DiGennaro-Reed, Florence D.; Codding, Robin; Catania, Cynthia N.; Maguire, Helena
We examined the effects of individualized video modeling on the accurate implementation of behavioral interventions using a multiple baseline design across 3 teachers. During video modeling, treatment integrity improved above baseline levels; however, teacher performance remained variable. The addition of verbal performance feedback increased…
Alessandra Turini Bolsoni-Silva
Full Text Available The study of the marital relationship and of the evaluation of the effectiveness of interventions with couples can promote communication skills, affection and problem solving. Researches with dating couples are incipient on the literature, and it is believed that extending such behaviors can help those couples. The present case study evaluates an intervention (four evaluation sessions and ten sessions of group with dating couples, in the design of a single subject, considering measures baseline, pretest, posttest and follow-up, combined with procedural measures of expectation and satisfaction with the procedure conducted. The results show satisfaction with treatment, generalization to other relationships and improvement of the relationship as communication, affection and problem solving. Implications are discussed for future prevention and researches.
Prenger, Hendrikje Cornelia; Pieterse, Marcel E.; Braakman-Jansen, Louise Marie Antoinette; van der Palen, Jacobus Adrianus Maria; Christenhusz, Lieke C.A.; Seydel, E.R.
Background Cost-effectiveness analyses of behavioral interventions typically use a dichotomous outcome criterion. However, achieving behavioral change is a complex process involving several steps towards a change in behavior. Delayed effects may occur after an intervention period ends, which can
Paavonen, E Juulia; Huurre, Taina; Tilli, Maija; Kiviruusu, Olli; Partonen, Timo
Sleep disturbances are common among adolescents, but there are no brief interventions to treat them. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a brief semistructured, individually delivered sleep intervention to ameliorate adolescents' sleeping difficulties and lengthen sleep duration. All students aged 16-18 years in a high school were screened for sleeping difficulties and 36 students with the highest sleep problem scores were invited to the intervention. Postintervention improvements were observed on self-reported and actiwatch-registered sleep duration, self-reported sleep quality and sleep latency, perceived stress and anxiety (all p values sleep efficiency and sleep latency did not change (p > 0.05). A brief individual sleep intervention can be effective in lengthening sleep duration and improving subjective sleep quality and well-being among adolescents.
Alstot, Andrew E.; Kang, Minsoo; Alstot, Crystal D.
Techniques based in applied behavior analysis (ABA) have been shown to be useful across a variety of settings to improve numerous behaviors. Specifically within physical activity settings, several studies have examined the effect of interventions based in ABA on a variety of motor skills, but the overall effects of these interventions are unknown.…
Hansen, Blake D.; Wills, Howard P.; Kamps, Debra M.; Greenwood, Charles R.
Children with emotional and behavioral disorders (E/BD) struggle to achieve social and academic outcomes. Many studies have demonstrated self-management interventions to be effective at reducing problem behavior and increasing positive social and academic behaviors. Functional behavior assessment (FBA) information may be used in designing…
Collins, Tai A.; Hawkins, Renee O.; Flowers, Emily M.; Kalra, Hilary D.; Richard, Jessie; Haas, Lauren E.
Students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) have difficulty with academic engagement during independent seatwork tasks. The goal of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Behavior Bingo, a novel interdependent group contingency intervention, on the academic engagement, off-task, and disruptive behavior of students with…
Nolan, Julene D.; Houlihan, Daniel; Wanzek, Megan; Jenson, William R.
Few classroom behavioral interventions have been thoroughly studied using culturally and linguistically diverse populations, international student populations, or those from diverse socio-economic backgrounds. Yet, having such tools for school psychologists and teachers is critical for behavior management in the classroom. One important exception…
Eron, Leonard D.
Describes and evaluates attempts to mitigate effect that watching television violence has on young children. Most relevant studies have been laboratory experiments, and there is no reported evidence that any intervention has been effective over long-term. Concludes that interventions combining cognitive and behavioral approaches have most promise,…
Hammer, Leslie B.; Johnson, Ryan C.; Crain, Tori L.; Bodner, Todd; Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Davis, Kelly; Kelly, Erin L.; Buxton, Orfeu M.; Karuntzos, Georgia; Chosewood, L. Casey; Berkman, Lisa
We tested the effects of a work-family intervention on employee reports of safety compliance and organizational citizenship behaviors in 30 healthcare facilities using a group-randomized trial. Based on Conservation of Resources theory and the Work-Home Resources Model, we hypothesized that implementing a work-family intervention aimed at increasing contextual resources via supervisor support for work and family and employee control over work time would lead to improved personal resources and increased employee performance on the job in the form of self-reported safety compliance and organizational citizenship behaviors. Multilevel analyses used survey data from 1,524 employees at baseline, 6-month and 12-month post-intervention follow-ups. Significant intervention effects were observed for safety compliance at the 6-month and organizational citizenship behaviors at the 12-month follow-ups. More specifically, results demonstrate that the intervention protected against declines in employee self-reported safety compliance and organizational citizenship behaviors, compared to employees in the control facilities. The hypothesized mediators of perceptions of family supportive supervisor behaviors, control over work time, and work-family conflict (work-to-family conflict, family-to-work conflict) were not significantly improved by the intervention. However, baseline perceptions of family supportive supervisor behaviors, control over work time, and work-family climate were significant moderators of the intervention effect on the self-reported safety compliance and organizational citizenship behavior outcomes. PMID:26348479
Hammer, Leslie B; Johnson, Ryan C; Crain, Tori L; Bodner, Todd; Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Davis, Kelly D; Kelly, Erin L; Buxton, Orfeu M; Karuntzos, Georgia; Chosewood, L Casey; Berkman, Lisa
We tested the effects of a work-family intervention on employee reports of safety compliance and organizational citizenship behaviors in 30 health care facilities using a group-randomized trial. Based on conservation of resources theory and the work-home resources model, we hypothesized that implementing a work-family intervention aimed at increasing contextual resources via supervisor support for work and family, and employee control over work time, would lead to improved personal resources and increased employee performance on the job in the form of self-reported safety compliance and organizational citizenship behaviors. Multilevel analyses used survey data from 1,524 employees at baseline and at 6-month and 12-month postintervention follow-ups. Significant intervention effects were observed for safety compliance at the 6-month, and organizational citizenship behaviors at the 12-month, follow-ups. More specifically, results demonstrate that the intervention protected against declines in employee self-reported safety compliance and organizational citizenship behaviors compared with employees in the control facilities. The hypothesized mediators of perceptions of family-supportive supervisor behaviors, control over work time, and work-family conflict (work-to-family conflict, family-to-work conflict) were not significantly improved by the intervention. However, baseline perceptions of family-supportive supervisor behaviors, control over work time, and work-family climate were significant moderators of the intervention effect on the self-reported safety compliance and organizational citizenship behavior outcomes. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
The increasing popularity of social networking sites (SNSs) has drawn scholarly attention in recent years, and a large amount of efforts have been made in applying SNSs to health behavior change interventions. However, these interventions showed mixed results, with a large variance of effect sizes in Cohen's d ranging from -1.17 to 1.28. To provide a better understanding of SNS-based interventions' effectiveness, a meta-analysis of 21 studies examining the effects of health interventions using SNS was conducted. Results indicated that health behavior change interventions using SNS are effective in general, but the effects were moderated by health topic, methodological features, and participant features. Theoretical and practical implications of findings are discussed.
Shire, Stephanie Yoshiko; Kasari, Connie
This systematic review examines train the trainer (TTT) effectiveness trials of behavioral interventions for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Published methodological quality scales were used to assess studies including participant description, research design, intervention, outcomes, and analysis. Twelve studies including 9 weak…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Behavioral interventions typically focus on objective behavioral endpoints like weight loss and smoking cessation. In reality, though, achieving full behavior change is a complex process in which several steps towards success are taken. Any progress in this process may also be considered as a beneficial outcome of the intervention, assuming that this increases the likelihood to achieve successful behavior change eventually. Until recently, there has been little consideration about whether partial behavior change at follow-up should be incorporated in cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs. The aim of this explorative review is to identify CEAs of behavioral interventions in which cognitive outcome measures of behavior change are analyzed. Methods Data sources were searched for publications before May 2011. Results Twelve studies were found eligible for inclusion. Two different approaches were found: three studies calculated separate incremental cost-effectiveness ratios for cognitive outcome measures, and one study modeled partial behavior change into the final outcome. Both approaches rely on the assumption, be it implicitly or explicitly, that changes in cognitive outcome measures are predictive of future behavior change and may affect CEA outcomes. Conclusion Potential value of cognitive states in CEA, as a way to account for partial behavior change, is to some extent recognized but not (yet integrated in the field. In conclusion, CEAs should consider, and where appropriate incorporate measures of partial behavior change when reporting effectiveness and hence cost-effectiveness.
Hendrie, Gilly A.; Brindal, Emily; Corsini, Nadia; Gardner, Claire; Baird, Danielle; Golley, Rebecca K.
This review identifies studies describing interventions delivered across both the home and school/community setting, which target obesity and weight-related nutrition and physical activity behaviors in children. Fifteen studies, published between 1998 and 2010, were included and evaluated for effectiveness, study quality, nutrition/activity…
Mokhtari, Fatemeh; Kazemi, Ashraf; Ehsanpour, Soheila
Family participation is an important element on nutritional education especially for students. Parents have a key role in instilling and understanding healthy eating habits, but yet the use of family participation strategies in the nutrition education was low. The aim of this study is determining the effect of parental educational intervention program for parents on adolescents' nutritional behaviors in Isfahan, Iran in 2016. This study was a kind of field trial that conducted on 63 girl teenagers from junior high schools of Isfahan in 2016 that were randomly divided into two groups of intervention and control. The data collection tool which was a researcher made questionnaire was completed in both groups before and 1 month after the intervention. The intervention included three training sessions for parents and giving educational compact disc and forwarding SMS. To analysis of data independent t -test and paired t -test were used. Paired t -test showed that in intervention group the average score of fruit ( P = 0.03) and in control group the average score of vegetables ( P < 0.05) were significant statistical difference, but in other aspects of nutritional behaviors was not a significant difference. Independent t -test showed that after intervention, mean scores nutritional behavior of adolescent girls in both groups had no significant differences. No significant difference was in the nutritional behaviors before and after the intervention. Hence, just educating the parents is not enough for achieving appropriate nutritional behaviors in the adolescents.
influences such as television advertisements or state-run programs could not be controlled for; therefore, it was assumed that no other external factors...already exists in a certain area (Brown et al., 2010). Social proofs broadcast on television have also had beneficial effects on energy reduction...still acceptable in many circumstances ( McDonald & Ho, 2002). Parsimony-based fit measures discourage the use of unnecessary or excess parameters
Parenting interventions are a promising strategy to prevent antisocial behavior in society. Evidence accumulates that parenting interventions can reduce disruptive child behavior, and insight rapidly increases into which families they benefit most. At the same time, however, several high risk
Kahwati, Leila; Viswanathan, Meera; Golin, Carol E; Kane, Heather; Lewis, Megan; Jacobs, Sara
Interventions to improve medication adherence are diverse and complex. Consequently, synthesizing this evidence is challenging. We aimed to extend the results from an existing systematic review of interventions to improve medication adherence by using qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) to identify necessary or sufficient configurations of behavior change techniques among effective interventions. We used data from 60 studies in a completed systematic review to examine the combinations of nine behavior change techniques (increasing knowledge, increasing awareness, changing attitude, increasing self-efficacy, increasing intention formation, increasing action control, facilitation, increasing maintenance support, and motivational interviewing) among studies demonstrating improvements in adherence. Among the 60 studies, 34 demonstrated improved medication adherence. Among effective studies, increasing patient knowledge was a necessary but not sufficient technique. We identified seven configurations of behavior change techniques sufficient for improving adherence, which together accounted for 26 (76 %) of the effective studies. The intervention configuration that included increasing knowledge and self-efficacy was the most empirically relevant, accounting for 17 studies (50 %) and uniquely accounting for 15 (44 %). This analysis extends the completed review findings by identifying multiple combinations of behavior change techniques that improve adherence. Our findings offer direction for policy makers, practitioners, and future comparative effectiveness research on improving adherence.
Jensen, Chad D.; Cushing, Christopher C.; Aylward, Brandon S.; Craig, James T.; Sorell, Danielle M.; Steele, Ric G.
Objective: This study was designed to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of motivational interviewing (MI) interventions for adolescent substance use behavior change. Method: Literature searches of electronic databases were undertaken in addition to manual reference searches of identified review articles. Databases searched include…
Seyedeh Marjan Arshad
Full Text Available Background and Objective: Breastfeeding is a matter of significant importance. Given the role of such factors as attitude and subjective norms on the behavior of mothers and the low level of exclusive breastfeeding, the present study aimed to determine the effect of educational program based on the theory of planned behavior on breastfeeding behavior among the pregnant women in Fasa, Iran. Materials and Methods: This quasi-experimental study was conducted on 100 pregnant women with the gestational age of 30-35 weeks who referred to the health care centers of Fasa, Iran, in 2017. The study population was selected using random sampling technique, and then assigned into two groups of control (n=50 and intervention (n=50. The data were collected using a demographic form, components of the theory of planned behavior questionnaire, and a breastfeeding checklist. The intervention group received three 55-to-60-minute training sessions. The mothers' breastfeeding behavior was evaluated before the training sessions and 40 days post-delivery in both groups. The data were analyzed in SPSS software, version 22, using Chi-square test, independent t-test, and paired sample t-test. Results: According to the results, there was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of the components of the theory of planned behavior before the educational intervention (P=0.208. However, after the training sessions, the intervention group showed a significant improvement in all components of the theory of planned behavior, including intention and breastfeeding behavior, compared to the control group (P=0.001. Conclusion: Based on the findings of this study, appropriate training programs, social network support, and suitable conditions for breastfeeding in the community are among the effective factors that can change the mothers’ attitudes towards lactation and result in successful breastfeeding in the first three months after childbirth.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to design and implement a positive intervention combined with cognitive-behavioral therapy to enhance subjective and psychological well-being and other positive functioning constructs in a convenience sample. Participants analysed were 48 university students (mean age 22.25, 25 assigned nonrandomized to intervention condition and 23 to no-treatment waiting-list control condition. All participants were assessed pre- and post-intervention to test the treatment program effectiveness. Repeated-measures ANCOVAs, controlling baseline differences between the two groups, indicated that the intervention group reported greater social support after the intervention period than the waiting-list control group. Within-group differences were found for happiness, selfacceptance, positive relations with others, optimism, and self-esteem in the intervention group; these differences did not appear in the waiting-list control group. These findings suggest the limited capacity of this intervention program for improving well-being through positive activities combined with cognitive-behavioral therapy. Future research should analyse what kind of activities could be more effective in promoting well-being depending on the characteristics of participants.
Robertson, Michelle M; Huang, Yueng Hsiang; Lee, Jin
Computer use and its association with musculoskeletal and visual symptoms is an escalating concern. Organizations are shifting to a more proactive injury prevention perspective. Accordingly, a macroergonomics intervention consisting of flexible workplace design and office ergonomics training was designed to examine the effects on worker's computing behaviors, postures, and musculoskeletal discomfort, and their relationship to psychosocial factors. Participants were assigned to either group: 1) no-intervention control 2) flexible Workplace-only (WP-only), and 3) flexible Workplace + Training (WP+T). Observational findings indicate both intervention groups experienced positive, significant changes in improved workstation arrangements and computing postures, with the WP+T intervention group exhibiting a higher, significant change of behavioral translation. Also, significant, positive relationships between observed postures and musculoskeletal discomfort/pain were found. The intervention effect was stronger when management was responsive to workers' ergonomics needs. This study suggests that a macroergonomics intervention can produce beneficial effects for office and computer workers and organizations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Maher, Carol A; Lewis, Lucy K; Ferrar, Katia; Marshall, Simon; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Vandelanotte, Corneel
The dramatic growth of Web 2.0 technologies and online social networks offers immense potential for the delivery of health behavior change campaigns. However, it is currently unclear how online social networks may best be harnessed to achieve health behavior change. The intent of the study was to systematically review the current level of evidence regarding the effectiveness of online social network health behavior interventions. Eight databases (Scopus, CINAHL, Medline, ProQuest, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Cochrane, Web of Science and Communication & Mass Media Complete) were searched from 2000 to present using a comprehensive search strategy. Study eligibility criteria were based on the PICOS format, where "population" included child or adult populations, including healthy and disease populations; "intervention" involved behavior change interventions targeting key modifiable health behaviors (tobacco and alcohol consumption, dietary intake, physical activity, and sedentary behavior) delivered either wholly or in part using online social networks; "comparator" was either a control group or within subject in the case of pre-post study designs; "outcomes" included health behavior change and closely related variables (such as theorized mediators of health behavior change, eg, self-efficacy); and "study design" included experimental studies reported in full-length peer-reviewed sources. Reports of intervention effectiveness were summarized and effect sizes (Cohen's d and 95% confidence intervals) were calculated wherever possible. Attrition (percentage of people who completed the study), engagement (actual usage), and fidelity (actual usage/intended usage) with the social networking component of the interventions were scrutinized. A total of 2040 studies were identified from the database searches following removal of duplicates, of which 10 met inclusion criteria. The studies involved a total of 113,988 participants (ranging from n=10 to n=107,907). Interventions included
Lindhiem, Oliver; Bennett, Charles B; Rosen, Dana; Silk, Jennifer
We conducted a meta-analysis on the effects of mobile technology on treatment outcome for psychotherapy and other behavioral interventions. Our search of the literature resulted in 26 empirical articles describing 25 clinical trials testing the benefits of smartphone applications, personal digital assistants (PDAs), or text messaging systems either to supplement treatment or substitute for direct contact with a clinician. Overall, mobile technology use was associated with superior treatment outcome across all study designs and control conditions, effect size (ES) = .34, p mobile technology using a rigorous "Treatment" versus "Treatment + Mobile" design, effect sizes were only slightly more modest (ES = .27) and still significant (p mobile technology for the delivery of psychotherapy and other behavioral interventions. © The Author(s) 2015.
Brecht, Carrie; Shaw, Richard J.; Horwitz, Sarah M.; John, Nicholas H. St.
Premature birth has been associated with a number of adverse maternal psychological outcomes that include depression, anxiety, and trauma as well as adverse effects on maternal coping ability and parenting style. Infants and children who were premature are more likely to have poorer cognitive and developmental functioning and, thus, may be harder to parent. In response to these findings, there have been a number of educational and behavioral interventions developed that target maternal psychological functioning, parenting and aspects of the parent-infant relationship. Since the last comprehensive review of this topic in 2002, there have been a significant number of developments in the quality of the studies conducted and the theoretical models that address the experience of parents of premature infants. In the current review, eighteen new interventions were identified and grouped into four categories based on treatment length and the target of the intervention. Findings suggest a trend towards early, brief interventions that are theoretically based, specifically target parent trauma, and utilize cognitive behavioral techniques. Although it is difficult to generalize study findings, conclusions from the review suggest that targeted interventions may have positive effects on both maternal and infant outcomes. PMID:24532861
Fatemeh PooraghaRoodbarde; Siavash Talepasand; Issac Rahimian Boogar
Objective: The present study aimed at examining the effect of multidimensional motivation interventions based on Martin's model on cognitive and behavioral components of motivation.Methods: The research design was prospective with pretest, posttest, and follow-up, and 2 experimental groups. In this study, 90 students (45 participants in the experimental group and 45 in the control group) constituted the sample of the study, and they were selected by available sampling method. Motivation inter...
Wong, Jessie J; Gonzales, Nancy A; Montaño, Zorash; Dumka, Larry; Millsap, Roger E
Parental depression is a major risk factor in child development. Growing research suggests parenting programs can positively impact parental depressive symptoms, although the specific mechanisms that explain these effects are unknown. The current study examined parenting mediated effects of a parenting program on mothers' and fathers' depressive symptoms, as well as the role of child behavior in linking parenting to reductions in depressive symptoms. The study samples included 494 mothers and 288 fathers of Mexican origin adolescents who participated in a randomized trial of the Bridges to High School Program/Proyecto Puentes a la Secundaria, a universal prevention and promotion intervention that included parent training but did not directly target parental depressive symptoms. Parenting mediator models tested program effects on parental depressive symptoms through changes in harsh and supportive parenting. Results showed a significant indirect intervention effect on maternal depressive symptoms through changes in mothers' harsh parenting. Next, child behavior models revealed a partial mediation effect of harsh parenting and a full mediation effect of supportive parenting on maternal depressive symptoms through mothers' reports of child externalizing symptoms. Indirect effects of fathers' harsh and supportive parenting on paternal depressive symptoms were also found through fathers' reports of child behavior. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Full Text Available Objective: The present study aimed at examining the effect of multidimensional motivation interventions based on Martin's model on cognitive and behavioral components of motivation.Methods: The research design was prospective with pretest, posttest, and follow-up, and 2 experimental groups. In this study, 90 students (45 participants in the experimental group and 45 in the control group constituted the sample of the study, and they were selected by available sampling method. Motivation interventions were implemented for fifteen 60-minute sessions 3 times a week, which lasted for about 2 months. Data were analyzed using repeated measures multivariate variance analysis test.Results: The findings revealed that multidimensional motivation interventions resulted in a significant increase in the scores of cognitive components such as self-efficacy, mastery goal, test anxiety, and feeling of lack of control, and behavioral components such as task management. The results of one-month follow-up indicated the stability of the created changes in test anxiety and cognitive strategies; however, no significant difference was found between the 2 groups at the follow-up in self-efficacy, mastery goals, source of control, and motivation.Conclusions: The research evidence indicated that academic motivation is a multidimensional component and is affected by cognitive and behavioral factors; therefore, researchers, teachers, and other authorities should attend to these factors to increase academic motivation.
Tang, Fengmin; Zhu, Guoxing; Jiao, Zheng; Ma, Chunlai; Chen, Nianzu; Wang, Bin
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of medication education and behavioral intervention on Chinese patients with epilepsy and to compare the difference between them. A total of 109 patients with epilepsy who did not to take their antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) more than once were randomly assigned to two intervention groups: the medication education group (group I) and the medication education with behavioral intervention group (group II). Group I was initially provided with medication education in the form of oral education and written materials, and this education was reinforced by monthly calls from the pharmacist over the next six months. The behavioral intervention provided to group II consisted of a modified medication schedule which was based on cue-dose training therapy. The outcomes that were evaluated both in the beginning and in the end of the study included adherence, which was measured using the four-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-4), the number of seizures, knowledge of AEDs, and the number of patients who missed a dose of their AEDs. Differences within and between the groups were analyzed. After intervention, the adherence and knowledge of AEDs increased greatly in all patients, and the number of patients who had seizures or missed AEDs decreased. However, no significant differences were observed between groups I and II. The observed changes were (group I vs group II, p value) increased adherence: 62.3% vs 64.3%, 0.827; increased knowledge of AEDs: 88.7% vs 80.4%, 0.231; and improved seizure control: 64.2% vs 64.3%, 0.988. In addition, the percentage of patients who forgot to take their AEDs decreased to 45.0% from more than 70%, and 44.9% of these patients took the missed AEDs as soon as they remembered. These findings clearly demonstrate that medication education and reinforced telephone calls from pharmacists can help to increase adherence to AEDs, the knowledge of patients regarding AEDs, and seizure control
Prenger, Rilana; Pieterse, Marcel E.; Braakman-Jansen, Louise M.A.; Feenstra, Talitha L.; Smit, Eline S.; Hoving, Ciska; de Vries, Hein; van Ommeren, Jan-Kees; Evers, Silvia M.A.A.; van der Palen, Job
Cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs) of behavioral interventions typically use physical outcome criteria. However, any progress in cognitive antecedents of behavior change may be seen as a beneficial outcome of an intervention. The aim of this study is to explore the feasibility and validity of
Prenger, Rilana; Pieterse, Marcel E.; Braakman-Jansen, Louise M. A.; Feenstra, Talitha L.; Smit, Eline S.; Hoving, Ciska; de Vries, Hein; van Ommeren, Jan-Kees; Evers, Silvia M. A. A.; van der Palen, Job
Cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs) of behavioral interventions typically use physical outcome criteria. However, any progress in cognitive antecedents of behavior change may be seen as a beneficial outcome of an intervention. The aim of this study is to explore the feasibility and validity of
Prenger, Rilana; Pieterse, Marcel E; Braakman-Jansen, Louise M A; Feenstra, Talitha L; Smit, Eline S.; Hoving, Ciska; de Vries, Hein; van Ommeren, Jan-Kees; Evers, Silvia M A A; van der Palen, Job
Cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs) of behavioral interventions typically use physical outcome criteria. However, any progress in cognitive antecedents of behavior change may be seen as a beneficial outcome of an intervention. The aim of this study is to explore the feasibility and validity of
Prenger, R.; Pieterse, M.E.; Braakman-Jansen, L.M.A.; Feenstra, T.L.; Smit, E.S.; Hoving, C.; de Vries, H.; van Ommeren, J.K.; Evers, S.M.A.A.; van der Palen, J.
Full Text Available Purpose: This article informs readers about the theoretical and practical origins of the behaviorally informed interventions (BIPI, analyzes examples of the BIPI from different policy sectors and strategies they offer for policy and regulatory design, and discusses applications and implications of BIPI for public interventions Methodology: This paper is based on a review of literature, as well as an inspection of administrative practices in OECD countries. It encompasses a systematic analysis of scientific papers fromthe SCOPUS database and a query carried out at the library of George Washington University. Findings: The traditional approach to public policy research is based on rational choice theory. It offers limited support, because by assuming perfect rationality of policy decisions, it overlooks existence of systematic errors and biases of human decision-making. The authors argue that behaviorally informed public interventions (BIPI might contribute to improving the effectiveness of a number of public measures – regulation, projects, programs, and even entire policies. Practical implications: The behavioral approach allows decision-makers to better understand the decisions and behaviors of citizens, as well as to design more effective interventions with minimum effort by adapting the existing solutions to real decision mechanisms of citizens. Originality: By combining the concepts of traditional approach with the growing behavioral approach, the authors aim to propose a new theoretical framework (BIPI to be used as a tool for policy design, delivery and evaluation.
Tak, Young-Ran; An, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Young-A; Woo, Hae-Young
The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of a physical activity-behavior modification combined intervention(PABM-intervention) on metabolic risk factors in overweight and obese elementary school children. Thirty-two participants (BMI>or=85 percentile or relative obesity>or=10) were allocated to the PABM-intervention group and behavior modification only intervention group. The PABM-intervention was composed of exercise intervention consisting of 50 minutes of physical activity(Hip-hop dance & gym-based exercises) twice a week and the behavior modification intervention consisted of 50 minutes of instruction for modifying lifestyle habits(diet & exercise) once a week. Effectiveness of intervention was based on waist circumference, BP, HDL-cholesterol, TG, and fasting glucose before and after the intervention. The proportion of subjects with 1, 2, 3 or more metabolic risk factors were 28.1, 43.8, and 15.6%, respectively. After the 8-week intervention, waist circumference, systolic BP, diastolic BP, and HDL-cholesterol changed significantly(p<.01) in the PABM group. This provides evidence that a PABM-intervention is effective in changing metabolic risk factors such as waist circumference, systolic BP, diastolic BP, and HDL-cholesterol in overweight and obese elementary school children.
Stable externalizing behavior in childhood places children at risk for the development of a chronic and persistent pattern of externalizing behavior problems. Preventive interventions that aim to interrupt this developmental trajectory are crucial. Until now, no evidence-based intervention for
Eaton, Lisa A.; Kalichman, Seth C.; Kenny, David A.; Harel, Ofer
Background Project EXPLORE -- a large-scale, behavioral intervention tested among men who have sex with men (MSM) at-risk for HIV infection --was generally deemed as ineffective in reducing HIV incidence. Using novel and more precise data analytic techniques we reanalyzed Project EXPLORE by including both direct and indirect paths of intervention effects. Methods Data from 4,296 HIV negative MSM who participated in Project EXPLORE, which included ten sessions of behavioral risk reduction counseling completed from 1999-2005, were included in the analysis. We reanalyzed the data to include parameters that estimate the overtime effects of the intervention on unprotected anal sex and the over-time effects of the intervention on HIV status mediated by unprotected anal sex simultaneously in a single model. Results We found the indirect effect of intervention on HIV infection through unprotected anal sex to be statistically significant up through 12 months post-intervention, OR=.83, 95% CI=.72-.95. Furthermore, the intervention significantly reduced unprotected anal sex up through 18 months post-intervention, OR=.79, 95% CI=.63-.99. Discussion Our results reveal effects not tested in the original model that offer new insight into the effectiveness of a behavioral intervention for reducing HIV incidence. Project EXPLORE demonstrated that when tested against an evidence-based, effective control condition can result in reductions in rates of HIV acquisition at one year follow-up. Findings highlight the critical role of addressing behavioral risk reduction counseling in HIV prevention. PMID:23245226
Full Text Available Background: Use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS has been associated with adversephysical and psychiatric effects and it is known as rising problem among youth people. Thisstudy was conducted to evaluate anabolic steroids preventative intervention efficiency amonggym users in Iran and theory of planned behaviour was applied as theoretical framework.Methods: Overall, 120 male gym users participated in this study as intervention and controlgroup. This was a longitudinal randomized pretest - posttest series control group design panelstudy to implement a behaviour modification based intervention to prevent AAS use. Cross -tabulation and t-test by using SPSS statistical package, version 13 was used for the statisticalanalysis.Results: It was found significant improvements in average response for knowledge about sideeffects of AAS (P<0.001, attitude toward, and intention not to use AAS. Additionally afterintervention, the rate of AAS and supplements use was decreased among intervention group.Conclusion: Comprehensive implementation against AAS abuse among gym users and adolescenceswould be effective to improve adolescents’ healthy behaviors and intend them notto use AAS.
Patrícia Paes Araujo Fialho
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: It was to examine the effects of a Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT program administered to family caregivers of dementia patients. METHODS: Forty family caregivers were enrolled in a CBT intervention across eight weekly sessions. Cognitive, functional and behavioral status of patients were evaluated, as well as their own and their family caregivers' perceptions of quality of life. Specific instruments were also applied to evaluate caregiver stress level, coping, anxiety and depression. RESULTS: At the end of the program, family caregivers reported fewer neuropsychiatric symptoms among patients and an improvement in patients' quality of life. In addition, caregivers changed their coping strategies, whereas a significant decrease was observed in their anxiety levels. CONCLUSION: The CBT program employed appears to be a promising and useful tool for clinical practice, displaying positive effects on quality of life and neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia, as well as proving beneficial for alleviating anxiety and stress in family caregivers.
Tømmerås, Truls; Kjøbli, John
Family resources have been associated with health care inequality in general and with social gradients in treatment outcomes for children with behavior problems. However, there is limited evidence concerning cumulative risk-the accumulation of social and economic disadvantages in a family-and whether cumulative risk moderates the outcomes of evidence-based parent training interventions. We used data from two randomized controlled trials evaluating high-intensity ( n = 137) and low-intensity ( n = 216) versions of Parent Management Training-Oregon (PMTO) with a 50:50 allocation between participants receiving PMTO interventions or regular care. A nine-item family cumulative risk index tapping socioeconomic resources and parental health was constructed to assess the family's exposure to risk. Autoregressive structured equation models (SEM) were run to investigate whether cumulative risk moderated child behaviors at post-treatment and follow-up (6 months). Our results showed opposite social gradients for the treatment conditions: the children exposed to cumulative risk in a pooled sample of both PMTO groups displayed lower levels of behavior problems, whereas children with identical risk exposures who received regular care experienced more problems. Furthermore, our results indicated that the social gradients differed between PMTO interventions: children exposed to cumulative risk in the low-intensity (five sessions) Brief Parent Training fared equally well as their high-resource counterparts, whereas children exposed to cumulative risk in the high-intensity PMTO (12 sessions) experienced vastly better treatment effects. Providing evidence-based parent training seem to be an effective way to counteract health care inequality, and the more intensive PMTO treatment seemed to be a particularly effective way to help families with cumulative risk.
Prenger, Hendrikje Cornelia; Braakman-Jansen, Louise Marie Antoinette; Pieterse, Marcel E.; van der Palen, Jacobus Adrianus Maria; Seydel, E.R.
Background Behavioral interventions typically focus on objective behavioral endpoints like weight loss and smoking cessation. In reality, though, achieving full behavior change is a complex process in which several steps towards success are taken. Any progress in this process may also be considered
Ainsworth, B; Steele, M; Stuart, B; Joseph, J; Miller, S; Morrison, L; Little, P; Yardley, L
In designing digital interventions for healthcare, it is important to understand not just whether interventions work but also how and for whom-including whether individual intervention components have different effects, whether a certain usage threshold is required to change behavior in each intervention and whether usage differs across population subgroups. We investigated these questions using data from a large trial of the digital PRimary care trial of a website based Infection control intervention to Modify Influenza-like illness and respiratory tract infection Transmission) (PRIMIT) intervention, which aimed to reduce respiratory tract infections (RTIs) by increasing hand hygiene behavior. Baseline and follow-up questionnaires measured behaviors, intentions and attitudes in hand hygiene. In conjunction with objective measures of usage of the four PRIMIT sessions, we analysed these observational data to examine mechanisms of behavior change in 8993 intervention users. We found that the PRIMIT intervention changed behavior, intentions and attitudes, and this change was associated with reduced RTIs. The largest hand hygiene change occurred after the first session, with incrementally smaller changes after each subsequent session, suggesting that engagement with the core behavior change techniques included in the first session was necessary and sufficient for behavior change. The intervention was equally effective for men and women, older and younger people and was particularly effective for those with lower levels of education. Our well-powered analysis has implications for intervention development. We were able to determine a 'minimum threshold' of intervention engagement that is required for hand hygiene change, and we discuss the potential implications this (and other analyses of this type) may have for further intervention development. We also discuss the application of similar analyses to other interventions.
Bachman, Jessica L; Raynor, Hollie A
Eating frequency has been inversely related to BMI but the impact of eating frequency on weight loss is unclear. This randomized controlled trial pilot study examined the effect of eating frequency on hunger, energy intake, and weight loss during a 6-month behavioral weight loss intervention. Participants (age: 51.0 ± 9.9 years, BMI: 35.5 ± 4.8 kg/m(2), 57.8% female, 94.1% white) were randomized to one of two eating frequency prescriptions: Three meal (n = 25): three eating bouts/day; or grazing (n = 26): eat at least 100 kcals every 2-3 h. Both groups attended 20 sessions and had identical dietary (1,200-1,500 kcals/day, frequency than three meal at 6 months (5.8 ± 1.1 eating bouts/day vs. 3.2 ± 0.6 eating bouts/day, P weight loss intervention.
Fedesco, Heather Noel
In order to address the rise in healthcare expenditures, employers are turning to wellness programs as a means to potentially curtail costs. One newly implemented program is wellness coaching, which takes a communicative and holistic approach to helping others make improvements to their health. Wellness coaching is a behavioral health intervention whereby coaches work with clients to help them attain wellness-promoting goals in order to change lifestyle-related behaviors across a range of are...
Cortés, Dharma E.; Garcia, Samantha; Duan, Lei; Black, David S.
Objectives. To compare changes in food-purchasing knowledge, self-efficacy, and behavior after viewing nutrition education videos among Los Angeles, California Latinas responsible for household grocery shopping. Methods. From February to May 2015, a convenience sample of 113 Latinas watched 1 video (El Carrito Saludable) featuring MyPlate guidelines applied to grocery shopping (1-video intervention) and another convenience sample of 105 Latinas watched 2 videos (El Carrito Saludable and Ser Consciente), the latter featuring mindfulness to support attention and overcome distractions while grocery shopping (2-video intervention). We administered questionnaires before and after intervention. A preselected sample in each intervention condition (n = 72) completed questionnaires at 2-months after intervention and provided grocery receipts (before and 2-months after intervention). Results. Knowledge improved in both intervention groups (P behavior and mindfulness show promise for improving the quality of foods that Latinas bring into the home. PMID:28323473
Amaro, Hortensia; Cortés, Dharma E; Garcia, Samantha; Duan, Lei; Black, David S
To compare changes in food-purchasing knowledge, self-efficacy, and behavior after viewing nutrition education videos among Los Angeles, California Latinas responsible for household grocery shopping. From February to May 2015, a convenience sample of 113 Latinas watched 1 video (El Carrito Saludable) featuring MyPlate guidelines applied to grocery shopping (1-video intervention) and another convenience sample of 105 Latinas watched 2 videos (El Carrito Saludable and Ser Consciente), the latter featuring mindfulness to support attention and overcome distractions while grocery shopping (2-video intervention). We administered questionnaires before and after intervention. A preselected sample in each intervention condition (n = 72) completed questionnaires at 2-months after intervention and provided grocery receipts (before and 2-months after intervention). Knowledge improved in both intervention groups (P shopping list (both P behavior and mindfulness show promise for improving the quality of foods that Latinas bring into the home.
Te Brinke, Lysanne W; Deković, Maja; Stoltz, Sabine E M J; Cillessen, Antonius H N
Over time, developmental theories and empirical studies have gradually started to adopt a bidirectional viewpoint. The area of intervention research is, however, lagging behind in this respect. This longitudinal study examined whether bidirectional associations between (changes in) parenting and (changes in) aggressive child behavior over time differed in three conditions: a child intervention condition, a child + parent intervention condition and a control condition. Participants were 267 children (74 % boys, 26 % girls) with elevated levels of aggression, their mothers and their teachers. Reactive aggression, proactive aggression and perceived parenting were measured at four measurement times from pretest to one-year after intervention termination. Results showed that associations between aggressive child behavior and perceived parenting are different in an intervention context, compared to a general developmental context. Aggressive behavior and perceived parenting were unrelated over time for children who did not receive an intervention. In an intervention context, however, decreases in aggressive child behavior were related to increases in perceived positive parenting and decreases in perceived overreactivity. These findings underscore the importance of addressing child-driven processes in interventions aimed at children, but also in interventions aimed at both children and their parents.
Osteen, Philip; Frey, Jodi M; Woods, MaKenna N; Ko, Jungyai; Shipe, Stacey
The purpose of this study was to use a longitudinal path analysis to test attitudes toward suicide prevention, self-efficacy, and behavioral intentions as mediators/moderators of clinical skill development over time following suicide intervention training. Results support a direct effect of attitudes on practice behaviors and self-efficacy, but no moderating effect. Self-efficacy performed as a mediator of practice behaviors over time. Behavioral intention had a direct effect on practice behaviors and mediated the relationship between attitudes and practice behaviors. Implications for research and practice are discussed. © 2016 The American Association of Suicidology.
Fettig, Angel; Schultz, Tia R.; Sreckovic, Melissa A.
This study examined the effects of coaching on the implementation of functional assessment--based parent intervention in reducing children's challenging behaviors. A multiple baseline across participants design was used with three parent-child dyads with children between the ages of 2 and 5 years. The intervention consisted of training and delayed…
Briesch, Amy M.; Daniels, Brian
A comprehensive self-management intervention was utilized to increase the on-task behavior of three African American students within an urban middle-school setting. The intervention was designed to necessitate minimal management on the part of the general education classroom teacher by utilizing an electronic prompting device, as well as a…
Bowen, Deborah J.; Powers, Diane
This study evaluated a mail and telephone intervention to improve breast health behaviors while maintaining quality of life. Women recruited from the general public were randomized to a stepped-intensity intervention consisting of mailings, telephone calls, and counseling (if requested or appropriate given a woman's genetic risk for breast cancer)…
Brinke, L.W. te; Dekovic, M.; Stoltz, S.E.M.J.; Cillessen, A.H.N.
Over time, developmental theories and empirical studies have gradually started to adopt a bidirectional viewpoint. The area of intervention research is, however, lagging behind in this respect. This longitudinal study examined whether bidirectional associations between (changes in) parenting and (changes in) aggressive child behavior over time differed in three conditions: a child intervention condition, a child + parent intervention condition and a control condition. Participants were 267 ch...
Joel Gittelsohn; Katherine Lee
Interventions that change the food environment, provide nutrition education, and employ behavioral economics strategies can potentially contribute to healthier diets and reduce the risk of chronic disease, but no attempt has been made to integrate these into the same conceptual framework. We present case studies of three multilevel, integrated interventions implemented by Johns Hopkins University between 2004–2011. We develop a conceptual model based on these case studies. Interventions and p...
Tuzcu, Ayla; Bahar, Zuhal; Gözüm, Sebahat
Antalya is a city receiving internal and external migration in Turkey, including migrant women in need of developing breast cancer screening behaviors. The aim of this study was to develop breast cancer screening behaviors of migrant women through nursing interventions based on the Health Belief Model and the Health Promotion Model. This quasi-experimental study was conducted with 200 women (100 women in the intervention group, 100 women in the control group) in Antalya. The intervention group received training, consultancy service, and reminders and was followed up at 3 and 6 months after interventions. The rates of breast self-examination, clinical breast examination and mammography were higher at months 3 and 6 in women in the intervention group compared with the women in the control group. In the intervention group, perceptions of susceptibility and barriers decreased after the interventions, and benefit, health motivation, and self-efficacy perceptions increased. According to month 6 data, in the intervention group, the decrease of each unit in perception of barriers increased the rate of breast self-examination 0.8 times and the rate of mammography 0.7 times. An increase of each unit in health motivation increased the rate of clinical breast examination 1.3 times and the rate of mammography 1.5 times. Interventions based on health behavior models positively affected breast cancer screening behaviors of migrant women. Health motivations and perceptions of barriers are determinants in performing the screening behaviors. Migrant women should be supported more by healthcare professionals regarding recognition of breast health and disease and in transportation to screening centers in their new location.
Hillesund, E R; Bere, E; Sagedal, L R; Vistad, I; Øverby, N C
A mother's diet during pregnancy has the potential to influence both her own and her child's short- and long-term health. This paper reports the effects of a randomized controlled diet intervention during pregnancy on dietary behavior post-intervention as reported in late pregnancy. The diet intervention was part of a lifestyle intervention targeting both diet and physical activity behaviors among nulliparous women participating in the randomized controlled Norwegian Fit for Delivery study (NFFD). Eligible women were enrolled in early pregnancy from eight healthcare clinics in southern Norway between 2009 and 2013. The diet intervention was based on 10 dietary recommendations that were conveyed during two counseling sessions by phone and in a pamphlet describing the recommendations and their simplified rationale. A diet score was constructed from a 43-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and used to assess intervention effect on dietary behavior (score range 0-10). Between-group dietary differences post-intervention were estimated with analysis of covariance, with adjustment for baseline diet. A total of 508 women completed the FFQ both at baseline and post-intervention. There were no between-group differences in diet score and subscales at baseline. Post-intervention, the intervention group had higher overall diet score (control: 4.61, intervention: 5.04, P=0.013) and favorable dietary behavior in seven of the 10 dietary domains: 'consumption of water relative to total beverage consumption' (P=0.002), 'having vegetables with dinner' (P=0.027), 'choosing fruits and vegetables for between-meal snacks' (P=0.023), 'buying small portion sizes of unhealthy foods' (P=0.010), 'limiting sugar intake' (P=0.005), 'avoiding eating beyond satiety' (P=0.009) and 'reading food labels' (P=0.011). The NFFD diet intervention improved dietary behavior. Potential long-term clinical influence in mother and child will be investigated in further studies.
Lee, Jung-Ah; Choi, Mona; Lee, Sang A; Jiang, Natalie
Mobile health (mHealth) has continuously been used as a method in behavioral research to improve self-management in patients with chronic diseases. However, the evidence of its effectiveness in chronic disease management in the adult population is still lacking. We conducted a systematic review to examine the effectiveness of mHealth interventions on process measures as well as health outcomes in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to improve chronic disease management. Relevant randomized controlled studies that were published between January 2005 and March 2016 were searched in six databases: PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, and Web of Science. The inclusion criteria were RCTs that conducted an intervention using mobile devices such as smartphones or tablets for adult patients with chronic diseases to examine disease management or health promotion. Of the 12 RCTs reviewed, 10 of the mHealth interventions demonstrated statistically significant improvement in some health outcomes. The most common features of mHealth systems used in the reviewed RCTs were real-time or regular basis symptom assessments, pre-programed reminders, or feedbacks tailored specifically to the data provided by participants via mHealth devices. Most studies developed their own mHealth systems including mobile apps. Training of mHealth systems was provided to participants in person or through paper-based instructions. None of the studies reported the relationship between health outcomes and patient engagement levels on the mHealth system. Findings from mHealth intervention studies for chronic disease management have shown promising aspects, particularly in improving self-management and some health outcomes.
Amis, Sarah Anne
This research project sought to determine the effects of a School-Wide Positive Behavior Intervention Support program (SWPBIS) on the intrinsic motivation of third grade students in regard to student achievement, student behavior, and teacher perception. Students of two intermediate schools served as the treatment group and control group, and were…
Schuiringa, Hilde; Van Nieuwenhuijzen, Maroesjka; Orobio De Castro, Bram; Lochman, John E.; Matthys, Walter
This study evaluated the effectiveness of Standing Strong Together (SST), a combined group based parent and child intervention for externalizing behavior in 9–16 year-old children with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities (MBID). Children with externalizing behavior and MBID (IQ from 55 to
Tong, Guixian; Geng, Qingqing; Cheng, Jing; Chai, Jing; Xia, Yi; Feng, Rui; Zhang, Lu; Wang, Debin
This study aimed at summarizing evidence about effects of psycho-behavioral interventions (PBIs) on immune responses among cancer patients and analyzing quality of published studies so as to inform future researches. Literature retrieval utilized both highly inclusive algorithms searching randomized controlled studies published in English and Chinese and manual searching of eligible studies from references of relevant review papers. Two researchers examined the articles selected separately and extracted the information using a pre-designed form for soliciting data about the trials (e.g., sample size, disease status, intervention, immune responses) and quality ratings of the studies. Both narrative descriptions and meta-analysis (via Review manager 5) were used synthesizing the effects of PBIs on immune responses among cancer patients and state of art of the researches in this area. Seventy-six RCTs met inclusion criteria. PBIs implemented were divided into three major categories including psychological state adjustment, physical activity and dietary modification. Immune indicators measured included CD4+ cells, CD8+ cells, CD4/CDC8+ ratio, CD3+ cells, NK cell activity, etc. Effects of PBIs on immune responses documented in individual papers were mixed and pooled analysis of CD4+ cells, CD4+/CD8+ ratio, CD3+ cells, NKCA, IgG, IgM and IL-2 showed modest effects. However, there were huge discrepancies in intervention effects between studies published in English and Chinese and the results should be interpreted with caution. Besides, most studies suffer from some quality flaws concerning blinding, randomization procedures, compliance, attrition and intention-to-treat analyses, etc. Although there are considerable evidences of PBI effects on some immune indicators, the effect sizes are modest and it is still premature to conclude whether PBIs have effects on immune functions among cancer patients. There is a clear need for much more rigorous efforts in this area
Full Text Available This systematic review analyzes current data on effects of exercise interventions and physical activity behavior on objective and subjective cancer related cognitive impairments (CRCI. Out of the 19 studies which met all inclusion criteria, five RCTs investigated rodents, whereas the other 14 trials explored humans and these included six RCTs, one controlled trial, two prospective noncontrolled trials, one case series, one observational study, and three cross-sectional studies. The results from animal models revealed positive effects of exercise during and after chemotherapy or radiation on structural alterations of the central nervous system, physiological as well as neuropsychological outcomes. The overall study quality in patient studies was poor. The current data on intervention studies showed preliminary positive effects of Asian-influenced movement programs (e.g., Yoga with benefits on self-perceived cognitive functions as well as a reduction of chronic inflammation for breast cancer patients in the aftercare. Exercise potentially contributes to the prevention and rehabilitation of CRCI. Additional RCTs with standardized neuropsychological assessments and controlling for potential confounders are needed to confirm and expand preliminary findings.
Shaffer, Anne; Lindhiem, Oliver; Kolko, David
The goal of this brief report is to demonstrate the utility of quantifying parental discipline practices as relative frequencies in measuring changes in parenting behavior and relations to child behavior following intervention. We explored comparisons across methodological approaches of assessing parenting behavior via absolute and relative frequencies in measuring improvements in parent-reported disciplinary practices (increases in positive parenting practices in response to child behavior; decreases in inconsistent discipline and use of corporal punishment) and child behavior problems. The current study was conducted as part of a larger clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy of a collaborative care intervention for behavior problems, ADHD, and anxiety in pediatric primary care practices (Doctor Office Collaborative Care; DOCC). Participants were 321 parent-child dyads (M child age = 8.00, 65 % male children) from eight pediatric practices that were cluster randomized to DOCC or enhanced usual care (EUC). Parents reported on their own discipline behaviors and child behavior problems. While treatment-related decreases in negative parenting were found using both the absolute and relative frequencies of parenting behaviors, results were different for positive parenting behaviors, which showed decreases when measured as absolute frequencies but increases when measured as relative frequencies. In addition, positive parenting was negatively correlated with child behavior problems when using relative frequencies, but not absolute frequencies, and relative frequencies of positive parenting mediated relations between treatment condition and outcomes. Our findings indicate that the methods used to measure treatment-related change warrant careful consideration.
Dindo, Lilian; Recober, Ana; Marchman, James; O'Hara, Michael W; Turvey, Carolyn
To determine whether a 1-day behavioral intervention, aimed at enhancing psychological flexibility, improves headache outcomes of migraine patients with comorbid depression. Migraine is often comorbid with depression, with each disorder increasing the risk for onset and exacerbation of the other. Managing psychological triggers, such as stress and depression, may result in greater success of headache management. Sixty patients with comorbid migraine and depression were assigned to a 1-day Acceptance and Commitment Training plus Migraine Education workshop (ACT-ED; N = 38) or to treatment as usual (TAU; N = 22). Patients completed a daily headache diary prior to, and for 3 months following, the intervention. Clinical variables examined included headache frequency/severity, medication use, disability, and visit to a health care professional. Comparisons were made between baseline findings and findings at the 3-month follow up. Participants assigned to the ACT-ED condition exhibited significant improvements in headache frequency, headache severity, medication use, and headache-related disability. In contrast, the TAU group did not exhibit improvements. The difference in headache outcomes between ACT-ED and TAU was not statistically significant over time (ie, the treatment by time interaction was nonsignificant). These results complement those of a previous report showing effects of ACT-ED vs TAU on depression and disability. A 1-day ACT-ED workshop targeting psychological flexibility may convey benefit for patients with comorbid migraine and depression.These pilot study findings merit further investigation using a more rigorously designed large-scale trial.
Lang, Russell; O'Reilly, Mark; Sigafoos, Jeff; Machalicek, Wendy; Rispoli, Mandy; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Aguilar, Jeannie; Fragale, Christina
The purpose of this study was to reduce stereotypy and challenging behavior during play skills instruction by adding an abolishing operation component (AOC) to the intervention strategy. An alternating treatments design compared one condition in which participants were allowed to engage in stereotypy freely before beginning the play skills…
Spindler, Helle; Staugaard, Søren Risløv; Nicolaisen, Camilla
The objective of this study was to examine the effect of a brief cognitive-behavioral intervention for patients with dental fear in a private dental clinic. Patients presenting with subjectively reported dental fear were randomly assigned to either an immediate intervention (n = 53) or a waiting...... list (n = 51) group. Both groups received an identical intervention, but delayed by 4-6 weeks in the waiting list group. Participants were asked to fill out two self-report questionnaires of dental fear at pre- and post-intervention, and again at a 2-year follow-up assessment. Analysis of variance...... showed that dental fear was significantly reduced in the immediate intervention group (d = 1.5-2.2), compared with the waiting list group (d = 0.3-0.4). Additionally, all participants showed a significant reduction of dental fear following the brief intervention, and in the subgroup available for follow...
Petermann, F; Holtz, M C; van der Meer, B; Krohn-Grimberghe, B
The etiology of fibromyalgia as a chronic disease is still unexplained. This article gives an overview of the newest treatment methods of behavioral medicine of the fibromyalgia syndrome with regard to the state of research of etiology and diagnosis of this disease. Methods such as operant conditioning, cognitive-behavioral approaches, patient education and relaxation methods are discussed.
Schuiringa, Hilde; Van Nieuwenhuijzen, Maroesjka; Orobio De Castro, Bram; Lochman, John E.; Matthys, Walter
This study evaluated the effectiveness of Standing Strong Together (SST), a combined group based parent and child intervention for externalizing behavior in 9?16?year-old children with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities (MBID). Children with externalizing behavior and MBID (IQ from 55 to 85) (N?=?169) were cluster randomly assigned to SST combined with care as usual or to care as usual only. SST led to a significant benefit on teacher reported but not on parent reported externalizin...
Lee, Young Me; Cintron, Adanisse; Kocher, Surinder
The purpose of this integrative literature review study was to investigate factors related to risky sexual behaviors among African American adolescents, to evaluate which of the factors are common across successful and effective STI/HIV and pregnancy intervention programs, and finally, to propose suggestions for future intervention programs for African American adolescents in West Englewood, Chicago. An integrative literature review was conducted. Using CINAHL, PubMed, and ProQuest database, the following terms were searched: African American, Black, adolescents, teenagers, sexual behavior, cultural factors, pregnancy, STIs/HIV/AIDS, and intervention programs. A total of 18 articles were reviewed, findings indicated there were five major contributing factors related to risky sexual behaviors: substance use, gender roles, peer influences, parental involvement, and level of knowledge and information on sex and STIs. Six successful STI/HIV and pregnancy programs that incorporated those factors to effectively reduce risky sexual behaviors were identified. After analyzing six national intervention programs proven to be effective, the findings suggest that future prevention programs should be designed with more emphasis on avoidance or limited substance use, increased parental involvement, integration of cultural teaching components such as storytelling and history as suggested from the Aban Aya Youth Project. This study also concluded that future prevention programs should consider the length of programs be longer than 1 year, as it has been shown to be more effective than shorter programs. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Nutrition is important during childhood for growth and to help prevent infections and other diseases and educational interventions will be effective. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of educational intervention on promoting healthy eating behaviors among primary school students of Kermanshah City, Iran. Materials and Methods: In this semi-experimental study, 135 primary school students were randomly allocated into intervention and control groups. Data were collected using a valid and reliable questionnaire before and after the intervention in the areas of knowledge, attitude, practice and demographic variables. Data were analyzed using Chi-square, and paired t test with the SPSS-13 software. Results: Results showed that after the educational intervention the mean scores of knowledge, attitudes and practice were increased significantly in the experimental group (P0.05. Conclusions: The results of this study showed that the educational intervention was effective in creating positive changes in knowledge, attitude and especially behaviors of the students about healthy eating. According to the appropriate education in schools and low-cost and effective nutritional education, the need to extend this type of training programs seems necessary.
