2005. This report provides the major input and background to the biosphere description, in the 1.2 version of the Forsmark site description. The basis for this interim version is quality-assured field data from the Forsmark sub area and regional area, available in the SKB SICADA, and GIS data bases as of July 31th 2004 as well as version 1.1 of the Site Descriptive Model. To achieve an ecosystem site description there is a need to develop discipline-specific models by interpreting and analysing primary data. The different discipline-specific models are then integrated into a system describing interactions and flows and stocks of matter between and within functional units in

  1. A Formal Semantics for Concept Understanding relying on Description Logics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badie, Farshad

    2017-01-01

    In this research, Description Logics (DLs) will be employed for logical description, logical characterisation, logical modelling and ontological description of concept understanding in terminological systems. It’s strongly believed that using a formal descriptive logic could support us in revealing...

  2. 48 CFR 52.214-21 - Descriptive Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Descriptive Literature. 52....214-21 Descriptive Literature. As prescribed in 14.201-6(p)(1), insert the following provision: Descriptive Literature (APR 2002) (a) Descriptive literature, as used in this provision, means information...

  3. Database Description - GRIPDB | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us GRIPDB Database Description General information of database Database name GRIPDB Alternative... databases - Protein sequence motifs and active sites Organism Taxonomy Name: Homo Sapiens Taxonomy ID: 9606 Database descript...ailable Web services Not available URL of Web services - Need for user registration Available About This Database Database Descript...ion Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Database Description - GRIPDB | LSDB Archive ...

  4. Description of patients with carpal tunnel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aydelián Jevey González

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A descriptive study of patients diagnosed with carpal tunnel syndrome was carried out at “Manuel Piti Fajardo” Teaching Polyclinic of Las Tunas, from January to December, 2008. The study was aimed at describing them clinically and epidemiologically. The sample was made up of 50 patients older than 14 years old, who were characterized according to: age, sex, individual pathological antecedents factors associated to the triggering of theirsymptomatology, as well as clinical signs and symptoms. The results were processed using the descriptive statistics by means of percentage analysis. The prevailing results were: female patients, for a 76%; 41 to 50 age group, for a 40%; antecedents of osteoarthrosis, for a 34%. The factor which triggered the onset of the symptoms was the occupation of office worker, for a 46%, while 4 patients (8% came to the consultation office with more than 6 months of symptom evolution.

  5. Manifest domains:analysis and description

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Dines

    2017-01-01

    show how to model attributes, essentially following Michael Jackson (Software requirements & specifications: a lexicon of practice, principles and prejudices. ACM Press, Addison-Wesley, Reading, 1995), but with a twist: The attribute model introduces the attribute analysis prompts is...... parts, and attributes. We show that the manifest domain analysis endeavour can be supported by a calculus of manifest domain analysis prompts: is_entity, is_endurant, is_perdurant, is_part, is_component, is_material, is_atomic, is_composite, has_components, has_materials, has_concrete_type, attribute...... processes. C.A.R. Hoare series in computer science. Prentice-Hall International, London, 2004). We show how to model essential aspects of perdurants in terms of their signatures based on the concepts of endurants. And we show how one can “compile” descriptions of endurant parts into descriptions...

  6. Improved description of metal oxide stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jauho, Thomas Stenbæk; Olsen, Thomas; Bligaard, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    transition-metal oxides. The mean absolute error relative to experiments is 0.21 eV and 0.38 eV per oxygen atom for rAPBE and RPA, respectively, and thus the rAPBE method greatly improves the description of metal-oxygen bonds across a wide range of oxides. The failure of the RPA can be partly attributed...... to the lack of error cancellation between the correlation energy of the oxide on the one hand and the bulk metal and oxygen molecule on the other hand, which are all separately predicted much too negative by the RPA. We ascribe the improved performance of the rAPBE to its significantly better description...... of absolute correlation energies which reduces the need for error cancellation. The rAPBE is just one out of an entire class of renormalized exchange-correlation kernels which should be further investigated....

  7. Minimum Description Length Shape and Appearance Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thodberg, Hans Henrik

    2003-01-01

    The Minimum Description Length (MDL) approach to shape modelling is reviewed. It solves the point correspondence problem of selecting points on shapes defined as curves so that the points correspond across a data set. An efficient numerical implementation is presented and made available as open s...... source Matlab code. The problems with the early MDL approaches are discussed. Finally the MDL approach is extended to an MDL Appearance Model, which is proposed as a means to perform unsupervised image segmentation....

  8. Against a Descriptive Vindication of Doxastic Voluntarism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nottelmann, Nikolaj

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, I examine whether doxastic voluntarism should be taken seriously within normative doxastic ethics. First, I show that currently the psychological evidence does not positively support doxastic voluntarism, even if I accept recent conclusions by Matthias Steup that the relevant evide...... of this kind of descriptive vindication. However, a closer examination reveals that nothing obviously suggests that voluntarism provides a better regimentation of our ascription practices as compared to rival theses concerning human powers of doxastic control....

  9. DESCRIPTION OF CLASSIFICATION SYSTEMS OF LIBRARY CATALOGUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoya V. Savchenko

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The description of the most widespread universal library classifications (Decimal Classification of D'yui (DKD, Universal Decimal Classification (UDK, Classification of Library of Congress (KBK, Library-Bibliographic Classification (BBK are analysed in the article. Histories of these systems development and features of their use in modern informative services as well as the example of construction of electronic library classifiers on the base of the library classifications of DKD and KBK are given.

  10. DESCRIPTION OF CLASSIFICATION SYSTEMS OF LIBRARY CATALOGUES

    OpenAIRE

    Zoya V. Savchenko

    2010-01-01

    The description of the most widespread universal library classifications (Decimal Classification of D'yui (DKD), Universal Decimal Classification (UDK), Classification of Library of Congress (KBK), Library-Bibliographic Classification (BBK)) are analysed in the article. Histories of these systems development and features of their use in modern informative services as well as the example of construction of electronic library classifiers on the base of the library classifications of DKD and KBK...

  11. Defeasible inheritance-based description logics

    OpenAIRE

    Casini, Giovanni; Straccia, Umberto

    2011-01-01

    Defeasible inheritance networks are a non-monotonic framework dealing with hierarchical knowledge. On the other hand, rational closure, a main representative of the preferential approach, is acknowledged as a landmark. We will combine these two approaches and define a new non-monotonic closure operation for propositional knowledge bases that combines the advantages of both. Then we redefine such a procedure for Description Logics, a family of logics well-suited to model structured information...

  12. XML for Detector Description at GLAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogart, Joanne

    2002-04-30

    The problem of representing a detector in a form which is accessible to a variety of applications, allows retrieval of information in ways which are natural to those applications, and is maintainable has been vexing physicists for some time. Although invented to address an entirely different problem domain, the document markup meta-language XML is well-suited to detector description. This paper describes its use for a GLAST detector.

  13. Towards a Mathematical Description of Biodiversity Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E. Horvath

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We outline in this work a mathematical description of biodiversity evolution based on a second-order differential equation (also known as the “inertial/Galilean view”. After discussing the motivations and explicit forms of the simplest “forces”, we are lead to an equation analogue to a harmonic oscillator. The known solutions for the homogeneous problem are then tentatively related to the biodiversity curves of Sepkoski and Alroy et al., suggesting mostly an inertial behavior of the time evolution of the number of genera and a quadratic behavior in some long-term evolution after extinction events. We present the Green function for the dynamical system and apply it to the description of the recovery curve after the Permo-Triassic extinction, as recently analyzed by Burgess, Bowring and Shen. Even though the agreement is not satisfactory, we point out direct connections between observed drop times after massive extinctions and mathematical constants and discuss why the failure ensues, suggesting a more complex form of the second-order mathematical description.

  14. Minding the Gap: Narrative Descriptions about Mental States Attenuate Parochial Empathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emile G Bruneau

    Full Text Available In three experiments, we examine parochial empathy (feeling more empathy for in-group than out-group members across novel group boundaries, and test whether we can mitigate parochial empathy with brief narrative descriptions. In the absence of individuating information, participants consistently report more empathy for members of their own assigned group than a competitive out-group. However, individualized descriptions of in-group and out-group targets significantly reduce parochial empathy by interfering with encoding of targets' group membership. Finally, the descriptions that most effectively decrease parochial empathy are those that describe targets' mental states. These results support the role of individuating information in ameliorating parochial empathy, suggest a mechanism for their action, and show that descriptions emphasizing targets' mental states are particularly effective.

  15. Minding the Gap: Narrative Descriptions about Mental States Attenuate Parochial Empathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruneau, Emile G.; Cikara, Mina; Saxe, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    In three experiments, we examine parochial empathy (feeling more empathy for in-group than out-group members) across novel group boundaries, and test whether we can mitigate parochial empathy with brief narrative descriptions. In the absence of individuating information, participants consistently report more empathy for members of their own assigned group than a competitive out-group. However, individualized descriptions of in-group and out-group targets significantly reduce parochial empathy by interfering with encoding of targets’ group membership. Finally, the descriptions that most effectively decrease parochial empathy are those that describe targets’ mental states. These results support the role of individuating information in ameliorating parochial empathy, suggest a mechanism for their action, and show that descriptions emphasizing targets’ mental states are particularly effective. PMID:26505194

  16. The animal in you: animalistic descriptions of a violent crime increase punishment of perpetrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Eduardo A; Loughnan, Steve; Gootjes-Dreesbach, Ellis; Weger, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Criminal acts are sometimes described using animal metaphors. What is the impact of a violent crime being described in an animalistic versus a non-animalistic way on the subsequent retribution toward the perpetrator? In two studies, we experimentally varied animalistic descriptions of a violent crime and examined its effect on the severity of the punishment for the act. In Study 1, we showed that compared to non-animalistic descriptions, animalistic descriptions resulted in significantly harsher punishment for the perpetrator. In Study 2, we replicated this effect and further demonstrated that this harsher sentencing is explained by an increase in perceived risk of recidivism. Our findings suggest that animalistic descriptions of crimes lead to more retaliation against the perpetrator by inducing the perception that he is likely to continue engaging in violence. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. A botanical and pharmacological description of petasites species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tys Jerzy

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review was to evaluate the botanical and pharmacological description of Petasites species. Petasides (butterbur as a perennial shrub which was found in Europe and also in a parts of Asia and North America, has been widely used medicinally for centuries. At present, the main phytopharmacology uses for Petasides extracts are for prophylactic treatment of migraines, as well as an antispasmodic agent for bronchial asthma and pertussis. Furthermore, it has been used effectively in preventing gastric ulcers, and in urinary tract spasms and treating patients with irritable bladder. But still, there is a need for more studies on the potential applications of butterbur extract in medicine.

  18. Statistical mechanics and the description of the early universe I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pessah, Martin Elias; F. Torres, Diego; Vucetich, H.

    2001-01-01

    We analyze how the thermal history of the universe is influenced by the statistical description, assuming a deviation from the usual Bose-Einstein, Fermi-Dirac and Boltzmann-Gibbs distribution functions. These deviations represent the possible appearance of non-extensive effects related...... law, and provide an estimate on how known cosmological bounds on the masses of neutrinos are modified by a change in the statistics. We particularly analyze here the recombination epoch, making explicit use of the chemical potentials involved in order to attain the necessary corrections. All...

  19. Route description in Iwaidja: grammar and conceptualisation of motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cris Edmonds-Wathen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study focussed on the effect of grammar of Iwaidja, an indigenous Australian language, on mathematical conceptualisation. It investigated route description in Iwaidja. Spatial concepts such as direction, height and movement in relation to another object are briefly described using examples. Differences between English and Iwaidja are used to illustrate the some of the impact of grammar on mathematical conceptualisation. The implications are discussed in terms of how understanding these grammatical features can help teachers, especially when children are not fluent in the language of instruction, as well as providing keys to cross-linguistic investigations of mathematical cognition.

  20. Analytical methodology and facility description spent fuel policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-08-01

    Three generic environmental impact statements (GEISs) on domestic fuels, foreign fuels, and storage charges are being prepared to provide environmental input into decisions on whether, and if so how the 1977 Presidential policy on spent fuel storage should be implmented. This report provides background information for two of these environmental impact statements: Storage of U.S. Spent Power Reactor Fuel and Storage of Foreign Spent Power Reactor Fuel. It includes the analytical methodology used in GEISs to assess the environmental effects and a description of the facilities used in the two GEISs.

  1. CHEMICAL EFFECTS IN BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS – DATA DICTIONARY (CEBS-DD): A COMPENDIUM OF TERMS FOR THE CAPTURE AND INTEGRATION OF BIOLOGICAL STUDY DESIGN DESCRIPTION, CONVENTIONAL PHENOTYPES AND ‘OMICS’ DATA

    Science.gov (United States)

    A critical component in the design of the Chemical Effects in Biological Systems (CEBS) Knowledgebase is a strategy to capture toxicogenomics study protocols and the toxicity endpoint data (clinical pathology and histopathology). A Study is generally an experiment carried out du...

  2. Database Description - Arabidopsis Phenome Database | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us Arabidopsis Phenome Database Database Description General information of database Database n... BioResource Center Hiroshi Masuya Database classification Plant databases - Arabidopsis thaliana Organism T...axonomy Name: Arabidopsis thaliana Taxonomy ID: 3702 Database description The Arabidopsis thaliana phenome i...heir effective application. We developed the new Arabidopsis Phenome Database integrating two novel database...seful materials for their experimental research. The other, the “Database of Curated Plant Phenome” focusing

  3. Quantum Description of Optical Devices Used in Interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kucera

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A quantum-mechanical description of the phase shifters, retarders, mirrors and beam splitters is given in the paper. The description is then applied on two types of states. On a coherent state, a classical-like state, and on a number state, hence the strict quantum state. The quantum description of a beam splitter can be found in the literature. However the description does not treat with the polarization concept. The paper is aimed to introduce quantum description of an arbitrary oriented retarder and give a description of a beam splitter which treats with the polarization.

