WorldWideScience

Sample records for effective action approach

  1. The background effective average action approach to quantum gravity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D’Odorico, G.; Codello, A.; Pagani, C.

    2016-01-01

    of an UV attractive non-Gaussian fixed-point, which we find characterized by real critical exponents. Our closure method is general and can be applied systematically to more general truncations of the gravitational effective average action. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016....

  2. The effective action approach applied to nuclear matter (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Huu Phat; Nguyen Tuan Anh.

    1996-11-01

    Within the framework of the Walecka model (QHD-I) the application of the Cornwall-Jackiw-Tomboulis (CJT) effective action to nuclear matter is presented. The main feature is the treating of the meson condensates for the system of finite nuclear density. The system of couple Schwinger-Dyson (SD) equations is derived. It is shown that SD equations for sigma-omega mixings are absent in this formalism. Instead, the energy density of the nuclear ground state does explicitly contain the contributions from the ring diagrams, amongst others. In the bare-vertex approximation, the expression for energy density is written down for numerical computation in the next paper. (author). 14 refs, 3 figs

  3. Approach-Avoidance Training Effects Are Moderated by Awareness of Stimulus-Action Contingencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dessel, Pieter; De Houwer, Jan; Gast, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Prior research suggests that repeatedly approaching or avoiding a stimulus changes the liking of that stimulus. In two experiments, we investigated the relationship between, on one hand, effects of approach-avoidance (AA) training on implicit and explicit evaluations of novel faces and, on the other hand, contingency awareness as indexed by participants' memory for the relation between stimulus and action. We observed stronger effects for faces that were classified as contingency aware and found no evidence that AA training caused changes in stimulus evaluations in the absence of contingency awareness. These findings challenge the standard view that AA training effects are (exclusively) the product of implicit learning processes, such as the automatic formation of associations in memory. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  4. An integrated approach for prospectively investigating a mode-of-action for rodent liver effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeBaron, Matthew J.; Geter, David R.; Rasoulpour, Reza J.; Gollapudi, B. Bhaskar; Thomas, Johnson; Murray, Jennifer; Kan, H. Lynn; Wood, Amanda J.; Elcombe, Cliff; Vardy, Audrey; McEwan, Jillian; Terry, Claire; Billington, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Registration of new plant protection products (e.g., herbicide, insecticide, or fungicide) requires comprehensive mammalian toxicity evaluation including carcinogenicity studies in two species. The outcome of the carcinogenicity testing has a significant bearing on the overall human health risk assessment of the substance and, consequently, approved uses for different crops across geographies. In order to understand the relevance of a specific tumor finding to human health, a systematic, transparent, and hypothesis-driven mode of action (MoA) investigation is, appropriately, an expectation by the regulatory agencies. Here, we describe a novel approach of prospectively generating the MoA data by implementing additional end points to the standard guideline toxicity studies with sulfoxaflor, a molecule in development. This proactive MoA approach results in a more robust integration of molecular with apical end points while minimizing animal use. Sulfoxaflor, a molecule targeting sap-feeding insects, induced liver effects (increased liver weight due to hepatocellular hypertrophy) in an initial palatability probe study for selecting doses for subsequent repeat-dose dietary studies. This finding triggered the inclusion of dose-response investigations of the potential key events for rodent liver carcinogenesis, concurrent with the hazard assessment studies. As predicted, sulfoxaflor induced liver tumors in rats and mice in the bioassays. The MoA data available by the time of the carcinogenicity finding supported the conclusion that the carcinogenic potential of sulfoxaflor was due to CAR/PXR nuclear receptor activation with subsequent hepatocellular proliferation. This MoA was not considered to be relevant to humans as sulfoxaflor is unlikely to induce hepatocellular proliferation in humans and therefore would not be a human liver carcinogen. - Highlights: • We prospectively generated MoA data into standard guideline toxicity studies. • A proactive MoA approach

  5. An integrated approach for prospectively investigating a mode-of-action for rodent liver effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeBaron, Matthew J., E-mail: MJLeBaron@dow.com [Toxicology and Environmental Research and Consulting, The Dow Chemical Company, Midland, MI, 48674 (United States); Geter, David R., E-mail: dave.geter@gmail.com [Toxicology and Environmental Research and Consulting, The Dow Chemical Company, Midland, MI, 48674 (United States); Rasoulpour, Reza J. [Toxicology and Environmental Research and Consulting, The Dow Chemical Company, Midland, MI, 48674 (United States); Gollapudi, B. Bhaskar, E-mail: BBGollapudi@dow.com [Toxicology and Environmental Research and Consulting, The Dow Chemical Company, Midland, MI, 48674 (United States); Thomas, Johnson, E-mail: JThomas4@dow.com [Toxicology and Environmental Research and Consulting, The Dow Chemical Company, Midland, MI, 48674 (United States); Murray, Jennifer, E-mail: AMurray@dow.com [Toxicology and Environmental Research and Consulting, The Dow Chemical Company, Midland, MI, 48674 (United States); Kan, H. Lynn, E-mail: HLKan@dow.com [Toxicology and Environmental Research and Consulting, The Dow Chemical Company, Midland, MI, 48674 (United States); Wood, Amanda J., E-mail: AJWood@dow.com [Toxicology and Environmental Research and Consulting, The Dow Chemical Company, Midland, MI, 48674 (United States); Elcombe, Cliff, E-mail: CliffElcombe@cxrbiosciences.com [CXR Biosciences, 2 James Lindsay Place, Dundee Technopole, Dundee, DD1 5JJ, Scotland (United Kingdom); Vardy, Audrey, E-mail: audrey_vardy@europe.bd.com [CXR Biosciences, 2 James Lindsay Place, Dundee Technopole, Dundee, DD1 5JJ, Scotland (United Kingdom); McEwan, Jillian, E-mail: jillian.mcewan@rtmcewan.co.uk [CXR Biosciences, 2 James Lindsay Place, Dundee Technopole, Dundee, DD1 5JJ, Scotland (United Kingdom); Terry, Claire, E-mail: CTerry@dow.com [Dow AgroSciences, Abingdon, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Billington, Richard, E-mail: RBillington@dow.com [Dow AgroSciences, Abingdon, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-15

    Registration of new plant protection products (e.g., herbicide, insecticide, or fungicide) requires comprehensive mammalian toxicity evaluation including carcinogenicity studies in two species. The outcome of the carcinogenicity testing has a significant bearing on the overall human health risk assessment of the substance and, consequently, approved uses for different crops across geographies. In order to understand the relevance of a specific tumor finding to human health, a systematic, transparent, and hypothesis-driven mode of action (MoA) investigation is, appropriately, an expectation by the regulatory agencies. Here, we describe a novel approach of prospectively generating the MoA data by implementing additional end points to the standard guideline toxicity studies with sulfoxaflor, a molecule in development. This proactive MoA approach results in a more robust integration of molecular with apical end points while minimizing animal use. Sulfoxaflor, a molecule targeting sap-feeding insects, induced liver effects (increased liver weight due to hepatocellular hypertrophy) in an initial palatability probe study for selecting doses for subsequent repeat-dose dietary studies. This finding triggered the inclusion of dose-response investigations of the potential key events for rodent liver carcinogenesis, concurrent with the hazard assessment studies. As predicted, sulfoxaflor induced liver tumors in rats and mice in the bioassays. The MoA data available by the time of the carcinogenicity finding supported the conclusion that the carcinogenic potential of sulfoxaflor was due to CAR/PXR nuclear receptor activation with subsequent hepatocellular proliferation. This MoA was not considered to be relevant to humans as sulfoxaflor is unlikely to induce hepatocellular proliferation in humans and therefore would not be a human liver carcinogen. - Highlights: • We prospectively generated MoA data into standard guideline toxicity studies. • A proactive MoA approach

  6. The effect of approach/avoidance training on alcohol consumption is mediated by change in alcohol action tendency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason M Sharbanee

    Full Text Available Training people to respond to alcohol images by making avoidance joystick movements can affect subsequent alcohol consumption, and has shown initial efficacy as a treatment adjunct. However, the mechanisms that underlie the training's efficacy are unknown. The present study aimed to determine 1 whether the training's effect is mediated by a change in action tendency or a change in selective attention, and 2 whether the training's effect is moderated by individual differences in working memory capacity (WMC. Three groups of social drinkers (total N = 74 completed either approach-alcohol training, avoid-alcohol training or a sham-training on the Approach-Avoidance Task (AAT. Participants' WMC was assessed prior to training, while their alcohol-related action tendency and selective attention were assessed before and after the training on the recently developed Selective-Attention/Action Tendency Task (SA/ATT, before finally completing an alcohol taste-test. There was no significant main effect of approach/avoidance training on alcohol consumption during the taste-test. However, there was a significant indirect effect of training on alcohol consumption mediated by a change in action tendency, but no indirect effect mediated by a change in selective attention. There was inconsistent evidence of WMC moderating training efficacy, with moderation found only for the effect of approach-alcohol training on the AAT but not on the SA/ATT. Thus approach/avoidance training affects alcohol consumption specifically by changing the underlying action tendency. Multiple training sessions may be required in order to observe more substantive changes in drinking behaviour.

  7. A Behavioral Approach to Building Cognitive Foundations for Effective Thought and Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Eric; Pappas, Jesse

    2011-01-01

    This research documents the process and results of an approach to teaching university undergraduates intentional self-development skills designed to promote self-generated goals, routines, and lifestyle choices. These skills may provide effective behavioral foundations for developing metacognitive awareness, intentionality, and individual…

  8. The effective action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeWitt, B.

    1987-01-01

    The concept of the effective action in quantum field theory was introduced into physics by Julian Schwinger in 1954. The effective action summarizes, in a single functional, all the quantum properties of the fields under consideration. The functional derivative of the effective action yields the effective field equations, which replace the classical field equations as descriptors of the dynamical behavior of quantized fields. Solutions of these equations are 'in-out' matrix elements of the field operators and, when substituted back into the effective action itself, yield logarithms of the corresponding 'in-out' amplitudes. The classical field equations are gauge covariant, a fact that derives from the gauge invariance of the classical action. One has learned how to construct effective actions that are similarly gauge invariant (in each order of perturbation theory) and that yield effective field equations having the covariance properties of their classical analogs. Despite this advance, problems remain, stemming from the fact that there is not one but an infinite number of gauge invariant effective actions, one for every background-covariant choice of supplementary conditions and ghost fields. Vilkovisky (1984) has argued persuasively that by requiring additionally that the effective action be invariant under local invertible changes in the choice of basic field variables, one can construct a natural unique gauge invariant effective action. This lecture will examine Vilkovisky's ideas. 3 refs

  9. Investigating the effect of clinical governess approach on patients' length of stay in emergency department: an action research study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahmine Salehi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, clinical governance approach with aims to improve the quality of health services has been proposed in Iran. Considering the obvious problems especially patients' length of stay (LOS in the emergency departments (EDs; the present study has been carried out with the purpose of Investigating the effect of clinical governess approach on patients' LOS in the one of the largest medical centers in the country. After the problem was specified by the 17 interviews with employees and managers of the ED; the emergency clinical governance committee was formed by two academic researchers and seven ED staff (key participants that had the most involvement with the subject of study. The activities of the committee, including planning, acting, observing and reflecting, was organized by using participatory action research approach and action research cycle (Kemmis 1995. During this time, three formal meetings with key participants were held in 6-month intervals. Monthly records of patients' average LOS and interview with ED staff were used to analyze the findings. The research was completed with two cycles in one year. Committee members took the following actions. As a result, the patients' LOS reduced from 2.68 days to 1.73 days. Make regular patients visits by medical groups especially orthopedists and neurologists; Decision making about patients situation by emergency physicians and transferring patients to the relevant units by bed managers; Refusing to admit elective patients during overcrowding times; to regulate the list of patients requiring ICU by anesthesiologists. Prolonged LOS can be due to various causes and a team approach, which is one of the requirements of clinical governance approach, is needed to manage it. The results showed that the multidisciplinary team could make positive changes and reduce LOS in emergency setting.

  10. The mass-action law based algorithm for cost-effective approach for cancer drug discovery and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Ting-Chao

    2011-01-01

    The mass-action law based system analysis via mathematical induction and deduction lead to the generalized theory and algorithm that allows computerized simulation of dose-effect dynamics with small size experiments using a small number of data points in vitro, in animals, and in humans. The median-effect equation of the mass-action law deduced from over 300 mechanism specific-equations has been shown to be the unified theory that serves as the common-link for complicated biomedical systems. After using the median-effect principle as the common denominator, its applications are mechanism-independent, drug unit-independent, and dynamic order-independent; and can be used generally for single drug analysis or for multiple drug combinations in constant-ratio or non-constant ratios. Since the "median" is the common link and universal reference point in biological systems, these general enabling lead to computerized quantitative bio-informatics for econo-green bio-research in broad disciplines. Specific applications of the theory, especially relevant to drug discovery, drug combination, and clinical trials, have been cited or illustrated in terms of algorithms, experimental design and computerized simulation for data analysis. Lessons learned from cancer research during the past fifty years provide a valuable opportunity to reflect, and to improve the conventional divergent approach and to introduce a new convergent avenue, based on the mass-action law principle, for the efficient cancer drug discovery and the low-cost drug development.

  11. Learning Actions Models: Qualitative Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolander, Thomas; Gierasimczuk, Nina

    2015-01-01

    In dynamic epistemic logic, actions are described using action models. In this paper we introduce a framework for studying learnability of action models from observations. We present first results concerning propositional action models. First we check two basic learnability criteria: finite ident...

  12. Effects of the Angle of Approaching a Spot for a Manufacturing Action on Whole-body Orientation and Position

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, S.W.; Wang, M.J.; Delleman, N.J.

    2007-01-01

    In general manufacturing consists of a sequence of actions on different spots. Depending on the sequence, workers may have to approach a spot from varying angles. The purpose of the study conducted was to describe the whole-body orientation and position when approaching a spot for a manufacturing

  13. The carbon-budget approach to climate stabilization: Cost-effective subglobal versus global action

    OpenAIRE

    Eichner, Thomas; Pethig, Rüdiger

    2010-01-01

    Scientific expertise suggests that mitigating extreme world-wide climate change damages requires avoiding increases in the world mean temperature exceeding 2 degrees Celsius. To achieve the two degree target, the cumulated global emissions must not exceed some limit, the so-called global carbon budget. In a two-period two country general equilibrium model with a finite stock of fossil fuels we compare the cooperative cost-effective policy with the unilateral cost-effective policy of restricti...

  14. Kaluza-Klein reduction of low-energy effective actions: geometrical approach

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vysoký, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 2017, č. 8 (2017), č. článku 143. ISSN 1029-8479 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : differential and algebra ic geometry * effective field theories * supergravity models Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Applied mathematics Impact factor: 6.063, year: 2016 https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FJHEP08%282017%29143

  15. Photodynamic Action against Wastewater Microorganisms and Chemical Pollutants: An Effective Approach with Low Environmental Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bartolomeu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater (WW from urban and industrial activities is often contaminated with microorganisms and chemical pollutants. To reduce the concentration of microorganisms in WW to levels comparable to those found in natural waters, the sewage effluent is usually subjected to disinfection with chlorine, ozone, or ultraviolet light, which may lead to the formation of toxic products and contribute to the selection of resistant genes. Moreover, the changing patterns of infectious diseases and the emerging of multidrug resistant microbial strains entail the development of new technologies for WW decontamination. Microbial photodynamic inactivation (PDI with photosensitizers, oxygen, and visible light has demonstrated to be effective in the inactivation of microorganisms via photogeneration of reactive oxygen species able to induce microbial damage at the external structures level. The promising results of PDI suggest that this principle can be applied to WW treatment to inactivate microorganisms but also to photodegrade chemical pollutants. The aim of this study was to assess the applicability of PDI for the microbial and chemical decontamination of secondarily treated WW. To evaluate the efficiency of bacterial inactivation in WW, experiments were done in both phosphate buffer saline (PBS and filtered WW with the bioluminescent Escherichia coli, using small and large volumes of WW. The potential of PDI to inactivate the native bacteria (E. coli and Enterococcus present in WW was tested and assays without the adding of bacteria to the WW were performed. It was also tested if the same PDI protocol was able to induce phototransformation of phenol. The cationic porphyrin 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(1-methylpyridinium-4-ylporphyrin tetra-iodide (Tetra-Py+-Me was shown to be effective against both bacterial groups representing both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria used as microbiological parameters to instigate water quality and even showing the power to

  16. Effective action for reggeized gluons, classical gluon field of relativistic color charge and color glass condensate approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bondarenko, S.; Prygarin, A. [Ariel University, Physics Department, Ariel (Israel); Lipatov, L. [St. Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation); Hamburg University, II Institute of Theoretical Physics, Hamburg (Germany)

    2017-08-15

    We discuss application of formalism of small-x effective action for reggeized gluons (Gribov, Sov. Phys. JETP 26:414, 1968; Lipatov, Nucl. Phys. B 452:369, 1995; Lipatov, Phys. Rep. 286:131, 1997; Lipatov, Subnucl. Ser. 49:131, 2013; Lipatov, Int. J. Mod. Phys. Conf. Ser. 39:1560082, 2015; Lipatov, Int. J. Mod. Phys. A 31(28/29):1645011, 2016; Lipatov, EPJ Web Conf. 125:01010, 2016; Lipatov, Sov. J. Nucl. Phys. 23:338, 1976; Kuraev et al., Sov. Phys. JETP 45:199, 1977; Kuraev et al., Zh Eksp, Teor. Fiz. 72:377, 1977; Balitsky and Lipatov, Sov. J. Nucl. Phys. 28:822, 1978; Balitsky and Lipatov, Yad. Fiz. 28:1597 1978), for the calculation of classical gluon field of relativistic color charge, similarly to that done in CGC approach of McLerran and Venugopalan, Phys. Rev. D 49:2233 (1994), Jalilian-Marian et al., Phys. Rev. D 55:5414 (1997), Jalilian-Marian et al., Nucl. Phys. B 504:415 (1997), Jalilian-Marian et al., Phys. Rev. D 59:014014 (1998), Jalilian-Marian et al., Phys. Rev. D 59:014015 (1998), Iancu et al., Nucl. Phys. A 692:583 (2001), Iancu et al., Phys. Lett. B 510:133 (2001), Ferreiro et al., Nucl. Phys. A 703:489 (2002). The equations of motion with the reggeon fields are solved in LO and NLO approximations and new solutions are found. The results are compared to the calculations performed in the CGC framework and it is demonstrated that the LO CGC results for the classical field are reproduced in our calculations. Possible applications of the NLO solution in the effective action and CGC frameworks are discussed as well. (orig.)

  17. A Praxeological Approach to Intentional Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Futerman Alan G.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The concept of Intentional Action is at the core of Praxeology, as developed by the Austrian economist Ludwig von Mises. Under this unique approach, defined as the science of human action and designed to study the field of the social sciences, Mises create “action axiom”: the contention that every acting man more satisfactory state of affairs for a Austrian scholar is able to derive the fundament human action; such as value, scale of value, scarcity, abundance, profit, loss, uncertainty and causality, among others. This paper intends to present the praxeological perspective on intentional action and its epistemologic implications; it also attempts to answer objections to this thesis.

  18. Poisson-Lie T-duality of string effective actions: A new approach to the dilaton puzzle

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jurčo, B.; Vysoký, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 130, August (2018), s. 1-26 ISSN 0393-0440 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Poisson-Lie T-duality * string effective actions * dilaton field Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 0.819, year: 2016 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0393044018301748?via%3Dihub

  19. Poisson-Lie T-duality of string effective actions: A new approach to the dilaton puzzle

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jurčo, B.; Vysoký, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 130, August (2018), s. 1-26 ISSN 0393-0440 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Poisson-Lie T- dual ity * string effective actions * dilaton field Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 0.819, year: 2016 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0393044018301748?via%3Dihub

  20. Cultivating collaborative improvement: an action learning approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middel, H.G.A.; McNichols, Timothy

    2006-01-01

    The process of implementing collaborative initiatives across disparate members of supply networks is fraught with difficulties. One approach designed to tackle the difficulties of organisational change and interorganisational improvement in practice is 'action learning'. This paper examines the

  1. Effective action and brane running

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brevik, Iver; Ghoroku, Kazuo; Yahiro, Masanobu

    2004-01-01

    We address the renormalized effective action for a Randall-Sundrum brane running in 5D bulk space. The running behavior of the brane action is obtained by shifting the brane position without changing the background and fluctuations. After an appropriate renormalization, we obtain an effective, low energy brane world action, in which the effective 4D Planck mass is independent of the running position. We address some implications for this effective action

  2. A Reasoned Action Approach to Health Promotion

    OpenAIRE

    Fishbein, Martin

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the integrative model of behavioral prediction (IM), the latest formulation of a reasoned action approach. The IM attempts to identify a limited set of variables that can account for a considerable proportion of the variance in any given behavior. More specifically, consistent with the original theory of reasoned action, the IM assumes that intentions are the immediate antecedents of behavior, but in addition, the IM recognizes that environmental factors and skills and ...

  3. Approaches to local climate action in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y. D.

    2011-12-01

    Though climate change is a global problem, the impacts are felt on the local scale; it follows that the solutions must come at the local level. Fortunately, many cities and municipalities are implementing climate mitigation (or climate action) policies and programs. However, they face many procedural and institutional barriers to their efforts, such of lack of expertise or data, limited human and financial resources, and lack of community engagement (Krause 2011). To address the first obstacle, thirteen in-depth case studies were done of successful model practices ("best practices") of climate action programs carried out by various cities, counties, and organizations in Colorado, and one outside Colorado, and developed into "how-to guides" for other municipalities to use. Research was conducted by reading documents (e.g. annual reports, community guides, city websites), email correspondence with program managers and city officials, and via phone interviews. The information gathered was then compiled into a series of reports containing a narrative description of the initiative; an overview of the plan elements (target audience and goals); implementation strategies and any indicators of success to date (e.g. GHG emissions reductions, cost savings); and the adoption or approval process, as well as community engagement efforts and marketing or messaging strategies. The types of programs covered were energy action plans, energy efficiency programs, renewable energy programs, and transportation and land use programs. Between the thirteen case studies, there was a range of approaches to implementing local climate action programs, examined along two dimensions: focus on climate change (whether it was direct/explicit or indirect/implicit) and extent of government authority. This benchmarking exercise affirmed the conventional wisdom propounded by Pitt (2010), that peer pressure (that is, the presence of neighboring jurisdictions with climate initiatives), the level of

  4. A reasoned action approach to health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishbein, Martin

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the integrative model of behavioral prediction (IM), the latest formulation of a reasoned action approach. The IM attempts to identify a limited set of variables that can account for a considerable proportion of the variance in any given behavior. More specifically, consistent with the original theory of reasoned action, the IM assumes that intentions are the immediate antecedents of behavior, but in addition, the IM recognizes that environmental factors and skills and abilities can moderate the intention-behavior relationship. Similar to the theory of planned behavior, the IM also assumes that intentions are a function of attitudes, perceived normative pressure and self-efficacy, but it views perceived normative pressure as a function of descriptive as well as of injunctive (i.e., subjective) norms. After describing the theory and addressing some of the criticisms directed at a reasoned action approach, the paper illustrates how the theory can be applied to understanding and changing health related behaviors.