Robertson, Michelle; Amick, Benjamin C; DeRango, Kelly; Rooney, Ted; Bazzani, Lianna; Harrist, Ron; Moore, Anne
A large-scale field intervention study was undertaken to examine the effects of office ergonomics training coupled with a highly adjustable chair on office workers' knowledge and musculoskeletal risks. Office workers were assigned to one of three study groups: a group receiving the training and adjustable chair (n=96), a training-only group (n=63), and a control group (n=57). The office ergonomics training program was created using an instructional systems design model. A pre/post-training knowledge test was administered to all those who attended the training. Body postures and workstation set-ups were observed before and after the intervention. Perceived control over the physical work environment was higher for both intervention groups as compared to workers in the control group. A significant increase in overall ergonomic knowledge was observed for the intervention groups. Both intervention groups exhibited higher level behavioral translation and had lower musculoskeletal risk than the control group.
Lynch, Cheryl P; Williams, Joni S; J Ruggiero, Kenneth; G Knapp, Rebecca; Egede, Leonard E
Multiple randomized controlled trials (RCTs) show that behavioral lifestyle interventions are effective in improving diabetes management and that comprehensive risk factor management improves cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes. The role of technology has been gaining strong support as evidence builds of its potential to improve diabetes management; however, evaluation of its impact in minority populations is limited. This study intends to provide early evidence of a theory-driven intervention, Tablet-Aided BehavioraL intervention EffecT on Self-management skills (TABLETS), using real-time videoconferencing for education and skills training. We examine the potential for TABLETS to improve health risk behaviors and reduce CVD risk outcomes among a low-income African American (AA) population with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes. The study is a two-arm, pilot controlled trial that randomizes 30 participants to the TABLETS intervention and 30 participants to a usual care group. Blinded outcome assessments will be completed at baseline, 2.5 months (immediate post-intervention), and 6.5 months (follow-up). The TABLETS intervention consists of culturally tailored telephone-delivered diabetes education and skills training delivered via videoconferencing on tablet devices, with two booster sessions delivered via tablet-based videoconferencing at 3 months and 5 months to stimulate ongoing use of the tablet device with access to intervention materials via videoconferencing slides and a manual of supplementary materials. The primary outcomes are physical activity, diet, medication adherence, and self-monitoring behavior, whereas the secondary outcomes are HbA1c, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), BP, CVD risk, and quality of life. This study provides a unique opportunity to assess the feasibility and efficacy of a theory-driven, tablet-aided behavioral intervention that utilizes real-time videoconferencing technology for education and skills training on self
Liao, Yue; Liao, Jingjing; Durand, Casey P.; Dunton, Genevieve F
Sedentary behavior is emerging as an independent risk factor for pediatric obesity. Some evidence suggests that limiting sedentary behavior alone could be effective in reducing body mass index (BMI) in children. However, whether adding physical activity and diet-focused components to sedentary behavior reduction interventions could lead to an additive effect is unclear. This meta-analysis aims to assess the overall effect size of sedentary behavior interventions on BMI reduction, and to compa...
Fava, Leonardo; Strauss, Kristin; Valeri, Giovanni; D'Elia, Lidia; Arima, Serena; Vicari, Stefano
We compared the effects of Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention (EIBI) and eclectic intervention in children with ASD on autism severity, developmental performance, adaptive behavior, language skills and challenging behaviors. Twelve children received cross-setting staff- and parent-mediated EIBI of centre-based one-to-one and play sessions as…
Full Text Available Caregivers of people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD are chronically exposed to high levels of stress.In turn, such stress is associated with high rates of negative health outcomes. However, few studies haveanalyzed the effects of psychotherapeutic interventions in improving health in this population. The mainaim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral intervention program,based on the model proposed by Ruiz-Robledillo and Moya-Albiol (2014a. For this, we used a sample of 17informal caregivers of people diagnosed with ASD. The study was based on a pre-post design. Caregivershad lower levels of burden immediately after the intervention than at baseline, while both immediatelyafter the intervention and at 1 month of follow-up, they had fewer somatic symptoms, lower levels ofdepression, and better mood states than at baseline. These results provide evidence of the efficacy of thecognitive-behavioral intervention developed for reducing stress and health complaints in chronicallystressed caregivers. Additionally, the program could be useful in early stages of the caring process, toprovide caregivers with effective skills for preventing future health problems. The integration of theprogram in general psychosocial interventions would be highly beneficial for this population.
Full Text Available Background: Puberty is a period of psychological, physical, mental, emotional and social growth that stability and development of personality occurs in this period. This study aimed to determine the effect of planned behavior theory on improving pubertal health behavior in female first grade high school students. Materials and Methods: A quasi-experimental intervention was conducted in female high school in Khamir city, Iran in 2015. One of the schools were randomly assigned to the control group and other to the experimental group. Using the formula sample, 60 students were selected from each school. Samples were evaluated in two stages through pre-test and two months later via post-test by administered questionnaire including questions about demographic characteristics and structures of planned behavior theory. The content of training was presented through lecture group discussion with teaching aids such as booklet and pamphlet. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS version 22. Results: The intervention group mean age at first menstrual period was 12.30 ± 0.84 years old and for control group was 12.25 ± 0.79 years old. The results showed that two months after the intervention, health behaviors, subjective norms, behavioral intention, perceived behavioral control, and attitude, were significantly higher than pre- intervention (P
Baggett, Kathleen; Davis, Betsy; Feil, Edward; Sheeber, Lisa; Landry, Susan; Leve, Craig; Johnson, Ursula
Technology advances increasingly allow for access to remotely delivered interventions designed to promote early parenting practices that protect against child maltreatment. Among low-income families, at somewhat elevated risk for child maltreatment, there is some evidence that parents do engage in and benefit from remote-coaching interventions. However, little is known about the effectiveness of such programs to engage and benefit families at high risk for child maltreatment due to multiple stressors associated with poverty. To address this limitation, we examined engagement and outcomes among mothers at heightened risk for child abuse, who were enrolled in a randomized controlled, intent-to-treat trial of an Internet adaptation of an evidence-based infant parenting intervention. We found that engagement patterns were similar between higher and lower risk groups. Moreover, an intervention dose by condition effect was found for increased positive parent behavior and reduced child abuse potential.
Sharma, Mahendra P.; Andrade, Chittaranjan
Insomnia is a general clinical term that refers to a difficulty in initiating or maintaining sleep. Insomnia is widely prevalent in the general population, especially in the elderly and in those with medical and psychiatric disorders. Hypnotic drug treatments of insomnia are effective but are associated with potential disadvantages. This article presents an overview of behavioral interventions for insomnia. Behavioral interventions for insomnia include relaxation training, stimulus control th...
Banerjee, Sushanta K; Andersen, Kathryn L; Warvadekar, Janardan; Pearson, Erin
Although abortion became legal in India in 1971, many women are unaware of the law. Behavior change communication interventions may be an effective way to promote awareness of the law and change knowledge of and perceptions about abortion, particularly in settings in which abortion is stigmatized. To evaluate the effectiveness of a behavior change communication intervention to improve women's knowledge about India's abortion law and their perceptions about abortion, a quasi-experimental study was conducted in intervention and comparison districts in Bihar and Jharkhand. Household surveys were administered at baseline in 2008 and at follow-up in 2010 to independent, randomly selected cross-sectional samples of rural married women aged 15-49. Logistic regression difference-in-differences models were used to assess program effectiveness. Analysis demonstrated program effectiveness in improving awareness and perceptions about abortion. The changes in the odds of knowing that abortion is legal and where to obtain safe abortion services were larger between baseline and follow-up in the intervention districts than the changes in odds observed in the comparison districts (odds ratios, 16.1 and 1.9, respectively). Similarly, the increase in women's perception of greater social support for abortion within their families and the increase in perceived self-efficacy with respect to family planning and abortion between baseline and follow-up was greater in the intervention districts than in the comparison districts (coefficients, 0.17 and 0.18, respectively). Behavior change communication interventions can be effective in improving knowledge of and perceptions about abortion in settings in which lack of accurate knowledge hinders women's access to safe abortion services. Multiple approaches should be used when attempting to improve knowledge and perceptions about stigmatized health issues such as abortion.
Bastami, Fatemeh; Mostafavi, Firoozeh; Hassanzadeh, Akbar
Background and Objectives: Addicts account for approximately 68.15% of AIDS cases in Iran and injection drug users are considered as a major factor in the spread of AIDS in Iran. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of an educational intervention on the perceived self-efficacy, benefits, and barriers concerning AIDS preventive behaviors among drug addicts in Khorramabad, Iran. Methods: This is a quasi-experimental study carried out in 2013 on 88 addicts kept in rehabilitations center in Khorramabad. The data collection instruments included a questionnaire on self-efficacy, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, knowledge and preventive behaviors regarding HIV. Data were analyzed by paired t-test, independent t-test, Chi-square and analysis of covariance. Results: Paired t-test showed that the mean scores for perceived benefits and barriers, knowledge and preventive behaviors significantly increased in the intervention group after the intervention than before the intervention. But the increase in self-efficacy score was not statistically significant. Conclusions: The results of this study showed that training and education based on the health belief model led to an increase in knowledge, self-efficacy, perceived benefits, performance and reduction in perceived barriers in addicts. It is recommended that future studies should include strategies for enhancing self-efficacy and perceived benefits as well as strategies for reducing barriers to the adoption of preventive behaviors. PMID:27462632
Chang, Ae Kyung; Fritschi, Cynthia; Kim, Mi Ja
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of an 8-week empowerment intervention on sedentary behavior, physical activity, and psychological health in Korean older adults with hypertension. Using a quasi-experimental design, older adults participated in either an experimental group (n = 27) or control group (n = 21). The experimental group received an empowerment intervention including lifestyle modification education, group discussion, and exercise training for 8 weeks, and the control group received standard hypertension education. After 8 weeks, participants in the experimental group had significantly decreased sedentary behavior, increased physical activity, increased self-efficacy for physical activity, and increased perceived health (p decreasing sedentary behavior and increasing physical activity, self-efficacy for physical activity, and perceived health in Korean older adults with hypertension. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.
Price, Joseph M; Roesch, Scott; Walsh, Natalia E; Landsverk, John
Children in foster care are at risk for externalizing behavior problems, which can in turn increase the risk of changes in foster care placement. The KEEP (Keeping Foster Parents Trained and Supported) foster parent training intervention was designed to equip foster parents with strategies for managing externalizing behavior problems. The primary goals of this investigation were to (a) examine the effectiveness of the KEEP intervention in reducing child behavior problems, as delivered by a community agency; (b) determine if the effects of the KEEP intervention generalize to more than one child in the same home; and (c) examine the effectiveness of the KEEP intervention in reducing parental stress associated with child behavior problems. The data from 335 foster and kinship families with children between the ages of 5 and 12 years were analyzed to address these objectives. Families were randomly assigned to the intervention or control condition. The results indicated that the KEEP intervention was effective in reducing child behavior problems when delivered by a community agency. These results expanded prior research on the KEEP intervention, revealing that the intervention was effective in reducing the behavior problems of more than one child in the same household and in reducing parental stress levels associated with the behavioral issues of the focal child. Thus, the KEEP intervention model holds promise for reducing the behavior problems of children in foster care and reducing stress levels of foster and kinship caregivers as it is disseminated and implemented within similar child welfare settings.
Hawkes, Anna L; Chambers, Suzanne K; Pakenham, Kenneth I; Patrao, Tania A; Baade, Peter D; Lynch, Brigid M; Aitken, Joanne F; Meng, Xingqiong; Courneya, Kerry S
Colorectal cancer survivors are at risk for poor health outcomes because of unhealthy lifestyles, but few studies have developed translatable health behavior change interventions. This study aimed to determine the effects of a telephone-delivered multiple health behavior change intervention (CanChange) on health and behavioral outcomes among colorectal cancer survivors. In this two-group randomized controlled trial, 410 colorectal cancer survivors were randomly assigned to the health coaching intervention (11 theory-based telephone-delivered health coaching sessions delivered over 6 months focusing on physical activity, weight management, dietary habits, alcohol, and smoking) or usual care. Assessment of primary (ie, physical activity [Godin Leisure Time Index], health-related quality of life [HRQoL; Short Form-36], and cancer-related fatigue [Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy Fatigue Scale]) and secondary outcomes (ie, body mass index [kg/m(2)], diet and alcohol intake [Food Frequency Questionnaire], and smoking) were conducted at baseline and 6 and 12 months. At 12 months, significant intervention effects were observed for moderate physical activity (28.5 minutes; P = .003), body mass index (-0.9 kg/m(2); P = .001), energy from total fat (-7.0%; P = .006), and energy from saturated fat (-2.8%; P = .016). A significant intervention effect was reported for vegetable intake (0.4 servings per day; P = .001) at 6 months. No significant group differences were found at 6 or 12 months for HRQoL, cancer-related fatigue, fruit, fiber, or alcohol intake, or smoking. The CanChange intervention was effective for improving physical activity, dietary habits, and body mass index in colorectal cancer survivors. The intervention is translatable through existing telephone cancer support and information services in Australia and other countries.
Polanin, Joshua R.; Espelage, Dorothy L.; Pigott, Therese D.
This meta-analysis synthesized bullying prevention programs' effectiveness at increasing bystander intervention in bullying situations. Evidence from 12 school-based programs, involving 12,874 students, indicated that overall the programs were successful (Hedges's g = 0.20, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.11 to 0.29, p = 0.001), with larger…
Levy, Rona L; van Tilburg, Miranda A L; Langer, Shelby L; Romano, Joan M; Walker, Lynn S; Mancl, Lloyd A; Murphy, Tasha B; Claar, Robyn L; Feld, Shara I; Christie, Dennis L; Abdullah, Bisher; DuPen, Melissa M; Swanson, Kimberly S; Baker, Melissa D; Stoner, Susan A; Whitehead, William E
Studies testing the efficacy of behavioral interventions to modify psychosocial sequelae of inflammatory bowel disease in children are limited. This report presents outcomes through a 6-month follow-up from a large randomized controlled trial testing the efficacy of a cognitive behavioral intervention for children with inflammatory bowel disease and their parents. One hundred eighty-five children aged 8 to 17 years with a diagnosis of Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis and their parents were randomized to one of two 3-session conditions: (1) a social learning and cognitive behavioral therapy condition or (2) an education support condition designed to control for time and attention. There was a significant overall treatment effect for school absences due to Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis (P cognitive behavioral therapy condition experienced a greater reduction in flares after treatment. This trial suggests that a brief cognitive behavioral intervention for children with inflammatory bowel disease and their parents can result in improved child functioning and quality of life, and for some children may decrease disease activity.
Full Text Available "n "n "nObjective :Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD may be the first reaction after disasters. Many studies have shown the efficacy of cognitive- behavioral therapy in treatment of post traumatic stress disorder. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of group CBT in adolescent survivors of a large scale disaster (Bam earthquake. "n "nMethods: In a controlled trial, we evaluated the efficacy of a short term method of group cognitive-behavioral therapy in adolescent survivors of Bam earthquake who had PTSD symptoms and compared it with a control group. The adolescents who had severe PTSD or other psychiatric disorders that needed pharmacological interventions were excluded. We evaluated PTSD symptoms using Post traumatic Stress Scale (PSS pre and post intervention and compared them with a control group. "n "nResults: 100 adolescents were included in the study and 15 were excluded during the intervention. The mean age of the participants was 14.6±2.1 years. The mean score of total PTSD symptoms and the symptoms of avoidance was reduced after interventions, and was statistically significant. The mean change of re-experience and hyper arousal symptoms of PTSD were not significant. "n "nConclusion: Psychological debriefing and group cognitive behavioral therapy may be effective in reducing some of the PTSD symptoms.
Karimi-Shahanjarini, Akram; Rashidian, Arash; Omidvar, Nasrin; Majdzadeh, Reza
The evidence for the effectiveness of theory of planned behavior (TPB)-based interventions is mixed. There is also mixed evidence on the effectiveness of adding implementation intentions to TPB-based interventions. In this study we assessed and compared the short-term effects of TPB-only intervention and TPB plus implementation intentions intervention on snacking behavior and intention to consume unhealthy snacks in Iranian adolescent girls. Three-arm cluster randomized controlled trial. Ten middle schools in Tehran (Iran). A total of 29 classes included 739 female adolescents (age range: 12-15 years). Intervention. Two brief interventions including TPB-only intervention and TPB plus implementation intentions intervention. Food frequency questionnaire and intentions at baseline, 10 days, and 3 months measuring snacking behavior and cognitions about unhealthy snack consumption, respectively. Hierarchical linear modeling to assess the interventions' effects. Both interventions successfully decreased intention to consume and consumption of unhealthy snacks at postintervention. Calculation of the effect sizes revealed that the TPB plus implementation intentions intervention was more effective than the TPB-only intervention. The effects remained significant at 3-month follow-up in the TPB plus implementation intentions intervention group only, although the effect size decreased. Overall, the study suggests that adding implementation intentions on top of TPB-based persuasive messages improves effectiveness and sustainability of desirable changes.
Legardy, Jennifer K; Macaluso, Maurizio; Artz, Lynn; Brill, Ilene
This study assessed whether participant baseline characteristics modified the effects of a skill-based intervention promoting condom use. The randomized, controlled trial enrolled 427 women from a sexually transmitted disease clinic in Birmingham, Alabama. The main outcome measures: consistent (100%) and problem-free (correct, no breakage or slippage) condom use were verified by sexual diary self-report and contraceptive product counts. The enhanced intervention group had a 60% higher consistent condom use rate compared to the basic group (risk ratio [RR], 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-1.8). There was no statistically significant difference between groups in relationship to problem-free, consistent use (RR, 1.0; 95% CI, 0.9-1.1). A binomial regression analysis identified the following factors as significant modifiers of intervention effectiveness on consistent condom use: intention to use condoms next time, early-age sexual debut, marital status combined with place of intercourse, and substance use before sex. The results suggest that participant baseline characteristics can be modifiers of intervention effectiveness.
Rausch, John C.; Berger-Jenkins, Evelyn; Nieto, Andres R.; McCord, Mary; Meyer, Dodi
Background: Parents exert a significant effect on children's eating behaviors and physical activity levels, so it is imperative to find successful obesity prevention programs that target whole families in underserved communities. Purpose: To investigate the effects of a Coordinated School Health Program (CSHP) on parents in the program over a…
van Berkel, J.; Boot, C.R.L.; Proper, K.I.; Bongers, P.M.; van der Beek, A.J.
Introduction: Overweight and obesity are associated with an increased risk of morbidity. Mindfulness training could be an effective strategy to optimize lifestyle behaviors related to body weight gain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a worksite mindfulness-based
Gong, Cynthia L; Zangwill, Kenneth M; Hay, Joel W; Meeker, Daniella; Doctor, Jason N
Behavioral economics interventions have been shown to effectively reduce the rates of inappropriate antibiotic prescriptions for acute respiratory infections (ARIs). To determine the cost-effectiveness of three behavioral economic interventions designed to reduce inappropriate antibiotic prescriptions for ARIs. Thirty-year Markov model from the US societal perspective with inputs derived from the literature and CDC surveillance data. Forty-five-year-old adults with signs and symptoms of ARI presenting to a healthcare provider. (1) Provider education on guidelines for the appropriate treatment of ARIs; (2) Suggested Alternatives, which utilizes computerized clinical decision support to suggest non-antibiotic treatment choices in lieu of antibiotics; (3) Accountable Justification, which mandates free-text justification into the patient's electronic health record when antibiotics are prescribed; and (4) Peer Comparison, which sends a periodic email to prescribers about his/her rate of inappropriate antibiotic prescribing relative to clinician colleagues. Discounted costs, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. Each intervention has lower costs but higher QALYs compared to provider education. Total costs for each intervention were $178.21, $173.22, $172.82, and $172.52, and total QALYs were 14.68, 14.73, 14.74, and 14.74 for the control, Suggested Alternatives, Accountable Justification, and Peer Comparison groups, respectively. Results were most sensitive to the quality-of-life of the uninfected state, and the likelihood and costs for antibiotic-associated adverse events. Behavioral economics interventions can be cost-effective strategies for reducing inappropriate antibiotic prescriptions by reducing healthcare resource utilization.
Lacina, Linda; Casper, Tammy; Dixon, Melodie; Harmeyer, Joann; Haberman, Beth; Alberts, Jeffrey R; Simakajornboon, Narong; Visscher, Marty O
of behavior state changes than the nonsurgical infants. The percentage of time in observed deep sleep and quiet sleep was correlated with both percentage sleep efficiency (r = 0.78) and fewer state shifts per hour (r = -0.65) from electroencephalogram (EEG). Sleep efficiency by EEG was greater on CP versus SP. The CP enabled sleep compared with the standard mattress (SP) over 30-minute observation periods. Sleep status from behavioral observation was verified by standard EEG-based sleep techniques. Behavioral observation of sleep states may be a useful strategy for measuring the effectiveness of strategies to facilitate sleep in premature infants. Surgical subjects may benefit from additional interventions to promote sleep.
Liao, Li-Ling; Lai, I-Ju; Chang, Li-Chun; Lee, Chia-Kuei
Unhealthy food advertising is an important contributor to childhood obesity. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the impact of a food advertising literacy program that incorporated components of health-promoting media literacy education on fifth-grade children. Participants were 140 fifth-graders (10 and 11 years old) from one school who were randomly divided into three groups. Experimental Group A received a food advertising literacy program, experimental Group B received a comparable knowledge-based nutrition education program and the control group did not receive any nutrition education. Repeated measures analysis of variance and multivariate analysis of covariance were used to test mean changes between pretest, posttest and follow-up on participants' nutritional knowledge, food advertising literacy and food purchasing behavior. Results showed that, as compared with Group B and the control groups, Group A showed higher nutritional knowledge, food advertising literacy and food purchasing behavior at post-intervention, but had no significant improvements in nutritional knowledge and food purchasing behavior at the 1-month follow-up. Although some improvements were observed, future studies should consider a long-term, settings-based approach that is closely connected with children's daily lives, as this might be helpful to solidify children's skills in recognizing, evaluating and understanding unhealthy food advertising. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Hamilton, Kate E.; Wershler, Julie L.; Macrodimitris, Sophie D.; Backs-Dermott, Barb J.; Ching, Laurie E.; Mothersill, Kerry J.
Depression and anxiety are the most common mental health disorders seen in clinical practice and they are highly comorbid. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has been demonstrated as an effective treatment for both depression and anxiety but is often not available to all individuals who could benefit from it. This paper investigates the…
Brotman, Laurie Miller; Gouley, Kathleen Kiely; Huang, Keng-Yen; Rosenfelt, Amanda; O'Neal, Colleen; Klein, Rachel G.; Shrout, Patrick
This article presents long-term effects of a preventive intervention for young children at high risk for antisocial behavior. Ninety-two children (M age = 4 years) were randomly assigned to an 8-month family intervention or no-intervention control condition and assessed 4 times over a 24-month period. Intent-to-treat analyses revealed significant…
A.J.C. Prick; J. Twisk; Dr. J. de Lange; E. Scherder; A.M. Pot
Purpose: The effects of a multicomponent dyadic intervention on the mood, behavior, and physical health of people with dementia living in the community were evaluated in a randomized controlled trial. This multicomponent dyadic intervention is a translated and adapted version of an intervention that
Sharma, Mahendra P; Andrade, Chittaranjan
Insomnia is a general clinical term that refers to a difficulty in initiating or maintaining sleep. Insomnia is widely prevalent in the general population, especially in the elderly and in those with medical and psychiatric disorders. Hypnotic drug treatments of insomnia are effective but are associated with potential disadvantages. This article presents an overview of behavioral interventions for insomnia. Behavioral interventions for insomnia include relaxation training, stimulus control therapy, sleep restriction therapy, sleep hygiene, paradoxical intention therapy, cognitive restructuring, and other approaches. These are briefly explained. Research indicates that behavioral interventions are efficacious, effective, and likely cost-effective treatments for insomnia that yield reliable, robust, and long-term benefits in adults of all ages. Detailed guidance is provided for the practical management of patients with insomnia.
The purpose of this quantitative study is to understand the global security perspective on the effects of executive cognitive function (ECF) on Complex Behavioral Screening Intervention and HIV/AIDS. The HIV/AIDS pandemic is as much a social, political, economic, and cultural problem as a biomedical one. HIV/AIDS is associated centrally with the collapse not just of communities and families but potentially of states, with some of the largest public health interventions ever and enormous questions about governance, a huge population of orphans, and deep questions about intergenerational relations and cultural transmission. This study also is to develop a screening instrument that improves quality of life for individuals with executive cognitive impairments and behavior problems in our communities and the global society.
Reyes-Morales, Hortensia; González-Unzaga, Marco A; Jiménez-Aguilar, Alejandra; Uribe-Carvajal, Rebeca
Preschool age is a critical stage for health promotion and prevention of obesity, which is an emerging public health problem in children. The aim of this study was to design and evaluate the effect of a multifaceted intervention based on child-care centers to reduce risk behaviors for obesity among preschool children. A 12-month cluster-randomized community trial was conducted in 16 Mexican Institute of Social Security child-care centers in Mexico City. Children between 2 and 4 years of age enrolled in the selected child-care centers participated in the study. Intervention comprised 12 weekly curriculum sessions for the children, and six family workshops. Changes in children's dietary and physical activity, food availability at home, and maternal feeding styles were determined after 6 and 12 months. Changes within groups among stages, and between groups by stage were analyzed through χ 2 test. The intervention showed decrease of home availability for some non-recommended foods and increase in physical activity in the intervention group compared to the usual care group. Improvement in physical activity can be effective in the long term; innovative strategies aimed to modify family dietary risk behaviors are required. Copyright © 2016 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.
The primary goal of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of behavioral interventions aimed at promoting energy conservation by consumers. It is argued that energy conservation has many advantages over other energy policy options, especially with respect to sociopolitical, economic, technical, safety and environmental considerations. Theories are discussed which deal with micromotives behind individual energy consumption and their macroconsequences. Antecedent and consequence behavioral interventions (information/education, prompting, modeling, feedback, self-monitoring, reinforcement/punishment) for promoting energy conservation by consumers are analyzed, and an extensive review is presented of behavioral experiments conducted in this area. Discussed is how the field experiment, which was conducted in five cities in the Netherlands with appr. 400 subjects, has been implemented. Hypotheses are tested regarding belief structures with respect to energy conservation. Provided are data about the absolute and relative effectiveness of energy conservation information, biweekly and monthly feedback, and self-monitoring in encouraging consumers to conserve energy. Hypotheses are tested about cognitive aspects related to responsiveness to behavioral interventions and attitude change toward energy conservation. Conclusions are presented and some energy policy recommendations and directions for future research are formulated. (J.C.R.)
Minian, Nadia; deRuiter, Wayne K; Lingam, Mathangee; Corrin, Tricia; Dragonetti, Rosa; Manson, Heather; Taylor, Valerie H; Zawertailo, Laurie; Ebnahmady, Arezoo; Melamed, Osnat C; Rodak, Terri; Hahn, Margaret; Selby, Peter
Health behaviors directly impact the health of individuals, and populations. Since individuals tend to engage in multiple unhealthy behaviors such as smoking, excessive alcohol use, physical inactivity, and eating an unhealthy diet simultaneously, many large community-based interventions have been implemented to reduce the burden of disease through the modification of multiple health behaviors. Smoking cessation can be particularly challenging as the odds of becoming dependent on nicotine increase with every unhealthy behavior a smoker exhibits. This paper presents a protocol for a rapid realist review which aims to identify factors associated with effectively changing tobacco use and target two or more additional unhealthy behaviors. An electronic literature search will be conducted using the following bibliographic databases: MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), The Cochrane Library, Social Science Abstracts, Social Work Abstracts, and Web of Science. Two reviewers will screen titles and abstracts for relevant research, and the selected full papers will be used to extract data and assess the quality of evidence. Throughout this process, the rapid realist approach proposed by Saul et al., 2013 will be used to refine our initial program theory and identify contextual factors and mechanisms that are associated with successful multiple health behavior change. This review will provide evidence-based research on the context and mechanisms that may drive the success or failure of interventions designed to support multiple health behavior change. This information will be used to guide curriculum and program development for a government funded project on improving smoking cessation by addressing multiple health behaviors in people in Canada. PROSPERO CRD42017064430.
Maheri, Aghbabak; Tol, Azar; Sadeghi, Roya
INTRODUCTION: Internet addiction refers to the excessive use of the internet that causes mental, social, and physical problems. According to the high prevalence of internet addiction among university students, this study aimed to determine the effect of an educational intervention on preventive behaviors of internet addiction among Tehran University of Medical Sciences students. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was a quasi-experimental study conducted among female college students who live in the dormitories of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Two-stage cluster sampling was used for selection of eighty participants in each study groups; data were collected using “Young's Internet Addiction” and unstructured questionnaire. Validity and reliability of unstructured questionnaire were evaluated by expert panel and were reported as Cronbach's alpha. Information of study groups before and 4 months after the intervention was compared using statistical methods by SPSS 16. RESULTS: After the intervention, the mean scores of internet addiction, perceived barriers construct, and the prevalence of internet addiction significantly decreased in the intervention group than that in the control group and the mean scores of knowledge and Health Belief Model (HBM) constructs (susceptibility, severity, benefits, self-efficacy) significantly increased. CONCLUSIONS: Education based on the HBM was effective on the reduction and prevention of internet addiction among female college students, and educational interventions in this field are highly recommended. PMID:28852654
Stoolmiller, M; Eddy, J M; Reid, J B
This study examined theoretical, methodological, and statistical problems involved in evaluating the outcome of aggression on the playground for a universal preventive intervention for conduct disorder. Moderately aggressive children were hypothesized most likely to benefit. Aggression was measured on the playground using observers blind to the group status of the children. Behavior was micro-coded in real time to minimize potential expectancy biases. The effectiveness of the intervention was strongly related to initial levels of aggressiveness. The most aggressive children improved the most. Models that incorporated corrections for low reliability (the ratio of variance due to true time-stable individual differences to total variance) and censoring (a floor effect in the rate data due to short periods of observation) obtained effect sizes 5 times larger than models without such corrections with respect to children who were initially 2 SDs above the mean on aggressiveness.
Full Text Available Objective: The present study aimed to review the literature on non-pharmacological interventions used to treat stereotyped and repetitive behaviors by a systematic method. Methods: Two authors independently performed a search strategy on Medline/PubMed, Scopus and PsycINFO on English articles published up to April 23, 2014 with relevant search keywords. We also reviewed the bibliographies of retrieved articles and conference proceedings to obtain additional citations and references. We used those articles that address any non-pharmacological interventions on reducing stereotyped and repetitive behaviors in preschool children with autism. Four independent reviewers screened relevant articles for inclusion criteria and assessed the quality of eligible articles with CONSORT checklist. Results: In our search, 664 relevant articles were found. After removing duplicates and screening based on title, abstract, and full text, 15 high quality studies were finally included in data analyses. The included articles were published from 1987 to 2013. Three studies were designed as A-B, two as A-B-A and reminders as A-B-A-B. The data and results of 3 clinical trials were synthesized; two of them were parallel randomized clinical trial and another one was designed as cross-over. Interventions were completely heterogeneous in case studies, including non-contingent auditory stimulation, response interruption and redirection, teaching the children to request assistance on the difficult tasks, family-implemented treatment for behavioral inflexibility with treatment approach, vocal or motor response interruption and redirection, brushing, water mist treatment, exposure response prevention, tangible reinforcement or social reinforcement, and music. Interventions in clinical trials included touch therapy, kata techniques training program, and aerobic exercise. Conclusions: The results of our review indicate that different kinds of non-pharmacological interventions can
Mazmanian, Paul E; Coe, Antoinette B; Evans, Jessica A; Longo, Daniel R; Wright, Barbara A
Academic institutions funded by the Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) Program of the National Institutes of Health were challenged recently by the Institute of Medicine to expand traditional mentoring of graduate and postdoctoral scholars to include training and continuing education for faculty, professional staff, and community partners. A systematic review was conducted to determine whether researcher development interventions, alone or in any combination, are effective in improving researcher behavior. PubMed, CINAHL, and Education Research Complete databases and select journals were searched for relevant articles published from January 2000 through October 2012. A total of 3,459 papers were identified, and 114 papers were retrieved for in-depth analysis. None included randomization. Twenty-two papers reported subjects with professional degrees, interventions, and outcomes. Interventions were meetings, outreach visits, colleague mediation, audit and feedback, and multifaceted interventions. Most studies reported multifaceted interventions (68.2%), often involving mentored learning experiences, and meetings. All studies reported a change in performance, including numbers of publications or grant applications. Nine studies reported changes in competence, including writing, presentation, or analytic skills, and performance in research practice (40.9%). Even as, the quality of evidence was weak to establish causal linkages between researcher development and improved researcher behavior, nearly all the projects (81.8%) received funding from governmental agencies, professional societies, or other organizations. Those who design researcher development activities and those who evaluate the programs are challenged to develop tools and conduct studies that measure the effectiveness, costs, and sustainability of researcher development in the CTSA Program.
Hsu, Ting-Jung; Tsai, Hui-Te; Hwang, An-Chun; Chen, Liang-Yu; Chen, Liang-Kung
Our previous work showed that non-pharmacological interventions could effectively reduce the severity of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), while the factors influencing the effect of intervention were less explored. Therefore, the main purpose of the present study was to investigate the predictors of the non-pharmacological intervention effect for old veterans with dementia and BPSD. A total of 141 old veterans with dementia living in two veterans' homes in northern Taiwan were recruited. The participants received an organized non-pharmacological intervention program of physical activity/exercise, music therapy, reality orientation, art therapy, reminiscence therapy and horticultural therapy once every week for 6 months. All participants were evaluated by the Barthel Index, Lawton-Brody Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale, Mini-Mental State Examination, neuropsychiatric inventory (NPI), and the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia before and after the intervention. Logistic regression was used to investigate factors associated with improvement/maintenance of cognition (measured by the Mini-Mental State Examination), and improvement of BPSD (measured by NPI) and its subdomains during the intervention period. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the improvement/maintenance of cognitive function was independently associated with a lower Mini-Mental State Examination score at baseline (odds ratio [OR] 0.88, 95% CI 0.80-0.97, P = 0.008), whereas participants with antipsychotic use were less likely to gain the effect (OR 0.42, 95% CI 0.17-1.04, P = 0.061). In addition, the improvement of BPSD was associated with a higher baseline total NPI score (OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.15-1.55, P < 0.001), and the result was consistent in different NPI subdomains (psychotic domain: OR 1.96, 95% CI 0.83-4.58, P = 0.123; affective domain: OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.25-2.13, P < 0.001; behavior domain: OR 2.25, 95% CI 1.53-3.30, P < 0
Zhang, Jin-Tao; Yao, Yuan-Wei; Potenza, Marc N; Xia, Cui-Cui; Lan, Jing; Liu, Lu; Wang, Ling-Jiao; Liu, Ben; Ma, Shan-Shan; Fang, Xiao-Yi
Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is characterized by high levels of craving for online gaming and related cues. Since addiction-related cues can evoke increased activation in brain areas involved in motivational and reward processing and may engender gaming behaviors or trigger relapse, ameliorating cue-induced craving may be a promising target for interventions for IGD. This study compared neural activation between 40 IGD and 19 healthy control (HC) subjects during an Internet-gaming cue-reactivity task and found that IGD subjects showed stronger activation in multiple brain areas, including the dorsal striatum, brainstem, substantia nigra, and anterior cingulate cortex, but lower activation in the posterior insula. Furthermore, twenty-three IGD subjects (CBI + group) participated in a craving behavioral intervention (CBI) group therapy, whereas the remaining 17 IGD subjects (CBI - group) did not receive any intervention, and all IGD subjects were scanned during similar time intervals. The CBI + group showed decreased IGD severity and cue-induced craving, enhanced activation in the anterior insula and decreased insular connectivity with the lingual gyrus and precuneus after receiving CBI. These findings suggest that CBI is effective in reducing craving and severity in IGD, and it may exert its effects by altering insula activation and its connectivity with regions involved in visual processing and attention bias.
Full Text Available Internet gaming disorder (IGD is characterized by high levels of craving for online gaming and related cues. Since addiction-related cues can evoke increased activation in brain areas involved in motivational and reward processing and may engender gaming behaviors or trigger relapse, ameliorating cue-induced craving may be a promising target for interventions for IGD. This study compared neural activation between 40 IGD and 19 healthy control (HC subjects during an Internet-gaming cue-reactivity task and found that IGD subjects showed stronger activation in multiple brain areas, including the dorsal striatum, brainstem, substantia nigra, and anterior cingulate cortex, but lower activation in the posterior insula. Furthermore, twenty-three IGD subjects (CBI+ group participated in a craving behavioral intervention (CBI group therapy, whereas the remaining 17 IGD subjects (CBI− group did not receive any intervention, and all IGD subjects were scanned during similar time intervals. The CBI+ group showed decreased IGD severity and cue-induced craving, enhanced activation in the anterior insula and decreased insular connectivity with the lingual gyrus and precuneus after receiving CBI. These findings suggest that CBI is effective in reducing craving and severity in IGD, and it may exert its effects by altering insula activation and its connectivity with regions involved in visual processing and attention bias.
Fricke, Nicola; Griesche, Stefan; Schieben, Anna; Hesse, Tobias; Baumann, Martin
The study investigated driver behavior toward an automatic steering intervention of a collision mitigation system. Forty participants were tested in a driving simulator and confronted with an inevitable collision. They performed a naïve drive and afterwards a repeated exposure in which they were told to hold the steering wheel loosely. In a third drive they experienced a false alarm situation. Data on driving behavior, i.e. steering and braking behavior as well as subjective data was assessed in the scenarios. Results showed that most participants held on to the steering wheel strongly or counter-steered during the system intervention during the first encounter. Moreover, subjective data collected after the first drive showed that the majority of drivers was not aware of the system intervention. Data from the repeated drive in which participants were instructed to hold the steering wheel loosely, led to significantly more participants holding the steering wheel loosely and thus complying with the instruction. This study seems to imply that without knowledge and information of the system about an upcoming intervention, the most prevalent driving behavior is a strong reaction with the steering wheel similar to an automatic steering reflex which decreases the system's effectiveness. Results of the second drive show some potential for countermeasures, such as informing drivers shortly before a system intervention in order to prevent inhibiting reactions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Williams, Stefanie L; Michie, Susan; Dale, Jeremy; Stallard, Nigel; French, David P
Perceived behavioral control (PBC) is a consistent predictor of intentions to walk more. A previously successful intervention to promote walking by altering PBC has been adapted for delivery in general practice. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of this intervention on Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) constructs in this context. Cluster randomized controlled trial, with n = 315 general practice patients. Practice nurses and Healthcare Assistants delivered a self-regulation intervention or information provision (control). Questionnaires assessed TPB variables at baseline, post-intervention, 6 weeks and 6 months. Walking was measured by pedometer. The control group reported significantly higher subjective norm at all follow-up time points. There were no significant differences between the two groups in PBC, intention, attitude or walking behavior. TPB variables significantly predicted intentions to walk more, but not objective walking behavior, after accounting for clustering. The lack of effect of the intervention was probably due to a failure to maintain intervention fidelity, and the unsuitability of the behavior change techniques included in the intervention for the population investigated. This previously successful intervention was not successful when delivered in this context, calling into question whether practice nurses are best placed to deliver such interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Khanlary, Zahra; Maarefvand, Masoomeh; Biglarian, Akbar; Heravi-Karimooi, Majideh
Elder abuse may become a health issue in developing countries, including Iran. The purpose of this investigation was to study the effectiveness of Family-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Social Work (FBCBSW) in reducing elder abuse. In a randomized clinical trial in Iran, 27 elders participated in intervention and control groups. The intervention groups received a five-session FBCBSW intervention and completed the Domestic-Elder-Abuse-Questionnaire (DEAQ), which evaluates elder abuse at baseline and follow-ups. Repeated measures of analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Wilcoxon test were used to analyze the data. The repeated measures ANOVA revealed that FBCBSW was successful in reducing elder abuse. The Wilcoxon test indicated that emotional neglect, care neglect, financial neglect, curtailment of personal autonomy, psychological abuse, and financial abuse significantly decreased over time, but there was no statistically significant difference in physical abuse before and after the intervention. The findings from this study suggest that FBCBSW is a promising approach to reducing elder abuse and warrants further study with larger samples.
Marsiglia, Flavio F; Ayers, Stephanie L; Baldwin-White, Adrienne; Booth, Jaime
While parent and youth substance use prevention interventions have shown beneficial effects on preadolescents, many programs have typically targeted US born European American and African American families while overlooking the unique factors that characterize recent immigrant Latino families. This article presents the results on youth substance use when adding a culturally grounded parenting component, Familias Preparando la Nueva Generación (FPNG), to the existing and already proven efficacious classroom-based drug abuse prevention intervention, keepin'it REAL (kiR). Data come from youth (N = 267) participating in the randomized control trial of the interventions who were surveyed at baseline (beginning at 7th grade) and 18 months later (end of 8th grade). Using multivariate linear regression path analyses, results indicate when FPNG and kiR are combined, youth had significantly lowered alcohol and cigarettes use at the end of 8th grade, mediated through anti-drug norms, when compared with youth who only participated in kiR without parental participation in FPNG. These findings indicate that adolescent normative beliefs and related behaviors can be changed through synchronized culturally grounded parent and youth interventions and together can play an important role in reducing adolescent substance use.
Wilson, Kristina; Senay, Ibrahim; Durantini, Marta; Sánchez, Flor; Hennessy, Michael; Spring, Bonnie; Albarracín, Dolores
A meta-analysis of 150 research reports summarizing the results of multiple behavior domain interventions examined theoretical predictions about the effects of the included number of recommendations on behavioral and clinical change in the domains of smoking, diet, and physical activity. The meta-analysis yielded 3 main conclusions. First, there is a curvilinear relation between the number of behavioral recommendations and improvements in behavioral and clinical measures, with a moderate number of recommendations producing the highest level of change. A moderate number of recommendations is likely to be associated with stronger effects because the intervention ensures the necessary level of motivation to implement the recommended changes, thereby increasing compliance with the goals set by the intervention, without making the intervention excessively demanding. Second, this curve was more pronounced when samples were likely to have low motivation to change, such as when interventions were delivered to nonpatient (vs. patient) populations, were implemented in nonclinic (vs. clinic) settings, used lay community (vs. expert) facilitators, and involved group (vs. individual) delivery formats. Finally, change in behavioral outcomes mediated the effects of number of recommended behaviors on clinical change. These findings provide important insights that can help guide the design of effective multiple behavior domain interventions. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.
Wilson, Kristina; Senay, Ibrahim; Durantini, Marta; Sánchez, Flor; Hennessy, Michael; Spring, Bonnie; Albarracín, Dolores
A meta-analysis of 150 research reports summarizing the results of multiple behavior domain interventions examined theoretical predictions about the effects of the included number of recommendations on behavioral and clinical change in the domains of smoking, diet, and physical activity. The meta-analysis yielded three main conclusions. First, there is a curvilinear relation between the number of behavioral recommendations and improvements in behavioral and clinical measures, with a moderate number of recommendations producing the highest level of change. A moderate number of recommendations is likely to be associated with stronger effects because the intervention ensures the necessary level of motivation to implement the recommended changes, thereby increasing compliance with the goals set by the intervention, without making the intervention excessively demanding. Second, this curve was more pronounced when samples were likely to have low motivation to change, such as when interventions were delivered to non-patient (vs. patient) populations, were implemented in non-clinic (vs. clinic) settings, used lay community (vs. expert) facilitators, and involved group (vs. individual) delivery formats. Finally, change in behavioral outcomes mediated the effects of number of recommended behaviors on clinical change. These findings provide important insights that can help guide the design of effective multiple behavior domain interventions. PMID:25528345
Siddique, Juned; de Chavez, Peter John; Craft, Lynette L; Freedson, Patty; Spring, Bonnie
To investigate whether changes in physical activity (PA) have an impact on sedentary behavior (SB) during a lifestyle intervention. Study design was a randomized trial. Participants (n = 204) were individuals with low PA and high sedentary leisure screen time from the Chicago area. Participants were randomized to either increase PA (iPA) or decrease sedentary leisure (dSED). The intervention consisted of decision support, coaching, and financial incentives. For iPA participants, the goal was at least 60 min/d of self-reported moderate-tovigorous-intensity PA (MVPA). For dSED participants the goal was less than 90 min/d of sedentary leisure screen time. Daily accelerometer-based measures of SB and bout-corrected MVPA were obtained. Linear mixed-effects models were fit to estimate the effect of the intervention on MVPA and total SB and to estimate the effect of daily changes in MVPA on daily SB. The iPA participants increased their bout-corrected MVPA by 14 min/d (p much of this time by reducing their SB.
Milling, Leonard S; Shores, Jessica S; Coursen, Elizabeth L; Menario, Deanna J; Farris, Catherine D
Several studies have shown that response expectancies are an important mechanism of popular psychological interventions for pain. However, there has been no research on whether response expectancies and treatment credibility independently mediate hypnotic and cognitive-behavioral pain interventions and whether the pattern of mediation is affected by experience with the interventions. Also, past research has indicated that hypnotic pain interventions may be moderated by hypnotic suggestibility. However, these studies have typically failed to measure the full range of suggestibility and have assessed pain reduction and suggestibility in the same experimental context, possibly inflating the association between these variables. To clarify the mediator role of response expectancies and treatment credibility, and the moderator role of hypnotic suggestibility in the hypnotic and cognitive-behavioral reduction of pain. Approximately 300 participants were assessed for suggestibility. Then, as part of an apparently unrelated experiment, 124 of these individuals received analogue cognitive-behavioral, hypnotic, or placebo control pain interventions. Response expectancies and credibility independently mediated treatment. The extent of mediation increased as participants gained more experience with the interventions. Suggestibility moderated treatment and was associated with relief only from the hypnotic intervention. Response expectancies and treatment credibility are unique mechanisms of hypnotic and cognitive-behavioral pain interventions. Hypnotic suggestibility predicts relief from hypnotic pain interventions and this association is not simply an artifact of measuring suggestibility and pain reduction in the same experimental context. The relationship between suggestibility and hypnotic pain reduction appears to be linear in nature.
Meany-Walen, Kristin K.; Teeling, Sunny; Davis, Aubrey; Artley, George; Vignovich, Andrea
Children's externalizing and off-task behaviors are deemed a major concern for elementary teachers and interfere with the classroom learning environment (Abidin & Robinson, 2002; Shillingford-Butler & Theodore, 2013). Children with these behaviors are at risk of falling behind academically and experiencing ongoing behavioral problems…
Bluethmann, Shirley M; Bartholomew, L Kay; Murphy, Caitlin C; Vernon, Sally W
Theory use may enhance effectiveness of behavioral interventions, yet critics question whether theory-based interventions have been sufficiently scrutinized. This study applied a framework to evaluate theory use in physical activity interventions for breast cancer survivors. The aims were to (1) evaluate theory application intensity and (2) assess the association between extensiveness of theory use and intervention effectiveness. Studies were previously identified through a systematic search, including only randomized controlled trials published from 2005 to 2013, that addressed physical activity behavior change and studied survivors who were theory items from Michie and Prestwich's coding framework were selected to calculate theory intensity scores. Studies were classified into three subgroups based on extensiveness of theory use (Level 1 = sparse; Level 2 = moderate; and Level 3 = extensive). Fourteen randomized controlled trials met search criteria. Most trials used the transtheoretical model ( n = 5) or social cognitive theory ( n = 3). For extensiveness of theory use, 5 studies were classified as Level 1, 4 as Level 2, and 5 as Level 3. Studies in the extensive group (Level 3) had the largest overall effect size ( g = 0.76). Effects were more modest in Level 1 and 2 groups with overall effect sizes of g = 0.28 and g = 0.36, respectively. Theory use is often viewed as essential to behavior change, but theory application varies widely. In this study, there was some evidence to suggest that extensiveness of theory use enhanced intervention effectiveness. However, there is more to learn about how theory can improve interventions for breast cancer survivors.
Our purpose was to test whether interventions based on theory, multiple theories, or a formal planning process were more effective in changing fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption among children than interventions with no behavioral theoretical foundation or no formal planning. The authors conducted...
Stevens, Sally; Haynes, Patricia L.; Ruiz, Bridget; Bootzin, Richard R.
This study tested whether improvement in sleep by an integrative, behavioral sleep intervention was associated with improvement in traumatic stress (TS) symptoms in a sample of 20 adolescents who were recently treated for substance abuse. Sleep was measured throughout the intervention via daily sleep diaries, and traumatic stress symptoms were…
Brug, Hans; Oenema, Anke; Ferreira, Isabel
Abstract Background The present paper intends to contribute to the debate on the usefulness and barriers in applying theories in diet and physical activity behavior-change interventions. Discussion Since behavior theory is a reflection of the compiled evidence of behavior research, theory is the only foothold we have for the development of behavioral nutrition and physical activity interventions. Application of theory should improve the effectiveness of interventions. However, some of the the...
Germeroth, Lisa J; Carpenter, Matthew J; Baker, Nathaniel L; Froeliger, Brett; LaRowe, Steven D; Saladin, Michael E
1-month follow-up (for both cue types: t1225 = 2.1, P = .04, d = 0.44, and Δ = 0.47 [95% CI, 0.04-0.90]). The mean numbers of cigarettes smoked per day at 2 weeks and 1-month were significantly lower for the R-E group than for the NR-E group (treatment main effect: F1,68 = 5.4, P = .02, d = 0.50, and Δ = 2.4 [95% CI, 0.4-4.5]). Significant differences in physiological responses, urine cotinine level, number of days abstinent, lapse, and relapse were not observed between groups (all between P = .06 and .75). Retrieval-extinction training substantially attenuated craving to both familiar and novel smoking cues and reduced the number of cigarettes smoked per day by participants 1 month after treatment relative to extinction training alone. Between-group differences were not observed for physiological responses, cotinine level, number of days abstinent, relapse, or lapse. In summary, R-E training is a brief behavioral treatment that targets smoking-related memories and has the potential to enhance relapse prevention. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT02154685.
Anat Shoshani; Michelle Slone
Despite the flourishing in recent years in applications of positive psychology in the field of education, there is a paucity of research investigating positive psychology interventions for preschool children. The present study examined the effects of a positive psychology-based intervention conducted in Israel on children’s subjective well-being, mental health and learning behaviors. Twelve preschool classrooms of 3–6.5 year-olds were randomly assigned to a positive psychology intervention co...
Enns, Eva Andrea; Kao, Szu-Yu; Kozhimannil, Katy Backes; Kahn, Judith; Farris, Jill; Kulasingam, Shalini L
Mathematical models are important tools for assessing prevention and management strategies for sexually transmitted infections. These models are usually developed for a single infection and require calibration to observed epidemiological trends in the infection of interest. Incorporating other outcomes of sexual behavior into the model, such as pregnancy, may better inform the calibration process. We developed a mathematical model of chlamydia transmission and pregnancy in Minnesota adolescents aged 15 to 19 years. We calibrated the model to statewide rates of reported chlamydia cases alone (chlamydia calibration) and in combination with pregnancy rates (dual calibration). We evaluated the impact of calibrating to different outcomes of sexual behavior on estimated input parameter values, predicted epidemiological outcomes, and predicted impact of chlamydia prevention interventions. The two calibration scenarios produced different estimates of the probability of condom use, the probability of chlamydia transmission per sex act, the proportion of asymptomatic infections, and the screening rate among men. These differences resulted in the dual calibration scenario predicting lower prevalence and incidence of chlamydia compared with calibrating to chlamydia cases alone. When evaluating the impact of a 10% increase in condom use, the dual calibration scenario predicted fewer infections averted over 5 years compared with chlamydia calibration alone [111 (6.8%) vs 158 (8.5%)]. While pregnancy and chlamydia in adolescents are often considered separately, both are outcomes of unprotected sexual activity. Incorporating both as calibration targets in a model of chlamydia transmission resulted in different parameter estimates, potentially impacting the intervention effectiveness predicted by the model.
Spring, Bonnie; Pagoto, Sherry; Pingitore, Regina; Doran, Neal; Schneider, Kristin; Hedeker, Don
The authors compared simultaneous versus sequential approaches to multiple health behavior change in diet, exercise, and cigarette smoking. Female regular smokers (N = 315) randomized to 3 conditions received 16 weeks of behavioral smoking treatment, quit smoking at Week 5, and were followed for 9 months after quit date. Weight management was…
Middelkamp, P.J.C.; Rooijen, M. van; Wolfhagen, P.; Steenbergen, B.
Studies on the adoption and maintenance of group exercise behavior are scarce. The objective of this study is to test two self-efficacy based interventions to increase barrier self-efficacy and group exercise behavior. In total 122 participants (Mage 42.02 yr.; SD 12.29; 67% females) were recruited
Middelkamp, J.; van Rooijen, M.; Wolfhagen, P.; Steenbergen, B.