  4. Confidence assessment. Site-descriptive modelling SDM-Site Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-12-15

    independent data from different disciplines. While some aspects have lower confidence this lack of confidence is handled by providing wider uncertainty ranges, bounding estimates and/or alternative models to repository engineering and long term safety assessment. It is judged that most, of the low confidence aspects have little impact on repository engineering design or for long-term safety. It may also be noted that the feedback requirements from SR-Can to the site modelling are now met in the completed site investigations, subject to levels of uncertainty that are viewed as acceptable. Only a few data points and a few types of data have been omitted from the modelling, mainly because they are judged less relevant and reliable than the data considered. Inclusion of data from outside the Laxemar subarea might have enhanced confidence in the regional model, but only at the locations of the data and these changes in confidence would have been of little significance in relation to implications for the local model area and would not, therefore, have been of any real significance to design or safety assessment. These omissions are judged to have little or no negative impact on confidence in the Laxemar subarea model. In fact, identification of unreliable data and their elimination should have a positive effect on confidence. Poor precision in the measured data is judged to have a limited impact on uncertainties in the site descriptive model, with the exceptions of interpretation and combination of borehole and outcrop fracture data and general uncertainties in sorption data

  5. Resource description and access 2013 revision

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This e-book contains the 2013 Revision of RDA: Resource Description and Access, and includes the July 2013 Update. This e-book offers links within the RDA text and the capability of running rudimentary searches of RDA, but please note that this e-book does not have the full range of content or functionality provided by the subscription product RDA Toolkit. Included: A full accumulation of RDA- the revision contains a full set of all current RDA instructions. It replaces the previous version of RDA Print as opposed to being an update packet to that version. RDA has gone through many changes sin

  6. Hamiltonian description of the ideal fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, P.J.

    1994-01-01

    Fluid mechanics is examined from a Hamiltonian perspective. The Hamiltonian point of view provides a unifying framework; by understanding the Hamiltonian perspective, one knows in advance (within bounds) what answers to expect and what kinds of procedures can be performed. The material is organized into five lectures, on the following topics: rudiments of few-degree-of-freedom Hamiltonian systems illustrated by passive advection in two-dimensional fluids; functional differentiation, two action principles of mechanics, and the action principle and canonical Hamiltonian description of the ideal fluid; noncanonical Hamiltonian dynamics with examples; tutorial on Lie groups and algebras, reduction-realization, and Clebsch variables; and stability and Hamiltonian systems.

  7. Descriptive mining for the QSAR problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian GEORGESCU

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available There are several approaches in trying to solve the Quantitative Structure-Activity (QSAR problem. These approaches are based either on statistical methods or on predictive data mining using neural networks. Among the statistical methods, one should consider regression analysis, pattern recognition (such as cluster analysis, factor analysis and principal components analysis or partial least squares. These approaches have a low explanatory capability or non at all. This paper attempts to establish a new approach in solving QSSAR problems using descriptive data mining. This way, the relationship between the chemical properties and the activity of a substance would be comprehensibly modeled.

  8. Description, Modelling and Design of Production Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Peter; Rudolph, Carsten

    1997-01-01

    Design of production systems are rarely an activity in which decision makers in most production companies have much experience. In future, this activity is to be more recurrent due to more and more frequent changes in the production task. Consequently, the decision makers are in need of better...... management tools and methods for description and modelling of production systems supporting the decisions. In this article a structural framework to describe and model production systems will be introduced, and it is shown how the production system of a minor Danish manufacturer of electromechanical...

  9. Continuum description of avalanches in granular media.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aranson, I. S.; Tsimring, L. S.

    2000-12-05

    A continuum theory of partially fluidized granular flows is proposed. The theory is based on a combination of the mass and momentum conservation equations with the order parameter equation which describes the transition between flowing and static components of the granular system. We apply this model to the dynamics of avalanches in chutes. The theory provides a quantitative description of recent observations of granular flows on rough inclined planes (Daerr and Douady 1999): layer bistability, and the transition from triangular avalanches propagating downhill at small inclination angles to balloon-shaped avalanches also propagating uphill for larger angles.

  10. Characteristics of Qualitative Descriptive Studies: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyejin; Sefcik, Justine S; Bradway, Christine

    2017-02-01

    Qualitative description (QD) is a term that is widely used to describe qualitative studies of health care and nursing-related phenomena. However, limited discussions regarding QD are found in the existing literature. In this systematic review, we identified characteristics of methods and findings reported in research articles published in 2014 whose authors identified the work as QD. After searching and screening, data were extracted from the sample of 55 QD articles and examined to characterize research objectives, design justification, theoretical/philosophical frameworks, sampling and sample size, data collection and sources, data analysis, and presentation of findings. In this review, three primary findings were identified. First, although there were some inconsistencies, most articles included characteristics consistent with the limited available QD definitions and descriptions. Next, flexibility or variability of methods was common and effective for obtaining rich data and achieving understanding of a phenomenon. Finally, justification for how a QD approach was chosen and why it would be an appropriate fit for a particular study was limited in the sample and, therefore, in need of increased attention. Based on these findings, recommendations include encouragement to researchers to provide as many details as possible regarding the methods of their QD studies so that readers can determine whether the methods used were reasonable and effective in producing useful findings. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Provenance Description of Metadata Vocabularies for the Long-term Maintenance of Metadata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunqiu Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss provenance description of metadata terms and metadata vocabularies as a set of metadata terms. Provenance is crucial information to keep track of changes of metadata terms and metadata vocabularies for their consistent maintenance. Design/methodology/approach: The W3C PROV standard for general provenance description and Resource Description Framework (RDF are adopted as the base models to formally define provenance description for metadata vocabularies. Findings: This paper defines a few primitive change types of metadata terms, and a provenance description model of the metadata terms based on the primitive change types. We also provide examples of provenance description in RDF graphs to show the proposed model. Research limitations: The model proposed in this paper is defined based on a few primitive relationships (e.g. addition, deletion, and replacement between pre-version and post-version of a metadata term. The model is simplified and the practical changes of metadata terms can be more complicated than the primitive relationships discussed in the model. Practical implications: Formal provenance description of metadata vocabularies can improve maintainability of metadata vocabularies over time. Conventional maintenance of metadata terms is the maintenance of documents of terms. The proposed model enables effective and automated tracking of change history of metadata vocabularies using simple formal description scheme defined based on widely-used standards. Originality/value: Changes in metadata vocabularies may cause inconsistencies in the long-term use of metadata. This paper proposes a simple and formal scheme of provenance description of metadata vocabularies. The proposed model works as the basis of automated maintenance of metadata terms and their vocabularies and is applicable to various types of changes.

  12. Preliminary description of the transportation operations systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-03-01

    This document presents a preliminary description of the transportation operations systems designed to ship spent fuel and high-level waste (HLW) from waste generator sites to authorized waste receiving facilities. It is an initial effort to define the operations system and identifies the activities and system components necessary to provide complete transportation capability. It is intended that this be a project level working document to facilitate dialog for further identification of system elements and functional requirements. This process will lead to issuance of a System Requirements and Description (SRD) document for the transportation operations systems and will identify detailed system functional requirements, performance criteria, and functional interfaces. The transportation system is quite complex and is influenced by a large number of external factors and interfaces. Some of these interfaces (such as the repository) are just now being developed. Others (such as utility-handling capabilities) are currently in existence and must be accommodated or modified. Additionally, the allocation of requirements is likewise both developing (with the repository) and somewhat fixed. 16 refs., 15 figs., 12 tabs.

  13. COG Software Architecture Design Description Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buck, R M; Lent, E M

    2009-09-21

    This COG Software Architecture Design Description Document describes the organization and functionality of the COG Multiparticle Monte Carlo Transport Code for radiation shielding and criticality calculations, at a level of detail suitable for guiding a new code developer in the maintenance and enhancement of COG. The intended audience also includes managers and scientists and engineers who wish to have a general knowledge of how the code works. This Document is not intended for end-users. This document covers the software implemented in the standard COG Version 10, as released through RSICC and IAEA. Software resources provided by other institutions will not be covered. This document presents the routines grouped by modules and in the order of the three processing phases. Some routines are used in multiple phases. The routine description is presented once - the first time the routine is referenced. Since this is presented at the level of detail for guiding a new code developer, only the routines invoked by another routine that are significant for the processing phase that is being detailed are presented. An index to all routines detailed is included. Tables for the primary data structures are also presented.

  14. Forsmark - site descriptive model version 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-10-01

    During 2002, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is starting investigations at two potential sites for a deep repository in the Precambrian basement of the Fennoscandian Shield. The present report concerns one of those sites, Forsmark, which lies in the municipality of Oesthammar, on the east coast of Sweden, about 150 kilometres north of Stockholm. The site description should present all collected data and interpreted parameters of importance for the overall scientific understanding of the site, for the technical design and environmental impact assessment of the deep repository, and for the assessment of long-term safety. The site description will have two main components: a written synthesis of the site, summarising the current state of knowledge, as documented in the databases containing the primary data from the site investigations, and one or several site descriptive models, in which the collected information is interpreted and presented in a form which can be used in numerical models for rock engineering, environmental impact and long-term safety assessments. The site descriptive models are devised and stepwise updated as the site investigations proceed. The point of departure for this process is the regional site descriptive model, version 0, which is the subject of the present report. Version 0 is developed out of the information available at the start of the site investigation. This information, with the exception of data from tunnels and drill holes at the sites of the Forsmark nuclear reactors and the underground low-middle active radioactive waste storage facility, SFR, is mainly 2D in nature (surface data), and is general and regional, rather than site-specific, in content. For this reason, the Forsmark site descriptive model, version 0, as detailed in the present report, has been developed at a regional scale. It covers a rectangular area, 15 km in a southwest-northeast and 11 km in a northwest-southeast direction, around the

  15. Simpevarp - site descriptive model version 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-11-01

    During 2002, SKB is starting detailed investigations at two potential sites for a deep repository in the Precambrian rocks of the Fennoscandian Shield. The present report concerns one of those sites, Simpevarp, which lies in the municipality of Oskarshamn, on the southeast coast of Sweden, about 250 kilometres south of Stockholm. The site description will have two main components: a written synthesis of the site, summarising the current state of knowledge, as documented in the databases containing the primary data from the site investigations, and one or several site descriptive models, in which the collected information is interpreted and presented in a form which can be used in numerical models for rock engineering, environmental impact and long-term safety assessments. SKB maintains two main databases at the present time, a site characterisation database called SICADA and a geographic information system called SKB GIS. The site descriptive model will be developed and presented with the aid of the SKB GIS capabilities, and with SKBs Rock Visualisation System (RVS), which is also linked to SICADA. The version 0 model forms an important framework for subsequent model versions, which are developed successively, as new information from the site investigations becomes available. Version 0 is developed out of the information available at the start of the site investigation. In the case of Simpevarp, this is essentially the information which was compiled for the Oskarshamn feasibility study, which led to the choice of that area as a favourable object for further study, together with information collected since its completion. This information, with the exception of the extensive data base from the nearby Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory, is mainly 2D in nature (surface data), and is general and regional, rather than site-specific, in content. Against this background, the present report consists of the following components: an overview of the present content of the databases

  16. Freeform surface descriptions. Part II: Application benchmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broemel, Anika; Liu, Chang; Zhong, Yi; Zhang, Yueqian; Gross, Herbert

    2017-10-01

    Optical systems can benefit strongly from freeform surfaces; however, the choice of the right representation is not trivial, and many aspects must be considered. Many possibilities to formulate the surface equations in detail are available, but the experience with these newer representations is rather limited. Therefore, in this work, the focus is to investigate the performance of several classical descriptions as well as one extended freeform surface description in their performance in concrete design optimization tasks. There are different influencing factors characterizing the surface representations, the basic shape, the boundary function, the symmetry, a projection factor, as well as the deformation term describing higher order contributions. We discuss some possibilities and the consequences of describing and using these options with success. These surface representations were chosen to evaluate their impact on all these aspects in the design process. As criteria to distinguish the various options, the convergence over the polynomial orders, as well as the quality of the final solutions, is considered. As a result, recommendations for the right choice of freeform surface representations for practical issues in the optimization of optical systems can be given under restrictions of the benchmark assumptions.

  17. Initial rheological description of high performance concretes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Lorenzetti de Castro

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Concrete is defined as a composite material and, in rheological terms, it can be understood as a concentrated suspension of solid particles (aggregates in a viscous liquid (cement paste. On a macroscopic scale, concrete flows as a liquid. It is known that the rheological behavior of the concrete is close to that of a Bingham fluid and two rheological parameters regarding its description are needed: yield stress and plastic viscosity. The aim of this paper is to present the initial rheological description of high performance concretes using the modified slump test. According to the results, an increase of yield stress was observed over time, while a slight variation in plastic viscosity was noticed. The incorporation of silica fume showed changes in the rheological properties of fresh concrete. The behavior of these materials also varied with the mixing procedure employed in their production. The addition of superplasticizer meant that there was a large reduction in the mixture's yield stress, while plastic viscosity remained practically constant.

  18. The appropriateness of XML for diagnostic description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neto, A. [Associacao Euratom/IST, Centro de Fusao Nuclear, Av. Rovisco Pais, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)], E-mail: andre.neto@cfn.ist.utl.pt; Lister, J.B. [CRPP-EPFL, Association EURATOM-Confederation Suisse, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Fernandes, H. [Associacao Euratom/IST, Centro de Fusao Nuclear, Av. Rovisco Pais, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Yonekawa, I. [JAEA, Japan Atomic Energy Agency Naka (Japan); Varandas, C.A.F. [Associacao Euratom/IST, Centro de Fusao Nuclear, Av. Rovisco Pais, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2007-10-15

    A standard for the self-description of fusion plasma diagnostics will be required in the near future. The motivation is to maintain and organize the information on all the components of a laboratory experiment, from the hardware to the access security, to save time and money. Since there is no existing standard to organize this kind of information, every EU Association stores and organizes each experiment in different ways. This can lead to severe problems when the particular organization schema is poorly documented. Standardization is the key to solve these problems. From the commercial information on the diagnostic (component supplier; component price) to the hardware description (component specifications; drawings) to the operation of the equipment (finite state machines) through change control (who changed what and when) and internationalization (information at least in English and a local language). This problem will be met on the ITER project, for which a solution is essential. A strong candidate solution is the Extensible Markup Language (XML). In this paper, a review of the current status of XML related technologies will be presented.

  19. The Athena Data Dictionary and Description Language

    CERN Document Server

    Bazan, A; Ghez, P; Marino, M; Tull, C

    2003-01-01

    Athena is the ATLAS off-line software framework, based upon the GAUDI architecture from LHCb. As part of ATLAS' continuing efforts to enhance and customise the architecture to meet our needs, we have developed a data object description tool suite and service for Athena. The aim is to provide a set of tools to describe, manage, integrate and use the Event Data Model at a design level according to the concepts of the Athena framework (use of patterns, relationships, ...). Moreover, to ensure stability and reusability this must be fully independent from the implementation details. After an extensive investigation into the many options, we have developed a language grammar based upon a description language (IDL, ODL) to provide support for object integration in Athena. We have then developed a compiler front end based upon this language grammar, JavaCC, and a Java Reflection API-like interface. We have then used these tools to develop several compiler back ends which meet specific needs in ATLAS such as automatic...