  5. Effects of Security actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Ramona; Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne; Nyberg, Lars; Johansson, Magnus

    2010-05-01

    In a project funded by the Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency, the effort and work to reduce different kinds of accidents are being evaluated. The project wants to illuminate the links between actions and outcome, so we can learn from today's performance and in the future select more effective measures and overall deal with accidents more efficiently. The project ESS covers the field of frequent accidents such as sliding accidents at home, in house fires and less common accidents such as chemical and land fill accidents up to even more rare accidents such as natural accidents and hazards. In the ESS project SGI (Swedish geotechnical institute) will evaluate the work and effort concerning various natural hazards limited to landslides, erosion and flooding. The aim is to investigate how municipalities handle, especially prevention, of such natural disasters today. The project includes several aspects such as: • which are the driving forces for risk analysis in a municipality • do one use risk mapping (and what type) in municipal risk analysis • which aspects are most important when selecting preventive measures • in which way do one learn from past accidents • and from previous accidents elsewhere, by for example use existing databases • etc There are many aspects that play a role in a well-functioning safety promotion work. The overall goal is to examine present work and activities, highlight what is well functioning and identify weak points. The aim is to find out where more resources are needed and give suggestions for a more efficient security work. This includes identification of the most efficient "tools" in use or needed. Such tools can be education, directives, funding, more easily available maps and information regarding previous accidents and preventive measures etc. The project will result in recommendations for more effective ways to deal with landslides, erosion and flooding. Since different kinds of problems can occur depending on level of

  6. Actions taken in response to Fukushima : approaches and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dermarkar, F.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses actions taken to Mitigating a Beyond Design Basis (BDB) external event and approaches for preventing a BDB Accident. It outlines the challenges in mitigating a BDB Accident and approaches for preventing fuel failure, protecting containment, and integrating BDB Accident Management Guides into existing Accident Management Procedures. Other challenges in BDB External Events are seismic and flooding risks, high wind assessment BDB Accidents (BDBA) and effectiveness of human response under BDBA conditions.

  7. Action-based effects on music perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Pieter-Jan; Leman, Marc; Palmer, Caroline; Wanderley, Marcelo M

    2014-01-03

    The classical, disembodied approach to music cognition conceptualizes action and perception as separate, peripheral processes. In contrast, embodied accounts of music cognition emphasize the central role of the close coupling of action and perception. It is a commonly established fact that perception spurs action tendencies. We present a theoretical framework that captures the ways in which the human motor system and its actions can reciprocally influence the perception of music. The cornerstone of this framework is the common coding theory, postulating a representational overlap in the brain between the planning, the execution, and the perception of movement. The integration of action and perception in so-called internal models is explained as a result of associative learning processes. Characteristic of internal models is that they allow intended or perceived sensory states to be transferred into corresponding motor commands (inverse modeling), and vice versa, to predict the sensory outcomes of planned actions (forward modeling). Embodied accounts typically refer to inverse modeling to explain action effects on music perception (Leman, 2007). We extend this account by pinpointing forward modeling as an alternative mechanism by which action can modulate perception. We provide an extensive overview of recent empirical evidence in support of this idea. Additionally, we demonstrate that motor dysfunctions can cause perceptual disabilities, supporting the main idea of the paper that the human motor system plays a functional role in auditory perception. The finding that music perception is shaped by the human motor system and its actions suggests that the musical mind is highly embodied. However, we advocate for a more radical approach to embodied (music) cognition in the sense that it needs to be considered as a dynamical process, in which aspects of action, perception, introspection, and social interaction are of crucial importance.

  8. Action-based effects on music perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Pieter-Jan; Leman, Marc; Palmer, Caroline; Wanderley, Marcelo M.

    2013-01-01

    The classical, disembodied approach to music cognition conceptualizes action and perception as separate, peripheral processes. In contrast, embodied accounts of music cognition emphasize the central role of the close coupling of action and perception. It is a commonly established fact that perception spurs action tendencies. We present a theoretical framework that captures the ways in which the human motor system and its actions can reciprocally influence the perception of music. The cornerstone of this framework is the common coding theory, postulating a representational overlap in the brain between the planning, the execution, and the perception of movement. The integration of action and perception in so-called internal models is explained as a result of associative learning processes. Characteristic of internal models is that they allow intended or perceived sensory states to be transferred into corresponding motor commands (inverse modeling), and vice versa, to predict the sensory outcomes of planned actions (forward modeling). Embodied accounts typically refer to inverse modeling to explain action effects on music perception (Leman, 2007). We extend this account by pinpointing forward modeling as an alternative mechanism by which action can modulate perception. We provide an extensive overview of recent empirical evidence in support of this idea. Additionally, we demonstrate that motor dysfunctions can cause perceptual disabilities, supporting the main idea of the paper that the human motor system plays a functional role in auditory perception. The finding that music perception is shaped by the human motor system and its actions suggests that the musical mind is highly embodied. However, we advocate for a more radical approach to embodied (music) cognition in the sense that it needs to be considered as a dynamical process, in which aspects of action, perception, introspection, and social interaction are of crucial importance. PMID:24454299

  9. Action-based effects on music perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter-Jan eMaes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The classical, disembodied approach to music cognition conceptualizes action and perception as separate, peripheral phenomena. In contrast, embodied accounts to music cognition emphasize the central role of the close coupling of action and perception. It is a commonly established fact that perception spurs action tendencies. We present a theoretical framework capturing the ways that the human motor system, and the actions it produces, can reciprocally influence the perception of music. The cornerstone of this framework is the common coding theory postulating a representational overlap in the brain between the planning, the execution, and the perception of movement. The integration of action and perception in so-called internal models is explained as a result of associative learning processes. Characteristic of internal models is that they allow intended or perceived sensory states to be transferred into corresponding motor commands (inverse modelling, and vice versa, to predict the sensory outcomes of planned actions (forward modelling. Embodied accounts typically adhere to inverse modelling to explain action effects on music perception (Leman, 2007. We extent this account by pinpointing forward modelling as an alternative mechanism by which action can modulate perception. We provide an extensive overview of recent empirical evidence in support of this idea. Additionally, we demonstrate that motor dysfunctions can cause perceptual disabilities, supporting the main idea of the paper that the human motor system plays a functional role in auditory perception. The finding that music perception is shaped by the human motor system, and the action it produces, suggests that the musical mind is highly embodied. However, we advocate for a more radical approach to embodied (music cognition in the sense that it needs to be considered as a dynamic process, in which aspects of action, perception, introspection, and social interaction are of crucial

  10. Effective 1.0: An Analytic Effective Action Analysis Library

    OpenAIRE

    Hetherington, James P. J.; Stephens, Philip

    2006-01-01

    Effective is a C++ library which provides the user a toolbox to study the effective action of an arbitrary field theory. From the field content, gauge groups and representations an appropriate action is generated symbolically. The effective potential, mass spectrum, field couplings and vacuum expectation values are then obtained automatically; tree level results are obtained analytically while many tools, both numeric and analytic, provide a variety of approaches to deal with the one-loop cor...

  11. As to achieve regulatory action, regulatory approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cid, R.; Encinas, D.

    2014-01-01

    The achievement of the effectiveness in the performance of a nuclear regulatory body has been a permanent challenge in the recent history of nuclear regulation. In the post-Fukushima era this challenge is even more important. This article addresses the subject from two complementary points of view: the characteristics of an effective regulatory body and the regulatory approaches. This work is based on the most recent studies carried out by the Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities, CNRA (OECD/NEA), as well as on the experience of the Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear, CSN, the Spanish regulatory body. Rafael Cid is the representative of CSN in these project: Diego Encinas has participated in the study on regulatory approaches. (Author)

  12. A Multiple Watershed Approach to Assessing the Effects of Habitat Restoration Actions on Anadromous and Resident Fish Populations, Technical Report 2003-2004.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marmorek, David

    2004-03-01

    for future habitat restoration actions. Such designs are being developed concurrently with this project by several other groups in the Columbia Basin (RME Workgroup 2003, NMFS 2003, Hillman and Paulsen 2002, Hillman 2003). By addressing questions about habitat restoration and monitoring (in coordination with other related efforts), we hope that this project will catalyze a shift in the Basin's paradigm of habitat restoration, moving from implementation of individual watershed projects towards rigorously designed and monitored, multiwatershed, adaptive management experiments. The project involved three phases of work, which were closely integrated with various related and ongoing efforts in the region: (1) Scoping - We met with a Core Group of habitat experts and managers to scope out a set of testable habitat restoration hypotheses, identify candidate watersheds and recommend participants for a data evaluation workshop. (2) Data Assembly - We contacted over 80 scientists and managers to help evaluate the suitability of each candidate watershed's historical data for assessing the effectiveness of past restoration actions. We eventually settled on the Yakima, Wenatchee, Clearwater, and Salmon subbasins, and began gathering relevant data for these watersheds at a workshop with habitat experts and managers. Data assembly continued for several months after the workshop. (3) Data Analysis and Synthesis - We explored statistical approaches towards retrospectively analyzing the effects of restoration 'treatments' at nested spatial scales across multiple watersheds (Chapters 2-5 of this report). These analyses provided a foundation for identifying existing constraints to testing restoration hypotheses, and opportunities to overcome these constraints through improved experimental designs, monitoring protocols and project selection strategies (Chapters 6 and 7 of this report). Finally, we developed a set of recommendations to improve the design

  13. The effective action for chiral fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez-Gaume, L.

    1985-01-01

    This paper reports on recent work which given an exact characterization of the imaginary part of the effective action for chiral fermions in 2n dimensions in terms of the spectral asymmetry of a suitable (2n+1)-dimensional operator. In order to keep the discussion as simple as possible, the author concentrates on four dimensional fermions with arbitrary external gauge fields. This approach can be extended without difficulty to higher dimensions and also to include external gravitational fields

  14. Accelerating RCRA corrective action: The principles of the DOE approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimmell, T.A.; Green, D.R.; Ranek, N.L.; Coalgate, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is involved in the remediation of environmental contamination at many of its facilities under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). RCRA's corrective action provisions were established by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 (HSWA). In response to the HSWA mandate, EPA established a program for the conduct of RCRA corrective action that was similar to that established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). In addition, EPA developed and implemented its ''stabilization'' initiative as a means of quickly addressing immediate risks posed by releases until long term solutions can be applied. To improve the efficiency of environmental restoration at its facilities, DOE is developing guidance and training programs on accelerated environmental restoration under RCRA. A RCRA guidance document, entitled ''Accelerating RCRA Corrective Action at DOE Facilities,'' is currently being developed by DOE's Office of Environmental Policy and Assistance. The new guidance document will outline a decision-making process for determining if acceleration is appropriate for individual facilities, for identifying, evaluating, and selecting options for program acceleration, and for implementing selected acceleration options. The document will also discuss management and planning strategies that provide a firm foundation for accelerating RCRA corrective action. These strategies include a number of very basic principles that have proven effective at DOE and other federal facilities, as well as some new approaches. The purpose of this paper is to introduce DOE's new guidance document, discuss the general approach presented in the guidance for accelerating RCRA corrective action, and to emphasize some of the more important principles of effective management and planning

  15. A Reasoned Action Approach to Participation in Lesson Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Siebrichje; Roorda, Gerrit

    2016-01-01

    This exploratory study investigates teachers’ attitude toward Lesson Study (LS), a professional development approach which is relatively unknown in the Netherlands. The paper reports a qualitative study based on the Reasoned Action Approach, which explains how teachers’ beliefs influence their

  16. Action and familiarity effects on self and other expert musicians’ Laban effort-shape analyses of expressive bodily behaviors in instrumental music performance: a case study approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughton, Mary C.; Davidson, Jane W.

    2014-01-01

    Self-reflective performance review and expert evaluation are features of Western music performance practice. While music is usually the focus, visual information provided by performing musicians’ expressive bodily behaviors communicates expressiveness to musically trained and untrained observers. Yet, within a seemingly homogenous group, such as one of musically trained individuals, diversity of experience exists. Individual differences potentially affect perception of the subtleties of expressive performance, and performers’ effective communication of their expressive intentions. This study aimed to compare self- and other expert musicians’ perception of expressive bodily behaviors observed in marimba performance. We hypothesized that analyses of expressive bodily behaviors differ between expert musicians according to their specialist motor expertise and familiarity with the music. Two professional percussionists and experienced marimba players, and one professional classical singer took part in the study. Participants independently conducted Laban effort-shape analysis – proposing that intentions manifest in bodily activity are understood through shared embodied processes – of a marimbists’ expressive bodily behaviors in an audio-visual performance recording. For one percussionist, this was a self-reflective analysis. The work was unfamiliar to the other percussionist and singer. Perception of the performer’s expressive bodily behaviors appeared to differ according to participants’ individual instrumental or vocal motor expertise, and familiarity with the music. Furthermore, individual type of motor experience appeared to direct participants’ attention in approaching the analyses. Findings support forward and inverse perception–action models, and embodied cognitive theory. Implications offer scientific rigor and artistic interest for how performance practitioners can reflectively analyze performance to improve expressive communication. PMID

  17. Action and familiarity effects on self and other expert musicians’ Laban effort-shape analyses of expressive bodily behaviors in instrumental music performance: A case study approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary C Broughton

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Self-reflective performance review and expert evaluation are features of Western music performance practice. While music is usually the focus, visual information provided by performing musicians’ expressive bodily behaviors communicates expressiveness to musically trained and untrained observers. Yet, within a seemingly homogenous group such as one of musically trained individuals, diversity of experience exists. Individual differences potentially affect perception of the subtleties of expressive performance, and performers’ effective communication of their expressive intentions. This study aimed to compare self- and other expert musicians’ perception of expressive bodily behaviors observed in marimba performance. We hypothesised that analyses of expressive expressive bodily behaviors differ between expert musicians according to their specialist motor expertise and familiarity with the music. Two professional percussionists and experienced marimba players, and one professional classical singer took part in the study. Participants independently conducted Laban effort-shape analysis – proposing that intentions manifest in bodily activity are understood through shared embodied processes – of a marimbists’ expressive bodily behaviors in an audio-visual performance recording. For one percussionist, this was a self-reflective analysis. The work was unfamiliar to the other percussionist and singer. Perception of the performer’s expressive bodily behaviors differed according to participants’ individual instrumental or vocal motor expertise, and familiarity with the music. Furthermore, individual type of motor experience appeared to direct participants’ attention in approaching the analyses. Findings support forward and inverse perception-action models, and embodied cognitive theory. Implications offer scientific rigour and artistic interest for how performance practitioners can reflectively analyze performance to improve expressive

  18. Practical Reason, Another Approach of Safe Action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blazsin, H.; Guarnieri, F.; Martin, C.

    2016-01-01

    Born from the realisation that technology is neither the only source of risk, nor the exclusive solution, the concept of safety culture aimed at reintegrating human action, skills and symbolic productions (representations, beliefs, values, cognitive abilities, etc.) in the preservation of safety. As such it constituted a turning point for risk management and safety studies. Yet, the concept seems to raise more and more questions, both as a concept and as a practical tool (Simard, 2000; Fuchs, 2012; Edwards et al., 2013; Lopez de Castro et al., 2013). Mostly, these questions revolve around the lack of consensus over one shared definition of safety culture; around the idea that a number of its traditionally accepted characteristics, such as its systemic nature, remain to be demonstrated; finally, and maybe most importantly, that its implementation through such management tools as questionnaires, indicators, dashboards, has deprived safety culture of its substance and diverted from its original purpose, i.e., putting humanity back at the heart of safety (Guldenmund, 2007; Karsh, Waterson, Holden, 2013; Reiman, Rollenhagen, 2013). Indeed such tools lead to classify and quantify reality in an attempt at reproducibility, leaving aside the many aspects of human action that do not fit the associated categories as well as its complexity.

  19. QCD bosonization and the meson effective action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Praschifka, J.; Roberts, C.D.; Cahill, R.T.

    1987-01-01

    A bosonization of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is employed to derive a meson effective action, thus providing a direct link between QCD and meson phenomenology. As an example of this approach expressions are obtained for the meson parameters associated with the analysis of ω→3π decay. The bosonization also directly motivates a divergence-free, global color-symmetry model for mesons, which is seen to be a generalization of various phenomenological models. Good estimates are obtained for the values of several of the meson parameters

  20. A Government Action Approach to First Amendment Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walden, Ruth

    1992-01-01

    Suggests focusing on the actions of government that restrict free expression rather than focusing on the values served by freedom of expression. Bases the approach on the premise that the court's function is to determine when a particular government action violates the First Amendment, not whether the expression at issue is entitled to…

  1. Implementing a Tactical Approach through Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubacs-Collins, Klara

    2007-01-01

    Background: Influenced by the original observations of Bunker and Thorpe, physical education theorists began to question the effectiveness of a traditional model for teaching games and have increasingly begun to believe that concentrating only on specific motor responses (techniques) fails to take into account the contextual nature of games. Games…

  2. The Dutch Approach to Local Climate Action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schellekens, R.

    2008-01-01

    In the Netherlands we are working with municipalities on the subjects of RES and RUE for over 15 years now. Over the last 4 years we worked with 250 out of 430 municipalities on setting up and executing their local climate policies. For this there was a national climate covenant between the national government, the association of municipalities and the association of provinces. The municipalities and provinces were supported through a subsidy scheme and the help of SenterNovem. Products like the climate menu, the climate scan and an organisational assessment were developed to aid the municipalities in their process. Through involvement of different stake holders within the municipality or a region concerning the climate policy and the execution thereof, production of RES is stimulated and goals on energy saving are more likely to be reached. Through the involvement of stake holders and by making climate change an integral part of the municipal organisation an irreversible process is started. Thus economic competitiveness and innovations are stimulated. The municipality and the region will gain economic strength through this. Results in the Netherlands on a municipal level are inspiring. More and more municipalities are developing long-term strategies at the moment. Goals like energy neutrality, climate neutrality and CO 2 neutrality in a set year are usually the basis of these strategies. Through these strategies Dutch municipalities become increasingly less dependent on energy sources outside their boarders. On a European level the Dutch approach ties in with the Covenant of Mayors which is launched by the EU.(author)

  3. Exploring Action Research as an Approach to Interactive (Participatory) Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudary, Imran Anjum; Imran, Shahida

    2012-01-01

    This investigation seeks to understand "action research" as an approach to "interactive form of evaluation". The first half of the investigation illuminates the approach with the help of the selective body of literature and the second half draws attention to its application in the field with the help of an authentic evaluation…

  4. The Universal One-Loop Effective Action

    CERN Document Server

    Drozd, Aleksandra; Quevillon, Jérémie; You, Tevong

    2016-01-01

    We present the universal one-loop effective action for all operators of dimension up to six obtained by integrating out massive, non-degenerate multiplets. Our general expression may be applied to loops of heavy fermions or bosons, and has been checked against partial results available in the literature. The broad applicability of this approach simplifies one-loop matching from an ultraviolet model to a lower-energy effective field theory (EFT), a procedure which is now reduced to the evaluation of a combination of matrices in our universal expression, without any loop integrals to evaluate. We illustrate the relationship of our results to the Standard Model (SM) EFT, using as an example the supersymmetric stop and sbottom squark Lagrangian and extracting from our universal expression the Wilson coefficients of dimension-six operators composed of SM fields.

  5. The universal one-loop effective action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozd, Aleksandra; Ellis, John; Quevillon, Jérémie; You, Tevong

    2016-01-01

    We present the universal one-loop effective action for all operators of dimension up to six obtained by integrating out massive, non-degenerate multiplets. Our general expression may be applied to loops of heavy fermions or bosons, and has been checked against partial results available in the literature. The broad applicability of this approach simplifies one-loop matching from an ultraviolet model to a lower-energy effective field theory (EFT), a procedure which is now reduced to the evaluation of a combination of matrices in our universal expression, without any loop integrals to evaluate. We illustrate the relationship of our results to the Standard Model (SM) EFT, using as an example the supersymmetric stop and sbottom squark Lagrangian and extracting from our universal expression the Wilson coefficients of dimension-six operators composed of SM fields.

  6. Effective action for stochastic partial differential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hochberg, David; Molina-Paris, Carmen; Perez-Mercader, Juan; Visser, Matt

    1999-01-01

    Stochastic partial differential equations (SPDEs) are the basic tool for modeling systems where noise is important. SPDEs are used for models of turbulence, pattern formation, and the structural development of the universe itself. It is reasonably well known that certain SPDEs can be manipulated to be equivalent to (nonquantum) field theories that nevertheless exhibit deep and important relationships with quantum field theory. In this paper we systematically extend these ideas: We set up a functional integral formalism and demonstrate how to extract all the one-loop physics for an arbitrary SPDE subject to arbitrary Gaussian noise. It is extremely important to realize that Gaussian noise does not imply that the field variables undergo Gaussian fluctuations, and that these nonquantum field theories are fully interacting. The limitation to one loop is not as serious as might be supposed: Experience with quantum field theories (QFTs) has taught us that one-loop physics is often quite adequate to give a good description of the salient issues. The limitation to one loop does, however, offer marked technical advantages: Because at one loop almost any field theory can be rendered finite using zeta function technology, we can sidestep the complications inherent in the Martin-Siggia-Rose formalism (the SPDE analog of the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin formalism used in QFT) and instead focus attention on a minimalist approach that uses only the physical fields (this ''direct approach'' is the SPDE analog of canonical quantization using physical fields). After setting up the general formalism for the characteristic functional (partition function), we show how to define the effective action to all loops, and then focus on the one-loop effective action and its specialization to constant fields: the effective potential. The physical interpretation of the effective action and effective potential for SPDEs is addressed and we show that key features carry over from QFT to the case of

  7. Effective action for stochastic partial differential equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochberg, David [Laboratorio de Astrofisica Espacial y Fisica Fundamental, Apartado 50727, 28080 Madrid, (Spain); Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA, Carratera Ajalvir, Km. 4, 28850 Torrejon, Madrid, (Spain); Molina-Paris, Carmen [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Perez-Mercader, Juan [Laboratorio de Astrofisica Espacial y Fisica Fundamental, Apartado 50727, 28080 Madrid, (Spain); Visser, Matt [Physics Department, Washington University, Saint Louis, Missouri 63130-4899 (United States)

    1999-12-01

    Stochastic partial differential equations (SPDEs) are the basic tool for modeling systems where noise is important. SPDEs are used for models of turbulence, pattern formation, and the structural development of the universe itself. It is reasonably well known that certain SPDEs can be manipulated to be equivalent to (nonquantum) field theories that nevertheless exhibit deep and important relationships with quantum field theory. In this paper we systematically extend these ideas: We set up a functional integral formalism and demonstrate how to extract all the one-loop physics for an arbitrary SPDE subject to arbitrary Gaussian noise. It is extremely important to realize that Gaussian noise does not imply that the field variables undergo Gaussian fluctuations, and that these nonquantum field theories are fully interacting. The limitation to one loop is not as serious as might be supposed: Experience with quantum field theories (QFTs) has taught us that one-loop physics is often quite adequate to give a good description of the salient issues. The limitation to one loop does, however, offer marked technical advantages: Because at one loop almost any field theory can be rendered finite using zeta function technology, we can sidestep the complications inherent in the Martin-Siggia-Rose formalism (the SPDE analog of the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin formalism used in QFT) and instead focus attention on a minimalist approach that uses only the physical fields (this ''direct approach'' is the SPDE analog of canonical quantization using physical fields). After setting up the general formalism for the characteristic functional (partition function), we show how to define the effective action to all loops, and then focus on the one-loop effective action and its specialization to constant fields: the effective potential. The physical interpretation of the effective action and effective potential for SPDEs is addressed and we show that key features carry over from

  8. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project: technical approach document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978, PL95-604, grants the Secretary of Energy authority and responsibility to perform such actions as are necessary to minimize radiation health hazards and other environmental hazards from inactive uranium mill sites. These cleanup actions are to be performed in compliance with the EPA standards (40 CFR Part 192) which became final on March 7, 1983. This document describes the general technical approaches and design criteria that are adopted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in order to implement Remedial Action Plans (RAPs) and final designs that comply with EPA standards

  9. Wilsonian effective action of superstring theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, Ashoke [Harish-Chandra Research Institute,Chhatnag Road, Jhusi, Allahabad 211019 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute,Training School Complex, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2017-01-25

    By integrating out the heavy fields in type II or heterotic string field theory one can construct the effective action for the light fields. This effective theory inherits all the algebraic structures of the parent theory and the effective action automatically satisfies the Batalin-Vilkovisky quantum master equation. This theory is manifestly ultraviolet finite, has only light fields as its explicit degrees of freedom, and the Feynman diagrams of this theory reproduce the exact scattering amplitudes of light states in string theory to any arbitrary order in perturbation theory. Furthermore in this theory the degrees of freedom of light fields above certain energy scale are also implicitly integrated out. This energy scale is determined by a particular parameter labelling a family of equivalent actions, and can be made arbitrarily low, leading to the interpretation of the effective action as the Wilsonian effective action.