Studies on the adoption and maintenance of group exercise behavior are scarce. The objective of this study is to test two self-efficacy based interventions to increase barrier self-efficacy and group exercise behavior. In total 122 participants (Mage 42.02 yr.; SD 12.29; 67% females) were recruited
Farbod Ebadi Fardazar
Full Text Available Background: The accidents are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among children in in the world. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Educational intervention on promotion of prevention behaviors of home accidents in mothers with children less than 5- year based on protection motivation theory (PMT in 2015. Materials and Methods: In this controlled interventional study 190 mothers with children less than 5 years were participated (95 in intervention group and 95 in control group.The data collection tool was researcher made questionnaire based on the structures of PMT. After done pre-test and the results obtained from it, appropriate educational intervention designed and was conducted only in intervention group. Then two months after the educational intervention, evaluation was done and data analysis was using SPSS-20. Results: Statistically significant difference was found between mean scores of all structures of PMT in intervention and control groups after the educational intervention (P
Experimental Evidence for Differential Susceptibility: Dopamine D4 Receptor Polymorphism (DRD4 VNTR) Moderates Intervention Effects on Toddlers' Externalizing Behavior in a Randomized Controlled Trial
Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H.; Pijlman, Femke T. A.; Mesman, Judi; Juffer, Femmie
In a randomized controlled trial we tested the role of genetic differences in explaining variability in intervention effects on child externalizing behavior. One hundred fifty-seven families with 1- to 3-year-old children screened for their relatively high levels of externalizing behavior participated in a study implementing Video-feedback…
2 day workshop co-sponsored by EPA's National Center for Environmental Economics and National Center for Environmental Research on results from Science to Achieve Results (STAR) grants and other projects related to the understanding of corporate behavior.
Jemmott, John B; Stephens-Shields, Alisa; O'Leary, Ann; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet; Teitelman, Anne; Ngwane, Zolani; Mtose, Xoliswa
Increasing physical activity is an important public-health goal worldwide, but there are few published mediation analyses of physical-activity interventions in low-to-middle-income countries like South Africa undergoing a health transition involving markedly increased mortality from non-communicable diseases. This article reports secondary analyses on the mediation of a theory-of-planned-behavior-based behavioral intervention that increased self-reported physical activity in a trial with 1181 men in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Twenty-two matched-pairs of neighborhoods were randomly selected. Within pairs, neighborhoods were randomized to a health-promotion intervention or an attention-matched control intervention with baseline, immediate-post, and 6- and 12-month post-intervention assessments. Theory-of-planned-behavior constructs measured immediately post-intervention were tested as potential mediators of the primary outcome, self-reported physical activity averaged over the 6- and 12-month post-intervention assessments, using a product-of-coefficients approach in a generalized-estimating-equations framework. Data were collected in 2007-2010. Attitude, subjective norm, self-efficacy, and intention were significant mediators of intervention-induced increases in self-reported physical activity. The descriptive norm, not affected by the intervention, was not a mediator, but predicted increased self-reported physical activity. The results suggest that interventions targeting theory-of-planned-behavior constructs may contribute to efforts to increase physical activity to reduce the burden of non-communicable diseases among South African men. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: Mobile phone is one of the most important necessary tools in today’s life which can threaten people’s health in some conditions. The present study was carried out to compare the effect of educational intervention by short message and pamphlet on the behavior of steel factory staff in Ardakan, Yazd province, Iran.Materials and Methods: The present study was experimentally carried out on 319 staff in three groups. The intended samples were selected using the cluster sapling method. The self-made questionnaire was employed as the data collection means having 15 questions about behavior assessment. The results were utilized once their validity (face and content and reliability was confirmed. The obtained results were analyzed using the SPSS18 statistical software.Results: The average score of people’s behavior before the educational intervention in the three groups of control, intervention-short message, and intervention-pamphlet was 21.2, 21.1, and 20.7, respectively (P = 0.714. After educational intervention, the average behavior score of people in the control, intervention-short message, and intervention-pamphlet was increased by 27.74, 42.91, and 38.56, respectively (P ˂ 0.05.Conclusion: The educational short message and pamphlet would change the behaviors concerning the use of mobile phone among the staff members under study. However, the short message had a stronger effect on the people’s behavior than the pamphlet. Considering the importance of the mobile phone and its associated behaviors, the necessity of conducting health education intervention aiming at increasing the knowledge, it demonstrates the change of attitude and behavior among other members of the society.
Full Text Available It is difficult for obese (body mass index of more than 30 and overweight (body mass index of 25–30 people to reduce and maintain their weight. The aim of this case series was to examine the effectiveness of a new cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT program that combines mindfulness exercises (e.g., the raisin exercise and breathing exercises and an online intervention to prevent dropout and subsequent weight gain in overweight participants. This case series included three participants, for whom previous weight reduction programs had been unsuccessful. All participants completed the program (60-min, group sessions provided weekly for 9 weeks and an 18-month follow-up assessment. Results showed that all participants succeeded in losing weight (loss ranged from 5.30 to 8.88% of their total body weight. Although rebound weight gain is commonly observed in the first year following initial weight loss, the follow-up assessment showed that participants achieved further weight loss during the 18-month follow-up period. These results suggest that a CBT program that comprises mindfulness and an online intervention may be an effective method for weight loss and maintenance, and may prevent dropout in obese and overweight individuals.Trial Registration: This case series was registered at www.umin.ac.jp with identifier UMIN000029664.
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether through a series of teacher training. The participants could acquire better knowledge on Positive Behavior Support (PBS), and develop high quality behavior intervention plans. Thirty-six teachers from three public schools participated in the study. The competency-based training consisted of 12…
This paper examines the effects of the Fast Track preventive intervention on youths’ functioning in three domains: disruptive behavior problems, involvement with deviant peers, and social skills during the middle school years. Eight hundred ninety-one children had been randomly assigned by sets of schools within four sites to intervention (n = 445) or to control (n = 446) conditions. In contrast to prior findings of the effectiveness of the Fast Track intervention during the elementary school years, the current findings indicate that Fast Track had little overall impact on children’s functioning in these domains during this age period. There were positive intervention effects on only 2 of 17 outcomes examined. Although the intervention had positive impact on children’s hyperactive and self-reported delinquent behaviors in seventh grade, there were no intervention effects on other externalizing behavior problems or on social skills, and there was a negative intervention effect on children’s involvement with deviant peers during this age period. PMID:24319308
Seyed Saeed Mazloomy-Mahmoodabad
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The increased prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents is associated with type 2 diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular diseases. The theory of planned behavior (TPB efficiently explains the ability of perceived behavioral control and possibly attitude to enhance the motivations of the obese people to lose weight. Our aim was to investigate the effect of TPB-based education on weight loss in obese and overweight adolescents. METHODS: In an interventional study, simple random sampling was used to select 86 overweight and obese adolescents aged 13-18 years in the pediatric clinic at the Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Institute. Anthropometric measures and TPB constructs were collected using a researcher-made questionnaire. The questionnaires were filled out before and six weeks after the intervention. Participants received 5 sessions of training based on the constructs of the TPB. RESULTS: A significant increase was observed in the mean score for knowledge and TPB constructs (attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, intention, and behavior six weeks after the educational intervention (P < 0.001. Moreover, significant decrease in body mass index (P < 0.001, weight (P = 0.001, and waist circumference (P < 0.001 of adolescents were found after the educational intervention. CONCLUSION: The TPB-based interventions seem to be effective in losing weight in obese and overweight adolescents. This theory serves as a helpful theoretical framework for health-related behaviors and can be an appropriate pattern to plan for educational interventions.
Viitasalo, Anna; Eloranta, Aino-Maija; Lintu, Niina; Väistö, Juuso; Venäläinen, Taisa; Kiiskinen, Sanna; Karjalainen, Panu; Peltola, Jaana; Lampinen, Eeva-Kaarina; Haapala, Eero A; Paananen, Jussi; Schwab, Ursula; Lindi, Virpi; Lakka, Timo A
To investigate the effects of a long-term, individualized and family-based lifestyle intervention on physical activity, sedentary behavior and diet quality in children. We carried out a 2-year intervention study in a population sample of 506 children aged 6-8years in Finland in 2007-2012. We allocated the participants at baseline in the intervention and control group. We assessed physical activity and sedentary behavior by questionnaires and diet by food records. Total physical activity (+9min/d in intervention group vs. -5min/d in control group, p=0.001 for time*group interaction), unsupervised physical activity (+7min/d vs. -9min/d, psedentary behavior and enhanced diet quality in children. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01803776. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mummah, Sarah Ann; Robinson, Thomas N; King, Abby C; Gardner, Christopher D; Sutton, Stephen
Developing effective digital interventions to change health behavior has been a challenging goal for academics and industry players alike. Guiding intervention design using the best combination of approaches available is necessary if effective technologies are to be developed. Behavioral theory, design thinking, user-centered design, rigorous evaluation, and dissemination each have widely acknowledged merits in their application to digital health interventions. This paper introduces IDEAS, a step-by-step process for integrating these approaches to guide the development and evaluation of more effective digital interventions. IDEAS is comprised of 10 phases (empathize, specify, ground, ideate, prototype, gather, build, pilot, evaluate, and share), grouped into 4 overarching stages: Integrate, Design, Assess, and Share (IDEAS). Each of these phases is described and a summary of theory-based behavioral strategies that may inform intervention design is provided. The IDEAS framework strives to provide sufficient detail without being overly prescriptive so that it may be useful and readily applied by both investigators and industry partners in the development of their own mHealth, eHealth, and other digital health behavior change interventions. ©Sarah Ann Mummah, Thomas N Robinson, Abby C King, Christopher D Gardner, Stephen Sutton. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 16.12.2016.
Marion, Jeffrey L.; Dvorak, Robert G.; Manning, Robert E.
Opportunities to view and interact with wildlife are often an important part of high quality recreational experiences. Such interactions frequently include wildlife feeding, resulting in food-conditioned behaviors that may cause harm to both wildlife and visitors. This study developed and applied efficient protocols for simultaneously evaluating wildlife feeding-related behaviors of visitors and related foraging behaviors of chipmunks along a trail in Zion National Park. Unobtrusive observation protocols permitted an evaluation of educational messages delivered, and documentation of wildlife success in obtaining human food and the strength of their food attraction behavior. Significant improvements were documented for some targeted visitor behaviors and human food available to chipmunks, with minor differences between treatments. Replication of these protocols as part of a long-term monitoring program can help protected area managers evaluate and improve the efficacy of their interventions and monitor the strength of food attraction behavior in wildlife.
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Brucellosis is among the most common zoonotic diseases. Educational programs can be effective in the prevention of this disease in humans. The present study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of an educational intervention based on the Health Belief Model (HBM in the empowerment of stockbreeders against high risk behaviors associated with brucellosis in Charuymaq county, East Azerbaijan. Materials and Methods: The present quasi-experimental study was conducted in 2014 in Charuymaq county. A total of 200 people selected through stratified random sampling participated in the study. Data were collected using a researcher-designed questionnaire including items on participants' demographic information, knowledge and the HBM constructs. Training sessions were then designed and held for the intervention group. Three months after the intervention was held, data were collected from both groups and then analyzed using descriptive statistics including the Mann-Whitney U test and the Wilcoxon test. Results: The mean scores obtained for knowledge, HBM constructs (perceived susceptibility, severity, barriers and benefits and self-efficacy and brucellosis preventive behaviors showed no significant differences between the two groups before the intervention however, after the educational intervention, significant differences were observed between the mean scores obtained by the intervention group and the control group (P<0.05. Conclusion: The cooperation of charismatic individuals with intervention programs and the use of education theories can be more effective in modifying high-risk behaviors these programs should therefore be widely implemented across the country.
Galiani, Sebastian; Gertler, Paul; Ajzenman, Nicolas; Orsola-Vidal, Alexandra
This paper analyzes a randomized experiment that uses novel strategies to promote handwashing with soap at critical points in time in Peru. It evaluates a large-scale comprehensive initiative that involved both community and school activities in addition to communication campaigns. The analysis indicates that the initiative was successful in reaching the target audience and in increasing the treated population's knowledge about appropriate handwashing behavior. These improvements translated into higher self-reported and observed handwashing with soap at critical junctures. However, no significant improvements in the health of children under the age of 5 years were observed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Ikiugu, Moses N.; Anderson, Lynne
The purpose of this paper was to demonstrate the cost-effectiveness of using the Instrumentalism in Occupational Therapy (IOT) conceptual practice model as a guide for intervention to assist teenagers with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) transition successfully into adulthood. The cost effectiveness analysis was based on a project…
Lewis, Vivian; Martina, Camille A.; McDermott, Michael P.; Chaudron, Linda; Trief, Paula M.; LaGuardia, Jennifer G.; Sharp, Daryl; Goodman, Steven R.; Morse, Gene D.; Ryan, Richard M.
Mentors rarely receive education about the unique needs of underrepresented scholars in the biomedical and behavioral sciences. We hypothesized that mentor-training and peer-mentoring interventions for these scholars would enrich the perceived quality and breadth of discussions between mentor-protégé dyads (i.e., mentor-protégé pairs). Our…
Mouzakitis, Angela; Codding, Robin S.; Tryon, Georgiana
Accurate implementation of individualized behavior intervention plans (BIPs) is a critical aspect of evidence-based practice. Research demonstrates that neither training nor consultation is sufficient to improve and maintain high rates of treatment integrity (TI). Therefore, evaluation of ongoing support strategies is needed. The purpose of this…
Jan Middelkamp, Maaike van Rooijen, Peter Wolfhagen, Bert Steenbergen
Full Text Available Studies on the adoption and maintenance of group exercise behavior are scarce. The objective of this study is to test two self-efficacy based interventions to increase barrier self-efficacy and group exercise behavior. In total 122 participants (Mage 42.02 yr.; SD 12.29; 67% females were recruited and randomly assigned to one control and two experimental groups. The control group was limited to participate in one virtual group exercise program only (group 1. The first experimental group was able to self-set their activities and participate in multiple group exercise programs (group 2. The second experimental group received an additional monthly coaching protocol to manage self-set goals (group 3. A validated scale for barrier self-efficacy was used, group exercise sessions were measured and drop-out rates were registered. An ANOVA indicated that mean amount of sessions of group 1 and 3, and 2 and 3 differed significantly (p < 0.05 in 12 weeks. Descriptive statistics demonstrate mean group exercise sessions over the total of 12 weeks of 2.74 (SD 4.65 in the control group; 4.75 (SD 6.08 in the first experimental group, and 12.25 (SD 9.07 for the second experimental group. Regression analysis indicated that self-efficacy at 8-weeks explained the highest variance in overall group exercise sessions (R2 = 0.18; p < 0.05. Overall drop-out rates were 88% in group 1, 78% in group 2 and 48% in group 3. The results showed that group exercise behavior can significantly be improved by a coaching protocol on self-set goals. Future research should address the effectiveness of self-set activities and self-set goals for a longer period of time and in other types of exercise programs.
Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Mitchell, Mary M.; Leaf, Philip J.
Schoolwide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS) is a universal, schoolwide prevention strategy that is currently implemented in over 9,000 schools across the nation to reduce disruptive behavior problems through the application of behavioral, social learning, and organizational behavioral principles. SWPBIS aims to alter school…
Sharafkhani, Naser; Khorsandi, Mahboobeh; Shamsi, Mohsen; Ranjbaran, Mehdi
Study Design?Randomized controlled trial. Objective?The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of a theory-based educational intervention program on the level of knowledge and Health Belief Model (HBM) constructs among nurses in terms of the adoption of preventive behaviors. Methods?This pretest/posttest quasi-experimental study was conducted on 100 nurses who were recruited through the multistage sampling method. The nurses were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups....
Buffardi, Kevin John
Effective software testing identifies potential bugs and helps correct them, producing more reliable and maintainable software. As software development processes have evolved, incremental testing techniques have grown in popularity, particularly with introduction of test-driven development (TDD). However, many programmers struggle to adopt TDD's…
Howren, M Bryant; Kellerman, Quinn D; Hillis, Stephen L; Cvengros, Jamie; Lawton, William; Christensen, Alan J
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of a behavioral self-regulation intervention vs. active control condition using a parallel-group randomized clinical trial with a sample of center hemodialysis patients with chronic kidney disease. Participants were recruited from 8 hemodialysis treatment centers in the Midwest. Eligible patients were (a) fluid nonadherent as defined by an interdialytic weight gain >2.5 kg over a 4-week period, (b) >18 years of age, (c) English-speaking without severe cognitive impairment, (d) treated with center-based hemodialysis for >3 months, and (e) not living in a care facility in which meals were managed. Medical records were used to identify eligible patients. Patients were randomly assigned to either a behavioral self-regulation intervention or active control condition in which groups of 3-8 patients met for hour-long, weekly sessions for 7 weeks at their usual hemodialysis clinic. Primary analyses were intention-to-treat. Sixty-one patients were randomized to the intervention while 58 were assigned to the attention-placebo support and discussion control. Covariate-adjusted between-subjects analyses demonstrated no unique intervention effect for the primary outcome, interdialytic weight gain (β = 0.13, p = 0.48). Significant within-subjects improvement over time was observed for the intervention group (β = -0.32, p = 0.014). The present study found that participation in a behavioral self-regulation intervention resulted in no unique intervention effect on a key indicator of adherence for those with severe chronic kidney disease. There was, however, modest within-subjects improvement in interdialytic weight gain for the intervention group which meshes with other evidence showing the utility of behavioral interventions in this patient population. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01066949.
Rogers, Laura Q; Courneya, Kerry S; Anton, Phillip M; Hopkins-Price, Patricia; Verhulst, Steven; Robbs, Randall S; Vicari, Sandra K; McAuley, Edward
Most breast cancer survivors do not meet physical activity recommendations. Understanding mediators of physical activity behavior change can improve interventions designed to increase physical activity in this at-risk population. Study aims were to determine the 3-month Better Exercise Adherence after Treatment for Cancer (BEAT Cancer) behavior change intervention effects on social cognitive theory constructs and the mediating role of any changes on the increase in accelerometer-measured physical activity previously reported. Post-treatment breast cancer survivors (N = 222) were randomized to BEAT Cancer or usual care. Assessments occurred at baseline, 3 months (M3), and 6 months (M6). Adjusted linear mixed model analysis of variance determined intervention effects on walking self-efficacy, outcome expectations, goal setting, and perceived barrier interference at M3. Path analysis determined mediation of intervention effects on physical activity at M6 by changes in social cognitive constructs during the intervention (i.e., baseline to M3). BEAT Cancer significantly improved self-efficacy, goals, negative outcome expectations, and barriers. Total path analysis model explained 24 % of the variance in M6 physical activity. There were significant paths from randomized intervention group to self-efficacy (β = 0.15, p social cognitive constructs, no significant indirect effects on physical activity improvements 3 months post-intervention were observed (NCT00929617).
Menna, Takele; Ali, Ahmed; Worku, Alemayehu
Worldwide, about 50% of all new cases of HIV occur in youth between age 15 and 24 years. Studies in various sub-Saharan African countries show that both out of school and in school adolescents and youth are engaged in risky sexual behaviors. School-based health education has been a cornerstone of youth-focused HIV prevention efforts since the early 1990s. In addition, peer-based interventions have become a common method to effect important health-related behavior changes and address the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate efficacy of peer education on changing HIV related risky sexual behaviors among school youth in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A quasi experimental study with peer education intervention was conducted in purposively selected four secondary schools (two secondary schools for the intervention and other two for the control group) in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Five hundred sixty students from randomly selected sections of grade 11 were assessed through anonymous questionnaires conducted in pre- and post-intervention periods. Pertinent data on socio-demographic and sexual behavior related factors were collected. The statistical packages used for data entry and analysis were epi-info version 3.5.4 and SPSS version 20.0 respectively. Chi-square test and multivariable logistic regressions were used for testing association between peer education intervention and sexual behaviors of students. In addition to testing association between dependent and independent variables, multi-variable analysis was employed to control for the effects of confounding variables. When the pre and post intervention data of each group were compared, comprehensive Knowledge of HIV (P-Values =0.004) and willingness to go for HIV counseling and testing (P-value = 0.01) showed significant differences among intervention group students during post intervention period. Moreover, students in the intervention group were more likely to use condoms during post
Doubova, Svetlana V.; Martinez-Vega, Ingrid Patricia; Infante-Castañeda, Claudia; Pérez-Cuevas, Ricardo
To evaluate the effect of an internet-based educational intervention to increase knowledge of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), attitudes and self-efficacy toward consistent condom use in Mexican adolescents. A field trial with an intervention and control group was conducted in 14- to 15-year-old students in two secondary schools. The…
Silfee, Valerie; Petosa, Rick; Laurent, Devin; Schaub, Timothy; Focht, Brian
The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the preliminary effect of a behavioral intervention on the use of self-regulation strategies and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in overweight and obese adults with type 2 diabetes. 23 individuals recruited from ResearchMatc.org and campus advertisements were randomized into an intervention (n = 12) and control (n = 11) group. The intervention group received a behavioral intervention that used goal setting, time management, and self-monitoring to target dimensions of self-regulation and MVPA. The control received information regarding their PA habits. MVPA was measured via BodyMedia Armbands at pre- and post-test. The use of self-regulatory strategies for MVPA was assessed at pretest and posttest using the Self-Regulation for Exercise Scale. Cohen's d effect sizes were calculated to determine the practical impact of the intervention. The intervention had a large effect on all dimensions of self-regulation across time: including total self-regulation (3.15), self-monitoring (4.63), goal setting (3.17), social support (1.29), self-reward (1.98), time management (4.41), and overcoming barriers (2.25). The intervention had no impact on dimensions of MVPA across time. This pilot study demonstrated the ability of a behavioral intervention to improve the use of self-regulation strategies for MVPA in a sample of adults with type 2 diabetes. These findings can further inform the development of health promotion programs to promote self-regulation. Future research should focus on determining ability of improvements in self-regulation to stimulate behavior change.
Coop Gordon, Kristina; Roberson, Patricia N E; Hughes, Jessica A; Khaddouma, Alexander M; Swamy, Geeta K; Noonan, Devon; Gonzalez, Alicia M; Fish, Laura; Pollak, Kathryn I
Many couples tend to report steadily decreasing relationship quality following the birth of a child. However, little is known about the postpartum period for Latino couples, a rapidly growing ethnic group who are notably underserved by mental and physical health caregivers in the United States. Thus, this study investigated whether a brief couples' intervention focused on helping couples support each other while increasing healthy behaviors might improve dyadic functioning postpartum. This study presents secondary analyses of data regarding couple functioning from a larger randomized controlled trial with 348 Latino couples to promote smoking cessation. Portions of the intervention taught the couple communication and problem-solving skills to increase healthy behavior. Couples participated in four face-to-face assessments across 1 year starting at the end of the first trimester. Latent growth curve analyses revealed that the treatment group reported an increase in relationship satisfaction and constructive communication after the intervention, which diminished by 1-year follow-up, returning couples to their baseline levels of satisfaction. Results suggest that incorporating a brief couple intervention as part of a larger health intervention for Latinos may prevent postpartum decreases in relationship satisfaction. © 2018 Family Process Institute.
Baharlooei, Fatemeh; Marofi, Maryam; Abdeyazdan, Zahra
Recent researches suggest that preterm infants understand pain and stress. Because of the wide range of effects of pain on infants, the present study was conducted on the effect of environmental and behavioral interventions on pain due to heel-prick blood sampling in preterm infants. A clinical trial was conducted among 32 infants with gestational age of 32-37 weeks in the intervention and control groups. The effects of noise reduction by earplugs, light reduction by blindfolds, reduction of nursing manipulation, and creation of intrauterine position for neonates, 30 minutes before taking blood samples until 30 minutes after it, were measured during the intervention stage. Data were collected using the Neonatal Infant Pain Scale (NIPS) in 5 stages (before intervention, 2 minutes before sampling, during the sampling, and 5 minutes and 30 minutes after the sampling). The data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and paired t -test in SPSS software. The paired t -test results showed no significant differences between the control and intervention stages in terms of pain scores at base time ( P = 0.42) and 2 minutes before sampling ( P = 0.12). However, at the sampling time ( P = 0.0), and 5 minutes ( P = 0.001) and 30 minutes after the sampling ( P = 0.001), mean pain score in the intervention stage was significantly less than that in the control stage. Based on the findings, environmental and behavioral interventions reduced pain and facilitated heel-prick blood sampling in preterm infants.
Waring, Molly E; May, Christine N; Ding, Eric Y; Kunz, Werner H; Hayes, Rashelle; Oleski, Jessica L
Patients are increasingly using online social networks (ie, social media) to connect with other patients and health care professionals—a trend called peer-to-peer health care. Because online social networks provide a means for health care professionals to communicate with patients, and for patients to communicate with each other, an opportunity exists to use social media as a modality to deliver behavioral interventions. Social media-delivered behavioral interventions have the potential to reduce the expense of behavioral interventions by eliminating visits, as well as increase our access to patients by becoming embedded in their social media feeds. Trials of online social network-delivered behavioral interventions have shown promise, but much is unknown about intervention development and methodology. In this paper, we discuss the process by which investigators can translate behavioral interventions for social media delivery. We present a model that describes the steps and decision points in this process, including the necessary training and reporting requirements. We also discuss issues pertinent to social media-delivered interventions, including cost, scalability, and privacy. Finally, we identify areas of research that are needed to optimize this emerging behavioral intervention modality. PMID:26825969
Pagoto, Sherry; Waring, Molly E; May, Christine N; Ding, Eric Y; Kunz, Werner H; Hayes, Rashelle; Oleski, Jessica L
Patients are increasingly using online social networks (ie, social media) to connect with other patients and health care professionals--a trend called peer-to-peer health care. Because online social networks provide a means for health care professionals to communicate with patients, and for patients to communicate with each other, an opportunity exists to use social media as a modality to deliver behavioral interventions. Social media-delivered behavioral interventions have the potential to reduce the expense of behavioral interventions by eliminating visits, as well as increase our access to patients by becoming embedded in their social media feeds. Trials of online social network-delivered behavioral interventions have shown promise, but much is unknown about intervention development and methodology. In this paper, we discuss the process by which investigators can translate behavioral interventions for social media delivery. We present a model that describes the steps and decision points in this process, including the necessary training and reporting requirements. We also discuss issues pertinent to social media-delivered interventions, including cost, scalability, and privacy. Finally, we identify areas of research that are needed to optimize this emerging behavioral intervention modality.
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Pedestrian injuries are a public health problem and one of the major victims of road traffic injuries are children. Education is one of the most important strategies to solve traffic problems. To achieve effective results, education should be defined on the basis of theories and models. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of PRECEDE-PROCEED based intervention for promoting traffic safety behaviors in elementary schools students of Tabriz. Materials and Methods: This study was a randomized controlled trial. The sample included 75 elementary students who were randomly selected from two different schools. Data was collected using a questionnaire including the PRECEDE-PROCEED model constructs and demographic variables. Participants completed questionnaires before and one month after intervention. The intervention consisted of six sessions and was conducted in experimental group schools. The data were analyzed with fisher’s exact test, chi square, t-test and paired t-test, using SPSS-18 software. Results: The average age of participants was 10.11 ± 0.68 years. There was no significant differences in demographic variables between the two groups before the intervention (P>0.05. The findings showed that after the educational intervention, significant differences were observed in knowledge, attitude, enabling factors, reinforcing factors and behavior scores in the experimental group compared to the control group. Conclusions: An educational intervention based on the PRECEDE-PROCEED model could promote students’ traffic safety behaviors.
Full Text Available Sedentary lifestyle and great advertising of high calorie junk foodstuffs cause the change of the nutritional pattern of children and adolescents. This study has been carried out with this objective: determining the effect of educational intervention based on the theory of planned behavior on reducing consumption of unhealthy snacks in the elementary students in Kermanshah City in 2015-2016. This research is a quasi-experimental study. Research setting was the primary schools in Kermanshah city. Sampling was conducted in multi-stage random method. Three hundred and fourteen female and male students were selected randomly. They were divided into two groups of Case and Control. The data collection tool in this study was a questionnaire. Status of snacks consumption among students in both study groups was examined after four weeks. Descriptive statistics and inferential statistics were used in order to analyze data. Before intervention, there were no significant differences between two groups of case and control. The average grades of the theory of planned behavior structures have increased in case group after intervention and it shows a significant difference (P < 0.05. No significant differences were observed in each structure in control group after intervention. The results indicate the positive effect of educational intervention based on the theory of planned behavior on reducing consumption of unhealthy snacks in elementary students. Theory-based educational intervention has also increased students’ willingness to consume healthy snacks.
An, Ruopeng; Ji, Mengmeng; Zhang, Sheng
We reviewed scientific literature regarding the effectiveness of social media-based interventions about weight-related behaviors and body weight status. A keyword search were performed in May 2017 in the Clinical-Trials.gov, Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, PubMed, and Web of Science databases. We conducted a meta-analysis to estimate the pooled effect size of social media-based interventions on weight-related outcome measures. We identified 22 interventions from the keyword and reference search, including 12 randomized controlled trials, 6 pre-post studies and 3 cohort studies conducted in 9 countries during 2010-2016. The majority (N = 17) used Facebook, followed by Twitter (N = 4) and Instagram (N = 1). Intervention durations averaged 17.8 weeks with a mean sample size of 69. The meta-analysis showed that social media-based interventions were associated with a statistically significant, but clinically modest reduction of body weight by 1.01 kg, body mass index by 0.92 kg/m2, and waist circumstance by 2.65 cm, and an increase of daily number of steps taken by 1530. In the meta-regression there was no doseresponse effect with respect to intervention duration. The boom of social media provides an unprecedented opportunity to implement health promotion programs. Future interventions should make efforts to improve intervention scalability and effectiveness.
Delfino, Matthew; Larzelere, Michele McCarthy
Family physicians play an important role in identifying and treating the behavioral etiologies of morbidity and mortality. Changing behavior is a challenging process that begins with identifying a patient's readiness to change. Interventions, such as motivational interviewing, are used to increase a patient's desire to change, and cognitive behavioral therapy can be initiated to increase a patient's likelihood of change, particularly if barriers are identified. After patients embark on change, family physicians are uniquely positioned to connect them to self-help programs, more intensive psychotherapy, and newer technology-based support programs, and to provide repeated, brief, positive reinforcement. Specific behavioral interventions that can be effective include computerized smoking cessation programs; electronic reminders and support delivered by family physicians or other clinicians for weight loss; linkage to community-based programs for seniors; increased length and demands of in-school programs to support exercise participation by children; and access reduction education to prevent firearm injury. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.
Fujiwara, Takeo; Kato, Noriko; Sanders, Matthew R.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of a group-based family intervention program known as the Group Positive Parenting Program (Triple P), with families in Japan. Reductions in children's behavioral problems, changes in dysfunctional parenting practices, and affects on parenting adjustment were examined. Participants of…
Liu, Jun; Nie, Jing; Wang, Yafeng
To evaluate the effects of group counseling programs, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), and sports intervention on Internet addiction (IA), a systematic search in ten databases was performed to identify eligible studies without language restrictions up to January 2017. A meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis (TSA) was performed, respectively. A total of 58 randomized controlled trials (RCTs), which included 2871 participants, were incorporated into our meta-analysis. The results showed that group counseling programs, CBT, and sports intervention could significantly reduce IA levels (group counseling program: standardized mean difference (SMD), -1.37; 95% confidence interval (CI), -1.89 to -0.85; CBT: SMD, -1.88; 95% CI, -2.53 to -1.23; sports intervention: SMD, -1.70; 95% CI, -2.14 to -1.26). For group counseling programs, this treatment was more effective in four dimensions of IA, including time management, interpersonal and health issues, tolerance, and compulsive Internet use. For CBT, this treatment yielded a positive change in depression, anxiousness, aggressiveness, somatization, social insecurity, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, and psychoticism. For sports intervention, the significant effects were also observed in all dimensions of the IA scale. Each of group counseling programs, cognitive behavioral therapy, and sports intervention had a significant effect on IA and psychopathological symptoms. Sports intervention could improve withdrawal symptoms especially.
Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of group counseling programs, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT, and sports intervention on Internet addiction (IA, a systematic search in ten databases was performed to identify eligible studies without language restrictions up to January 2017. A meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis (TSA was performed, respectively. A total of 58 randomized controlled trials (RCTs, which included 2871 participants, were incorporated into our meta-analysis. The results showed that group counseling programs, CBT, and sports intervention could significantly reduce IA levels (group counseling program: standardized mean difference (SMD, −1.37; 95% confidence interval (CI, −1.89 to −0.85; CBT: SMD, −1.88; 95% CI, −2.53 to −1.23; sports intervention: SMD, −1.70; 95% CI, −2.14 to −1.26. For group counseling programs, this treatment was more effective in four dimensions of IA, including time management, interpersonal and health issues, tolerance, and compulsive Internet use. For CBT, this treatment yielded a positive change in depression, anxiousness, aggressiveness, somatization, social insecurity, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, and psychoticism. For sports intervention, the significant effects were also observed in all dimensions of the IA scale. Each of group counseling programs, cognitive behavioral therapy, and sports intervention had a significant effect on IA and psychopathological symptoms. Sports intervention could improve withdrawal symptoms especially.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The present paper intends to contribute to the debate on the usefulness and barriers in applying theories in diet and physical activity behavior-change interventions. Discussion Since behavior theory is a reflection of the compiled evidence of behavior research, theory is the only foothold we have for the development of behavioral nutrition and physical activity interventions. Application of theory should improve the effectiveness of interventions. However, some of the theories we use lack a strong empirical foundation, and the available theories are not always used in the most effective way. Furthermore, many of the commonly-used theories provide at best information on what needs to be changed to promote healthy behavior, but not on how changes can be induced. Finally, many theories explain behavioral intentions or motivation rather well, but are less well-suited to explaining or predicting actual behavior or behavior change. For more effective interventions, behavior change theory needs to be further developed in stronger research designs and such change-theory should especially focus on how to promote action rather than mere motivation. Since voluntary behavior change requires motivation, ability as well as the opportunity to change, further development of behavior change theory should incorporate environmental change strategies. Conclusion Intervention Mapping may help to further improve the application of theories in nutrition and physical activity behavior change.
Sharafkhani, Naser; Khorsandi, Mahboobeh; Shamsi, Mohsen; Ranjbaran, Mehdi
Study Design Randomized controlled trial. Objective The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of a theory-based educational intervention program on the level of knowledge and Health Belief Model (HBM) constructs among nurses in terms of the adoption of preventive behaviors. Methods This pretest/posttest quasi-experimental study was conducted on 100 nurses who were recruited through the multistage sampling method. The nurses were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups. The participants were evaluated before and 3 months after the educational intervention. A multidimensional questionnaire was prepared based on the theoretical structures of the HBM to collect the data. Data analysis was performed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results There was no significant difference in the mean values of HBM constructs prior to the intervention between the intervention and control groups. However, after the administration of the educational program, the mean scores of knowledge and HBM constructs significantly increased in the intervention group when compared with the control group (p educational intervention based on the HBM was effective in improving the nurses' scores of knowledge and HBM constructs; therefore, theory-based health educational strategies are suggested as an effective alternative to traditional educational interventions.
Assessing the feasibility, acceptability, and potential effectiveness of a behavioral-automaticity focused lifestyle intervention for African Americans with metabolic syndrome: The Pick two to Stick to protocol
Full Text Available Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS significantly increases the risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Being physically active and eating a healthy diet can reduce MetS risk factors. Too frequently, however, studies report that the effects of interventions targeting those factors are not maintained once interventions are withdrawn. A potential solution to the problem is targeting behavioral automaticity (habit-development to aid in initiation and maintenance of health-behavior changes. The Pick two to Stick To (P2S2, is an 8-week, theory-based hybrid (face-to-face/telecoaching habit focused lifestyle intervention designed to increase healthful physical activity and dietary behavioral automaticity. The purpose of this article is to describe the rationale and protocol for evaluating the P2S2 program's feasibility, acceptability and potential effectiveness. Methods: Using a prospective, non-comparative design, the P2S2 program will be implemented by trained occupational therapy ‘coaches’ to 40 African Americans aged 40 and above with MetS recruited from the emergency department. Semi-structured interviews with participants, bi-weekly research meetings with study staff, and observations of intervention delivery will provide data for a process evaluation. Estimates of effectiveness include weight, blood pressure, waist circumference, BMI, and behavioral automaticity measures that will be collected at baseline and week 20. Conclusion: The P2S2 program could facilitate the development of healthful dietary and physical activity habits in an underserved population. Whether interventions aimed at changing habits can feasibly influence this automaticity, particularly for high-risk, low resource communities where other barriers exist, is not known. This pilot study, therefore, will fill an important gap, providing insight to inform subsequent trials. Keywords: Habits, Behavioral automaticity, Health behavior, Metabolic syndrome
Fahlman, Mariane M; Dake, Joseph A; McCaughtry, Nate; Martin, Jeffrey
This was a pilot study to determine the impact of the Michigan Model (MM) Nutrition Curriculum on nutrition knowledge, efficacy expectations, and eating behaviors in middle school students. The study was conducted in a large metropolitan setting and approved by the Institutional Review Board. The participants for this study were divided into an intervention group (n = 407) and a control group (n = 169). An MM instructor trained health teachers in the use of the curriculum, and the teacher subsequently taught the curriculum to students in the intervention group. A valid and reliable questionnaire was used to determine pre-post differences. It consisted of 3 subscales assessing eating habits, nutrition knowledge, and efficacy expectations toward healthy eating. Subscale scores were analyzed using a 2 groups (intervention vs control) x 2 times (pre vs post) analysis of variance. The intervention group increased their nutrition knowledge at post. There was also a significant main effect for groups in the subscales "Eating Behaviors" and "Efficacy Expectations Regarding Healthy Eating." Subsequent post hoc analysis revealed that the intervention group was significantly more likely to eat fruits and vegetables and less likely to eat junk food than the control group. Students in the intervention group also felt more confident that they could eat healthy. The results of this pilot study suggest that the MM Nutrition Curriculum delivered by trained professionals resulted in significant positive changes in both nutrition knowledge and behaviors in middle school children. Further research needs to be conducted to determine the long-term impact.
Full Text Available Despite the flourishing in recent years in applications of positive psychology in the field of education, there is a paucity of research investigating positive psychology interventions for preschool children. The present study examined the effects of a positive psychology-based intervention conducted in Israel on children’s subjective well-being, mental health and learning behaviors. Twelve preschool classrooms of 3–6.5 year-olds were randomly assigned to a positive psychology intervention condition or a wait-list control condition. In the intervention condition, during one school year, 160 children experienced eight modules of basic concepts in positive psychology that were adapted to the developmental characteristics of young children and were compared to 155 children in demographically similar control classrooms. Children were administered a pre-test and post-test of subjective well-being measures. In addition, children’s mental health and emotional well-being were measured by parental questionnaires. Preschool teachers completed questionnaires concerning children’s learning behaviors. The findings showed significant increases in subjective well-being and positive learning behaviors among the intervention participants, with no significant changes in the control group. The results highlight the potential of positive psychology interventions for increasing subjective well-being and a positive approach to learning at young ages.
Prick, Anna-Eva; de Lange, Jacomine; Scherder, Erik; Twisk, Jos; Pot, Anne Margriet
The effects of a multicomponent dyadic intervention on the mood, behavior, and physical health of people with dementia living in the community were evaluated in a randomized controlled trial. This multicomponent dyadic intervention is a translated and adapted version of an intervention that has been shown to be effective for people with dementia in the US. People with dementia living in the community and their family caregivers (N=111 caregiver-care recipient dyads) were randomly assigned to the intervention and comparison group. The intervention group received home-based physical exercise training, psycho-education, communication skills training, and pleasant activities training during 3 months directed at both the person with dementia and the caregiver. Mood, behavior, and physical health were measured at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months. The effects of the study were determined by using generalized estimating equations based on an intention-to-treat analysis. Analyses showed no beneficial effects over time on any of the outcome measures. This study showed no effects. The negative results in this study compared to the study that has been carried out in the US might be explained by the translation, adaptation, and shortening of the intervention used in the US, and a different social context. In addition, the results might be explained by the lack of room for improvement and by experiencing the intervention as too much of a burden. Furthermore, improving physical health might only be effective if the physical exercises are of moderate-to-high-intensity and are tailored in accordance with participants' preferences and needs. For future studies, because dyads often commented positively about the pleasure and support they received, it might also be valuable to measure quality of life outcomes such as relationship quality, pleasure, and self-esteem in dyadic focused interventions.
Geraldina F Gaastra
Full Text Available Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD often exhibit problem behavior in class, which teachers often struggle to manage due to a lack of knowledge and skills to use classroom management strategies. The aim of this meta-analytic review was to determine the effectiveness of several types of classroom interventions (antecedent-based, consequence-based, self-regulation, combined that can be applied by teachers in order to decrease off-task and disruptive classroom behavior in children with symptoms of ADHD. A second aim was to identify potential moderators (classroom setting, type of measure, students' age, gender, intelligence, and medication use. Finally, it was qualitatively explored whether the identified classroom interventions also directly or indirectly affected behavioral and academic outcomes of classmates. Separate meta-analyses were performed on standardized mean differences (SMDs for 24 within-subjects design (WSD and 76 single-subject design (SSD studies. Results showed that classroom interventions reduce off-task and disruptive classroom behavior in children with symptoms of ADHD (WSDs: MSMD = 0.92; SSDs: MSMD = 3.08, with largest effects for consequence-based (WSDs: MSMD = 1.82 and self-regulation interventions (SSDs: MSMD = 3.61. Larger effects were obtained in general education classrooms than in other classroom settings. No reliable conclusions could be formulated about moderating effects of type of measure and students' age, gender, intelligence, and medication use, mainly because of power problems. Finally, classroom interventions appeared to also benefit classmates' behavioral and academic outcomes.
Butzer, Bethany; Day, Danielle; Potts, Adam; Ryan, Connor; Coulombe, Sarah; Davies, Brandie; Weidknecht, Kimberly; Ebert, Marina; Flynn, Lisa; Khalsa, Sat Bir S.
This uncontrolled pilot study examined the effects of a classroom-based yoga intervention on cortisol concentrations and perceived behavior in children. A 10-week Yoga 4 Classrooms® intervention was implemented in one second- and one third-grade classroom. Students’ salivary cortisol responses were assessed at three time points. Classroom teachers also documented their perceptions of the effects of the intervention on students’ cognitive, social and emotional skills. Second, but not third, graders showed a significant decrease in baseline cortisol from before to after the intervention. Second and third graders both showed significant decreases in cortisol from before to after a cognitive task, but neither grade showed additional decreases from before to after a single yoga class. The second-grade teacher perceived significant improvements in several aspects his/her students’ behavior. The third-grade teacher perceived some, but fewer, improvements in his/her students’ behavior. Results suggest that school-based yoga may be advantageous for stress management and behavior. PMID:25412616
Abraham, C.; Johnson, B.T.; de Bruin, M.; Luszczynska, A.
Many behavior change interventions for the prevention and treatment of HIV have been evaluated, but suboptimal reporting of evaluations hinders the accumulation of evidence and the replication of interventions. In this article, we address 4 practices contributing to this problem. First, detailed
Full Text Available Abstract Background Behavioral intervention is a key approach to HIV prevention among men who have sex with men (MSM. Widespread use of mobile phones provide us with novel opportunities to decrease HIV infection and transmission of MSM. The objective of the study was to design and develop a mobile phone application (app aims to conduct behavioral intervention to MSM and to evaluate the efficacy of the app-based intervention compared to usual care, to analyze cost-effectiveness and mechanism of the intervention. Methods This study involves 2 phases, phase 1 use qualitative method and phase 2 is a randomized controlled trial lasting for 18 months, they will be conducted in Chagnsha, Hunan Province, China. Phase 1 is to design and develop the app, procedures including retrieval of domestic apps related to prevention and treatment about HIV and sexually transmitted diseases (HIV/STDs, personal interviews with MSM about preferences and functional needs of the HIV prevention app, multidisciplinary experts focused group discussions of the app, software engineers’ development and users test of the app will be performed. In phase 2, we will recruit 800 MSM by cooperating with the local center of disease control and prevention and nongovernmental organizations, and divide them into intervention and control group evenly. Intervention group participants will receive app-based HIV prevention. Control group participants will be provided with usual care including HIV/STDs knowledge brochure and free voluntary counseling services. Data will be collected at baseline, 6, 12 and 18 months since subject’s participation. Effectiveness of the intervention includes HIV/STDs infection rates, adherence to regularly HIV testing, sexual risk behavior, consistent condom use and relative risk of HIV infection. Cost-effectiveness will be analyzed by decision-analytic modeling, and mechanism analysis of this app-based intervention will be performed by path analysis
Yan, Jin; Zhang, Aidi; Zhou, Liang; Huang, Zhulin; Zhang, Pan; Yang, Guoli
Behavioral intervention is a key approach to HIV prevention among men who have sex with men (MSM). Widespread use of mobile phones provide us with novel opportunities to decrease HIV infection and transmission of MSM. The objective of the study was to design and develop a mobile phone application (app) aims to conduct behavioral intervention to MSM and to evaluate the efficacy of the app-based intervention compared to usual care, to analyze cost-effectiveness and mechanism of the intervention. This study involves 2 phases, phase 1 use qualitative method and phase 2 is a randomized controlled trial lasting for 18 months, they will be conducted in Chagnsha, Hunan Province, China. Phase 1 is to design and develop the app, procedures including retrieval of domestic apps related to prevention and treatment about HIV and sexually transmitted diseases (HIV/STDs), personal interviews with MSM about preferences and functional needs of the HIV prevention app, multidisciplinary experts focused group discussions of the app, software engineers' development and users test of the app will be performed. In phase 2, we will recruit 800 MSM by cooperating with the local center of disease control and prevention and nongovernmental organizations, and divide them into intervention and control group evenly. Intervention group participants will receive app-based HIV prevention. Control group participants will be provided with usual care including HIV/STDs knowledge brochure and free voluntary counseling services. Data will be collected at baseline, 6, 12 and 18 months since subject's participation. Effectiveness of the intervention includes HIV/STDs infection rates, adherence to regularly HIV testing, sexual risk behavior, consistent condom use and relative risk of HIV infection. Cost-effectiveness will be analyzed by decision-analytic modeling, and mechanism analysis of this app-based intervention will be performed by path analysis. This will be the first study of its kind in China to
Dekker, Kim; Benjamins, Jeroen S; Van Straten, Annemieke; Hofman, Winni F; Van Someren, Eus J W
DSM-V criteria for insomnia disorder are met by 6 to 10% of the adult population. Insomnia has severe consequences for health and society. One of the most common treatments provided by primary caregivers is pharmacological treatment, which is far from optimal and has not been recommended since a 2005 consensus report of the National Institutes of Health. The recommended treatment is Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia. Effectiveness, however, is still limited. Only a few studies have evaluated the effectiveness of chronobiological treatments, including the timed application of bright light, physical activity and body warming. Another opportunity for optimization of treatment is based on the idea that the people suffering from insomnia most likely represent a heterogeneous mix of subtypes, with different underlying causes and expected treatment responses. The present study aims to evaluate the possibility for optimizing insomnia treatment along the principles of personalized and stratified medicine. It evaluates the following: 1. The relative effectiveness of internet-supported cognitive behavioral therapy, bright light, physical activity and body warming; 2. Whether the effectiveness of internet-supported cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia can be augmented by simultaneous or prior application of bright light, physical activity and body warming; and 3. Whether the effectiveness of the interventions and their combination are moderated by the insomnia subtype. In a repeated measures, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial that included 160 people diagnosed with insomnia disorder, we are evaluating the relative effectiveness of 4 intervention weeks. Primary outcome is subjective sleep efficiency, quantified using a sleep diary. Secondary outcomes include other complaints of sleep and daytime functioning, health-related cost estimates and actigraphic objective sleep estimates. Compliance will be monitored both subjectively and objectively using
Minnaert, Alexander; Prince, Arnout; Opdenakker, Marie
Studies show a decrease in students’ motivation in secondary education. Hence, it was investigated whether training of teachers could stop this decline. Two interventions were implemented in prevocational secondary education, being self-regulated strategy instruction and behavioral consultation
Van Kann, Dave H.H.; de Vries, S.I.; Schipperijn, J.
Background Aim of the study was to test the 12-month effects of a multicomponent physical activity (PA) intervention at schoolyards on recess PA levels of 6th and 7th grade children in primary schools, combining Global Positioning System (GPS) and accelerometry data. Methods A quasi-experimental ......Background Aim of the study was to test the 12-month effects of a multicomponent physical activity (PA) intervention at schoolyards on recess PA levels of 6th and 7th grade children in primary schools, combining Global Positioning System (GPS) and accelerometry data. Methods A quasi...
Alkahtani, Keetam D. F.
Children's challenging behaviors can be addressed with effective interventions that can meet children's emotional needs and support their families. Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) value the family involvement in the process of their child treatment. The intention of this study was to use concept mapping as an adjunct to PBIS…
EMMELKAMP, PMG; VANOPPEN, P
In this report an overview is given of the contribution of cognitive approaches to behavioral medicine. The (possible) contribution of cognitive therapy is reviewed in the area of coronary heart disease, obesity, bulimia nervosa, chronic pain, benign headache, cancer, acquired immunodeficiency
van Stralen Maartje M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Important health benefits can be achieved when physical activity in children from low socio-economic status is promoted and sedentariness is limited. By specifying the mediating mechanisms of existing interventions one can improve future physical activity interventions. This study explored potential mediators of the long-term effect of the school-based multicomponent JUMP-in intervention on sport participation, outdoor play and screen time in Dutch primary schoolchildren from disadvantaged neighborhoods. Methods In total, 600 primary schoolchildren (aged 9.8 ± 0.7, 51% girls, 13% Dutch ethnicity, 35% overweight from 9 intervention and 10 control schools were included in the analyses. JUMP-in was developed using Intervention Mapping, and targeted psychological and environmental determinants of physical activity. Outcome behaviors were self-reported sport participation, outdoor play, TV-viewing behavior and computer use. Potential mediators were self-reported psychological, social and physical environmental factors. Results JUMP-in was effective in improving sport participation after 20 months, but not in improving outdoor play, or reducing TV-viewing or computer time. JUMP-in was not effective in changing hypothesized mediators so no significant mediated effects could be identified. However, changes in self-efficacy, social support and habit strength were positively associated with changes in sport participation, and changes in social support, self-efficacy, perceived planning skills, enjoyment and habit strength were positively associated with changes in outdoor play. Changes in enjoyment was positively associated with changes in TV-viewing while parental rules were negatively associated. Having a computer in the bedroom and enjoyment were positively associated with changes in computer use, while changes in parental rules were negatively associated. Conclusions Besides a significant positive effect on sports participation
Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted to improve the body image and self-esteem among breast cancer patients after mastectomy. Materials & Methods: Our study comprised of 23 breast cancer patients in Imam Hossein Hospital, aged between 30-60 years, all of whom had undergone mastectomy and then radiotherapy. The study participants were selected through purposeful sampling and then randomly assigned to the case (10 and control (13 groups. The intervention program (cognitive behavioral group intervention consisted of 12 sessions of intervention (2 sessions per week each taking 90 minutes, in a 6 week process. Both group members completed the “body image and relationships scale” and the “Pope self- esteem questionnaire” before and after training. Analysis of covariance to eliminate the pretest effect on posttest results and ANOVA to determine the differences between the groups were used through SPSS 18 in this study. Results: This intervention was significantly effective on improving the mean score of body image and self- esteem in the breast cancer/mastectomy patients of the case group compared to that of the control group (P<0.01. Conclusion: Thus, cognitive behavioral group intervention can be effective in improving body image and increasing self-esteem among women with breast cancer after mastectomy.
Stoltz, S.E.M.J.; Londen, M. van; Dekovic, M.; Orobio de Castro, B.; Prinzie, P.; Lochman, J.E.
BACKGROUND: For elementary school-children with aggressive behaviour problems, there is a strong need for effective preventive interventions to interrupt the developmental trajectory towards more serious behaviour problems. AIM: The aim of this RCT-study was to evaluate a school-based individual
Tipton, Elizabeth; Yeager, David; Iachan, Ronaldo
Questions regarding the generalizability of results from educational experiments have been at the forefront of methods development over the past five years. This work has focused on methods for estimating the effect of an intervention in a well-defined inference population (e.g., Tipton, 2013; O'Muircheartaigh and Hedges, 2014); methods for…
Assessing the feasibility, acceptability, and potential effectiveness of a behavioral-automaticity focused lifestyle intervention for African Americans with metabolic syndrome: The Pick two to Stick to protocol.
Fritz, Heather; Brody, Aaron; Levy, Philip
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) significantly increases the risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Being physically active and eating a healthy diet can reduce MetS risk factors. Too frequently, however, studies report that the effects of interventions targeting those factors are not maintained once interventions are withdrawn. A potential solution to the problem is targeting behavioral automaticity (habit-development) to aid in initiation and maintenance of health-behavior changes. The Pick two to Stick To (P2S2), is an 8-week, theory-based hybrid (face-to-face/telecoaching) habit focused lifestyle intervention designed to increase healthful physical activity and dietary behavioral automaticity. The purpose of this article is to describe the rationale and protocol for evaluating the P2S2 program's feasibility, acceptability and potential effectiveness. Using a prospective, non-comparative design, the P2S2 program will be implemented by trained occupational therapy 'coaches' to 40 African Americans aged 40 and above with MetS recruited from the emergency department. Semi-structured interviews with participants, bi-weekly research meetings with study staff, and observations of intervention delivery will provide data for a process evaluation. Estimates of effectiveness include weight, blood pressure, waist circumference, BMI, and behavioral automaticity measures that will be collected at baseline and week 20. The P2S2 program could facilitate the development of healthful dietary and physical activity habits in an underserved population. Whether interventions aimed at changing habits can feasibly influence this automaticity, particularly for high-risk, low resource communities where other barriers exist, is not known. This pilot study, therefore, will fill an important gap, providing insight to inform subsequent trials.
Hampson, S. E.; Skinner, T. C.; Hart, J.
OBJECTIVE - To evaluate the effectiveness of behavioral interventions for adolescents with type 1 diabetes based on a systematic review of the literature. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - The literature was identified by searching 11 electronic databases, hand-searching 3 journals from their start...... dates, and contacting individual researchers. Only articles that reported evaluations of behavioral (including educational and psychosocial) interventions for adolescents (age range 9-21 years) with type 1 diabetes that included a control group were included in the present review. Data summarizing...... were RCTs. Effect sizes could be calculated for 18 interventions. The overall mean effect size calculated across all outcomes was 0.33 (median 0.21), indicating that these interventions have a small- to medium-sized beneficial effect on diabetes management. Interventions that were theoretically based...