  20. The Athena data dictionary and description language

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazan, Alain; Bouedo, Thierry; Ghez, Philippe [Laboratoire d' Annecy-le-Vieux de Physique des Particules, LAPP-IN2P3-CNRS, BP. 110, F-74941 Annecy-le-Vieux Cedex (France); Marino, Massimo; Tull, Craig [LBNL, Berkeley CA 94720 (United States)

    2003-07-01

    Athena is the ATLAS off-line software framework, based upon the GAUDI architecture from LHCb. As part of ATLAS' continuing efforts to enhance and customize the architecture to meet our needs, we have developed a data object description tool suite and service for Athena. The aim is to provide a set of tools to describe, manage, integrate and use the Event Data Model at a design level according to the concepts of the Athena framework (use of patterns, relationships,...). Moreover, to ensure stability and reusability this must be fully independent from the implementation details. After an extensive investigation into the many options, we have developed a language grammar based upon a description language (IDL, ODL) to provide support for object integration in Athena. We have then developed a compiler front end based upon this language grammar, JavaCC, and a Java Reflection API-like interface. We have then used these tools to develop several compiler back ends which meet specific needs in ATLAS such as automatic generation of object converters, and data object scripting interfaces. We present here details of our work and experience to date on the Athena Definition Language and Athena Data Dictionary. (authors)

  1. Quantum gravity from descriptive set theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Naschie, M.S

    2004-03-01

    We start from Hilbert's criticism of the axioms of classical geometry and the possibility of abandoning the Archimedean axiom. Subsequently we proceed to the physical possibility of a fundamental limitation on the smallest length connected to certain singular points in spacetime and below which measurements become meaningless, Finally we arrive at the conclusion that maximising the Hawking-Bekenstein informational content of spacetime makes the existence of a transfinite geometry for physical 'spacetime' not only plausible but probably inevitable. The main part of the paper is then concerned with a proposal for a mathematical description of a transfinite, non-Archimedean geometry using descriptive set theory. Nevertheless, and despite all abstract mathematics, we remain quite close to similar lines of investigation initiated by physicists like A. Wheeler, D. Finkelstein and G. 'tHooft. In particular we introduce a logarithmic gauge transformation linking classical gravity with the electro weak via a version of informational entropy. That way we may claim to have accomplished an important step towards a general theory of quantum gravity using {epsilon}{sup ({infinity}}{sup )} and complexity theory and finding that {alpha}{sub G}=(2){sup {alpha}}{sup -bar{sub ew-1}} congruent with (1.7)(10){sup 38} where {alpha}{sub G} is the dimensionless Newton gravity constant, and {alpha}{sub ew}{approx_equal}128 is the fine structure constant at the electro weak scale.

  2. Reading Words and Images in the Description(s of Sir John Soane’s Museum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle S. Willkens

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the 18th and early 19th centuries, London was a city filled with cabinets of curiosity, 'lusus naturae', and bourgeoning public museums. Most of these institutions publicized their holdings through newspaper advertisements, leaflets, and self-published, descriptive catalogs that were available for purchase on-site and through booksellers. Using Soane’s Museum as a case study, this paper will move beyond historiographical analysis of individual objects in collections catalogs to probe how the museum-produced guidebooks depicted spatial arrangements. Citing examples from the 19th to twenty-first centuries, this paper will examine how the curator-produced descriptions of Soane’s Museum manipulated text and graphics to guide visitors through a constructed narrative, recreated the ephemeral experiences of the museum, and advertise the site’s unparalleled union of painting, sculpture, and architecture to audiences abroad. Soane’s 'Description of the House and Museum, on the North Side of Lincoln‘s Inn-Fields, the Residence of Sir John Soane' (privately printed 1830, 1832; revised 1835 paired spatial narratives with the architectural language of orthographic projection and perspective engravings. His 'Description' set forth an agenda about the museum’s arrangement and established a compositional strategy for subsequent editions of the guidebook, renamed the 'General Description' in the editions printed between 1840 and 1930 then rebranded as the 'New Description' by Summerson in 1955. Through the study of the changing written and visual language published in the guides by the curators of Soane’s Museum, this article will examine the changing character of the visitor experience at the museum and question the form of future editions.

  3. Health Topic XML File Description: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/xmldescription.html Health Topic XML File Description: MedlinePlus To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Description of XML Tags Definitions of every possible tag in the ...

  4. Effects of LED phototherapy on bone defects grafted with MTA, bone morphogenetic proteins, and guided bone regeneration in a rodent model: a description of the bone repair by light microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Antonio Luiz B.; Aciole, Gilberth T. S.; Soares, Luiz G. P.; Correia, Neandder A.; N. dos Santos, Jean

    2011-03-01

    We carried out a histological analysis on surgical bone defects grafted or not with MTA, treated or not with LED, BMPs and GBR. We have used several models to assess the effects of laser on bone. Benefits of the isolated or combined use them on bone healing has been suggested. There is no previous report on their association with LED light. 90 rats were divided into 10 groups. On Groups II and I the defect were filled with the clot. On Group II, were further irradiated. On groups III-VI, defect was filled with MTA + Collagen gel (III); animals of group IV were further irradiated. On groups V and VI, the defects filled with the MTA were covered with a membrane. Animals of Group VI were further irradiated. On Groups VII and VIII a pool of BMPs was added to the MTA and was further irradiated. On groups IX and X, the MTA + BMP graft was covered with a membrane. On group X, the defect was further irradiated. LED (λ850 +/- 10nm, 150mW, A= 0.5cm2, 54s, 0.3W/cm2, 16 J/cm2) was applied at 48 h intervals during 15 days. Specimens were taken, processed, cut and stained with H&E and Sirius red and underwent histological analysis. The results showed that MTA seemed not being affected by LED light. However, its use positively affected healing around the graft. It is concluded that MTA is not affected by the LED light due to it characteristics, but beneficial results with LED usage was found.

  5. The Description of the Goatherd’s Cup in Theocritus’ First Idyll: Realism or Illusion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Marija Lamut

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Rather than mere decoration, the description of the cup inserted into the First Idyll by Theocritus is an integral part of the poem, as there is no clear-cut line separating the description from the main narrative. The cup is said to be made of wood, with three linear carvings on the outside. The first carving presents two men vying for a woman's favour, the second an old fisherman, and the third a boy in a vineyard, weaving a net for locusts. Since the rivalry and vineyard scenes are also found on the shield of Achilles, these motifs and the style of the description appear to draw on an older tradition in poetry. My analysis of the text is set in the framework of ekphrasis, a rhetorical technique defined in Ancient Greek rhetorical handbooks as “a descriptive speech that brings the subject shown before the eyes with visual vividness”. What transforms a description into an ekphrasis, that is, what conjures up for the reader or listener the illusion of an actual object, is the ideal of visual vividness, or enargeia. An important role here is assigned to the colours and materials of the art work (yellow blossoms, grey hair, dark grapes, wooden cup. There are two kinds of enargeia: the capacity of visualisation inherent in the picture itself, and the same capacity as attained through the verbal effects of the description. The enargeia may be enhanced by descriptions of movements, actions, thoughts and impulses in narratives, as well as by such sound devices as alliteration and assonance. Is the art work described real or imaginary? While the description does echo real iconographic types and aesthetic tendencies, it is at the same time a creative literary construct drawing on the rhetorical and philosophical theory of imaginative depiction, phantasia. The “pictorial realism” of the description follows the trends of the Late Classical period. As the audience is assumed to be familiar with the content, the description focuses on the essential

  6. 47 CFR 79.3 - Video description of video programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Video description of video programming. 79.3... CLOSED CAPTIONING AND VIDEO DESCRIPTION OF VIDEO PROGRAMMING § 79.3 Video description of video programming. (a) Definitions. For purposes of this section the following definitions shall apply: (1...

  7. 27 CFR 19.168 - Description of plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Description of plant. 19..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Qualification of Distilled Spirits Plants § 19.168 Description of plant. (a) The application for registration shall include a description of each...

  8. 48 CFR 514.202-5 - Descriptive literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Descriptive literature... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Solicitation of Bids 514.202-5 Descriptive literature... FAR 52.211-6 satisfies the requirement for descriptive literature. ...

  9. 48 CFR 14.202-5 - Descriptive literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Descriptive literature. 14... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Solicitation of Bids 14.202-5 Descriptive literature. (a) Policy. Contracting officers must not require bidders to furnish descriptive literature unless it is...

  10. Context-descriptive Prototypes and Their Application to Medicine Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossen, Claus; Jørgensen, Jens Bæk

    2004-01-01

    A context-descriptive prototype is an interactive graphical animation, driven by a formal, executable engine, implemented in some programming or modelling language. The two main properties of a context-descriptive prototype are: (1) it is an integrated description that describes system, work...

  11. New approaches for description of nitrogen chemistry in combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupa, M.; Kilpinen, P.; Brink, A.; Norstroem, T. [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    The aim of the project is to develop novel models for a more accurate description of nitrogen oxide emissions from combustion processes and to increase the understanding of the complex details of homogeneous nitrogen reactions in combustion and gasification. The topics dealt with during 1995 include: (1) effect of Cl on CO oxidation and nitrogen reactions, (2) effect of pressure on NO reduction by SNCR (in co-operation with the project 204), (3) NH{sub 3} conversion to N{sub 2} in gasification gases by selective oxidation (in cooperation with the project 203). In addition, a literature review of the models suggested for the interaction between turbulence and a chemical gas-phase reaction has been made. A commercial CFD code, FLUENT, has also been taken into use. (author)

  12. Optimal free descriptions of many-body theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Christopher J.; Meichanetzidis, Konstantinos; Papić, Zlatko; Pachos, Jiannis K.

    2017-04-01

    Interacting bosons or fermions give rise to some of the most fascinating phases of matter, including high-temperature superconductivity, the fractional quantum Hall effect, quantum spin liquids and Mott insulators. Although these systems are promising for technological applications, they also present conceptual challenges, as they require approaches beyond mean-field and perturbation theory. Here we develop a general framework for identifying the free theory that is closest to a given interacting model in terms of their ground-state correlations. Moreover, we quantify the distance between them using the entanglement spectrum. When this interaction distance is small, the optimal free theory provides an effective description of the low-energy physics of the interacting model. Our construction of the optimal free model is non-perturbative in nature; thus, it offers a theoretical framework for investigating strongly correlated systems.

  13. Security report on Siloe - the descriptive part. (1963); Rapport de surete de Siloe - partie descriptive (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ageron, P.; Chatoux, J.; Denielou, G.; Jacquemain, M.; Mitault, G.; Robien, E. de; Rossillon, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    This report is a full description of the site, the reactor, the building and the experimental facilities. It gives the nuclear, thermodynamic and hydrodynamic characteristics of the core. (authors) [French] Ce rapport decrit completement le site, le reacteur, les batiments et les installations experimentales. Il donne les caracteristiques nucleaires, thermodynamiques et hydrodynamiques du coeur. (auteurs)

  14. Syntactic Structures as Descriptions of Sensorimotor Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alistair Knott

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I propose a hypothesis linking elements of a model of theoretical syntax with neural mechanisms in the domain of sensorimotor processing. The syntactic framework I adopt to express this linking hypothesis is Chomsky’s Minimalism: I propose that the language-independent ’Logical Form’ (LF of a sentence reporting a concrete episode in the world can be interpreted as a detailed description of the sensorimotor processes involved in apprehending that episode. The hypothesis is motivated by a detailed study of one particular episode, in which an agent grasps a target object. There are striking similarities between the LF structure of transitive sentences describing this episode and the structure of the sensorimotor processes through which it is apprehended by an observer. The neural interpretation of Minimalist LF structure allows it to incorporate insights from empiricist accounts of syntax, relating to sentence processing and to the learning of syntactic constructions.

  15. Integrated Project Management System description. [UMTRAP Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-03-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is a Department of Energy (DOE) designated Major System Acquisition (MSA). To execute and manage the Project mission successfully and to comply with the MSA requirements, the UMTRA Project Office ( Project Office'') has implemented and operates an Integrated Project Management System (IPMS). The Project Office is assisted by the Technical Assistance Contractor's (TAC) Project Integration and Control (PIC) Group in system operation. Each participant, in turn, provides critical input to system operation and reporting requirements. The IPMS provides a uniform structured approach for integrating the work of Project participants. It serves as a tool for planning and control, workload management, performance measurement, and specialized reporting within a standardized format. This system description presents the guidance for its operation. Appendices 1 and 2 contain definitions of commonly used terms and abbreviations and acronyms, respectively. 17 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Multiple descriptions for packetized predictive control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Jan; Quevedo, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose to use multiple descriptions (MDs) to achieve a high degree of robustness towards random packet delays and erasures in networked control systems. In particular, we consider the scenario, where a data-rate limited channel is located between the controller and the plant...... input. This forward channel also introduces random delays and dropouts. The feedback channel from the plant output to the controller is assumed noiseless. We show how to design MDs for packetized predicted control (PPC) in order to enhance the robustness. In the proposed scheme, a quantized control...... be reliably reconstructed at the plant side. For the particular case of LTI plant models and i.i.d. channels, we show that the overall system forms a Markov jump linear system. We provide conditions for mean square stability and derive upper bounds on the operational bit rate of the quantizer to guarantee...

  17. Template for safety reports with descriptive example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    This report provides a template for future safety reports on long-term safety in support of important decisions and permit applications in connection with the construction of a deep repository system. The template aims at providing a uniform structure for describing long-term safety, after the repository has been closed and sealed. The availability of such a structure will simplify both preparation and review of the safety reports, and make it possible to follow how safety assessments are influenced by the progressively more detailed body of data that emerges. A separate section containing `descriptive examples` has been appended to the template. This section illustrates what the different chapters of the template should contain. 279 refs.

  18. Diffusive description of lattice gas models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiig, T.; Jensen, H.J.

    1993-01-01

    We have investigated a lattice gas model consisting of repulsive particles following deterministic dynamics. Two versions of the model are studied. In one case we consider a Finite open system in which particles can leave and enter the lattice over the edge. In the other case we use periodic...... in time. We have numerically investigated the power spectrum of the density fluctuations, the lifetime distribution, and the spatial correlation function. We discuss the appropriate Langevin-like diffusion equation which can reproduce our numerical findings. Our conclusion is that the deterministic...... lattice gases are described by a diffusion equation without any bulk noise. The open lattice gas exhibits a crossover behavior as the probability for introducing particles at the edge of the system becomes small. The power spectrum changes from a 1/f to a 1/f2 spectrum. The diffusive description, proven...

  19. FLOWTRAN-TF code description. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, G.P. [ed.

    1991-09-01

    FLOWTRAN-TF is a two-component (air-water), two-phase thermal-hydraulics code designed for performing accident analyses of SRS reactor fuel assemblies during the Emergency Cooling System (ECS) phase of a Double Ended Guillotine Break (DEGB) Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA). This report provides a brief description of the physical models in the version of FLOWTRAN-TF used to compute the Recommended K-Reactor Restart ECS Power Limit. This document is viewed as an interim report and should ultimately be superseded by a comprehensive user/programmer manual. In general, only high level discussions of governing equations and constitutive laws are presented. Numerical implementation of these models, code architecture and user information are not generally covered. A companion document describing code benchmarking is available.