  10. Nambu sigma model and effective membrane actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurco, Branislav, E-mail: jurco@karlin.mff.cuni.cz [Mathematical Institute, Charles University, Prague 186 75 (Czech Republic); Schupp, Peter, E-mail: p.schupp@jacobs-university.de [Jacobs University Bremen, 28759 Bremen (Germany); Maxwell Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-09

    We propose an effective action for a p{sup Prime }-brane with open p-branes ending on it. The action has dual descriptions similar to the commutative and non-commutative ones of the DBI action for D-branes and open strings. The Poisson structure governing the non-commutativity of the D-brane is replaced by a Nambu structure and the open-closed string relations are generalized to the case of p-branes utilizing a novel Nambu sigma model description of p-branes. In the case of an M5-brane our action interpolates between M5-actions already proposed in the literature and matrix-model like actions involving Nambu structures.

  11. Nambu sigma model and effective membrane actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurčo, Branislav; Schupp, Peter

    2012-01-01

    We propose an effective action for a p ′ -brane with open p-branes ending on it. The action has dual descriptions similar to the commutative and non-commutative ones of the DBI action for D-branes and open strings. The Poisson structure governing the non-commutativity of the D-brane is replaced by a Nambu structure and the open-closed string relations are generalized to the case of p-branes utilizing a novel Nambu sigma model description of p-branes. In the case of an M5-brane our action interpolates between M5-actions already proposed in the literature and matrix-model like actions involving Nambu structures.

  12. The sufficiency assumption of the reasoned approach to action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Trafimow

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The reasoned action approach to understanding and predicting behavior includes the sufficiency assumption. Although variables not included in the theory may influence behavior, these variables work through the variables in the theory. Once the reasoned action variables are included in an analysis, the inclusion of other variables will not increase the variance accounted for in behavioral intentions or behavior. Reasoned action researchers are very concerned with testing if new variables account for variance (or how much traditional variables account for variance, to see whether they are important, in general or with respect to specific behaviors under investigation. But this approach tacitly assumes that accounting for variance is highly relevant to understanding the production of variance, which is what really is at issue. Based on the variance law, I question this assumption.

  13. FROM ACTION LEARNING TOTHETEACHING ORGANIZATION: An Experiential Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teddy Pawitra

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper expounds action learning for effective change leadership development using the learning-teaching helix as a paradigm for individual’s introspection. Which consists of five phases—Awareness phase (as certain your strengths and weaknesses. Alignment phase (identify your core competence. Action phase (synthesize your work, business and management skills, Adoption phase (becoming a leader and Assurance phase (excel as an educator cum coach. In addition, to succeed, the individual has to plan, strategize, prioritize and integrate. As a holistic manager the individual needs to think, feel and do to evolve from continuous action learning to the cycle of teaching for continuous innovation in organizational performance capabilities.

  14. Action Research – A New Approach for Environmental RD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danubianu Mirela

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available High efficiency research, development and innovation (RD&I constitute an answer to the ever growing importance that EU states give to knowledge-based development (a central idea in the Europe 2020 Strategy, directed toward finding comprehensive solutions to concerns connected to the Europe’s resource depletion, energy future, climate changes, etc. The "Action Research" paradigm appeared in the late 1940s but its systematic application is the attribute of recent years. It keeps researchers in the real world, requires teamwork, collaboration with communities and other stakeholders. Action Research is especially suitable in projects for reducing anthropic footprint / environmental aggression and in waste management. In essence, Action Research (for the first time systematically applied in Romania is the research approach that lets the problem studied to conduct the analysis and generate appropriate solutions; it constitutes a flexible, versatile technique to generate new knowledge through iterative interaction with the domain studied - namely the environment - researchers and communities.

  15. Development of measures to assess the safety of existing NPPs and the effectiveness of regulations and regulatory actions (including 'prescriptive' and 'performance based' approaches). Peer discussions on regulatory practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-09-01

    This report arises from the fourth series of peer discussions on regulatory practices entitled D evelopment of measures to assess the safety of existing nuclear power plants and the effectiveness of regulations and regulatory actions (including 'prescriptive' and 'performance based' approaches) . Senior regulators from 23 Member States participated in four peer group discussions during 1995-1996. This report presents the outcome of these meetings and recommendations of good practices identified by these senior regulators. The purpose of this report is to disseminate the views which the senior regulators presented at the meetings relating to measures used for assessing the safety of existing nuclear power plants and evaluating the effectiveness of regulators and regulatory actions. The intention in doing this is to assist Member States in the enhancement of their regulatory practices by identifying commonly accepted good practices. This report is structured so that it covers the subject matter under the following main headings: 'Prescriptive and Performance Based' Approaches to Regulation; Common Features of Regulatory Approaches; Effectiveness of the Regulator and Regulatory Actions; Recommendations of Good Practice. It is important to note that recommendations of good practice are included if they have been identified by at least one of the groups. It does not follow that all of the groups or individual Member States would necessarily endorse all of the recommendations. However, it is considered that if a single group of senior regulators judge that a particular practice is worthy of recommendation then it should be included for serious consideration. In some cases the same recommendations arise from all of the Groups

  16. Amino acid neurotransmitters and new approaches to anticonvulsant drug action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meldrum, B

    1984-01-01

    Amino acids provide the most universal and important inhibitory (gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glycine) and excitatory (glutamate, aspartate, cysteic acid, cysteine sulphinic acid) neurotransmitters in the brain. An anticonvulsant action may be produced (1) by enhancing inhibitory (GABAergic) processes, and (2) by diminishing excitatory transmission. Possible pharmacological mechanisms for enhancing GABA-mediated inhibition include (1) GABA agonist action, (2) GABA prodrugs, (3) drugs facilitating GABA release from terminals, (4) inhibition of GABA-transaminase, (5) allosteric enhancement of the efficacy of GABA at the receptor complex, (6) direction action on the chloride ionophore, and (7) inhibition of GABA reuptake. Examples of these approaches include the use of irreversible GABA-transaminase inhibitors, such as gamma-vinyl GABA, and the development of anticonvulsant beta-carbolines that interact with the "benzodiazepine receptor." Pharmacological mechanisms for diminishing excitatory transmission include (1) enzyme inhibitors that decrease the maximal rate of synthesis of glutamate or aspartate, (2) drugs that decrease the synaptic release of glutamate or aspartate, and (3) drugs that block the post-synaptic action of excitatory amino acids. Compounds that selectively antagonise excitation due to dicarboxylic amino acids have recently been developed. Those that selectively block excitation produced by N-methyl-D-aspartate (and aspartate) have proved to be potent anticonvulsants in many animal models of epilepsy. This provides a novel approach to the design of anticonvulsant drugs.

  17. Ubuntu and Capabilities Approach: Basic Doctrines for Calibrating Humanitarian Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rapatsa Mashele

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article explores prospects of using Ubuntu and Capabilities Approach to expand the scope of humanitarian action, to design one which serves humanity better even in the absence of disaster to essentially fulfil human development needs. It is considerate of the fact that humanitarian works contributes immensely in determining the extent to which humanity thrives. The traditional view on humanitarianism presupposes action-driven initiatives geared towards devising interventions to restore or reinforce human social order, improve livelihoods and quality of life. In sociological terms, human development is dependent on realizing and safeguarding, amongst others, human well-being, civil liberties and social security. The article utilizes core values enshrined in Ubuntu, Africa’s historic philosophy of life, and Amartya Sen’s Capabilities Approach as tools of analysis, with the view to expressing how to operationalize what should be considered stable humanitarian conditions and human well-being. Owing to persistent socio-economic challenges, especially the poverty problem, it is asserted that humanitarian action ought to depart from being a post-disaster intervention strategy, to being a pro-active and preventative pre-disaster orientated action, intended to nurture well-being and resultantly enable human development.

  18. Effects of BDNF polymorphisms on antidepressant action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Shih-Jen; Hong, Chen-Jee; Liou, Ying-Jay

    2010-12-01

    Evidence suggests that the down-regulation of the signaling pathway involving brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a molecular element known to regulate neuronal plasticity and survival, plays an important role in the pathogenesis of major depression. The restoration of BDNF activity induced by antidepressant treatment has been implicated in the antidepressant therapeutic mechanism. Because there is variability among patients with major depressive disorder in terms of response to antidepressant treatment and since genetic factors may contribute to this inter-individual variability in antidepressant response, pharmacogenetic studies have tested the associations between genetic polymorphisms in candidate genes related to antidepressant therapeutic action. In human BDNF gene, there is a common functional polymorphism (Val66Met) in the pro-region of BDNF, which affects the intracellular trafficking of proBDNF. Because of the potentially important role of BDNF in the antidepressant mechanism, many pharmacogenetic studies have tested the association between this polymorphism and the antidepressant therapeutic response, but they have produced inconsistent results. A recent meta-analysis of eight studies, which included data from 1,115 subjects, suggested that the Val/Met carriers have increased antidepressant response in comparison to Val/Val homozygotes, particularly in the Asian population. The positive molecular heterosis effect (subjects heterozygous for a specific genetic polymorphism show a significantly greater effect) is compatible with animal studies showing that, although BDNF exerts an antidepressant effect, too much BDNF may have a detrimental effect on mood. Several recommendations are proposed for future antidepressant pharmacogenetic studies of BDNF, including the consideration of multiple polymorphisms and a haplotype approach, gene-gene interaction, a single antidepressant regimen, controlling for age and gender interactions, and pharmacogenetic

  19. Action Research: Effective Marketing Strategies for a Blended University Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Ruth Gannon; Ley, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    This action research study investigated a marketing plan based on collaboration among a program faculty team and other organizational units for a graduate professional program. From its inception through the second year of operation, program enrollment increased due to the marketing plan based on an effective approach grounded in simple marketing…

  20. Action-Emotion Style, Learning Approach and Coping Strategies, in Undergraduate University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús de la Fuente

    Full Text Available Action-Emotion Style (AES is an affective-motivational construct that describes the achievement motivation that is characteristic of students in their interaction with stressful situations. Using elements from the Type-A Behavior Pattern (TABP, characteristics of competitiveness and overwork occur in different combinations with emotions of impatience and hostility, leading to a classification containing five categories of action-emotion style (Type B, Impatient-hostile type, Medium type, Competitive-Overworking type and Type A. The objective of the present research is to establish how characteristics of action-emotion style relate to learning approach (deep and surface approaches and to coping strategies (emotion-focused and problem-focused. The sample was composed of 225 students from the Psychology degree program. Pearson correlation analyses, ANOVAs and MANOVAs were used. Results showed that competitiveness-overwork characteristics have a significant positive association with the deep approach and with problem-focused strategies, while impatience-hostility is thus related to surface approach and emotion-focused strategies. The level of action-emotion style had a significant main effect. The results verified our hypotheses with reference to the relationships between action-emotion style, learning approaches and coping strategies.

  1. Dialectical principlism: an approach to finding the most ethical action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstock, Robert

    2015-03-01

    Most forensic psychiatrists occasionally face complex situations in forensic work in which ethics dilemmas cause discomfort. They want to determine the most ethical action, but the best choice is unclear. Fostering justice is primary in forensic roles, but secondary duties such as traditional biomedical ethics and personal values like helping society, combating racism, and being sensitive to cultural issues can impinge on or even outweigh the presumptive primary duty in extreme cases. Similarly, in treatment the psychiatrists' primary duty is to patients, but that can be outweighed by secondary duties such as protecting children and the elderly or maintaining security. The implications of one's actions matter. In forensic work, if the psychiatrist determines that he should not assist the party who wants to hire him, despite evidence clearly supporting its side, the only ethical option becomes not to accept the case at all, because the evidence does not support the better side. Sometimes it can be ethical to accept cases only for one side. In ethics-related dilemmas, I call the method of prioritizing and balancing all types of conflicting principles, duties, and personal and societal values in a dialectic to resolve conflicts among them dialectical principlism. This approach is designed to help determine the most ethical action. It is aspirational and is not intended to get the psychiatrist into trouble. © 2015 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  2. Courant algebroid connections and string effective actions

    OpenAIRE

    Jurčo, B.

    2017-01-01

    Courant algebroids are a natural generalization of quadratic Lie algebras, appearing in various contexts in mathematical physics. A connection on a Courant algebroid gives an analogue of a covariant derivative compatible with a given fiber-wise metric. Imposing further conditions resembling standard Levi-Civita connections, one obtains a class of connections whose curvature tensor in certain cases gives a new geometrical description of equations of motion of low energy effective action of str...

  3. Exploring soft constraints on effective actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchi, Massimo; Guerrieri, Andrea L. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma “Tor Vergata”,I.N.F.N. Sezione di Roma “Tor Vergata”,Via della Ricerca Scientifica, Roma, 00133 (Italy); Huang, Yu-tin; Lee, Chao-Jung [Department of Physics and Astronomy, National Taiwan University,No. 1 Roosevelt Road Sec. 4, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Wen, Congkao [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma “Tor Vergata”,I.N.F.N. Sezione di Roma “Tor Vergata”,Via della Ricerca Scientifica, Roma, 00133 (Italy)

    2016-10-10

    We study effective actions for simultaneous breaking of space-time and internal symmetries. Novel features arise due to the mixing of Goldstone modes under the broken symmetries which, in contrast to the usual Adler’s zero, leads to non-vanishing soft limits. Such scenarios are common for spontaneously broken SCFT’s. We explicitly test these soft theorems for N=4 sYM in the Coulomb branch both perturbatively and non-perturbatively. We explore the soft constraints systematically utilizing recursion relations. In the pure dilaton sector of a general CFT, we show that all amplitudes up to order s{sup n}∼∂{sup 2n} are completely determined in terms of the k-point amplitudes at order s{sup k} with k≤n. Terms with at most one derivative acting on each dilaton insertion are completely fixed and coincide with those appearing in the conformal DBI, i.e. DBI in AdS. With maximal supersymmetry, the effective actions are further constrained, leading to new non-renormalization theorems. In particular, the effective action is fixed up to eight derivatives in terms of just one unknown four-point coefficient and one more coefficient for ten-derivative terms. Finally, we also study the interplay between scale and conformal invariance in this context.

  4. From Framework to Action: The DESIRE Approach to Combat Desertification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessel, R.; Reed, M. S.; Geeson, N.; Ritsema, C. J.; van Lynden, G.; Karavitis, C. A.; Schwilch, G.; Jetten, V.; Burger, P.; van der Werff ten Bosch, M. J.; Verzandvoort, S.; van den Elsen, E.; Witsenburg, K.

    2014-11-01

    It has become increasingly clear that desertification can only be tackled through a multi-disciplinary approach that not only involves scientists but also stakeholders. In the DESIRE project such an approach was taken. As a first step, a conceptual framework was developed in which the factors and processes that may lead to land degradation and desertification were described. Many of these factors do not work independently, but can reinforce or weaken one another, and to illustrate these relationships sustainable management and policy feedback loops were included. This conceptual framework can be applied globally, but can also be made site-specific to take into account that each study site has a unique combination of bio-physical, socio-economic and political conditions. Once the conceptual framework was defined, a methodological framework was developed in which the methodological steps taken in the DESIRE approach were listed and their logic and sequence were explained. The last step was to develop a concrete working plan to put the project into action, involving stakeholders throughout the process. This series of steps, in full or in part, offers explicit guidance for other organizations or projects that aim to reduce land degradation and desertification.

  5. Influence of verbal instructions on effect-based action control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder, Andreas B; Dignath, David

    2017-03-01

    According to ideomotor theory, people use bidirectional associations between movements and their effects for action selection and initiation. Our experiments examined how verbal instructions of action effects influence response selection without prior experience of action effects in a separate acquisition phase. Instructions for different groups of participants specified whether they should ignore, attend, learn, or intentionally produce acoustic effects produced by button presses. Results showed that explicit instructions of action-effect relations trigger effect-congruent action tendencies in the first trials following the instruction; in contrast, no evidence for effect-based action control was observed in these trials when instructions were to ignore or to attend to the action effects. These findings show that action-effect knowledge acquired through verbal instruction and direct experience is similarly effective for effect-based action control as long as the relation between the movement and the effect is clearly spelled out in the instruction.

  6. Forecasting Actions of Baltic elites: A Scenario Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smirnov Vadim A.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of different approaches to forecasting the future of the three Baltic States. The author’s theoretical approach to studying Baltic elites is used to forecast changes in the action models of the Baltic elites. The article stresses the scarcity of internal political processes in the Baltics. However, a significant number of scenarios focusing on military aspects in the Baltics have recently been published. The author distinguishes between inertia, confrontation, and cooperation scenarios and examines their prerequisites and possible consequences. The scenarios are developed based on an analysis of geographic, economic, and political factors. The decisive factor is a state-controlled foreign policy, which is affected by the international situation as well as relations between the state and the external resources exploited by political elites. The paper contributes to the general debate about the factors of political development and the role of political elites in it. The author pr ovides additional material for analysing possible developments in the domestic policies of the Baltic States in view of external factors.

  7. Influence of Action-Effect Associations Acquired by Ideomotor Learning on Imitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunlon, Frédérique; Marshall, Peter J.; Quandt, Lorna C.; Bouquet, Cedric A.

    2015-01-01

    According to the ideomotor theory, actions are represented in terms of their perceptual effects, offering a solution for the correspondence problem of imitation (how to translate the observed action into a corresponding motor output). This effect-based coding of action is assumed to be acquired through action-effect learning. Accordingly, performing an action leads to the integration of the perceptual codes of the action effects with the motor commands that brought them about. While ideomotor theory is invoked to account for imitation, the influence of action-effect learning on imitative behavior remains unexplored. In two experiments, imitative performance was measured in a reaction time task following a phase of action-effect acquisition. During action-effect acquisition, participants freely executed a finger movement (index or little finger lifting), and then observed a similar (compatible learning) or a different (incompatible learning) movement. In Experiment 1, finger movements of left and right hands were presented as action-effects during acquisition. In Experiment 2, only right-hand finger movements were presented during action-effect acquisition and in the imitation task the observed hands were oriented orthogonally to participants’ hands in order to avoid spatial congruency effects. Experiments 1 and 2 showed that imitative performance was improved after compatible learning, compared to incompatible learning. In Experiment 2, although action-effect learning involved perception of finger movements of right hand only, imitative capabilities of right- and left-hand finger movements were equally affected. These results indicate that an observed movement stimulus processed as the effect of an action can later prime execution of that action, confirming the ideomotor approach to imitation. We further discuss these findings in relation to previous studies of action-effect learning and in the framework of current ideomotor approaches to imitation. PMID:25793755

  8. Effective action calculation in lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoek, J.

    1983-01-01

    A method (called the effective action method) devised to make analytic calculations in Quantum Chromodynamics in the region of strong coupling is presented. First, the author deals with developing the calculation of a strong coupling expansion of the generating functional for gauge systems on a lattice with arbitrary sources. An accompanying manual describes the implementation of this calculation on a computer. The next step consists of substituting the expressions for the one-link free energies for a specific gauge group in the result of the previous calculation. This process of substitution, together with the replacement of the sources by a bilinear combination of fermion fields, is described for the group SU(3). More details on the implementation of the substitution scheme on a computer can be found in the accompanying manual. From the effective action thus obtained in terms of meson fields and baryon fields the Green functions of the theory can be derived. As an illustrative application the effective potential determining the vacuum expectation value of the meson field is calculated. (Auth.)

  9. Indirect effects in dual radiation action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaider, M.; Rossi, H.H.

    1988-01-01

    The basic aim in this paper is to establish the link between indirect effects of radiation action and the spatial distribution of radicals at the time of energy deposition as well as throughout subsequent diffusion and interaction. The fact that radicals diffuse for a finite distance before damaging a biomolecule has dramatic effects on their subsequent probability to result in lesions. Thus at very low DMSO concentrations, where p = 0.5, one expects - all other things being equal - some 75% of the lesions to result from indirect or semidirect lesions. The number calculated here is lower (15%), a direct result of the fact that such lesions involve proximity functions modulated by diffusion. At higher DMSO concentrations this percentage becomes progressively smaller, as expected. It appears thus that for low-LET radiation, the relative amount of indirect damage in single tracks (also termed intratrack or single events) action is very small. By contrast, intertrack (or two-event) contributions will have the ratio between direct and (indirect + semidirect) contributions given by p 2 /(1-p 2 ). The reason for this is that sublesions from different tracks are uniformly distributed throughout the cell nucleus; their probability of interaction should not depend on any previous diffusional processes. For the example given above (p = 0.5) they do expect 65% of intertrack (two-hit) lesions to have resulted from indirect or semidirect mechanisms. This contrast between the almost exclusively direct character of intratrack lesions and the dominant role of indirect action in intertrack lesions produced by low-LET radiation is an important conclusion of this study

  10. On the revision of action laws: an algorithmic approach

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Varzinczak, JJ

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available that buying can be executed whenever the agent has a token. The set of executability laws of a domain is denoted by X . Given a, Ea (resp. Xa) will denote the set of only those effect (resp. executability) laws about a. Action Theories T = S ∪ E ∪ X...(pi ∧ ϕA) → ⊥ then if T |=Kn(pi∧ϕA) → 〈a〉> and S ′, E ′,X 6|=Kn¬(pi∧ϕA) then Xa′:= {(ϕi∧ pi∧ϕA) → 〈a〉> : ϕi → 〈a〉> ∈ Xa} /* preserve executability law in state not removed */ else E ′:= E ′ ∪ {(pi ∧ ϕA) → [a]⊥} T?ϕ:= S ′ ∪ E ′ ∪ X ′ 4.2 Revising a...

  11. Cork Design : A Design Action Intervention Approach Towards Sustainable Product Innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mestre, A.C.C.M.

    2014-01-01

    The study Cork Design: A Design Action Intervention Approach Towards Sustainable Product Innovation comprises the systematic implementation of sustainable product innovation within the Portuguese cork sector, through action research. Cork is a natural, recyclable, non-toxic, and renewable resource,

  12. Process Algebra Approach for Action Recognition in the Maritime Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntsberger, Terry

    2011-01-01

    The maritime environment poses a number of challenges for autonomous operation of surface boats. Among these challenges are the highly dynamic nature of the environment, the onboard sensing and reasoning requirements for obeying the navigational rules of the road, and the need for robust day/night hazard detection and avoidance. Development of full mission level autonomy entails addressing these challenges, coupled with inference of the tactical and strategic intent of possibly adversarial vehicles in the surrounding environment. This paper introduces PACIFIC (Process Algebra Capture of Intent From Information Content), an onboard system based on formal process algebras that is capable of extracting actions/activities from sensory inputs and reasoning within a mission context to ensure proper responses. PACIFIC is part of the Behavior Engine in CARACaS (Cognitive Architecture for Robotic Agent Command and Sensing), a system that is currently running on a number of U.S. Navy unmanned surface and underwater vehicles. Results from a series of experimental studies that demonstrate the effectiveness of the system are also presented.

  13. Wong's equations and the small x effective action in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalilian-Marian, Jamal; Jeon, Sangyong; Venugopalan, Raju

    2001-01-01

    We propose a new form for the small x effective action in QCD. This form of the effective action is motivated by Wong's equations for classical, colored particles in non-Abelian background fields. We show that the BFKL equation, which sums leading logarithms in x, is efficiently reproduced with this form of the action. We argue that this form of the action may be particularly useful in computing next-to-leading-order results in QCD at small x

  14. Wong's equations and the small x effective action in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalilian-Marian, Jamal; Jeon, Sangyong; Venugopalan, Raju

    2000-01-01

    We propose a new form for the small x effective action in QCD. This form of the effective action is motivated by Wong's equations for classical, colored particles in non-Abelian background fields. We show that the BFKL equation, which sums leading logarithms in x, is efficiently reproduced with this form of the action. We argue that this form of the action may be particularly useful in computing next-to-leading-order results in QCD at small x

  15. Planning-in-Action: An Innovative Approach to Human Development. The Hunger Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Community Development Journal, 1991

    1991-01-01

    The Hunger Project in India used a strategic planning-in-action approach that involved (1) reaching a common understanding; (2) creating a strategic intent; (3) choosing social indicators; (4) identifying strategic objectives; (5) empowering leadership; (6) identifying immediate action steps; and (7) sustaining the action. (SK)

  16. Effective action, massive gravitons and the Cosmological Constant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garattini, Remo [Universita degli Studi di Bergamo, Facolta di Ingegneria, Viale Marconi 5, 24044 Dalmine (Bergamo) (Italy); INFN - sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, Milan (Italy)

    2006-03-01

    The one loop effective action in a Schwarzschild background is here used to compute the cosmological constant in presence of massive gravitons. It is shown that the expression of the Zero Point Energy (ZPE) is equivalent to the one computed by means of a variational approach. To handle with ZPE divergences, we use the zeta function regularization. The regularization is closely related to the subtraction procedure appearing in the computation of Casimir energy in a curved background. A renormalization procedure is introduced to remove the infinities together with a renormalization group equation.