Jeihooni, Ali Khani; Rakhshani, Tayebeh
Skin cancer is one of the most common cancers in Iran. Farmers are exposed to the sun's ultraviolet radiation due to their job and are susceptible to skin cancer. The aim of this study is to survey the effect of educational intervention based on health belief model and social support on promoting skin cancer preventive behaviors in farmers of Fasa City, Fars province, Iran. In this quasi-experimental study, 200 farmers (100 in experimental group and 100 in control group) in Fasa City, Fars, Iran, were selected in 2017. The educational intervention for the experimental group consisted of eight training sessions (introduction to skin cancer, risk factors, complications, benefits and barriers to proper use of sunscreen, UV sunglasses and physical protection, self-efficacy in applying preventive behaviors, role of social support). A questionnaire consisting of demographic information, knowledge, HBM constructs (perceived susceptibility, severity, benefits, barriers, self-efficacy and cues to action), and social support was used to measure skin cancer preventive behaviors before, 3 months after the intervention, and 6 months later. Data were analyzed using SPSS-22 via chi-squared, independent samples t test, Mann-Whitney, and repeated measures ANOVA at a significance level of 0.5. The mean age of the farmers was 42.21 ± 10.52 years in the experimental group and 44.28 ± 10.16 years in the control group. Three months after the intervention and 6 months after the intervention, the experimental group showed a significant increase in the knowledge, perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits, self-efficacy, cues to action, social support, and skin cancer preventive behaviors compared to the control group. This study showed the effectiveness of the intervention based on the HBM constructs and social support in adoption of skin cancer preventive behaviors in 3 and 6 months post intervention in farmers. Hence, these models can act as a
Full Text Available Background: Recent researches suggest that preterm infants understand pain and stress. Because of the wide range of effects of pain on infants, the present study was conducted on the effect of environmental and behavioral interventions on pain due to heel-prick blood sampling in preterm infants. Materials and Methods: A clinical trial was conducted among 32 infants with gestational age of 32–37 weeks in the intervention and control groups. The effects of noise reduction by earplugs, light reduction by blindfolds, reduction of nursing manipulation, and creation of intrauterine position for neonates, 30 minutes before taking blood samples until 30 minutes after it, were measured during the intervention stage. Data were collected using the Neonatal Infant Pain Scale (NIPS in 5 stages (before intervention, 2 minutes before sampling, during the sampling, and 5 minutes and 30 minutes after the sampling. The data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA and paired t-test in SPSS software. Results: The paired t-test results showed no significant differences between the control and intervention stages in terms of pain scores at base time (P = 0.42 and 2 minutes before sampling (P = 0.12. However, at the sampling time (P = 0.0, and 5 minutes (P = 0.001 and 30 minutes after the sampling (P = 0.001, mean pain score in the intervention stage was significantly less than that in the control stage. Conclusions: Based on the findings, environmental and behavioral interventions reduced pain and facilitated heel-prick blood sampling in preterm infants.
Lewis, Vivian; Martina, Camille A; McDermott, Michael P; Chaudron, Linda; Trief, Paula M; LaGuardia, Jennifer G; Sharp, Daryl; Goodman, Steven R; Morse, Gene D; Ryan, Richard M
Mentors rarely receive education about the unique needs of underrepresented scholars in the biomedical and behavioral sciences. We hypothesized that mentor-training and peer-mentoring interventions for these scholars would enrich the perceived quality and breadth of discussions between mentor-protégé dyads (i.e., mentor-protégé pairs). Our multicenter, randomized study of 150 underrepresented scholar-mentor dyads compared: 1) mentor training, 2) protégé peer mentoring, 3) combined mentor training and peer mentoring, and 4) a control condition (i.e., usual practice of mentoring). In this secondary analysis, the outcome variables were quality of dyad time and breadth of their discussions. Protégé participants were graduate students, fellows, and junior faculty in behavioral and biomedical research and healthcare. Dyads with mentor training were more likely than those without mentor training to have discussed teaching and work-life balance. Dyads with peer mentoring were more likely than those without peer mentoring to have discussed clinical care and career plans. The combined intervention dyads were more likely than controls to perceive that the quality of their time together was good/excellent. Our study supports the value of these mentoring interventions to enhance the breadth of dyad discussions and quality of time together, both important components of a good mentoring relationship. © 2017 V. Lewis et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2017 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).
Boyd, Brian A.; McDonough, Stephen G.; Bodfish, James W.
Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are a core symptom of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). There has been an increased research emphasis on repetitive behaviors; however, this research primarily has focused on phenomenology and mechanisms. Thus, the knowledge base on interventions is lagging behind other areas of research. The literature…
Nunn, William E.
Student behavior stands out among issues that greatly affect students' success and even teacher job satisfaction. Researchers have created Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports (PBIS) as a system of interventions that can help students improve their behavior and become more successful. This study sought to add to the body of knowledge…
Zhang, Jing; Slesnick, Natasha
Parents' and children's autonomy and relatedness behaviors are associated with a wide range of child outcomes. Yet, little is known about how parents and children's autonomy and relatedness behaviors jointly influence child outcomes. The current study captured this joint influence by exploring the longitudinal trajectory of mother-child discrepancies in autonomy and relatedness behaviors and its association with child problem behaviors. The effects of a family systems intervention on the trajectory of mother-child discrepancies were also examined. The sample included 183 substance using mothers and their children (M age = 11.54 years, SD = 2.55, range 8-16; 48 % females). Both the mother and child completed an assessment at baseline, 6- and 18-month post-baseline. A person-centered analysis identified subgroups varying in mother-child discrepancy patterns in their autonomy and relatedness behaviors. The results also showed that participation in the family systems therapy was associated with decreased mother-child discrepancies, and also a synchronous increase in mother's and child's autonomy and relatedness. Additionally, increased mother-child discrepancies and mother-child dyads showing no change in autonomy and relatedness was associated with higher levels of children's problem behaviors. The findings reveal a dynamic process of mother-child discrepancies in autonomy and relatedness behaviors related to child outcomes. The findings also support the effectiveness of the family systems therapy, and highlight the importance of understanding the complexities in family interactions when explaining children's problem behaviors.
Alfaris, Nasreen; Wadden, Thomas A.; Sarwer, David B; Diwald, Lisa; Volger, Sheri; Hong, Patricia; Baxely, Amber; Minnick, Alyssa M.; Vetter, Marion L.; Berkowitz, Robert I.; Chittams, Jesse
Objective To examine the effect of weight loss on sleep duration, sleep quality, and mood in 390 obese men and women who received one of three behavioral weight loss intervention in the Practice-based Opportunities for Weight Reduction trial at the University of Pennsylvania (POWER-UP). Methods Sleep duration and quality were assessed at baseline and months 6 and 24 by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire and mood by the Patient Health Questionnaire-8 (PHQ-8). Changes in sl...
Urda, Joyan L; Lynn, Jeffrey S; Gorman, Andrea; Larouere, Beth
The purpose of this study was to determine whether an alert to get up once per hour while at work would reduce sitting time, increase sit-to-stand transitions, and improve perceived wellness in women with sedentary jobs. Female university staff and administrators (48 ± 10 years) were randomly assigned to control-control (CC) (n = 22) or control-intervention (CI) (n = 22) groups. Both used a thigh-worn postural-based activity monitor for 2 weeks. The CC group maintained normal behaviors, whereas the CI group maintained behaviors during control week, but received hourly alerts on their computer during work hours in the intervention week. Time sitting and sit-to-stand transitions during an 8.5-hour workday were examined. A perceived wellness survey was completed at baseline and after the control and intervention weeks. Among all participants (N = 44) during the control week, 68% of the workday was spent sitting and 41 sit-to-stand transitions occurred. An analysis of variance revealed no statistically significant differences in variables over time (P > .05). There was a significant increase in perceived wellness from baseline in both groups (P ≤ .05). Perceived wellness showed no statistically significant difference between groups. The intervention had no statistically significant effect on sitting time or sit-to-stand transitions. Participation improved perceived wellness in the absence of behavior change.
Farbod Ebadi Fardazar
Full Text Available Introduction and Purpose: Accidents are the first cause of death in children under 5 years, especially in low- and middle-income countries. The aim of this study is to determination the effect of Educational intervention on promotion of prevention behaviors of home accidents in mothers with children less than 5 year in Joibar city based on protection motivation theory (PMT in 2015. Methods: In this controlled interventional study 190 mothers with children less than 5 year were participated (95 in case group and 95 incontrol group.The data collection toolwas researcher made questionnaire based on the structures of protection motivation theory.After done pre-test and the results obtained from it, appropriate educational intervention designed and was conducted only in case group. Then two months after the educational intervention,evaluation was done and data into SPSS 20software and by using statistical testsT-test، Paired T test ، chi _square، Pearson correlation coefficient and regression analysis was analyzed. Results: Statistically significant difference was found between mean scores of all structures of PMTin the case and control groups after the educational intervention, so that in all cases in the case group was better than control group (p0.05. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that PMT can be used as a framework in designing educational programs in order to promotion of prevention behaviors of home accidents in mothers with children less than 5 year.
Full Text Available Anna-Eva Prick,1 Jacomine de Lange,2 Erik Scherder,3 Jos Twisk,4 Anne Margriet Pot1,5,6 1Department of Clinical Psychology and the EMGO+ Institute for Health and Care Research, Faculty of Psychology and Education, VU University, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; 2Research Centre Innovations in Care, Rotterdam University of Applied Sciences, Rotterdam, the Netherlands; 3Department of Clinical Neuropsychology, Faculty of Psychology and Education, VU University, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; 4Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics and the EMGO+ Institute for Health and Care Research, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; 5Program on Ageing, Institute of Mental Health and Addiction, Utrecht, the Netherlands; 6School of Psychology, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia Purpose: The effects of a multicomponent dyadic intervention on the mood, behavior, and physical health of people with dementia living in the community were evaluated in a randomized controlled trial. This multicomponent dyadic intervention is a translated and adapted version of an intervention that has been shown to be effective for people with dementia in the US. Patients and methods: People with dementia living in the community and their family caregivers (N=111 caregiver-care recipient dyads were randomly assigned to the intervention and comparison group. The intervention group received home-based physical exercise training, psycho-education, communication skills training, and pleasant activities training during 3 months directed at both the person with dementia and the caregiver. Mood, behavior, and physical health were measured at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months. The effects of the study were determined by using generalized estimating equations based on an intention-to-treat analysis. Results: Analyses showed no beneficial effects over time on any of the outcome measures. Conclusion: This study showed no effects. The negative results in this study
Kahlert, Daniela; Unyi-Reicherz, Annelie; Stratton, Gareth
and feasible to evaluate. PREMIT is part of an intervention trial, which aims to prevent the onset of type-2 diabetes in pre-diabetics in eight clinical centers across the world by guiding them in changing their physical activity and dietary behavior through a group counseling approach. METHODS: The program...... development took five progressive steps, in line with the Public Health Action Cycle: (1) Summing-up the intervention goal(s), target group and the setting, (2) uncovering the generative psychological mechanisms, (3) identifying behavior change techniques and tools, (4) preparing for evaluation and (5...
Koster, S.E.; Langley, D.J.
We investigate factors influencing choice behavior in online social networks. We use twitter data from a Dutch television talent show. In study one, we implement a nested conditional logit model with latent classes. We find heterogeneous effects. For two latent classes, cognitive factors most
Plavnick, Joshua B.; Ferreri, Summer J.; Maupin, Angela N.
The effects of self-monitoring on procedural integrity of token economy implementation by 3 staff in a special education classroom were evaluated. The subsequent changes in academic readiness behaviors of 2 students with low-incidence disabilities were measured. Multiple baselines across staff and students showed that procedural integrity…
Full Text Available Jing Wang1, Susan M Sereika2,3, Eileen R Chasens2, Linda J Ewing4, Judith T Matthews2,5, Lora E Burke2,31School of Nursing, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX, 2School of Nursing, 3Graduate School of Public Health, 4School of Medicine, 5University Center for Social and Urban Research, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USABackground: Examination of mediating behavioral factors could explain how an intervention works and thus provide guidance to optimize behavioral weight-loss programs. This study examined the mediating role of adherence to self-monitoring of diet and physical activity on weight loss in a behavioral weight-loss trial testing the use of personal digital assistants (PDA for self-monitoring.Methods: Mediation analysis was conducted to examine the possible mediating role of adherence to self-monitoring of diet and physical activity between treatments using varying self-monitoring methods (paper record, PDA, and PDA with daily tailored feedback messages and weight loss.Findings: The sample (N = 210 was predominantly white (78% and female (85%. Compared to a paper record, using a PDA for self-monitoring diet (P = 0.027 and physical activity (P = 0.014 had significant direct effects on weight loss at 12 months, as well as a significant indirect effect on outcomes through improved adherence to self-monitoring (PS < 0.001. Receiving an automated daily feedback message via PDA only had a significant indirect effect on weight through self-monitoring adherence to diet (P = 0.004 and physical activity (P = 0.002.Conclusions: Adherence to self-monitoring of diet and physical activity is important as the underlying mechanism in this technology-supported behavioral weight-loss intervention.Keywords: behavioral intervention, self-monitoring, mobile technology, mediation analysis, weight loss, adherence
Full Text Available Background: Self-medication by people is one of the major issues in the world that can be lead to numerous medical and economic problems, this especially issue in children under 2 years who are at the age of growth and development have great importance. The aim of this study was investigate the effects of model-based educational interventions on self-medication behavior in mothers with children under 2 years of age who referred to the health centers of Firoozkooh city (Iran. Materials and Methods: This study was quasi - experimental interventional study. The study population consisted of mothers with children under 2 years old referring to health centers of the Firoozkooh city, Iran. The data collection tool was researcher made questionnaire which its validity and reliability was assessed than was used. The required information was collected before and after the educational intervention. Then 4 months after the educational intervention, evaluation was done and data analysis was using SPSS-20. Results: Significant difference was not found between mean scores of knowledge, perceived sensitivity, severity, benefits, barriers, self-efficacy with performance (self-medication before the educational intervention (P>0.05. But after the educational intervention, statistically significant difference was found between mean scores of knowledge, perceived sensitivity, severity, benefits, barriers, and self-efficacy with performance (P
Vermunt, P.W.A.; Milder, I.E.J.; Wielaard, F.; Baan, C.A.; Schelfhout, J.D.M.; Westert, G.P.; van Oers, J.A.M.
Background Despite the favorable effects of behavior change interventions on diabetes risk, lifestyle modification is a complicated process. In this study we therefore investigated opportunities for refining a lifestyle intervention for type 2 diabetes prevention, based on participant perceptions of
Goldsberry, Jennifer; Moore, Leslie; MacMillan, Deborah; Butler, Scott
College years are a time young adults examine high-risk sexual behaviors, increasing their risk for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Fraternity/sorority membership has been identified as one factor contributing to increased risky sexual behavior in college students. This study measured the effectiveness of an educational intervention targeting STD prevention in fraternity and sorority members, and examined relationships between STD knowledge, attitudes, and demographics. A descriptive, correlational design was used. Pre- and posttest data were collected from fraternity and sorority members (N = 132). Instruments measured demographic characteristics, STD knowledge, and attitudes toward safe sex behaviors. There was a significant increase in STD knowledge from baseline (M = 13.03, SD = 6.5) to 1 week (M = 20.27, SD = 4.9) t (131) = -13.53, p = .000. Males were more likely to report attitudes toward risky sexual behavior rs(132) = .323, p = .000, and as knowledge increased, attitudes became more favorable to safe sex behaviors (pre-STD knowledge and preintervention attitudes, r(132) = -.249, p = .004; post-STD knowledge and postintervention attitudes, rs(132) = -.307, p = .000). Results support that brief STD educational interventions can increase STD knowledge. College health centers must aim to provide sexual health education to all students at every visit. ©2016 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite sub-Saharan Africa [SSA] constituting just 12% of the world’s population, the region has the highest burden of HIV with 70% of HIV infection in general and 80% of new infections among young people occuring in the region. Diverse intervention programmes have been implemented among young people but with minimal translation to behavior change. A systematic review of Behavior Change Interventions [BCI] targeting adolescents in SSA was therefore conducted with the objective of delineating this intervention vis-a-vis efficacy gap. Methods From April to July 2015 searches were made from different journals online. Databases searched included MEDLINE, EBSCOhost, PsychINFO, Cochrane, and Google Scholar; Cambridge and Oxford journal websites, UNAIDS and WHO for studies published between 2000 and 2015. After excluding other studies by review of titles and then abstracts, the studies were reduced to 17. Three of these were randomized trials and five quasi-experimental. Overall interventions included those prescribing life skills, peer education [n = 6] and community collaborative programmes. The main study protocol was approved by the University of Malawi College of Medicine Ethics Committee on 30th June 2016 [ref #: P.01/16/1847. The review was registered with PROSPERO [NIH] in 2015. Results The review yielded some 200 titles and abstracts, 20 full text articles were critically analysed and 17 articles reviewed reflecting a dearth in published studies in the area of psychosocial BCI interventions targeting adolescents in SSA. Results show that a number of reviewed interventions [n = 8] registered positive outcomes in both knowledge and sexual practices. Conclusions The review demonstrates a paucity of psychosocial BCI studies targeting adolescents in SSA. There are however mixed findings about the effectiveness of psychosocial BCI targeting adolescents in SSA. Other studies portray intervention effectiveness and others
Kim, Kim B; Han, Hae-Ra; Huh, Boyun; Nguyen, Tam; Lee, Hochang; Kim, Miyong T
Great strides have been made in improving heart health in the United States during the last 2 decades, yet these strides have not encompassed many ethnic minority populations. There are significant health disparity gaps stemming from both a paucity of valid research and a lack of culturally sensitive interventions. In particular, many Korean Americans with chronic illnesses encounter difficulty navigating the healthcare system because of limited health literacy. The effect of a multimodal Self-Help Intervention Program on the Control of High Blood Pressure (HBP) was tested in a community-based clinical trial for Korean American seniors. Of 440 seniors enrolled, 369 completed the study (184 in the intervention group and 185 in the control group; mean age = 70.9±5.3 years). The intervention group received 6 weekly educational sessions on HBP management skill building, including health literacy training, followed by telephone counseling and home blood pressure (BP) monitoring for 12 months. Findings support that the Self-Help Intervention Program on the Control of HBP was effective in controlling BP in this ethnic/linguistic minority population. The BP control rates for the intervention and control groups were 49.5% vs. 43.2% at baseline, 58.5% vs. 42.4% at 6 months, 67.9% vs. 52.5% at 12 months, and 54.3% vs. 53.0% at 18 months. Significant changes were observed over time in some psychobehavioral outcomes, including self-efficacy for BP control, medication adherence behavior, HBP knowledge, and depression. The study findings suggest that the multimodal Self-Help Intervention Program on the Control of HBP is effective at promoting optimal HBP control for this ethnic/linguistic minority population. NCT00406614. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2014. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Kok, Gerjo; Lo, Siu Hing; Peters, Gjalt-Jorn Y.; Ruiter, Robert A.C.
This paper's objective is to apply Intervention Mapping, a planning process for the systematic development of theory- and evidence-based health promotion interventions, to the development of interventions to promote energy conservation behavior. Intervention Mapping (IM) consists of six steps: needs assessment, program objectives, methods and applications, program development, planning for program implementation, and planning for program evaluation. Examples from the energy conservation field are provided to illustrate the activities associated with these steps. It is concluded that applying IM in the energy conservation field may help the development of effective behavior change interventions, and thus develop a domain specific knowledge-base for effective intervention design. - Highlights: → Intervention Mapping (IM) is a planning process for developing evidence-based interventions.→ IM takes a problem-driven rather than theory-driven approach. → IM can be applied to the promotion of energy-conservation in a multilevel approach. → IM helps identifying determinants of behaviors and environmental conditions. → IM helps selecting appropriate theory-based methods and practical applications.
Kok, Gerjo, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Work and Social Psychology, Maastricht University, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Lo, Siu Hing, E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Work and Social Psychology, Maastricht University, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Peters, Gjalt-Jorn Y., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Work and Social Psychology, Maastricht University, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Ruiter, Robert A.C., E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Work and Social Psychology, Maastricht University, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands)
This paper's objective is to apply Intervention Mapping, a planning process for the systematic development of theory- and evidence-based health promotion interventions, to the development of interventions to promote energy conservation behavior. Intervention Mapping (IM) consists of six steps: needs assessment, program objectives, methods and applications, program development, planning for program implementation, and planning for program evaluation. Examples from the energy conservation field are provided to illustrate the activities associated with these steps. It is concluded that applying IM in the energy conservation field may help the development of effective behavior change interventions, and thus develop a domain specific knowledge-base for effective intervention design. - Highlights: > Intervention Mapping (IM) is a planning process for developing evidence-based interventions.> IM takes a problem-driven rather than theory-driven approach. > IM can be applied to the promotion of energy-conservation in a multilevel approach. > IM helps identifying determinants of behaviors and environmental conditions. > IM helps selecting appropriate theory-based methods and practical applications.
Direito, Artur; Walsh, Deirdre; Hinbarji, Moohamad; Albatal, Rami; Tooley, Mark; Whittaker, Robyn; Maddison, Ralph
Few interventions to promote physical activity (PA) adapt dynamically to changes in individuals' behavior. Interventions targeting determinants of behavior are linked with increased effectiveness and should reflect changes in behavior over time. This article describes the application of two frameworks to assist the development of an adaptive evidence-based smartphone-delivered intervention aimed at influencing PA and sedentary behaviors (SB). Intervention mapping was used to identify the determinants influencing uptake of PA and optimal behavior change techniques (BCTs). Behavioral intervention technology was used to translate and operationalize the BCTs and its modes of delivery. The intervention was based on the integrated behavior change model, focused on nine determinants, consisted of 33 BCTs, and included three main components: (1) automated capture of daily PA and SB via an existing smartphone application, (2) classification of the individual into an activity profile according to their PA and SB, and (3) behavior change content delivery in a dynamic fashion via a proof-of-concept application. This article illustrates how two complementary frameworks can be used to guide the development of a mobile health behavior change program. This approach can guide the development of future mHealth programs.
Rossi, J S; Blais, L M; Redding, C A; Weinstock, M A
Sun exposure is the only major causative factor for skin cancer for which prevention is feasible. Both individual and community-based interventions have been effective in changing sun exposure knowledge and attitudes but generally have not been effective in changing behaviors. An integrative model of behavior change is described that has been successful in changing behavior across a wide range of health conditions. This model holds promise for developing a rational public health approach to skin cancer prevention based on sound behavioral science.
Goldsmith, R Jeffrey; Garlapati, Vamsi
support this explanation: (1) patients would report beneficial effects of substance use on their symptoms; (2) epidemiology would report that a specific substance would be used by specific psychiatric disorders, and (3) psychiatric patients with severe symptoms would be more likely to abuse substances than those with mild symptoms. Unfortunately the research data do not support these. The primary substance abuse causing secondary psychiatric disorder model could be explained by neuronal kindling from substance-induced disorders. Patients who develop the psychiatric disorder after the substance use disorder do have a course of illness similar to those with a psychiatric disorder, but without substance use disorder. The bidirectional model is consistent with the tendency of disturbed teenagers to socialize with youth using alcohol and drugs; however, this model has not been tested rigorously in research studies. With such a disparate set of models, behavior interventions are conceptualized best as a multi-component program, a treatment plan that generates a problem list and devises an intervention to respond to each member of the list. This requires a talented, multi-disciplinary team or network that can assess carefully and package the interventions creatively, and dose the treatment components empathically to fit the patient's tolerance, motivation, and abilities.
Anderson, Cheryl A M; Cobb, Laura K; Miller, Edgar R; Woodward, Mark; Hottenstein, Annette; Chang, Alex R; Mongraw-Chaffin, Morgana; White, Karen; Charleston, Jeanne; Tanaka, Toshiko; Thomas, Letitia; Appel, Lawrence J
For decades, dietary sodium intake in the United States has remained high, and few studies have examined strategies for maintaining recommended intakes. We examined the effects of a behavioral intervention, which emphasized spices and herbs, on the maintenance of sodium intake at the recommended intake of 1500 mg/d in individuals to whom the US Dietary Guidelines for Americans apply. We conducted a 2-phase study that included adults ≥18 y of age for whom Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommends 1500 mg Na/d. The study was conducted in Baltimore, Maryland, from 2012 to 2014. In phase 1, 55 individuals consumed a low-sodium diet for 4 wk. Participants were provided all foods, snacks, and calorie-containing drinks. In phase 2, 40 participants from phase 1 were randomly assigned to either a behavioral intervention to reduce sodium intake (n = 20) or a self-directed control group (n = 20) for 20 wk. The primary study outcome was the change in mean 24-h urinary sodium excretion during phase 2. Linear regression analyses were used to determine intervention effects on urinary sodium excretion. Participant characteristics were as follows: women: 65%; African American: 88%; hypertension: 63%; diabetes: 18%; mean age: 61 y; and mean body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 30. At the end of phase 2, mean 24-h sodium excretion was lower in the behavioral intervention than in the self-directed group (mean difference: -956.8 mg/d; 95% CI: -1538.7, -374.9 mg/d) after sodium intake at screening was controlled for (P = 0.002). These findings persisted in sensitivity analyses that excluded potentially incomplete urine collections [Mage's equation mean difference: -1090 mg/d (P = 0.001); Joosens' equation mean difference: -796 mg/d (P = 0.04)]. A multifactorial behavioral intervention emphasizing spices and herbs significantly reduced sodium intake. Because of the ubiquity of sodium in the US food supply, multilevel strategies addressing individual behaviors and the food supply are needed
Baumeister, Roy F; Gailliot, Matthew; DeWall, C Nathan; Oaten, Megan
Self-regulation is a highly adaptive, distinctively human trait that enables people to override and alter their responses, including changing themselves so as to live up to social and other standards. Recent evidence indicates that self-regulation often consumes a limited resource, akin to energy or strength, thereby creating a temporary state of ego depletion. This article summarizes recent evidence indicating that regular exercises in self-regulation can produce broad improvements in self-regulation (like strengthening a muscle), making people less vulnerable to ego depletion. Furthermore, it shows that ego depletion moderates the effects of many traits on behavior, particularly such that wide differences in socially disapproved motivations produce greater differences in behavior when ego depletion weakens the customary inner restraints.
Minen, Mia Tova; Torous, John; Raynowska, Jenelle; Piazza, Allison; Grudzen, Corita; Powers, Scott; Lipton, Richard; Sevick, Mary Ann
There is increasing interest in using electronic behavioral interventions as well as mobile technologies such as smartphones for improving the care of chronic disabling diseases such as migraines. However, less is known about the current clinical evidence for the feasibility and effectiveness of such behavioral interventions. To review the published literature of behavioral interventions for primary headache disorders delivered by electronic means suitable for use outside of the clinician's office. An electronic database search of PubMed, PsycINFO, and Embase was conducted through December 11, 2015. All eligible studies were systematically reviewed to examine the modality in which treatment was delivered (computer, smartphone, watch and other), types of behavioral intervention delivered (cognitive behavioral therapy [CBT], biofeedback, relaxation, other), the headache type being treated, duration of treatment, adherence, and outcomes obtained by the trials to examine the overall feasibility of electronic behavioral interventions for headache. Our search produced 291 results from which 23 eligible articles were identified. Fourteen studies used the internet via the computer, 2 used Personal Digital Assistants, 2 used CD ROM and 5 used other types of devices. None used smartphones or wearable devices. Four were pilot studies (N ≤ 10) which assessed feasibility. For the behavioral intervention, CBT was used in 11 (48 %) of the studies, relaxation was used in 8 (35 %) of the studies, and biofeedback was used in 5 (22 %) of the studies. The majority of studies (14/23, 61 %) used more than one type of behavioral modality. The duration of therapy ranged from 4-8 weeks for CBT with a mean of 5.9 weeks. The duration of other behavioral interventions ranged from 4 days to 60 months. Outcomes measured varied widely across the individual studies. Despite the move toward individualized medicine and mHealth, the current literature shows that most studies using
Deshpande, Sunil; Rivera, Daniel E; Younger, Jarred W; Nandola, Naresh N
The term adaptive intervention has been used in behavioral medicine to describe operationalized and individually tailored strategies for prevention and treatment of chronic, relapsing disorders. Control systems engineering offers an attractive means for designing and implementing adaptive behavioral interventions that feature intensive measurement and frequent decision-making over time. This is illustrated in this paper for the case of a low-dose naltrexone treatment intervention for fibromyalgia. System identification methods from engineering are used to estimate dynamical models from daily diary reports completed by participants. These dynamical models then form part of a model predictive control algorithm which systematically decides on treatment dosages based on measurements obtained under real-life conditions involving noise, disturbances, and uncertainty. The effectiveness and implications of this approach for behavioral interventions (in general) and pain treatment (in particular) are demonstrated using informative simulations.
To be effective, a medical intervention must improve one's health by targeting a disease. The concept of disease, though, is controversial. Among the leading accounts of disease-naturalism, normativism, hybridism, and eliminativism-I defend a version of hybridism. A hybrid account of disease holds that for a state to be a disease that state must both (i) have a constitutive causal basis and (ii) cause harm. The dual requirement of hybridism entails that a medical intervention, to be deemed effective, must target either the constitutive causal basis of a disease or the harms caused by the disease (or ideally both). This provides a theoretical underpinning to the two principle aims of medical treatment: care and cure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tyson, Mandy; Covey, Judith; Rosenthal, Harriet E S
The meta-analysis reported here examined interventions informed by the theory of planned behavior (TPB) or theory of reasoned action (TRA) aimed at reducing heterosexual risk behaviors (prevention of STDs and unwanted pregnancy). Studies were eligible for inclusion if they were either randomized control trials or quasi-experimental studies that compared the TPB-based intervention against a control group. Search strategy consisted of articles identified in previous reviews, keyword search through search engines, examination of key journals, and contacting key experts. Forty-seven intervention studies were included in the meta-analysis. Random effects models revealed that pooled effect sizes for TPB-based interventions had small but significant effects on behavior and other secondary outcomes (i.e., knowledge, attitudes, normative beliefs, perceived behavioral control, and intentions). Significant heterogeneity found between effect sizes was explored using metaregression. Larger effects were found for interventions that provided opportunities for social comparison. The TPB provides a valuable framework for designing interventions to change heterosexual risk behaviors. However, effect sizes varied quite substantially between studies, and further research is needed to explore the reasons why.
Hekler, Eric B; Michie, Susan; Pavel, Misha; Rivera, Daniel E; Collins, Linda M; Jimison, Holly B; Garnett, Claire; Parral, Skye; Spruijt-Metz, Donna
To be suitable for informing digital behavior change interventions, theories and models of behavior change need to capture individual variation and changes over time. The aim of this paper is to provide recommendations for development of models and theories that are informed by, and can inform, digital behavior change interventions based on discussions by international experts, including behavioral, computer, and health scientists and engineers. The proposed framework stipulates the use of a state-space representation to define when, where, for whom, and in what state for that person, an intervention will produce a targeted effect. The "state" is that of the individual based on multiple variables that define the "space" when a mechanism of action may produce the effect. A state-space representation can be used to help guide theorizing and identify crossdisciplinary methodologic strategies for improving measurement, experimental design, and analysis that can feasibly match the complexity of real-world behavior change via digital behavior change interventions. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
René García Roche
Full Text Available Background: aging-associated diseases contribute to morbidity and mortality in the population; therefore, it is necessary to develop intervention strategies to prevent and/or minimize their consequences. Objectives: to evaluate the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral intervention aimed at older hypertensive patients treated in primary care in Cardenas and Santiago de Cuba municipalities during 2011-2013. Methods: an intervention study of older adults with hypertension was conducted in two municipalities: Santiago de Cuba and Cárdenas. The intervention group was composed of 399 older patients living in the catchment areas of the Carlos Juan Finlay and Héroes del Moncada polyclinics while the control group included 377 older adults served by the Julian Grimau and Jose Antonio Echeverría polyclinics. The intervention consisted of a systematic strategy to increase knowledge of the disease in order to change lifestyles. Results: in the intervention group, there were more patients with sufficient knowledge of the disease (OR: 1.82, greater control of hypertension (OR: 1.51 and better adherence to treatment (OR: 1.70. By modeling the explanatory variables with hypertension control, being in the intervention group (OR: 0.695 and adhering to treatment (OR: 0.543 were found to be health protective factors. Conclusion: the congnitive-behavioral intervention for older adults treated in primary care of the municipalities studied was effective in improving blood pressure control since it contributed to a greater adherence to treatment.
Fan, Rui; Xu, Meihong; Wang, Junbo; Zhang, Zhaofeng; Chen, Qihe; Li, Ye; Gu, Jiaojiao; Cai, Xiaxia; Guo, Qianying; Bao, Lei; Li, Yong
Diabetes mellitus is very common in elderly Chinese individuals. Although nutritional intervention can provide a balanced diet, the sustaining effect on at-home dietary behavior and long-term plasma glucose control is not clear. Consequently, we conducted a long-term survey following one month of experiential nutritional intervention combined with health education. Based on the Dietary Guidelines for a Chinese Resident, we found that the food items met the recommended values, the percentages of energy provided from fat, protein, and carbohydrate were more reasonable after one year. The newly formed dietary patterns were "Healthy", "Monotonous", "Vegetarian", "Japanese", "Low energy", and "Traditional" diets. The 2h-PG of female participants as well as those favoring the "Japanese diet" decreased above 12 mmol/L. Participants who selected "Japanese" and "Healthy" diets showed an obvious reduction in FPG while the FPG of participants from Group A declined slightly. "Japanese" and "Healthy" diets also obtained the highest DDP scores, and thus can be considered suitable for T2DM treatment in China. The results of the newly formed dietary patterns, "Japanese" and "Healthy" diets, confirmed the profound efficacy of nutritional intervention combined with health education for improving dietary behavior and glycemic control although health education played a more important role. The present study is encouraging with regard to further exploration of comprehensive diabetes care.
Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is very common in elderly Chinese individuals. Although nutritional intervention can provide a balanced diet, the sustaining effect on at-home dietary behavior and long-term plasma glucose control is not clear. Consequently, we conducted a long-term survey following one month of experiential nutritional intervention combined with health education. Based on the Dietary Guidelines for a Chinese Resident, we found that the food items met the recommended values, the percentages of energy provided from fat, protein, and carbohydrate were more reasonable after one year. The newly formed dietary patterns were “Healthy”, “Monotonous”, “Vegetarian”, “Japanese”, “Low energy”, and “Traditional” diets. The 2h-PG of female participants as well as those favoring the “Japanese diet” decreased above 12 mmol/L. Participants who selected “Japanese” and “Healthy” diets showed an obvious reduction in FPG while the FPG of participants from Group A declined slightly. “Japanese” and “Healthy” diets also obtained the highest DDP scores, and thus can be considered suitable for T2DM treatment in China. The results of the newly formed dietary patterns, “Japanese” and “Healthy” diets, confirmed the profound efficacy of nutritional intervention combined with health education for improving dietary behavior and glycemic control although health education played a more important role. The present study is encouraging with regard to further exploration of comprehensive diabetes care.
DuPaul, George J.; Weyandt, Lisa L.; Janusis, Grace M.
School-related difficulties are commonly associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This article describes effective school-based intervention strategies including behavioral interventions, modifications to academic instruction, and home-school communication programs. One overlooked aspect of treatment of children with ADHD…
Cognitive-behavioral treatment for insomnia and continuous positive airway pressure therapy for obstructive sleep apnea are among the most efficacious sleep interventions. Unfortunately, adherence levels are disappointingly low for these interventions. Behavioral economics offers a promising framework for promoting adherence, often through relatively brief and straightforward strategies. The assumptions, goals, and key strategies of behavioral economics will be introduced. These strategies include providing social norms information, changing defaults, using the compromise effect, utilizing commitment devices, and establishing lottery-based systems. Then, this review will highlight specific behavioral economic approaches to promote patient adherence for three major sleep interventions: 1) behavioral treatment for pediatric insomnia, 2) cognitive-behavioral treatment for adult insomnia, and 3) continuous positive airway pressure for obstructive sleep apnea. Next, behavioral economic strategies will be discussed as ways to improve health care provider adherence to clinical practice guidelines regarding appropriate prescribing of hypnotics and ordering sleep-promoting practices for hospitalized inpatients. Finally, possible concerns that readers may have about behavioral economics strategies, including their efficacy, feasibility, and sustainability, will be addressed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zhang, Ying; Mei, Songli; Yang, Rui; Chen, Ling; Gao, Hang; Li, Li
Cardio-metabolic syndrome (CMS) is a highly prevalent condition. There is an urgent need to identify effective and integrated multi-disciplinary approaches that can reduce risk factors for CMS. Sixty-two patients with a history of CMS were randomized 1:1 into two groups: a standard information -only group (control), or a self-regulated lifestyle waist circumference (patient-centered cognitive behavioral therapy) intervention group. A pretest and posttest, controlled, experimental design was used. Outcomes were measured at the baseline (week 0) and at the end of intervention (week 12). Comparisons were drawn between groups and over time. The mean (standard deviation) age of the subjects was 48.6 (5.8) years ranging from 32 to 63, and 56.9% of the participants were female. Both groups showed no significant differences in Demographic variables and the metabolic syndrome indicators at baseline. While the control group only showed modest improvement after 12 weeks, compared to baseline, the intervention group demonstrated significant improvement from baseline. This study controlled for patients' demographics and baseline characteristics when assessing the effects of intervention. After adjusting for age, education and baseline level, the experimental group and the control group were statistically significant different in the following post-treatment outcomes: WC (F = 35.96, P cognitive behavioral therapy can improve the physical and mental health conditions among individuals reporting a history of cardio-metabolic syndrome, and possibly provided preliminary benefits for the treatment of CMS. Chinese Clinical Trial Register #, ChiCTR15006148 .
Skubik-Peplaski, Camille; Carrico, Cheryl; Nichols, Laurel; Chelette, Kenneth; Sawaki, Lumy
We evaluated the effects of occupation-based intervention on poststroke upper-extremity (UE) motor recovery, neuroplastic change, and occupational performance in 1 research participant. A 55-yr-old man with chronic stroke and moderately impaired UE motor function participated in 15 sessions of occupation-based intervention in a hospital setting designed to simulate a home environment. We tested behavioral motor function (Fugl-Meyer Assessment, Stroke Impact Scale, Canadian Occupational Performance Measure) and neuroplasticity (transcranial magnetic stimulation [TMS]) at baseline and at completion of intervention. We collected descriptive data on occupational participation throughout the study. All behavioral outcomes indicated clinically relevant improvement. TMS revealed bihemispheric corticomotor reorganization. Descriptive data revealed enhanced occupational performance. Occupation-based intervention delivered in a hospital-based, homelike environment can lead to poststroke neuroplastic change, increased functional use of the affected UE, and improved occupational performance. Copyright © 2012 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.
Fava, Leonardo; Vicari, Stefano; Valeri, Giovanni; D'Elia, Lidia; Arima, Serena; Strauss, Kristin
Although, reviews and outcome research supports empirical evidence for Early Intensive Behavior Intervention in pre-scholars, intensive behavioral service provision for school-aged children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are less subject to research studies. In order to provide effective behavioral interventions for school-aged children it…
Zhang, Jing; Slesnick, Natasha; Feng, Xin
This study examined the effects of a family systems therapy (Ecologically-Based Family Therapy [EBFT]) on the co-occurring trajectory of mothers' substance use and psychological control, and its association with children's problem behaviors. Participants included 183 mothers with a substance use disorder who had at least one biological child in their care. Mothers were randomly assigned to one of the three intervention conditions: EBFT-home, n = 62; EBFT-office, n = 61; or Women's Health Education, n = 60. Participants were assessed at baseline, 3, 6, 12, and 18 months post-baseline. A dual-trajectory class growth analysis identified three groups of mothers in regard to their change trajectories. The majority of the mothers exhibited a synchronous decrease in substance use and psychological control (n = 107). In all, 46 mothers exhibited a synchronous increase in substance use and psychological control. For the remaining 30 mothers, substance use and psychological control remained stable. Mothers in the family therapy condition were more likely to show reduced substance use and psychological control compared to mothers in the control condition. Moreover, children with mothers who showed decreased substance use and psychological control exhibited lower levels of problem behaviors compared to children with mothers showing increased substance use and psychological control. The findings provide evidence for the effectiveness of family systems therapy, EBFT, in treating mothers' substance use, improving parenting behaviors, and subsequently improving child behavioral outcomes. © 2017 Family Process Institute.
Kowalewicz, Eva A.; Coffee, Gina
This study is an examination of the effectiveness of the Mystery Motivator--an interdependent group contingency, variable-ratio, classwide intervention--as a tool for reducing disruptive classroom behavior in eight diverse general-education elementary school classrooms across seven different schools. The study was conducted using an ABAB, changing…
Granger, Stephanie; des Rivieres-Pigeon, Catherine; Sabourin, Gabrielle; Forget, Jacques
Although numerous studies examine the effectiveness of intensive behavioral intervention programs (EIBI) for young children with autism, few focus on the family aspect of the program. In particular, involvement of mothers in the program, which is strongly recommended, is the subject of only a small number of studies. The goal of this research is…
Fryling, Mitch J.; Wallace, Michele D.; Yassine, Jordan N.
Treatment integrity has cogent implications for intervention effectiveness. Understanding these implications is an important, but often neglected, undertaking in behavior analysis. This paper reviews current research on treatment integrity in applied behavior analysis. Specifically, we review research evaluating the relation between integrity…
Wan Yunus, Farahiyah; Liu, Karen P.; Bissett, Michelle; Penkala, Stefania
Sensory-based intervention is a common approach used to address behavioral problems in children. Types of sensory-based intervention for children and details of the intervention effectiveness have not been systematically examined. This review examined the effectiveness and ideal types of sensory-based interventions for children with behavioral…
Psychosocial interventions for social communication, repetitive, and emotional-behavioral difficulties in children and young people with spectrum disorders: an update on effectiveness and the role of caregivers
van Steensel, F.J.A.; Magiati, I.; Essau, C.A.; Allen, J.L.
A number of time-limited psychosocial interventions targeting social skills, internalizing and externalizing difficulties have been developed for children and young people with ASD. Increasingly more evidence is emerging that such interventions are effective in reducing difficulties and improving
Hamamura, Toshitaka; Suganuma, Shinichiro; Ueda, Mami; Mearns, Jack; Shimoyama, Haruhiko
Research that investigates standalone effects of a mobile phone-based cognitive behavioral therapy without any human contact for reducing both psychological distress and risky drinking has been advancing; however, the number of studies is still limited. A mobile phone app called Self Record that facilitates cognitive restructuring through self-monitoring of daily thoughts and activities was developed in Japan. This study conducted a nonrandomized controlled pilot trial of the Self Record app to investigate standalone effects of the intervention on psychological distress and alcohol consumption among Japanese workers. Additionally, we examined moderating effects of negative mood regulation expectancies, which are beliefs about one's ability to control one's negative mood. A quasi-experimental design with a 1-month follow-up was conducted online in Japan from February 2016 to March 2016. A research marketing company recruited participants. The selection criteria were being a Japanese full-time worker (age 20-59 years), experiencing mild to moderate psychological distress, and having some interest in self-record apps. Assignment to group was based on participants' willingness to use the app in the study. All participants completed outcome measures of negative mood regulation expectancies, positive well-being, general distress, depression, anxiety, and typical/most weekly alcohol consumption. From the recruitment, 15.65% (1083/6921) of participants met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 51.43% (557/1083) enrolled in the study: 54.9% (306/557) in the intervention group and 45.1% (251/557) in the control group. At the 1-month follow-up, 15.3% (85/557) of participants had dropped out. Intention-to-treat analyses revealed that participants in the intervention group reported increased typical drinking (η2=.009) and heavy drinking (η2=.001). Adherence to using the app was low; 64.8% (199/306) of participants in the intervention group discontinued using the app on the first
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was the Study of effectiveness of Marlaat’s cognitive behavior intervention and group treatment based on change stages for recovery and relapse rates in male heroin crack addictions. Method: In a experimental research design, 45 men addictions, who were diagnosed as the dependence of the heroin crack on the basis of DSM-IV-TR criteria, were chosen after successfully detoxified. They were divided two experimental groups (30 participants and a control group (15 participants that have been selected by random sampling. The first experimental group was undergone group treatment based on change stages underwent 16 sessions of 1.5 hours, totally 24 hours and the second experimental groups who were undergone Marlaat’s cognitive behavior intervention has been held 15 sessions of 2 hours, totally 24 hours. The control group were just received MMT without any psychotherapy. All participants were assessed by structured interview, urine test, before treatment, after treatment and after 3 months follow up. Results: Results showed that both psychotherapy treatments were affected on recovery and relapse rates. Conclusion: It seems that psychological problems and conflicts before addiction and after addiction could be caused for individuals’ tendency to narcotics consumption. Therefore, applying of psychotherapy could be useful in relapse prevention.
As some procedures of interventional radiology are complex and long, doses received by patients can be high and cause undesired effects, notably on the skin or in underlying tissues (particularly in the brain as far as interventional neuroradiology is concerned and in lungs in the case of interventional cardiology). The author briefly discusses some deterministic effects in interventional radiology (influence of dose level, delay of appearance of effects, number of accidents). He briefly comments the diagnosis and treatment of severe radiological burns
Osborne, Unda L; McComish, Judith Fry
Psychotherapeutic treatment of people with borderline personality disorder (BPD) is one of the greatest challenges confronting mental health professionals today. Clients with BPD are often difficult for nurses to work with, perhaps due to a lack of understanding of the underlying dynamics of the disorder. This article describes effective treatment strategies for BPD with a central focus on dialectical behavioral therapy (DBT). In typical mental health settings, nurses can effectively implement interventions using the concepts of DBT to help people with BPD build effective coping strategies and skillful behavioral responses for improved quality of life.
Tanner, Kelly; Hand, Brittany N; O'Toole, Gjyn; Lane, Alison E
People with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) commonly experience difficulties with social participation, play, and leisure along with restricted and repetitive behaviors that can interfere with occupational performance. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate current evidence for interventions within the occupational therapy scope of practice that address these difficulties. Strong evidence was found that social skills groups, the Picture Exchange Communication System, joint attention interventions, and parent-mediated strategies can improve social participation. The findings were less conclusive for interventions to improve play and leisure performance and to decrease restricted and repetitive behaviors, but several strategies showed promise with moderately strong supporting evidence. Occupational therapists should be guided by evidence when considering interventions to improve social participation, play, leisure, and restricted and repetitive behaviors in people with ASD. Additional research using more robust scientific methods is needed for many of the currently available strategies. Copyright © 2015 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.
Mayer, L; Liebschutz, J
Every day, obstetric providers treat patients experiencing domestic violence. Domestic violence can have both dramatic and subtle impacts on maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. This article enumerates patient risk factors for and obstetric consequences of domestic violence. It describes adaptations to the assessment and treatment of pregnancy complications occurring in the context of domestic violence and presents behavioral interventions that can be performed within existing obstetric care delivery systems. Behavioral interventions include assessments of a patient's readiness for change and her emotional responses to the violence. Obstetric interventions include an assessment of risk of physical harm to a pregnant woman and her fetus from domestic violence. Interviewing techniques include educating the patient about the effects of abuse and, over time, validating a patient's efforts to change. Reliance on a team approach and use of community resources are emphasized. All of these mechanisms enable obstetric providers to assist pregnant women in taking steps to end the abuse.
Full Text Available Rahim Baghaei,1 Elham Sharifian,1 Aziz Kamran2 1Inpatient Safety Research Center, Nursing and Midwifery School, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, 2Public Health Department, Khalkhal Faculty of Medical Sciences, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Ardabil, IranBackground: Hand washing is the best strategy to prevent known nosocomial infections but the nurses' hand hygiene is estimated to be poor in Iran.Objective: This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of BASNEF (Behavior, Attitude, Subjective Norms, and Enabling Factors model on hand hygiene adherence education.Methods: This controlled quasi-experimental study was conducted on 70 hemodialysis unit nurses (35 case and 35 control in the health and educational centers of the University of Medical Sciences of Urmia, Iran. To collect the data, a six-part validated and reliable questionnaire was used. The data were analyzed using SPSS version18, using Wilcoxon, Mann–Whitney, chi-square, and Fisher's exact tests. The significance level was considered P<0.05.Results: The mean age was 38.4±8.1 years for the intervention group and 40.2±8.0 years for the control group. There was no significant difference between the two groups for any demographic variables. Also, before the intervention, there was no significant difference between the two groups for any components of the BASNEF model. Post-intervention, the attitude, subjective norms, enabling factors, and intention improved significantly in the intervention group (P<0.001, but hand hygiene behavior did not show any significant change in the intervention group (P=0.16.Conclusion: Despite the improving attitudes and intention, the intervention had no significant effect on hand hygiene behavior among the studied nurses.Keywords: hand hygiene, adherence, education nurse, behavior
A Behavioral Lifestyle Intervention Enhanced With Multiple-Behavior Self-Monitoring Using Mobile and Connected Tools for Underserved Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes and Comorbid Overweight or Obesity: Pilot Comparative Effectiveness Trial.
Wang, Jing; Cai, Chunyan; Padhye, Nikhil; Orlander, Philip; Zare, Mohammad
average of 2.73% (mobile group) and 0.13% (paper group) weight at 6 months, whereas the control group had an average 0.49% weight gain. Their HbA 1c changed from 8% to 7 % in mobile group, 10% to 9% in paper group, and maintained at 9% for the control group. We found a significant difference on HbA 1c at 6 months among the 3 groups (P=.01). We did not find statistical group significance on percentage weight loss (P=.20) and HbA 1c changes (P=.44) overtime; however, we found a large effect size of 0.40 for weight loss and a medium effect size of 0.28 for glycemic control. Delivering a simplified behavioral lifestyle intervention using mobile health-based self-monitoring in an underserved community is feasible and acceptable and shows higher preliminary efficacy, as compared with paper-based self-monitoring. A full-scale randomized controlled trial is needed to confirm the findings in this pilot study. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02858648; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02858648 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6ySidjmT7). ©Jing Wang, Chunyan Cai, Nikhil Padhye, Philip Orlander, Mohammad Zare. Originally published in JMIR Mhealth and Uhealth (http://mhealth.jmir.org), 10.04.2018.
Alegria, Margarita; Nakash, Ora; Johnson, Kirsten; Ault-Brutus, Andrea; Carson, Nicholas; Fillbrunn, Mirko; Wang, Ye; Cheng, Alice; Harris, Treniece; Polo, Antonio; Lincoln, Alisa; Freeman, Elmer; Bostdorf, Benjamin; Rosenbaum, Marcos; Epelbaum, Claudia; LaRoche, Martin; Okpokwasili-Johnson, Ebele; Carrasco, MaJose; Shrout, Patrick E
Few randomized clinical trials have been conducted with ethnic/racial minorities to improve shared decision making (SDM) and quality of care. To test the effectiveness of patient and clinician interventions to improve SDM and quality of care among an ethnically/racially diverse sample. This cross-level 2 × 2 randomized clinical trial included clinicians at level 2 and patients (nested within clinicians) at level 1 from 13 Massachusetts behavioral health clinics. Clinicians and patients were randomly selected at each site in a 1:1 ratio for each 2-person block. Clinicians were recruited starting September 1, 2013; patients, starting November 3, 2013. Final data were collected on September 30, 2016. Data were analyzed based on intention to treat. The clinician intervention consisted of a workshop and as many as 6 coaching telephone calls to promote communication and therapeutic alliance to improve SDM. The 3-session patient intervention sought to improve SDM and quality of care. The SDM was assessed by a blinded coder based on clinical recordings, patient perception of SDM and quality of care, and clinician perception of SDM. Of 312 randomized patients, 212 (67.9%) were female and 100 (32.1%) were male; mean (SD) age was 44.0 (15.0) years. Of 74 randomized clinicians, 56 (75.7%) were female and 18 (4.3%) were male; mean (SD) age was 39.8 (12.5) years. Patient-clinician pairs were assigned to 1 of the following 4 design arms: patient and clinician in the control condition (n = 72), patient in intervention and clinician in the control condition (n = 68), patient in the control condition and clinician in intervention (n = 83), or patient and clinician in intervention (n = 89). All pairs underwent analysis. The clinician intervention significantly increased SDM as rated by blinded coders using the 12-item Observing Patient Involvement in Shared Decision Making instrument (b = 4.52; SE = 2.17; P = .04; Cohen d = 0.29) but not as
Alfaris, Nasreen; Wadden, Thomas A; Sarwer, David B; Diwald, Lisa; Volger, Sheri; Hong, Patricia; Baxely, Amber; Minnick, Alyssa M; Vetter, Marion L; Berkowitz, Robert I; Chittams, Jesse
To examine the effect of weight loss on sleep duration, sleep quality, and mood in 390 obese men and women who received one of three behavioral weight loss interventions in the Practice-based Opportunities for Weight Reduction trial at the University of Pennsylvania (POWER-UP). Sleep duration and quality were assessed at baseline and months 6 and 24 by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire and mood by the Patient Health Questionnaire-8 (PHQ-8). Changes in sleep and mood were examined according to treatment group and based on participants' having lost ≥5% of initial weight vs. sleep or mood. At month 6, however, mean (±SD) min of sleep increased significantly more in participants who lost ≥5% vs. Losing ≥5% of initial weight was associated with short-term improvements in sleep duration and sleep quality, as well as favorable short- and long-term changes in mood. © 2015 The Obesity Society.