  20. Polynomial description of inhomogeneous topological superconducting wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Marcos; Martínez, Gerardo

    2017-11-01

    We present the universal features of the topological invariant for p-wave superconducting wires after the inclusion of spatial inhomogeneities. Three classes of distributed potentials are studied, a single-defect, a commensurate and an incommensurate model, using periodic site modulations. An analytic polynomial description is achieved by splitting the topological invariant into two parts; one part depends on the chemical potential and the other does not. For the homogeneous case, an elliptical region is found where the topological invariant oscillates. The zeros of these oscillations occur at points where the fermion parity switches for finite wires. The increase of these oscillations with the inhomogeneity strength leads to new isolated non-topological phases. We characterize these new phases according to each class of spatial distributions. Such phases could also be observed in the XY model, to which our model is dual.

  1. Geometric description of images as topographic maps

    CERN Document Server

    Caselles, Vicent

    2010-01-01

    This volume discusses the basic geometric contents of an image and presents a tree data structure to handle those contents efficiently. The nodes of the tree are derived from connected components of level sets of the intensity, while the edges represent inclusion information. Grain filters, morphological operators simplifying these geometric contents, are analyzed and several applications to image comparison and registration, and to edge and corner detection, are presented. The mathematically inclined reader may be most interested in Chapters 2 to 6, which generalize the topological Morse description to continuous or semicontinuous functions, while mathematical morphologists may more closely consider grain filters in Chapter 3. Computer scientists will find algorithmic considerations in Chapters 6 and 7, the full justification of which may be found in Chapters 2 and 4 respectively. Lastly, all readers can learn more about the motivation for this work in the image processing applications presented in Chapter 8...

  2. Boundary Liouville Theory: Hamiltonian Description and Quantization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Dorn

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the Hamiltonian treatment of classical and quantum properties of Liouville field theory on a timelike strip in 2d Minkowski space. We give a complete description of classical solutions regular in the interior of the strip and obeying constant conformally invariant conditions on both boundaries. Depending on the values of the two boundary parameters these solutions may have different monodromy properties and are related to bound or scattering states. By Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization we find the quasiclassical discrete energy spectrum for the bound states in agreement with the corresponding limit of spectral data obtained previously by conformal bootstrap methods in Euclidean space. The full quantum version of the special vertex operator $e^varphi$ in terms of free field exponentials is constructed in the hyperbolic sector.

  3. NIF Integrated Computer Controls System Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VanArsdall, P.

    1998-01-26

    This System Description introduces the NIF Integrated Computer Control System (ICCS). The architecture is sufficiently abstract to allow the construction of many similar applications from a common framework. As discussed below, over twenty software applications derived from the framework comprise the NIF control system. This document lays the essential foundation for understanding the ICCS architecture. The NIF design effort is motivated by the magnitude of the task. Figure 1 shows a cut-away rendition of the coliseum-sized facility. The NIF requires integration of about 40,000 atypical control points, must be highly automated and robust, and will operate continuously around the clock. The control system coordinates several experimental cycles concurrently, each at different stages of completion. Furthermore, facilities such as the NIF represent major capital investments that will be operated, maintained, and upgraded for decades. The computers, control subsystems, and functionality must be relatively easy to extend or replace periodically with newer technology.

  4. Minimal dynamical description of eye movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specht, Juan I.; Dimieri, Leonardo; Urdapilleta, Eugenio; Gasaneo, Gustavo

    2017-02-01

    In this paper we have addressed the question of whether a simple set of functions being the solution of a model, namely the damped harmonic oscillator with a general driving force, can satisfactorily describe data corresponding to ocular movements produced during a visual search task. Taking advantage of its mathematical tractability, we first focused on the simplest driving force compatible to the experimental data, a step-like activation. Under this hypothesis we were able to further simplify the system, once data from several experiments were fitted, producing an essentially parameter-free model that we plan to use in future applications. To increase the quality of the description of individual movements, we expanded the complexity in the forcing term and solved the inverse problem by using a proper mathematical formalism. Furthermore, additional terms, those arising from ocular drift and tremor, may be included within the same mathematical approach.

  5. Constitutive description of human femoropopliteal artery aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenskiy, Alexey; Seas, Andreas; Deegan, Paul; Poulson, William; Anttila, Eric; Sim, Sylvie; Desyatova, Anastasia; MacTaggart, Jason

    2017-04-01

    Femoropopliteal artery (FPA) mechanics play a paramount role in pathophysiology and the artery's response to therapeutic interventions, but data on FPA mechanical properties are scarce. Our goal was to characterize human FPAs over a wide population to derive a constitutive description of FPA aging to be used for computational modeling. Fresh human FPA specimens ([Formula: see text]) were obtained from [Formula: see text] predominantly male (80 %) donors 54±15 years old (range 13-82 years). Morphometric characteristics including radius, wall thickness, opening angle, and longitudinal pre-stretch were recorded. Arteries were subjected to multi-ratio planar biaxial extension to determine constitutive parameters for an invariant-based model accounting for the passive contributions of ground substance, elastin, collagen, and smooth muscle. Nonparametric bootstrapping was used to determine unique sets of material parameters that were used to derive age-group-specific characteristics. Physiologic stress-stretch state was calculated to capture changes with aging. Morphometric and constitutive parameters were derived for seven age groups. Vessel radius, wall thickness, and circumferential opening angle increased with aging, while longitudinal pre-stretch decreased ([Formula: see text]). Age-group-specific constitutive parameters portrayed orthotropic FPA stiffening, especially in the longitudinal direction. Structural changes in artery wall elastin were associated with reduction of physiologic longitudinal and circumferential stretches and stresses with age. These data and the constitutive description of FPA aging shed new light on our understanding of peripheral arterial disease pathophysiology and arterial aging. Application of this knowledge might improve patient selection for specific treatment modalities in personalized, precision medicine algorithms and could assist in device development for treatment of peripheral artery disease.

  6. Monitored Geologic Repository Project Description Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. M. Curry

    2001-01-30

    The primary objective of the Monitored Geologic Repository Project Description Document (PDD) is to allocate the functions, requirements, and assumptions to the systems at Level 5 of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) architecture identified in Section 4. It provides traceability of the requirements to those contained in Section 3 of the ''Monitored Geologic Repository Requirements Document'' (MGR RD) (YMP 2000a) and other higher-level requirements documents. In addition, the PDD allocates design related assumptions to work products of non-design organizations. The document provides Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) technical requirements in support of design and performance assessment in preparing for the Site Recommendation (SR) and License Application (LA) milestones. The technical requirements documented in the PDD are to be captured in the System Description Documents (SDDs) which address each of the systems at Level 5 of the CRWMS architecture. The design engineers obtain the technical requirements from the SDDs and by reference from the SDDs to the PDD. The design organizations and other organizations will obtain design related assumptions directly from the PDD. These organizations may establish additional assumptions for their individual activities, but such assumptions are not to conflict with the assumptions in the PDD. The PDD will serve as the primary link between the technical requirements captured in the SDDs and the design requirements captured in US Department of Energy (DOE) documents. The approved PDD is placed under Level 3 baseline control by the CRWMS Management and Operating Contractor (M and O) and the following portions of the PDD constitute the Technical Design Baseline for the MGR: the design characteristics listed in Table 1-1, the MGR Architecture (Section 4.1), the Technical Requirements (Section 5), and the Controlled Project Assumptions (Section 6).

  7. Monitored Geologic Repository Project Description Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Curry

    2001-06-26

    The primary objective of the Monitored Geologic Repository Project Description Document (PDD) is to allocate the functions, requirements, and assumptions to the systems at Level 5 of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) architecture identified in Section 4. It provides traceability of the requirements to those contained in Section 3 of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Requirements Document (YMP RD) (YMP 2001a) and other higher-level requirements documents. In addition, the PDD allocates design related assumptions to work products of non-design organizations. The document provides Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) technical requirements in support of design and performance assessment in preparing for the Site Recommendation (SR) and License Application (LA) milestones. The technical requirements documented in the PDD are to be captured in the System Description Documents (SDDs) which address each of the systems at Level 5 of the CRWMS architecture. The design engineers obtain the technical requirements from the SDDs and by reference from the SDDs to the PDD. The design organizations and other organizations will obtain design related assumptions directly from the PDD. These organizations may establish additional assumptions for their individual activities, but such assumptions are not to conflict with the assumptions in the PDD. The PDD will serve as the primary link between the technical requirements captured in the SDDs and the design requirements captured in US Department of Energy (DOE) documents. The approved PDD is placed under Level 3 baseline control by the CRWMS Management and Operating Contractor (M&O) and the following portions of the PDD constitute the Technical Design Baseline for the MGR: the design characteristics listed in Table 1-1, the MGR Architecture (Section 4.1), the Technical Requirements (Section 5), and the Controlled Project Assumptions (Section 6).

  8. Design description of the Tangaye Village photovoltaic power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martz, J. E.; Ratajczak, A. F.

    1982-01-01

    The engineering design of a stand alone photovoltaic (PV) powered grain mill and water pump for the village of Tangaye, Upper Volta is described. The socioeconomic effects of reducing the time required by women in rural areas for drawing water and grinding grain were studied. The suitability of photovoltaic technology for use in rural areas by people of limited technical training was demonstrated. The PV system consists of a 1.8-kW (peak) solar cell array, 540 ampere hours of battery storage, instrumentation, automatic controls, and a data collection and storage system. The PV system is situated near an improved village well and supplies d.c. power to a grain mill and a water pump. The array is located in a fenced area and the mill, battery, instruments, controls, and data system are in a mill building. A water storage tank is located near the well. The system employs automatic controls which provide battery charge regulation and system over and under voltage protection. This report includes descriptions of the engineering design of the system and of the load that it serves; a discussion of PV array and battery sizing methodology; descriptions of the mechanical and electrical designs including the array, battery, controls, and instrumentation; and a discussion of the safety features. The system became operational on March 1, 1979.

  9. Focused Crawling of the Deep Web Using Service Class Descriptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocco, D; Liu, L; Critchlow, T

    2004-06-21

    Dynamic Web data sources--sometimes known collectively as the Deep Web--increase the utility of the Web by providing intuitive access to data repositories anywhere that Web access is available. Deep Web services provide access to real-time information, like entertainment event listings, or present a Web interface to large databases or other data repositories. Recent studies suggest that the size and growth rate of the dynamic Web greatly exceed that of the static Web, yet dynamic content is often ignored by existing search engine indexers owing to the technical challenges that arise when attempting to search the Deep Web. To address these challenges, we present DynaBot, a service-centric crawler for discovering and clustering Deep Web sources offering dynamic content. DynaBot has three unique characteristics. First, DynaBot utilizes a service class model of the Web implemented through the construction of service class descriptions (SCDs). Second, DynaBot employs a modular, self-tuning system architecture for focused crawling of the DeepWeb using service class descriptions. Third, DynaBot incorporates methods and algorithms for efficient probing of the Deep Web and for discovering and clustering Deep Web sources and services through SCD-based service matching analysis. Our experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the service class discovery, probing, and matching algorithms and suggest techniques for efficiently managing service discovery in the face of the immense scale of the Deep Web.

  10. A Quasilinear Description of Pedestal Transport induced by RMPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDevitt, Christopher; Tang, Xian-Zhu; Guo, Zehua

    2014-10-01

    The abrupt release of stored energy by large edge localized modes (ELM) and its subsequent deposition onto plasma facing components can place significant limitations on material lifetimes. Resonant magnetic perturbations (RMP) have been suggested as a means of tailoring pedestal profiles in order to suppress large ELM events. In this work, we utilize a quasilinear collision operator formulation in order to compute transport induced by a stochastic magnetic field. This formulation allows for phase transport induced by fluctuations (including field perturbations) as well as Coulomb collisions to be treated on an equal footing, hence allowing for general collisionality regimes to be treated. In addition, such a phase space formulation incorporates kinetic effects such as particle trapping as well as magnetic drifts, which are crucial to the description of pedestal transport. Particular emphasis is placed on determining the relative efficiency RMPs have on transporting density, current and heat in order to better understand how RMPs may be employed to shape pedestal profiles. Ongoing work is focused on the self-consistent description of the electric field induced by the response of the plasma to RMPs.

  11. Discourse Factors Influencing Spatial Descriptions in English and German

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorwerg, Constanze; Tenbrink, Thora

    The ways in which objects are referred to by using spatial language depend on many factors, including the spatial configuration and the discourse context. We present the results of a web experiment in which speakers were asked to either describe where a specified item was located in a picture containing several items, or which item was specified. Furthermore, conditions differed as to whether the first six configurations were specifically simple or specifically complex. Results show that speakers' spatial descriptions are more detailed if the question is where rather than which, mirroring the fact that contrasting the target item from the others in which tasks may not always require an equally detailed spatial description as in where tasks. Furthermore, speakers are influenced by the complexity of initial configurations in intricate ways: on the one hand, individual speakers tend to self-align with respect to their earlier linguistic strategies; however, also a contrast effect could be identified with respect to the usage of combined projective terms.

  12. Design description of the Tangaye Village photovoltaic power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martz, J. E.; Ratajczak, A. F.

    1982-06-01

    The engineering design of a stand alone photovoltaic (PV) powered grain mill and water pump for the village of Tangaye, Upper Volta is described. The socioeconomic effects of reducing the time required by women in rural areas for drawing water and grinding grain were studied. The suitability of photovoltaic technology for use in rural areas by people of limited technical training was demonstrated. The PV system consists of a 1.8-kW (peak) solar cell array, 540 ampere hours of battery storage, instrumentation, automatic controls, and a data collection and storage system. The PV system is situated near an improved village well and supplies d.c. power to a grain mill and a water pump. The array is located in a fenced area and the mill, battery, instruments, controls, and data system are in a mill building. A water storage tank is located near the well. The system employs automatic controls which provide battery charge regulation and system over and under voltage protection. This report includes descriptions of the engineering design of the system and of the load that it serves; a discussion of PV array and battery sizing methodology; descriptions of the mechanical and electrical designs including the array, battery, controls, and instrumentation; and a discussion of the safety features. The system became operational on March 1, 1979.

  13. Employing a Qualitative Description Approach in Health Care Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Carmel; Atkinson, Sandra; Doody, Owen

    2017-01-01

    A qualitative description design is particularly relevant where information is required directly from those experiencing the phenomenon under investigation and where time and resources are limited. Nurses and midwives often have clinical questions suitable to a qualitative approach but little time to develop an exhaustive comprehension of qualitative methodological approaches. Qualitative description research is sometimes considered a less sophisticated approach for epistemological reasons. Another challenge when considering qualitative description design is differentiating qualitative description from other qualitative approaches. This article provides a systematic and robust journey through the philosophical, ontological, and epistemological perspectives, which evidences the purpose of qualitative description research. Methods and rigor issues underpinning qualitative description research are also appraised to provide the researcher with a systematic approach to conduct research utilizing this approach. The key attributes and value of qualitative description research in the health care professions will be highlighted with the aim of extending its usage.