  17. Effective action, massive gravitons and the Cosmological Constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garattini, Remo

    2006-01-01

    The one loop effective action in a Schwarzschild background is here used to compute the cosmological constant in presence of massive gravitons. It is shown that the expression of the Zero Point Energy (ZPE) is equivalent to the one computed by means of a variational approach. To handle with ZPE divergences, we use the zeta function regularization. The regularization is closely related to the subtraction procedure appearing in the computation of Casimir energy in a curved background. A renormalization procedure is introduced to remove the infinities together with a renormalization group equation

  18. Hawking radiation, effective actions and covariant boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Rabin; Kulkarni, Shailesh

    2008-01-01

    From an appropriate expression for the effective action, the Hawking radiation from charged black holes is derived, using only covariant boundary conditions at the event horizon. The connection of our approach with the Unruh vacuum and the recent analysis [S.P. Robinson, F. Wilczek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95 (2005) 011303, (gr-qc/0502074); S. Iso, H. Umetsu, F. Wilczek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96 (2006) 151302, (hep-th/0602146); R. Banerjee, S. Kulkarni, (arXiv: 0707.2449 [hep-th])] of Hawking radiation using anomalies is established

  19. Action-Effect Associations in Voluntary and Cued Task-Switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Angelika; Lukas, Sarah

    2018-01-01

    The literature of action control claims that humans control their actions in two ways. In the stimulus-based approach, actions are triggered by external stimuli. In the ideomotor approach, actions are elicited endogenously and controlled by the intended goal. In the current study, our purpose was to investigate whether these two action control modes affect task-switching differently. We combined a classical task-switching paradigm with action-effect learning. Both experiments consisted of two experimental phases: an acquisition phase, in which associations between task, response and subsequent action effects were learned and a test phase, in which the effects of these associations were tested on task performance by presenting the former action effects as preceding effects, prior to the task (called practiced effects). Subjects either chose freely between tasks (ideomotor action control mode) or they were cued as to which task to perform (sensorimotor action control mode). We aimed to replicate the consistency effect (i.e., task is chosen according to the practiced task-effect association) and non-reversal advantage (i.e., better task performance when the practiced effect matches the previously learned task-effect association). Our results suggest that participants acquired stable action-effect associations independently of the learning mode. The consistency effect (Experiment 1) could be shown, independent of the learning mode, but only on the response-level. The non-reversal advantage (Experiment 2) was only evident in the error rates and only for participants who had practiced in the ideomotor action control mode. PMID:29387027

  20. Building policy capacities: an interactive approach for linking knowledge to action in health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rütten, Alfred; Gelius, Peter

    2014-09-01

    This article outlines a theoretical framework for an interactive, research-driven approach to building policy capacities in health promotion. First, it illustrates how two important issues in the recent public health debate, capacity building and linking scientific knowledge to policy action, are connected to each other theoretically. It then introduces an international study on an interactive approach to capacity building in health promotion policy. The approach combines the ADEPT model of policy capacities with a co-operative planning process to foster the exchange of knowledge between policy-makers and researchers, thus improving intra- and inter-organizational capacities. A regional-level physical activity promotion project involving governmental and public-law institutions, NGOs and university researchers serves as a case study to illustrate the potential of the approach for capacity building. Analysis and comparison with a similar local-level project indicate that the approach provides an effective means of linking scientific knowledge to policy action and to planning concrete measures for capacity building in health promotion, but that it requires sufficiently long timelines and adequate resources to achieve adequate implementation and sustainability. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Reason, Action, and Weakness of the Will. A Semantic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Barrero

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops some of Austin’s ideas on excuses, stressing their “dimensional” character and relating it to Searle’s distinction between intention-in-action and previous intention, in order to show that the original speech-act shaped distinction between weakness of the will and moral weakness can be embedded in a quite different theoretical framework such as Davidson’s, while Austin’s dimensional classification of actions cannot. Finally, the article analyzes how Grice’s critique of Davidson’s views on akrasia is more faithful to Austin and more radical in its conclusions concerning the justificatory aspect of reasons and the rational features of action.

  2. Facilitating the implementation and efficacy of health-promoting schools via an action-research approach in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Fong-Ching; Liu, Chieh-Hsing; Liao, Li-Ling; Niu, Yu-Zhen; Cheng, Chi-Chia; Chou, Hsin-Pei; Chang, Tzu-Chau

    2014-06-01

    Taiwan launched its evidence-based health-promoting school (HPS) program via an action-research approach in 2010. The program featured a collaborative partnership between schools, local education authorities and university support networks. This study was focused on examining whether an HPS action-research approach was effective in advancing HPS implementation, perceived HPS impact and perceived HPS efficacy in Taiwan. In 2011, questionnaires were sent to 900 sample schools in Taiwan. A total of 621 schools returned the questionnaire, including 488 primary schools and 133 middle schools. The response rate was 69%. This study compared the difference in HPS implementation status, perceived HPS impact and perceived HPS efficacy between those schools that had implemented action-research HPS (138 schools) and those that had not (483 schools). The univariate analysis results indicated that the HPS implementation levels for components that included school health policies, physical environment, social environment, teaching activities and school-community relations were significantly higher in action-research schools than in non-action-research schools. Teachers in action-research schools reported significantly higher levels of HPS impact and HPS efficacy than non-action-research schools. The multivariate analysis results indicated that after controlling for school level and HPS funding, the HPS action-research approach was significantly positively related to greater levels of HPS implementation, perceived HPS impact and perceived HPS efficacy.

  3. Toward effective ecological risk-management of refinery corrective action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metzger, B.H.; Rury, P.M.; Turton, D.; Archibald, B.; Clark, J.; Cura, J.

    1995-01-01

    Cleanup of complex industrial sites, such as refineries, requires risk-based decision tools to ensure that environmentally protective remediation is consistent with current and future land use. However, conventional ecological risk assessment approaches are not well suited for complex industrial sites. Site risk assessments focus on hypothetical chemical risk assuming diverse and undisturbed ecosystems, rather than industrial and disturbed area conditions. In addition, they offer little guidance as to how to make timely and effective risk management decisions. An innovative methodology is proposed to assist industry and regulatory risk managers with rapid EcoRisk reconnaissance and cost-effective remedial decision-making at complex industrial sites. Phase 1 comprises a three-step risk screening of areas of ecological concern at the site, which integrates habitat quality characteristics and potential chemical hazards. It yields an ordering of areas as follows: areas of no significant risk; areas of potentially significant risk; and areas of likely significant risk. A decision rule is then applied to determine appropriate risk management action, including: no action; additional study; and remedial or management action. In Phase 2, additional study is conducted for areas that exhibit potentially significant risk so as to facilitate risk management. This methodology is currently being applied at the 1,300 acre, former Exxon Bayway Refinery in New Jersey

  4. Action plan against declining vineyards: An innovative approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riou Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Declining vineyards are assessed by a multi-year decrease in vine productivity and/or its sudden premature or gradual death, based on multiple factors. Since 2015, the French wine sector has been working on an original study to identify new research avenues while launching an innovative action plan to combat vineyard decline. First, a statistical analysis enabled to estimate research efforts in the different countries. 70 factors susceptible to contribute to vineyard decline were then identified by analyzing more than 500 publications. These factors are biological, physical or linked to growing practices. While the role of pathogens is fairly well-known, the impact of the land plot or the soil on decline is less understood. Secondly, a prospective methodology was used to better identify viticulture system factors and levers affecting vines. It was thus demonstrated that yield and longevity are strongly linked to agronomy, economic variables and plant matter, plant physiology, disease, etc... These are the key issues and leverage actions to combat more strongly vineyard decline. The matrix analysis was then complemented by interviews and statistical data to imagine leverage actions. The strategic action plan is focused on four objectives: promoting training of good practices, improving plant production organization, developing vineyard observation networks, implementing an innovative research plan.

  5. A Collaborative Action Research Approach to Professional Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleicher, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    The field of professional development is moving towards the notion of professional learning, highlighting the active learning role that teachers play in changing their knowledge bases, beliefs and practice. This article builds on this idea and argues for creating professional learning that is guided by a collaborative action research (CAR)…

  6. Tackling perinatal loss, a participatory action research approach: research protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor-Montero, Sonia María; Romero-Sánchez, José Manuel; Paramio-Cuevas, Juan Carlos; Hueso-Montoro, César; Paloma-Castro, Olga; Lillo-Crespo, Manuel; Castro-Yuste, Cristina; Toledano-Losa, Ana Cristina; Carnicer-Fuentes, Concepción; Ortegón-Gallego, José Alejo; Frandsen, Anna J

    2012-11-01

      The aim of this study was to promote changes to improve the care provided to parents who have experienced a perinatal loss through participatory action research.   The birth of a child is a joyful event for most families, however, unfortunately some pregnancies end in loss. Perinatal loss creates a heavy emotional impact not only on parents but also on health professionals, where in most cases there is an evident lack of skills, strategies and resources to cope with these kinds of situations.   Participatory action research is the methodology proposed to achieve the purpose of this study.   Participatory action research consists of five stages: outreach and awareness, induction, interaction, implementation and systematization. The working group will include professionals from the Mother and Child Unit for patients at a tertiary level public hospital in Spain. The duration of the study will be 3 years since the approval of the protocol in January 2011. The qualitative techniques used will include group dynamics such as the SWOT analysis the nominal group technique, focus groups and brainstorming, among others that will be recorded and transcribed, generating reports throughout the evolution of the group sessions and about the consensus reached. Content analysis will be conducted on the field diaries kept by the participants and researchers. This project has been funded by the Andalusian Regional Ministry of Health.   Participatory action research is a methodological strategy that allows changes in clinical practice to conduct a comprehensive transformative action in the care process for perinatal loss. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Exploring teacher's perceptions of concept mapping as a teaching strategy in science: An action research approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks Krpan, Catherine Anne

    In order to promote science literacy in the classroom, students need opportunities in which they can personalize their understanding of the concepts they are learning. Current literature supports the use of concept maps in enabling students to make personal connections in their learning of science. Because they involve creating explicit connections between concepts, concept maps can assist students in developing metacognitive strategies and assist educators in identifying misconceptions in students' thinking. The literature also notes that concept maps can improve student achievement and recall. Much of the current literature focuses primarily on concept mapping at the secondary and university levels, with limited focus on the elementary panel. The research rarely considers teachers' thoughts and ideas about the concept mapping process. In order to effectively explore concept mapping from the perspective of elementary teachers, I felt that an action research approach would be appropriate. Action research enabled educators to debate issues about concept mapping and test out ideas in their classrooms. It also afforded the participants opportunities to explore their own thinking, reflect on their personal journeys as educators and play an active role in their professional development. In an effort to explore concept mapping from the perspective of elementary educators, an action research group of 5 educators and myself was established and met regularly from September 1999 until June 2000. All of the educators taught in the Toronto area. These teachers were interested in exploring how concept mapping could be used as a learning tool in their science classrooms. In summary, this study explores the journey of five educators and myself as we engaged in collaborative action research. This study sets out to: (1) Explore how educators believe concept mapping can facilitate teaching and student learning in the science classroom. (2) Explore how educators implement concept

  8. Effects of social intention on movement kinematics in cooperative actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois eQuesque

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Optimal control models of biological movements are used to account for those internal variables that constrain voluntary goal-directed actions. They however do not take into account external environmental constraints as those associated to social intention. We investigated here the effects of the social context on kinematic characteristics of sequential actions consisting in placing an object on an initial pad (preparatory action before reaching and grasping as fast as possible the object to move it to another location (main action. Reach-to-grasp actions were performed either in an isolated condition or in the presence of a partner (audience effect, located in the near or far space (effect of shared reachable space, and who could intervene on the object in a systematic fashion (effect of social intention effect or not (effect of social uncertainty. Results showed an absence of audience effect but nevertheless an influence of the social context both on the main and the preparatory actions. In particular, a localized effect of shared reachable space was observed on the main action, which was smoother when performed within the reachable space of the partner. Furthermore, a global effect of social uncertainty was observed on both actions with faster and jerkier movements. Finally, social intention affected the preparatory action with higher wrist displacements and slower movements when the object was placed for the partner rather than placed for self-use. Overall, these results demonstrate specific effects of action space, social uncertainty and social intention on the planning of reach-to-grasp actions, in particular on the preparatory action, which was performed with no specific execution constraint. These findings underline the importance of considering the social context in optimal models of action control for human-robot interactions, in particular when focusing on the implementation of motor parameters required to afford intuitive

  9. Formal Specification and Automatic Analysis of Business Processes under Authorization Constraints: An Action-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armando, Alessandro; Giunchiglia, Enrico; Ponta, Serena Elisa

    We present an approach to the formal specification and automatic analysis of business processes under authorization constraints based on the action language \\cal{C}. The use of \\cal{C} allows for a natural and concise modeling of the business process and the associated security policy and for the automatic analysis of the resulting specification by using the Causal Calculator (CCALC). Our approach improves upon previous work by greatly simplifying the specification step while retaining the ability to perform a fully automatic analysis. To illustrate the effectiveness of the approach we describe its application to a version of a business process taken from the banking domain and use CCALC to determine resource allocation plans complying with the security policy.

  10. Effective action of softly broken supersymmetric theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groot Nibbelink, S.; Nyawelo, T.S

    2006-12-01

    We study the renormalization of (softly) broken supersymmetric theories at the one loop level in detail. We perform this analysis in a superspace approach in which the supersymmetry breaking interactions are parameterized using spurion insertions. We comment on the uniqueness of this parameterization. We compute the one loop renormalization of such theories by calculating superspace vacuum graphs with multiple spurion insertions. To preform this computation efficiently we develop algebraic properties of spurion operators, that naturally arise because the spurions are often surrounded by superspace projection operators. Our results are general apart from the restrictions that higher super covariant derivative terms and some finite effects due to non-commutativity of superfield dependent mass matrices are ignored. One of the soft potentials induces renormalization of the Kaehler potential. (author)

  11. Neurohormones, Brain, and Behavior: A Comparative Approach to Understanding Rapid Neuroendocrine Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calisi, Rebecca M; Saldanha, Colin J

    2015-08-01

    The definition of a hormone has been in part delineated by its journey to distant receptor targets. Following activation of a receptor, a subsequent reaction facilitates the regulation of physiology and, ultimately, behavior. However, a growing number of studies report that hormones can influence these events at a previously underappreciated high speed. With the potential to act as neurotransmitters, the definition of a hormone and its mechanisms of action are evolving. In this symposium, we united scientists who use contemporary molecular, electrophysiological, and biochemical approaches to study aspects of rapid hormone action in a broad array of systems across different levels of biological organization. What emerged was an overwhelming consensus that the use of integrative and comparative approaches fuels discovery and increases our understanding of de novo hormone synthesis, local actions of neurohormones, and subsequent effects on neuroplasticity and behavior. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Action research and millennials: Improving pedagogical approaches to encourage critical thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlam, Gwen; Smythe, Liz; Wright-St Clair, Valerie

    2018-02-01

    This article examines the effects of intergenerational diversity on pedagogical practice in nursing education. While generational cohorts are not entirely homogenous, certain generational features do emerge. These features may require alternative approaches in educational design in order to maximize learning for millennial students. Action research is employed with undergraduate millennial nursing students (n=161) who are co-researchers in that they are asked for changes in current simulation environments which will improve their learning in the areas of knowledge acquisition, skill development, critical thinking, and communication. These changes are put into place and a re-evaluation of the effectiveness of simulation progresses through three action cycles. Millennials, due to a tendency for risk aversion, may gravitate towards more supportive learning environments which allow for free access to educators. This tendency is mitigated by the educator modeling expected behaviors, followed by student opportunity to repeat the behavior. Millennials tend to prefer to work in teams, see tangible improvement, and employ strategies to improve inter-professional communication. This research highlights the need for nurse educators working in simulation to engage in critical discourse regarding the adequacy and effectiveness of current pedagogy informing simulation design. Pedagogical approaches which maximize repetition, modeling, immersive feedback, and effective communication tend to be favored by millennial students. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A redox proteomics approach to investigate the mode of action of nanomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riebeling, Christian [German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR), Department of Chemicals and Product Safety, Berlin (Germany); Wiemann, Martin [IBE R& D gGmbH, Institute for Lung Health, Münster (Germany); Schnekenburger, Jürgen [Biomedical Technology Center, Westfälische Wilhelms-University, Münster (Germany); Kuhlbusch, Thomas A.J. [Institute of Energy and Environmental Technology (IUTA) e.V., Air Quality & Sustainable Nanotechnology, Duisburg (Germany); Center for Nanointegration CENIDE, University of Duisburg-Essen, Duisburg, Germany, (Germany); Wohlleben, Wendel [BASF SE, Material Physics, Ludwigshafen (Germany); Luch, Andreas [German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR), Department of Chemicals and Product Safety, Berlin (Germany); Haase, Andrea, E-mail: andrea.haase@bfr.bund.de [German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR), Department of Chemicals and Product Safety, Berlin (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    Numbers of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are steadily increasing. Therefore, alternative testing approaches with reduced costs and high predictivity suitable for high throughput screening and prioritization are urgently needed to ensure a fast and effective development of safe products. In parallel, extensive research efforts are targeted to understanding modes of action of ENMs, which may also support the development of new predictive assays. Oxidative stress is a widely accepted paradigm associated with different adverse outcomes of ENMs. It has frequently been identified in in vitro and in vivo studies and different assays have been developed for this purpose. Fluorescent dye based read-outs are most frequently used for cell testing in vitro but may be limited due to possible interference of the ENMs. Recently, other assays have been put forward such as acellular determination of ROS production potential using methods like electron spin resonance, antioxidant quantification or the use of specific sensors. In addition, Omics based approaches have gained increasing attention. In particular, redox proteomics can combine the assessment of oxidative stress with the advantage of getting more detailed mechanistic information. Here we propose a comprehensive testing strategy for assessing the oxidative stress potential of ENMs, which combines acellular methods and fast in vitro screening approaches, as well as a more involved detailed redox proteomics approach. This allows for screening and prioritization in a first tier and, if required, also for unraveling mechanistic details down to compromised signaling pathways. - Highlights: • Oxidative stress is a general paradigm for nanomaterial hazard mechanism of action. • Reactive oxygen species generation can be predicted using acellular assays. • Cellular assays based on fluorescence suffer from interference by nanomaterials. • Protein carbonylation is an irreversible and predictive mark of oxidative stress.

  14. Effective climate action: why biodiversity matters | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-05-22

    May 22, 2018 ... Home · Resources · Perspectives ... This resource-dependency describes the relationship between ... involves holistic and integrated resource management strategies that ... This has been recognized in the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity ... as setting the global framework for priority actions on biodiversity.

  15. Improving product development practice: An action-research based approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmsen, Hanne

    In studies of new product development it has often been concluded that to a large extent new product suc-cess is tunder the influence of companies and long lists of direct norma-tive guide-lines have been formulated. Nevertheless descriptive studi that deve-lopment practice is still far from...... studies both purely descriptive and studies identifying success and failure factors, but almost no studies of how companies actually undertake improve-ments, which problems they encounter,, and how/whether they overcome these problems. Action research is proposed as a suitable method for studying...

  16. Variational methods and effective actions in string models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dereli, T.; Tucker, R.W.

    1987-01-01

    Effective actions motivated by zero-order and first-order actions are examined. Particular attention is devoted to a variational procedure that is consistent with the structure equations involving the Lorentz connection. Attention is drawn to subtleties that can arise in varying higher-order actions and an efficient procedure developed to handle these cases using the calculus of forms. The effect of constrained variations on the field equations is discussed. (author)

  17. A psychosocial approach in humanitarian forensic action: The Latin American perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Ute; Navarro, Susana

    2017-11-01

    Forensic humanitarian action is aimed at alleviating suffering and maintaining human dignity, with the victims and their families at the core. International recommendations emphasize the importance of psychological support and psychosocial work as an integral part of forensic investigations into missing persons. Psychosocial action does not simply refer to emotional support but is based on the idea of the individual being the holder of rights, encouraging decision taking, affirming actions, and elaborating personal and collective histories. In this framework, forensics and psychosocial sciences need to work in complementary and coordinated interaction for the benefit of the families and communities. For forensic investigations to be restorative - their ultimate humanitarian objective - there are certain additional conditions apart from those of scientific quality and ethics: respect, information and coordination are among the main pillars for forensic action with a psychosocial approach, taking into account the need to treat on an individual and collective level the continuous psychological affectations caused by the disappearance of a loved one. On this basis, psychological and psychosocial accompaniment of the victims can contribute to the victims' healing process and also improve the forensic investigations themselves. This article, which is based on the experience of two decades of practical forensic and psychosocial work in the field, explains the main psychological effects of disappearances and the resulting needs. It gives a short historical overview of the origins and developments in psychosocial support and a perspective in relation to the search for missing persons and forensic interventions in Latin America. It goes on to demonstrate how coordinated interaction among the forensic and psychosocial fields strengthens both of them to the benefit of the affected families, groups and communities. Finally, it takes up some of the international recommendations

  18. An efficient approach for video action classification based on 3d Zernike moments

    OpenAIRE

    Lassoued , Imen; Zagrouba , Ezzedine; Chahir , Youssef

    2011-01-01

    International audience; Action recognition in video and still image is one of the most challenging research topics in pattern recognition and computer vision. This paper proposes a new method for video action classification based on 3D Zernike moments. These last ones aim to capturing both structural and temporal information of a time varying sequence. The originality of this approach consists to represent actions in video sequences by a three-dimension shape obtained from different silhouett...

  19. Multiple emotions: a person-centered approach to the relationship between intergroup emotion and action orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Julian W; Kashima, Yoshihisa; Laham, Simon M

    2014-08-01

    Although a great deal of research has investigated the relationship between emotions and action orientations, most studies to date have used variable-centered techniques to identify the best emotion predictor(s) of a particular action. Given that people frequently report multiple or blended emotions, a profitable area of research may be to adopt person-centered approaches to examine the action orientations elicited by a particular combination of emotions or "emotion profile." In two studies, across instances of intergroup inequality in Australia and Canada, we examined participants' experiences of six intergroup emotions: sympathy, anger directed at three targets, shame, and pride. In both studies, five groups of participants with similar emotion profiles were identified by cluster analysis and their action orientations were compared; clusters indicated that the majority of participants experienced multiple emotions. Each action orientation was also regressed on the six emotions. There were a number of differences in the results obtained from the person-centered and variable-centered approaches. This was most apparent for sympathy: the group of participants experiencing only sympathy showed little inclination to perform prosocial actions, yet sympathy was a significant predictor of numerous action orientations in regression analyses. These results imply that sympathy may only prompt a desire for action when experienced in combination with other emotions. We suggest that the use of person-centered and variable-centered approaches as complementary analytic strategies may enrich research into not only the affective predictors of action, but emotion research in general.

  20. Understanding Nature-Related Behaviors among Children through a Theory of Reasoned Action Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotch, Chad; Hall, Troy

    2004-01-01

    The Theory of Reasoned Action has proven to be a valuable tool for predicting and understanding behavior and, as such, provides a potentially important basis for environmental education program design. This study used a Theory of Reasoned Action approach to examine a unique type of behavior (nature-related activities) and a unique population…

  1. Approach-alcohol action tendencies can be inhibited by cognitive load

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharbanee, J.M.; Stritzke, W.G.K.; Jamalludin, M.E.; Wiers, R.W.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Dysregulated alcohol consumption has been attributed to an imbalance between an approach-alcohol action tendency and executive control processes. However, which specific executive control processes are involved is not known. One candidate executive process is interference suppression,

  2. Collaborative Action Research in the Context of Developmental Work Research: A Methodological Approach for Science Teachers' Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piliouras, Panagiotis; Lathouris, Dimitris; Plakitsi, Katerina; Stylianou, Liana

    2015-01-01

    The paper refers to the theoretical establishment and brief presentation of collaborative action research with the characteristics of "developmental work research" as an effective methodological approach so that science teachers develop themselves professionally. A specific case study is presented, in which we aimed to transform the…

  3. Covariant effective action for loop quantum cosmology from order reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sotiriou, Thomas P.