Alfaris, Nasreen; Wadden, Thomas A.; Sarwer, David B; Diwald, Lisa; Volger, Sheri; Hong, Patricia; Baxely, Amber; Minnick, Alyssa M.; Vetter, Marion L.; Berkowitz, Robert I.; Chittams, Jesse
Objective To examine the effect of weight loss on sleep duration, sleep quality, and mood in 390 obese men and women who received one of three behavioral weight loss intervention in the Practice-based Opportunities for Weight Reduction trial at the University of Pennsylvania (POWER-UP). Methods Sleep duration and quality were assessed at baseline and months 6 and 24 by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire and mood by the Patient Health Questionnaire-8 (PHQ-8). Changes in sleep and mood were examined according to treatment group and based on participants’ having lost ≥5% of initial weight vs sleep or mood. At month 6, however, mean (±SD) min of sleep increased significantly more in participants who lost ≥5% vs Losing ≥ 5% of initial weight was associated with short-term improvements in sleep duration and sleep quality, as well as favorable short- and long-term changes in mood. PMID:25611944
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cervical cancer is the most frequent cause of death related gynecology malignancy in Indonesia. Recent management of advanced-stage cervical cancer has still not been able to improve the prognosis. Chemotherapy and radiation intervention, as well as therapy may resulting pain and cause psychological stress for some patient, furthermore it could effect on the quality of life. Cortisol is a hormone of adrenal cortex, it secretes due to increased production of ACTH by anterior pituitary which is associated with stressful condition. To analyze the effect of Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT intervention on serum cortisol levels and pain score of patients with advanced-stage cervical cancer. This experimental study was a double blind non-randomized clinical trial post-test group design. It was using two groups in this study, each group consisting of 15 subjects, the treatment group were given CBT and standard therapy, while the control group were only given a standard therapy. The study was conducted in the gynecology oncology ward and the gynecology oncology clinic of Dr. Moewardi Hospital Surakarta and Prodia Laboratory, from January - March 2015. Cortisol level of the treatment group was 1.03 ± 0.71 mg / dL, and the control group was 11.41 ± 7.34 mg / dL. Pain score in the treatment group was 4.46 ± 0.83, and the control group was 7.34 ± 0.74. There are significant differences in serum cortisol level decrease (p = 0.00 and pain score (p = 0.00 between the CBT intervention with standard therapy group compared and the standard therapy only group
Rahman, Atif; Hamdani, Syed Usman; Awan, Naila Riaz; Bryant, Richard A; Dawson, Katie S; Khan, Muhammad Firaz; Azeemi, Mian Mukhtar-Ul-Haq; Akhtar, Parveen; Nazir, Huma; Chiumento, Anna; Sijbrandij, Marit; Wang, Duolao; Farooq, Saeed; van Ommeren, Mark
The mental health consequences of conflict and violence are wide-ranging and pervasive. Scalable interventions to address a range of mental health problems are needed. To test the effectiveness of a multicomponent behavioral intervention delivered by lay health workers to adults with psychological distress in primary care settings. A randomized clinical trial was conducted from November 1, 2014, through January 28, 2016, in 3 primary care centers in Peshawar, Pakistan, that included 346 adult primary care attendees with high levels of both psychological distress and functional impairment according to the 12-item General Health Questionnaire and the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0). Lay health workers administered 5 weekly 90-minute individual sessions that included empirically supported strategies of problem solving, behavioral activation, strengthening social support, and stress management. The control was enhanced usual care. Primary outcomes, anxiety and depression symptoms, were independently measured at 3 months with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Secondary outcomes were posttraumatic stress symptoms (Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist for DSM-5), functional impairment (WHODAS 2.0), progress on problems for which the person sought help (Psychological Outcome Profiles), and symptoms of depressive disorder (9-item Patient Health Questionnaire). Among 346 patients (mean [SD] age, 33.0 [11.8] years; 78.9% women), 172 were randomly assigned to the intervention and 174 to enhanced usual care; among them, 146 and 160 completed the study, respectively. At baseline, the intervention and control groups had similar mean (SD) HADS scores on symptoms of anxiety (14.16 [3.17] vs 13.64 [3.20]; adjusted mean difference [AMD], 0.52; 95% CI, -0.22 to 1.27) and depression (12.67 [3.27] vs 12.49 [3.34]; AMD, 0.17, 95% CI, -0.54 to 0.89). After 3 months of treatment, the intervention group had significantly lower
Jasemzadeh, Mehrnoosh; Khafaie, Morteza Abdullatif; Jaafarzadeh, Nematallah; Araban, Marzieh
Health impact of exposure to air pollution is a public health concern. The aim of this study was to investigate an extended parallel process model (EPPM)-based mobile phone text message intervention for improving protective behaviors against air pollution among pregnant women. In this randomized controlled trial (IRCT2016102810804N8), 130 pregnant women were randomly assigned into either experimental or control groups. A valid and reliable questionnaire was used to collect data. Experimental group received mobile phone intervention on a daily basis for 2 months. Control group received usual care, only. Data were analyzed using SPSS 15 applying t test, chi-square, and Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney U test. Although before intervention, there were no significant differences between different structures of EPPM (P > 0.05), after intervention, there were statistically significant differences between perceived severity, response efficacy, self-efficacy, and protective behaviors between two groups (P mobile phone intervention could promote protective behaviors against air pollution among pregnant women. The present study might be used as a framework for evidence-based health promotion regarding air pollution risk communication and self-care behaviors. IRCT2016102810804N8.
Fante, Rhiannon; Gravina, Nicole; Austin, John
This study employed a pre-intervention analysis to determine factors that contributed to safe ergonomic postures in a small pharmacy. The pharmacy was located on a university campus and employed both pharmacists and pharmacy technicians. Three of the eight pharmacy employees had experienced various repetitive motion injuries that resulted in a…
Zhang, Q F; Li, Y; Feng, J K; Xu, Y F; Tu, L L
Objective: To explore the influence of high-voltage electrical burns on the number of platelet aggregation, β-thromboglobulin (β-TG) and platelet factor 4 (PF-4) and the interventional effects of ulinastatin in rats with high-voltage electrical burns. Methods: A total of 240 Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into sham injury (SI) group, simple electrical burn (SEB) group, normal saline (NS) group, and ulinastatin (UTI) group according to the random number table, with 60 rats in each group. The electrical current was applied to the outside proximal part of left forelimb of rats and exited from the outside proximal part of right hind limb of rats. Rats in groups SEB, NS, and UTI were inflicted with high-voltage electrical burn wounds of 1 cm×1 cm at current entrances and exits, with the voltage regulator and experimental transformer. Rats in group SI were sham injured through connecting the same equipments without electricity. At 2 min post injury, rats in group NS were intraperitoneally injected with 2 mL/kg NS, and rats in group UTI were intraperitoneally injected with 2×10(4) U/kg UTI of 10 g/L. At 15 min before injury and 5 min, 1 h, 2 h, 4 h, 8 h post injury, 10 rats in each group were selected to collect 5-7 mL blood of heart respectively. Blood of 0.05 mL were collected to make fresh blood smear for observing the number of platelet aggregation, and serum were separated from the remaining blood to determine content of β-TG and PF-4 with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Data were processed with analysis of factorial design of variance, student-Newman-Keuls test, Kruskal-Wallis H test, Wilcoxon rank sum test, and Bonferroni correction. Results: (1) At 15 min before injury, the numbers of platelet aggregation of rats were close among groups SI, SEB, NS and UTI (5.9±1.2, 5.8±1.2, 5.9±1.3, 5.9±1.1, respectively, with P values above 0.05). At 5 min, 1 h, 2 h, 4 h, 8 h post injury, the numbers of platelet aggregation of rats in group SEB were 57.2±16.3, 59
Coleman, Mary Thoesen; Pasternak, Ryan H
Strategies that are most effective in both prevention and management of chronic disease consider factors such as age, ethnicity, community, and technology. Most behavioral change strategies derive their components from application of the health belief model, the theory of reasoned action/theory of planned behavior, transtheoretical model, and social cognitive theory. Many tools such as the readiness ruler and personalized action plan form are available to assist health care teams to facilitate healthy behavior change. Primary care providers can support behavior changes by providing venues for peer interventions and family meetings and by making new partnerships with community organizations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Vergidis, Paschalis I; Falagas, Matthew E
Different behavioral interventions have found to be efficacious in reducing high-risk sexual activity. Interventions have been evaluated in both original research and meta-analytic reviews. Most of the studies have shown that interventions are efficacious among different study populations. In adolescents, both in- and out-of-the classroom interventions showed a decrease in the risk of unprotected sex. In African Americans, greater efficacy was found for interventions including peer education. For Latinos, effect was larger in interventions with segmentation in the same gender. Geographic and social isolation are barriers in approaching MSM. For IDUs, interventions provided within a treatment program have an impact on risk reduction above that produced by drug treatment alone. Finally, people diagnosed with HIV tend to reduce their sexual risk behavior. However, adherence to safe sex practices for life can be challenging. Relentless efforts for implementation of behavioral interventions to decrease high-risk behavior are necessary to decrease HIV transmission.
McEwan, Desmond; Ruissen, Geralyn R; Eys, Mark A; Zumbo, Bruno D; Beauchamp, Mark R
The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of teamwork interventions that were carried out with the purpose of improving teamwork and team performance, using controlled experimental designs. A literature search returned 16,849 unique articles. The meta-analysis was ultimately conducted on 51 articles, comprising 72 (k) unique interventions, 194 effect sizes, and 8439 participants, using a random effects model. Positive and significant medium-sized effects were found for teamwork interventions on both teamwork and team performance. Moderator analyses were also conducted, which generally revealed positive and significant effects with respect to several sample, intervention, and measurement characteristics. Implications for effective teamwork interventions as well as considerations for future research are discussed.
McEwan, Desmond; Ruissen, Geralyn R.; Eys, Mark A.; Zumbo, Bruno D.; Beauchamp, Mark R.
The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of teamwork interventions that were carried out with the purpose of improving teamwork and team performance, using controlled experimental designs. A literature search returned 16,849 unique articles. The meta-analysis was ultimately conducted on 51 articles, comprising 72 (k) unique interventions, 194 effect sizes, and 8439 participants, using a random effects model. Positive and significant medium-sized effects were found for teamwork interventions on both teamwork and team performance. Moderator analyses were also conducted, which generally revealed positive and significant effects with respect to several sample, intervention, and measurement characteristics. Implications for effective teamwork interventions as well as considerations for future research are discussed. PMID:28085922
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of teamwork interventions that were carried out with the purpose of improving teamwork and team performance, using controlled experimental designs. A literature search returned 16,849 unique articles. The meta-analysis was ultimately conducted on 51 articles, comprising 72 (k unique interventions, 194 effect sizes, and 8439 participants, using a random effects model. Positive and significant medium-sized effects were found for teamwork interventions on both teamwork and team performance. Moderator analyses were also conducted, which generally revealed positive and significant effects with respect to several sample, intervention, and measurement characteristics. Implications for effective teamwork interventions as well as considerations for future research are discussed.
Burgermaster, Marissa; Contento, Isobel; Koch, Pamela; Mamykina, Lena
Variability in individuals' responses to interventions may contribute to small average treatment effects of childhood obesity prevention interventions. But, neither the causes of this individual variability nor the mechanism by which it influences behavior are clear. We used qualitative methods to characterize variability in students' responses to participating in a childhood obesity prevention intervention and psychosocial characteristics related to the behavior change process. We interviewed 18 students participating in a school-based curriculum and policy behavior change intervention. Descriptive coding, summary, and case-ordered descriptive meta-matrices were used to group participants by their psychosocial responses to the intervention and associated behavior changes. Four psychosocial phenotypes of responses emerged: (a) Activated-successful behavior-changers with strong internal supports; (b) Inspired-motivated, but not fully successful behavior-changers with some internal supports, whose taste preferences and food environment overwhelmed their motivation; (c) Reinforced-already practiced target behaviors, were motivated, and had strong family support; and (d) Indifferent-uninterested in behavior change and only did target behaviors if family insisted. Our findings contribute to the field of behavioral medicine by suggesting the presence of specific subgroups of participants who respond differently to behavior change interventions and salient psychosocial characteristics that differentiate among these phenotypes. Future research should examine the utility of prospectively identifying psychosocial phenotypes for improving the tailoring of nutrition behavior change interventions. © Society of Behavioral Medicine 2018.
Ramallo-Fariña, Yolanda; García-Pérez, Lidia; Castilla-Rodríguez, Iván; Perestelo-Pérez, Lilisbeth; Wägner, Ana María; de Pablos-Velasco, Pedro; Domínguez, Armando Carrillo; Cortés, Mauro Boronat; Vallejo-Torres, Laura; Ramírez, Marcos Estupiñán; Martín, Pablo Pedrianes; García-Puente, Ignacio; Salinero-Fort, Miguel Ángel; Serrano-Aguilar, Pedro Guillermo
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease whose health outcomes are related to patients and healthcare professionals' decision-making. The Diabetes Intervention study in the Canary Islands (INDICA study) aims to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of educational interventions supported by new technology decision tools for type 2 diabetes patients and primary care professionals in the Canary Islands. The INDICA study is an open, community-based, multicenter, clinical controlled trial with random allocation by clusters to one of three interventions or to usual care. The setting is primary care where physicians and nurses are invited to participate. Patients with diabetes diagnosis, 18-65 years of age, and regular users of mobile phone were randomly selected. Patients with severe comorbidities were excluded. The clusters are primary healthcare practices with enough professionals and available places to provide the intervention. The calculated sample size was 2,300 patients. Patients in group 1 are receiving an educational group program of eight sessions every 3 months led by trained nurses and monitored by means of logs and a web-based platform and tailored semi-automated SMS for continuous support. Primary care professionals in group 2 are receiving a short educational program to update their diabetes knowledge, which includes a decision support tool embedded into the electronic clinical record and a monthly feedback report of patients' results. Group 3 is receiving a combination of the interventions for patients and professionals. The primary endpoint is the change in HbA1c in 2 years. Secondary endpoints are cardiovascular risk factors, macrovascular and microvascular diabetes complications, quality of life, psychological outcomes, diabetes knowledge, and healthcare utilization. Data is being collected from interviews, questionnaires, clinical examinations, and records. Generalized linear mixed models with repeated time measurements will be used
The effectiveness of asking behaviors among 9-11 year-old children in increasing home availability and children's intake of fruit and vegetables: results from the Squire's Quest II self-regulation game intervention.
DeSmet, Ann; Liu, Yan; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Baranowski, Tom; Thompson, Debbe
Home environment has an important influence on children's fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption, but children may in turn also impact their home FV environment, e.g. by asking for FV. The Squire's Quest II serious game intervention aimed to increase asking behaviors to improve home FV availability and children's FV intake. This study's aims were to assess: 1) did asking behaviors at baseline predict home FV availability at baseline (T0) (RQ1); 2) were asking behaviors and home FV availability influenced by the intervention (RQ2); 3) did increases in asking behaviors predict increased home FV availability (RQ3); and 4) did increases in asking behaviors and increases in home FV availability mediate increases in FV intake among children (RQ4)? This is a secondary analysis of a study using a randomized controlled trial, with 4 groups (each n = 100 child-parent dyads). All groups were analyzed together for this paper since groups did not vary on components relevant to our analysis. All children and parents (n = 400 dyads) received a self-regulation serious game intervention and parent material. The intervention ran for three months. Measurements were taken at baseline, immediately after intervention and at 3-month follow-up. Asking behavior and home FV availability were measured using questionnaires; child FV intake was measured using 24-h dietary recalls. ANCOVA methods (research question 1), linear mixed-effect models (research question 2), and Structural Equation Modeling (research questions 3 and 4) were used. Baseline child asking behaviors predicted baseline home FV availability. The intervention increased child asking behaviors and home FV availability. Increases in child asking behaviors, however, did not predict increased home FV availability. Increased child asking behaviors and home FV availability also did not mediate the increases in child FV intake. Children influence their home FV environment through their asking behaviors, which can be enhanced
Chang, Sun Ju; Choi, Suyoung; Kim, Se-An; Song, Misoon
Purpose: This study systematically reviewed research on behavioral interventions based on the information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB) model to investigate specific intervention strategies that focus on information, motivation, and behavioral skills and to evaluate their effectiveness for people with chronic diseases. Methods: A systematic review was conducted in accordance with the guidelines of both the National Evidence-based Healthcare Collaborating Agency and Im and Chang. A lit...
Amaro, Hortensia; Larson, Mary Jo; Zhang, Annie; Acevedo, Andrea; Dai, Jianyu; Matsumoto, Atsushi
Women in substance abuse treatment often have co-occurring mental health disorders and a history of trauma; they are also at high risk for HIV infection and other sexually transmitted diseases via unprotected sex. A quasi-experimental study evaluated the effectiveness of trauma-enhanced substance abuse treatment combined with HIV/AIDS prevention…
Lopez, Laureen M; Otterness, Conrad; Chen, Mario; Steiner, Markus; Gallo, Maria F
Unprotected sex is a major risk factor for disease, disability, and mortality in many areas of the world due to the prevalence and incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STI) including HIV. The male condom is one of the oldest contraceptive methods and the earliest method for preventing the spread of HIV. When used correctly and consistently, condoms can provide dual protection, i.e., against both pregnancy and HIV/STI. We examined comparative studies of behavioral interventions for improving condom use. We were interested in identifying interventions associated with effective condom use as measured with biological assessments, which can provide objective evidence of protection. Through September 2013, we searched computerized databases for comparative studies of behavioral interventions for improving condom use: MEDLINE, POPLINE, CENTRAL, EMBASE, LILACS, OpenGrey, COPAC, ClinicalTrials.gov, and ICTRP. We wrote to investigators for missing data. Studies could be either randomized or nonrandomized. They examined a behavioral intervention for improving condom use. The comparison could be another behavioral intervention, usual care, or no intervention. The experimental intervention had an educational or counseling component to encourage or improve condom use. It addressed preventing pregnancy as well as the transmission of HIV/STI. The focus could be on male or female condoms and targeted to individuals, couples, or communities. Potential participants included heterosexual women and heterosexual men.Studies had to provide data from test results or records on a biological outcome: pregnancy, HIV/STI, or presence of semen as assessed with a biological marker, e.g., prostate-specific antigen. We did not include self-reported data on protected or unprotected sex, due to the limitations of recall and social desirability bias. Outcomes were measured at least three months after the behavioral intervention started. Two authors evaluated abstracts for eligibility and
Funderburk, Jennifer S; Shepardson, Robyn L; Wray, Jennifer; Acker, John; Beehler, Gregory P; Possemato, Kyle; Wray, Laura O; Maisto, Stephen A
Health care organizations are embracing integrated primary care (IPC), in which mental health and behavioral health are addressed as part of routine care within primary care settings. Behavioral medicine concerns, which include health behavior change and coping with medical conditions, are common in primary care populations. Although there are evidence-based behavioral interventions that target a variety of behavioral medicine concerns, integrated behavioral health providers need interventions that are sufficiently brief (i.e., ≤6 appointments) to be compatible with IPC. We conducted a literature review of published studies examining behavioral interventions that target prevalent behavioral medicine concerns and can feasibly be employed by IPC providers in adult primary care settings. A total of 67 published articles representing 63 original studies met eligibility criteria. We extracted data on the behavioral interventions employed, results comparing the active intervention to a comparison group, general fit with IPC, and methodological quality. The vast majority of studies examined brief interventions targeting sleep difficulties and physical activity. The most commonly employed interventions were derived from cognitive-behavioral therapy and motivational interviewing. Outcomes were generally statistically significantly in favor of the active intervention relative to comparison, with highly variable methodological quality ratings (range = 0-5; M = 2.0). Results are discussed in relation to the need for further evidence for brief behavioral interventions targeting other behavioral medicine concerns beyond sleep and physical activity, as well as for more specificity regarding the compatibility of such interventions with IPC practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Stormont, Melissa; Reinke, Wendy M.; Newcomer, Lori; Marchese, Dana; Lewis, Carla
Children with social behavior problems need teachers who are prepared to use evidence-based interventions to increase their likelihood of success. However, it is clear that teachers do not feel prepared to support children in this area. One approach for supporting teachers in using more effective interventions for children with behavior needs is…
Curtis, David F.
This investigation examined the effectiveness of a pilot, manualized 10-week intervention of family skills training for ADHD-related symptoms. The intervention combined behavioral parent training and child focused behavioral activation therapy. Participants were families with children ages 7-10 diagnosed with ADHD-Combined Type. This pilot…
Bergh, Ingunn H; Bjelland, Mona; Grydeland, May; Lien, Nanna; Andersen, Lene F; Klepp, Knut-Inge; Anderssen, Sigmund A; Ommundsen, Yngvar
There is limited knowledge as to whether obesity prevention interventions are able to produce change in the determinants hypothesized to precede change in energy balance-related behaviors in young people. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a multi-component intervention on a wide range of theoretically informed determinants of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB). Moderation effects of gender, weight status and parental education level and whether the perceived intervention dose received influenced the effects were also explored. The HEIA study was a 20-month school-based, randomized controlled trial to promote healthy weight development. In total, 1418 11-year-olds participated at baseline and post-intervention assessment. Enjoyment, self-efficacy, perceived social support from parents, teachers and friends related to PA, perceived parental regulation of TV-viewing and computer/game-use and perceived social inclusion at schools were examined by covariance analyses to assess overall effects and moderation by gender, weight status and parental education, mid-way and post-intervention. Covariance analyses were also used to examine the role of intervention dose received on change in the determinants. At mid-way enjoyment (p = .03), perceived social support from teachers (p = .003) and self-efficacy (p = .05) were higher in the intervention group. Weight status moderated the effect on self-efficacy, with a positive effect observed among the normal weight only. At post-intervention results were sustained for social support from teachers (p = .001), while a negative effect was found for self-efficacy (p = .02). Weight status moderated the effect on enjoyment, with reduced enjoyment observed among the overweight. Moderation effects for parental education level were detected for perceived social support from parents and teachers. Finally, positive effects on several determinants were observed among those receiving a high
Bergh Ingunn H
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is limited knowledge as to whether obesity prevention interventions are able to produce change in the determinants hypothesized to precede change in energy balance-related behaviors in young people. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a multi-component intervention on a wide range of theoretically informed determinants of physical activity (PA and sedentary behavior (SB. Moderation effects of gender, weight status and parental education level and whether the perceived intervention dose received influenced the effects were also explored. Methods The HEIA study was a 20-month school-based, randomized controlled trial to promote healthy weight development. In total, 1418 11-year-olds participated at baseline and post-intervention assessment. Enjoyment, self-efficacy, perceived social support from parents, teachers and friends related to PA, perceived parental regulation of TV-viewing and computer/game-use and perceived social inclusion at schools were examined by covariance analyses to assess overall effects and moderation by gender, weight status and parental education, mid-way and post-intervention. Covariance analyses were also used to examine the role of intervention dose received on change in the determinants. Results At mid-way enjoyment (p = .03, perceived social support from teachers (p = .003 and self-efficacy (p = .05 were higher in the intervention group. Weight status moderated the effect on self-efficacy, with a positive effect observed among the normal weight only. At post-intervention results were sustained for social support from teachers (p = .001, while a negative effect was found for self-efficacy (p = .02. Weight status moderated the effect on enjoyment, with reduced enjoyment observed among the overweight. Moderation effects for parental education level were detected for perceived social support from parents and teachers. Finally, positive effects on several
De Martini-Scully, Diane; Bray, Melissa A.; Kehle, Thomas J.
Examines the effects of a packaged intervention designed to reduce disruptive behaviors in two 8-year-old female students. The intervention was delivered through a contingency contract and was comprised of precision requests, antecedent strategies, and the reductive technique of response costs. The intervention resulted in reduction of disruptive…
This paper details a semi-automated method that can calculate intervention thresholds—that is, the minimum required intervention sizes, over a given time frame, that result in a desired change in a system’s output behavior pattern. The method exploits key differences in atomic behavior profiles that
Burke, Jeffrey D; Loeber, Rolf
Evidence for effective treatment for behavioral problems continues to grow, yet evidence about the effective mechanisms underlying those interventions has lagged behind. The Stop Now and Plan (SNAP) program is a multicomponent intervention for boys between 6 and 11. This study tested putative treatment mechanisms using data from 252 boys in a randomized controlled trial of SNAP versus treatment as usual. SNAP includes a 3 month group treatment period followed by individualized intervention, which persisted through the 15 month study period. Measures were administered in four waves: at baseline and at 3, 9 and 15 months after baseline. A hierarchical linear modeling strategy was used. SNAP was associated with improved problem-solving skills, prosocial behavior, emotion regulation skills, and reduced parental stress. Prosocial behavior, emotion regulation skills and reduced parental stress partially mediated improvements in child aggression. Improved emotion regulation skills partially mediated treatment-related child anxious-depressed outcomes. Improvements in parenting behaviors did not differ between treatment conditions. The results suggest that independent processes may drive affective and behavioral outcomes, with some specificity regarding the mechanisms related to differing treatment outcomes.
Full Text Available Art therapy, as well as other arts-based therapies and interventions, is used to reduce pain, stress, depression, breathlessness and other symptoms in a wide variety of serious and chronic diseases, such as cancer, Alzheimer and schizophrenia. Arts-based approaches are also known to contribute to one's well-being and quality of life. However, much research is required, since the mechanisms by which these non-pharmacological treatments exert their therapeutic and psychosocial effects are not adequately understood. A typical clinical setting utilizing the arts consists of the creation work itself, such as the artwork, as well as the therapist and the patient, all of which constitute a rich and dynamic environment of occurrences. The underlying complex, simultaneous and interwoven processes of this setting are often considered intractable to human observers, and as a consequence are usually interpreted subjectively and described verbally, which affect their subsequent analyses and understanding. We introduce a computational research method for elucidating and analyzing emergent expressive and social behaviors, aiming to understand how arts-based approaches operate. Our methodology, which centers on the visual language of Statecharts and tools for its execution, enables rigorous qualitative and quantitative tracking, analysis and documentation of the underlying creation and interaction processes. Also, it enables one to carry out exploratory, hypotheses-generating and knowledge discovery investigations, which are empirical-based. Furthermore, we illustrate our method's use in a proof-of-principle study, applying it to a real-world artwork investigation with human participants. We explore individual and collective emergent behaviors impacted by diverse drawing tasks, yielding significant gender and age hypotheses, which may account for variation factors in response to art use. We also discuss how to gear our research method to systematic and
Poelman, M.P.; Vet, de E.; Velema, E.; Boer, de M.R.; Seidell, J.C.; Steenhuis, I.H.M.
Background Food portion sizes influence energy intake. Purpose The purpose of this paper is to determine effectiveness of the “PortionControl@HOME” intervention on body mass index and portion control behavior. Methods A randomized controlled trial among 278 overweight and obese participants was
Boulden, Walter T.
The Behavior Intervention Support Team (BIST) is a proactive school-wide behavior management plan for all students, emphasizing schools partnering with students and parents through caring relationships and high expectations. The BIST program is well-grounded in behavioral theory and combines strength-based and resiliency principles within the…
Boyd, R. Justin; Anderson, Cynthia M.
Multi-tiered systems of social behavioral support in schools provide varying levels of intervention matched to student need. Tier I (primary or universal) systems are for all students and are designed to promote pro-social behavior. Tier III (tertiary or intensive) supports are for students who engage in serious challenging behavior that has not…
Síglia Pimentel Höher Camargo
Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a lifelong pervasive developmental disorder with no known causes and cure. However, educational and behavioral interventions with a foundation in applied behavior analysis (ABA have been shown to improve a variety of skill areas such as communication, social, academic, and adaptive behaviors of individuals with ASD. The goal of this work is to present the definition, features and philosophical concepts that underlie ABA and make this science an effective intervention method for people with autism.
Olson, Christine M
e- and m-Health communication technologies are now common approaches to improving population health. The efficacy of behavioral nutrition interventions using e-health technologies to decrease fat intake and increase fruit and vegetable intake was demonstrated in studies conducted from 2005 to 2009, with approximately 75% of trials showing positive effects. By 2010, an increasing number of behavioral nutrition interventions were focusing on body weight. The early emphasis on interventions that were highly computer tailored shifted to personalized electronic interventions that included weight and behavioral self-monitoring as key features. More diverse target audiences began to participate, and mobile components were added to interventions. Little progress has been made on using objective measures rather than self-reported measures of dietary behavior. A challenge for nutritionists is to link with the private sector in the design, use, and evaluation of the many electronic devices that are now available in the marketplace for nutrition monitoring and behavioral change.
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction There is a strong clinical need to provide effective stress reduction programs for patients with an acute coronary syndrome. Such programs for men have been implemented and their cardiovascular health benefit documented. For women such programs are scarce. In this report, The feasibility of a cognitive method that was recently demonstrated to prolong lives of women is tested. A setting with gender segregated groups was applied. Method The principles of a behavioural health educational program originally designed to attenuate the stress of patients with coronary prone behaviours were used as a basis for the intervention method. For the groups of female patients this method was tailored according to female stressors and for the groups of men according to male stressors. The same core stress reduction program was used for women and men, but the contents of discussions and responses to the pre planned program varied. These were continuously monitored throughout the fifteen sessions. Implementation group: Thirty consecutive patients, eleven women and nineteen men, hospitalized for an acute coronary syndrome were included in this intervention. All expressed their need to learn how to cope with stress in daily life and were highly motivated. Five groups, three groups of men and two groups of women were formed. Psychological assessments were made immediately before and after completion of the program. Results No gender differences in the pre planned programs were found, but discussion styles varied between the women and men, Women were more open and more personal. Family issues were more frequent than job issues, although all women were employed outside their homes. Men talked about concrete and practical things, mostly about their jobs, and not directly about their feelings. Daily stresses of life decreased significantly for both men and women, but more so for women. Depressive thoughts were low at baseline, and there was no
There is a strong clinical need to provide effective stress reduction programs for patients with an acute coronary syndrome. Such programs for men have been implemented and their cardiovascular health benefit documented. For women such programs are scarce.In this report, The feasibility of a cognitive method that was recently demonstrated to prolong lives of women is tested. A setting with gender segregated groups was applied. The principles of a behavioural health educational program originally designed to attenuate the stress of patients with coronary prone behaviours were used as a basis for the intervention method. For the groups of female patients this method was tailored according to female stressors and for the groups of men according to male stressors. The same core stress reduction program was used for women and men, but the contents of discussions and responses to the pre planned program varied. These were continuously monitored throughout the fifteen sessions. Implementation group: Thirty consecutive patients, eleven women and nineteen men, hospitalized for an acute coronary syndrome were included in this intervention. All expressed their need to learn how to cope with stress in daily life and were highly motivated. Five groups, three groups of men and two groups of women were formed. Psychological assessments were made immediately before and after completion of the program. No gender differences in the pre planned programs were found, but discussion styles varied between the women and men, Women were more open and more personal. Family issues were more frequent than job issues, although all women were employed outside their homes. Men talked about concrete and practical things, mostly about their jobs, and not directly about their feelings. Daily stresses of life decreased significantly for both men and women, but more so for women. Depressive thoughts were low at baseline, and there was no change over time. In contrast, anxiety scores were high at
Durand, V. Mark; Hieneman, Meme; Clarke, Shelley; Wang, Mo; Rinaldi, Melissa L.
The present study was a multisite randomized clinical trial assessing the effects of adding a cognitive-behavioral intervention to positive behavior support (PBS). Fifty-four families who met the criteria of (a) having a child with a developmental disability, (b) whose child displayed serious challenging behavior (e.g., aggression, self-injury,…
Weiss, David M; Casten, Robin J; Leiby, Benjamin E; Hark, Lisa A; Murchison, Ann P; Johnson, Deiana; Stratford, Shayla; Henderer, Jeffrey; Rovner, Barry W; Haller, Julia A
African American individuals are at high risk of diabetes mellitus and diabetic retinopathy but have suboptimal rates of dilated fundus examinations (DFEs). Early intervention is crucial for the prevention of diabetic retinopathy in this high-risk population. To test the efficacy of behavioral activation for diabetic retinopathy prevention on rates of DFEs in older African American individuals with diabetes mellitus. Masked randomized clinical trial at 2 urban medical centers from October 1, 2010, to May 31, 2014. Participants included 206 African American individuals 65 years and older with diabetes mellitus who had not obtained a DFE in the preceding 12 months. Participants were randomized to either behavioral activation for diabetic retinopathy prevention, a behavioral intervention designed to provide education, facilitate identifying and addressing health care barriers, and promote goal setting to improve rates of DFEs, or supportive therapy, a control condition. The primary outcome was medical documentation of a DFE at 6 months' follow-up. Secondary outcomes included the Risk Perceptions and Risk Knowledge Survey of Diabetes Mellitus, Diabetes Self-Care Inventory, Patient Health Questionnaire 9, and National Eye Institute Vision Function Questionnaire 25 scores and hemoglobin A1c levels. More participants in the behavioral activation for diabetic retinopathy prevention group (87.9%) obtained a DFE compared with those in the supportive therapy group (34.1%) by the 6-month follow-up assessment (P diabetic retinopathy prevention group were 2.5 times more likely to obtain a DFE compared with those in the supportive therapy group (risk ratio = 2.58; 95% CI, 1.91-3.48; P Knowledge Survey of Diabetes Mellitus or National Eye Institute Vision Function Questionnaire 25 composite scores; however, both groups had improved adherence to diabetes mellitus self-care behaviors from baseline to 6-month follow-up. Behavioral activation for diabetic retinopathy
Lopez, Laureen M; Stockton, Laurie L; Chen, Mario; Steiner, Markus J; Gallo, Maria F
Dual-method contraception refers to using condoms as well as another modern method of contraception. The latter (usually non-barrier) method is commonly hormonal (e.g., oral contraceptives) or a non-hormonal intrauterine device. Use of two methods can better prevent pregnancy and the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) compared to single-method use. Unprotected sex increases risk for disease, disability, and mortality in many areas due to the prevalence and incidence of HIV/STI. Millions of women, especially in lower-resource areas, also have an unmet need for protection against unintended pregnancy. We examined comparative studies of behavioral interventions for improving use of dual methods of contraception. Dual-method use refers to using condoms as well as another modern contraceptive method. Our intent was to identify effective interventions for preventing pregnancy as well as HIV/STI transmission. Through January 2014, we searched MEDLINE, CENTRAL, POPLINE, EMBASE, COPAC, and Open Grey. In addition, we searched ClinicalTrials.gov and ICTRP for current trials and trials with relevant data or reports. We examined reference lists of pertinent papers, including review articles, for additional reports. Studies could be either randomized or non-randomized. They examined a behavioral intervention with an educational or counseling component to encourage or improve the use of dual methods, i.e., condoms and another modern contraceptive. The intervention had to address preventing pregnancy as well as the transmission of HIV/STI. The program or service could be targeted to individuals, couples, or communities. The comparison condition could be another behavioral intervention to improve contraceptive use, usual care, other health education, or no intervention.Studies had to report use of dual methods, i.e., condoms plus another modern contraceptive method. We focused on the investigator's assessment of consistent dual-method use or use at
S.M. Burn; P.L. Winter
Depreciative behaviors and other undesirable recreationist actions continue to be a topic of great interest for recreation management (fig. 1). Maintaining park ecosystems involves responding to and preventing damage from depreciative recreationist behavior, and recreation managers are charged with developing and selecting eff ective tools to address the costly and...
Shannon M. Looney
Full Text Available This article provides an overview of research regarding adult behavioral lifestyle intervention for obesity treatment. We first describe two trials using a behavioral lifestyle intervention to induce weight loss in adults, the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP and the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes trial. We then review the three main components of a behavioral lifestyle intervention program: behavior therapy, an energy- and fat-restricted diet, and a moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity prescription. Research regarding the influence of dietary prescriptions focusing on macronutrient composition, meal replacements, and more novel dietary approaches (such as reducing dietary variety and energy density on weight loss is examined. Methods to assist with meeting physical activity goals, such as shortening exercise bouts, using a pedometer, and having access to exercise equipment within the home, are reviewed. To assist with improving weight loss outcomes, broadening activity goals to include resistance training and a reduction in sedentary behavior are considered. To increase the accessibility of behavioral lifestyle interventions to treat obesity in the broader population, translation of efficacious interventions such as the DPP, must be undertaken. Translational studies have successfully altered the DPP to reduce treatment intensity and/or used alternative modalities to implement the DPP in primary care, worksite, and church settings; several examples are provided. The use of new methodologies or technologies that provide individualized treatment and real-time feedback, and which may further enhance weight loss in behavioral lifestyle interventions, is also discussed.
Burdon, William M; St De Lore, Jef; Prendergast, Michael L
Within prison settings, the reliance on punishment for controlling inappropriate or noncompliant behavior is self-evident. What is not so evident is the similarity between this reliance on punishment and the use of positive reinforcements to increase desired behaviors. However, seldom do inmates receive positive reinforcement for engaging in prosocial behaviors or, for inmates receiving drug treatment, behaviors that are consistent with or support their recovery. This study provides an overview of the development and implementation of a positive behavioral reinforcement intervention in male and female prison-based drug treatment programs. The active involvement of institutional staff, treatment staff, and inmates enrolled in the treatment programs in the development of the intervention along with the successful branding of the intervention were effective at promoting support and participation. However, these factors may also have ultimately impacted the ability of the randomized design to reliably demonstrate the effectiveness of the intervention.
Birkenhäger-Gillesse, Elizabeth G; Kollen, Boudewijn J; Achterberg, Wilco P; Boersma, Froukje; Jongman, Lydia; Zuidema, Sytse U
Dementia is often accompanied by neuropsychiatric symptoms. Psychotropic drugs for the treatment of neuropsychiatric symptoms are frequently used to manage these problems, but they are of limited effectiveness and can have serious side effects. Psychosocial interventions are advocated as first line treatment and may help to reduce psychotropic drug use. To assess the effect of multidisciplinary psychosocial interventions in nursing homes on the psychotropic drug prescription rate. Literature obtained from searches in 9 electronic databases was systematically reviewed. In addition, the pooled effects of specific psychosocial interventions in homogenous subgroups were analyzed (meta-analysis). Eleven randomized controlled studies that investigated multiple psychotropic drugs interventions (psychotropic drugs in 3, antipsychotics in 9, and antidepressants in 5 studies) as well as different types of psychosocial interventions were included. We separately analyzed interventions directed at the care staff level (educational programs in 3, in-reach services or consultation in 1, cultural or process change in 6 studies) and the individual resident level in 1 study. In 7 out of 9 studies reporting on antipsychotic drug use, the physician was actively involved. Nine studies in which antipsychotic drug use was specified reported a significant decrease in prescription rate as a result of psychosocial interventions [relative risk (RR) 0.71, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.59-0.88], whereas meta-analysis of 5 studies investigating antidepressant drug use failed to show a significant effect (RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.64-1.02). Pooled effect sizes of 6 studies investigating cultural change, showed a significant decrease in antipsychotic drug use (RR 0.65, 95% CI 0.57-0.73). Effect sizes of 2 studies on educational programs on antipsychotic use were nonsignificant (RR 1.50, 95% CI 0.49-4.64). Sensitivity analysis of 7 studies reporting on antipsychotic drug use involving prescribing
J. Brug (Hans); A. Oenema (Anke); A. Ferreira (Isabel)
textabstractBACKGROUND: The present paper intends to contribute to the debate on the usefulness and barriers in applying theories in diet and physical activity behavior-change interventions. DISCUSSION: Since behavior theory is a reflection of the compiled evidence of behavior research, theory is
Weeland, Joyce; Chhangur, Rabia R.; van der Giessen, Danielle; Matthys, Walter; de Castro, Bram Orobio; Overbeek, Geertjan
We tested the effectiveness of the preventive behavioral parent training (BPT) program, The Incredible Years (IY), and the independent effects of previously suggested sociodemographic and intervention-based moderator variables (i.e., initial severity of externalizing problem behavior, child gender,
Hilliard, Marisa E; Powell, Priscilla W; Anderson, Barbara J
As members of multidisciplinary diabetes care teams, psychologists are well-suited to support self-management among youth with Type 1 diabetes (T1D) and Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and their families. Psychological and behavioral interventions can promote adherence to the complex and demanding diabetes care regimen, with the goals of promoting high quality of life, achieving optimal glycemic control, and ultimately preventing disease-related complications. This article reviews well-researched contemporary behavioral interventions to promote optimal diabetes family- and self-management and health outcomes in youth with T1D, in the context of key behavioral theories. The article summarizes the evidence base for established diabetes skills training programs, family interventions, and multisystemic interventions, and introduces emerging evidence for technology and mobile health interventions and health care delivery system interventions. Next steps in behavioral T1D intervention research include tailoring interventions to meet individuals' and families' unique needs and strengths, and systematically evaluating cost-effectiveness to advocate for dissemination of well-developed interventions. Although in its infancy, this article reviews observational and intervention research for youth with T2D and their families and discusses lessons for future research with this population. Interventions for youth with T2D will need to incorporate family members, consider cultural and family issues related to health behaviors, and take into account competing priorities for resources. As psychologists and behavioral scientists, we must advocate for the integration of behavioral health into routine pediatric diabetes care in order to effectively promote meaningful change in the behavioral and medical well-being of youth and families living with T1D and T2D. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Fitrianie, S.; Griffioen-Both, F.; Spruit, S.; Lancee, J.; Beun, R.J.
Communication in the form of dialogues between a virtual coach and a human patient (coachee) is one of the pillars in an intervention app for smartphones. The virtual coach is considered as a cooperative partner that supports the individual with various exercises for a behavior intervention therapy.
Vestjens, Lotte; Kempen, Gertrudis I. J. M.; Crutzen, Rik; Kok, Gerjo; Zijlstra, G. A. Rixt
Complex behavior change interventions need evidence regarding the effectiveness of individual components to understand how these interventions work. The objective of this study was to identify the least and most promising behavior change techniques (BCTs) within the Dutch intervention "A Matter of Balance" (AMB-NL) aimed at concerns…
Zarani, Fariba; Besharat, Mohammad Ali; Sarami, Gholamreza; Sadeghian, Saeed
In order to benefit from a coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery, patients must adhere to medical recommendations and health advices. Despite the importance of adherence in CABG patients, adherence rates are disappointingly low. Despite the low adherence rates, very few articles regarding adherence-enhancing intervention among heart patients have been published. The goal of this study was to assess the effects of the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model-based intervention on the IMB model constructs among patients undergoing CABG and to evaluate the relationship of information, motivation, and behavioral skills with adherence. A total of 152 CABG patients were randomly assigned to either an intervention group or to a standard care control group. Participants completed pretest measures and were reassessed 1 month later. Findings showed mixed support for the effectiveness of the intervention. There was a significant effect of IMB intervention on information and motivation of patients, but no significant effect on behavioral skills. Furthermore, the results revealed that intervention constructs (information, motivation, and behavioral skills) were significantly related to patients' adherence. Findings provided initial evidence for the effectiveness of IMB-based interventions on the IMB constructs and supported the importance of these constructs to improve adherence; however, there are additional factors that need to be identified in order to improve behavioral skills more effectively.
Aung, Poe Poe; Ryan, Claire; Bajracharya, Ashish; Pasricha, Naanki; Thein, Zaw Win; Agius, Paul A; Sein, Than Tun; Willenberg, Lisa; Soe, Ei Mon; Zaw, Ne Tun; Tun, Waimar; Yam, Eileen; Luchters, Stanley
Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) in Myanmar are disproportionately affected by HIV, with prevalence five times that of the general population. The Link Up project implemented an intervention using peer education and outreach providing education and counseling on health seeking around sexually transmitted infections and reproductive health, combined with focused clinic capacity building to improve the sexual and reproductive health of YMSM. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and acceptability of the intervention. Using a mixed-methods approach, and employing a quasi-experimental design, we conducted two quantitative repeat cross-sectional surveys in purposively selected control (no intervention) and intervention townships, before and after implementation of the Link Up intervention. Respondent-driven sampling was used to recruit YMSM aged 15-24 years, and study participants were administered a structured questionnaire assessing intervention exposure, health service access, knowledge of HIV, and sexual risk behavior. Focus group discussions were held to elicit perspectives on the use and acceptability of the health services and peer outreach. At baseline, 314 YMSM were recruited in the intervention townships and 309 YMSM in the control townships. At end line, 267 (intervention) and 318 (control) YMSM were recruited. Coverage of the program was relatively low, with one-third of participants in the intervention townships having heard of the Link Up program by the end line. Comparing changes between baseline and end line, a greater proportion of HIV-negative or unknown status YMSM accessed HIV testing in the past 3 months in intervention townships (from 45.0% to 57.1%) compared with those in control townships (remained at 29.0%); however, this difference in the effect over time was not statistically significant in multivariate modeling (adjusted odds ratio: 1.45; 95% confidence interval: .66-3.17). Qualitative findings showed that the intervention
McDaniel, Sara C.; Bruhn, Allison L.; Troughton, Leonard
Social skills instruction has been recommended as a way of improving behavioral and social outcomes for students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). A brief social skills intervention ("Stop and Think" (Knoff in "The stop & think social skills program," Sopris West, Longmont, CO, 2001) was used to extend the…
Miramontes, Nancy Y.; Marchant, Michelle; Heath, Melissa Allen; Fischer, Lane
As more schools turn to positive behavior interventions and support (PBIS) to address students' academic and behavioral problems, there is an increased need to adequately evaluate these programs for social relevance. The present study used social validation measures to evaluate a statewide PBIS initiative. Active consumers of the program were…
Mahoney, Diane E
Nurses are uniquely positioned to implement behavior change interventions. Yet, nursing interventions have traditionally resulted from nurses problem-solving rather than allowing the patient to self-generate possible solutions for attaining specific health outcomes. The purpose of this review is to clarify the meaning of possible solutions in behavior change interventions. Walker and Avant's method on concept analysis serves as the framework for examination of the possible solutions. Possible solutions can be defined as continuous strategies initiated by patients and families to overcome existing health problems. As nurses engage in behavior change interventions, supporting patients and families in problem-solving will optimize health outcomes and transform clinical practice. © 2018 NANDA International, Inc.
Aronson, Ian David; Marsch, Lisa A; Acosta, Michelle C
Clinicians and researchers are increasingly using technology-based behavioral health interventions to improve intervention effectiveness and to reach underserved populations. However, these interventions are rarely informed by evidence-based findings of how technology can be optimized to promote acquisition of key skills and information. At the same time, experts in multimedia learning generally do not apply their findings to health education or conduct research in clinical contexts. This paper presents an overview of some key aspects of multimedia learning research that may allow those developing health interventions to apply informational technology with the same rigor as behavioral science content. We synthesized empirical multimedia learning literature from 1992 to 2011. We identified key findings and suggested a framework for integrating technology with educational and behavioral science theory. A scientific, evidence-driven approach to developing technology-based interventions can yield greater effectiveness, improved fidelity, increased outcomes, and better client service.
Francis, Grace L.; McMullen, Victoria B.; Blue-Banning, Martha; Haines, Shana
Social skills instruction is as important for many students with disabilities as instruction in core academic subjects. Frequently, students with autism require individualized social skills instruction to experience success in general education settings. Literacy-based behavioral Interventions (LBBIs) are an effective intervention that instructors…
Williford, Amanda P.; Shelton, Terri L.
Background: This study examined the effectiveness of an adaptation of an empirically-supported intervention delivered using mental health consultation to preschoolers who displayed elevated disruptive behaviors. Method: Ninety-six preschoolers, their teachers, and their primary caregivers participated. Children in the intervention group received…
Vaughn, Bobbie J.; Clarke, Shelley; Dunlap, Glen
Functional assessments and assessment-based interventions were conducted with an 8-year-old boy with disabilities and severe problem behavior in the context of two family routines: using the home bathroom and dining in a fast-food restaurant. A multiple baseline design demonstrated the effectiveness of the intervention package as implemented by…
Taal, Margot; Ekels, Elles; van der Valk, Cindel; van der Molen, Maurits
The current study presents a review of intervention studies conducted in the Low Countries (i.e., The Netherlands and Flanders) focusing on social-emotional behaviors in the school. The primary purpose of this review was to assess whether studies included an operational definition of the intervention under study and reported data on the…
Effectiveness of behavioral change techniques employed in eHealth interventions designed to improve glycemic control in persons with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis protocol
Full Text Available Abstract Background The incorporation of Behavioral Change Techniques (BCTs in eHealth interventions for the management of non-communicable diseases (NCDs, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, might be a promising approach to improve clinical and behavioral outcomes of NCDs in the long run. This 3paper reports a protocol for a systematic review that aims to (a identify the effects of individual BCTs in eHealth interventions for lowering glycated hemoglobin levels (HbA1c and (b investigate which additional intervention features (duration of intervention, tailoring, theory-base, and mode of delivery affect levels of HbA1c in this population. The protocol follows the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic review and Meta-Analysis Protocols (PRISMA-P 2015 guideline. Methods/design To identify eligible studies, an extensive systematic database search (PubMed, Web of Science, and PsycINFO using keywords will be conducted. This review will include randomized controlled trials examining the effects of eHealth interventions on HbA1c in persons with poorly controlled T2DM over a minimum follow-up period of 3 months. Relevant data will be extracted from the included studies using Microsoft Excel. The content of the interventions will be extracted from the description of interventions and will be classified according to the BCT taxonomy v1 tool. The quality of studies will be independently assessed by two reviewers using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. If the studies have adequate homogeneity, meta-analysis will be considered. The effect sizes of each BCT will be calculated using the random effect model. The quality of the synthesized evidence will be evaluated employing the Grading of the Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE criteria. Discussion This systematic review is one of the firsts to appraise the effectiveness of eHealth interventions employing BCTs which aimed at improving glycemic control in persons with poorly
Kelechi, Teresa J; Mueller, Martina; Spencer, Cam; Rinard, Bobbie; Loftis, Greg
We compared a WOC nurse-directed, patient-centered intervention called MECALF (motivational enhancement and conditioning activity for leg function) compared to conditioning activities for lower leg function (CALF) alone. Outcomes were study feasibility, pain, motivation, self-efficacy, physical activity, leg strength, and range of motion. Comparative study. The sample was drawn from 2 wound centers in the Southeastern United States. Twenty-one patients (n = 12 MECALF site A and n = 9 CALF site B) with painful lower legs and critically colonized/infected wounds participated in the study. All patients received usual wound care per center protocol. The MECALF intervention was delivered by WOC nurses for 6 weeks at site A and a handout of CALF depicting the conditioning activities was provided by site staff (not WOC nurses) to patients at site B. We assessed study feasibility with postsurvey questionnaires given to WOC nurses (training usefulness, ease of use of ME with patients) and subjects (able to perform activities, use logs). Pre- and postintervention outcome data were collected by study staff using pain, motivation, and self-efficacy scales, functional measures of physical activity, and physical measures of strength and range of motion. The study was found to be somewhat feasible by the WOC nurses and patients. WOC nurses had time management problems using MECALF during usual patient care. Patients reported that they were able to perform CALF. Overall pain was statistically significantly reduced (P = .046) in both groups of patients with painful critically colonized/infected leg ulcers measured at week 8, 2 weeks after the study period. The CALF group experienced a slightly greater reduction in pain intensity than did the MECALF group. No statistically significant differences between the groups were observed in behavioral outcomes for motivation (P = .641) and self-efficacy (P = .643), or for physical outcomes including overall ankle strength (P = .609) and
Bartholomew, L Kay; Mullen, Patricia Dolan
The prevailing wisdom in the field of health-related behavior change is that well-designed and effective interventions are guided by theory. Using the framework of intervention mapping, we describe and provide examples of how investigators can effectively select and use theory to design, test, and report interventions. We propose five roles for theory and evidence about theories: a) identification of behavior and determinants of behavior related to a specified health problem (i.e., the logic model of the problem); b) explication of a causal model that includes theoretical constructs for producing change in the behavior of interest (i.e., the logic model of change); c) selection of intervention methods and delivery of practical applications to achieve changes in health behavior; d) evaluation of the resulting intervention including theoretical mediating variables; and e) reporting of the active ingredients of the intervention together with the evaluation results. In problem-driven applied behavioral or social science, researchers use one or multiple theories, empiric evidence, and new research, both to assess a problem and to solve or prevent a problem. Furthermore, the theories for description of the problem may differ from the theories for its solution. In an applied approach, the main focus is on solving problems regarding health behavior change and improvement of health outcomes, and the criteria for success are formulated in terms of the problem rather than the theory. Resulting contributions to theory development may be quite useful, but they are peripheral to the problem-solving process.
Martin, Emily C; Basen-Engquist, Karen; Cox, Matthew G; Lyons, Elizabeth J; Carmack, Cindy L; Blalock, Janice A; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy
Background Effective, broad-reaching channels are important for the delivery of health behavior interventions in order to meet the needs of the growing population of cancer survivors in the United States. New technology presents opportunities to increase the reach of health behavior change interventions and therefore their overall impact. However, evidence suggests that older adults may be slower in their adoption of these technologies than the general population. Survivors? interest for more...
D?pp, Carola ME; Graff, Maud JL; Teerenstra, Steven; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria WG; Olde Rikkert, Marcel GM; Vernooij-Dassen, Myrra JFJ
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the effectiveness of a multifaceted implementation strategy on physicians' referral rate to and knowledge on the community occupational therapy in dementia program (COTiD program). METHODS: A cluster randomized controlled trial with 28 experimental and 17 control clusters was conducted. Cluster included a minimum of one physician, one manager, and two occupational therapists. In the control group physicians and managers received no interventions and occupational therap...
Gaastra, Geraldina F; Groen, Yvonne; Tucha, Lara; Tucha, Oliver
Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often exhibit problem behavior in class, which teachers often struggle to manage due to a lack of knowledge and skills to use classroom management strategies. The aim of this meta-analytic review was to determine the effectiveness of
Molnár, Claire; Eldevik, Sigmund
Early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) has proved to be an effective intervention for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In this exploratory study, we evaluated the effects of a community-based service model with parents as active therapists. 13 children with ASD between 2 and 5 years of age at intake participated in the study. A waiting-list control design was employed. The children received 1 year of home-based EIBI for approximately 20 hours a week, their parents functioning as primary therapists. The waiting-list control group consisted of seven children who were tested 6 months before the intervention commenced. The intervention was based on the University of California at Los Angeles Young Autism Project model (UCLA YAP; Lovaas, 1981, 1987, 2003). The Psychoeducational Profile (3rd ed., PEP-3), the Parenting Stress Index (PSI), and the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (2nd ed., CARS 2) were used to measure outcome. In addition, a mental developmental index (MDI) was calculated on the basis of the Cognitive Verbal/Preverbal subscale of the PEP-3. After 1 year of EIBI, we found a significant increase in the PEP-3 scores and MDI scores as well as a significant reduction in the CARS 2 scores. No significant changes were seen when participants were on the waiting list. The stress level of the parents did not change significantly and in fact showed overall a slight decrease. This model of providing EIBI appears to hold some promise. Comprehensive parental involvement did not affect their stress level. The study need to be replicated with a larger sample and an improved design.