  14. "Who Doesn't?"--The Impact of Descriptive Norms on Corruption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils C Köbis

    Full Text Available Corruption poses one of the major societal challenges of our time. Considerable advances have been made in understanding corruption on a macro level, yet the psychological antecedents of corrupt behavior remain largely unknown. In order to explain why some people engage in corruption while others do not, we explored the impact of descriptive social norms on corrupt behavior by using a novel behavioral measure of corruption. We conducted three studies to test whether perceived descriptive norms of corruption (i.e. the belief about the prevalence of corruption in a specific context influence corrupt behavior. The results indicated that descriptive norms highly correlate with corrupt behavior--both when measured before (Study 1 or after (Study 2 the behavioral measure of corruption. Finally, we adopted an experimental design to investigate the causal effect of descriptive norms on corruption (Study 3. Corrupt behavior in the corruption game significantly drops when participants receive short anti-corruption descriptive norm primes prior to the game. These findings indicate that perceived descriptive norms can impact corrupt behavior and, possibly, could offer an explanation for inter-personal and inter-cultural variation in corrupt behavior in the real world. We discuss implications of these findings and draw avenues for future research.

  15. “Who Doesn’t?”—The Impact of Descriptive Norms on Corruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köbis, Nils C.; van Prooijen, Jan-Willem; Righetti, Francesca; Van Lange, Paul A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Corruption poses one of the major societal challenges of our time. Considerable advances have been made in understanding corruption on a macro level, yet the psychological antecedents of corrupt behavior remain largely unknown. In order to explain why some people engage in corruption while others do not, we explored the impact of descriptive social norms on corrupt behavior by using a novel behavioral measure of corruption. We conducted three studies to test whether perceived descriptive norms of corruption (i.e. the belief about the prevalence of corruption in a specific context) influence corrupt behavior. The results indicated that descriptive norms highly correlate with corrupt behavior—both when measured before (Study 1) or after (Study 2) the behavioral measure of corruption. Finally, we adopted an experimental design to investigate the causal effect of descriptive norms on corruption (Study 3). Corrupt behavior in the corruption game significantly drops when participants receive short anti-corruption descriptive norm primes prior to the game. These findings indicate that perceived descriptive norms can impact corrupt behavior and, possibly, could offer an explanation for inter-personal and inter-cultural variation in corrupt behavior in the real world. We discuss implications of these findings and draw avenues for future research. PMID:26121127

  16. "Who Doesn't?"--The Impact of Descriptive Norms on Corruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köbis, Nils C; van Prooijen, Jan-Willem; Righetti, Francesca; Van Lange, Paul A M

    2015-01-01

    Corruption poses one of the major societal challenges of our time. Considerable advances have been made in understanding corruption on a macro level, yet the psychological antecedents of corrupt behavior remain largely unknown. In order to explain why some people engage in corruption while others do not, we explored the impact of descriptive social norms on corrupt behavior by using a novel behavioral measure of corruption. We conducted three studies to test whether perceived descriptive norms of corruption (i.e. the belief about the prevalence of corruption in a specific context) influence corrupt behavior. The results indicated that descriptive norms highly correlate with corrupt behavior--both when measured before (Study 1) or after (Study 2) the behavioral measure of corruption. Finally, we adopted an experimental design to investigate the causal effect of descriptive norms on corruption (Study 3). Corrupt behavior in the corruption game significantly drops when participants receive short anti-corruption descriptive norm primes prior to the game. These findings indicate that perceived descriptive norms can impact corrupt behavior and, possibly, could offer an explanation for inter-personal and inter-cultural variation in corrupt behavior in the real world. We discuss implications of these findings and draw avenues for future research.

  17. A descriptive ecosystem model - a strategy for model development during site investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loefgren, Anders [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Botany; Lindborg, Tobias [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-09-01

    This report describes a strategy for the development of a site descriptive model for the surface ecosystem on the potential deep repository sites. The surface ecosystem embraces many disciplines, and these have to be identified, described and integrated in order to construct a descriptive ecosystem model that describes and quantifies biotic and abiotic patterns and processes of importance for the ecosystem on the site. The descriptive model includes both present day conditions and historical information. The descriptive ecosystem model will be used to supply input data for the safety assessment and to serve as the baseline model for devising a monitoring program to detect short-term disturbances caused first by the site investigations and later by the construction of the deep repository. Furthermore, it will serve as a reference for future comparisons to determine more long-term effects or changes caused by the deep repository. The report adopts a non-site-specific approach focusing on the following aims: 1. To present and define the properties that will constitute the descriptive ecosystem model. 2. To present a methodology for determining those properties. 3. To describe and develop the framework for the descriptive ecosystem model by integrating the different properties. 4. To present vital data from other site descriptive models such as those for geology or hydrogeology that interacts with and affects the descriptive ecosystem model. The properties are described under four different sections: general physical properties of the landscape, the terrestrial system, the limnic system and the marine system. These headings are further subdivided into entities that integrate properties in relation to processes.

  18. The history of endemic Iberian ground beetle description (Insecta, Coleoptera, Carabidae): which species were described first?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Valverde, Alberto; Ortuño, Vicente M.

    2007-01-01

    iological correlates of species description dates can be used to predict the characteristics of yet-to-be-described species. Such information can be useful in the planning of biodiversity field surveys. This paper explores the influence of five factors—body size, geographic range size, geographic location, habitat and number of congeners—on the probability of description of endemic Iberian ground-beetles, and attempts to identify the effects of each factor, alone or in combination, through variation partitioning. Small-bodied and hypogean species were found to have been described later, as were those with smaller geographic ranges, while the number of congeners did not significantly affect description date. Additionally, Eastern hypogean species were described earlier than Western ones because of major lithology differences from east to west in the Iberian Peninsula, and concomitant geographic taxonomic bias. However, effects of each factor alone are quite small in comparison with effects of the combination of factors, due to their considerable correlation. Thus, "rarity", in its broadest sense, has been the determining factor of date of description of endemic Iberian ground-beetles. Previously, the technical difficulty encountered in the study of rare species retarded their description, whereas now they have become a "fashionable" object of study among carabidologists, due to the possibility of rapid publication. In order to improve the incomplete checklist of Iberian ground beetles it would be necessary to focus sampling efforts on marginal habitats and hypogean fauna.

  19. AHTR Refueling Systems and Process Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varma, V.K.; Holcomb, D.E.; Bradley, E.C.; Zaharia, N.M.; Cooper, E.J.

    2012-07-15

    The Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (AHTR) is a design concept for a central station-type [1500 MW(e)] Fluoride salt–cooled High-temperature Reactor (FHR) that is currently undergoing development by Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the US. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy’s Advanced Reactor Concepts program. FHRs, by definition, feature low-pressure liquid fluoride salt cooling, coated-particle fuel, a high-temperature power cycle, and fully passive decay heat rejection. The overall goal of the AHTR development program is to demonstrate the technical feasibility of FHRs as low-cost, large-size power producers while maintaining full passive safety. The AHTR is approaching a preconceptual level of maturity. An initial integrated layout of its major systems, structures, and components (SSCs), and an initial, high-level sequence of operations necessary for constructing and operating the plant is nearing completion. An overview of the current status of the AHTR concept has been recently published [1], and a report providing a more detailed overview of the AHTR structures and mechanical systems is currently in preparation. This report documents the refueling components and processes envisioned at this early development phase. The report is limited to the refueling aspects of the AHTR and does not include overall reactor or power plant design information. The report, however, does include a description of the materials envisioned for the various components and the instrumentation necessary to control the refueling process. The report begins with an overview of the refueling strategy. Next a mechanical description of the AHTR fuel assemblies and core is provided. The reactor vessel upper assemblies are then described. Following this the refueling path structures and the refueling mechanisms and components are described. The sequence of operations necessary to fuel and defuel the reactor is then discussed. The report concludes with a discussion of the

  20. AHTR Refueling Systems and Process Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varma, Venugopal Koikal [ORNL; Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Bradley, Eric Craig [ORNL; Zaharia, Nathaniel M [ORNL; Cooper, Eliott J [ORNL

    2012-07-01

    The Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (AHTR) is a design concept for a central station-type [1500 MW(e)] Fluoride salt-cooled High-temperature Reactor (FHR) that is currently undergoing development by Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the US. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy's Advanced Reactor Concepts program. FHRs, by definition, feature low-pressure liquid fluoride salt cooling, coated-particle fuel, a high-temperature power cycle, and fully passive decay heat rejection. The overall goal of the AHTR development program is to demonstrate the technical feasibility of FHRs as low-cost, large-size power producers while maintaining full passive safety. The AHTR is approaching a preconceptual level of maturity. An initial integrated layout of its major systems, structures, and components (SSCs), and an initial, high-level sequence of operations necessary for constructing and operating the plant is nearing completion. An overview of the current status of the AHTR concept has been recently published and a report providing a more detailed overview of the AHTR structures and mechanical systems is currently in preparation. This report documents the refueling components and processes envisioned at this early development phase. The report is limited to the refueling aspects of the AHTR and does not include overall reactor or power plant design information. The report, however, does include a description of the materials envisioned for the various components and the instrumentation necessary to control the refueling process. The report begins with an overview of the refueling strategy. Next a mechanical description of the AHTR fuel assemblies and core is provided. The reactor vessel upper assemblies are then described. Following this the refueling path structures and the refueling mechanisms and components are described. The sequence of operations necessary to fuel and defuel the reactor is then discussed. The report concludes with a discussion of the

  1. Perianesthesia Nurses Are My Second Family: A Qualitative Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seefeldt, Julanne; Wood, Stacey; Bolton, Pamela; Fitzpatrick, Tara; Stegenga, Kristin; Roberts, Cristine

    2017-12-01

    Identify the perceptions of perianesthesia nurses regarding behaviors that promote or detract from sustaining a safe, efficient, and satisfying work environment. Two focus groups and seven individual interviews (n=14) were conducted exploring the perceptions regarding team behavior of registered nurses in one pediatric perianesthesia unit. Qualitative descriptive data collection, inductive content analysis. Nurses described a responsive, engaged health care team whose leadership is available and directive when needed, as creating an effective, satisfying work environment. Primary themes that emerged were Leadership Sets the Tone, Playing Fair, No One Gets Hurt, and Why We Stay. This nursing team acknowledged that inattentive, distracted team members cause frustration, work inequities, and care delays, potentially undermining patient safety. Results demonstrate the need to create and sustain consistently respectful perianesthesia work cultures. Research focusing on unit specific approaches to work distribution, communication, leadership, and technology use is needed. Copyright © 2016 American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Generalized description of intermittency in turbulence via stochastic methods

    CERN Document Server

    Friedrich, J

    2016-01-01

    We present a generalized picture of intermittency in turbulence that is based on the theory of stochastic processes. To this end, we rely on the experimentally and numerically verified finding by R.~Friedrich and J.~Peinke [Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 863 (1997)] that allows for an interpretation of the turbulent energy cascade as a Markov process of the velocity increments in scale. It is explicitly shown that all known phenomenological models of turbulence can be reproduced by the Kramers-Moyal expansion of the velocity increment probability density function that is associated to a Markov process. We compare the different sets of Kramers-Moyal coefficients of each phenomenology and deduce that an accurate description of intermittency should take into account an infinite number of coefficients. This is demonstrated in more detail for the case of Burgers turbulence that exhibits the strongest intermittency effects. Moreover, the influence of nonlocality on the Kramers-Moyal coefficients is investigated by direct num...

  3. Global warming description using Daisyworld model with greenhouse gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Susana L D; Savi, Marcelo A; Viola, Flavio M; Leiroz, Albino J K

    2014-11-01

    Daisyworld is an archetypal model of the earth that is able to describe the global regulation that can emerge from the interaction between life and environment. This article proposes a model based on the original Daisyworld considering greenhouse gases emission and absorption, allowing the description of the global warming phenomenon. Global and local analyses are discussed evaluating the influence of greenhouse gases in the planet dynamics. Numerical simulations are carried out showing the general qualitative behavior of the Daisyworld for different scenarios that includes solar luminosity variations and greenhouse gases effect. Nonlinear dynamics perspective is of concern discussing a way that helps the comprehension of the global warming phenomenon. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Descriptive drinking norms in Native American and non-Hispanic White college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagler, Kylee J; Pearson, Matthew R; Venner, Kamilla L; Greenfield, Brenna L

    2017-09-01

    College students tend to overestimate how much their peers drink, which is associated with higher personal alcohol use. However, research has not yet examined if this phenomenon holds true among Native American (NA) college students. This study examined associations between descriptive norms and alcohol use/consequences in a sample of NA and non-Hispanic White (NHW) college students. NA (n=147, 78.6% female) and NHW (n=246, 67.8% female) undergraduates completed an online survey. NAs NHWs showed similar descriptive norms such that the "typical college student," "typical NA student," and "typical NHW student" were perceived to drink more than "best friends." "Best friends" descriptive norms (i.e., estimations of how many drinks per week were consumed by participants' best friends) were the most robust predictors of alcohol use/consequences. Effect size estimates of the associations between drinking norms and participants' alcohol use were consistently positive and ranged from r=0.25 to r=0.51 across the four reference groups. Negative binomial hurdle models revealed that all descriptive norms tended to predict drinking, and "best friends" drinking norms predicted alcohol consequences. Apart from one interaction effect, likely due to familywise error rate, these associations were not qualified by interactions with racial/ethnic group. We found similar patterns between NAs and NHWs both in the pattern of descriptive norms across reference groups and in the strength of associations between descriptive norms and alcohol use/consequences. Although these results suggest that descriptive norms operate similarly among NAs as other college students, additional research is needed to identify whether other norms (e.g., injunctive norms) operate similarly across NA and NHW students. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Delegation in Long-term Care: Scope of practice or job description?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corazzini, Kirsten N; Anderson, Ruth A; Rapp, Carla Gene; Mueller, Christine; McConnell, Eleanor S; Lekan, Deborah

    2010-05-31

    This study is a qualitative, descriptive study of how registered nurses (RNs) (N=33) in leadership roles in institutionalized long-term care settings delegate care, including their strategies and processes for delegating care, and their perceptions of barriers to effective delegation and potential benefits of delegation. Findings indicate two key approaches to delegation, including the "follow the job description" approach, emphasizing adherence to facility-level roles and job descriptions, and the "consider the scope of practice" approach, emphasizing consideration of multiple aspects of scope of practice and licensure, and the context of care. While the former resulted in more clarity and certainty for the RN, the latter facilitated a focus on quality of resident care outcomes as linked to the delegation process. Barriers to effective delegation were comparable among RNs using either approach to delegation, and almost all RNs could describe benefits of delegation for long-term care.