    2009-01-01

    Loop quantum cosmology (LQC) seems to be predicting modified effective Friedmann equations without extra degrees of freedom. A puzzle arises if one decides to seek for a covariant effective action which would lead to the given Friedmann equation: The Einstein-Hilbert action is the only action that leads to second order field equations and, hence, there exists no covariant action which, under metric variation, leads to a modified Friedmann equation without extra degrees of freedom. It is shown that, at least for isotropic models in LQC, this issue is naturally resolved and a covariant effective action can be found if one considers higher order theories of gravity but faithfully follows effective field theory techniques. However, our analysis also raises doubts on whether a covariant description without background structures can be found for anisotropic models.

  4. Effective corrective actions to enhance operational safety of nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-07-01

    The safe operation of nuclear power plants around the world and the prevention of incidents in these installations remain key concerns for the nuclear community. In this connection the feedback of operating experience plays a major role: every nuclear plant operator needs to have a system in place to identify and feed back the lessons learned from operating experience and to implement effective corrective actions to prevent safety events from reoccurring. An effective operating experience programme also includes a proactive approach that is aimed at preventing the first-time occurrence of safety events. In April 2003, the IAEA issued the PROSPER guidelines for nuclear installations to strengthen and enhance their own operating experience process and for self-assessment on the effectiveness of the feedback process. Subsequently, in the course of the Operational Safety Review Teams missions conducted by the IAEA that focused on the operational safety practices of nuclear power plants, the IAEA enhanced the review of the operating experience in nuclear power plants by implementing a new module that is derived from these guidelines. In order to highlight the effective implementation of the operating experience programme and to provide practical assistance in this area, the IAEA organized workshops and conferences to discuss recent trends in operating experience. The IAEA also performed assistance and review missions at plants and corporate organizations. The IAEA is further developing advice and assistance on operating experience feedback programmes and is reporting on good practices. The present publication is the outcome of two years of coordinated effort involving the participation of experts of nuclear organizations in several Member States. It provides information and good practices for successfully establishing an effective corrective actions programme. This publication forms part of a series that develops the principles set forth in these guidelines

  5. Deciphering the Mechanism of Action of Wrightia tinctoria for Psoriasis Based on Systems Pharmacology Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundarrajan, Sudharsana; Lulu, Sajitha; Arumugam, Mohanapriya

    2017-11-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic immune-mediated disorder of the skin. The disease manifests itself with red or silvery scaly plaques distributing over the lower back, scalp, and extensor aspects of limbs. Several medications are available for the treatment of psoriasis; however, high rates of remission and side-effects still persist as a major concern. Siddha, one of the traditional systems of Indian medicine offers cure to many dermatological conditions, including psoriasis. The oil prepared from the leaves of Wrightia tinctoria is prescribed by many healers for the treatment of psoriasis. This work aims to decipher the mechanism of action of the W. tinctoria in curing psoriasis and its associated comorbidities. The work integrates various pharmacology approaches such as drug-likeness evaluation, oral bioavailability predictions, and network pharmacology approaches to understand the roles of various bioactive components of the herb. This work identified 67 compounds of W. tinctoria interacting with 238 protein targets. The compounds were found to act through synergistic mechanism in reviving the disrupted process in the diseased state. The results of this work not only shed light on the pharmacological action of the herb but also validate the usage of safe herbal drugs.

  6. A New Approach for Assessing Aquifer Sustainability and the Impact of Proposed Management Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, J. J., Jr.; Whittemore, D. O.; Wilson, B. B.

    2015-12-01

    Aquifers are under stress worldwide as a result of large imbalances between inflows and outflows. These imbalances are particularly severe in aquifers in semi-arid regions that are heavily pumped for irrigation, such as the High Plains aquifer (HPA) in the United States. The water resources community has responded by placing an increasing emphasis on more sustainable management plans. To aid in the formulation of such plans, we have developed a simple, water-balance-based approach for rapid assessment of the impact of proposed management actions and the prospects for aquifer sustainability. This theoretically sound approach is particularly well suited for assessing the short- to medium-term (years to a few decades) response to management actions in seasonably pumped aquifers. The net inflow (capture) term of the aquifer water balance can also be directly calculated from water-level and water-use data with this approach. Application to the data-rich portion of the HPA in the state of Kansas reveals that practically achievable reductions in annual pumping would have a large impact. For example, a 22% reduction in average annual water use would have stabilized areally averaged water levels across northwest Kansas from 1996 to 2013 because of larger-than-expected and near-constant net inflows. Whether this is a short-term phenomenon or a path to long-term sustainability, however, has yet to be determined. Water resources managers are often in a quandary about the most effective use of scarce funds for data collection in support of aquifer assessment and management activities. This work demonstrates that a strong emphasis should be placed on collection of reliable water-use data; greater resources devoted to direct measurement of pumping will yield deeper insights into an aquifer's future. The Kansas HPA is similar to many other regional aquifers supporting critically needed agricultural production, so this approach should prove of value far beyond the borders of Kansas.

  7. Combined action of ionizing radiation with another factor: common rules and theoretical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Kyu; Roh, Changhyun; Komarova, Ludmila N.; Petin, Vladislav G.

    2013-01-01

    Two or more factors can simultaneously make their combined effects on the biological objects. This study has focused on theoretical approach to synergistic interaction due to the combined action of radiation and another factor on cell inactivation. A mathematical model for the synergistic interaction of different environmental agents was suggested for quantitative prediction of irreversibly damaged cells after combined exposures. The model takes into account the synergistic interaction of agents and based on the supposition that additional effective damages responsible for the synergy are irreversible and originated from an interaction of ineffective sub lesions. The experimental results regarding the irreversible component of radiation damage of diploid yeast cells simultaneous exposed to heat with ionizing radiation or UV light are presented. A good agreement of experimental results with model predictions was demonstrated. The importance of the results obtained for the interpretation of the mechanism of synergistic interaction of various environmental factors is discussed. (author)

  8. Combined action of ionizing radiation with another factor: common rules and theoretical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Kyu; Roh, Changhyun, E-mail: jkkim@kaeri.re.kr [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Komarova, Ludmila N.; Petin, Vladislav G., E-mail: vgpetin@yahoo.com [Medical Radiological Research Center, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-01

    Two or more factors can simultaneously make their combined effects on the biological objects. This study has focused on theoretical approach to synergistic interaction due to the combined action of radiation and another factor on cell inactivation. A mathematical model for the synergistic interaction of different environmental agents was suggested for quantitative prediction of irreversibly damaged cells after combined exposures. The model takes into account the synergistic interaction of agents and based on the supposition that additional effective damages responsible for the synergy are irreversible and originated from an interaction of ineffective sub lesions. The experimental results regarding the irreversible component of radiation damage of diploid yeast cells simultaneous exposed to heat with ionizing radiation or UV light are presented. A good agreement of experimental results with model predictions was demonstrated. The importance of the results obtained for the interpretation of the mechanism of synergistic interaction of various environmental factors is discussed. (author)

  9. A network approach to response inhibition: dissociating functional connectivity of neural components involved in action restraint and action cancellation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dambacher, F.; Sack, A.T.; Lobbestael, J.; Arntz, A.; Brugman, S.; Schuhmann, T.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to inhibit action tendencies is vital for adaptive human behaviour. Various paradigms are supposed to assess action inhibition and are often used interchangeably. However, these paradigms are based on different conceptualizations (action restraint vs. action cancellation) and the

  10. Techniques for calculations with nPI effective actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrington M.E.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a symmetric scalar theory with quartic coupling in 2- and 3- dimensions and compare the self-consistent 4-point vertex obtained from the 4PI effective action with the Bethe-Salpeter 4-vertex from 2PI effective action. We show that when the coupling is large the contributions from the higher order effective action are large. We also show that one can solve the 2PI equations of motion in 4-dimensions, without introducing counter-terms, using a renormalization group method. This method provides a promising starting point to study the renormalization of higher order nPI theories.

  11. A participatory action research approach to strengthening health managers' capacity at district level in Eastern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetui, Moses; Coe, Anna-Britt; Hurtig, Anna-Karin; Bennett, Sara; Kiwanuka, Suzanne N; George, Asha; Kiracho, Elizabeth Ekirapa

    2017-12-28

    Many approaches to improving health managers' capacity in poor countries, particularly those pursued by external agencies, employ non-participatory approaches and often seek to circumvent (rather than strengthen) weak public management structures. This limits opportunities for strengthening local health managers' capacity, improving resource utilisation and enhancing service delivery. This study explored the contribution of a participatory action research approach to strengthening health managers' capacity in Eastern Uganda. This was a qualitative study that used open-ended key informant interviews, combined with review of meeting minutes and observations to collect data. Both inductive and deductive thematic analysis was undertaken. The Competing Values Framework of organisational management functions guided the deductive process of analysis and the interpretation of the findings. The framework builds on four earlier models of management and regards them as complementary rather than conflicting, and identifies four managers' capacities (collaborate, create, compete and control) by categorising them along two axes, one contrasting flexibility versus control and the other internal versus external organisational focus. The findings indicate that the participatory action research approach enhanced health managers' capacity to collaborate with others, be creative, attain goals and review progress. The enablers included expanded interaction spaces, encouragement of flexibility, empowerment of local managers, and the promotion of reflection and accountability. Tension and conflict across different management functions was apparent; for example, while there was a need to collaborate, maintaining control over processes was also needed. These tensions meant that managers needed to learn to simultaneously draw upon and use different capacities as reflected by the Competing Values Framework in order to maximise their effectiveness. Improved health manager capacity is

  12. A new approach to incorporate operator actions in the simulation of accident sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonio Exposito; Juan Antonio Quiroga; Javier Hortal; John-Einar Hulsund

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Nowadays, simulation-based human reliability analysis (HRA) methods seem to provide a new direction for the development of advanced methodologies to study operator actions effect during accident sequences. Due to this, the Spanish Nuclear Safety Council (CSN) started a working group which has, among other objectives, to develop such simulation-based HRA methodology. As a result of its activities, a new methodology, named Integrated Safety Assessment (ISA), has been developed and is currently being incorporated into licensing activities at CSN. One of the key aspects of this approach is the incorporation of the capability to simulate operator actions, expanding the ISA methodology scopes to make HRA studies. For this reason, CSN is involved in several activities oriented to develop a new tool, which must be able to incorporate operator actions in conventional thermohydraulic (TH) simulations. One of them is the collaboration project between CSN, Halden Reactor Project (HRP) and the Department of Energy Systems (DSE) of the Polytechnic University of Madrid that started in 2003. The basic aim of the project is to develop a software tool that consists of a closed-loop plant/operator simulator, a thermal hydraulic (TH) code for simulating the plant transient and the procedures processor to give the information related with operator actions to the TH code, both coupled by a data communication system which allows the information exchange. For the plant simulation we have a plant transient simulator code (TRETA/TIZONA for PWR/BWR NPPs respectively), developed by the CSN, with PWR/BWR full scope models. The functionality of these thermalhydraulic codes has been expanded, allowing control the overall information flow between coupled codes, simulating the TH transient and determining when the operator actions must be considered. In the other hand, we have the COPMA-III code, a computerized procedure system able to manage XML operational

  13. Exact CTP renormalization group equation for the coarse-grained effective action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalvit, D.A.; Mazzitelli, F.D.

    1996-01-01

    We consider a scalar field theory in Minkowski spacetime and define a coarse-grained closed time path (CTP) effective action by integrating quantum fluctuations of wavelengths shorter than a critical value. We derive an exact CTP renormalization group equation for the dependence of the effective action on the coarse-graining scale. We solve this equation using a derivative expansion approach. Explicit calculation is performed for the λφ 4 theory. We discuss the relevance of the CTP average action in the study of nonequilibrium aspects of phase transitions in quantum field theory. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  14. On the influence of reward on action-effect binding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Simon Muhle-Karbe

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ideomotor theory states that the formation of anticipatory representations about the perceptual consequences of an action (i.e. action-effect (A-E binding provides the functional basis of voluntary action control. A host of studies has demonstrated that A-E binding occurs fast and effortlessly, yet only little is known about cognitive and affective factors that influence this learning process. In the present study, we sought to test whether the motivational value of an action modulates the acquisition of A-E associations. To this end, we associated specific actions with monetary incentives during the acquisition of novel A-E mappings. In a subsequent test phase, the degree of binding was assessed by presenting the former effect stimuli as task-irrelevant response primes in a forced-choice response task in the absence of any reward. Binding, as indexed by response priming through the former action effects, was only found for reward-related A-E mappings. Moreover, the degree to which reward associations modulated the binding strength was predicted by individuals’ trait sensitivity to reward. These observations indicate that the association of actions and their immediate outcomes depends on the motivational value of the action during learning, as well as on the motivational disposition of the individual. On a larger scale, these findings also highlight the link between ideomotor theories and reinforcement-learning theories, providing an interesting perspective for future research on anticipatory regulation of behavior.

  15. The internal anticipation of sensory action effects: when action induces FFA and PPA activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Kühn

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Voluntary action – in particular the ability to produce desired effects in the environment – is fundamental to human existence. According to ideomotor theory we can achieve goals in the environment by means of anticipating their outcomes. We aimed at providing neurophysiological evidence for the assumption that performing actions calls for the activation of brain areas associated with the sensory effects usually evoked by the actions. We conducted an fMRI study in which right and left button presses lead to the presentation of face and house pictures. We compared a baseline phase with the same phase after participants experienced the association between button presses and pictures. We found an increase in the parahippocampal place area (PPA for the response that has been associated with house pictures and fusiform face area (FFA for the response that has been coupled with face pictures. This observation constitutes support for ideomotor theory.

  16. 17 CFR 9.12 - Effective date of disciplinary or access denial action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ACTIONS Notice and Effective Date of Disciplinary Action or Access Denial Action § 9.12 Effective date of disciplinary or access denial action. (a) Effective date. Any disciplinary or access denial action taken by an... cause a disciplinary action to become effective prior to that time if: (1) As authorized by § 8.25 of...

  17. A Combined Social Action, Mixed Methods Approach to Vocational Guidance Efficacy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Justin C.

    2009-01-01

    This article proposes a social action, mixed methods approach to verifying the efficacy of vocational guidance programs. Research strategies are discussed in the context of how the processes and purposes of efficacy research have been conceptualized and studied in vocational psychology. Examples of how to implement this approach in future efficacy…

  18. Assessing Changes in Job Behavior Due to Training: A Guide to the Participant Action Plan Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management, Washington, DC.

    This guide provides a brief introduction to the Participant Action Plan Approach (PAPA) and a user's handbook. Part I outlines five steps of PAPA which determine how job behavior is changed by training course or program participation. Part II, the manual, is arranged by the five steps of the PAPA approach. Planning for PAPA discusses making…

  19. A dynamic texture based approach to recognition of facial actions and their temporal models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelstra, Sander; Pantic, Maja; Patras, Ioannis (Yannis)

    2010-01-01

    In this work, we propose a dynamic texture-based approach to the recognition of facial Action Units (AUs, atomic facial gestures) and their temporal models (i.e., sequences of temporal segments: neutral, onset, apex, and offset) in near-frontal-view face videos. Two approaches to modeling the

  20. Effective action in multidimensional quantum gravity and spontaneous compactification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagrov, V.G.; Bukhbinder, I.L.; Odintsov, S.D.

    1987-01-01

    One-loop effective action (the Casimir energy) is obtained for a special model of multidimensional quantum gravity and several variants of the d-dimensional quantum R 2 gravity in the space M 4 xT d-4 , where M 4 is the Minkowski space and T d-4 is the (d-4)-dimensional torus. It is shown that the effective action for the conformal gravity and the R 2 gravity without cosmological and Einstein's terms lead to an instability of the classical compactification. A numerical calculation reveals that the effective action for the five-dimensional R 2 gravity with the cosmological term is compatible with a self-consistent spontaneous compactification. The one-loop effective action is also obtained for the five dimensional Einstein gravity with the antisymmetrical torsion in the space M 4 xS 1 , where S 1 is the one-dimensional sphere

  1. Effective action in multidimensional quantum gravity, and spontaneous compactification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagrov, V.G.; Bukhbinder, I.L.; Odintsov, S.D.

    1987-01-01

    The one-loop effective action (Casimir energy) is obtained for a special form of model of multidimensional quantum gravity and for several variants of d-dimensional quantum R 2 -gravity on the space M 4 x T/sub d//sub -4/, where M 4 is Minkowski space and T/sub d//sub -4/ is the (d-4)-dimensional torus. It is shown that the effective action of the model of multidimensional quantum gravity and R 2 -gravity without the cosmological term and Einstein term leads to instability of the classical compactification. By a numerical calculation it is demonstrated that the effective action of five-dimensional R 2 -gravity with the cosmological term admits a self-consistent spontaneous compactification. The one-loop effective action is also found for five-dimensional Einstein gravity with antisymmetric torsion on the space M 4 x S 1 (S 1 is the one-dimensional sphere)

  2. Effective average action for gauge theories and exact evolution equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuter, M.; Wetterich, C.

    1993-11-01

    We propose a new nonperturbative evolution equation for Yang-Mills theories. It describes the scale dependence of an effective action. The running of the nonabelian gauge coupling in arbitrary dimension is computed. (orig.)

  3. Low-energy effective action for the superstring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, C.P.; Font, A.; Quevedo, F.

    1986-01-01

    We construct the low-energy D=4, N=1 supergravity that arises in superstring theories for an arbitrary number of generations. The coupling of all massless modes that carry low-energy gauge quantum numbers are calculated by truncating the heavy Kaluza-Klein modes of the ten-dimensional effective field theory. The resulting action is compared to the most general effective action compatible with the symmetries of the underlying ten-dimensional field (and string) theories. This comparison indicates which features of the truncation correctly approximate the exact low-energy action. (orig.)

  4. Type I supergravity effective action from pure spinor formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alencar, Geova

    2009-01-01

    Using the pure spinor formalism, we compute the tree-level correlation functions for three strings, one closed and two open, in N = 1 D = 10 superspace. Expanding the superfields in components, the respective terms of the effective action for the type I supergravity are obtained. All terms found agree with the effective action known in the literature. This result gives one more consistency test for the pure spinor formalism.

  5. Urban Heat Island Effect Actions - Neighborhood Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisville Metro Government — The urban heat island effect — defined as the difference in temperature between the core of Louisville and its suburbs — contributes to heat-related illnesses and...

  6. An Application of the Reasoned Action Approach to Bystander Intervention for Sexual Assault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukacena, Kaylee M; Reynolds-Tylus, Tobias; Quick, Brian L

    2017-10-25

    The high prevalence of sexual assault in US college campuses has led to a widespread implementation of bystander intervention programs aimed at preventing sexual assault. The current study examines predictors of college students' intentions to engage in bystander intervention through the theoretical lens of the reasoned action approach. An online survey with college students (N = 186) was conducted at a large Midwestern university. Our results indicated experiential attitudes, instrumental attitudes, descriptive norms, autonomy, and capacity, each positively associated with participants' intentions to intervene to stop a sexual assault. Against expectations, injunctive norms were unrelated to bystander intervention intentions. Finally, in addition to these main effects, an experiential attitude by autonomy interaction was also observed. The results are discussed with a focus on the theoretical and practical implications of our findings.

  7. Automatic imitation effects are influenced by experience of synchronous action in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Eoin P; Bijvoet-van den Berg, Simone; Caldwell, Christine A

    2018-07-01

    By their fourth year of life, children are expert imitators, but it is unclear how this ability develops. One approach suggests that certain types of experience might forge associations between the sensory and motor representations of an action that may facilitate imitation at a later time. Sensorimotor experience of this sort may occur when an infant's action is imitated by a caregiver or when socially synchronous action occurs. This learning approach, therefore, predicts that the strength of sensory-motor associations should depend on the frequency and quality of previous experience. Here, we tested this prediction by examining automatic imitation, that is, the tendency of an action stimulus to facilitate the performance of that action and interfere with the performance of an incompatible action. We required children (aged between 3 years 8 months and 7 years 11 months) to respond to actions performed by an experimenter (e.g., two hands clapping) with both compatible actions (i.e., two hands clapping) and incompatible actions (i.e., two hands waving) at different stages in the experimental procedure. As predicted by a learning account, actions thought to be performed in synchrony (i.e., clapping/waving) produced stronger automatic imitation effects when compared with actions where previous sensorimotor experience is likely to be more limited (e.g., pointing/hand closing). Furthermore, these automatic imitation effects were not found to vary with age, with both compatible and incompatible responses quickening with age. These findings suggest a role for sensorimotor experience in the development of imitative ability. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Radiosensitizers action on Iodine 131 therapeutical effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agote, Marcos; Kreimann, Erica L.; Bocanera, Laura V.; Dagrosa, Maria A.; Juvenal, Guillermo J.; Pisarev, Mario A.

    1999-01-01

    Present studies were aimed to research the possible application of a radiosensitizer, nicotinamide, to increase the therapeutical effect of radioiodine. There were used goitrous and normal rats with growing dose of Iodine 131, with and without simultaneous treatment with nicotinamide. The obtained results show that the nicotinamide treatment importantly increases the thyroid radio destructive effect induced by radioiodine. Under these experimental conditions, nicotinamide induces to a significant increase of thyroid vascularisation, without changes in the proteins ADP-ribosylation activity. These results show, for the first time, the radiosensitizer effect of nicotinamide in front of Iodine 131 and give the possibility of using it in the treatment of hyperthyroid or thyroid difference cancer patients. (author)

  9. Improving the accuracy of admitted subacute clinical costing: an action research approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkennes, Sharon; Arblaster, Ross; Lim, Kim

    2017-08-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to determine whether action research could be used to improve the breadth and accuracy of clinical costing data in an admitted subacute setting Methods The setting was a 100-bed in-patient rehabilitation centre. Using a pre-post study design all admitted subacute separations during the 2011-12 financial year were eligible for inclusion. An action research framework aimed at improving clinical costing methodology was developed and implemented. Results In all, 1499 separations were included in the study. A medical record audit of a random selection of 80 separations demonstrated that the use of an action research framework was effective in improving the breadth and accuracy of the costing data. This was evidenced by a significant increase in the average number of activities costed, a reduction in the average number of activities incorrectly costed and a reduction in the average number of activities missing from the costing, per episode of care. Conclusions Engaging clinicians and cost centre managers was effective in facilitating the development of robust clinical costing data in an admitted subacute setting. Further investigation into the value of this approach across other care types and healthcare services is warranted. What is known about this topic? Accurate clinical costing data is essential for informing price models used in activity-based funding. In Australia, there is currently a lack of robust admitted subacute cost data to inform the price model for this care type. What does this paper add? The action research framework presented in this study was effective in improving the breadth and accuracy of clinical costing data in an admitted subacute setting. What are the implications for practitioners? To improve clinical costing practices, health services should consider engaging key stakeholders, including clinicians and cost centre managers, in reviewing clinical costing methodology. Robust clinical costing data has

  10. Effect of mutagen combined action on Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podstavkova, S.; Vlcek, D.; Dubovsky, J.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of UV radiation and UV radiation combined with alkylnitrosourea derivatives (N-methyl-N-nitrosourea and N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea) was observed on survival of cells of the algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. In particular, single parts were evaluated of the overall lethal effect - dying of cells before division and dying of cells after division. It was found that the combined action of low doses of UV radiation and alkylnitrosoureas result in a pronounced protective effect which manifests itself by a higher frequency of surviving cells than was that effected by the action of alkylnitrosoureas alone. As a result of combined action with higher doses of UV radiation this effect is lost, and the resultant values will come close to the theoretically anticipated values. This gradual transition from a protective to an additive effect mainly manifests itself by changes in the proportion of cells dying before division. (author)

  11. Renormalization and effective actions for general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neugebohrn, F.

    2007-05-01

    Quantum gravity is analyzed from the viewpoint of the renormalization group. The analysis is based on methods introduced by J. Polchinski concerning the perturbative renormalization with flow equations. In the first part of this work, the program of renormalization with flow equations is reviewed and then extended to effective field theories that have a finite UV cutoff. This is done for a scalar field theory by imposing additional renormalization conditions for some of the nonrenormalizable couplings. It turns out that one so obtains a statement on the predictivity of the effective theory at scales far below the UV cutoff. In particular, nonrenormalizable theories can be treated without problems in the proposed framework. In the second part, the standard covariant BRS quantization program for Euclidean Einstein gravity is applied. A momentum cutoff regularization is imposed and the resulting violation of the Slavnov-Taylor identities is discussed. Deriving Polchinski's renormalization group equation for Euclidean quantum gravity, the predictivity of effective quantum gravity at scales far below the Planck scale is investigated with flow equations. A fine-tuning procedure for restoring the violated Slavnov-Taylor identities is proposed and it is argued that in the effective quantum gravity context, the restoration will only be accomplished with finite accuracy. Finally, the no-cutoff limit of Euclidean quantum gravity is analyzed from the viewpoint of the Polchinski method. It is speculated whether a limit with nonvanishing gravitational constant might exist where the latter would ultimatively be determined by the cosmological constant and the masses of the elementary particles. (orig.)