Frenn, Marilyn; Pruszynski, Jessica E; Felzer, Holly; Zhang, Jiannan
PURPOSE.: The purpose of the study was to examine the feasibility and initial efficacies of parent- and/or child-focused online interventions and variables correlated with child body mass index percentile change. DESIGN AND METHODS.: A feasibility and cluster randomized controlled pilot study was used. RESULTS.: Recruitment was more effective at parent-teacher conferences compared with when materials were sent home with fifth- to eighth-grade culturally diverse students. Retention was 90% for students and 62-74% for parents. Authoritative parent feeding behaviors were associated with lower child body mass index. A larger study is warranted. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS.: Online approaches may provide a feasible option for childhood obesity prevention and amelioration. © 2013, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Deng, Lin-Yuan; Liu, Lu; Xia, Cui-Cui; Lan, Jing; Zhang, Jin-Tao; Fang, Xiao-Yi
Craving, as a central feature of addiction and a precursor of relapse, is targeted recently in addiction intervention. While Internet gaming disorder (IGD), conceptualized as a behavioral addiction, is lack of effective treatment practice and exploration of its mechanism. This research aims to test the effectiveness and detect the active ingredients of craving behavior intervention (CBI) in mitigation of IGD among young adults. A total of 63 male college students with IGD were assigned into the intervention group (six-session CBI intervention) or the waiting-list control group. Structured questionnaires were administered at pre-intervention (T1), post-intervention (T2), 3-month follow-up (T3), and 6-month follow-up (T4). Compared to the control group, a significant decrease in the severity of IGD in intervention group was found at post-intervention and lasting to 6 months after intervention. The value changes of craving could partially mediate the relationship between intervention and changes of IGD among all effects tests (immediate, T2-T1; short-term, T3-T1; and long-term effects, T4-T1). Further, explorations of the active ingredients of intervention found depression relief and shift of psychological needs from Internet to real life significantly predict craving amelioration at both post-intervention and 6-month follow-up. Although preliminary, the current study provides evidence for the value of craving-aimed intervention practice in IGD treatment and identifies two potential active ingredients for mitigation of craving, and the long-term therapeutic benefits are further conferred. Registry name: The behavioral and brain mechanism of IGD; URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02550405; Registration number: NCT02550405.
Klein Velderman, M.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, M.J.; Juffer, F.; IJzendoorn, M.H. van; Mangelsdorf, S.C.; Zevalkink, D.J.
In the present study (1) intervention effects on children's preschool behavior problems were evaluated in a high risk sample with an overrepresentation of insecure adult attachment representations in 77 first-time mothers, and (2) predictors and correlates of child problem behavior were examined.
Klein Velderman, Mariska; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Juffer, Femmie; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Mangelsdorf, Sarah C; Zevalkink, D.J.
In the present study (1) intervention effects on children's preschool behavior problems were evaluated in a high risk sample with an overrepresentation of insecure adult attachment representations in 77 first-time mothers, and (2) predictors and correlates of child problem behavior were examined.
Simo-Pinatella, David; Font-Roura, Josep; Planella-Morato, Joaquima; McGill, Peter; Alomar-Kurz, Elisabeth; Gine, Climent
A motivating operation (MO) alters both the effectiveness of a stimulus as a reinforcer and the current frequency of all behavior that has been reinforced by that particular stimulus. This article reviews studies that have manipulated a MO during interventions with school-age participants with intellectual disabilities and problem behavior. A…
Craighead, Linda W.; Agras, W. Stewart
Summarizes data pertaining to separate and combined effects of cognitive-behavioral and psychopharmacologic treatments for obesity and bulimia nervosa. Anorexiant medication appears to enhance restraint and facilitates weight loss with behavioral interventions in the treatment of obesity, but relapse occurs once medication is withdrawn.…
Worawong, Chiraporn; Borden, Mary Jo; Cooper, Karen M; Pérez, Oscar A; Lauver, Diane
Effective promotion of health behaviors requires strong interventions. Applying person-centered approaches and concepts synthesized from two motivational theories could strengthen the effects of such interventions. The aim of the study was to report the effect sizes, fidelity, and acceptability of a person-centered, health behavior intervention based on self-regulation and self-determination theories. Using a pre- and postintervention design, with a 4-week follow-up, advanced practice registered nurses made six weekly contacts with 52 volunteer participants. Most participants were educated White women. Advanced practice registered nurses elicited participant motives and particular goals for either healthy diet or physical activity behaviors. Minutes and type of activity and servings of fat and fruit/vegetables were assessed. Effect sizes for engaging in moderate aerobic activity and in fruit/vegetable and fat intake were 0.53, 0.82, and -0.57, respectively. The fidelity of delivery was 80-97% across contacts, and fidelity of participants' receipt of intervention components was supported. Participant acceptance of the intervention was supported by positive ratings on aspects of relevance and usefulness. To advance the science of health behavior change and improve client health status, person-centered approaches and concepts synthesized from motivational theories can be applied and tested with a randomized, controlled design and diverse samples to replicate and extend this promising behavioral intervention.
Moskowitz, Lauren J.; Carr, Edward G.; Durand, V. Mark
Parents and professionals typically report problem behavior as a significant concern for children with fragile X syndrome. In the present study, the authors explored whether behaviorally based interventions would result in a reduction in problem behavior and an improvement in quality of life for 3 children with fragile X syndrome and their…
Hareva, David H; Okada, Hiroki; Kitawaki, Tomoki; Oka, Hisao
The authors previously developed a mobile ecological momentary assessment (EMA) system as a real-time data collection device using a mobile phone. In this study, a real-time advice function and real-time reporting function were added to the previous system as a supportive intervention. The improved system was found to work effectively and was applied to several clinical cases, including patients with depressive disorder, dizziness, smoking habit, and bronchial asthma. The average patient compliance rate was high (89%) without the real-time advice and higher (93%) with the advice. The trends in clinical data for patients using a mobile EMA with/without the new function were analyzed for up to several months. In the case of dizziness, an improving trend in its clinical data was observed after applying the real-time advice, and in the case of depressive disorder, a stabilizing trend was observed. The mobile EMA system with the real-time advice function could be useful as a supportive intervention in behavior modification and for motivating patients in self-management of their disease.
Masters, Kevin S; Ross, Kaile M; Hooker, Stephanie A; Wooldridge, Jennalee L
There has been a notable disconnect between theories of behavior change and behavior change interventions. Because few interventions are both explicitly and adequately theory-based, investigators cannot assess the impact of theory on intervention effectiveness. Theory-based interventions, designed to deliberately engage the theory's proposed mechanisms of change, are needed to adequately test theories. Thus, systematic approaches to theory-based intervention development are needed. This article will introduce and discuss the psychometric method of developing theory-based interventions. The psychometric approach to intervention development utilizes basic psychometric principles at each step of the intervention development process in order to build a theoretically driven intervention to, subsequently, be tested in process (mechanism) and outcome studies. Five stages of intervention development are presented as follows: (i) Choice of theory; (ii) Identification and characterization of key concepts and expected relations; (iii) Intervention construction; (iv) Initial testing and revision; and (v) Empirical testing of the intervention. Examples of this approach from the Colorado Meaning-Activity Project (COMAP) are presented. Based on self-determination theory integrated with meaning or purpose, and utilizing a motivational interviewing approach, the COMAP intervention is individually based with an initial interview followed by smart phone-delivered interventions for increasing daily activity. The psychometric approach to intervention development is one method to ensure careful consideration of theory in all steps of intervention development. This structured approach supports developing a research culture that endorses deliberate and systematic operationalization of theory into behavior change intervention from the outset of intervention development.
Go, Vivian F; Frangakis, Constantine; Le Minh, Nguyen; Latkin, Carl A; Ha, Tran Viet; Mo, Tran Thi; Sripaipan, Teerada; Davis, Wendy; Zelaya, Carla; Vu, Pham The; Chen, Yong; Celentano, David D; Quan, Vu Minh
Globally, 30% of new HIV infections outside sub-Saharan Africa involve injecting drug users (IDU) and in many countries, including Vietnam, HIV epidemics are concentrated among IDU. We conducted a randomized controlled trial in Thai Nguyen, Vietnam, to evaluate whether a peer oriented behavioral intervention could reduce injecting and sexual HIV risk behaviors among IDU and their network members. 419 HIV-negative index IDU aged 18 years or older and 516 injecting and sexual network members were enrolled. Each index participant was randomly assigned to receive a series of six small group peer educator-training sessions and three booster sessions in addition to HIV testing and counseling (HTC) (intervention; n = 210) or HTC only (control; n = 209). Follow-up, including HTC, was conducted at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months post-intervention. The proportion of unprotected sex dropped significantly from 49% to 27% (SE (difference) = 3%, p < 0.01) between baseline and the 3-month visit among all index-network member pairs. However, at 12 months, post-intervention, intervention participants had a 14% greater decline in unprotected sex relative to control participants (Wald test = 10.8, df = 4, p = 0.03). This intervention effect is explained by trial participants assigned to the control arm who missed at least one standardized HTC session during follow-up and subsequently reported increased unprotected sex. The proportion of observed needle/syringe sharing dropped significantly between baseline and the 3-month visit (14% vs. 3%, SE (difference) = 2%, p < 0.01) and persisted until 12 months, but there was no difference across trial arms (Wald test = 3.74, df = 3, p = 0.44). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Implementing a patient education intervention about Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus prevention and effect on knowledge and behavior in veterans with spinal cord injuries and disorders: a pilot randomized controlled trial.
Evans, Charlesnika T; Hill, Jennifer N; Guihan, Marylou; Chin, Amy; Goldstein, Barry; Richardson, Michael S A; Anderson, Vicki; Risa, Kathleen; Kellie, Susan; Cameron, Kenzie A
To assess the feasibility and effect of a nurse-administered patient educational intervention about Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) prevention on knowledge and behavior of Veterans with spinal cord injuries and disorders (SCI/D). Blinded, block-randomized controlled pilot trial. Two Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) SCI Centers. Veterans were recruited March-September 2010 through referral by a healthcare provider from inpatient, outpatient, and residential care settings. Thirty participants were randomized to the nurse-administered intervention and 31 to the usual care group. The intervention included a brochure and tools to assist nurses in conducting the education. Pre- and post-intervention measurement of knowledge and behaviors related to MRSA and prevention strategies and feasibility measures related to implementation. Participants were primarily male (95.1%), white (63.9%), with tetraplegia (63.9%) and mean age and duration of injury of 64.3 and 20.5 years, respectively. The intervention groups mean knowledge score significantly increased between pre- and post-test (mean change score = 1.70, 95% confidence interval, CI 0.25-3.15) while the usual care groups score did not significantly change (mean change score = 1.45, 95% CI -0.08-2.98). However, the mean knowledge change between intervention and usual care groups was not significantly different (P = 0.81). Overall behavior scores did not significantly differ between treatment groups; however, the intervention group was more likely to report intentions to clean hands (90.0% vs. 64.5%, P = 0.03) and asking providers about MRSA status (46.7% vs. 16.1%, P = 0.01). Nurse educators reported that the quality of the intervention was high and could be implemented in clinical care. A targeted educational strategy is feasible to implement in SCI/D clinical practices and may improve some participants' knowledge about MRSA and increase intentions to improve hand hygiene and engagement with providers
Rose, Taylor; Barker, Mary; Maria Jacob, Chandni; Morrison, Leanne; Lawrence, Wendy; Strömmer, Sofia; Vogel, Christina; Woods-Townsend, Kathryn; Farrell, David; Inskip, Hazel; Baird, Janis
Many adolescents have poor diet and physical activity behaviors, which can lead to the development of noncommunicable diseases in later life. Digital platforms offer inexpensive means of delivering health interventions, but little is known about their effectiveness. This systematic review was conducted to synthesize evidence on the effectiveness of digital interventions to improve diet quality and increase physical activity in adolescents, to effective intervention components and to assess the cost-effectiveness of these interventions. Following a systematic search, abstracts were assessed against inclusion criteria, and data extraction and quality assessment were performed for included studies. Data were analyzed to identify key features that are associated with significant improvement in behavior. A total of 27 studies met inclusion criteria. Most (n = 15) were Web site interventions. Other delivery methods were text messages, games, multicomponent interventions, emails, and social media. Significant behavior change was often seen when interventions included education, goal setting, self-monitoring, and parental involvement. None of the publications reported cost-effectiveness. Due to heterogeneity of studies, meta-analysis was not feasible.It is possible to effect significant health behavior change in adolescents through digital interventions that incorporate education, goal setting, self-monitoring, and parental involvement. Most of the evidence relates to Web sites and further research into alternate media is needed, and longer term outcomes should be evaluated. There is a paucity of data on the cost-effectiveness of digital health interventions, and future trials should report these data. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
An essential characteristic of advanced practice nurses is the use of theory in practice. Clinical nurse specialists apply theory in providing or directing patient care, in their work as consultants to staff nurses, and as leaders influencing and facilitating system change. Knowledge of technology and pharmacology has far outpaced knowledge of how to facilitate health behavior change, and new theories are needed to better understand how practitioners can facilitate health behavior change. In this article, the Integrated Theory of Health Behavior Change is described, and an example of its use as foundation to intervention development is presented. The Integrated Theory of Health Behavior Change suggests that health behavior change can be enhanced by fostering knowledge and beliefs, increasing self-regulation skills and abilities, and enhancing social facilitation. Engagement in self-management behaviors is seen as the proximal outcome influencing the long-term distal outcome of improved health status. Person-centered interventions are directed to increasing knowledge and beliefs, self-regulation skills and abilities, and social facilitation. Using a theoretical framework improves clinical nurse specialist practice by focusing assessments, directing the use of best-practice interventions, and improving patient outcomes. Using theory fosters improved communication with other disciplines and enhances the management of complex clinical conditions by providing holistic, comprehensive care.
Marin, B V; Perez-Stable, E J; Marin, G; Sabogal, F; Otero-Sabogal, R
The smoking behavior of Hispanics, especially Mexican Americans, has been reported to differ from that of non-Hispanic whites, in both large gender differences in prevalence as well as a lower self-reported number of cigarettes smoked per day. This study compared the responses of a convenience sample of 263 Hispanic (44% Mexican American and 38% Central American) and 150 non-Hispanic white smokers, in order to identify other ethnic; gender, and acculturation differences in smoking behaviors. Hispanic women smoked fewer cigarettes and initiated smoking at a comparatively later age than Hispanic men; they were also less likely to smoke during pregnancy than non-Hispanic white women. Hispanics smoked more cigarettes on Saturday than other days, but this was not true for non-Hispanic whites. Will power (voluntad propia) and knowing the negative effects of smoking were considered the most helpful techniques for quitting by Hispanics. Considering that light smokers are able to quit with less intensive cessation techniques, these data suggest that a properly developed health education community intervention may have an impact on smoking rates among Hispanics.
Using mobile health technology to improve behavioral skill implementation through homework in evidence-based parenting intervention for disruptive behavior disorders in youth: study protocol for intervention development and evaluation
Chacko, Anil; Isham, Andrew; Cleek, Andrew F.; McKay, Mary M.
Background Disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs) (oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD)) are prevalent, costly, and oftentimes chronic psychiatric disorders of childhood. Evidence-based interventions that focus on assisting parents to utilize effective skills to modify children?s problematic behaviors are first-line interventions for the treatment of DBDs. Although efficacious, the effects of these interventions are often attenuated by poor implementation of the skills ...
Full Text Available ABSTRACTIntroduction:Scientific evidence supports the sinergy between biomedical and behavioral interventions aimed at preventing the transmission of HIV as a strategy to eradicate AIDS.Objective:To characterize comparatively the benefits from biomedical and behavioral interventions to prevent HIV transmission.Methods:Narrative review. We performed a comparative analysis of the benefits of studied interventions by means of estimating the number needed to treat (NNT. Evaluated interventions: counseling activities for behavior change to prevent exposure to HIV; antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP and antiretroviral post-exposure prophylasis (PEP for HIV and treatment of serodiscordant couples as a strategy for prevention of HIV transmission (TasP.Results:counseling interventions and TasP have smaller NNTs, equal to, respectively, 11 (95%CI 9 - 18 at 12 months and 34 (95%CI 23 - 54 in 42 months comparatively to PrEP interventions, that resulted in 41 (95%CI 28 - 67 individuals receiving antiretrovirals in order to prevent one case of HIV infection at 36 months for men and serodiscordant couples. PEP interventions are associated with protective effects estimated at 81%. Lack of trials evaluating PEP prevents estimate of NNT.Conclusion:The estimate of the NNT can be a helpful parameter in the comparison between the effectiveness of different behavioral and biomedical HIV prevention strategies. Studies evaluating the benefit and safety of combined behavioral and biomedical interventions are needed, especially considering the attributable fraction of each component. Integration of behavioral and biomedical interventions is required to achieve complete suppression of the virus, and thus reducing viral replication, infectivity and the number of cases.
[The Effects of Smart Program for Patients Who Underwent Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (SP-PCI) on Disease-Related Knowledge, Health Behavior, and Quality of Life: A Non-Randomized Controlled Trial].
Lee, Jueun; Lee, Haejung
To identify the effects of a smart program for the patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (SP-PCI) on coronary disease-related knowledge, health behaviors, and quality of life. A nonequivalent control group with a non-synchronized design was utilized and 48 participants (experimental=22, control=26) were recruited from a university hospital in Gyeongsang area from May to December, 2016. The 12-week SP-PCI consisted of self-study of health information using smart phone applications (1/week), walking exercise (>5/week) using smart band, feedback using Kakao talk (2/week), and telephone counseling (1/week). Patients in the control group received usual care from their primary health care providers and a brief health education with basic self-management brochure after the PCI. Data were analyzed using the SPSS 21.0 program through descriptive statistics, χ² test, and t-test. After the 12-week SP-PCI, the experimental group showed higher levels of coronary disease-related knowledge (t=2.43, p=.019), heart-related health behaviors (t=5.96, pPCI provided easy access and cost-effective intervention for patients after PCI and improved their knowledge of the disease, performance of health behaviors, and quality of life. Further study with a wider population is needed to evaluate the effects of SP-PCI on disease recurrence and quality of life for patients after PCI. © 2017 Korean Society of Nursing Science
Tesdahl, Eric; Gesell, Sabina B
Recent developments in the study of health and social networks have focused on linkages between health outcomes and naturally occurring social relations, such as friendship or kinship. Based on findings in this area, a new generation of health behavior intervention programs have been implemented that rely on the formation of new social relations among program participants. However, little is known about the qualities of these de novo social relations. We examined the social networks of 59 participants within a randomized controlled trial of an intervention designed to prevent excessive gestational weight gain. We employed exponential random graph modeling techniques to analyze supportive relationships formed between participants in the intervention arm, to detect unique effects of program participation on the likelihood of forming ties. Program participation had a positive effect on the likelihood of forming supportive social relations, however, in this particular timeframe we did not detect any additional effect of such relations on the health behaviors or outcomes of interest. Our findings raise two critical questions: do short-term group-level programs reliably lead to the formation of new social relations among participants; and do these relations have a unique effect on health outcomes relative to standard methods of health behavior intervention? © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Larsen, Kai R; Michie, Susan; Hekler, Eric B; Gibson, Bryan; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Ahern, David; Cole-Lewis, Heather; Ellis, Rebecca J Bartlett; Hesse, Bradford; Moser, Richard P; Yi, Jean
A central goal of behavioral medicine is the creation of evidence-based interventions for promoting behavior change. Scientific knowledge about behavior change could be more effectively accumulated using "ontologies." In information science, an ontology is a systematic method for articulating a "controlled vocabulary" of agreed-upon terms and their inter-relationships. It involves three core elements: (1) a controlled vocabulary specifying and defining existing classes; (2) specification of the inter-relationships between classes; and (3) codification in a computer-readable format to enable knowledge generation, organization, reuse, integration, and analysis. This paper introduces ontologies, provides a review of current efforts to create ontologies related to behavior change interventions and suggests future work. This paper was written by behavioral medicine and information science experts and was developed in partnership between the Society of Behavioral Medicine's Technology Special Interest Group (SIG) and the Theories and Techniques of Behavior Change Interventions SIG. In recent years significant progress has been made in the foundational work needed to develop ontologies of behavior change. Ontologies of behavior change could facilitate a transformation of behavioral science from a field in which data from different experiments are siloed into one in which data across experiments could be compared and/or integrated. This could facilitate new approaches to hypothesis generation and knowledge discovery in behavioral science.
Galaj, E; Shukur, A; Manuszak, M; Newman, K; Ranaldi, R
Environmental enrichment (EE) produces differential effects on psychostimulant-related behaviors. Therefore, we investigated whether the timing of EE exposure - during rearing and before cocaine exposure versus in adulthood and after cocaine exposure might be a determining factor. In Experiment 1, rats reared with EE or not (non-EE) were conditioned with cocaine (5, 10 or 20mg/kg) in one compartment of a CPP apparatus and saline in the other, and later tested for cocaine CPP. In Experiment 2, locomotor activity in response to repeated injections of saline or cocaine was measured in rats raised with EE or non-EE. In Experiment 3 we measured the effects of EE or non-EE during rearing on food-based conditioned approach learning. In Experiment 4, rats were exposed to cocaine CPP conditioning then underwent 60days of EE or non-EE treatment after which they were tested for cocaine CPP. Our results show that rearing in EE did not reduce cocaine CPP or cocaine-induced locomotor activity (Experiments 1 and 2) but significantly facilitated conditioned approach learning (Experiment 3). On the other hand, EE treatment introduced after cocaine conditioning significantly reduced the expression of cocaine CPP (Experiment 4). These findings suggest that EE does not protect against cocaine's rewarding and stimulant effects but can reduce already established cocaine effects, suggesting that EE might be an effective treatment for cocaine addiction-related behaviors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The study aimed at finding the value of letters of recommendation in predicting professional behavior problems in the clinical portion of a Doctor of Physical Therapy program learning cohorts from 2009-2014 in the United States. De-identified records of 137 Doctor of Physical Therapy graduates were examined by the descriptive statistics and comparison analysis. Thirty letters of recommendation were investigated based on grounded theory from 10 student applications with 5 randomly selected students of interest and 5 non-students of interest. Critical thinking, organizational skills, and judgement were statistically significant and quantitative differentiating characteristics. Qualitatively, significant characteristics of the student of interest included effective communication and cultural competency. Meanwhile, those of nonstudents of interest included conflicting personality descriptor, commitment to learning, balance, teamwork skills, potential future success, compatible learning skills, effective leadership skills, and emotional intelligence. Emerged significant characteristics did not consistently match common non-professional behavior issues encountered in clinic. Pre-admission data and letters of recommendation appear of limited value in predicting professional behavior performance in clinic.
Sisson, Susan B; Krampe, Megan; Anundson, Katherine; Castle, Sherri
Review peer-reviewed interventions designed to reduce obesity and improve obesogenic behaviors, including physical activity, diet, and screen time, at child care centers. Interventions components and outcomes, study design, duration, use of behavioral theory, and level of social ecological influence are detailed. Article searches were conducted from March 2014, October 2014, March 2015, January 2016 across three databases. Eligible interventions were conducted in child care settings, included 3-to-5-year-old children, included an outcome measure of obesity or obesogenic behavior, and published in English. Study design quality was assessed using Stetler's Level of Quantitative Evidence. All unique records were screened (n=4589): 237 articles were assessed for eligibility. Of these, 97 articles describing 71 interventions met inclusion criteria. Forty-four articles included multi-level interventions. Twenty-nine interventions included an outcome measure of obesity. Forty-one interventions included physical activity. Forty-five included diet. Eight included screen time. Fifty-five percent of interventions were Level II (randomized controlled trials), while 37% were Level III (quasi-experimental or pre-post only study design), and 8% were Level IV (non-experimental or natural experiments). Most interventions had the intended effect on the target: obesity 48% (n=14), physical activity 73% (n=30), diet 87% (n=39), and screen time 63% (n=5). Summarizing intervention strategies and assessing their effectiveness contributes to the existing literature and may provide direction for practitioners and researchers working with young children in child care. Most interventions produced the targeted changes in obesity and obesity-associated behaviors, supporting current and future efforts to collaborate with early-care centers and professionals for obesity prevention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hansen, Sylvia; Kanning, Martina; Lauer, Romy; Steinacker, Jürgen M; Schlicht, Wolfgang
Health research often aims to prevent noncommunicable diseases and to improve individual and public health by discovering intervention strategies that are effective in changing behavior and/or environments that are detrimental to one's health. Ideally, findings from original research support practitioners in planning and implementing effective interventions. Unfortunately, interventions often fail to overcome the translational block between science and practice. They often ignore theoretical knowledge, overlook empirical evidence, and underrate the impact of the environment. Accordingly, sustainable changes in individual behavior and/or the environment are difficult to achieve. Developing theory-driven and evidence-based interventions in the real world is a complex task. Existing implementation frameworks and theories often do not meet the needs of health practitioners. The purpose of this article is to synthesize existing frameworks and to provide a tool, the Matrix Assisting Practitioner's Intervention Planning Tool (MAP-IT), that links research to practice and helps practitioners to design multicomponent interventions. In this article, we use physical activity of older adults as an example to explain the rationale of MAP-IT. In MAP-IT, individual as well as environmental mechanisms are listed and behavior change techniques are linked to these mechanisms and to intervention components. MAP-IT is theory-driven and evidence-based. It is time-saving and helpful for practitioners when planning complex interventions.
Weal, Mark; Morrison, Leanne; Yardley, Lucy
Background Incorporating social media features into digital behavior change interventions (DBCIs) has the potential to contribute positively to their success. However, the lack of clear design principles to describe and guide the use of these features in behavioral interventions limits cross-study comparisons of their uses and effects. Objective The aim of this study was to provide a systematic review of DBCIs targeting modifiable behavioral risk factors that have included social media features as part of their intervention infrastructure. A taxonomy of social media features is presented to inform the development, description, and evaluation of behavioral interventions. Methods Search terms were used in 8 databases to identify DBCIs that incorporated social media features and targeted tobacco smoking, diet and nutrition, physical activities, or alcohol consumption. The screening and review process was performed by 2 independent researchers. Results A total of 5264 articles were screened, and 143 articles describing a total of 134 studies were retained for full review. The majority of studies (70%) reported positive outcomes, followed by 28% finding no effects with regard to their respective objectives and hypothesis, and 2% of the studies found that their interventions had negative outcomes. Few studies reported on the association between the inclusion of social media features and intervention effect. A taxonomy of social media features used in behavioral interventions has been presented with 36 social media features organized under 7 high-level categories. The taxonomy has been used to guide the analysis of this review. Conclusions Although social media features are commonly included in DBCIs, there is an acute lack of information with respect to their effect on outcomes and a lack of clear guidance to inform the selection process based on the features’ suitability for the different behaviors. The proposed taxonomy along with the set of recommendations included
St Quinton, Tom; Brunton, Julie A
The ability to regulate and subsequently change behavior is influenced by both reflective and implicit processes. Traditional theories have focused on conscious processes by highlighting the beliefs and intentions that influence decision making. However, their success in changing behavior has been modest with a gap between intention and behavior apparent. Dual-process models have been recently applied to health psychology; with numerous models incorporating implicit processes that influence behavior as well as the more common conscious processes. Such implicit processes are theorized to govern behavior non-consciously. The article provides a commentary on motivational and volitional processes and how interventions have combined to attempt an increase in positive health behaviors. Following this, non-conscious processes are discussed in terms of their theoretical underpinning. The article will then highlight how these processes have been measured and will then discuss the different ways that the non-conscious and conscious may interact. The development of interventions manipulating both processes may well prove crucial in successfully altering behavior.
Gainforth, Heather L.; Sheals, Kate; Atkins, Lou; Jackson, Richard; Michie, Susan
The Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) and the Behavior Change Wheel (BCW) are frameworks that can be used to develop recycling interventions. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the utility of these frameworks for developing recycling interventions. 20 semistructured interviews with university building users were analyzed using the TDF and…
Effect of personal activity trackers on weight loss in families enrolled in a comprehensive behavioral family-lifestyle intervention program in the federally qualified health center setting: A randomized controlled trial
Full Text Available Background: Childhood obesity continues to be a substantial problem despite major public health efforts, and disproportionately impacts children from low-income families. Digital health tools and consumer technology offer promising opportunities for interventions, but few studies have evaluated how they might be incorporated into existing interventions or used to create new types of interventions. It remains unclear which approaches would be most beneficial for underserved pediatric populations. Purpose: To describe the design and rationale of a single-center randomized, controlled trial evaluating the effects of personal activity tracker (PAT use by parents on weight-status improvement in both parents and overweight children enrolled in BodyWorks (BW, a comprehensive behavioral family-lifestyle intervention program (CBFLI, in a primary-care clinic serving a predominantly low-income Latino population. Methods: This study is being conducted in the AltaMed general pediatrics clinic at Children's Hospital Los Angeles. Eligible participants are families (child and adult caregiver in which the child is between 7 and 18 years of age, has a BMI ≥85th percentile for age and sex, and has been referred to BW by their AltaMed pediatrician. BW consists of one weekly, two-hour session for 7 weeks. In a given cycle, the program is offered on two separate nights: Monday (Spanish and Wednesday (English. Families self sort into one of two groups based on language preference. To ensure balanced allocation of language preference groups and prevent in-group cross contamination, block randomization is used to assign whole groups to either the intervention or control arms of the study. The control arm consists of usual care, while the intervention arm adds assigning a Fitbit PAT to the parents and training them in its proper use. Study personnel are blinded to group assignment during the analysis phase. Study outcomes include attendance rate, program completion
Ellis, Bruce J; Volk, Anthony A; Gonzalez, Jose-Michael; Embry, Dennis D
Bullying is a problem that affects adolescents worldwide. Efforts to prevent bullying have been moderately successful at best, or iatrogenic at worst. We offer an explanation for this limited success by employing an evolutionary-psychological perspective to analyze antibullying interventions. We argue that bullying is a goal-directed behavior that is sensitive to benefits as well as costs, and that interventions must address these benefits. This perspective led us to develop a novel antibullying intervention, Meaningful Roles, which offers bullies prosocial alternatives-meaningful roles and responsibilities implemented through a school jobs program and reinforced through peer-to-peer praise notes-that effectively meet the same status goals as bullying behavior. We describe this new intervention and how its theoretical evolutionary roots may be applicable to other intervention programs. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Research on Adolescence © 2015 Society for Research on Adolescence.
Schwebel, David C; Barton, Benjamin K; Shen, Jiabin; Wells, Hayley L; Bogar, Ashley; Heath, Gretchen; McCullough, David
Pedestrian injuries represent a pediatric public health challenge. This systematic review/meta-analysis evaluated behavioral interventions to teach children pedestrian safety. Multiple strategies derived eligible manuscripts (published before April 1, 2013, randomized design, evaluated behavioral child pedestrian safety interventions). Screening 1,951 abstracts yielded 125 full-text retrievals. 25 were retained for data extraction, and 6 were later omitted due to insufficient data. In all, 19 articles reporting 25 studies were included. Risk of bias and quality of evidence were assessed. Behavioral interventions generally improve children's pedestrian safety, both immediately after training and at follow-up several months later. Quality of the evidence was low to moderate. Available evidence suggested interventions targeting dash-out prevention, crossing at parked cars, and selecting safe routes across intersections were effective. Individualized/small-group training for children was the most effective training strategy based on available evidence. Behaviorally based interventions improve children's pedestrian safety. Efforts should continue to develop creative, cost-efficient, and effective interventions. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Lloyd, Gillian R; Oza, Sonal; Kozey-Keadle, Sarah; Pellegrini, Christine A; Conroy, David E; Penedo, Frank J; Spring, Bonnie J; Phillips, Siobhan M
Less time spent in sedentary behaviors is associated with improved health and disease outcomes in breast cancer survivors. However, little is known about survivors' interest in sedentary behavior reduction interventions and how to effectively reduce this risk behavior. The purpose of this study was to explore breast cancer survivors' interest in and preferences for technology-supported sedentary behavior reduction interventions. Breast cancer survivors [n=279; M age =60.7 ( SD =9.7)] completed a battery of online questionnaires. Descriptive statistics were calculated for all data. To examine potential relationships between demographic, disease and behavioral factors, and survivors' interest in a technology-supported sedentary behavior reduction intervention, we conducted logistic regression analyses. These same factors were examined in relation to the perceptions of the effectiveness of such intervention using multiple regression analyses. On average, survivors spent 10.1 ( SD =4.3) hours/day in sedentary activity. They believed prolonged periods of sedentary behavior were harmful to their health (87.0%) and that reducing sedentary behavior could improve their health (88.4%). Survivors believed they should move around after 30-60 (56.7%) or ≥60 (29.9%) minutes of sedentary behavior and indicated they were most likely to replace sedentary behaviors with walking around (97.1%) or walking in place (73.4%). The majority of survivors (79.9%) was interested in participating in a technology-supported sedentary behavior reduction intervention and indicated they would use a smartphone application (61.3%) 2-3 times/day (48.0%), 6 to 7 days/week (52.0%). Most survivors (73.5%) believed reminders would help them decrease sedentary behavior and preferred they be delivered after sitting for 60 minutes (60.5%) via vibrations on a wrist worn activity tracker (77.3%) or text messages (54.4%). Technology-supported sedentary behavior reduction interventions may be feasible and
Bonnie J. Spring
Full Text Available Purpose: Less time spent in sedentary behaviors is associated with improved health and disease outcomes in breast cancer survivors. However, little is known about survivors’ interest in sedentary behavior reduction interventions and how to effectively reduce this risk behavior. The purpose of this study was to explore breast cancer survivors’ interest in and preferences for technology-supported sedentary behavior reduction interventions. Methods: Breast cancer survivors (n = 279; Mage = 60.7 (SD = 9.7 completed a battery of online questionnaires. Descriptive statistics were calculated for all data. To examine potential relationships between demographic, disease and behavioral factors, and survivors’ interest in a technology-supported sedentary behavior reduction intervention, we conducted logistic regression analyses. These same factors were examined in relation to the perceptions of the effectiveness of such intervention using multiple regression analyses. Results: On average, survivors spent 10.1 (SD = 4.3 hours/day in sedentary activity. They believed prolonged periods of sedentary behavior were harmful to their health (87.0% and that reducing sedentary behavior could improve their health (88.4%. Survivors believed they should move around after 30–60 (56.7% or ≥ 60 (29.9% minutes of sedentary behavior and indicated they were most likely to replace sedentary behaviors with walking around (97.1% or walking in place (73.4%. The majority of survivors (79.9% was interested in participating in a technology-supported sedentary behavior reduction intervention and indicated they would use a smartphone application (61.3% 2–3 times/day (48.0%, 6 to 7 days/week (52.0%. Most survivors (73.5% believed reminders would help them decrease sedentary behavior and preferred they be delivered after sitting for 60 minutes (60.5% via vibrations on a wrist worn activity tracker (77.3% or text messages (54.4%. Conclusions: Technology-supported sedentary
Natalia Cámara Conde
Full Text Available Work-related stress is one of the most widespread illnesses over the developed countries during the last decades of the twentieth century and the twenty-first century. The high costs generated as well as the increased prevalence have made various institutions worldwide to study and consider the need to create laws to prevent them.This pre-post-type randomized clinical trial has as its main objective to assess whether an nurse intervention based on the cognitive-behavioural therapy reduces the effect of stressors cause of job stress in health professionals working in the emergency extra hospital devices at the Emergency Medical Service of the Community of Madrid (SUMMA 112, as these professionals, due to the specific characteristics of their jobs, the crisis in health care that work and the lack of training in techniques to overcome and control Stress makes them particularly sensitive to disorders arising from the stress at work.
Bluethmann, Shirley M.; Bartholomew, L. Kay; Murphy, Caitlin C.; Vernon, Sally W.
Objective: Theory use may enhance effectiveness of behavioral interventions, yet critics question whether theory-based interventions have been sufficiently scrutinized. This study applied a framework to evaluate theory use in physical activity interventions for breast cancer survivors. The aims were to (1) evaluate theory application intensity and…
Wong, Stephen E.
Official state program reviews of 204 substitute care facilities were assessed for the types of behavior management and behavioral interventions used and the extent to which agency practices were consistent with learning theory principles. Data were also collected on the type and number of professional staff available to implement and oversee…
Collins, Lauren W.; Zirkel, Perry A.
Functional behavior assessments (FBAs) and behavior intervention plans (BIPs) are critical components in the education of students with, or at risk for, emotional disturbance (ED). The purpose of this article is to compare the legal requirements with the professional requirements for FBAs and BIPs. The comparison is first according to the…
Durand, V. Mark; Merges, Eileen
This article describes functional communication training (FCT) with students who have autism. FCT involves teaching alternative communication strategies to replace problem behaviors. The article reviews the conditions under which this intervention is successful and compares the method with other behavioral approaches. It concludes that functional…
Bock, Marjorie A.
This study examined the effect of a social-behavioral learning strategy intervention (Stop-Observe-Deliberate-Act; SODA) on the social interaction skills of one middle school student with Asperger syndrome (AS). More specifically, the study investigated the effect of SODA training on the ability of one student with AS to participate in cooperative…
Briesch, Amy M.; Briesch, Jacquelyn M.
The current study meta-analyzed 47 single-subject studies of behavioral self-management interventions that were published between 1971 and 2011. In addition to obtaining an overall measure of effect across all self-management studies (f = 0.93), analyses were conducted to assess whether treatment effectiveness was moderated by factors such as…
Kloek, Corelien; Bossen, Daniël; de Bakker, Dinny H; Veenhof, Cindy; Dekker, Joost
Blended behavior change interventions combine therapeutic guidance with online care. This new way of delivering health care is supposed to stimulate patients with chronic somatic disorders in taking an active role in their disease management. However, knowledge about the effectiveness of blended behavior change interventions and how they should be composed is scattered. This comprehensive systematic review aimed to provide an overview of characteristics and effectiveness of blended behavior change interventions for patients with chronic somatic disorders. We searched for randomized controlled trials published from 2000 to April 2017 in PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration tool. Study characteristics, intervention characteristics, and outcome data were extracted. Studies were sorted based on their comparison group. A best-evidence synthesis was conducted to summarize the effectiveness. A total of 25 out of the 29 included studies were of high quality. Most studies (n=21; 72%) compared a blended intervention with no intervention. The majority of interventions focused on changing pain behavior (n=17; 59%), and the other interventions focused on lifestyle change (n=12; 41%). In addition, 26 studies (90%) focused on one type of behavior, whereas 3 studies (10%) focused on multiple behaviors. A total of 23 studies (79%) mentioned a theory as basis for the intervention. The therapeutic guidance in most studies (n=18; 62%) was non face-to-face by using email, phone, or videoconferencing, and in the other studies (partly), it was face-to-face (n=11; 38%). In 26 studies (90%), the online care was provided via a website, and in 3 studies (10%) via an app. In 22 studies (76%), the therapeutic guidance and online care were integrated instead of two separate aspects. A total of 26 outcome measures were included in the evidence synthesis comparing blended interventions with no
Effects of controlled school-based multi-component model of nutrition and lifestyle interventions on behavior modification, anthropometry and metabolic risk profile of urban Asian Indian adolescents in North India.
Singhal, N; Misra, A; Shah, P; Gulati, S
To study the effectiveness of a multi-component intervention model of nutrition and lifestyle education on behavior modification, anthropometry and metabolic risk profile of urban Asian-Indian adolescents in North India. Two schools matched for student strength and middle socioeconomic strata were randomly allocated to intervention and control group. Changes in nutrition-related knowledge, attitude, lifestyle practices, food frequency and body image of eleventh-grade students (15-17 years) in both schools were tested using a validated questionnaire. Anthropometric and biochemical measurements were made using standard methods. Segmental body composition analysis was carried out using an 8-electrode multifrequency bioelectrical impedance method of body fat estimation. At 6 months follow-up, significant improvement in several domains of knowledge was observed in intervention children (n=99; males=60; females=39) as compared with control school children (n=102; males=61; females=41). In the intervention group, significantly lower proportion of children consumed aerated drinks (15.1%; Phabits and lifestyle practices, and resulted in beneficial changes in anthropometric and biochemical profiles of the Asian Indian adolescents. This model should be applied on countrywide basis to prevent obesity and diabetes.
Dodge, Kenneth A; McCourt, Sandra N
Adolescent chronic antisocial behavior is costly but concentrated in a relatively small number of individuals. The search for effective preventive interventions draws from empirical findings of three kinds of gene-by-environment interactions: (1) parenting behaviors mute the impact of genes; (2) genes alter the impact of traumatic environmental experiences such as physical abuse and peer social rejection; and (3) individuals and environments influence each other in a dynamic developmental cascade. Thus, environmental interventions that focus on high-risk youth may prove effective. The Fast Track intervention and randomized controlled trial are described. The intervention is a 10-year series of efforts to produce proximal change in parenting, peer relations, social cognition, and academic performance in order to lead to distal prevention of adolescent conduct disorder. Findings indicate that conduct disorder cases can be prevented, but only in the highest risk group of children. Implications for policy are discussed. (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
O’Reilly, Gillian A.; Cook, Lauren; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Black, David S.
Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) targeting eating behaviors have gained popularity in recent years. A literature review was conducted to determine the effectiveness of MBIs for treating obesity-related eating behaviors, such as binge eating, emotional eating, and external eating. A search protocol was conducted using the online databases Google Scholar, PubMed, PsycINFO, and Ovid Healthstar. Articles were required to meet the following criteria to be included in this review: (1) describe a MBI or the use of mindfulness exercises as part of an intervention, (2) include at least one obesity-related eating behavior as an outcome, (3) include quantitative outcomes, and (4) be published in English in a peer-reviewed journal. A total of N=21 articles were included in this review. Interventions used a variety of approaches to implement mindfulness training, including combined mindfulness and cognitive behavioral therapies, mindfulness-based stress reduction, acceptance-based therapies, mindful eating programs, and combinations of mindfulness exercises. Targeted eating behavior outcomes included binge eating, emotional eating, external eating, and dietary intake. Eighteen (86%) of the reviewed studies reported improvements in the targeted eating behaviors. Overall, the results of this first review on the topic support the efficacy of mindfulness-based interventions for changing obesity-related eating behaviors, specifically binge eating, emotional eating, and external eating. PMID:24636206
Landry, Susan H.; Smith, Karen E.; Swank, Paul R.; Guttentag, Cathy
This study examined the optimal timing (infancy, toddler–preschool, or both) for facilitating responsive parenting and the intervention effects on maternal behaviors and child social and communication skills for children who vary in biological risk. The intervention during infancy, Playing and Learning Strategies (PALS I), showed strong changes in maternal affective–emotional and cognitively responsive behaviors and infants’ development. However, it was hypothesized that a 2nd intervention do...
Moskowitz, Lauren J; Walsh, Caitlin E; Mulder, Emile; McLaughlin, Darlene Magito; Hajcak, Greg; Carr, Edward G; Zarcone, Jennifer R
There is little research on the functional assessment and treatment of anxiety and related problem behavior in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), particularly those with intellectual and developmental disability (IDD). In a recent study, we evaluated a multimethod strategy for assessing anxiety in children with ASD and IDD (Am J Intellect Dev Disabil 118:419-434, 2013). In the present study, we developed treatments for the anxiety and associated problem behavior in these same children. A multiple baseline design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of a multicomponent intervention package, incorporating individualized strategies from Positive Behavior Support and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. During intervention, all three participants showed substantial decreases in anxiety and problem behavior and significant increases in respiratory sinus arrhythmia in the situations that had previously been identified as anxiety-provoking.
van Stralen, M.M.; de Meij, J.; te Velde, S.J.; van der Wal, W.F.; van Mechelen, W.; Knol, D.L.; Chin A Paw, M.J.M.
Background: Important health benefits can be achieved when physical activity in children from low socio-economic status is promoted and sedentariness is limited. By specifying the mediating mechanisms of existing interventions one can improve future physical activity interventions. This study
Middelkamp, J.; Rooijen, M. Van; Wolfhagen, P.; Steenbergen, B.
The transtheoretical model of behavior change (TTM) is often used to understand changes in health-related behavior, like exercise. Exercise behavior in fitness clubs is an understudied topic, but preliminary studies showed low frequencies and large numbers of drop-out. An initial 12-week
Habibović, Mirela; Burg, Matthew M; Pedersen, Susanne S.
The implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) is the first-line treatment for primary and secondary prevention of sudden cardiac death. A subgroup of patients experience psychological distress postimplant, and no clear evidence base exists regarding how best to address patients' needs. The aim...... of this critical review is to provide an overview of behavioral interventions in ICD patients to date, and to delineate directions for future research using lessons learned from the ongoing RISTA and WEBCARE trials....
Sidani, Souraya; Epstein, Dana R; Fox, Mary
Treatment satisfaction is recognized as an essential aspect in the evaluation of an intervention's effectiveness, but there is no measure that provides for its comprehensive assessment with regard to behavioral interventions. Informed by a conceptualization generated from a literature review, we developed a measure that covers several domains of satisfaction with behavioral interventions. In this paper, we briefly review its conceptualization and describe the Multi-Dimensional Treatment Satisfaction Measure (MDTSM) subscales. Satisfaction refers to the appraisal of the treatment's process and outcome attributes. The MDTSM has 11 subscales assessing treatment process and outcome attributes: treatment components' suitability and utility, attitude toward treatment, desire for continued treatment use, therapist competence and interpersonal style, format and dose, perceived benefits of the health problem and everyday functioning, discomfort, and attribution of outcomes to treatment. The MDTSM was completed by persons (N = 213) in the intervention group in a large trial of a multi-component behavioral intervention for insomnia within 1 week following treatment completion. The MDTSM's subscales demonstrated internal consistency reliability (α: .65 - .93) and validity (correlated with self-reported adherence and perceived insomnia severity at post-test). The MDTSM subscales can be used to assess satisfaction with behavioral interventions and point to aspects of treatments that are viewed favorably or unfavorably. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Betancourt, Theresa S; McBain, Ryan; Newnham, Elizabeth A; Akinsulure-Smith, Adeyinka M; Brennan, Robert T; Weisz, John R; Hansen, Nathan B
Youth in war-affected regions are at risk for poor psychological, social, and educational outcomes. Effective interventions are needed to improve mental health, social behavior, and school functioning. This randomized controlled trial tested the effectiveness of a 10-session cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT)-based group mental health intervention for multisymptomatic war-affected youth (aged 15-24 years) in Sierra Leone. War-affected youth identified by elevated distress and impairment via community screening were randomized (stratified by sex and age) to the Youth Readiness Intervention (YRI) (n = 222) or to a control condition (n = 214). After treatment, youth were again randomized and offered an education subsidy immediately (n = 220) or waitlisted (n = 216). Emotion regulation, psychological distress, prosocial attitudes/behaviors, social support, functional impairment, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms were assessed at pre- and postintervention and at 6-month follow-up. For youth in school, enrollment, attendance, and classroom performance were assessed after 8 months. Linear mixed-effects regressions evaluated outcomes. The YRI showed significant postintervention effects on emotion regulation, prosocial attitudes/behaviors, social support, and reduced functional impairment, and significant follow-up effects on school enrollment, school attendance, and classroom behavior. In contrast, education subsidy was associated with better attendance but had no effect on mental health or functioning, school retention, or classroom behavior. Interactions between education subsidy and YRI were not significant. YRI produced acute improvements in mental health and functioning as well as longer-term effects on school engagement and behavior, suggesting potential to prepare war-affected youth for educational and other opportunities. Clinical trial registration information-Trial of the Youth Readiness Intervention (YRI); http://clinicaltrials.gov; NCT
Alessandra Turini Bolsoni-Silva
Full Text Available Negative parental practices may influence the onset and maintenance of externalizing behavior problems, and positive parenting seem to improve children's social skills and reduce behavior problems. The objective of the present study was to describe the effects of an intervention designed to foster parents' social skills related to upbringing practices in order to reduce externalizing problems in children aged 4 to 6 years. Thirteen mothers and two care taker grandmothers took part in the study with an average of four participants per group. To assess intervention effects, we used a repeated measure design with control, pre, and post intervention assessments. Instruments used were: (a An interview schedule that evaluates the social interactions between parents and children functionally, considering each pair of child¿s and parent's behaviors as context for one another; (b A Social Skills Inventory; (c Child Behavior Checklist - CBCL. Intervention was effective in improving parent general social skills, decreasing negative parental practices and decreasing child behavior problems.
Full Text Available This research investigated the inappropriate behavior of preschool children with autism in a classroom and examined the effectiveness of the use of social stories to decrease inappropriate autistic behavior. An A-B-A-B single subject design was used across the five participants selected for the study. Investigating the problematic social skills and developing a social story intervention for the preschool autistic children was completed, followed by an examination of the effectiveness of the social story intervention. Ten common problematic social skills among the autistic children in preschool were identified—walking around, making loud noises, not sharing their toys with others, showing frustration when feeling unsatisfied, having no patience, not putting toys away when finished, taking other people's belongings without permission, not knowing how to greet others, destroying things when feeling frustrated, and giving a hug to other people at inappropriate times. It was found that the social story intervention helped to decrease inappropriate behavior in children with autism. The social story intervention consisted of five social story books and five e-books (one story per child using a single subject design with an A-B-A-B pattern. The autistic children preferred social stories from the hardcopy books compared with stories from the e-books. A fourth stage time trial was used over 6 weeks, five times per week, for a total of 30 times. The findings suggested that the use of properly constructed social stories can be effective in decreasing the inappropriate behavior of children with autism. However, each story intervention should be applied with caution because of individual differences between children. The social story intervention should be designed only for autistic children who exhibit specific inappropriate social behavior. Keywords: autistic child, inappropriate behavior, social skills, social story
Barrett, Kathleen; Chang, Yu-Ping
Patients with chronic pain, depression, and substance use disorder (SUD) are often treated in primary care settings. An estimated 52% of patients have a diagnosis of chronic pain, 5% to 13% have depression, and 19% have SUD. These estimates are likely low when considering the fact that 50% of primary care patients with depression and 65% with SUD are undiagnosed or do not seek help. These three conditions have overlapping neurophysiological processes, which complicate the treatment outcomes of a primary physical illness. Behavioral interventions have been widely utilized as adjunctive treatments, yet little is known about what types of behavioral interventions were effective to treat these comorbidities. This systematic review aimed to identify behavioral interventions targeting chronic pain, depression, and SUD in primary care settings. The Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Medline, PsycInfo, and Google Scholar databases were searched to identify randomized controlled trials, using a behavioral intervention, involving adults with at least two of the three conditions. This search yielded 1,862 relevant records, and six articles met final selection criteria. A total of 696 participants were studied. Behavioral interventions varied in content, format, and duration. Mindfulness Oriented Recovery Enhancement (MORE), Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), Interpersonal Psychotherapy adapted for pain (IPT-P), and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) showed promising improvements across all studies, albeit with small to moderate effects. MORE, ACT, and CBT combined with mindfulness and Motivational Interviewing had the most promising results for treating chronic pain, depression, and SUD in various combinations in primary care settings. The evidence is mounting that behavioral interventions such as mindfulness-based or cognitive-behavioral interventions are effective strategies for managing patients with comorbidities of chronic pain, depression
Curtis, David F
Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) present significant problems with behavioral disinhibition that often negatively affect their peer relationships. Although behavior therapies for ADHD have traditionally aimed to help parents and teachers better manage children's ADHD-related behaviors, therapy processes seldom use peer relationships to implement evidence-based behavioral principles. This article introduces Structured Dyadic Behavior Therapy as a milieu for introducing effective behavioral techniques within a socially meaningful context. Establishing collaborative behavioral goals, benchmarking, and redirection strategies are discussed to highlight how in-session dyadic processes can be used to promote more meaningful reinforcement and change for children with ADHD. Implications for improving patient care, access to care, and therapist training are also discussed.
O’Reilly, Gillian A.; Cook, Lauren; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Black, David S.
Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) targeting eating behaviors have gained popularity in recent years. A literature review was conducted to determine the effectiveness of MBIs for treating obesity-related eating behaviors, such as binge eating, emotional eating, and external eating. A search protocol was conducted using the online databases Google Scholar, PubMed, PsycINFO, and Ovid Healthstar. Articles were required to meet the following criteria to be included in this review: (1) describ...
Kolko, David J; Perrin, Ellen
Because the integration of mental or behavioral health services in pediatric primary care is a national priority, a description and evaluation of the interventions applied in the healthcare setting is warranted. This article examines several intervention research studies based on alternative models for delivering behavioral health care in conjunction with comprehensive pediatric care. This review describes the diverse methods applied to different clinical problems, such as brief mental health skills, clinical guidelines, and evidence-based practices, and the empirical outcomes of this research literature. Next, several key treatment considerations are discussed to maximize the efficiency and effectiveness of these interventions. Some practical suggestions for overcoming key service barriers are provided to enhance the capacity of the practice to deliver behavioral health care. There is moderate empirical support for the feasibility, acceptability, and clinical utility of these interventions for treating internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. Practical strategies to extend this work and address methodological limitations are provided that draw upon recent frameworks designed to simplify the treatment enterprise (e.g., common elements). Pediatric primary care has become an important venue for providing mental health services to children and adolescents due, in part, to its many desirable features (e.g., no stigma, local setting, familiar providers). Further adaptation of existing delivery models may promote the delivery of effective integrated interventions with primary care providers as partners designed to address mental health problems in pediatric healthcare.