  6. A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY ON THE TEACHER TALK AT EYL CLASSROOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liani Setiawati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The use of constructive teacher talk (TT is very important and effective in scaffolding young learners to improve their skill in target language. Nevertheless, there is an argument that too much teacher talk can even decrease students’ motivation. The present study tries to reveal the suitable amount and the students’ perception of teacher talk. Apart from that, there is an attempt to find out the features of teacher talk, the frequency of either display and referential questions or teachers’ assessments and ways in giving feedback. This descriptive study is conducted to find out how teachers make use of their teacher talk naturally in classroom settings. To gain deeper insight and understanding, both qualitative and quantitative research design were employed. The qualitative data were obtained through direct observation and teachers – students’ interview. Moreover, the teachers – students’ questionnaire, video recording and field notes also added significant value towards the findings of this study. Quantitative data, on the other hand, were gained from the calculation of students’ questionnaire scores which are represented in percentage. Both qualitative and quantitative data were coded, categorized, interpreted, descriptively described and finally displayed in the form of tables. The research findings show that despite the teacher talk’s capability to be good model for young learners,  most students found the class more motivating, interesting, and challenging when the teachers minimized their teacher talk  and made use not only more constructive teacher talk but also  interesting activities. In conclusion, since teacher talk serves not only as a medium to achieve young learners’s learning objectives but also as a tool to build better dynamic interaction between teacher and students in classroom settings, it is advisable for all EFL teachers to improve their effective constructive talk towards their students

  7. A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY ON THE TEACHER TALK AT EYL CLASSROOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liani Setiawati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of constructive teacher talk (TT is very important and effective in scaffolding young learners to improve their skill in target language. Nevertheless, there is an argument that too much teacher talk can even decrease students’ motivation. The present study tries to reveal the suitable amount and the students’ perception of teacher talk. Apart from that, there is an attempt to find out the features of teacher talk, the frequency of either display and referential questions or teachers’ assessments and ways in giving feedback. This descriptive study is conducted to find out how teachers make use of their teacher talk naturally in classroom settings. To gain deeper insight and understanding, both qualitative and quantitative research design were employed. The qualitative data were obtained through direct observation and teachers – students’ interview. Moreover, the teachers – students’ questionnaire, video recording and field notes also added significant value towards the findings of this study. Quantitative data, on the other hand, were gained from the calculation of students’ questionnaire scores which are represented in percentage. Both qualitative and quantitative data were coded, categorized, interpreted, descriptively described and finally displayed in the form of tables. The research findings show that despite the teacher talk’s capability to be good model for young learners, most students found the class more motivating, interesting, and challenging when the teachers minimized their teacher talk and made use not only more constructive teacher talk but also interesting activities. In conclusion, since teacher talk serves not only as a medium to achieve young learners’s learning objectives but also as a tool to build better dynamic interaction between teacher and students in classroom settings, it is advisable for all EFL teachers to improve their effective constructive talk towards their students.

  8. Image Description using Radial Associated Laguerre Moments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojun Pan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a new set of moment functions for describing gray-level and color images based on the associated Laguerre polynomials, which are orthogonal over the whole right-half plane. Moreover, the mathematical frameworks of radial associated Laguerre moments (RALMs and associated rotation invariants are introduced. The proposed radial Laguerre invariants retain the basic form of disc-based moments, such as Zernike moments (ZMs, pseudo-Zernike moments (PZMs, Fourier-Mellin moments (OFMMs, and so on. Therefore, the rotation invariants of RALMs can be easily obtained. In addition, the study extends the proposed moments and invariants defined in a gray-level image to a color image using the algebra of quaternion to avoid losing some significant color information. Finally, the paper verifies the feature description capacities of the proposed moment function in terms of image reconstruction and invariant pattern recognition accuracy. Experimental results confirmed that the associated Laguerre moments (ALMs perform better than orthogonal OFMMs in both noise-free and noisy conditions.

  9. A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY ON COMPLICATIONS OF TRACHEOSTOMY

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    Anjali Chandrika

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Tracheostomy is a lifesaving procedure that has stood the test of time. Reports of surgically securing the airway dates back to ancient times. However, Chevalier Jackson is credited with the first clear open surgical description in 1909. Only during the last three decades has this operation assumed its rightful place as a simple and safe procedure. During recent years, the complications and deaths due to tracheostomy have markedly decreased. But, complications do occur and there is not much published data, especially in the recent years on complications of tracheostomy. Hence, this study was conducted at Government Medical College, Thiruvananthapuram, to assess the incidence of immediate, intermediate and late complications of tracheostomy and to study the steps taken to manage these complications. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study was conducted on 205 patients who underwent tracheostomy, both emergency and elective between June 2013 and December 2014 at Medical College Hospital, Thiruvananthapuram. RESULTS The incidence of complications was found to be 28.3%. The most common immediate complications were bleeding and cardiopulmonary arrest. The most common intermediate complication was infection and difficult decannulation was the most common late complication. CONCLUSION Knowledge of probable complications and their causative factors is necessary to tackle and prevent them. Majority of the complications can be avoided by using non-metallic tracheostomy tubes, patients seeking early treatment, the expertise of the surgeon, adequate tracheostomy care and regular follow up.

  10. Improved motion description for action classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihir eJain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Even though the importance of explicitly integrating motion characteristics in video descriptions has been demonstrated by several recent papers on action classification, our current work concludes that adequately decomposing visual motion into dominant and residual motions, i.e.: camera and scene motion, significantly improves action recognition algorithms. This holds true both for the extraction of the space-time trajectories and for computation of descriptors.We designed a new motion descriptor – the DCS descriptor – that captures additional information on local motion patterns enhancing results based on differential motion scalar quantities, divergence, curl and shear features. Finally, applying the recent VLAD coding technique proposed in image retrieval provides a substantial improvement for action recognition. These findings are complementary to each other and they outperformed all previously reported results by a significant margin on three challenging datasets: Hollywood 2, HMDB51 and Olympic Sports as reported in (Jain et al. (2013. These results were further improved by (Oneata et al. (2013; Wang and Schmid (2013; Zhu et al. (2013 through the use of the Fisher vector encoding. We therefore also employ Fisher vector in this paper and we further enhance our approach by combining trajectories from both optical flow and compensated flow. We as well provide additional details of DCS descriptors, including visualization. For extending the evaluation, a novel dataset with 101 action classes, UCF101, was added.

  11. Description and epidemiology of nursing caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milnes, A R

    1996-01-01

    Nursing caries is a virulent form of tooth decay that affects the primary dentition of infants and preschool children. The purpose of this paper is to review the scientific literature to describe the clinical characteristics of this disease and to report on its prevalence in various locations and populations around the world. A Medline search was completed using the key words below. All English-language articles that reported on the prevalence of caries involving the primary maxillary incisors in preschool children in association with feeding habits were included in the review. Nursing caries is associated with ad libitum bottle feeding, particularly at naptime or nighttime, and has been reported in children who engage in demand breastfeeding. A substantial body of literature from numerous countries now exists that documents the prevalence of nursing caries. In developed countries the prevalence is reported to vary between 1 percent and 12 percent. However, in developing countries and within disadvantaged populations in developed countries, the prevalence has been reported to be as high as 70 percent in the preschool population. A universally accepted definition for nursing caries does not exist and methods used to define the condition, establish study populations, and collect prevalence data vary widely among studies. This review provides a detailed clinical description of nursing caries, reviews the characteristics of children who may be at risk for nursing caries, and reviews the prevalence data for nursing caries for countries that have reported it, and suggests directions for research into nursing caries etiology and prevalence.

  12. New science teachers' descriptions of inquiry enactment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreon, Oliver, Jr.

    This phenomenological study demonstrates the influence that affective factors have on beginning teachers' ability to enact instructional practices. Through narratives shared in interviews and web log postings, two beginning science teachers' emotional engagement with their instructional practices, especially that of implementing inquiry-based instruction, and the resulting impact these emotions had on professional decision-making were evidenced. Anxiety emerged as the most significant impacting emotion on instructional decision-making with the participants. Through their stories, the two participants describe how their emotions and views of self influence whether they continue using inquiry pedagogy or alter their lesson to adopt more didactic means of instruction. These emotions arise from their feelings of being comfortable teaching the content (self-efficacy), from the unpredictability of inquiry lessons (control beliefs), from how they perceive their students as viewing them (teacher identity) and from various school constraints (agency). This research also demonstrates how intertwined these aspects are, informing each other in a complex, dialectical fashion. The participants' self-efficacy and professional identity emerge from their interactions with the community (their students and colleagues) and the perceived agency afforded by their schools' curricula and administration. By providing descriptions of teachers' experiences enacting inquiry pedagogy, this study expands our understanding of factors that influence teachers' instructional practices and provides a basis for reforming science teacher preparation.

  13. Chiropractic and CAM Utilization: A Descriptive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meeker William C

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To conduct a descriptive review of the scientific literature examining use rates of modalities and procedures used by CAM clinicians to manage chronic LBP and other conditions Data Sources A literature of PubMed and MANTIS was performed using the key terms Chiropractic; Low Back Pain; Utilization Rate; Use Rate; Complementary and Alternative Medicine; and Health Services in various combinations. Data Selection A total of 137 papers were selected, based upon including information about chiropractic utilization, CAM utilization and low back pain and other conditions. Data Synthesis Information was extracted from each paper addressing use of chiropractic and CAM, and is summarized in tabular form. Results Thematic analysis of the paper topics indicated that there were 5 functional areas covered by the literature: back pain papers, general chiropractic papers, insurance-related papers, general CAM-related papers; and worker's compensation papers. Conclusion Studies looking at chiropractic utilization demonstrate that the rates vary, but generally fall into a range from around 6% to 12% of the population, most of whom seek chiropractic care for low back pain and not for organic disease or visceral dysfunction. CAM is itself used by people suffering from a variety of conditions, though it is often used not as a primary intervention, but rather as an additional form of care. CAM and chiropractic often offer lower costs for comparable results compared to conventional medicine.

  14. Who's minding the charge description master?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaum, Kathleen D

    2011-11-01

    Just as it takes a team to manage chronic wounds, it takes a team to maintain the CDM. The technical staff from the wound care department should be represented on this team and should share the appropriate HCPCS codes and CPT codes, product descriptions, and costs for all procedures, services, supplies, drugs, and biologics used in their department. The billing department should ensure that the appropriate revenue codes for each payer are listed for each item on the CDM. Based on costs supplied by the wound care department, the finance department should consistently assign hospital charges to each line item on the CDM. The information technology department is responsible for making the specific changes to the CDM in the computer system. Most hospitals have a CDM coordinator. The technical staff from the wound care department should work closely with the CDM coordinator and should obtain from him/her the policies and procedures for maintaining the wound care department CDM. Most CDM coordinators will also provide a CDM Change Request Form. Use that form each year when the hospital is performing its annual CDM maintenance and throughout the year to add procedures, services, supplies, drugs, or biologics to your wound care offerings and/or when the cost for these offerings change.

  15. Class II malocclusion occlusal severity description

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    Guilherme Janson

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: It is well known that the efficacy and the efficiency of a Class II malocclusion treatment are aspects closely related to the severity of the dental anteroposterior discrepancy. Even though, sample selection based on cephalometric variables without considering the severity of the occlusal anteroposterior discrepancy is still common in current papers. In some of them, when occlusal parameters are chosen, the severity is often neglected. The purpose of this study is to verify the importance given to the classification of Class II malocclusion, based on the criteria used for sample selection in a great number of papers published in the orthodontic journal with the highest impact factor. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A search was performed in PubMed database for full-text research papers referencing Class II malocclusion in the history of the American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (AJO-DO. RESULTS: A total of 359 papers were retrieved, among which only 72 (20.06% papers described the occlusal severity of the Class II malocclusion sample. In the other 287 (79.94% papers that did not specify the anteroposterior discrepancy severity, description was considered to be crucial in 159 (55.40% of them. CONCLUSIONS: Omission in describing the occlusal severity demands a cautious interpretation of 44.29% of the papers retrieved in this study.

  16. GOOD GOVERNANCE: NORMATIVE VS. DESCRIPTIVE DIMENSION

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    Ciprian IFTIMOAEI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The concept of “good governance” was used for the first time in the 1989 World Bank Report – Sub-Saharan Africa: From Crisis to Sustainable Growth. A Long-Term Perspective Study – and has already made history in international studies, especially after the breakdown of the communist regimes. The governance has to do with authority, decision-making and accountability.The good governance is defined as the capacity of the government to manage a nation’s affaires, to provide economic development, welfare for citizens, and social protection for the poor. In this article,the concept of good governance is analysed according to two main dimensions: the normative dimension which comprises principles, values and norms that are guiding the international community and the governments in the management of policymaking process;the descriptive dimension which refers to the practical aspects of implementing the good governance’s standards as policies, programmes and structural reforms with the aim of solving or ameliorating the problems of developing countries.

  17. Receptive fields selection for binary feature description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Bin; Kong, Qingqun; Trzcinski, Tomasz; Wang, Zhiheng; Pan, Chunhong; Fua, Pascal

    2014-06-01

    Feature description for local image patch is widely used in computer vision. While the conventional way to design local descriptor is based on expert experience and knowledge, learning-based methods for designing local descriptor become more and more popular because of their good performance and data-driven property. This paper proposes a novel data-driven method for designing binary feature descriptor, which we call receptive fields descriptor (RFD). Technically, RFD is constructed by thresholding responses of a set of receptive fields, which are selected from a large number of candidates according to their distinctiveness and correlations in a greedy way. Using two different kinds of receptive fields (namely rectangular pooling area and Gaussian pooling area) for selection, we obtain two binary descriptors RFDR and RFDG .accordingly. Image matching experiments on the well-known patch data set and Oxford data set demonstrate that RFD significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art binary descriptors, and is comparable with the best float-valued descriptors at a fraction of processing time. Finally, experiments on object recognition tasks confirm that both RFDR and RFDG successfully bridge the performance gap between binary descriptors and their floating-point competitors.

  18. Applications the Lagrangian description in aperiodic flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Carolina; Mancho, Ana Maria

    2012-11-01

    We use several recently developed Lagrangian tools for describing transport in general aperiodic flows. In our approach the first step is based in a Lagrangian descriptor (the so called function M). It measures the length of particle trajectories on the ocean surface over a given interval of time. We describe its output over satellite altimetry data on the Kuroshio current. The technique is combined with the direct computation of manifolds of Distinguished Hyperbolic trajectories and a very detailed description of transport is achieved across an eddy and a jet on the Kuroshio current,. A second velocity data set is examined with the M function tool. These are obtained from the HYCOM project on the Gulf of Mexico during the time of the oil-spill. We have identified underlying Lagrangian structures and dynamics. We acknowledge to the hospitality of the university of Delaware and the assistance of Bruce Lipphardt and Helga Huntley in accessing the model data sets. We acknowledge to the grants: UPM-AL12-PAC-09, Becas de Movilidad de Caja Madrid 2011, MTM2011-26696 and ILINK-0145.

  19. Ceramic corrosion/erosion project description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakaishi, C.V.; Carpenter, L.K.