  12. Renormalization and effective actions for general relativity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neugebohrn, F.

    2007-05-15

    Quantum gravity is analyzed from the viewpoint of the renormalization group. The analysis is based on methods introduced by J. Polchinski concerning the perturbative renormalization with flow equations. In the first part of this work, the program of renormalization with flow equations is reviewed and then extended to effective field theories that have a finite UV cutoff. This is done for a scalar field theory by imposing additional renormalization conditions for some of the nonrenormalizable couplings. It turns out that one so obtains a statement on the predictivity of the effective theory at scales far below the UV cutoff. In particular, nonrenormalizable theories can be treated without problems in the proposed framework. In the second part, the standard covariant BRS quantization program for Euclidean Einstein gravity is applied. A momentum cutoff regularization is imposed and the resulting violation of the Slavnov-Taylor identities is discussed. Deriving Polchinski's renormalization group equation for Euclidean quantum gravity, the predictivity of effective quantum gravity at scales far below the Planck scale is investigated with flow equations. A fine-tuning procedure for restoring the violated Slavnov-Taylor identities is proposed and it is argued that in the effective quantum gravity context, the restoration will only be accomplished with finite accuracy. Finally, the no-cutoff limit of Euclidean quantum gravity is analyzed from the viewpoint of the Polchinski method. It is speculated whether a limit with nonvanishing gravitational constant might exist where the latter would ultimatively be determined by the cosmological constant and the masses of the elementary particles. (orig.)

  13. Joint Facial Action Unit Detection and Feature Fusion: A Multi-conditional Learning Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleftheriadis, Stefanos; Rudovic, Ognjen; Pantic, Maja

    2016-10-05

    Automated analysis of facial expressions can benefit many domains, from marketing to clinical diagnosis of neurodevelopmental disorders. Facial expressions are typically encoded as a combination of facial muscle activations, i.e., action units. Depending on context, these action units co-occur in specific patterns, and rarely in isolation. Yet, most existing methods for automatic action unit detection fail to exploit dependencies among them, and the corresponding facial features. To address this, we propose a novel multi-conditional latent variable model for simultaneous fusion of facial features and joint action unit detection. Specifically, the proposed model performs feature fusion in a generative fashion via a low-dimensional shared subspace, while simultaneously performing action unit detection using a discriminative classification approach. We show that by combining the merits of both approaches, the proposed methodology outperforms existing purely discriminative/generative methods for the target task. To reduce the number of parameters, and avoid overfitting, a novel Bayesian learning approach based on Monte Carlo sampling is proposed, to integrate out the shared subspace. We validate the proposed method on posed and spontaneous data from three publicly available datasets (CK+, DISFA and Shoulder-pain), and show that both feature fusion and joint learning of action units leads to improved performance compared to the state-of-the-art methods for the task.

  14. Ecological effects of contaminants and remedial actions in Bear Creek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southworth, G.R.; Loar, J.M.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Stewart, A.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Burris, J.A. (C. E. Environmental, Inc., Tallahassee, FL (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Ecological studies of the Bear Creek watershed, which drains the area surrounding several Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant waste disposal facilities, were initiated in May 1984 and are continuing at present. These studies consisted of an initial, detailed characterization of the benthic invertebrate and fish communities in Bear Creek, and they were followed by a presently ongoing monitoring phase that involves reduced sampling intensities. The characterization phase utilized two approaches: (1) instream sampling of benthic invertebrate and fish communities in Bear Creek to identify spatial and temporal patterns in distribution and abundance and (2) laboratory bioassays on water samples from Bear Creek and selected tributaries to identify potential sources of toxicity to biota. The monitoring phase of the ecological program relates to the long-term goals of identifying and prioritizing contaminant sources and assessing the effectiveness of remedial actions. It continues activities of the characterization phase at less frequent intervals. The Bear Greek Valley is a watershed that drains the area surrounding several closed Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant waste disposal facilities. Past waste disposal practices in Bear Creek Valley resulted in contamination of Bear Creek and consequent ecological damage. Extensive remedial actions have been proposed at waste sites, and some of the have been implemented or are now underway. The proposed study plan consists of an initial, detailed characterization of the benthic invertebrate and fish communities in Bear Creek in the first year followed by a reduction in sampling intensity during the monitoring phase of the plan. The results of sampling conducted from May 1984 through early 1989 are presented in this report.

  15. Ecological effects of contaminants and remedial actions in Bear Creek

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Southworth, G.R.; Loar, J.M.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Stewart, A.J.; Burris, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    Ecological studies of the Bear Creek watershed, which drains the area surrounding several Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant waste disposal facilities, were initiated in May 1984 and are continuing at present. These studies consisted of an initial, detailed characterization of the benthic invertebrate and fish communities in Bear Creek, and they were followed by a presently ongoing monitoring phase that involves reduced sampling intensities. The characterization phase utilized two approaches: (1) instream sampling of benthic invertebrate and fish communities in Bear Creek to identify spatial and temporal patterns in distribution and abundance and (2) laboratory bioassays on water samples from Bear Creek and selected tributaries to identify potential sources of toxicity to biota. The monitoring phase of the ecological program relates to the long-term goals of identifying and prioritizing contaminant sources and assessing the effectiveness of remedial actions. It continues activities of the characterization phase at less frequent intervals. The Bear Greek Valley is a watershed that drains the area surrounding several closed Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant waste disposal facilities. Past waste disposal practices in Bear Creek Valley resulted in contamination of Bear Creek and consequent ecological damage. Extensive remedial actions have been proposed at waste sites, and some of the have been implemented or are now underway. The proposed study plan consists of an initial, detailed characterization of the benthic invertebrate and fish communities in Bear Creek in the first year followed by a reduction in sampling intensity during the monitoring phase of the plan. The results of sampling conducted from May 1984 through early 1989 are presented in this report

  16. Duality symmetries and the Type II string effective action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergshoeff, E.

    1996-01-01

    We discuss the duality symmetries of Type II string effective actions in nine, ten and eleven dimensions. As a by-product we give a covariant action underlying the ten-dimensional Type IIB supergravity theory. We apply duality symmetries to construct dyonic Type II string solutions in six dimensions and their reformulation as solutions of the ten-dimensional Type IIB theory in ten dimensions. (orig.)

  17. Zeta Functions, Renormalization Group Equations, and the Effective Action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hochberg, D.; Perez-Mercader, J.; Molina-Paris, C.; Visser, M.

    1998-01-01

    We demonstrate how to extract all the one-loop renormalization group equations for arbitrary quantum field theories from knowledge of an appropriate Seeley-DeWitt coefficient. By formally solving the renormalization group equations to one loop, we renormalization group improve the classical action and use this to derive the leading logarithms in the one-loop effective action for arbitrary quantum field theories. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  18. Perception, action, and Roelofs effect: a mere illusion of dissociation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Dassonville

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available A prominent and influential hypothesis of vision suggests the existence of two separate visual systems within the brain, one creating our perception of the world and another guiding our actions within it. The induced Roelofs effect has been described as providing strong evidence for this perception/action dissociation: When a small visual target is surrounded by a large frame positioned so that the frame's center is offset from the observer's midline, the perceived location of the target is shifted in the direction opposite the frame's offset. In spite of this perceptual mislocalization, however, the observer can accurately guide movements to the target location. Thus, perception is prone to the illusion while actions seem immune. Here we demonstrate that the Roelofs illusion is caused by a frame-induced transient distortion of the observer's apparent midline. We further demonstrate that actions guided to targets within this same distorted egocentric reference frame are fully expected to be accurate, since the errors of target localization will exactly cancel the errors of motor guidance. These findings provide a mechanistic explanation for the various perceptual and motor effects of the induced Roelofs illusion without requiring the existence of separate neural systems for perception and action. Given this, the behavioral dissociation that accompanies the Roelofs effect cannot be considered evidence of a dissociation of perception and action. This indicates a general need to re-evaluate the broad class of evidence purported to support this hypothesized dissociation.

  19. Direct construction of the effective action of chiral gauge fermions in the anomalous sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salcedo, L.L.

    2009-01-01

    The anomaly implies an obstruction to a fully chiral covariant calculation of the effective action in the abnormal-parity sector of chiral theories. The standard approach then is to reconstruct the anomalous effective action from its covariant current. In this work, we use a recently introduced formulation which allows one to directly construct the non-trivial chiral invariant part of the effective action within a fully covariant formalism. To this end we develop an appropriate version of Chan's approach to carry out the calculation within the derivative expansion. The result to four derivatives, i.e., to leading order in two and four dimensions and next-to-leading order in two dimensions, is explicitly worked out. Fairly compact expressions are found for these terms. (orig.)

  20. A continuous time model of the bandwagon effect in collective action

    OpenAIRE

    Arieh Gavious; Shlomo Mizrahi

    2001-01-01

    The paper offers a complex and systematic model of the bandwagon effect in collective action using continuous time equations. The model treats the bandwagon effect as a process influenced by ratio between the mobilization efforts of social activists and the resources invested by the government to counteract this activity. The complex modeling approach makes it possible to identify the conditions for specific types of the bandwagon effect, and determines the scope of that effect. Relying on ce...

  1. Informing Tobacco Cessation Benefit Use Interventions for Unionized Blue-Collar Workers: A Mixed-Methods Reasoned Action Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yzer, Marco; Weisman, Susan; Mejia, Nicole; Hennrikus, Deborah; Choi, Kelvin; DeSimone, Susan

    2015-08-01

    Blue-collar workers typically have high rates of tobacco use but low rates of using tobacco cessation resources available through their health benefits. Interventions to motivate blue-collar tobacco users to use effective cessation support are needed. Reasoned action theory is useful in this regard as it can identify the beliefs that shape tobacco cessation benefit use intentions. However, conventional reasoned action research cannot speak to how those beliefs can best be translated into intervention messages. In the present work, we expand the reasoned action approach by adding additional qualitative inquiry to better understand blue-collar smokers' beliefs about cessation benefit use. Across three samples of unionized blue-collar tobacco users, we identified (1) the 35 attitudinal, normative, and control beliefs that represented tobacco users' belief structure about cessation benefit use; (2) instrumental attitude as most important in explaining cessation intention; (3) attitudinal beliefs about treatment options' efficacy, health effects, and monetary implications of using benefits as candidates for message design; (4) multiple interpretations of cessation beliefs (e.g., short and long-term health effects); and (5) clear implications of these interpretations for creative message design. Taken together, the findings demonstrate how a mixed-method reasoned action approach can inform interventions that promote the use of tobacco cessation health benefits.

  2. Renormalization-group flow of the effective action of cosmological large-scale structures

    CERN Document Server

    Floerchinger, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Following an approach of Matarrese and Pietroni, we derive the functional renormalization group (RG) flow of the effective action of cosmological large-scale structures. Perturbative solutions of this RG flow equation are shown to be consistent with standard cosmological perturbation theory. Non-perturbative approximate solutions can be obtained by truncating the a priori infinite set of possible effective actions to a finite subspace. Using for the truncated effective action a form dictated by dissipative fluid dynamics, we derive RG flow equations for the scale dependence of the effective viscosity and sound velocity of non-interacting dark matter, and we solve them numerically. Physically, the effective viscosity and sound velocity account for the interactions of long-wavelength fluctuations with the spectrum of smaller-scale perturbations. We find that the RG flow exhibits an attractor behaviour in the IR that significantly reduces the dependence of the effective viscosity and sound velocity on the input ...

  3. One-Loop Effective Action in Orbifold Compactifications

    CERN Document Server

    Von Gersdorff, Gero

    2008-01-01

    We employ the covariant background formalism to derive generic expressions for the one-loop effective action in field theoretic orbifold compactifications. The contribution of each orbifold sector is given by the effective action of its fixed torus with a shifted mass matrix. We thus study in detail the computation of the heat kernel on tori. Our formalism manifestly separates UV sensitive (local) from UV-insensitive (nonlocal) renormalization. To exemplify our methods, we study the effective potential of 6d gauge theory as well as kinetic terms for gravitational moduli in 11d supergravity.

  4. Early markers of ongoing action-effect learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannes eRuge

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Acquiring knowledge about the relationship between stimulus conditions, one’s own actions, and the resulting consequences or effects, is one prerequisite for intentional action. Previous studies have shown that such contextualized associations between actions and their effects (S-R-E associations can be picked up very quickly. The present study examined how such weakly practiced associations might affect overt behavior during the process of initial learning and during subsequent retrieval, and how these two measures are inter-related. We examined incidental (S-R-E learning in the context of trial-and-error S-R learning and in the context of instruction-based S-R learning. Furthermore, as a control condition, common outcome (CO learning blocks were included in which all responses produced one common sound effect, hence precluding differential (S-R-E learning. Post-learning retrieval of R-E associations was tested by re-using previously produced sound effects as novel imperative stimuli combined with actions that were either compatible or incompatible with the previously encountered R-E mapping. The central result was that the size of the compatibility effect could be predicted by the size of relative response slowing during ongoing learning in the preceding acquisition phase, both in trial-and-error learning and in instruction-based learning. Importantly, this correlation was absent for the common outcome control condition, precluding accounts based on unspecific factors. Instead, the results suggest that differential outcomes are ‘actively’ integrated into action planning and that this takes additional planning time. We speculate that this might be especially true for weakly practiced (S-R-E associations before an initial goal-directed action mode transitions into a more stimulus-based action mode.

  5. Selective effects of an octopus toxin on action potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulhunty, Angela; Gage, Peter W.

    1971-01-01

    1. A lethal, water soluble toxin (Maculotoxin, MTX) with a molecular weight less than 540, can be extracted from the salivary glands of an octopus (Hapalochlaena maculosa). 2. MTX blocks action potentials in sartorius muscle fibres of toads without affecting the membrane potential. Delayed rectification is not inhibited by the toxin. 3. At low concentrations (10-6-10-5 g/ml.) MTX blocks action potentials only after a certain number have been elicited. The number of action potentials, which can be defined accurately, depends on the concentration of MTX and the concentration of sodium ions in the extracellular solution. 4. The toxin has no post-synaptic effect at the neuromuscular junction and it is concluded that it blocks neuromuscular transmission by inhibiting action potentials in motor nerve terminals. PMID:4330930

  6. The Effect of Sympathetic Antagonists on the Antidepressant Action ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alprazolam is an anti-anxiety drug shown to be effective in the treatment of depression. In this study, the effect of sympathetic receptor antagonists on alprazolam–induced antidepressant action was studied using a mouse model of forced swimming behavioral despair. The interaction of three sympathetic receptor ...

  7. Engendering Change within a Water Infrastructure Client Organisation: A Participatory Action Research Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Potts

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Continuing demands by stakeholders for improved service delivery has caused Infrastructure Client Organisations (ICO in the UK to embark upon organisational restructuring. It is expected that such restructuring would enhance cost-effectiveness and quality in asset management and service delivery. However, this change, if not properly managed and sustained, could result in the inability of the ICO to achieve these targets. This study outlines the use of systemic thinking and Participatory Action Research (PAR in driving and managing such change within a UK-based Water and Wastewater ICO (UK WASC. Besides highlighting the context for change in response to policy, austerity and regulatory pressures, this study portrays how the PAR approach can assist in the management of change within ICOs. Furthermore, it provides an insight into the evolution of an external researcher, from novice to expert within the ICO, imbued with the required knowledge to encourage other stakeholders to participate in driving the change management process. Preliminary findings indicate the usefulness of this phased approach toward PAR. This study provides a platform for researchers wishing to engage with ICOs to improve service delivery, identifying the value of engagement, change and systemic thinking.

  8. Adding Perspective: Predicting Adolescent Sunscreen Use with an Extended Health Action Process Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüz, Natalie; Schüz, Benjamin; Eid, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Diseases such as skin cancer often have a very long latency period. For adolescents, especially, it may be difficult to grasp that current risk behavior is related to future health outcomes. This study examines the role of health-related time perspective (i.e. the degree to which short-term outcomes are discounted over long-time health benefits) within the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA). More specifically, based on expectancy*value theory, we tested whether time perspective interacts with self-efficacy, the central variable in this approach. A longitudinal study with three measurement points across one year assessed 156 high school students. Data were analyzed using structural equation models. While time perspective had no direct association with sunscreen use intentions, there was an interaction effect with self-efficacy; the shorter the time perspective, the smaller the association of self-efficacy with intention. Intention in turn predicted planning and sunscreen use at Time 3 (one year later). In order to maximise the impact of early onset measures for skin cancer prevention targeting the motivation for sunscreen use in adolescents, time perspective should be addressed in comprehensive sun protection interventions. © 2016 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  9. Power effects on cognitive control: Turning conflict into action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Petra C; Kleiman, Tali; Amodio, David M

    2015-06-01

    Power is known to promote effective goal pursuit, especially when it requires one to overcome distractions or bias. We proposed that this effect involves the ability to engage and implement cognitive control. In Study 1, we demonstrated that power enhances behavioral performance on a response conflict task and that it does so by enhancing controlled processing rather than by reducing automatic processing. In Study 2, we used an event-related potential index of anterior cingulate activity to test whether power effects on control were due to enhanced conflict sensitivity or action implementation. Power did not significantly affect neural sensitivity to conflict; rather, high power was associated with a stronger link between conflict processing and intended action, relative to low power. These findings suggest a new perspective on how social factors can affect controlled processing and offer new evidence regarding the transition between conflict detection and the implementation of action control. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Developing Effective Corrective Action Plan in Krsko NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bach, Bruno; Cizmek, Rudi; Bozin, Bojan

    2014-01-01

    Experience shows that many events could have been prevented if lessons had been learned from previous incidents. Event reporting thus has become an increasingly important aspect of the operation and regulation of all safety-related and public health industries. Different industries such as aeronautics, chemicals, transport and of course nuclear depend on Operating Experience (OE) feedback programs to provide lessons learned about safety. The information available under an OE programme for these organizations comprises internal event reports and analysis and external operating experience including reports on low level events and near misses and other relevant operating performance information. The worldwide OE programme (such as WANO OE) in nuclear power plants provides opportunity to learn from events at other plants. In particular, it alerts plants to mistakes or events that have occurred at other nuclear power plants and enables them to take corrective actions to prevent similar occurrences at their own plant. The intent of the effective and efficient OE program is therefore to improve personnel/plant safety, reliability and commercial performance of the operating nuclear power plants. Such a programme ensures that operating experience is analysed, events important to safety are reviewed in depth, lessons learned are disseminated to the staff and to the relevant national and international organizations and corrective actions are effectively implemented. Learning and applying the lessons from operating experience is an integral part of station safety culture and is encouraged by managers throughout the top plant administrative programs and procedures. Krsko NPP is developed its own OE program by using the most relevant INPO/WANO/IAEA guidelines as well as its own knowledge, skills an operating practice. The OE is a part of the Corrective Action Program (CAP), which is among top management programs. The purpose of this article is to present a part of the Krško NPP

  11. Reframing Our Approach to Doctoral Programs: An Integrative Framework for Action and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlpine, Lynn; Norton, Judith

    2006-01-01

    A serious problem exists in the academic world, namely doctoral education attrition rates that approach 50% in some disciplines. Yet, calls for action have generally been "ad hoc" rather than theory driven. Further, research has not been conceived and implemented with sufficient breadth to integrate factors influencing the outcomes across the…

  12. Supporting the Knowledge-to-Action Process: A Systems-Thinking Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherney, Adrian; Head, Brian

    2011-01-01

    The processes for moving research-based knowledge to the domains of action in social policy and professional practice are complex. Several disciplinary research traditions have illuminated several key aspects of these processes. A more holistic approach, drawing on systems thinking, has also been outlined and advocated by recent contributors to…

  13. The Kaleidoscope of Voices: An Action Research Approach to Informing Institutional e-Learning Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roushan, Gelareh; Holley, Debbie; Biggins, David

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a two-spiral action research approach (AR) in its analysis of the experience of a British University endeavouring to change and reposition itself in the context of fast pace external change in terms of innovation. Taking the European Union (EU) 2020 digital competence framework (Ferrari 2013), with its drive to address the…

  14. The quench action approach to out-of-equilibrium quantum integrable models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, B.M.

    2015-01-01

    In this PhD thesis quantum quenches to 1D quantum integrable models are studied by means of the quench action approach. Using the large-system-size scaling of overlaps between the initial state and Bethe states as basic input, this method gives an exact description in the thermodynamic limit of the

  15. Using a Reasoned Action Approach to Examine US College Women's Intention to Get the HPV Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozkowski, Kristen N.; Geshnizjani, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Although at high risk of contracting the human papillomavirus (HPV), less than one-half of US college women have been vaccinated. The purpose of this study was to identify underlying factors influencing college women's intention to get the HPV vaccine via developing an instrument using the Reasoned Action Approach (RAA). Setting: Data…

  16. Linking Action Learning and Inter-Organisational Learning: The Learning Journey Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The article presents and illustrates the learning journey (LJ)--a new management development approach to inter-organisational learning based on observation, reflection and problem-solving. The LJ involves managers from different organisations and applies key concepts of action learning and systemic organisational development. Made up of…

  17. Improving "At-Action" Decision-Making in Team Sports through a Holistic Coaching Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Richard L.; Harvey, Stephen; Mouchet, Alain

    2014-01-01

    This article draws on Game Sense pedagogy and complex learning theory (CLT) to make suggestions for improving decision-making ability in team sports by adopting a holistic approach to coaching with a focus on decision-making "at-action". It emphasizes the complexity of decision-making and the need to focus on the game as a whole entity,…

  18. Retraining automatic action-tendencies to approach alcohol in hazardous drinkers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiers, R.W.H.J.; Rinck, M.; Kordts, R.; Houben, K.; Strack, F.

    2010-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to test whether automatic action-tendencies to approach alcohol can be modified, and whether this affects drinking behaviour. Design and participants - Forty-two hazardous drinkers were assigned randomly to a condition in which they were implicitly trained to avoid or

  19. Retraining automatic action-tendencies to approach alcohol in hazardous drinkers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiers, R.W.; Rinck, M.; Kordts, R.; Houben, K.; Strack, F.

    2010-01-01

    Aims: The main aim of this study was to test whether automatic action-tendencies to approach alcohol can be modified, and whether this affects drinking behaviour. Design and participants: Forty-two hazardous drinkers were assigned randomly to a condition in which they were implicitly trained to

  20. A practical approach for translating climate change adaptation principles into forest management actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria K. Janowiak; Christopher W. Swanston; Linda M. Nagel; Leslie A. Brandt; Patricia R. Butler; Stephen D. Handler; P. Danielle Shannon; Louis R. Iverson; Stephen N. Matthews; Anantha Prasad; Matthew P. Peters

    2014-01-01

    There is an ever-growing body of literature on forest management strategies for climate change adaptation; however, few frameworks have been presented for integrating these strategies with the real-world challenges of forest management. We have developed a structured approach for translating broad adaptation concepts into specific management actions and silvicultural...