Vanschoonlandt, Femke; Vanderfaeillie, Johan; Van Holen, Frank; De Maeyer, Skrallan
Foster parents are often faced with serious externalizing behaviors of their foster child. These behavioral problems may induce family stress and are related to less effective parenting and often increase. Foster children with behavioral problems are also more at risk of placement breakdown. An intervention to support foster parents of young…
Aveling, Emma-Louise; Stone, Juliana; Sundt, Thoralf; Wright, Cameron; Gino, Francesca; Singer, Sara
Surgical excellence demands teamwork. Poor team behaviors negatively affect team performance and are associated with adverse events and worse outcomes. Interventions to improve surgical teamwork focusing on frontline team members' nontechnical skills have proliferated but shown mixed results. Literature on teamwork in organizations suggests that team behaviors are also contingent on psycho-social, cultural and organizational factors. This study examines factors influencing surgical team behaviors in order to inform more contextually sensitive and effective approaches to optimizing surgical teamwork. Qualitative study of cardiac surgical teams in a large US teaching hospital included 34 semi-structured interviews. Thematic network analysis was used to examine perceptions of ideal teamwork and factors influencing team behaviors in the OR. Perceptions of ideal teamwork were largely shared, but team members held discrepant views of which team and leadership behaviors enhanced or undermined teamwork. Other factors impacting team behaviors related to: local organizational culture, including management of staff behavior; variable case demands and team members' technical competence; fitness of organizational structures and processes to support teamwork. These factors affected perceptions of what constituted optimal interpersonal and team behaviors in the OR. Team behaviors are contextually contingent and organizationally determined, and beliefs about optimal behaviors are not necessarily shared. Interventions to optimize surgical teamwork requires establishing consensus regarding best practice, ability to adapt as circumstances require, and organizational commitment to addressing contextual factors that impact teams. Copyright © 2018 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Epperson, Matthew W.; Wolff, Nancy; Morgan, Robert D.; Fisher, William H.; Frueh, B. Christopher; Huening, Jessica
The purpose of this paper is to cast a vision for the next generation of behavioral health and criminal justice interventions for persons with serious mental illnesses in the criminal justice system. The limitations of first generation interventions, including their primary focus on mental health treatment connection, are discussed. A person-place framework for understanding the complex factors that contribute to criminal justice involvement for this population is presented. We discuss practice and research recommendations for building more effective interventions to address both criminal justice and mental health outcomes. PMID:24666731
Han, Q.; Nieuwenhijsen, I.; Vries, B. de; Blokhuis, E.; Schaefer, W.
This study investigates intervention strategy in stimulating energy-saving behavior to achieve energy neutral urban development. A tree structure overview of potential interventions classified into three categories is revealed. An integrated behaviour model is developed reflecting the relations between behaviour and influence factors. A latent class model is used to identify segments of local residents who differ regarding their preferences for interventions. Data are collected from a sample of residents in the Eindhoven region of the Netherlands in 2010. The results indicate that social-demographic characteristics, knowledge, motivation and context factors play important roles in energy-saving behaviour. Specifically, four segments of residents in the study area were identified that clearly differed in their preferences of interventions: cost driven residents, conscious residents, ease driven residents and environment minded residents. These findings emphasize that the intervention strategy should be focused on specific target groups to have the right mixture of interventions to achieve effective results on stimulating them to save energy. - Highlights: ► A latent class model to identify segments with preferred energy-saving interventions. ► An integrated energy-saving behavior model of casual relations. ► A tree structure overview of potential interventions
Toulabi, Tahereh; Khosh Niyat Nikoo, Mohsen; Amini, Fariba; Nazari, Hedayat; Mardani, Mahnaz
The prevalence of obesity and overweight among children and adolescents is increasing rapidly. The present research was performed to determine the influence of a ''behavior modification'' program on body mass index (BMI) in obese public high school students in Iran. In this study, 152 adolescence and their parents were selected from 12 high schools of Khorram Abad from 2004 to 2006, and they were randomly assigned to either the intervention or the control groups. The "behavior modification" interventional program consisted of nutritional education, modifying dietary habits, teaching exercise programs, teaching nutritional facts to the parents, and performing exercises 3 days a week. The height and weight as well as waist, hip, and wrist circumferences of the participants were measured before and after implementing the interventional program. BMI and waist to hip ratio (WHR) were calculated. The adolescents and parents completed a nutrition knowledge questionnaire. Adolescents also completed the Beck's Depression Questionnaire. Adolescent's mean weight, BMI, and waist and hip circumferences decreased significantly after implementing the interventional program, in the intervention group (p≤0.001). In addition, the students' and parents' nutrition knowledge increased in the intervention group after implementing the interventional program (pbehavior modification'' interventional program is effective in reducing BMI in obese students, and therefore, school principals and planners can play an important role in controlling obesity by implementing this program via the students, their parents, and the school staff. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Miller, Dale T; Dannals, Jennifer E; Zlatev, Julian J
We argue that psychologists who conduct experiments with long lags between the manipulation and the outcome measure should pay more attention to behavioral processes that intervene between the manipulation and the outcome measure. Neglect of such processes, we contend, stems from psychology's long tradition of short-lag lab experiments where there is little scope for intervening behavioral processes. Studying process in the lab invariably involves studying psychological processes, but in long-lag field experiments it is important to study causally relevant behavioral processes as well as psychological ones. To illustrate the roles that behavioral processes can play in long-lag experiments we examine field experiments motivated by three policy-relevant goals: prejudice reduction, health promotion, and educational achievement. In each of the experiments discussed we identify various behavioral pathways through which the manipulated psychological state could have produced the observed outcome. We argue that if psychologists conducting long-lag interventions posited a theory of change that linked manipulated psychological states to outcomes via behavioral pathways, the result would be richer theory and more practically useful research. Movement in this direction would also permit more opportunities for productive collaborations between psychologists and other social scientists interested in similar social problems.
Karsten, Margo A
Organizations are transitioning from a management industrial era to a humanistic era. This transition will require a different set of leadership competencies. Competencies that reflect relationships, connections with employees, and having the skill to unleash the human capability at all levels of an organization are essential. Similar to when a sports team needs a different play book to be successful, leaders need a new play book. Coaches within the sports team are the ones who assist players in learning how to adapt to a different set of rules. They teach the players how to show up differently and how to implement different plays, with the overall goal of being a successful team. New competencies are being required to reflect a humanistic approach to leadership. It is critical that organizations offer coaching as an intervention to all levels of leadership. This actual case study demonstrates that coaching not only assisted leaders in learning a new way of leading but also improved overall organizational effectiveness. The results that have been accomplished through the use of implementing a 360-degree feedback system, with coaching, reaped overall organization improvement. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mai, Knut; Brachs, Maria; Leupelt, Verena; Schwartzenberg, Reiner Jumpertz-von; Maurer, Lukas; Grüters-Kieslich, Annette; Ernert, Andrea; Bobbert, Thomas; Krude, Heiko; Spranger, Joachim
Lifestyle based weight loss interventions are hampered by long-term inefficacy. Prediction of individuals successfully reducing body weight would be highly desirable. Although sympathetic activity is known to contribute to energy homeostasis, its predictive role in body weight maintenance has not yet been addressed. We investigated, whether weight regain could be modified by a weight maintenance intervention and analyzed the predictive role of weight loss-induced changes of the sympathetic system on long-term weight regain. 156 subjects (age > 18; BMI ≥ 27 kg/m 2 ) participated in a 12-week weight reduction program. After weight loss (T0), 143 subjects (weight loss >8%) were randomized to a 12-month lifestyle intervention or a control group. After 12 months (T12) no further intervention was performed until month 18 (T18). Weight regain at T18 (regain BMI ) was the primary outcome. Evaluation of systemic and tissue specific estimates of sympathetic system was a pre-defined secondary outcome. BMI was reduced by 4.67 ± 1.47 kg/m 2 during the initial weight loss period. BMI maintained low in subjects of the intervention group until T12 (+0.07 ± 2.98 kg/m 2 ; p = 0.58 compared to T0), while control subjects regained +0.98 ± 1.93 kg/m 2 (p predicted regain BMI (R 2 = 0.138; p Predictive sympathetic activity was not persistently modified by the intervention, which may partially explain the lack of long-term success of such interventions. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Spook, Jorinde; Paulussen, Theo; Kok, Gerjo; Empelen, van Pepijn
Background: Serious games have the potential to promote health behavior. Because overweight is still a major issue among secondary vocational education students in the Netherlands, this study piloted the effects of "Balance It," a serious self-regulation game intervention targeting students'
Kloek, Corelien; Bossen, Daniël; Bakker, Dinny H.De; Veenhof, Cindy; Dekker, Joost
Background: Blended behavior change interventions combine therapeutic guidance with online care. This new way of delivering health care is supposed to stimulate patients with chronic somatic disorders in taking an active role in their disease management. However, knowledge about the effectiveness of
Kloek, Corelien; Bossen, Daniel; de Bakker, Dinny H.; Veenhof, Cindy; Dekker, Joost
Background: Blended behavior change interventions combine therapeutic guidance with online care. This new way of delivering health care is supposed to stimulate patients with chronic somatic disorders in taking an active role in their disease management. However, knowledge about the effectiveness of
Kloek, C.J.J.; Bossen, D.; de Bakker, D.H.; Veenhof, C.; Dekker, J.
Blended behavior change interventions combine therapeutic guidance with online care. This new way of delivering health care is supposed to stimulate patients with chronic somatic disorders in taking an active role in their disease management. However, knowledge about the effectiveness of blended
Claro, Anthony; Boulanger, Marie-Michelle; Shaw, Steven R.
The paper examined the effectiveness of an in-school intervention for adolescents designed to target emotional regulation skills related to risky behaviors. The Cognitive Emotion Regulation Intended for Youth (CERTIFY) program was delivered to at-risk adolescents in Montreal, Canada. Participants were drawn from an alternative high school and a…
Brothers, Brittany M.; Yang, Hae-Chung; Strunk, Daniel R.; Andersen, Barbara L.
Objective: In this Phase II trial, we evaluated a novel psychological treatment for depressed patients coping with the stresses of cancer. Effectiveness of a combined biobehavioral intervention (BBI) and cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) was studied. Method: Participants were 36 cancer survivors (mean age = 49 years; 88% Caucasian; 92% female)…
Pieper, Marjoleine J.C.; van der Steen, Jenny T.; Francke, Anneke L.; Scherder, Erik J.A.; Twisk, Jos W.R.; Achterberg, Wilco P.
Background: Pain in nursing home residents with advanced dementia remains a major challenge; it is difficult to detect and may be expressed as challenging behavior. STA OP! aims to identify physical and other needs as causes of behavioral changes and uses a stepwise approach for psychosocial and
Pieper, M.J.C.; Steen, J.T. van der; Francke, A.L.; Scherder, E.J.A.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Achterberg, W.P.
Background: Pain in nursing home residents with advanced dementia remains a major challenge; it is difficult to detect and may be expressed as challenging behavior. STA OP! aims to identify physical and other needs as causes of behavioral changes and uses a stepwise approach for psychosocial and
Ryan J. Watson
Full Text Available The reduction of risk behaviors in secondary schools is a key concern for parents, teachers, and school administrators. School is one of the primary contexts of socialization for young people; thus, the investment in school-based programs to reduce risk behaviors is essential. In this study, we report on youth who participated in an intervention designed to improve decision-making skills based on positive youth development approaches. We examine changes in decision-making skills before and after involvement in the Teen Interactive Theater Education (TITE program and retrospective self-assessment of change in knowledge, abilities, and beliefs as a result of participating in TITE (n = 127. Youth that reported increases in knowledge, abilities, and beliefs due to the intervention (n = 89 were more likely to think about the consequences of their decisions and list options before making a decision compared to their counterparts that reported less overall learning (n = 38. Implications for intervention research and stakeholders are discussed.
Corsica, Joyce; Hood, Megan M; Katterman, Shawn; Kleinman, Brighid; Ivan, Iulia
Stress-related eating is increasingly cited as a difficulty in managing healthy eating behaviors and weight. However few interventions have been designed to specifically target stress-related eating. In addition, the optimal target of such an intervention is unclear, as the target might be conceptualized as overall stress reduction or changing emotional eating-related thoughts and behaviors. This pilot study compared the effects of three interventions targeting those components individually and in combination on stress-related eating, perceived stress, and weight loss to determine whether the two intervention components are effective alone or are more effective when combined. Fifty-three overweight participants (98% female) who reported elevated levels of stress and stress-eating and were at risk for obesity were randomly assigned to one of three six-week interventions: a modified mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) intervention, a cognitive behavioral stress-eating intervention (SEI), and a combined intervention that included all MBSR and SEI components. All three interventions significantly reduced perceived stress and stress-eating, but the combination intervention resulted in greater reductions and also produced a moderate effect on short term weight loss. Benefits persisted at six week follow-up.The pattern of results preliminarily suggests that the combination intervention (MBSR+SEI) may yield promise in the treatment of stress-related eating.
Koutoukidis, Dimitrios A; Lopes, Sonia; Atkins, Lou; Croker, Helen; Knobf, M Tish; Lanceley, Anne; Beeken, Rebecca J
About 80% of endometrial cancer survivors (ECS) are overweight or obese and have sedentary behaviors. Lifestyle behavior interventions are promising for improving dietary and physical activity behaviors, but the constructs associated with their effectiveness are often inadequately reported. The aim of this study was to systematically adapt an evidence-based behavior change program to improve healthy lifestyle behaviors in ECS. Following a review of the literature, focus groups and interviews were conducted with ECS (n = 16). An intervention mapping protocol was used for the program adaptation, which consisted of six steps: a needs assessment, formulation of matrices of change objectives, selection of theoretical methods and practical applications, program production, adoption and implementation planning, and evaluation planning. Social Cognitive Theory and Control Theory guided the adaptation of the intervention. The process consisted of eight 90-min group sessions focusing on shaping outcome expectations, knowledge, self-efficacy, and goals about healthy eating and physical activity. The adapted performance objectives included establishment of regular eating, balanced diet, and portion sizes, reduction in sedentary behaviors, increase in lifestyle and organized activities, formulation of a discrepancy-reducing feedback loop for all above behaviors, and trigger management. Information on managing fatigue and bowel issues unique to ECS were added. Systematic intervention mapping provided a framework to design a cancer survivor-centered lifestyle intervention. ECS welcomed the intervention and provided essential feedback for its adaptation. The program has been evaluated through a randomized controlled trial.
Okorodudu, Daniel E; Bosworth, Hayden B; Corsino, Leonor
The overweight and obesity trends have risen over the past few decades, placing significant burdens on health care in terms of increased morbidity and cost. Behavioral change therapy is an effective treatment strategy and includes goal setting, self-monitoring, problem solving, and reinforcement tactics. Traditionally, behavior change therapy has been delivered using face-to-face counseling along with paper and pen recording of dietary intake and physical activity. The current advances in technology provide opportunities to deliver interventions using cellphones, internet, and active video games. These new methods to deliver behavior change for the management and prevention of obesity are being developed in order to increase access, improve convenience, decrease cost, and increase participant engagement. In this review, we present new approaches to promote behavior changes in the management of obesity. Currently available data show promising results. However, future research is needed to address study limitations and implementation challenges of these innovative interventions.
Drake, Bettina F; Quintiliani, Lisa M; Sapp, Amy L; Li, Yi; Harley, Amy E; Emmons, Karen M; Sorensen, Glorian
Alternatives to individual behavior change methods have been proposed, however, little has been done to investigate how these methods compare. To explore four methods that quantify change in multiple risk behaviors targeting four common behaviors. We utilized data from two cluster-randomized, multiple behavior change trials conducted in two settings: small businesses and health centers. Methods used were: (1) summative; (2) z-score; (3) optimal linear combination; and (4) impact score. In the Small Business study, methods 2 and 3 revealed similar outcomes. However, physical activity did not contribute to method 3. In the Health Centers study, similar results were found with each of the methods. Multivitamin intake contributed significantly more to each of the summary measures than other behaviors. Selection of methods to assess multiple behavior change in intervention trials must consider study design, and the targeted population when determining the appropriate method/s to use.
Zhou, Kai-Ge; Wu, Zhi-Fan; Sun, Xiao-Sheng
Health communication and behavior intervention are main measures adopted in health education. Behavior intervention among these measures is the direct one to affect individual and group behaviors. Patients demand more than health information communication, but rely on health intervention service and related products. This essay starts from…
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 requires empirically based interventions to be used when treating chronic problem behaviors. The fundamental part of behavior modification is the ability to demonstrate that behavior change occurred due to the intervention. This can only be accomplished when the intervention is…
Jackson, Dawnyéa D.; Ingram, Lucy Annang; Boyer, Cherrie B.; Robillard, Alyssa; Huhns, Michael N.
College students represent an important population for studying and understanding factors that influence sexual risk given the populations' high risk of sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancies. Using a quasi-experimental design, the efficacy of a brief and theory-driven mobile application intervention designed to decrease sexual…
Farris, Jaelyn R; Bert, Shannon S Carothers; Nicholson, Jody S; Glass, Kerrie; Borkowski, John G
This study assessed the secondary effects of a parent training intervention program on maternal adjustment, with a focus on understanding ways in which program efficacy differed for participants as a function of whether or not their children had behavior problems. Mothers (N = 99) of toddlers (2-3 years of age) were randomly assigned to receive one of three levels of intervention: (1) informational booklet (2) booklet + face-to-face parent training sessions, or (3) booklet + web-based parent training sessions. Findings indicated that all levels of intervention were associated with increases in maternal well-being for participants with typically developing children. Mothers of toddlers with behavior problems, however, did not benefit from receiving only the booklet but significantly benefitted from receiving either the face-to-face or web-based interventions. Findings are discussed in terms of efficient and efficacious program dissemination and the resulting implications for public policy.
Weber, Mary; Wyne, Kathleen
Obesity and diabetes have caused problems for individuals with schizophrenia long before atypical antipsychotic agents. The prevalence of obesity, insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and the Metabolic Syndrome has increased in people with schizophrenia as compared to the general population. Risk reduction studies for persons with obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease indicate that cognitive/behavioral interventions that promote motivation and provide strategies to overcome the barriers in adherence to diet and activity modification are effective interventions for weight management and risk reduction. In the landmark multi-center randomized-controlled trial study, the Diabetes Prevention Project (DPP), a cognitive/behavioral intervention, was more successful in producing weight loss and preventing diabetes than the drugs metformin, troglitazone or placebo. This pilot study examined the effectiveness of a cognitive/behavioral group intervention, modified after the DPP program, in individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder taking atypical antipsychotics in a large urban public mental health system. Outcome measures included body weight, body mass index, waist-hip ratios, and fasting glucose levels. Both groups demonstrated elevated fasting glucose levels and were obese with a mean BMI of 33. The group that received the cognitive/behavioral group intervention lost more weight than the treatment as usual group. The CB group participants lost an average of 5.4 lb or 2.9% of body weight, and those in the control group lost 1.3 lb or 0.6% body weight. The range of weight loss for the treatment group was from 1 to 20 lb. This pilot study has demonstrated that weight loss is possible with cognitive/behavioral interventions in a population with a psychotic disorder.
Batista, Maja; Mestrović, Antonela; Vekić, Ana Marija; Malenical, Masa; Kukuruzović, Monika; Begovac, Ivan
A pilot study was conducted to examine the efficiency and satisfaction of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) intervention in youth with epilepsy regarding coping strategies. The CBT intervention was based on the main principles and empirically supported cognitive-behavioral techniques. The intervention consists of epilepsy education, stress education, and coping skill strategies. Seventeen children and adolescents aged 9-17 diagnosed with epilepsy for at least one year, with at least average intelligence and no history of serious mental illness completed the CBT intervention during summer camp, providing data on the efficiency of and satisfaction with CBT intervention. Upon completion of the CBT intervention, study subjects achieved significantly higher scores on the following Scale of Coping with Stress subscales: Problem solving; Seeking for social support from friends; Seeking for social support from family; and Cognitive restructuring, for both measures of usage frequency and effectiveness of each subscale. The participants reported a high level of satisfaction with the CBT intervention. This study provided explanation of research limitations and recommendations for future clinical trials.
Effect of supplementation with long-chain ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on behavior and cognition in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a randomized placebo-controlled intervention trial.
Widenhorn-Müller, Katharina; Schwanda, Simone; Scholz, Elke; Spitzer, Manfred; Bode, Harald
To determine whether supplementation with the long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) affects behavioral symptoms and cognitive impairments in children 6-12 years of age diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled 16 weeks trial was conducted with 95 children diagnosed with ADHD according to DSM-IV criteria. Behavior was assessed by parents, teachers and investigators using standardized rating scales and questionnaires. Further outcome variables were working memory, speed of information processing and various measures of attention. For a subgroup of 81 participants, erythrocyte membrane fatty acid composition was analyzed before and after the intervention. Supplementation with the omega-3 fatty acid mix increased EPA and DHA concentrations in erythrocyte membranes and improved working memory function, but had no effect on other cognitive measures and parent- and teacher-rated behavior in the study population. Improved working memory correlated significantly with increased EPA, DHA and decreased AA (arachidonic acid). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Militello, Lisa K; Melnyk, Bernadette Mazurek; Hekler, Eric; Small, Leigh; Jacobson, Diana
Significant gaps exist in the published literature regarding the treatment of overweight/obesity in preschool-aged children, especially in primary care settings. Parental influence plays an important factor in the development of healthy behaviors in children, yet there is no consensus about why some behavior change intervention strategies for parents of young children are more influential and effective than others. The purpose of this secondary data analysis was to assess correlations among the study variables (healthy lifestyle beliefs, perceived difficulty, and healthy lifestyle behaviors) in parents of overweight/obese preschool children. A second aim explored if the parent's level of cognitive beliefs and perceived difficulty of engaging in healthy lifestyle behaviors correlated with text messaging cognitive behavioral support. Fifteen preschool-parent dyads from primary care clinics completed a 7-week cognitive behavioral skills building intervention. Beck's Cognitive Theory guided the intervention content, and Fogg's Behavior Model guided the implementation. The intervention was delivered using a combination of face-to-face clinic visits and ecological momentary interventions using text messaging. Supported are the interconnected relationships among the study variables, that is, parental healthy lifestyle beliefs, thoughts, and behaviors. At baseline, parental healthy lifestyle belief scores significantly correlated with perceived difficulty (rs = 0.598, p behaviors (rs = 0.545, p cognitive behavioral skills building and tailored text messaging, the need for general support via text messaging lessened, warranting additional research. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Hartman, Kelsey; Gresham, Frank
Disruptive behavior in the classroom negatively affects all students' academic engagement, achievement, and behavior. Group contingencies have been proven effective in reducing disruptive behavior as part of behavior interventions in the classroom. The Good Behavior Game is a Tier 1 classwide intervention that utilizes an interdependent group…
Kailas, Ajay; Botwin, Ariel L; Pritchett, Ellen N; Jackson-Richards, Diane; Lewis, Suzanna; Sadhwani, Divya; Desai, Seemal R; Taylor, Susan C
Skin of color (SOC) populations (ie, blacks, Hispanics, Asians) are at a notably higher risk for mortality from skin cancers such as melanoma than white individuals. In this article, we seek to answer the following question: Do knowledge-based interventions increase skin cancer awareness among SOC patients? Following an extensive literature search, a total of 4 articles were analyzed and discussed in this review.
Gómez Puente, Juana María; Martínez-Marcos, Mercedes
To identify the most effective interventions in overweight and obese adults. A narrative review through a search of the literature in databases PubMed, Cochrane, Joanna Briggs Institute, EMBASE, Cuiden y Cinahl with free and controlled language (MeSH terms) using Boolean operators AND and NOT. The research was limited to articles published between 2007 and 2015. Eighteen articles were selected based on the established inclusion and exclusion criteria. Different types of interventions were identified based on the modification of lifestyles, mainly diet, physical activity and behavior. Major differences were found in specific content, degree of intensity of interventions, time tracking and elements evaluated. Most of studies found statistically significant weight loss but this was limited in terms of weight and number of people. Web-based interventions have no uniform effect on weight loss but achieve similar levels to face-to-face interventions in maintaining weight loss. The combination of personalised diet, exercise and cognitive behavioural therapy is the most effective form of intervention in overweight and obesity. There is insufficient data to indicate whether group or individual interventions are more effective. Online intervention allows greater accessibility and lower cost. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
White, Pamela Diane; And Others
Conducted a treatment outcome study to evaluate change in death anxiety in nursing students (N=24) as a result of systematic desensitization, relaxation training, and no intervention. Both the desensitization and relaxation groups were more effective than no treatment. Improvement of available dependent measures of death anxiety is needed.…
Leijten, Patty; Raaijmakers, Maartje A J; Orobio de Castro, Bram; Matthys, Walter
Ethnic minority families in Europe are underrepresented in mental health care-a profound problem for clinicians and policymakers. One reason for their underrepresentation seems that, on average, ethnic minority families tend to perceive externalizing and internalizing child behavior as less problematic. There is concern that this difference in problem perception might limit intervention effectiveness. We tested the extent to which ethnic differences in problem perception exist when ethnic minority families engage in mental health service and whether lower levels of problem perception diminish parenting intervention effects to reduce disruptive child behavior. Our sample included 136 mothers of 3- to 8-year-olds (35% female) from the 3 largest ethnic groups in the Netherlands (43% Dutch; 35% Moroccan; 22% Turkish). Mothers reported on their child's externalizing and internalizing behavior and their perception of this behavior as problematic. They were then randomly assigned to the Incredible Years parenting intervention or a wait list control condition. We contrasted maternal reports of problem perception to teacher reports of the same children. Moroccan and Turkish mothers, compared with Dutch mothers, perceived similar levels of child behavior problems as less problematic, and as causing less impairment and burden. Teacher problem perception did not vary across children from different ethnic groups. Importantly, maternal problem perception did not affect parenting intervention effectiveness to reduce disruptive child behavior. Our findings suggest that ethnic differences in problem perception exist once families engage in treatment, but that lower levels of problem perception do not diminish treatment effects. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available This study examined the impact of a targeted Irish early intervention program on children's emotional and behavioral development using multiple methods to test the robustness of the results. Data on 164 Preparing for Life participants who were randomly assigned into an intervention group, involving home visits from pregnancy onwards, or a control group, was used to test the impact of the intervention on Child Behavior Checklist scores at 24-months. Using inverse probability weighting to account for differential attrition, permutation testing to address small sample size, and quantile regression to characterize the distributional impact of the intervention, we found that the few treatment effects were largely concentrated among boys most at risk of developing emotional and behavioral problems. The average treatment effect identified a 13% reduction in the likelihood of falling into the borderline clinical threshold for Total Problems. The interaction and subgroup analysis found that this main effect was driven by boys. The distributional analysis identified a 10-point reduction in the Externalizing Problems score for boys at the 90th percentile. No effects were observed for girls or for the continuous measures of Total, Internalizing, and Externalizing problems. These findings suggest that the impact of this prenatally commencing home visiting program may be limited to boys experiencing the most difficulties. Further adoption of the statistical methods applied here may help to improve the internal validity of randomized controlled trials and contribute to the field of evaluation science more generally.ISRCTN Registry ISRCTN04631728.
Sun Ju Chang, RN, PhD
Conclusion: This review indicates the potential strength of the IMB model as a theoretical framework to develop behavioral interventions. The specific integration strategies delineated for each construct of the model can be utilized to design model-based interventions.
Garandeau, C.F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/380715066; Vartio, Annina; Poskiparta, Elisa; Salmivalli, Christina
This study examines how bullies’ perceptions of how they were treated by a teacher (or other school personnel) during discussions aimed at putting an end to bullying influenced their intention to change their behavior. After each discussion, which took place as part of the implementation of an
Fahlman, Mariane M.; Dake, Joseph A.; McCaughtry, Nate; Martin, Jeffrey
Background: This was a pilot study to determine the impact of the Michigan Model (MM) Nutrition Curriculum on nutrition knowledge, efficacy expectations, and eating behaviors in middle school students. Methods: The study was conducted in a large metropolitan setting and approved by the Institutional Review Board. The participants for this study…
Elaheebocus, Sheik Mohammad Roushdat Ally; Weal, Mark; Morrison, Leanne; Yardley, Lucy
Incorporating social media features into digital behavior change interventions (DBCIs) has the potential to contribute positively to their success. However, the lack of clear design principles to describe and guide the use of these features in behavioral interventions limits cross-study comparisons of their uses and effects. The aim of this study was to provide a systematic review of DBCIs targeting modifiable behavioral risk factors that have included social media features as part of their intervention infrastructure. A taxonomy of social media features is presented to inform the development, description, and evaluation of behavioral interventions. Search terms were used in 8 databases to identify DBCIs that incorporated social media features and targeted tobacco smoking, diet and nutrition, physical activities, or alcohol consumption. The screening and review process was performed by 2 independent researchers. A total of 5264 articles were screened, and 143 articles describing a total of 134 studies were retained for full review. The majority of studies (70%) reported positive outcomes, followed by 28% finding no effects with regard to their respective objectives and hypothesis, and 2% of the studies found that their interventions had negative outcomes. Few studies reported on the association between the inclusion of social media features and intervention effect. A taxonomy of social media features used in behavioral interventions has been presented with 36 social media features organized under 7 high-level categories. The taxonomy has been used to guide the analysis of this review. Although social media features are commonly included in DBCIs, there is an acute lack of information with respect to their effect on outcomes and a lack of clear guidance to inform the selection process based on the features' suitability for the different behaviors. The proposed taxonomy along with the set of recommendations included in this review will support future research aimed
Gillison, Fiona; Stathi, Afroditi; Reddy, Prasuna; Perry, Rachel; Taylor, Gordon; Bennett, Paul; Dunbar, James; Greaves, Colin
Process evaluation is important for improving theories of behavior change and behavioral intervention methods. The present study reports on the process outcomes of a pilot test of the theoretical model (the Process Model for Lifestyle Behavior Change; PMLBC) underpinning an evidence-informed, theory-driven, group-based intervention designed to promote healthy eating and physical activity for people with high cardiovascular risk. 108 people at high risk of diabetes or heart disease were randomized to a group-based weight management intervention targeting diet and physical activity plus usual care, or to usual care. The intervention comprised nine group based sessions designed to promote motivation, social support, self-regulation and understanding of the behavior change process. Weight loss, diet, physical activity and theoretically defined mediators of change were measured pre-intervention, and after four and 12 months. The intervention resulted in significant improvements in fiber intake (M between-group difference = 5.7 g/day, p behavior change, and the predicted mechanisms of change specified in the PMBLC were largely supported. Improvements in self-efficacy and understanding of the behavior change process were associated with engagement in coping planning and self-monitoring activities, and successful dietary change at four and 12 months. While participants reported improvements in motivational and social support variables, there was no effect of these, or of the intervention overall, on physical activity. The data broadly support the theoretical model for supporting some dietary changes, but not for physical activity. Systematic intervention design allowed us to identify where improvements to the intervention may be implemented to promote change in all proposed mediators. More work is needed to explore effective mechanisms within interventions to promote physical activity behavior.
Logan, Diane E; Kilmer, Jason R; King, Kevin M; Larimer, Mary E
This study investigated the effectiveness of three single-session interventions with high-risk mandated students while considering the influence of motivational interviewing (MI) microskills. This randomized, controlled pilot trial evaluated single-session interventions: Alcohol Skills Training Program (ASTP), Brief Alcohol Screening and Intervention for College Students (BASICS) feedback sessions, and treatment-as-usual Alcohol Diversion Program (ADP) educational groups. Participants were 61 full-time undergraduates at a southern U.S. campus sanctioned to a clinical program following violation of an on-campus alcohol policy (Mage = 19.16 years; 42.6% female). RESULTS revealed a significant effect of time for reductions in estimated blood alcohol concentration (eBAC) and number of weekly drinks but not in alcohol-related consequences. Although ASTP and BASICS participants reported significant decreases in eBAC over time, ADP participant levels did not change (with no intervention effects on quantity or consequences). MI microskills were not related to outcomes. RESULTS from this study suggest equivalent behavioral impacts for the MI-based interventions, although individual differences in outcome trajectories suggest that research is needed to further customize mandated interventions. Given the overall decrease in eBAC following the sanction, the lack of reduction in the ADP condition warrants caution when using education-only interventions.
Khary K. Rigg
Full Text Available An overemphasis on clinical trials and behavior change models has narrowed the knowledge base that can be used to design interventions. The overarching point is that the process of overanalyzing variables is impeding the process of gaining insight into the everyday experiences that shape how people define health and seek treatment. This claim is especially important to health decision-making and behavior change because subtle interpretations often influence the decisions that people make. This manuscript provides a critique of traditional approaches to developing health interventions, and theoretically justifies what and why changes are warranted. The limited scope of these models is also discussed, and an argument is made to adopt a strategy that includes the perceptions of people as necessary for understanding health and health-related decision-making. Three practical strategies are suggested to be used with the more standard approaches to assessing the effectiveness and relevance of health interventions.
Richert, Jana; Lippke, Sonia; Ziegelmann, Jochen P
Intervention-engagement has received little attention in sports medicine as well as research and promotion of physical exercise. The construct is important, however, in the understanding of why interventions work. This study aimed at shedding more light on the interplay of engagement and the subsequent effectiveness of physical exercise interventions. A three-stage model differentiating among nonintenders, intenders, and actors informed the intervention design in this study. In an Internet-based randomized controlled trial (RCT) with two measurement points, N = 326 participants received a stage-matched, stage-mismatched, or control treatment. Assessed variables were goal setting, planning, behavior, and intervention-engagement. It was found that regarding goal setting, nonintenders in the stage-matched intervention and those who engaged highly in the stage-matched intervention improved significantly over time. Regarding planning, intenders in the matched condition as well as all actors increased their levels over time. Regarding behavior, nonintenders and intenders having engaged highly in the intervention improved more than those having engaged little. In order to help nonintenders progress on their way toward goal behavior, it is necessary that they engage highly in a stage-matched intervention. Implications for exercise promotion are that interventions should also aim at increasing participants' intervention-engagement.
Langdon, Nancy A.; Carr, Edward G.; Owen-DeSchryver, Jamie S.
Precursor behaviors are innocuous behaviors that reliably precede the occurrence of problem behavior. Intervention efforts applied to precursors might prevent the occurrence of severe problem behavior. We examined the relationship between precursor behavior and problem behavior in three individuals with developmental disabilities. First, a…
Althoff, Meghan D; Grayson, Cary T; Witt, Lucy; Holden, Julie; Reid, Daniel; Kissinger, Patricia
The objective of this meta-analysis was to determine the effect of behavioral interventions in reducing risky sexual behavior and incident sexually transmitted infections (STI) among Latina women living in the United States. Studies were found by systematically searching the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsychInfo databases without language restriction. Two independent reviewers screened abstracts and full texts of articles to find randomized control trials testing the effects of behavioral interventions aimed at changing risky sexual behavior among Latinas. Articles were selected using prespecified inclusion criteria. Two independent reviewers extracted data from the included trials in duplicate using a standardized data extraction form. Six randomized control trials met the inclusion criteria for a total of 2,909 participants. Using random effects models with inverse variance weighting, we found a protective effect of the behavioral intervention on reported risky sexual behavior (odds ratio = 0.52; 95% confidence interval = 0.42, 0.64) and on incident nonviral STI (odds ratio = 0.65; 95% confidence interval = 0.46, 0.93). Behavioral interventions targeted toward Latina populations are effective in reducing risky sexual behaviors and incident STI and should be considered by policymakers as a potential tool for HIV/STI prevention in this population. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.
Loop, Laurie; Mouton, Bénédicte; Stievenart, Marie; Roskam, Isabelle
This research compared the efficacy of two parenting interventions that vary according to the number and the nature of variables in reducing preschoolers' externalizing behavior (EB). The goal was to identify which parenting intervention format (one-variable versus two-variable) caused higher behavioral adjustment in children. The first was a one-variable intervention manipulating parental self-efficacy beliefs. The second was a two-variable intervention manipulating both parents' self-efficacy beliefs and emotion coaching practices. The two interventions shared exactly the same design, consisting of eight parent group sessions. Effect on children's EB and observed behaviors were evaluated through a multi-method assessment at three points (pre-test, post-test and follow-up). The results highlighted that compared to the waitlist condition, the two intervention formats tended to cause a significant reduction in children's EB reported by their parent. However, the one-variable intervention was found to lead to a greater decrease in children's EB at follow-up. The opposite was reported for children's observed behavior, which was improved to a greater extent in the two-variable intervention at post-test and follow-up. The results illustrated that interventions' format cannot be considered as purely interchangeable since their impact on children's behavior modification is different. The results are discussed for their research and clinical implications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nowak, Izabela; Sabariego, Carla; Świtaj, Piotr; Anczewska, Marta
Schizophrenia is a disabling disease that impacts all major life areas. There is a growing need for meeting the challenge of disability from a perspective that extends symptomatic reduction. Therefore, this study aimed to systematically review the extent to which traditional and "third wave" cognitive - behavioral (CBT) interventions address the whole scope of disabilities experienced by people with lived experience of schizophrenia using the WHO's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) as a frame of reference. It also explores if current CBT interventions focus on recovery and what is their impact on disability domains. Medline and PsycINFO databases were searched for studies published in English between January 2009 and December 2015. Abstracts and full papers were screened against pre-defined selection criteria by two reviewers. Methodological quality of included studies was assessed by two independent raters using the Effective Public Health Practice Project Quality assessment tool for quantitative studies (EPHPP) guidelines. A total of 50 studies were included, 35 studies evaluating traditional CBT interventions and 15 evaluating "third wave" approaches. Overall, traditional CBT interventions addressed more disability domains than "third wave" approaches and mostly focused on mental functions reflecting schizophrenia psychopathology. Seven studies met the inclusion criteria of recovery-oriented interventions. The majority of studies evaluating these interventions had however a high risk of bias, therefore evidence on their effectiveness is inconclusive. Traditional CBT interventions address more disability domains than "third wave" therapies, however both approaches focus mostly on mental functions that reflect schizophrenia psychopathology. There are also few interventions that focus on recovery. These results indicate that CBT interventions going beyond symptom reduction are still needed. Recovery-focused CBT interventions
Haugland, Bente Storm Mowatt; Raknes, Solfrid; Haaland, Aashild Tellefsen; Wergeland, Gro Janne; Bjaastad, Jon Fauskanger; Baste, Valborg; Himle, Joe; Rapee, Ron; Hoffart, Asle
Anxiety disorders are prevalent among adolescents and may have long-lasting negative consequences for the individual, the family and society. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment. However, many anxious youth do not seek treatment. Low-intensity CBT in schools may improve access to evidence-based services. We aim to investigate the efficacy of two CBT youth anxiety programs with different intensities (i.e., number and length of sessions), both group-based and administered as early interventions in a school setting. The objectives of the study are to examine the effects of school-based interventions for youth anxiety and to determine whether a less intensive intervention is non-inferior to a more intensive intervention. The present study is a randomized controlled trial comparing two CBT interventions to a waitlist control group. A total of 18 schools participate and we aim to recruit 323 adolescents (12-16 years). Youth who score above a cutoff on an anxiety symptom scale will be included in the study. School nurses recruit participants and deliver the interventions, with mental health workers as co-therapists and/or supervisors. Primary outcomes are level of anxiety symptoms and anxiety-related functional impairments. Secondary outcomes are level of depressive symptoms, quality of life and general psychosocial functioning. Non-inferiority between the two active interventions will be declared if a difference of 1.4 or less is found on the anxiety symptom measure post-intervention and a difference of 0.8 on the interference scale. Effects will be analyzed by mixed effect models, applying an intention to treat procedure. The present study extends previous research by comparing two programs with different intensity. A brief intervention, if effective, could more easily be subject to large-scale implementation in school health services. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02279251 . Registered on 15 October 2014. Retrospectively registered.
Lee, Myeong Soo; Lee, Jung-Sook
We investigated the effects of group music intervention on aggression and self-esteem in children with highly aggressive behavior. Forty-eight children were allocated to either a music intervention group or an untreated control group. The music intervention group received 50 min of music intervention twice weekly for 15 consecutive weeks. The outcome measures were Child Behavior Checklist Aggression Problems Scale (Parents), Child Aggression Assessment Inventory (Teachers) and Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale. After 15 weeks, the music intervention group showed significant reduction of aggression and improvement of self-esteem compared with the control group. All outcome measures were significantly lower in the music intervention group than prior to treatment, while there was no change in the control group. These findings suggest that music can reduce aggressive behavior and improve self-esteem in children with highly aggressive behavior. Music intervention is an easily accessible therapy for children and as such may be an effective intervention for aggressive behavior. Further more, objective and replicable measures are required from a randomized controlled trial with a larger sample size and active comparable control. PMID:18955314
Full Text Available We investigated the effects of group music intervention on aggression and self-esteem in children with highly aggressive behavior. Forty-eight children were allocated to either a music intervention group or an untreated control group. The music intervention group received 50 min of music intervention twice weekly for 15 consecutive weeks. The outcome measures were Child Behavior Checklist Aggression Problems Scale (Parents, Child Aggression Assessment Inventory (Teachers and Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale. After 15 weeks, the music intervention group showed significant reduction of aggression and improvement of self-esteem compared with the control group. All outcome measures were significantly lower in the music intervention group than prior to treatment, while there was no change in the control group. These findings suggest that music can reduce aggressive behavior and improve self-esteem in children with highly aggressive behavior. Music intervention is an easily accessible therapy for children and as such may be an effective intervention for aggressive behavior. Further more, objective and replicable measures are required from a randomized controlled trial with a larger sample size and active comparable control.
Franklin, Cortney A.; Brady, Patrick Q.; Jurek, Alicia L.
Bystander intervention has been an effective strategy for crime prevention and has been successful in the context of campus sexual assault. Less is known about the extent to which individual-level factors correlate with intervention behavior in situations of intimate partner violence (IPV) and sexual harassment. The present study used a sample of…
Werch, Chudley E Chad; Bian, Hui; Moore, Michele J; Ames, Steve; DiClemente, Carlo C; Weiler, Robert M
This study examined the effects of brief image-based interventions, including a multiple behavior health contract, a one-on-one tailored consultation, and a combined consultation plus contract intervention, for impacting multiple health behaviors of students in a university health clinic. A total of 155 college students attending a major southern university were recruited to participate in a study evaluating a health promotion program titled Project Fitness during the fall 2005 and spring 2006. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three treatments as they presented at the clinic: 1) a multiple behavior health contract, 2) a one-on-one tailored consultation, or 3) a combined consultation plus contract intervention. Baseline and 1-month post-intervention data were collected using computer-assisted questionnaires in a quiet office within the student health clinic. Omnibus repeated-measures analyses of variance were significant for drinking driving behaviors, F(2,136) = 4.43, p = .01, exercise behaviors, F(5,140) = 6.12, p = .00, nutrition habits, F(3,143) = 5.37, p = .00, sleep habits, F(2,144) = 5.03, p = .01, and health quality of life, F(5,140) = 3.09, p = .01, with improvements on each behavior across time. Analysis of group-by-time interaction effects showed an increase in the use of techniques to manage stress, F(2,144) = 5.48, p = .01, and the number of health behavior goals set in the last 30 days, F(2,143) = 5.35, p = .01, but only among adolescents receiving the consultation, or consultation plus contract. Effect sizes were consistently larger across health behaviors, and medium in size, when both consult and contract were used together. Brief interventions using a positive goal image of fitness, and addressing a number of health habits using a contract and consultation strategy alone, or in combination, have the potential to influence positive changes in multiple health behaviors of college students attending a university primary health care clinic.
Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Li, Li; Liang, Li-Jung; Wen, Yi; Wu, Zunyou
The effects of a community popular opinion leader (CPOL) intervention were examined among market vendors in a city on the eastern coast of China. Employees of 40 food markets were enrolled in a study that provided HIV-related education and tests, and treatment for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Twenty markets were randomly assigned to a CPOL intervention (N = 1,695) and 20 markets to a control condition (N = 1,616). Market employees in the intervention condition reported positive attitudes regarding STD/HIV prevention and more frequent discussions about safe sex than those in the control condition. Compared with baseline, the prevalence of unprotected sexual acts and new STDs were significantly lower within each study condition 24 months later. Although the CPOL intervention achieved its goal of shifting attitudes within food markets, the gains did not lead to the expected behavioral and biological outcomes.
Lyzwinski, Lynnette Nathalie; Caffery, Liam; Bambling, Matthew; Edirippulige, Sisira
Recent research indicates that mindfulness-based interventions are effective for stress, maladaptive weight-related behaviors, and weight loss. Little is presently known about their applicability and effectiveness when delivered electronically, including through Web-based and mobile device media. The primary aims of this review were to identify what types of electronic mindfulness-based interventions have been undertaken for stress, maladaptive weight-related behaviors, and weight loss, and to assess their overall effectiveness. A systematic search of PubMed (MEDLINE), Embase, CINAHL, and Web of Science databases was undertaken in June 2016. A total of 21 studies were identified that met inclusion criteria and were selected in the final review. Of these, 19 were mindfulness-based interventions for stress reduction. Two were Web-based mindful eating/intuitive eating interventions for weight. Only one electronic mindfulness-based study was identified that targeted both stress and maladaptive weight-related behaviors. Most electronic interventions were effective for stress reduction N = 14/19 (74%). There were insufficient electronic mindfulness-based interventions for weight to determine if they were effective or not. Additionally, no mobile mindfulness-based intervention was identified for weight or weight-related behaviors. Electronic mindfulness-based interventions through diverse media appear to be effective for stress reduction. More studies are needed that target weight and weight-related behaviors as well as studies that target both stress and weight. More randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that assess mobile mindfulness-based apps are needed as we only identified four app trials for stress. Mobile mindfulness-based interventions for weight and weight-related behaviors are a future area of research novelty.
Angel Fettig; Michaelene M. Ostrosky
This study examined the effects of group parent training on children’s challenging behaviors in home settings. Eight parents of young children with challenging behaviors were trained in a large group setting on using functional assessment to design interventions that fit the strengths and needs of individual families. The training included information sharing and collaborating with parents on designing functional-assessment based interventions. An Interrupted Time Series Design was used to ex...
Research on effectiveness of workplace bullying interventions has lagged behind descriptive studies on this topic. The literature on bullying intervention research has only recently expanded to a point that allows for synthesis of findings across empirical studies. This study addresses the question of whether workplace bullying can be reduced in prevalence and consequences, if so to what extent and by which strategies and interventions. It opens with a brief overview of the nature of bullying at work and discussion of some precursors and existing interventions. However, its principal focus is on the findings obtained from selected (quasi-) experimental longitudinal studies on antibullying interventions, drawing together the results of studies conducted in Europe, USA, and Australia, including several economic sectors, and concerned about primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention programs and strategies. Additional emphasis is considered from the psychosocial drivers highlighted both from prescriptive and cross-sectional studies and factual empirical studies. One randomized control study and seven quasiexperimental longitudinal studies were identified by searching electronic databases and bibliographies and via contact with experts. The majority of outcomes evidenced some level of change, mostly positive, suggesting that workplace bullying interventions are more likely to affect knowledge, attitudes, and self-perceptions, but actual bullying behaviors showed much more mixed results. In general, growing effectiveness was stated as the level of intervention increased from primary to tertiary prevention. However, methodological problems relating to the evaluation designs in most studies do not allow direct attribution of these findings to the interventions. Overall, the evaluation of antibullying interventions must flourish and be improved, requiring close cooperation between practitioners and academics to design, implement, and evaluate effective interventions based
Full Text Available Sara Cederbom,1,2 Elisabeth Rydwik,2,3 Anne Söderlund,2 Eva Denison,2 Kerstin Frändin,1 Petra von Heideken Wågert2 1Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Physiotherapy, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, 2School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Mälardalen University, Eskilstuna, Vasteras, 3Research and Development Unit, Jakobsbergs Hospital, Stockholm County Council, Järfälla, Sweden Background: To be an older woman, live alone, have chronic pain, and be dependent on support are all factors that may have an impact on daily life. One way to promote ability in everyday activities in people with pain-related conditions is to use individualized, integrated behavioral medicine in physical therapy interventions. How this kind of intervention works for older women living alone at home, with chronic pain, and dependent on formal care to manage their everyday lives has not been studied. The aim was to explore the feasibility of a study and to evaluate an individually tailored integrated behavioral medicine in physical therapy intervention for the target group of women.Materials and methods: The study was a 12-week randomized trial with two-group design. Primary effect outcomes were pain-related disability and morale. Secondary effect outcomes focused on pain-related beliefs, self-efficacy for exercise, concerns of falling, physical activity, and physical performance.Results: In total, 23 women agreed to participate in the study and 16 women completed the intervention. The results showed that the behavioral medicine in physical therapy intervention was feasible. No effects were seen on the primary effect outcomes. The experimental intervention seemed to improve the level of physical activity and self-efficacy for exercise. Some of the participants in both groups perceived that they could manage their everyday life in a better way after participation in the study.Conclusion: Results from this study are encouraging, but
Adhikari, Ramesh P; Upadhaya, Nawaraj; Satinsky, Emily N; Burkey, Matthew D; Kohrt, Brandon A; Jordans, Mark J D
This study evaluates the feasibility, acceptability, and outcomes of a combined school- and family-based intervention, delivered by psychosocial counselors, for children with behavior problems in rural Nepal. Forty-one children participated at baseline. Two students moved to another district, meaning 39 children, ages 6-15, participated at both baseline and follow-up. Pre-post evaluation was used to assess behavioral changes over a 4-month follow-up period (n = 39). The primary outcome measure was the Disruptive Behavior International Scale-Nepal version (DBIS-N). The secondary outcome scales included the Child Functional Impairment Scale and the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory (ECBI). Twelve key informant interviews were conducted with community stakeholders, including teachers, parents, and community members, to assess stakeholders' perceptions of the intervention. The study found that children's behavior problems as assessed on the DBIS-N were significantly lower at follow-up (M = 13.0, SD = 6.4) than at baseline (M = 20.5, SD = 3.8), p behaviors among children and the implementation of new behavior management techniques both at home and in the classroom. Significant change in child outcome measures in this uncontrolled evaluation, alongside qualitative findings suggesting feasibility and acceptability, support moving toward a controlled trial to determine effectiveness.
Garcia-Caballero, Anna; Torrens-Lluch, Marina; Ramírez-Gendrau, Isabel; Garrido, Gemma; Vallès, Vicenç; Aragay, Núria
The aim of the current study is to determine the effectiveness of an individual psychological intervention based on the motivational interview and cognitive-behavioral therapy for the treatment of pathological gambling. A sample of 18 participants, diagnosed of pathological gambling and without any other associated comorbidity, were assessed, attended at the publicly-funded Gambling and Behavioral Addictions Unit (Consorci Sanitari de Terrassa). Median age was 46 years (SD = 12). All the patients achieved abstinence and completed follow-up. The Screen for Gambling Problems (NODS), Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction (Q-LES-Q), Impulsive Behavior Scale (UPPS-P), Sheehan Disability Inventory (SDI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) were administered pre- and posttreatment. Results showed that patients significantly reduced the problems related to gambling behavior according to the NODS score (p < .000). Regarding impulsive behavior (UPPS-P), we found significant differences in negative urgency (p < .001), positive urgency (p < .001), (lack of) premeditation (p < .029) and (lack of) perseverance (p < .048). Some relevant aspects of quality of life as assessed by the Q-LES-Q had improved. In conclusion, the study shows that psychological intervention based on the motivational interview and cognitive-behavioral therapy not only significantly reduces gambling-related behavior problems but also leads to improvements in impulsivity and quality of life. .
Salmon, Jo; Tremblay, Mark S; Marshall, Simon J; Hume, Clare
Opportunities for young people to be sedentary have increased during leisure time, study time, and transportation time. This review paper focuses on sedentary behaviors among young people aged 2-18 years and includes evidence of the relationship between sedentary behavior and health risk indicators, an overview of public health recommendations, the prevalence of key sedentary behaviors, evidence of correlates of sedentary behavior and the effectiveness of interventions to reduce sedentary behaviors. Although this is a narrative style review and not systematic, where possible, findings from relevant review papers were summarized and a search of more recent literature was performed using computer-based databases such as PubMed, Google Scholar, ERIC, PsycINFO, Social Science Index, SportDiscus, and Health Reference Center - Academic. Young people spend 2-4 hours per day in screen-based behaviors and 5-10 hours per day sedentary. Ethnicity, sociodemographic status, having a TV set in the bedroom, and parental behavior appear to be the most consistent correlates of TV viewing time; however, few recent studies aiming to reduce TV viewing or sedentary time among young people have been successful. A growing body of evidence supports the development of public health recommendations to limit the time spent in screen-based behaviors. More research is needed to examine the prospective and experimental evidence of associations between overall sedentary time and health, determinants of sedentary behaviors other than screen-based behaviors, and interventions to reduce overall sedentary time or even alternative sedentary behaviors, such as transport- or education-related sitting time. Copyright © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sham, Elyssa; Smith, Tristram
Publication bias arises when studies with favorable results are more likely to be reported than are studies with null findings. If this bias occurs in studies with single-subject experimental designs(SSEDs) on applied behavior-analytic (ABA) interventions, it could lead to exaggerated estimates of intervention effects. Therefore, we conducted an initial test of bias by comparing effect sizes, measured by percentage of nonoverlapping data (PND), in published SSED studies (n=21) and unpublished dissertations (n=10) on 1 well-established intervention for children with autism, pivotal response treatment (PRT). Although published and unpublished studies had similar methodologies, the mean PND in published studies was 22% higher than in unpublished studies, 95% confidence interval (4%, 38%). Even when unpublished studies are included, PRT appeared to be effective (PNDM=62%). Nevertheless, the disparity between published and unpublished studies suggests a need for further assessment of publication bias in the ABA literature.