    1981-02-01

    As a part of the United States Department of Energy's High Temperature Turbine Technology Program, the Morgantown Energy Technology Center is participating in a Ceramics Corrosion/Erosion Materials Study. Objective is to create a technology base for ceramic materials which could be used by stationary gas power turbines operating with a high-temperature, coal-derived, low-Btu gas products of combustion environment. Two facilities are designed and installed to burn a varying low-Btu coal-derived gas in a controlled manner. This report contains the objectives and testing philosophy as well as the operating, specimen handling, and emergency procedures for the facilities. The facilities were checked out in August/September 1980. Testing is scheduled to begin in late 1980 with completion of 1000 hours of ceramic materials exposure to be completed by early 1981. Most of the enclosed is an update of two METC Information Releases (IR), i.e., IR 442 (1979) Test Plan for Ceramic Corrosion/Erosion Project, and IR 817 (1980) Ceramic Corrosion/Erosion Project Description.

  20. Logistic description of investment and construction management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sborshchikov Sergey Borisovich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the questions of defining dynamic behavior of investment and construction activity as a technical and economic system and its formalized description. It is offered to use the term "condition vector" as one of the main characteristics while describing investment and construction activity. Logistic interpretation of a sustainable development of investment and construction defines the concept of optimum trajectory, which considers various dependencies of its components (construction operations, their preparation, design, material, technique, personnel, information, investment, etc.. It is necessary to point out that this state is homeostatic, which means, the managing system must provide continuous monitoring of each system component of investment and construction activities in accordance with the sustainable development pathway. The concept of dynamic balance used in logistics is identical to the concept of homeostatic balance, which is accepted in system engineering. It is defined as a property of technical and economic system, which implies that its deviations from the development pathway lie within admissible values.

  1. Database Description - PSCDB | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available abase Description General information of database Database name PSCDB Alternative n...rial Science and Technology (AIST) Takayuki Amemiya E-mail: Database classification Structure Databases - Protein structure Database...554-D558. External Links: Original website information Database maintenance site Graduate School of Informat...available URL of Web services - Need for user registration Not available About This Database Database Descri...ption Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Database Description - PSCDB | LSDB Archive ...

  2. Automated Linguistic Personality Description and Recognition Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danylyuk Illya

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The relevance of our research, above all, is theoretically motivated by the development of extraordinary scientific and practical interest in the possibilities of language processing of huge amount of data generated by people in everyday professional and personal life in the electronic forms of communication (e-mail, sms, voice, audio and video blogs, social networks, etc.. Purpose: The purpose of the article is to describe the theoretical and practical framework of the project "Communicative-pragmatic and discourse-grammatical lingvopersonology: structuring linguistic identity and computer modeling". The description of key techniques is given, such as machine learning for language modeling, speech synthesis, handwriting simulation. Results: Lingvopersonology developed some great theoretical foundations, its methods, tools, and significant achievements let us predict that the newest promising trend is a linguistic identity modeling by means of information technology, including language. We see three aspects of the modeling: 1 modeling the semantic level of linguistic identity – by means of the use of corpus linguistics; 2 sound level formal modeling of linguistic identity – with the help of speech synthesis; 3 formal graphic level modeling of linguistic identity – with the help of image synthesis (handwriting. For the first case, we suppose to use machine learning technics and vector-space (word2vec algorithm for textual speech modeling. Hybrid CUTE method for personality speech modeling will be applied to the second case. Finally, trained with the person handwriting images neural network can be an instrument for the last case. Discussion: The project "Communicative-pragmatic, discourse, and grammatical lingvopersonology: structuring linguistic identity and computer modeling", which is implementing by the Department of General and Applied Linguistics and Slavonic philology, selected a task to model Yuriy Shevelyov (Sherekh

  3. Descriptive Data of Patients with Venous Thromboembolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gul Ilhan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study was designed for collecting descriptive data about diagnosis and treatment of patients diagnosed with venous thromboembolism (VTE in an university hospital and for reflecting approach to VTE in such a reference hospital in this way. Material and Methods: We evaluated archive records of patients disgnosed with deep vein thrombosis (DVT and pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE between 2000 an 2005. Age average of patients was advanced and most of them were women. They had DVT, PTE, DVT and PTE respectively. Most common diagnostic method used for PTE was computed thomogrphy (CT, for DVT was ultrasonography (USG. VTE was diagnosed most frequently in emergency services and policlinics. Most common chronic risk factors for VTE were cancer, heart failure/romathismal cardiac disease, hyperlipidemia/atherosclerosis and obesity. Risk factors spesific to the attacks (or temporary were immobilization, surgery, pregnancy, taking oral contraseptive drugs and trauma. Results: In patients investigated for hemostatic risk factors, Factor V Leiden, Prothrombin 20210 A , and MTHFR mutations were found respectively. Symptoms and findings of patients admitted with PTE were dyspnea-tachipnea, tachycardia, palpitation, pleural pain, caugh, fever, anginal pain, hemopthysis, diaphoresis and wheezing . Echocardiography gave positive results for the most of PTE cases. D-dimer test was found high sensitive. Treatments during accute attacks were low moleculer weight heparin (LMWH, standart heparin, thrombolytic therapy, surgery, aspirine and vena cava inferior filter placement. Acute term complications were death, bleeding and heparin induced thrombocytopenia. Conclusion: This retrospective study reflects the approach of VTE diagnosis and treatment in a reference hospital and it may guide for prospective studies. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(4.000: 610-616

  4. Health leaders of tomorrow: a descriptive analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levey, L M; Lane, M S; Baretich, M; Levey, S

    1989-01-01

    The dramatically changing environment of the health care executive prompted the current survey of graduate students in health administration. The survey examined the types of attitudes and values that may influence students' future leadership style and ethical decision making. A self-administered questionnaire was designed to provide descriptive information as well as to allow comparisons with recent surveys of practitioners and peers and with other research. Respondents to the survey, conducted in the fall of 1986, included nearly half of the full-time students in 56 participating AUPHA graduate programs and one-quarter of the part-time students (N = 1,764). Students' characteristics such as age, sex, religious preference, work experience, and career aspirations were assessed in relation to their social philosophy on health issues, instrumental and terminal values, attitudes toward achievement, and degree of idealism versus relativism in moral reasoning. The typical student was a twenty-seven-year-old white female with a stated religious preference who expected in ten years to be associated with a multi-institutional system or consulting firm. Her social philosophy showed concern for the rising cost of health care on the consumer and an emphasis on self-help. Self-respect and honesty are her highest values; her ethical ideology had components of high idealism and relativism, which is indicative of a situational decision-making style. Work orientation and mastery were both above average sources of achievement motivation for her, whereas competitiveness was about average. When group differences in attitudes and values were evaluated, however, sex was the highest predictor, followed by age, expectation of becoming a CEO, and self-assessed potential for success. Although there was substantial agreement between students' and practitioners' attitudes and values, some differences were found. Implications for future research are discussed, as well as issues relating to

  5. INJURIES IN QUIDDITCH: A DESCRIPTIVE EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Rachel; Cooper, Ashley; Edmond, Evan; Faulkner, Alastair; Reidy, Michael J; Davies, Peter S E

    2017-10-01

    Quidditch is a fast growing, physically intense, mixed-gender full-contact sport. Originally adapted from Harry Potter novels, quidditch was first played in 2005 in the USA but is now played worldwide. It is essential to elucidate patterns of injury for the safety and growth of the sport of quidditch. It also provides a unique opportunity to study injury patterns in mixed-gender full-contact sport, an area of increasing importance with the developing culture of transition from single-gender to mixed-gender sports. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the types of injuries sustained while playing quidditch in terms of their incidence, anatomical distribution and severity, and gender distribution. An anonymous self-reporting questionnaire was distributed to all active quidditch players in the UK. Data collection included player demographics, type of injury, mechanism of injury, player position, experience and treatment required, relating to the previous 12 months. A total of 348 participants of 684 eligible athletes responded to the questionnaire representing a 50.87% response rate. There were 315 injuries reported by 180 athletes in total, with an overall incidence of 4.06 injuries per 1,000 hours. A statistically significantly different rate of concussion was observed with female athletes sustaining more concussion than males (p=0.006). The overall rate of concussion was 0.651/1000hrs in males and 1.163/1000hrs in females (0.877/1000 hours overall). This study provides the first quantitative description of injury rates in quidditch. The overall injury rates are no higher than those reported in other recreational contact sports. Female athletes were found to have a higher rate of concussion, which needs further investigation. These findings are relevant to players concerned about safety in quidditch and to governing bodies regarding governance of the sport. 3b.

  6. St. James marine terminal facility description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) currently owns and operates a marine terminal on the west bank of the Mississippi River at St. James, Louisiana. The St. James facility was constructed by the Department to provide marine services associated with the fill and drawdown of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) crude oil storage facilities located at Bayou Choctaw and Weeks Island, Louisiana. Although strategic to the mission of the SPR in the event of a national emergency, the St. James terminal is situated such that it has a high potential to also serve the commercial industry`s needs for crude oil terminalling and storage. The St. James terminal is located approximately 45 miles west of New Orleans and 30 miles southeast of Baton Rouge, and approximately 160 miles upstream from the mouth of the Mississippi River. Construction of the St. James terminal was initiated in 1978 and was completed in 1980. Since then, the terminal has received and transferred over 125 million barrels of crude oil to the SPR sites for storage. For crude oil distribution, the St. James terminal was connected to the neighboring LOCAP terminal by a 0.1 mile 36-inch pipeline in 1981 and to the Capline terminal by a 0.5 mile 30-inch pipeline in 1988. The terminal also has a 30-inch pipeline connection to the Koch oil terminal which was used for initial fill purposes; however, this pipeline has been disconnected and is currently inactive. A complete description of the St. James terminal facilities, operational capabilities, operational certifications, and future Government requirements are presented in Sections 2, 3, 4, and 5 respectively.

  7. The psychologist said quickly, "dialogue descriptions modulate reading speed!".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stites, Mallory C; Luke, Steven G; Christianson, Kiel

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated whether the semantic content of a dialogue description can affect reading times on an embedded quote, to determine whether the speed at which a character is described as saying a quote influences how quickly it is read. Yao and Scheepers (Cognition, 121:447-453, 2011) previously found that readers were faster to read direct quotes when the preceding context implied that the talker generally spoke quickly, an effect attributed to perceptual simulation of talker speed. For the present study, we manipulated the speed of a physical action performed by the speaker independently from character talking rate to determine whether these sources have separable effects on perceptual simulation of a direct quote. The results showed that readers spent less time reading direct quotes described as being said quickly, as compared to those described as being said slowly (e.g., John walked/bolted into the room and said energetically/nonchalantly, "I finally found my car keys."), an effect that was not present when a nearly identical phrase was presented as an indirect quote (e.g., John . . . said energetically that he finally found his car keys.). The speed of the character's movement did not affect direct-quote reading times. Furthermore, fast adverbs were themselves read significantly faster than slow adverbs, an effect that we attribute to implicit effects on the eye movement program stemming from automatically activated semantic features of the adverbs. Our findings add to the literature on perceptual simulation by showing that these effects can be instantiated with only a single adverb and are strong enough to override the effects of global sentence speed.

  8. Multiple Description Coding with Feedback Based Network Compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Østergaard, Jan; Popovski, Petar

    2010-01-01

    its description and forward it. Such a compression can also be done already at the source node; however, the feedback arrives more timely and reliably to intermediate nodes that are closer to the final receiver. In this paper we investigate the performance of such adaptation at the source node......This paper concerns multi path video streaming using adaptive multiple description coding. The adaptation leverages on the fact that multiple descriptions are correlated. Thus if an intermediate node gets feedback telling that another path is likely to deliver a description, this node can compress...

  9. Database Description - SAHG | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available base Description General information of database Database name SAHG Alternative nam...h: Contact address Chie Motono Tel : +81-3-3599-8067 E-mail : Database classification Structure Databases - ...e databases - Protein properties Organism Taxonomy Name: Homo sapiens Taxonomy ID: 9606 Database description... Links: Original website information Database maintenance site The Molecular Profiling Research Center for D...stration Not available About This Database Database Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Database Description - SAHG | LSDB Archive ...

  10. Self-Reinforcement and Descriptive Praise in Maintaining Token Economy Reading Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Gary; Hammond, J. Mark

    1983-01-01

    Researchers used four token reinforcement systems--tokens only, descriptive praise, self-reinforcement, and a combination of all three--and observed the effect on the problem solving performance of fourth-grade reading students. Only students using the combination reward system maintained their progress after tokens were withdrawn. (Authors/PP)

  11. Religiousness and Alcohol Use in College Students: Examining Descriptive Drinking Norms as Mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brechting, Emily H.; Carlson, Charles R.

    2015-01-01

    Religiousness has consistently emerged in the literature as a protective factor for alcohol use. Relatively few studies have empirically explored possible mechanisms for this robust effect. The present study examines descriptive drinking norms as a potential mediator of the religiousness--alcohol consumption association. Consistent with the…

  12. The shell model. Towards a unified description of nuclear structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poves, Alfredo [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Universidad Autonoma Cantoblanco, 28049 - Madrid (Spain); Collaboration: La Direction des Sciences de la Matiere du CEA (FR); Le Fonds National de la Recherche Scientifique de Belgique (BE)

    1998-12-31

    In this series of lectures we present the foundations of the spherical shell model that we treat as an approximation to the exact solution of the full secular problem. We introduce the notions of valence space, effective interaction and effective operator. We analyse the structure of the realistic effective interactions, identifying their monopole part with the spherical mean field. The multipole Hamiltonian is shown to have a universal (simple) form that includes pairing (isovector and isoscalar), quadrupole, octupole, deca-pole, and ({sigma}{center_dot}{tau})({sigma}{center_dot}{tau}). We describe the methods of resolution of the secular problem, in particular the Lanczos method. The model is applied to the description of nuclear deformation and its relationship with the deformed mean field theories is studied. We propose a new symmetry, `quasi`-SU3, to understand deformation in the spherical basis. Finally, we discuss the domain of nuclei very far from the valley of {beta} stability, addressing the vanishing of some magic closures that can be explained in terms of intruder states. (author) 53 refs., 20 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. On correctness of the two-level model for description of active medium in quantum plasmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubchev, E. D.; Andrianov, E. S.; Pukhov, A. A.; Vinogradov, A. P.; Lisyansky, A. A.

    2017-09-01

    In order to simplify the theoretical description of spasers, a gain medium is commonly represented by a two-level system (TLS). A realistic model, however, should have four levels. By using the Lindblad equations we develop a description of such a system and show that depending on ratios of the Rabi frequency and the rate of relaxation of the polarization, a four-level system (FLS) may be reduced to one of two effective TLSs that reproduce the key properties of a FLS.

  14. Preliminary site description. Simpevarp area - version 1.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winberg, Anders (ed.)