  1. Effect of action verbs on the performance of a complex movement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahar Rabahi

    Full Text Available The interaction between language and motor action has been approached by studying the effect of action verbs, kinaesthetic imagery and mental subtraction upon the performance of a complex movement, the squat vertical jump (SVJ. The time of flight gave the value of the height of the SVJ and was measured with an Optojump® and a Myotest® apparatuses. The results obtained by the effects of the cognitive stimuli showed a statistically significant improvement of the SVJ performance after either loudly or silently pronouncing, hearing or reading the verb saute (jump in French language. Action verbs specific for other motor actions (pince = pinch, lèche = lick or non-specific (bouge = move showed no or little effect. A meaningless verb for the French subjects (tiáo = jump in Chinese showed no effect as did rêve (dream, tombe (fall and stop. The verb gagne (win improved significantly the SVJ height, as did its antonym perds (lose suggesting a possible influence of affects in the subjects' performance. The effect of the specific action verb jump upon the heights of SVJ was similar to that obtained after kinaesthetic imagery and after mental subtraction of two digits numbers from three digits ones; possibly, in the latter, because of the intervention of language in calculus. It appears that the effects of the specific action verb jump did seem effective but not totally exclusive for the enhancement of the SVJ performance. The results imply an interaction among language and motor brain areas in the performance of a complex movement resulting in a clear specificity of the corresponding action verb. The effect upon performance may probably be influenced by the subjects' intention, increased attention and emotion produced by cognitive stimuli among which action verbs.

  2. Localization of effective actions in open superstring field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccaferri, Carlo; Merlano, Alberto

    2018-03-01

    We consider the construction of the algebraic part of D-branes tree-level effective action from Berkovits open superstring field theory. Applying this construction to the quartic potential of massless fields carrying a specific worldsheet charge, we show that the full contribution to the potential localizes at the boundary of moduli space, reducing to elementary two-point functions. As examples of this general mechanism, we show how the Yang-Mills quartic potential and the instanton effective action of a Dp/D( p - 4) system are reproduced.

  3. Nonlocal quantum effective actions in Weyl-Flat spacetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, Teresa; Benevides, André; Dabholkar, Atish

    2018-06-01

    Virtual massless particles in quantum loops lead to nonlocal effects which can have interesting consequences, for example, for primordial magnetogenesis in cosmology or for computing finite N corrections in holography. We describe how the quantum effective actions summarizing these effects can be computed efficiently for Weyl-flat metrics by integrating the Weyl anomaly or, equivalently, the local renormalization group equation. This method relies only on the local Schwinger-DeWitt expansion of the heat kernel and allows for a re-summation of the anomalous leading large logarithms of the scale factor, log a( x), in situations where the Weyl factor changes by several e-foldings. As an illustration, we obtain the quantum effective action for the Yang-Mills field coupled to massless matter, and the self-interacting massless scalar field. Our action reduces to the nonlocal action obtained using the Barvinsky-Vilkovisky covariant perturbation theory in the regime R 2 ≪ ∇2 R for a typical curvature scale R, but has a greater range of validity effectively re-summing the covariant perturbation theory to all orders in curvatures. In particular, it is applicable also in the opposite regime R 2 ≫ ∇2 R, which is often of interest in cosmology.

  4. Integrating transformative learning and action learning approaches to enhance ethical leadership for supervisors in the hotel business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boonyuen Saranya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethical leadership is now increasingly focused in leadership development. The main purpose of this study is to explore two methods of adult learning, action learning and transformative learning, and to use the methods to enhance ethical leadership. Building ethical leadership requires an approach that focuses on personal values, beliefs, or frames of references, which is transformative learning. Transformative learning requires a series of meetings to conduct critical discourse and to follow up the learning of learners. By organizing such action learning, human resource developers can optimize their time and effort more effectively. The authors have created a comprehensive model to integrate the two learning approaches in a general way that focuses not only on ethical leadership, but also on all kinds of behavioral transformation in the workplace in the hotel business or even other types of business.

  5. Cytogenetic effects of weak and combined actions in plants in connection with a problem of ecological rating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geras'kin, S.A.; Dikarev, V.G.; Udalova, A.A.; Dikareva, N.S.; Vasil'ev, D.V.; Evseeva, T.I.

    2002-01-01

    It is compared sanitary-hygienic and ecological approaches to rating of ionizing radiation action. The features of formation of cytogenetic effects in plants in conditions of separate and combined with factors of other nature action of ionizing radiation low doses are considered. (author)

  6. Membrane paradigm and entropy of black holes in the Euclidean action approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemos, Jose P. S.; Zaslavskii, Oleg B.

    2011-01-01

    The membrane paradigm approach to black holes fixes in the vicinity of the event horizon a fictitious surface, the stretched horizon, so that the spacetime outside remains unchanged and the spacetime inside is vacuum. Using this powerful method, several black hole properties have been found and settled, such as the horizon's viscosity, electrical conductivity, resistivity, as well as other properties. On the other hand, the Euclidean action approach to black hole spacetimes has been very fruitful in understanding black hole entropy. Combining both the Euclidean action and membrane paradigm approaches, a direct derivation of the black hole entropy is given. In the derivation, it is considered that the only fields present are the gravitational and matter fields, with no electric field.

  7. A rethink of how policy and social science approach changing individuals' actions on greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, William; Middlemiss, Lucie

    2012-01-01

    Social scientists from all areas are developing theories and testing practical approaches to change individuals' actions to lower greenhouse gas emissions. In the UK context, policy-makers, local authorities, companies and organisations are using these theories to invest resources to change individual's actions. The problem is that social scientists are delivering fragmented science based on narrow disciplinary views and those using this science are cherry picking whatever theory suits their agenda. We argue that with substantial GHG emission reduction targets to be achieved, a multidisciplinary application and view of social science are urgently needed.

  8. Physical interpretation of Schwinger's formula for effective actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albuquerque, L.C. de; Farina, C.; Rabello, Silvio J.; Vaidya, Arvind N.

    1994-01-01

    We show explicitly that Schwinger's formula for one-loop effective actions corresponds to the summation of energies associated with the zero-point oscillations of the fields. We begin with a formal proof, and after that we confirm it using a regularization prescription. (author)

  9. BEPS Action 2: Neutralizing the Effects on Hybrid Mismatch Arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, R.; Marres, O.

    2015-01-01

    Curbing tax arbitrage is one of the main priorities of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) (endorsed by the G20 and the G8) ever since the public debate on base erosion fully erupted. Neutralizing the effect of hybrid mismatch arrangements has become Action No. 2 of the

  10. Effective action and β-functions for the heterotic string

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foakes, A.P.; Mohammedi, N.; Ross, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    The results of the calculation of the metric β-function for the heterotic string sigma model up to three loops are presented and it is shown that although this β-function is non vanishing it is compatible with an O((α') 2 ) effective action in which there are no terms cubic in the Riemann tensor or gauge field strength. (orig.)

  11. A tripartite mode of action approach for investigating the impact of aneugens on tubulin polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Valerie; Sutter, Andreas; Raschke, Marian; Queisser, Nina

    2018-04-01

    Chemical-induced disruption of the cellular microtubule network is one key mechanism of aneugenicity. Since recent data indicate that genotoxic effects of aneugens show nonlinear dose-response relationships, margins of safety can be derived with the ultimate goal to perform a risk assessment for the support of drug development. Furthermore, microtubule-interacting compounds are widely used for cancer treatment. While there is a need to support the risk assessment of tubulin-interacting chemicals using reliable mechanistic assays, no standard assays exist to date in regulatory genotoxicity testing for the distinction of aneugenic mechanisms. Recently reported methods exclusively rely on either biochemical, morphological, or cytometric endpoints. Since data requirements for the diverse fields of application of those assays differ strongly, the use of multiple assays for a correct classification of aneugens is ideal. We here report a tripartite mode of action approach comprising a cell-free biochemical polymerization assay and the cell-based methods cellular imaging and flow cytometry. The biochemical assay measures tubulin polymerization over time whereas the two cell-based assays quantify tubulin polymer mass. We herein show that the flow cytometric method yielded IC 50 values for tubulin destabilizers and EC 50 values for tubulin stabilizers as well as cell cycle information. In contrast, cellular imaging complemented these findings with characteristic morphological patterns. Biochemical analysis yielded kinetic information on tubulin polymerization. This multiplex approach is able to create holistic effect profiles which can be individually customized to the research question with regard to quality, quantity, usability, and economy. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 59:188-201, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. System versus traditional approach in road traffic injury prevention. A call for action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davoud Khorasani-Zavareh

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic injuries (RTIs are a major public health problem worldwide, especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMICsand require concerted efforts for effective and sustainable prevention. A variety of measures need to be considered when planning activities. This is particularly true in LMICs. Iran, for example, despite its enormous efforts in recent years in both pre-crash and post crash measures as well as social policy changes, continues to be challenged by the sheer magnitude of this major public health problem. Accordingly, stakeholders’ perceptions, the approach and the kind of preventive activities are crucial. On the whole, there are two different approaches in RTI prevention: the individual approach and the system approach.In the individual approach, there is a tendency for researchers and particularly practitioners to identify only one or a few elements, which usually can be found in many LMICs. Traditionally, in such countries many studies have focused on factors relating to driver errors, poor vehicles and the road environment instead of finding the reason for injury outcome. In many LMICs, the majority of preventive activities target road-user behaviors, which are usually tackled by means of education and enforcement. Hence the primary responsibility is assigned to the road user. However, while safe road-user behavior is one important component, changing such behavior should not simply be focused on education and enforcement. When WHO launched its call to action, it invited members of the public to be part of the solution. The initiative focused on five important courses of action for the general public including: not speeding; wearing a seat-belt; being visible on the road; wearing a helmet; and never drinking and driving. Studies on public education efficiency have revealed that a decrease in crashes due to such campaigns can occur only if they clearly target specific forms of behavior, like seat belt use or helmet

  13. Action video game training reduces the Simon Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Claire V; Barrett, Doug J K; Nitka, Aleksander; Raynes, Kerry

    2016-04-01

    A number of studies have shown that training on action video games improves various aspects of visual cognition including selective attention and inhibitory control. Here, we demonstrate that action video game play can also reduce the Simon Effect, and, hence, may have the potential to improve response selection during the planning and execution of goal-directed action. Non-game-players were randomly assigned to one of four groups; two trained on a first-person-shooter game (Call of Duty) on either Microsoft Xbox or Nintendo DS, one trained on a visual training game for Nintendo DS, and a control group who received no training. Response times were used to contrast performance before and after training on a behavioral assay designed to manipulate stimulus-response compatibility (the Simon Task). The results revealed significantly faster response times and a reduced cost of stimulus-response incompatibility in the groups trained on the first-person-shooter game. No benefit of training was observed in the control group or the group trained on the visual training game. These findings are consistent with previous evidence that action game play elicits plastic changes in the neural circuits that serve attentional control, and suggest training may facilitate goal-directed action by improving players' ability to resolve conflict during response selection and execution.

  14. Computing the effective action with the functional renormalization group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Codello, Alessandro [CP3-Origins and the Danish IAS University of Southern Denmark, Odense (Denmark); Percacci, Roberto [SISSA, Trieste (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Rachwal, Leslaw [Fudan University, Department of Physics, Center for Field Theory and Particle Physics, Shanghai (China); Tonero, Alberto [ICTP-SAIFR and IFT, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2016-04-15

    The ''exact'' or ''functional'' renormalization group equation describes the renormalization group flow of the effective average action Γ{sub k}. The ordinary effective action Γ{sub 0} can be obtained by integrating the flow equation from an ultraviolet scale k = Λ down to k = 0. We give several examples of such calculations at one-loop, both in renormalizable and in effective field theories. We reproduce the four-point scattering amplitude in the case of a real scalar field theory with quartic potential and in the case of the pion chiral Lagrangian. In the case of gauge theories, we reproduce the vacuum polarization of QED and of Yang-Mills theory. We also compute the two-point functions for scalars and gravitons in the effective field theory of scalar fields minimally coupled to gravity. (orig.)

  15. Adiabatic effective action for vortices in neutral and charged superfluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatsuda, M.; Sato, M.; Yahikozawa, S.; Hatsuda, T.

    1996-01-01

    Adiabatic effective action for vortices in neutral and charged superfluids at zero temperature are calculated using the topological Landau-Ginzburg theory recently proposed by Hatsuda, Yahikozawa, Ao and Thouless, and vortex dynamics are examined. The Berry phase term arising in the effective action naturally yields the Magnus force in both neutral and charged superfluids. It is shown that in neutral superfluid there is only one degree of freedom, namely the center of vorticities, and the vortex energy is proportional to the sum of all vorticities so that it is finite only for the vanishing total vorticity of the system. On the other hand the effective mass and the vortex energy for a vortex in charged superfluids are defined individually as expected. The effects of the vortex core on these quantities are also estimated. The possible depinning scenario which is governed by the Magnus force and the inertial mass is also discussed

  16. Effect of mutagen combined action on Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii cells. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlcek, D.; Podstavkova, S.; Dubovsky, J.

    1978-01-01

    The effect was investigated of single and combined actions of alkylnitrosourea derivatives (N-methyl-N-nitrosourea and N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea) and UV-radiation on the survival of cells of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii algae in dependence on the sequence of application of mutagens and on the given conditions of cultivation following mutagen activity. In particular, the single phases were investigated of the total lethal effect, i.e., the death of cells before division and their death after division. The most pronounced changes in dependence on the sequence of application of mutagens and on the given conditions of cultivation were noted in cell death before division. In dependence on the sequence of application of mutagens, the effect of the combined action on the survival of cells changed from an additive (alkylnitrosourea + UV-radiation) to a protective effect (UV-radiation + alkylnitrosourea). (author)

  17. Invariance of actions, rheonomy, and the new minimal N = 1 supergravity in the group manifold approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Auria, R.; Fre, P.; Townsend, P.K.; van Nieuwenhuizen, P.

    1984-01-01

    A new definition of rheonomy is proposed based on Bianchi identifies instead of field equations. For theories with auxiliary fields, the transformation rules are obtained in a completely geometrical way and invariance of the action is equilivalent to d'L = 0, which means surface-independence of the action integral. For theories without auxiliary fields, the transformation rules are found by requiring that the action be invariant, just as in the component approach. Previous methods of obtaining the transformation rules which start from rhenomy of field equations and use certain recipes to find the off-shell extensions of the rules are abandoned. New minimal supergravity is worked out in detail; it is the gauge theory based on a free differential algebra which includes the auxiliary fields

  18. Directive and incentive functions of affective action consequences: an ideomotor approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder, Andreas B; Rothermund, Klaus; De Houwer, Jan; Hommel, Bernhard

    2015-07-01

    Five experiments examined whether affective consequences become associated with the responses producing them and whether anticipations of positive and negative action outcomes influence action control differently. In a learning phase, one response produced pleasant and another response unpleasant visual effects. In a subsequent test phase, the same actions were carried out in response to a neutral feature of affective stimuli. Results showed that responses were faster when the irrelevant valence of the response cue matched the valence of the response outcome, but only when the responses still produced outcomes. These results suggest that affective action consequences have a directive function in that they facilitate the selection of the associated response over other responses, even when the response outcome is unpleasant (Experiment 4A). Results of another experiment showed that affective action consequences can also have an incentive function in that responses with pleasant outcomes are generally facilitated relative to responses with unpleasant outcomes. However, this motivational effect was seen only in a free-choice test (Experiment 5). The results suggest that behavioral impulses induced by ideomotor processes are constrained by the motivational evaluation of the anticipated action outcome. A model that integrates motivational factors into ideomotor theory is presented.

  19. A simplified approach to the PROMETHEE method for priority setting in management of mine action projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Mladineo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last 20 years, priority setting in mine actions, i.e. in humanitarian demining, has become an increasingly important topic. Given that mine action projects require management and decision-making based on a multi -criteria approach, multi-criteria decision-making methods like PROMETHEE and AHP have been used worldwide for priority setting. However, from the aspect of mine action, where stakeholders in the decision-making process for priority setting are project managers, local politicians, leaders of different humanitarian organizations, or similar, applying these methods can be difficult. Therefore, a specialized web-based decision support system (Web DSS for priority setting, developed as part of the FP7 project TIRAMISU, has been extended using a module for developing custom priority setting scenarios in line with an exceptionally easy, user-friendly approach. The idea behind this research is to simplify the multi-criteria analysis based on the PROMETHEE method. Therefore, a simplified PROMETHEE method based on statistical analysis for automated suggestions of parameters such as preference function thresholds, interactive selection of criteria weights, and easy input of criteria evaluations is presented in this paper. The result is web-based DSS that can be applied worldwide for priority setting in mine action. Additionally, the management of mine action projects is supported using modules for providing spatial data based on the geographic information system (GIS. In this paper, the benefits and limitations of a simplified PROMETHEE method are presented using a case study involving mine action projects, and subsequently, certain proposals are given for the further research.

  20. Meta-Analysis of the Reasoned Action Approach (RAA) to Understanding Health Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEachan, Rosemary; Taylor, Natalie; Harrison, Reema; Lawton, Rebecca; Gardner, Peter; Conner, Mark

    2016-08-01

    Reasoned action approach (RAA) includes subcomponents of attitude (experiential/instrumental), perceived norm (injunctive/descriptive), and perceived behavioral control (capacity/autonomy) to predict intention and behavior. To provide a meta-analysis of the RAA for health behaviors focusing on comparing the pairs of RAA subcomponents and differences between health protection and health-risk behaviors. The present research reports a meta-analysis of correlational tests of RAA subcomponents, examination of moderators, and combined effects of subcomponents on intention and behavior. Regressions were used to predict intention and behavior based on data from studies measuring all variables. Capacity and experiential attitude had large, and other constructs had small-medium-sized correlations with intention; all constructs except autonomy were significant independent predictors of intention in regressions. Intention, capacity, and experiential attitude had medium-large, and other constructs had small-medium-sized correlations with behavior; intention, capacity, experiential attitude, and descriptive norm were significant independent predictors of behavior in regressions. The RAA subcomponents have utility in predicting and understanding health behaviors.

  1. Environmental approach and gas industry activities: the actions of two AFG members

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    The members of the French gas association (AFG) are fully aware of the responsibility they have in the domain of sustainable development. For us, it is a global commitment which consists in improving the impact of their activities in their different social, society, economical and environmental aspects. The environmental aspect is of primary importance with the Kyoto protocol and the obligation for France to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions. In order to better understand the implications of an environmental approach in the gas industry sector, this paper presents the actions and projects developed by Gaz de France and Total companies for the rational use of energy, the development of renewable energy sources (geothermal, wind and solar energies, hydrogen and fuel cells) and the abatement of the impacts of their activities on the environment: development of high efficiency equipments and appliances, improvement of existing fuels, development of natural gas for vehicles, LPG fuels and bio-fuels, investment in projects of greenhouse effect abatement (carbon prototype stock), reduction of works impact on the environment, geologic sequestration of CO 2 , recycling of coal mine gas, optimum processing of industrial effluents and wastes (development of gas-fueled processes) etc.. (J.S.)

  2. Effect of exercise on insulin action in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Erik; Mikines, K J; Galbo, Henrik

    1989-01-01

    The effect of 1 h of dynamic one-legged exercise on insulin action in human muscle was studied in 6 healthy young men. Four hours after one-legged knee extensions, a three-step sequential euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp combined with arterial and bilateral femoral vein catheterization...... was performed. Increased insulin action on glucose uptake was found in the exercised compared with the rested thigh at mean plasma insulin concentrations of 23, 40, and 410 microU/ml. Furthermore, prior contractions directed glucose uptake toward glycogen synthesis and increased insulin effects on thigh O2...... consumption and at some insulin concentrations on potassium exchange. In contrast, no change in insulin effects on limb exchange of free fatty acids, glycerol, alanine or tyrosine were found after exercise. Glycogen concentration in rested vastus lateralis muscle did not increase measurably during the clamp...

  3. International health research monitoring: exploring a scientific and a cooperative approach using participatory action research

    OpenAIRE

    Chantler, Tracey; Cheah, Phaik Yeong; Miiro, George; Hantrakum, Viriya; Nanvubya, Annet; Ayuo, Elizabeth; Kivaya, Esther; Kidola, Jeremiah; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Parker, Michael; Njuguna, Patricia; Ashley, Elizabeth; Guerin, Philippe J; Lang, Trudie

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate and determine the value of monitoring models developed by the Mahidol Oxford Tropical Research Unit and the East African Consortium for Clinical Research, consider how this can be measured and explore monitors’ and investigators’ experiences of and views about the nature, purpose and practice of monitoring. Research design A case study approach was used within the context of participatory action research because one of the aims was to guide and improve practice. 34 inte...

  4. A management approach that drives actions strategically: balanced scorecard in a mental health trust case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Stefan; Bateman, Ian; Breinlinger-O'Reilly, Jochen; Smith, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Achieving excellence is a current preoccupation in U.K. public health organisations. This article aims to use a case study to explain how a mental health trust delivers excellent performance using a balanced scorecard (BSC) management approach. Reports a project to implement a BSC approach in the South West Yorkshire Mental Health NHS Trust to achieve its "excellence" objectives. The authors were participants in the project. The design of the pilot project was informed theoretically by the work of Kaplan and Norton and practically by in-house discussions on a strategy to achieve excellence. Explains the process of building a BSC strategy step-by-step. Discusses how the vision and strategies of a mental health trust can be translated into tangible measures, which are the basis for actions that are driven strategically. There are many possibilities for a BSC management approach and this case study is specific to mental health trusts in the UK, although it is believed that the case has a universally applicable modus operandi. This article will help healthcare managers to evaluate the benefits of a BSC management approach. This article explains how actions can be structured in connection with a BSC management approach.

  5. Transformation properties of the effective action for gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otten, C.M.E.

    1978-01-01

    The main purpose of this thesis is to investigate the gauge invariance properties of the effective action. In fact, the Slavnov-Taylor identities for the effective action are nothing but a compact formulation of the gauge symmetry properties of the theory. Chapter II of this thesis focuses on the derivation of the Slavnov-Taylor identities for a general gauge theory, especially the identities for proper vertices. An analysis of the group- and invariance structure of the effective action is given, using both diagrammatic and functional techniques. Moreover, the Slavnov-Taylor identities are written out explicitely up to the order g 4 , where g is the coupling constant of the theory. The general theory outlined in chapter II is applied to an SU(2) model containing vector bosons, scalar particles and leptons. Specifically, the interplay between finite one-loop effects and the invariance structure of the model is studied in a certain limit (the so-called large Higgs mass limit). It is shown that the results can be fully interpreted on the basis of the Slavnov-Taylor identities for proper vertices. This is done in chapter III. (Auth.)

  6. Exploring multiple intelligences theory in the context of science education: An action research approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodnough, Karen Catherine

    2000-10-01

    Since the publication of Frames of Mind: The Theory in Practice, multiple intelligences, theory (Gardner, 1983) has been used by practitioners in a variety of ways to make teaching and learning more meaningful. However, little attention has been focused on exploring the potential of the theory for science teaching and learning. Consequently, this research study was designed to: (1) explore Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences (1983) and its merit for making science teaching and learning more meaningful; (2) provide a forum for teachers to engage in critical self-reflection about their theory and practice in science education; (3) study the process of action research in the context of science education; and (4) describe the effectiveness of collaborative action research as a framework for teacher development and curriculum development. The study reports on the experiences of four teachers (two elementary teachers, one junior high teacher, and one high school teacher) and myself, a university researcher-facilitator, as we participated in a collaborative action research project. The action research group held weekly meetings over a five-month period (January--May, 1999). The inquiry was a qualitative case study (Stake, 1994) that aimed to understand the perspectives of those directly involved. This was achieved by using multiple methods to collect data: audiotaped action research meetings, fieldnotes, semi-structured interviews, journal writing, and concept mapping. All data were analysed on an ongoing basis. Many positive outcomes resulted from the study in areas such as curriculum development, teacher development, and student learning in science. Through the process of action research, research participants became more reflective about their practice and thus, enhanced their pedagogical content knowledge (Shulman, 1987) in science. Students became more engaged in learning science, gained a greater understanding of how they learn, and experienced a

  7. Disarming the gunslinger effect: Reaction beats intention for cooperative actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Lisa; Kunde, Wilfried; Pfister, Roland

    2018-04-01

    According to the famous physicist Niels Bohr, gunfights at high noon in Western movies not only captivate the cinema audience but also provide an accurate illustration of a psychophysical law. He suggested that willed actions come with slower movement execution than reactions, and therefore that a film's hero is able to get the upper hand even though the villain normally draws first. A corresponding "gunslinger effect" has been substantiated by empirical studies. Because these studies used a markedly competitive setting, however, it is currently unclear whether the gunslinger effect indeed reflects structural differences between willed actions and reactive movements, or whether it is a by-product of the competitive setting. To obtain bullet-proof evidence for a true reactive advantage, we investigated willed and reactive movements during a cooperative interaction of two participants. A pronounced reactive advantage emerged, indicating that two independent systems indeed control willed and reactive movements.