James, Erica; Freund, Megan; Booth, Angela; Duncan, Mitch J; Johnson, Natalie; Short, Camille E; Wolfenden, Luke; Stacey, Fiona G; Kay-Lambkin, Frances; Vandelanotte, Corneel
Growing evidence points to the benefits of addressing multiple health behaviors rather than single behaviors. This review evaluates the relative effectiveness of simultaneous and sequentially delivered multiple health behavior change (MHBC) interventions. Secondary aims were to identify: a) the most effective spacing of sequentially delivered components; b) differences in efficacy of MHBC interventions for adoption/cessation behaviors and lifestyle/addictive behaviors, and; c) differences in trial retention between simultaneously and sequentially delivered interventions. MHBC intervention trials published up to October 2015 were identified through a systematic search. Eligible trials were randomised controlled trials that directly compared simultaneous and sequential delivery of a MHBC intervention. A narrative synthesis was undertaken. Six trials met the inclusion criteria and across these trials the behaviors targeted were smoking, diet, physical activity, and alcohol consumption. Three trials reported a difference in intervention effect between a sequential and simultaneous approach in at least one behavioral outcome. Of these, two trials favoured a sequential approach on smoking. One trial favoured a simultaneous approach on fat intake. There was no difference in retention between sequential and simultaneous approaches. There is limited evidence regarding the relative effectiveness of sequential and simultaneous approaches. Given only three of the six trials observed a difference in intervention effectiveness for one health behavior outcome, and the relatively consistent finding that the sequential and simultaneous approaches were more effective than a usual/minimal care control condition, it appears that both approaches should be considered equally efficacious. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42015027876. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sharifi, Mona; Franz, Calvin; Horan, Christine M; Giles, Catherine M; Long, Michael W; Ward, Zachary J; Resch, Stephen C; Marshall, Richard; Gortmaker, Steven L; Taveras, Elsie M
To estimate the cost-effectiveness and population impact of the national implementation of the Study of Technology to Accelerate Research (STAR) intervention for childhood obesity. In the STAR cluster-randomized trial, 6- to 12-year-old children with obesity seen at pediatric practices with electronic health record (EHR)-based decision support for primary care providers and self-guided behavior-change support for parents had significantly smaller increases in BMI than children who received usual care. We used a microsimulation model of a national implementation of STAR from 2015 to 2025 among all pediatric primary care providers in the United States with fully functional EHRs to estimate cost, impact on obesity prevalence, and cost-effectiveness. The expected population reach of a 10-year national implementation is ∼2 million children, with intervention costs of $119 per child and $237 per BMI unit reduced. At 10 years, assuming maintenance of effect, the intervention is expected to avert 43 000 cases and 226 000 life-years with obesity at a net cost of $4085 per case and $774 per life-year with obesity averted. Limiting implementation to large practices and using higher estimates of EHR adoption improved both cost-effectiveness and reach, whereas decreasing the maintenance of the intervention's effect worsened the former. A childhood obesity intervention with electronic decision support for clinicians and self-guided behavior-change support for parents may be more cost-effective than previous clinical interventions. Effective and efficient interventions that target children with obesity are necessary and could work in synergy with population-level prevention strategies to accelerate progress in reducing obesity prevalence. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Simó-Pinatella, David; Font-Roura, Josep; Planella-Morató, Joaquima; McGill, Peter; Alomar-Kurz, Elisabeth; Giné, Climent
A motivating operation (MO) alters both the effectiveness of a stimulus as a reinforcer and the current frequency of all behavior that has been reinforced by that particular stimulus. This article reviews studies that have manipulated a MO during interventions with school-age participants with intellectual disabilities and problem behavior. A systematic review was conducted using the following major electronic databases: PsychInfo, Education Resources Information Center, Science Direct, Blackwell, SAGE, and Medline. A total of 31 published articles representing 55 participants was examined. Findings from this study suggest that the modification of a MO usually has an effect on the problem behavior by either establishing or abolishing its motivation. Furthermore, a relationship was found between the type of MO and the behavioral function identified. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings, limitations of this study and potential issues for future research are discussed.
Schreibman, Laura; Dawson, Geraldine; Stahmer, Aubyn C.; Landa, Rebecca; Rogers, Sally J.; McGee, Gail G.; Kasari, Connie; Ingersoll, Brooke; Kaiser, Ann P.; Bruinsma, Yvonne; McNerney, Erin; Wetherby, Amy; Halladay, Alycia
Earlier autism diagnosis, the importance of early intervention, and development of specific interventions for young children have contributed to the emergence of similar, empirically supported, autism interventions that represent the merging of applied behavioral and developmental sciences. "Naturalistic Developmental Behavioral Interventions…
Heydar Rahmati Asl
Full Text Available The most important environmental factor affecting human health is the long exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation. This study aimed to determine the effect of an educational intervention based on the protection motivation theory in promoting sun-protective behaviors. In this quasi-experimental prepost test study, a sample of 215 high school students in Ahwaz. Using a reliable and valid questionnaire, and based on the theory of protection motivation, the data were collected before and four months after the intervention. In the posttest, there was a significant difference in mean score of the protection motivation theory components between the experimental and control groups. the comparison of the mean score of the components of protection motivation theory in the experimental and control groups before and after the intervention showed a significant difference in all the components except for the response cost, while in the control group the mean score difference not significant. The results of this study showed that the intervention may lead to the sun exposure preventive behaviors, which reflects the effectiveness of the educational intervention based on the protection motivation theory.
Rasheed, Saleem A.; Fore, Cecil, III; Jones, Arthur; Smith, Latisha
The research literature on the use of Functional Behavioral Assessments (FBA) to develop Behavior Intervention Plans (BIP) for students with emotional/behavioral disorders, who present problem classroom behaviors for use in the schools, is well documented. There are school-wide, district-wide, and state-wide plans that are currently being…
Bloss, Cinnamon S; Madlensky, Lisa; Schork, Nicholas J; Topol, Eric J
Individuals can now obtain their personal genomic information via direct-to-consumer genetic testing, but what, if any, impact will this have on their lifestyle and health? A recent longitudinal cohort study of individuals who underwent consumer genome scanning found minimal impacts of testing on risk-reducing lifestyle behaviors, such as diet and exercise. These results raise an important question: is personal genomic information likely to beneficially impact public health through motivation of lifestyle behavioral change? In this article, we review the literature on lifestyle behavioral change in response to genetic testing for common disease susceptibility variants. We find that only a few studies have been carried out, and that those that have been done have yielded little evidence to suggest that the mere provision of genetic information alone results in widespread changes in lifestyle health behaviors. We suggest that further study of this issue is needed, in particular studies that examine response to multiplex testing for multiple genetic markers and conditions. This will be critical as we anticipate the wide availability of whole-genome sequencing and more comprehensive phenotyping of individuals. We also note that while simple communication of genomic information and disease susceptibility may be sufficient to catalyze lifestyle changes in some highly motivated groups of individuals, for others, additional strategies may be required to prompt changes, including more sophisticated means of risk communication (e.g., in the context of social norm feedback) either alone or in combination with other promising interventions (e.g., real-time wireless health monitoring devices). PMID:22199991
Laramée, Catherine; Drapeau, Vicky; Valois, Pierre; Goulet, Claude; Jacob, Raphaëlle; Provencher, Véronique; Lamarche, Benoît
To evaluate the effectiveness of a theory-based intervention to reduce the intention to use restrictive dietary behaviors for losing weight among adolescent female athletes involved in aesthetic sports. Cluster-randomized controlled trial. Aesthetic sport teams of adolescent female athletes aged 12-17 years. Two teams (n = 37 athletes) in the intervention group and 3 teams (n = 33) in the comparison group. The 2 groups received nutrition education during 3 weekly 60-minute sessions. The intervention group was further exposed to a theory-based intervention targeting the specific determinant of intention to use restrictive dietary behaviors for losing weight, namely attitude. Difference over time between groups in intention to use restrictive dietary behaviors for losing weight and in nutrition knowledge. Mixed models for repeated measures. The theory-based intervention contributed to maintaining a low intention of using restrictive dietary behaviors for losing weight over time in the intervention group compared with the comparison group (P theory-based behavior change intervention may help maintain a low intention of using restrictive dietary behaviors for losing weight among female high school athletes involved in aesthetic sports. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Dart, Evan H.; Radley, Keith C.; Mason, Benjamin A.; Allen, Justin P.
Students with developmental disabilities have been found to exhibit higher rates of problem behavior in the classroom than their typically developing peers. Effectively addressing these students' behavior concerns requires the identification of interventions that can be implemented in an educational setting. Furthermore, matching intervention…
Losinski, Mickey; Wiseman, Nicole; White, Sherry A.; Balluch, Felicity
The current study examined the use of video modeling (VM)-based interventions to reduce the challenging behaviors of students with emotional or behavioral disorders. Each study was evaluated using Council for Exceptional Children's (CEC's) quality indicators for evidence-based practices. In addition, study effects were calculated along the three…
Brawley Lawrence R
Full Text Available Abstract Background When examining the prevalence of physical inactivity by gender and age, women over the age of 25 are at an increased risk for sedentary behavior. Childbearing and motherhood have been explored as one possible explanation for this increased risk. Post natal exercise studies to date demonstrate promising physical and psychological outcomes, however few physical activity interventions have been theory-driven and tailored to post natal exercise initiates. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a group-mediated cognitive behavioral intervention based upon social-cognitive theory and group dynamics (GMCB to a standard care postnatal exercise program (SE. Method A randomized, two-arm intervention design was used. Fifty-seven post natal women were randomized to one of two conditions: (1 a standard exercise treatment (SE and (2 a standard exercise treatment plus group-mediated cognitive behavioral intervention (GMCB. Participants in both conditions participated in a four-week intensive phase where participants received standard exercise training. In addition, GMCB participants received self-regulatory behavioral skills training via six group-mediated counseling sessions. Following the intensive phase, participants engaged in a four-week home-based phase of self-structured exercise. Measures of physical activity, barrier efficacy, and proximal outcome expectations were administered and data were analyzed using ANCOVA procedures. Results and discussion ANCOVA of change scores for frequency, minutes, and volume of physical activity revealed significant treatment effects over the intensive and home-based phases (p's Conclusion While both exercise programs resulted in improvements to exercise participation, the GMCB intervention produced greater improvement in overall physical activity, barrier efficacy and proximal outcome expectations.
Robichaux, Natalie M.; Gresham, Frank M.
Class-wide interventions such as the Mystery Motivator are an easy and effective way to remediate problematic behavior in the classroom and increase the level of classroom management. Multiple procedural variations to the Mystery Motivator intervention have successfully changed student behavior, but a systematic comparison of two procedural…
The extraordinary success of behavior-analytic interventions for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has fueled the rapid growth of behavior analysis as a profession. One reason for this success is that for many years behavior analysts were virtually alone in conducting programmatic ASD intervention research. However, that era has…
Jay, Susan M.; And Others
Evaluated efficacy of cognitive-behavioral intervention package and low-risk pharmacologic intervention (oral Valium) as compared with minimal treatment-attention control condition, in reducing children leukemia patients' distress during bone marrow aspirations. The cognitive-behavioral therapy reduced behavioral distress, pain ratings and pulse…
Matson, Johnny L.; Tureck, Kimberly; Turygin, Nicole; Beighley, Jennifer; Rieske, Robert
The use of applied behavior analysis (ABA) to treat persons with autism goes back several decades. Many specific target behaviors and intervention strategies have been developed. In the last two decades the most heavily studied of these methods has been Early Intensive Behavioral Interventions (EIBI). This package of ABA methods is unique in two…
Kidwell, Kelley M.; Hyde, Luke W.
Heterogeneity between and within people necessitates the need for sequential personalized interventions to optimize individual outcomes. Personalized or adaptive interventions (AIs) are relevant for diseases and maladaptive behavioral trajectories when one intervention is not curative and success of a subsequent intervention may depend on…
Berardelli, Isabella; Bloise, Maria Carmela; Bologna, Matteo; Conte, Antonella; Pompili, Maurizio; Lamis, Dorian A; Pasquini, Massimo; Fabbrini, Giovanni
The aim of the current study was to evaluate whether cognitive behavioral group therapy has a positive impact on psychiatric, and motor and non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD). We assigned 20 PD patients with a diagnosis of psychiatric disorder to either a 12-week cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) group or a psychoeducational protocol. For the neurological examination, we administered the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale and the non-motor symptoms scale. The severity of psychiatric symptoms was assessed by means of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, and the Clinical Global Impressions. Cognitive behavioral group therapy was effective in treating depression and anxiety symptoms as well as reducing the severity of non-motor symptoms in PD patients; whereas, no changes were observed in PD patients treated with the psychoeducational protocol. CBT offered in a group format should be considered in addition to standard drug therapy in PD patients.
Heydar Rahmati Asl; Kambiz Ahmadi Angali; Marzieh Araban
The most important environmental factor affecting human health is the long exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation. This study aimed to determine the effect of an educational intervention based on the protection motivation theory in promoting sun-protective behaviors. In this quasi-experimental prepost test study, a sample of 215 high school students in Ahwaz. Using a reliable and valid questionnaire, and based on the theory of protection motivation, the data were collected before and four mo...
Choo, Carol C; Burton, André A D
The mobile technology era has ushered in the use of mobile phone apps for behavioral intervention for at-risk drinkers. Our objective was to review recent research relevant to mobile phone apps that can be used for behavioral intervention for at-risk drinkers in Australia. The inclusion criteria for this review were articles published in peer-reviewed journals from 2001 to 2017 with use of the search terms "smartphone application," "alcohol," "substance," "behavioural intervention," "electronic health," and "mobile health." In total, we identified 103 abstracts, screened 90 articles, and assessed 50 full-text articles that fit the inclusion criteria for eligibility. We included 19 articles in this review. This review highlighted the paucity of evidence-based and empirically validated research into effective mobile phone apps that can be used for behavioral interventions with at-risk drinkers in Australia. ©Carol C Choo, André A D Burton. Originally published in JMIR Mhealth and Uhealth (http://mhealth.jmir.org), 13.02.2018.
Svetkey, Laura P; Batch, Bryan C; Lin, Pao-Hwa; Intille, Stephen S; Corsino, Leonor; Tyson, Crystal C; Bosworth, Hayden B; Grambow, Steven C; Voils, Corrine; Loria, Catherine; Gallis, John A; Schwager, Jenifer; Bennett, Gary G; Bennett, Gary B
To determine the effect on weight of two mobile technology-based (mHealth) behavioral weight loss interventions in young adults. Randomized, controlled comparative effectiveness trial in 18- to 35-year-olds with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2) (overweight/obese), with participants randomized to 24 months of mHealth intervention delivered by interactive smartphone application on a cell phone (CP); personal coaching enhanced by smartphone self-monitoring (PC); or Control. The 365 randomized participants had mean baseline BMI of 35 kg/m(2) . Final weight was measured in 86% of participants. CP was not superior to Control at any measurement point. PC participants lost significantly more weight than Controls at 6 months (net effect -1.92 kg [CI -3.17, -0.67], P = 0.003), but not at 12 and 24 months. Despite high intervention engagement and study retention, the inclusion of behavioral principles and tools in both interventions, and weight loss in all treatment groups, CP did not lead to weight loss, and PC did not lead to sustained weight loss relative to Control. Although mHealth solutions offer broad dissemination and scalability, the CITY results sound a cautionary note concerning intervention delivery by mobile applications. Effective intervention may require the efficiency of mobile technology, the social support and human interaction of personal coaching, and an adaptive approach to intervention design. © 2015 The Obesity Society.
Dopp, C.M.E.; Graff, M.J.L.; Teerenstra, S.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Vernooij-Dassen, M.J.F.J.
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the effectiveness of a multifaceted implementation strategy on physicians' referral rate to and knowledge on the community occupational therapy in dementia program (COTiD program). METHODS: A cluster randomized controlled trial with 28 experimental and 17 control clusters was
Karayazi, Seda; Kohler Evans, Patty; Filer, Janet
The use of social stories™ with a young adult with autism spectrum disorder was examined. The young woman in the study was completing her high school education in a clinical room on a university campus in the South. The primary goal of her program was to develop and expand her functional independence. The social stories™ were effective in…
Sweeney, Jocelyn Brineman; McAnulty, Richard D.; Reeve, Charlie; Cann, Arnie
The goal of the study was to examine the effectiveness of a group intervention in reducing risks of contracting human papillomavirus (HPV) among college-aged women. Using a randomized design, the study examined the effectiveness of an HPV educational group intervention guided by the Theory of Planned Behavior. The intervention was provided in a…
Olson, Ryan; Thompson, Sharon V; Wipfli, Brad; Hanson, Ginger; Elliot, Diane L; Anger, W Kent; Bodner, Todd; Hammer, Leslie B; Hohn, Elliot; Perrin, Nancy A
The objectives of the study were to describe a sample of truck drivers, identify clusters of drivers with similar patterns in behaviors affecting energy balance (sleep, diet, and exercise), and test for cluster differences in health safety, and psychosocial factors. Participants' (n = 452, body mass index M = 37.2, 86.4% male) self-reported behaviors were dichotomized prior to hierarchical cluster analysis, which identified groups with similar behavior covariation. Cluster differences were tested with generalized estimating equations. Five behavioral clusters were identified that differed significantly in age, smoking status, diabetes prevalence, lost work days, stress, and social support, but not in body mass index. Cluster 2, characterized by the best sleep quality, had significantly lower lost workdays and stress than other clusters. Weight management interventions for drivers should explicitly address sleep, and may be maximally effective after establishing socially supportive work environments that reduce stress exposures.
Dueweke, Aubrey R; Rojas, Sasha M; Anastasia, Elizabeth A; Bridges, Ana J
We examined whether brief behavioral health visits reduced suicidal and self-harm ideation among primary care patients and compared the effectiveness of interventions that targeted ideation directly (i.e., safety planning) with those that targeted ideation indirectly through management of underlying mental illness (e.g., behavioral activation). We examined first- and last-visit data from 31 primary care patients with suicidal or self-harm ideation seen by behavioral health consultants. Patients reported significantly lower frequencies of suicidal and self-harm ideation at their final visit than at their initial visit. Patients whose ideation was targeted directly showed greater improvements than patients whose ideation was targeted indirectly. Although preliminary, results suggest mild to moderate suicidal ideation could be addressed in primary care through integration of behavioral health consultants into the medical team. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Pan, Chien-Yu; Chu, Chia-Hua; Tsai, Chia-Liang; Lo, Shen-Yu; Cheng, Yun-Wen; Liu, Yu-Jen
The present study assessed the effects of a 12-week table tennis exercise on motor skills, social behaviors, and executive functions in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In the first 12-week phase, 16 children (group I) received the intervention, whereas 16 children (group II) did not. A second 12-week phase immediately followed with the treatments reversed. Improvements were observed in executive functions in both groups after the intervention. After the first 12-week phase, some motor and behavioral functions improved in group I. After the second 12-week phase, similar improvements were noted for group II, and the intervention effects achieved in the first phase were persisted in group I. The racket-sport intervention is valuable in promoting motor skills, social behaviors, and executive functions and should be included within the standard-of-care treatment for children with ADHD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kania, Rachel; Cale, Jesse
The concept of bystander intervention is gaining popularity in universities as a mechanism to prevent sexual violence. Prior research has focused on correlates of bystanders' intentions to intervene and intervention behaviors in situations where there is a risk of sexual violence. The current study builds on this literature by exploring the nature of missed opportunities, including perceived barriers to intervention. In all, 380 Australian undergraduate university students completed an online survey. Measures included a rape myth acceptance scale, bystander intentions to intervene, actual intervention behaviors, missed opportunities for intervention, and perceived barriers for missed opportunities. Promisingly, students reported high levels of intentions to intervene in situations where there was a risk of sexual violence and reported relatively few missed opportunities to do so when these situations did occur. Intervention behaviors varied by important demographic characteristics such as gender, age, attitudes toward sexual violence, and the nature of the situation. Younger female students, with lower levels of rape myth acceptance, who had previously engaged in bystander intervention behaviors were more likely to report intentions to intervene in future risky situations, and female international students reported fewer missed opportunities for intervention. The most common barrier to intervention for identified missed opportunities was a failure to recognize situations as having a potential risk for sexual violence, and students were most likely to intervene in situations when the opportunity to help a friend in distress arose. This study provides some preliminary empirical evidence about bystander intervention against sexual violence among Australian university students, and identifies unique contexts for intervention and what current barriers to intervention may be.
Cohen-Mansfield, Jiska; Marx, Marcia S; Dakheel-Ali, Maha; Thein, Khin
This study compares different nonpharmacological interventions for persons with behavioral symptoms and dementia on frequency of use and perceived efficacy in terms of change in behavior and interest. Participants were 89 nursing home residents from six Maryland nursing homes with a mean age of 85.9 years (SD: 8.6 years). Research assistants presented interventions tailored to the participants' needs and preferences in a pre-intervention trial phase and in an intervention phase. The impact of each intervention on behavioral symptoms and on the person's interest was rated immediately after the intervention by a research assistant. The most utilized interventions in both trial and treatment phases were the social intervention of one-on-one interaction, simulated social interventions such as a lifelike doll and respite video, the theme intervention of magazine, and the sensory stimulation intervention of music. In contrast, the least utilized interventions in both phases were sewing, fabric book, and flower arrangement. Interventions with the highest impact on behavioral symptoms included one-on-one social interaction, hand massage, music, video, care, and folding towels. Other high impact interventions included walking, going outside, flower arranging, food or drink, sewing, group activity, book presentation, ball toss, coloring or painting, walking, and family video. The results provide initial directions for choosing specific interventions for persons with dementia and also demonstrate a methodology for increasing knowledge through ongoing monitoring of practice. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hammer, Leslie B.; Kossek, Ellen E.; Anger, W. Kent; Bodner, Todd; Zimmerman, Kristi L.
Drawing on a conceptual model integrating research on training, work-family interventions, and social support, we conducted a quasi-experimental field study to assess the impact of a supervisory training and self-monitoring intervention designed to increase supervisors' use of family supportive supervisor behaviors. Pre- and post-intervention surveys were completed, nine months apart, by 239 employees at six intervention (N = 117) and six control (N = 122) grocery store sites. Thirty-nine supervisors in the six intervention sites received the training consisting of one hour of self-paced computer-based training, one hour of face-to-face group training, followed by instructions for behavioral self-monitoring (recording the frequency of supportive behaviors) to support on-the-job transfer. Results demonstrated a disordinal interaction for the effect of training and family-to-work conflict on employee job satisfaction, turnover intentions and physical health. In particular, for these outcomes, positive training effects were observed for employees with high family-to-work conflict, while negative training effects were observed for employees with low family-to-work conflict. These moderation effects were mediated by the interactive effect of training and family-to-work conflict on employee perceptions of family-supportive supervisor behaviors. Implications of our findings for future work-family intervention development and evaluation are discussed. PMID:20853943
Izano, Monika A; Brown, Daniel M; Neophytou, Andreas M; Garcia, Erika; Eisen, Ellen A
Occupational exposure guidelines are ideally based on estimated effects of static interventions that assign constant exposure over a working lifetime. Static effects are difficult to estimate when follow-up extends beyond employment because their identifiability requires additional assumptions. Effects of dynamic interventions that assign exposure while at work, allowing subjects to leave and become unexposed thereafter, are more easily identifiable but result in different estimates. Given the practical implications of exposure limits, we explored the drivers of the differences between static and dynamic interventions in a simulation study where workers could terminate employment because of an intermediate adverse health event that functions as a time-varying confounder. The two effect estimates became more similar with increasing strength of the health event and outcome relationship and with increasing time between health event and employment termination. Estimates were most dissimilar when the intermediate health event occurred early in employment, providing an effective screening mechanism.
Semaan, Salaam; Kay, Linda; Strouse, Darcy; Sogolow, Ellen; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Neumann, Mary Spink; Flores, Stephen A; Peersman, Greet; Johnson, Wayne D; Lipman, Paula Darby; Eke, Agatha; Des Jarlais, Don C
We describe 99 (experimental and certain quasi-experimental) U.S.-based trials, reported or published since 1988, of behavioral and social interventions that measured prespecified behavioral and biologic outcomes and aimed to reduce risk for HIV infection. Studies identified through June 1998 by the HIV/AIDS Prevention Research Synthesis project were grouped into 4 risk behavior areas: drug-related (k [number of studies] = 48), heterosexual youth (k = 24), heterosexual adult (k = 17), and same-sex (k = 10). We compared the studies in the 4 areas by variables key to the development, evaluation, and transfer of interventions. Participants comprised injection drug users (43% of studies), drug users out of treatment (29%), African Americans (18%), clinic patients (18%), youth in schools (10%), and drug users in treatment (10%). Most studies were randomized (85%), provided another intervention to the control or comparison groups (71%), and evaluated behavioral interventions (92%). On average, interventions were conducted in 5 sessions (total, 8 hours) during 3 months. The theoretical basis of the intervention was not noted in 57% of the reports. At least one variable from each of the 3 outcome classifications was measured in 8% of the studies: behavioral, biologic, and psychosocial. Distinct profiles exist for the 4 risk areas. Addressing gaps in research and reporting would be helpful for analytical and program activities. This sizable portfolio of evaluated interventions contributes to effectiveness reviews and to considerations of transfer to program practice.
Rodriguez, Billie Jo; Anderson, Cynthia M.
Total group contingencies, a variation of interdependent group contingencies, provide educators with an efficient and effective mechanism to improve social behavior and increase academic skills. Their utility has not been examined in small educational groups. This is unfortunate as supplemental instruction frequently is delivered in small group…
Donna M. Kazemi
Conclusions: Intervention programs to reduce drinking by college students need to address developmental dynamics of freshmen students, including gender, psychosocial factors, personality, and lifestyle health-promoting behaviors.
Mauriello, Leanne M; Van Marter, Deborah F; Umanzor, Cindy D; Castle, Patricia H; de Aguiar, Emma L
To test an iPad-delivered multiple behavior tailored intervention (Healthy Pregnancy: Step by Step) for pregnant women that addresses smoking cessation, stress management, and fruit and vegetable consumption. A randomized 2 × 5 factorial repeated measures design was employed with randomization on the individual level stratified on behavior risk. Women completed three sessions during pregnancy and two postpartum at postdelivery months 1 and 4. Women were recruited from six locations of federally funded health centers across three states. Participants (N = 335) were English- and Spanish-speaking women at up to 18 weeks gestation. The treatment group received three interactive sessions focused on two priority health behavior risks. The sessions offered individually tailored and stage-matched change strategies based on the transtheoretical model of behavior change. The usual care group received March of Dimes brochures. The primary outcome was the number of behavior risks. Stage of change and continuous measures for all behaviors also were assessed. Data were analyzed across all time points using generalized estimating equations examining repeated measures effects. Women in the treatment group reported significantly fewer risks than those in usual care at 1 month (.85 vs. 1.20, odds ratio [OR] = .70) and 4 months postpartum (.72 vs. .91, OR = .81). Healthy Pregnancy is an evidence-based and personalized program that assists pregnant women with reducing behavior risks and sustaining healthy lifestyle behaviors. © 2016 by American Journal of Health Promotion, Inc.
Karen S. Ingersoll
Full Text Available While Internet interventions can improve health behaviors, their impact is limited by program adherence. Supporting program adherence through telephone counseling may be useful, but there have been few direct tests of the impact of support. We describe a Telephone Motivational Interviewing (MI intervention targeting adherence to an Internet intervention for drivers with Type 1 Diabetes, DD.com, and compare completion of intervention benchmarks by those randomized to DD.com plus MI vs. DD.com only. The goal of the pre-intervention MI session was to increase the participant's motivation to complete the Internet intervention and all its assignments, while the goal of the post-treatment MI session was to plan for maintaining changes made during the intervention. Sessions were semi-structured and partially scripted to maximize consistency. MI Fidelity was coded using a standard coding system, the MITI. We examined the effects of MI support vs. no support on number of days from enrollment to program benchmarks. Results show that MI sessions were provided with good fidelity. Users who received MI support completed some program benchmarks such as Core 4 (t176 df = −2.25; p < .03 and 11 of 12 monthly driving diaries significantly sooner, but support did not significantly affect time to intervention completion (t177 df = −1.69; p < .10 or rates of completion. These data suggest that there is little benefit to therapist guidance for Internet interventions including automated email prompts and other automated minimal supports, but that a booster MI session may enhance collection of follow-up data.
Ogilvie, David; Mitchell, Richard; Mutrie, Nanette; Petticrew, Mark; Platt, Stephen
There is little evidence about the effects of environmental interventions on population levels of physical activity. Major transport projects may promote or discourage physical activity in the form of walking and cycling, but researching the health effects of such "natural experiments" in transport policy or infrastructure is challenging. Case study of attempts in 2004-2005 to evaluate the effects of two major transport projects in Scotland: an urban congestion charging scheme in Edinburgh, and a new urban motorway (freeway) in Glasgow. These interventions are typical of many major transport projects. They are unique to their context. They cannot easily be separated from the other components of the wider policies within which they occur. When, where, and how they are implemented are political decisions over which researchers have no control. Baseline data collection required for longitudinal studies may need to be planned before the intervention is certain to take place. There is no simple way of defining a population or area exposed to the intervention or of defining control groups. Changes in quantitative measures of health-related behavior may be difficult to detect. Major transport projects have clear potential to influence population health, but it is difficult to define the interventions, categorize exposure, or measure outcomes in ways that are likely to be seen as credible in the field of public health intervention research. A final study design is proposed in which multiple methods and spatial levels of analysis are combined in a longitudinal quasi-experimental study.
Full Text Available Background: Improving diabetic patients’ foot care behaviors is one of the most effective strategies in minimizing diabetic foot ulceration and its further negative impacts, either in diabetic hospitalized patients or outpatients.Purpose: To describe foot care knowledge and behaviors among hospitalized diabetic patients, to apply selected foot care knowledge and behaviors improvement evidence, and to evaluate its effectiveness.Method: Four diabetic patients who were under our care for at least three days and could communicate in Thai language were selected from a surgical ward in a university hospital. The authors applied educational program based on patients’ learning needs, provided diabetic foot care leaflet, and assisted patients to set their goal and action plans. In the third day of treatment, we evaluated patients’ foot care knowledge and their goal and action plan statements in improving foot care behaviors.Result: Based on the data collected among four hospitalized diabetic patients, it was shown that all patients needed foot care behaviors improvement and the educational program improved hospitalized patients’ foot care knowledge and their perceived foot care behaviors. The educational program that combined with goal setting and action plans method was easy, safe, and seemed feasibly applicable for diabetic hospitalized patients.Conclusion: The results of this study provide valuable information for improvement of hospitalized diabetic patients’ foot care knowledge and behaviors. The authors recommend nurses to use this evidence-based practice to contribute in improving the quality of diabetic care.Keywords: Intervention, diabetic foot care, hospitalized diabetic patients
Miller, Natalie V; Haas, Sarah M; Waschbusch, Daniel A; Willoughby, Michael T; Helseth, Sarah A; Crum, Kathleen I; Coles, Erika K; Pelham, William E
The conduct problems of children with callous-unemotional (CU) traits (i.e., lack of empathy, lack of guilt/lack of caring behaviors) are particularly resistant to current behavioral interventions, and it is possible that differential sensitivities to punishment and reward may underlie this resistance. Children with conduct problems and CU (CPCU) are less responsive to behavioral punishment techniques (e.g., time-out), whereas reward techniques (e.g., earning points for prizes or activities) are effective for reducing conduct problems. This study examined the efficacy of modified behavioral interventions, which de-emphasized punishment (Condition B) and emphasized reward techniques (Condition C), compared with a standard behavioral intervention (Condition A). Interventions were delivered through a summer treatment program over 7 weeks with an A-B-A-C-A-BC-A design to a group of 11 children (7-11 years; 91% male). All children were diagnosed with either oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder, in addition to attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Results revealed the best treatment response occurred during the low-punishment condition, with rates of negative behavior (e.g., aggression, teasing, stealing) increasing over the 7 weeks. However, there was substantial individual variability in treatment response, and several children demonstrated improvement during the modified intervention conditions. Future research is necessary to disentangle treatment effects from order effects, and implications of group treatment of CPCU children (i.e., deviancy training) are discussed. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Markus Surkamta Eric Santosa
Full Text Available The way consumers think about the products they will buy determines their buying behavior. The decision to buy a particular product is obviously in accordance with the buyer’s attitude. The buyers will also feel more comfortable if their behavior meets with the approval and expectations of the people close to them. While the development of a certain attitude has no effect on subjective judgment, the effect of compromise is likely to make a contribution to its development. Since it is still unclear, this study’s main purposed is to clarify this. In addition, while an attitude is theorized as being a predictor of behavior, through behavioral intention, the study’s secondary purpose is to boost the earlier findings. Likewise, in accordance with the theory of planned behavior, the study will also examine the other predictors of behavioral intention, in relation to the behavioral intention itself. A sample consisting of a 100 respondents was compiled by using the convenience and judgment technique. The data were analyzed using Amos 16.0 and SPSS 16.0. As expected, the compromise effect had a significant influence on whether the customers’ attitude or the subjective norm was the main determinant. Likewise, the customers’ attitude, the subjective norm and perceived behavioral control were confirmed as good predictors of customers’ behavioral intentions.
Rumchev, Krassi; Brown, Helen; Wheeler, Amanda; Pereira, Gavin; Spickett, Jeff
Nickel is a widely-used material in many industries. Although there is enough evidence that occupational exposure to nickel may cause respiratory illnesses, allergies, and even cancer, it is not possible to stop the use of nickel in occupational settings. Nickel exposure, however, can be controlled and reduced significantly in workplaces. The main objective of this study was to assess if educational intervention of hygiene behavior could reduce nickel exposure among Indonesian nickel smelter workers. Participants were randomly assigned to three intervention groups (n = 99). Group one (n = 35) received only an educational booklet about nickel, related potential health effects and preventive measures, group two (n = 35) attended a presentation in addition to the booklet, and group three (n = 29) received personal feedback on their biomarker results in addition to the booklet and presentations. Pre- and post-intervention air sampling was conducted to measure concentrations of dust and nickel in air along with worker's blood and urine nickel concentrations. The study did not measure significant differences in particles and nickel concentrations in the air between pre- and post-interventions. However, we achieved significant reductions in the post intervention urine and blood nickel concentrations which can be attributed to changes in personal hygiene behavior. The median urinary nickel concentration in the pre-intervention period for group one was 52.3 µg/L, for group two 57.4 µg/L, and group three 43.2 µg/L which were significantly higher (pnickel with significantly (p nickel levels of 0.1 µg/L for all groups. The study showed that educational interventions can significantly reduce personal exposure levels to nickel among Indonesian nickel smelter workers.
Frerichs, Leah M; Araz, Ozgur M; Huang, Terry T-K
Research evidence indicates that obesity has spread through social networks, but lever points for interventions based on overlapping networks are not well studied. The objective of our research was to construct and parameterize a system dynamics model of the social transmission of behaviors through adult and youth influence in order to explore hypotheses and identify plausible lever points for future childhood obesity intervention research. Our objectives were: (1) to assess the sensitivity of childhood overweight and obesity prevalence to peer and adult social transmission rates, and (2) to test the effect of combinations of prevention and treatment interventions on the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity. To address the first objective, we conducted two-way sensitivity analyses of adult-to-child and child-to-child social transmission in relation to childhood overweight and obesity prevalence. For the second objective, alternative combinations of prevention and treatment interventions were tested by varying model parameters of social transmission and weight loss behavior rates. Our results indicated child overweight and obesity prevalence might be slightly more sensitive to the same relative change in the adult-to-child compared to the child-to-child social transmission rate. In our simulations, alternatives with treatment alone, compared to prevention alone, reduced the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity more after 10 years (1.2-1.8% and 0.2-1.0% greater reduction when targeted at children and adults respectively). Also, as the impact of adult interventions on children was increased, the rank of six alternatives that included adults became better (i.e., resulting in lower 10 year childhood overweight and obesity prevalence) than alternatives that only involved children. The findings imply that social transmission dynamics should be considered when designing both prevention and treatment intervention approaches. Finally, targeting adults may
Leah M Frerichs
Full Text Available Research evidence indicates that obesity has spread through social networks, but lever points for interventions based on overlapping networks are not well studied. The objective of our research was to construct and parameterize a system dynamics model of the social transmission of behaviors through adult and youth influence in order to explore hypotheses and identify plausible lever points for future childhood obesity intervention research. Our objectives were: (1 to assess the sensitivity of childhood overweight and obesity prevalence to peer and adult social transmission rates, and (2 to test the effect of combinations of prevention and treatment interventions on the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity. To address the first objective, we conducted two-way sensitivity analyses of adult-to-child and child-to-child social transmission in relation to childhood overweight and obesity prevalence. For the second objective, alternative combinations of prevention and treatment interventions were tested by varying model parameters of social transmission and weight loss behavior rates. Our results indicated child overweight and obesity prevalence might be slightly more sensitive to the same relative change in the adult-to-child compared to the child-to-child social transmission rate. In our simulations, alternatives with treatment alone, compared to prevention alone, reduced the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity more after 10 years (1.2-1.8% and 0.2-1.0% greater reduction when targeted at children and adults respectively. Also, as the impact of adult interventions on children was increased, the rank of six alternatives that included adults became better (i.e., resulting in lower 10 year childhood overweight and obesity prevalence than alternatives that only involved children. The findings imply that social transmission dynamics should be considered when designing both prevention and treatment intervention approaches. Finally
Carroll, Kathleen M; Kiluk, Brian D
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) approaches have among the highest level of empirical support for the treatment of drug and alcohol use disorders. As Psychology of Addictive Behaviors marks its 30th anniversary, we review the evolution of CBT for the addictions through the lens of the Stage Model of Behavioral Therapies Development. The large evidence base from Stage II randomized clinical trials indicates a modest effect size with evidence of relatively durable effects, but limited diffusion in clinical practice, as is the case for most empirically validated approaches for mental health and addictive disorders. Technology may provide a means for CBT interventions to circumvent the "implementation cliff" in Stages III-V by offering a flexible, low-cost, standardized means of disseminating CBT in a range of novel settings and populations. Moreover, returning to Stage I to reconnect clinical applications of CBT to recent developments in cognitive science and neuroscience holds great promise for accelerating understanding of mechanisms of action. It is critical that CBT not be considered as a static intervention, but rather 1 that constantly evolves and is refined through the stage model until the field achieves a maximally powerful intervention that addresses core features of the addictions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Lima-Serrano, Marta; Lima-Rodríguez, Joaquín S
Given that lifestyleshave similar determinants and that school-based interventions are usually targeted at all the risks that affect adolescents, the objective of this systematic review was to summarize the characteristics and effects of school-based interventions acting on different behavioral domains of adolescent health promotion. The review process was conducted by two independent reviewers who searched PubMed, Scopus, PsycINFO, and ERIC databases for experimental or observational studies with at least two measures of results published from 2007 to 2011, given that the research information available doubles every 5 years. Methodological quality was assessed with a standardized tool. Information was extracted from 35 studies aiming to prevent risk behaviors and promote healthy nutrition, physical activity, and mental and holistic health. Activities were based on theoretical models and were classified into interactive lessons, peer mediation, environmental changes, parents' and community activities, and tailored messages by computer-assisted training or other resources, usually including multiple components. In some cases, we identified some moderate to large, short- and long-term effects on behavioral and intermediate variable. This exhaustive review found that well-implemented interventions can promote adolescent health. These findings are consistent with recent reviews. Implications for practice, public health, and research are discussed. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
O'Reilly, M.F.; Fragale, C.; Gainey, S.; Kang, S.Y.; Koch, H.; Shubert, J.; El Zein, F.; Longino, D.; Chung, M.; Xu, Z.W.; White, P.J.; Lang, R.B.; Davis, T.; Rispoli, M.; Lancioni, G.E.; Didden, H.C.M.; Healy, O.; Kagohara, D.; Meer, L. van der; Sigafoos, J.
We examined the influence of an antecedent communication intervention on challenging behavior for three students with developmental disorders. Students were taught to request tangible items that were identified as reinforcers for challenging behavior in a prior functional analysis. individual
Hartin, Phillip J; Nugent, Chris D; McClean, Sally I; Cleland, Ian; Tschanz, JoAnn T; Clark, Christine J; Norton, Maria C
Health education and behavior change programs targeting specific risk factors have demonstrated their effectiveness in reducing the development of future diseases. Alzheimer disease (AD) shares many of the same risk factors, most of which can be addressed via behavior change. It is therefore theorized that a behavior change intervention targeting these risk factors would likely result in favorable rates of AD prevention. The objective of this study was to reduce the future risk of developing AD, while in the short term promoting vascular health, through behavior change. The study was an interventional randomized controlled trial consisting of subjects who were randomly assigned into either treatment (n=102) or control group (n=42). Outcome measures included various blood-based biomarkers, anthropometric measures, and behaviors related to AD risk. The treatment group was provided with a bespoke "Gray Matters" mobile phone app designed to encourage and facilitate behavior change. The app presented evidence-based educational material relating to AD risk and prevention strategies, facilitated self-reporting of behaviors across 6 behavioral domains, and presented feedback on the user's performance, calculated from reported behaviors against recommended guidelines. This paper explores the rationale for a mobile phone-led intervention and details the app's effect on behavior change and subsequent clinical outcomes. Via the app, the average participant submitted 7.3 (SD 3.2) behavioral logs/day (n=122,719). Analysis of these logs against primary outcome measures revealed that participants who improved their high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels during the study duration answered a statistically significant higher number of questions per day (mean 8.30, SD 2.29) than those with no improvement (mean 6.52, SD 3.612), t97.74=-3.051, P=.003. Participants who decreased their body mass index (BMI) performed significantly better in attaining their recommended daily goals
Kennedy, Suzanne; Bailey, Ryan; Jaffee, Katy; Markus, Anne; Gerstein, Maya; Stevens, David M; Lesch, Julie Kennedy; Malveaux, Floyd J; Mitchell, Herman
Researchers often struggle with the gap between efficacy and effectiveness in clinical research. To bridge this gap, the Community Healthcare for Asthma Management and Prevention of Symptoms (CHAMPS) study adapted an efficacious, randomized controlled trial that resulted in evidence-based asthma interventions in community health centers. Children (aged 5-12 years; N = 590) with moderate to severe asthma were enrolled from 3 intervention and 3 geographically/capacity-matched control sites in high-risk, low-income communities located in Arizona, Michigan, and Puerto Rico. The asthma intervention was tailored to the participant's allergen sensitivity and exposure, and it comprised 4 visits over the course of 1 year. Study visits were documented and monitored prospectively via electronic data capture. Asthma symptoms and health care utilization were evaluated at baseline, and at 6 and 12 months. A total of 314 intervention children and 276 control children were enrolled in the study. Allergen sensitivity testing (96%) and home environmental assessments (89%) were performed on the majority of intervention children. Overall study activity completion (eg, intervention visits, clinical assessments) was 70%. Overall and individual site participant symptom days in the previous 4 weeks were significantly reduced compared with control findings (control, change of -2.28; intervention, change of -3.27; difference, -0.99; P asthma in these high-need populations. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Borsky, Amanda E; McDonnell, Karen; Turner, Monique Mitchell; Rimal, Rajiv
Encouraging bystanders to intervene safely and effectively in situations that could escalate to violence-known as bystander behavior programs-is a growing yet largely untested strategy to prevent dating violence. Using a quasi-experimental design, we evaluate a low-resource, low-intensity intervention aimed at preventing dating violence among college students. The integrated behavioral model (IBM) was used to guide the evaluation. We also assess which IBM variables were most strongly associated with bystander behaviors. Participants were drawn from two Virginia colleges that predominantly train females in the health profession sciences. The intervention group (n = 329) participated in a university-wide bystander behavior intervention consisting of a 30-min presentation on dating violence at new-student orientation and a week-long "red flag" social marketing campaign on campus to raise awareness of dating violence. Controlling for changes at the comparison university, results showed an increase in bystander behaviors, such as encouraging a friend who may be in an abusive relationship to get help, after the intervention and adjusting for potential confounders (increase of 1.41 bystander behaviors, p = .04). However, no significant changes were found for bystander intentions, self-efficacy, social norms, or attitudes related to dating violence from pre- to post-intervention. Self-efficacy had a direct relationship with bystander behaviors. Results suggest that low-resource interventions have a modest effect on increasing bystander behaviors. However, higher resource interventions likely are needed for a larger impact, especially among students who already demonstrate strong baseline intentions to intervene and prevent dating violence. © The Author(s) 2016.
Daumit, Gail L; Dickerson, Faith B; Wang, Nae-Yuh; Dalcin, Arlene; Jerome, Gerald J; Anderson, Cheryl A M; Young, Deborah R; Frick, Kevin D; Yu, Airong; Gennusa, Joseph V; Oefinger, Meghan; Crum, Rosa M; Charleston, Jeanne; Casagrande, Sarah S; Guallar, Eliseo; Goldberg, Richard W; Campbell, Leslie M; Appel, Lawrence J
Overweight and obesity are epidemic among persons with serious mental illness, yet weight-loss trials systematically exclude this vulnerable population. Lifestyle interventions require adaptation in this group because psychiatric symptoms and cognitive impairment are highly prevalent. Our objective was to determine the effectiveness of an 18-month tailored behavioral weight-loss intervention in adults with serious mental illness. We recruited overweight or obese adults from 10 community psychiatric rehabilitation outpatient programs and randomly assigned them to an intervention or a control group. Participants in the intervention group received tailored group and individual weight-management sessions and group exercise sessions. Weight change was assessed at 6, 12, and 18 months. Of 291 participants who underwent randomization, 58.1% had schizophrenia or a schizoaffective disorder, 22.0% had bipolar disorder, and 12.0% had major depression. At baseline, the mean body-mass index (the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) was 36.3, and the mean weight was 102.7 kg (225.9 lb). Data on weight at 18 months were obtained from 279 participants. Weight loss in the intervention group increased progressively over the 18-month study period and differed significantly from the control group at each follow-up visit. At 18 months, the mean between-group difference in weight (change in intervention group minus change in control group) was -3.2 kg (-7.0 lb, P=0.002); 37.8% of the participants in the intervention group lost 5% or more of their initial weight, as compared with 22.7% of those in the control group (P=0.009). There were no significant between-group differences in adverse events. A behavioral weight-loss intervention significantly reduced weight over a period of 18 months in overweight and obese adults with serious mental illness. Given the epidemic of obesity and weight-related disease among persons with serious mental illness, our findings
Oram, Lindsay; Owens, Sarah; Maras, Melissa
A wealth of research highlights negative outcomes associated with mental and behavioral health problems in children and adolescents. Prevention-based frameworks have been developed to provide prevention and early intervention in the school setting. Tertiary behavioral supports often include the use of functional behavior assessments (FBAs) and…
Stuart, Elizabeth A; Perry, Deborah F; Le, Huynh-Nhu; Ialongo, Nicholas S
Individuals not fully complying with their assigned treatments is a common problem encountered in randomized evaluations of behavioral interventions. Treatment group members rarely attend all sessions or do all "required" activities; control group members sometimes find ways to participate in aspects of the intervention. As a result, there is often interest in estimating both the effect of being assigned to participate in the intervention, as well as the impact of actually participating and doing all of the required activities. Methods known broadly as "complier average causal effects" (CACE) or "instrumental variables" (IV) methods have been developed to estimate this latter effect, but they are more commonly applied in medical and treatment research. Since the use of these statistical techniques in prevention trials has been less widespread, many prevention scientists may not be familiar with the underlying assumptions and limitations of CACE and IV approaches. This paper provides an introduction to these methods, described in the context of randomized controlled trials of two preventive interventions: one for perinatal depression among at-risk women and the other for aggressive disruptive behavior in children. Through these case studies, the underlying assumptions and limitations of these methods are highlighted.
Background High levels of sedentary behavior are often measured in preschoolers, but only a few interventions have been developed to counteract this. Furthermore, detailed descriptions of interventions in preschoolers targeting different forms of sedentary behavior could not be located in the literature. The aim of the present paper was to describe the different steps of the Intervention Mapping Protocol used towards the development of an intervention component of the ToyBox-study focusing on decreasing preschoolers’ sedentary behavior. The ToyBox-study focuses on the prevention of overweight in 4- to 6-year-old children by implementing a multi-component kindergarten-based intervention with family involvement in six different European countries. Methods Applying the Intervention Mapping Protocol, six different steps were systematically completed for the structured planning and development of the intervention. A literature search and results from focus groups with parents/caregivers and kindergarten teachers were used as a guide during the development of the intervention and the intervention materials. Results The application of the different steps in the Intervention Mapping Protocol resulted in the creation of matrices of change objectives, followed by the selection of practical applications for five different intervention tools that could be used at the individual level of the preschool child, at the interpersonal level (i.e., parents/caregivers) and at the organizational level (i.e., kindergarten teachers). No cultural differences regarding preschoolers’ sedentary behavior were identified between the participating countries during the focus groups, so cultural and local adaptations of the intervention materials were not necessary to improve the adoption and implementation of the intervention. Conclusions A systematic and evidence-based approach was used for the development of this kindergarten-based family-involved intervention targeting preschoolers, with
De Decker, Ellen; De Craemer, Marieke; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Verbestel, Vera; Duvinage, Kristin; Iotova, Violeta; Grammatikaki, Evangelia; Wildgruber, Andreas; Mouratidou, Theodora; Manios, Yannis; Cardon, Greet
High levels of sedentary behavior are often measured in preschoolers, but only a few interventions have been developed to counteract this. Furthermore, detailed descriptions of interventions in preschoolers targeting different forms of sedentary behavior could not be located in the literature. The aim of the present paper was to describe the different steps of the Intervention Mapping Protocol used towards the development of an intervention component of the ToyBox-study focusing on decreasing preschoolers' sedentary behavior. The ToyBox-study focuses on the prevention of overweight in 4- to 6-year-old children by implementing a multi-component kindergarten-based intervention with family involvement in six different European countries. Applying the Intervention Mapping Protocol, six different steps were systematically completed for the structured planning and development of the intervention. A literature search and results from focus groups with parents/caregivers and kindergarten teachers were used as a guide during the development of the intervention and the intervention materials. The application of the different steps in the Intervention Mapping Protocol resulted in the creation of matrices of change objectives, followed by the selection of practical applications for five different intervention tools that could be used at the individual level of the preschool child, at the interpersonal level (i.e., parents/caregivers) and at the organizational level (i.e., kindergarten teachers). No cultural differences regarding preschoolers' sedentary behavior were identified between the participating countries during the focus groups, so cultural and local adaptations of the intervention materials were not necessary to improve the adoption and implementation of the intervention. A systematic and evidence-based approach was used for the development of this kindergarten-based family-involved intervention targeting preschoolers, with the inclusion of parental involvement. The
Effects of a new community-based reproductive health intervention on knowledge of and attitudes and behaviors toward stress urinary incontinence among young women in Shanghai: a cluster-randomized controlled trial.
Zhang, Ning; He, Yuan; Wang, Jue; Zhang, Ying; Ding, Jingxin; Hua, Ke-qin
This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and to introduce a new community-based reproductive health intervention. We then evaluated the effectiveness of this intervention. In this cluster-randomized trial, 2100 participants aged 18-40 years were divided randomly into an intervention group (IG, 1400 women) and a control group (CG, 700 women). The CG received traditional community intervention, cmprising limited reproductive information and education; the IG received the new community-based reproductive health intervention model, comprising self-designed handbooks, health lectures, and free medical consultations, in addition to the traditional community intervention. All participants were surveyed face to face using a self-designed questionnaire before and after the 6-month intervention. In Shanghai, the prevalence rate of SUI was 14.3 %. No difference was observed between groups regarding mean knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAPs) about SUI and the total score at baseline (P > 0.05). The IG scored significantly higher than the CG on the KAP questions at follow-up, and a significant improvement was observed in the IG after the intervention. Total scores increased with age, educational level, income, and time spent working in Shanghai per year but decreased with gravidity and the number of abortions. Native respondents scored higher than did migrants. The prevalence of SUI is high in Shanghai, and the new community-based reproductive health intervention model is both effective and easily implemented. This intervention should focus on women with a low income, women with low education levels, young women, migrant women, and women who have had multiple abortions or pregnancies.
Edwards, Meghan K; Loprinzi, Paul D
To examine the effects of a free-living, sedentary-inducing intervention on cognitive function. Randomized controlled, parallel group intervention. University campus. Thirty-three young adults (n = 23 intervention; n = 10 control). The intervention group was asked to eliminate all exercise and minimize steps to ≤5000 steps/day for 1 week, whereas the control group was asked to continue normal physical activity (PA) levels for 1 week. Both groups completed a series of 8 cognitive function assessments (assessing multiple parameters of cognition) preintervention and immediately postintervention. The intervention group was asked to resume normal PA levels for 1 week postintervention and completed the cognitive assessments for a third time at 2 weeks postintervention. Split-plot repeated-measures analysis of variance. The results of our statistical analyses showed that the group × time interaction effect was not significant ( P > .05) for any of the evaluated cognitive parameters. These findings demonstrate the need for future experimental investigations of sedentary behavior to better understand its effects on cognitive function. However, although previous work has demonstrated favorable effects of acute and chronic PA on cognitive function, our findings suggest that a 1-week period of reduced PA does not detrimentally affect cognitive function, which may have encouraging implications for individuals going through a temporary relapse in PA.
Cugelman, Brian; Thelwall, Mike; Dawes, Phil
Researchers and practitioners have developed numerous online interventions that encourage people to reduce their drinking, increase their exercise, and better manage their weight. Motivations to develop eHealth interventions may be driven by the Internet's reach, interactivity, cost-effectiveness, and studies that show online interventions work. However, when designing online interventions suitable for public campaigns, there are few evidence-based guidelines, taxonomies are difficult to apply, many studies lack impact data, and prior meta-analyses are not applicable to large-scale public campaigns targeting voluntary behavioral change. This meta-analysis assessed online intervention design features in order to inform the development of online campaigns, such as those employed by social marketers, that seek to encourage voluntary health behavior change. A further objective was to increase understanding of the relationships between intervention adherence, study adherence, and behavioral outcomes. Drawing on systematic review methods, a combination of 84 query terms were used in 5 bibliographic databases with additional gray literature searches. This resulted in 1271 abstracts and papers; 31 met the inclusion criteria. In total, 29 papers describing 30 interventions were included in the primary meta-analysis, with the 2 additional studies qualifying for the adherence analysis. Using a random effects model, the first analysis estimated the overall effect size, including groupings by control conditions and time factors. The second analysis assessed the impacts of psychological design features that were coded with taxonomies from evidence-based behavioral medicine, persuasive technology, and other behavioral influence fields. These separate systems were integrated into a coding framework model called the communication-based influence components model. Finally, the third analysis assessed the relationships between intervention adherence and behavioral outcomes. The
Raedeke, Thomas D.; Focht, Brian C.; King, Jenna S.
This study evaluated the effectiveness of a student-led physical activity intervention that incorporated pedometers and cognitive-behavioral strategies. Undergraduate students (N = 117) enrolled in upper division exercise and sport science courses recruited participants. Participants in the cognitive-behavioral intervention condition received…
Porter, Kathleen J; Alexander, Ramine; Perzynski, Katelynn M; Kruzliakova, Natalie; Zoellner, Jamie M
Ensuring that written materials used in behavioral interve