    2004-08-01

    resolution. The lithology model includes four interpreted rock domains. The deformation zone model includes 14 zones of interpreted high confidence (of existence). A discrete fracture network model has also been developed where attempts are made to assess effects on fracturing imposed by interpreted deformation zones. Furthermore, the validity of extrapolating surface fracture statistics to larger depths was explored. The rock mechanics strength model is based on information from the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory and an empirical, mechanical classification of data from KSH01A and at outcrops. A first model of thermal properties of the rock has been developed largely based on data from Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory, and projections based on density and mineral content. Overall the rock at Simpevarp is characterised by a low thermal conductivity. A consequence of the planned delay in parts of the geological model is that the hydrogeological description is based solely on the version 0 regional structural model. The regional flow pattern is found to be governed by the geometry of the interpreted deformation zones in relation to the acting hydraulic gradient. Hydrogeological simulations of the groundwater evolution since the last glaciation were compared with the developed hydrogeochemical conceptual model. The conceptual model of the development of post-glacial hydrogeochemistry was updated. Also, the salinity distribution, mixing processes and the major reactions altering the groundwater composition were described down to a depth of 300 m. A first model of the transport properties of the rock was presented, although still rather immature due to lack of site-specific data in support of the model. For the near-surface, the Simpevarp subarea is characterised by a large portion of outcrop rock. There is information regarding the distribution of Quaternary deposits, and some information about the stratigraphy of the till, the latter found to be of small thickness, generally 1-3 m

  15. Confidence assessment. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-09-15

    -existing deformations in the core exceeded the elasticity limit of the intact rock. These problems are identified and considered in the modelling, and affect uncertainty, but have a limited negative impact on confidence. Overall there is limited measurement bias in the data and bias due to poor representativity is much reduced compared with earlier model versions. However, some degree of bias due to limited representativity remains in some areas. An important remaining bias relates to the fracture size data, since these have to be based on outcrops and not on data from the underground. However, the impact on uncertainty can be estimated and is accounted for in the modelling. Many of the alternative hypotheses formed in earlier iterations of the site descriptive modelling work have now been discarded or are handled by bounding assumptions. Nevertheless a few alternative hypotheses needed to be developed into alternative models, to be propagated to safety assessment or engineering. These alternative models concern: fracture size and intensity modelling in the geological DFN; geometry, connectivity and transmissivity of deformation zones in the regional domain; hydraulic properties and connectivity of the fracture network of a scale less than the deterministic deformation zone; alternative hypotheses as to groundwater composition and processes; processes for sulphate reduction; and effects of connectivity, complexity and channelling on distribution of flow. Another prerequisite for confidence is consistency, or at least no conflicts, between the different discipline model interpretations. Furthermore, confidence is enhanced if aspects of the model are supported by independent evidence from different disciplines. Essentially all identified interactions are considered in the site descriptive modelling work. Only data from underground investigations are judged to have the potential to further significantly reduce uncertainties within the potential repository volume: The range of size

  16. Precision Departure Release Capability (PDRC) Technology Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelland, Shawn A.; Capps, Richard; Day, Kevin; Robinson, Corissia; Null, Jody R.

    2013-01-01

    Center scheduling tool. The PDRC concept also incorporates earlier NASA and FAA research into automation-assisted CFR coordination. The PDRC concept helps reduce uncertainty by automatically communicating coordinated release times with seconds-level precision enabling TMCs to work with target times rather than windows. NASA has developed a PDRC prototype system that integrates the Center's TMA system with a research prototype Tower decision support tool. A two-phase field evaluation was conducted at NASA's North Texas Research Station (NTX) in Dallas-Fort Worth. The field evaluation validated the PDRC concept and demonstrated reduced release time uncertainty while being used for tactical departure scheduling of more than 230 operational flights over 29 weeks of operations. This paper presents the Technology Description. Companion papers include the Final Report and a Concept of Operations.

  17. Pain perception description after advanced surface ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobas EM

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Eva M Sobas,1,2 Sebastián Videla,3,4 Amanda Vázquez,1 Itziar Fernández,1,5 Miguel J Maldonado,1 José-Carlos Pastor1,6,7 1Instituto Universitario de Oftalmobiología Aplicada (IOBA, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid, Spain; 2Facultad de Enfermería, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid Spain; 3Laboratorios Dr. Esteve S.A., Barcelona, Spain; 4Department of Experimental and Health Sciences, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud y de la Vida, Universidad Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain; 5Networking Research Center on Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine (CIBER-BBN, Valladolid, Spain; 6Department of Ophthalmology, Hospital Clínico Universitario, Valladolid, Spain; 7Department of Surgery, Ophthalmology, Otorhinolaryngology and Physiotherapy, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid, Spain Purpose: The objective of this study was to characterize the evolution of ocular pain after advanced surface ablation (ASA to improve strategies in postoperative pain management.Methods: This was a multicenter, prospective, descriptive, cohort study. The inclusion criteria were healthy individuals ≥18 years old receiving bilateral alcohol-assisted surface ablation with epithelial removal. Pain intensity was evaluated with the visual analog scale (VAS and the numeric pain rating scale before and after surgery. Comorbidities (photophobia, burning, tearing, and foreign body sensation and Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD questionnaire were evaluated before and at 6 hours after surgery. Postoperative treatments included cold patch, topical cold antibiotics, topical steroids, and benzodiazepines.Results: Thirty-two consecutive patients having similar profiles of postoperative pain evolution were included. At 0.5 hour after ASA, the pain score by VAS was 37±20 mm, and the maximum pain, 61±31 mm, occurred at 24 hours. Afterward, it decreased progressively until 72 hours after surgery (19±20 mm. Most patients (81% scored >60 mm, and

  18. "Eating plastic," "winning the lotto," "joining the www"...descriptions of HIV/AIDS in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uys, Leana; Chirwa, Maureen; Dlamini, Priscilla; Greeff, Minrie; Kohi, Theckla; Holzemer, William; Makoae, Lucy; Naidoo, Joanne R; Phetlhu, René

    2005-01-01

    This report is based on qualitative data gathered through a series of focus group discussions with people living with HIV or AIDS and nurses in five African countries. Participants were asked which words or phrases people use to refer to the illness and to people living with the illness. A total of 261 respondents were involved in the 40 focus group discussions, and an analysis of the data identified 290 descriptions. The descriptions were classified into 7 categories, which were (from most to least common): attributional, neutral, death-related, physical feature-related, factual statements, lingering illness-related, and common illness-related. Whereas some terms were used in more than one country, others were unique to a specific country. The descriptions show many negative labels and beliefs, but also an awareness of the devastating effects of the illness on individuals.

  19. The influence of descriptive and injunctive peer norms on adolescents' risky sexual online behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Susanne E; Valkenburg, Patti M; Peter, Jochen

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of descriptive and injunctive peer norms on the engagement in risky sexual online behavior. A four-wave longitudinal study among a representative sample of 1,016 Dutch adolescents (12-17 years old) was conducted. Two autoregressive cross-lagged structural equation models were analyzed to investigate the relationship between perceptions of peer norms and risky sexual online behavior. The findings of this study indicate that both, descriptive and injunctive peer norms, predicted adolescents' engagement in risky sexual online behavior. The effect of descriptive peer norms was stronger and more consistent over the four waves. As expected, perceptions of peer norms were predictors, but not consequences, of risky sexual online behavior. The findings suggest that problematic behaviors on the Internet are influenced by perceptions of what peers do, or approve of, in ways similar to offline risk behaviors.

  20. QUILD: QUantum-regions interconnected by local descriptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, M.; Bickelhaupt, F.M.

    2008-01-01

    A new program for multilevel (QM/QM and/or QM/MM) approaches is presented that is able to combine different computational descriptions for different regions in a transparent and flexible manner. This program, designated QUILD (for QUantum-regions Interconnected by Local Descriptions), uses adapted

  1. User-oriented Understanding of Descriptive, Proscriptive and Prescriptive Lexicography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Henning

    2003-01-01

    There is much uncertainty and confusion as to the real differences between prescrip-tive and descriptive dictionaries. In general, the majority of existing accounts can be summarised as follows: Descriptive relates to the empirical basis; accordance between the empirical data and the dictionary i...

  2. Quantitative description of woody plant communities: Part II ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Calculation procedures for various quantitative descriptive unit-values are described. These procedures are divided into primary and secondary calculations. The former is then divided into the calculation of spatial tree volume and preliminary calculations regarding the complete quantitative description. The latter include ...

  3. Reviewing the Research on Mail Survey Response Rates: Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boser, Judith A.; Clark, Sheldon B.

    One approach to examining the findings of multiple studies is descriptive. This descriptive review of the research on increasing the response rates to mail surveys is based on studies also subjected to a meta-analysis. An initial narrative review identified the studies to be used in both analyses, and results will allow the possibility of…

  4. 8 CFR 333.1 - Description of required photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Description of required photographs. 333.1 Section 333.1 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY NATIONALITY REGULATIONS PHOTOGRAPHS § 333.1 Description of required photographs. (a) Every applicant required to furnish photographs of...

  5. Time-domain description of behaviors over finite fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polderman, Jan W.

    2012-01-01

    We consider autonomous behaviors over a finite field with characteristic values that do not necessarily belong to the field. The time domain description of the behavior is given in a suitable field extension of the base field. The problem that we consider is how to derive a description completely

  6. Adding Curvature to Minimum Description Length Shape Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thodberg, Hans Henrik; Ólafsdóttir, Hildur

    2003-01-01

    The Minimum Description Length (MDL) approach to shape modelling seeks a compact description of a set of shapes in terms of the coordinates of marks on the shapes. It has been shown that the mark positions resulting from this optimisation to a large extent solve the so-called point correspondence...

  7. 31 CFR 601.2 - Description of paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Description of paper. 601.2 Section... ENGRAVING AND PRINTING, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DISTINCTIVE PAPER FOR UNITED STATES CURRENCY AND OTHER SECURITIES § 601.2 Description of paper. The paper utilized in the printing of United States currency and...

  8. Output-based Job Descriptions: Beyond Skills and Competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Mary Norris

    2000-01-01

    Explains output-based job descriptions, which describe the work rather than the worker. Topics include identifying job outputs; job analyses; identifying skills and competencies as support elements; and benefits over traditional job descriptions, including help in achieving business goals, use in strategic planning, clarifying role relationships,…

  9. 48 CFR 214.202-5 - Descriptive literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Descriptive literature. 214.202-5 Section 214.202-5 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS... 214.202-5 Descriptive literature. (c) Requirements of invitation for bids. When brand name or equal...

  10. A Description Logic Based Knowledge Representation Model for Concept Understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badie, Farshad

    2018-01-01

    This research employs Description Logics in order to focus on logical description and analysis of the phenomenon of ‘concept understanding’. The article will deal with a formal-semantic model for figuring out the underlying logical assumptions of ‘concept understanding’ in knowledge representatio...

  11. Exploring Teacher Strategies in Teaching Descriptive Writing in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suriyanti, Sufatmi; Yaacob, Aizan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper is the outcome of a study which examined teacher strategies in teaching descriptive writing to junior high school students in Delitua, North Sumatra, Indonesia. The study was based on two questions: 1) What are the teaching strategies used by EFL teachers in teaching descriptive writing? 2) To what extent did the descriptive…

  12. Automatic link-detection in Encoded Archival Descriptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, J.; Fachry, K.N.; Kamps, J.; Opas-Hänninen, L.L.; Jokelainen, M.; Juuso, I.; Seppänen, T.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we investigate how currently emerging link detection methods can help enrich encoded archival descriptions. We discuss link detection methods in general, and evaluate the identification of names both within, and across, archival descriptions. Our initial experiments suggest that we can

  13. A static descriptive approach to quantify land use systems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, D.M.; Schipper, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    Quantitative tools for analysis and planning of land use require descriptions of land use systems, for example to use in optimization models. A static, descriptive formulation of land use systems, called Land Use Systems at a defined Technology (LUSTs), is discussed, that describes quantified

  14. Impedance planimetric description of normal rectoanal motility in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Inge S; Michelsen, Hanne B; Krogh, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    the experiment, the cross-sectional area at all channels showed strong cyclic contractile activity and the anal pressure increased by approximately 100 percent. CONCLUSIONS: The new rectal impedance planimetry system allows highly detailed description of rectoanal motility patterns. It has promise as a new...... method for description of rectoanal motility in further studies. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Nov...

  15. 37 CFR 2.37 - Description of mark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Description of mark. 2.37 Section 2.37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES The Written Application § 2.37 Description of mark. A...

  16. How descriptive menu labels influence attitudes and repatronage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wansink, B.; Painter, J.; Ittersum, van K.

    2002-01-01

    How do descriptive menu labels influence customers? In a six-week field experiment involving 140 customers, descriptive menu labels (such as "Grandma's zucchini cookies" or "succulent Italian seafood filet") increased sales by 27% and improved attitudes towards the food, attitudes towards the

  17. 40 CFR 158.330 - Description of production process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... characterization of the process (e.g., whether it is a batch or continuous process). (3) A flow chart of the... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Description of production process. 158... PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Product Chemistry § 158.330 Description of production process. If...

  18. Employing a Qualitative Description Approach in Health Care Research

    OpenAIRE

    Bradshaw, Carmel; Atkinson, Sandra; Doody, Owen

    2017-01-01

    A qualitative description design is particularly relevant where information is required directly from those experiencing the phenomenon under investigation and where time and resources are limited. Nurses and midwives often have clinical questions suitable to a qualitative approach but little time to develop an exhaustive comprehension of qualitative methodological approaches. Qualitative description research is sometimes considered a less sophisticated approach for epistemological reasons. A...

  19. The relationship between symbolic interactionism and interpretive description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Carolyn

    2012-03-01

    In this article I explore the relationship between symbolic interactionist theory and interpretive description methodology. The two are highly compatible, making symbolic interactionism an excellent theoretical framework for interpretive description studies. The pragmatism underlying interpretive description supports locating the methodology within this cross-disciplinary theory to make it more attractive to nonnursing researchers and expand its potential to address practice problems across the applied disciplines. The theory and method are so compatible that symbolic interactionism appears to be part of interpretive description's epistemological foundations. Interpretive description's theoretical roots have, to date, been identified only very generally in interpretivism and the philosophy of nursing. A more detailed examination of its symbolic interactionist heritage furthers the contextualization or forestructuring of the methodology to meet one of its own requirements for credibility.

  20. Use of sugammadex on burn patients: descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Rodríguez Sánchez M.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: A burn patient is a challenge for any anesthesiologist, undergoing several surgeries during admission, and requiring general anesthesia and muscle relaxation most of the times. The victim may have respiratory system impairment and a response to muscle relaxants that differs from the healthy patient, thus proper monitoring and reversal is crucial. We analyzed sugammadex effectiveness and safety in this population.MATERIALS AND METHODS: It was a prospectively descriptive study, including 4 patients, and all of them were considered major burn patients, who underwent escharotomy with general anesthesia and neuromuscular relaxation. The main variable was the time for recovery of a TOF higher than 0.9 after the administration of sugammadex before extubation.RESULTS: Mean time of recovery from a TOF ratio higher than 0.9 following the administration of Sugammadex was of 4.95 min 95% CI (3.25-6.64, p= .53.CONCLUSIONS: The reversion of neuromuscular relaxation with sugammadex appears to be effective and safe in the burn patient. More analytical, comparative studies of larger populations would be necessary to confirm these data.