  8. Hard thermal loops, static response, and the composite effective action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackiw, R.; Liu, Q.; Lucchesi, C.

    1994-01-01

    First, we investigate the static non-Abelian Kubo equation. We prove that it does not possess finite energy solutions; thereby we establish that gauge theories do not support hard thermal solitons. This general result is verified by a numerical solution of the equations. A similar argument shows that ''static'' instantons are absent. In addition, we note that the static equations reproduce the expected screening of the non-Abelian electric field by a gauge-invariant Debye mass m=gT √(N+N F /2)/3 . Second, we derive the non-Abelian Kubo equation from the composite effective action. This is achieved by showing that the requirement of stationarity of the composite effective action is equivalent, within a kinematical approximation scheme, to the condition of gauge invariance for the generating functional of hard thermal loops

  9. The effective action in Einstein-Maxwell theory

    OpenAIRE

    Bastianelli, Fiorenzo; Davila, Jose Manuel; Schubert, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Considerable work has been done on the one-loop effective action in combined electromagnetic and gravitational fields, particularly as a tool for determining the properties of light propagation in curved space. After a short review of previous work, I present some recent results obtained using the worldline formalism. In particular, I will discuss various ways of generalizing the QED Euler-Heisenberg Lagrangian to the Einstein-Maxwell case.

  10. Inspections - a cost effective approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, C.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes a cost effective approach for inspections of Computerized Nuclear Materials Control and Accounting Systems (CNMCAS). Highlighted is the capability to conduct an inspection program via portable telephone terminals from off-site locations. The program can be applied to various materials management functions including materials control, quality assurance, and materials accounting. The system is designed to facilitate inspections by both external and internal groups

  11. Effective actions for F-theory compactifications and tensor theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonetti, Federico

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis we study the low-energy effective dynamics emerging from a class of F-theory compactifications in four and six dimensions. We also investigate six-dimensional supersymmetric quantum field theories with self-dual tensors, motivated by the problem of describing the long-wavelength regime of a stack of M5-branes in M-theory. These setups share interesting common features. They both constitute examples of intrinsically non-perturbative physics. On the one hand, in the context of F-theory the non-perturbative character is encoded in the geometric formulation of this class of string vacua, which allows the complexified string coupling to vary in space. On the other hand, the dynamics of a stack of multiple M5-branes flows in the infrared to a novel kind of superconformal field theories in six dimensions - commonly referred to as (2,0) theories - that are expected to possess no perturbative weakly coupled regime and have resisted a complete understanding so far. In particular, no Lagrangian description is known for these models. The strategy we employ to address these two problems is also analogous. A recurring Leitmotif of our work is a transdimensional treatment of the system under examination: in order to extract information about dynamics in d dimensions we consider a (d-1)-dimensional setup. As far as F-theory compactifications are concerned, this is a consequence of the duality between M-theory and F-theory, which constitutes our main tool in the derivation of the effective action of F-theory compactifications. We apply it to six-dimensional F-theory vacua, obtained by taking the internal space to be an elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau threefold, but we also employ it to explore a novel kind of F-theory constructions in four dimensions based on manifolds with Spin(7) holonomy. With reference to six-dimensional (2,0) theories, the transdimensional character of our approach relies in the idea of studying these theories in five dimensions. Indeed, we

  12. Pain management for children with cerebral palsy in school settings in two cultures: action and reaction approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolfsson, Margareta; Johnson, Ensa; Nilsson, Stefan

    2017-05-18

    Children with cerebral palsy (CP) face particular challenges, e.g. daily pain that threaten their participation in school activities. This study focuses on how teachers, personal assistants, and clinicians in two countries with different cultural prerequisites, Sweden and South Africa, manage the pain of children in school settings. Participants' statements collected in focus groups were analysed using a directed qualitative content analysis framed by a Frequency of attendance-Intensity of involvement model, which was modified into a Knowing-Doing model. Findings indicated that pain management focused more on children's attendance in the classroom than on their involvement, and a difference between countries in terms of action-versus-reaction approaches. Swedish participants reported action strategies to prevent pain whereas South African participants primarily discussed interventions when observing a child in pain. Differences might be due to school- and healthcare systems. To provide effective support when children with CP are in pain in school settings, an action-and-reaction approach would be optimal and the use of alternative and augmentative communication strategies would help to communicate children's pain. As prevention of pain is desired, structured surveillance and treatment programs are recommended along with trustful collaboration with parents and access to "hands-on" pain management when needed. Implications for rehabilitation • When providing support, hands-on interventions should be supplemented by structured preventive programs and routines for parent collaboration (action-and-reaction approach). • When regulating support, Sweden and South Africa can learn from each other; ○ In Sweden, the implementation of a prevention program has been successful. ○ In South Africa, the possibilities giving support directly when pain in children is observed have been beneficial.

  13. Exercise habit strength, planning and the theory of planned behaviour: an action control approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruijn, G.-J.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Action control refers to the successful translation of intention into behaviour. The purpose of this study was to explore the potential usefulness of extending intention-exercise profiles with past exercise behaviour and exercise habit strength and the potential discriminative effect of

  14. Applying the reasoned action approach to understanding health protection and health risk behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Mark; McEachan, Rosemary; Lawton, Rebecca; Gardner, Peter

    2017-12-01

    The Reasoned Action Approach (RAA) developed out of the Theory of Reasoned Action and Theory of Planned Behavior but has not yet been widely applied to understanding health behaviors. The present research employed the RAA in a prospective design to test predictions of intention and action for groups of protection and risk behaviors separately in the same sample. To test the RAA for health protection and risk behaviors. Measures of RAA components plus past behavior were taken in relation to eight protection and six risk behaviors in 385 adults. Self-reported behavior was assessed one month later. Multi-level modelling showed instrumental attitude, experiential attitude, descriptive norms, capacity and past behavior were significant positive predictors of intentions to engage in protection or risk behaviors. Injunctive norms were only significant predictors of intention in protection behaviors. Autonomy was a significant positive predictor of intentions in protection behaviors and a negative predictor in risk behaviors (the latter relationship became non-significant when controlling for past behavior). Multi-level modelling showed that intention, capacity, and past behavior were significant positive predictors of action for both protection and risk behaviors. Experiential attitude and descriptive norm were additional significant positive predictors of risk behaviors. The RAA has utility in predicting both protection and risk health behaviors although the power of predictors may vary across these types of health behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Using the Psychology of Language to Effectively Communicate Actionable Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    The words used to articulate science can have as significant a psychological impact on public perception as the data itself. It is therefore essential to utilize language that not only accurately relates the scientific information, but also effectively conveys a message that is congruent with the presenter's motivation for expressing the data. This is especially relevant for environmental subjects that are surrounded by emotionally charged, political discourses. For example are terms like catastrophe and disaster; while these words may accurately illustrate impartial scientific data, they will likely trigger psychological responses in audiences such as fear or denial that have a detrimental impact on the human decision making process. I propose a set of 5 key principles to assist in communicating data to the general public that both support the transfer of ideas and the presenter's intended psychological impact. 1) Articulate the underlying intentions that motivate the communication of data in a transparent manner 2) Use language congruent with the presenter's stated intentions 3) Maintain a neutral, non-judgmental attitude towards the complex human psychological and emotional dynamics present in a target audience 4) Demonstrate acceptance and compassion when analyzing past and present human actions that adversely affect the environment 5) Develop a perspective of non-attachment when proposing future actions and/or consequences of current human behaviors. The application of these 5 principles provides a framework to move from our current understanding of problems and solutions to effective physical action that allows us to gracefully adapt with our ever changing planet.

  16. Action Research for Curriculum Development: An Alternative Approach in the Algerian Centralised Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikhlas GHERZOULI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Literature in the field of curriculum is debating the extent to which teachers should or could participate in the developmental process of the curriculum they enact. Being the practitioners, teachers are the ones who transmit theory into practice. However, they are not only consumers of curriculum knowledge, but also significant producers of it. Thus, teachers’ active participation as primary stakeholders in the curriculum development process is a necessity. The paper outlines one approach for teacher participation in curriculum development, which is action research. The main aim of this paper is twofold; first: it explores literature about ‘curriculum’, ‘curriculum development’ and ‘action research’; and second, it emphasizes the prominence of teachers’ involvement and research in curriculum development, paying specific attention to the Algerian secondary school educational reform, which is highly controlled and centralised.

  17. Facilitating Transformation and Competence Development in Sustainable Agriculture University Education: An Experiential and Action Oriented Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Migliorini

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The need to strengthen the connection between academia and society has received increased attention over the past years. The importance of bringing university students closer to stakeholders in society as part of their learning process is high regarding sustainable agriculture, because of its applied approach. University programs based on experiential and action-oriented learning have been developed over the past decades, but more knowledge is needed about the impact of these educational activities. In a short course in sustainable agriculture at the University of Gastronomic Sciences in Bra, Italy, we examined the impacts of experiential and action-oriented learning on competency development as well as transformational impacts on the students. We found that students improve on several core competences as a result of their participation in the short course, and also signs of deep transformational processes among the students.

  18. Systems-level mechanisms of action of Panax ginseng: a network pharmacological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sa-Yoon; Park, Ji-Hun; Kim, Hyo-Su; Lee, Choong-Yeol; Lee, Hae-Jeung; Kang, Ki Sung; Kim, Chang-Eop

    2018-01-01

    Panax ginseng has been used since ancient times based on the traditional Asian medicine theory and clinical experiences, and currently, is one of the most popular herbs in the world. To date, most of the studies concerning P. ginseng have focused on specific mechanisms of action of individual constituents. However, in spite of many studies on the molecular mechanisms of P. ginseng , it still remains unclear how multiple active ingredients of P. ginseng interact with multiple targets simultaneously, giving the multidimensional effects on various conditions and diseases. In order to decipher the systems-level mechanism of multiple ingredients of P. ginseng , a novel approach is needed beyond conventional reductive analysis. We aim to review the systems-level mechanism of P. ginseng by adopting novel analytical framework-network pharmacology. Here, we constructed a compound-target network of P. ginseng using experimentally validated and machine learning-based prediction results. The targets of the network were analyzed in terms of related biological process, pathways, and diseases. The majority of targets were found to be related with primary metabolic process, signal transduction, nitrogen compound metabolic process, blood circulation, immune system process, cell-cell signaling, biosynthetic process, and neurological system process. In pathway enrichment analysis of targets, mainly the terms related with neural activity showed significant enrichment and formed a cluster. Finally, relative degrees analysis for the target-disease association of P. ginseng revealed several categories of related diseases, including respiratory, psychiatric, and cardiovascular diseases.

  19. The Optimal Timing of Strategic Action – A Real Options Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon G. Sollars

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available he possibility of a first-mover advantage arises in a variety of strategic choices, including product introductions, business start-ups, and mergers and acquisitions. The strategic management literature reflects ambiguity regarding the likelihood that a first mover can or will capture additional value. This paper uses a real options approach to address the optimal timing of strategic moves. Previous studies have modeled real options using either a perpetual or a European financial option. With these models, a strategic choice could only be made either without respect to a time frame (perpetual or at a fixed point in time (European option. Neither case is realistic. Companies typically have strategic options with only a limited time frame due to market factors, but companies may choose to act at any time within that constraint. To reflect this reality, we adapt a method for valuing an American financial option on a dividend paying stock to the real options context. The method presented in this paper proposes a solution for the optimum value for a project that should trigger a strategic choice, and highlights the value lost by not acting optimally. We use simulation results to show that the time frame available to make a strategic choice has an important effect on both the project value for when action should be taken, as well as on the value of waiting to invest at the optimal time. The results presented in this paper help to clarify the ambiguity that is found in the strategic management literature regarding the possibility of obtaining a first-mover advantage. Indeed, a first mover that acts sub-optimally could incur losses or at least not gain any advantage. A first mover that waits to invest at the right time based on the superior information supplied by models based on real options could be better positioned to obtain the benefits that might come from the first move.

  20. Change of Direction Speed: Toward a Strength Training Approach with Accentuated Eccentric Muscle Actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaabene, Helmi; Prieske, Olaf; Negra, Yassine; Granacher, Urs

    2018-03-28

    There is growing evidence that eccentric strength training appears to have benefits over traditional strength training (i.e., strength training with combined concentric and eccentric muscle actions) from muscular, neuromuscular, tendinous, and metabolic perspectives. Eccentric muscle strength is particularly needed to decelerate and stabilize the body during the braking phase of a jump exercise or during rapid changes of direction (CoD) tasks. However, surprisingly little research has been conducted to elucidate the effects of eccentric strength training or strength training with accentuated eccentric muscle actions on CoD speed performance. In this current opinion article, we present findings from cross-sectional studies on the relationship between measures of eccentric muscle strength and CoD speed performance. In addition, we summarize the few available studies on the effects of strength training with accentuated eccentric muscle actions on CoD speed performance in athletic populations. Finally, we propose strength training with accentuated eccentric muscle actions as a promising element in strength and conditioning programs of sports with high CoD speed demands. Our findings from five cross-sectional studies revealed statistically significant moderate- to large-sized correlations (r = 0.45-0.89) between measures of eccentric muscle strength and CoD speed performance in athletic populations. The identified three intervention studies were of limited methodological quality and reported small- to large-sized effects (d = 0.46-1.31) of strength training with accentuated eccentric muscle actions on CoD speed performance in athletes. With reference to the available but preliminary literature and from a performance-related point of view, we recommend strength and conditioning coaches to include strength training with accentuated eccentric muscle actions in training routines of sports with high CoD speed demands (e.g., soccer, handball, basketball, hockey) to

  1. Advanced approaches to failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Vykydal

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The present paper explores advanced approaches to the FMEA method (Failure Mode and Effect Analysis which take into account the costs associated with occurrence of failures during the manufacture of a product. Different approaches are demonstrated using an example FMEA application to production of drawn wire. Their purpose is to determine risk levels, while taking account of the above-mentioned costs. Finally, the resulting priority levels are compared for developing actions mitigating the risks.

  2. Integrated Modeling Approach for the Development of Climate-Informed, Actionable Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Judi

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Flooding is a prevalent natural disaster with both short and long-term social, economic, and infrastructure impacts. Changes in intensity and frequency of precipitation (including rain, snow, and rain-on-snow events create challenges for the planning and management of resilient infrastructure and communities. While there is general acknowledgment that new infrastructure design should account for future climate change, no clear methods or actionable information are available to community planners and designers to ensure resilient designs considering an uncertain climate future. This research demonstrates an approach for an integrated, multi-model, and multi-scale simulation to evaluate future flood impacts. This research used regional climate projections to drive high-resolution hydrology and flood models to evaluate social, economic, and infrastructure resilience for the Snohomish Watershed, WA, USA. Using the proposed integrated modeling approach, the peaks of precipitation and streamflows were found to shift from spring and summer to the earlier winter season. Moreover, clear non-stationarities in future flood risk were discovered under various climate scenarios. This research provides a clear approach for the incorporation of climate science in flood resilience analysis and to also provides actionable information relative to the frequency and intensity of future precipitation events.

  3. Effect of metal complexation to anti-inflammatory over the action against oxidative and free radicals: ketoprofen action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manente, Francine Alessandra; Mello, Lucas Rosolen de Almeida; Vellosa, Jose Carlos Rebuglio; Khalil, Omar Arafat Kdudsi; Carvalho, Claudio Teodoro de; Bannach, Gilbert

    2011-01-01

    Free radicals are highly reactive species generated in living organisms for the purpose of protection. However, in some circumstances, they are responsible for the occurrence or aggravation of tissue damage. Many anti-inflammatory drugs have a direct effect on free radicals and not radical reactive species, which contributes to its actions against inflammation. Ketoprofen is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent that generates free radicals by photo irradiation and has an important hemolytic effect with that. The complexation of metals to different drugs has been used as a strategy to improve the pharmacological action of different molecules and reduce their side effects. This paper presents the results of ketoprofen and their metallic complexes action on erythrocytes and free radicals. It was observed that the cerium enhances the scavenger properties of ketoprofen on free radicals, while copper enhances its action over non-radical oxidants. Copper also reduced the hemolytic effect presented by ketoprofen meanwhile its cerium derivative maintained it. (author)

  4. Side effect of acting on the world: Acquisition of action-outcome statistic relation alters visual interpretation of action outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro eKawabe

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Humans can acquire the statistical features of the external world and employ them to control behaviors. Some external events occur in harmony with an agent’s action, and thus humans should also be able to acquire the statistical features between an action and its external outcome. We report that the acquired action-outcome statistical features alter the visual appearance of the action outcome. Pressing either of two assigned keys triggered visual motion whose direction was statistically biased either upward or downward, and observers judged the stimulus motion direction. Points of subjective equality (PSE for judging motion direction were shifted repulsively from the mean of the distribution associated with each key. Our Bayesian model accounted for the PSE shifts, indicating the optimal acquisition of the action-effect statistical relation. The PSE shifts were moderately attenuated when the action-outcome contingency was reduced. The Bayesian model again accounted for the attenuated PSE shifts. On the other hand, when the action-outcome contiguity was greatly reduced, the PSE shifts were greatly attenuated, and however, the Bayesian model could not accounted for the shifts. The results indicate that visual appearance can be modified by prediction based on the optimal acquisition of action-effect causal relation.

  5. Making connections to translate climate research into effective action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, K. J.; Niepold, F., III; Pierce, L.

    2016-12-01

    Climate change is strongly apparent at many scales and facets of the Earth system including glacier retreat, increased ocean acidity, altered meteorological patterns, and changing ecosystems. There is general recognition that a more strategic and coordinated response is needed to ameliorate these impacts on communities and to limit the global temperature increase to 1.5°C imposed by the 2015 Paris agreement. However, concrete plans to achieve these goals require actionable and specific guidance from the scientific community that is targeted for specific stakeholder groups within government agencies, industry, and individuals, while also supporting decision-makers plans and policies. This guidance depends on scientific advances that establish quantified predictions and minimize the levels of uncertainty. Although, these advances are ongoing; the decision maker, civil society organizations, and business and investor communities are not waiting for perfection. The urgency of taking action now has brought new approaches to the fore that try to bring the best available science into the business and decision making process. Combining a breadth of expertise, we highlight the specific transmission pathways of information needed for stakeholders, and it spans initial data collection and climate model construction, experimentation, analysis, synthesis of results, education, to government, communities, and business planning to reduce impacts and minimize additional human-caused contributions. We propose a multi-pathway relay along these paths. In one direction we encourage scientists to provide accessible and useable summary results with uncertainties to educators and stakeholders, who in turn need to collate results in a manner that enables interested parties to identify their specific mitigation action. In the other direction, stakeholders and shareholders are already requesting more comprehensive verification, validation, and active linkages to the way in which

  6. Applying the health action process approach (HAPA) to the choice of health products: An exploratory study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krutulyte, Rasa; Grunert, Klaus G.; Scholderer, Joachim

    This paper presents the results of a qualitative pilot study that aimed to uncovering Danish consumers' motives for choosing health food. Schwarzer's (1992) health action process approach (HAPA) was applied to understand the process by which people chose health products. The research focused...... on the role of the behavioural intention predictors such as risk perception, outcome expectations and self-efficacy. The model has been proved to be a useful framework for understanding consumer choosing health food and is substantial in the further application of dietary choice issues....

  7. Gas action effect of free piston Stirling engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mou, Jian; Li, Wei; Li, Jinze; Hong, Guotong

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The gas action effect is analyzed by the method of rotation vector decomposition. • Gas force can be decomposed into motivation force and spring or inertia force. • The optimal phase angles of displacements to pressure wave have been found. - Abstract: Gas action effect of free piston Stirling engine (FPSE) is very important to solve the key problem of start-up and find the way to increase its efficiency. The gas force is a key force to free FPSE. In this paper, the gas action effect has been analyzed by the method of rotation vector decomposition. It is found that the gas forces of piston and displacer can be decomposed into two forces, one component acts as motivation force resisting the damping force to output power, the other acts as spring force or inertia force according to the phase angle of pressure wave to displacements of the displacer and piston. Only when the motivation components of both piston and displacer resist their damping forces, will the FPSE be start-up and work stably. And only when the spring force is approximately equal to inertia force of piston, will the piston need the smallest gas spring force and nearly all the gas force be put for the alternator, meanwhile the engine outputs the maximum work. In the perfect condition, the optimal phase angle of the reciprocating movements of the displacer and piston ahead of the pressure wave are 180° and 90° respectively. The analyses above are verified by a series of experiments on a FPSE designed by our laboratory.

  8. The N=1 effective action of F-theory compactifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimm, Thomas W.

    2011-01-01

    The four-dimensional N=1 effective action of F-theory compactified on a Calabi-Yau fourfold is studied by lifting a three-dimensional M-theory compactification. The lift is performed by using T-duality realized via a Legendre transform on the level of the effective action, and the application of vector-scalar duality in three dimensions. The leading order Kaehler potential and gauge-kinetic coupling functions are determined. In these compactifications two sources of gauge theories are present. Space-time filling non-Abelian seven-branes arise at the singularities of the elliptic fibration of the fourfold. Their couplings are included by resolving the singular fourfold. Generically a U(1) r gauge theory arises from the R-R bulk sector if the base of the elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau fourfold supports 2r harmonic three-forms. The gauge coupling functions depend holomorphically on the complex structure moduli of the fourfold, comprising closed and open string degrees of freedom. The four-dimensional electro-magnetic duality is studied in the three-dimensional effective theory obtained after M-theory compactification. A discussion of matter couplings transforming in the adjoint of the seven-brane gauge group is included.

  9. Determination of Nerve Fiber Diameter Distribution From Compound Action Potential: A Continuous Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Un, M Kerem; Kaghazchi, Hamed

    2018-01-01

    When a signal is initiated in the nerve, it is transmitted along each nerve fiber via an action potential (called single fiber action potential (SFAP)) which travels with a velocity that is related with the diameter of the fiber. The additive superposition of SFAPs constitutes the compound action potential (CAP) of the nerve. The fiber diameter distribution (FDD) in the nerve can be computed from the CAP data by solving an inverse problem. This is usually achieved by dividing the fibers into a finite number of diameter groups and solve a corresponding linear system to optimize FDD. However, number of fibers in a nerve can be measured sometimes in thousands and it is possible to assume a continuous distribution for the fiber diameters which leads to a gradient optimization problem. In this paper, we have evaluated this continuous approach to the solution of the inverse problem. We have utilized an analytical function for SFAP and an assumed a polynomial form for FDD. The inverse problem involves the optimization of polynomial coefficients to obtain the best estimate for the FDD. We have observed that an eighth order polynomial for FDD can capture both unimodal and bimodal fiber distributions present in vivo, even in case of noisy CAP data. The assumed FDD distribution regularizes the ill-conditioned inverse problem and produces good results.

  10. Study of quality effects on radiobiological actions, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwanami, Shigeru; Nakazawa, Keiji; Matsubayashi, Takashi; Hashimoto, Shozo.

    1979-01-01

    In order to interpret the quality effects of high LET radiation on the radiobiological actions, the target theory formulated by Oda on basis of the microdose concept introduced by Rossi has been developed to express intertrack effect (cumulative effect) and intratrack effect (non-cumulative effect) separately. Analysis for the dose-survival relation by this theory have been discussed with comparison of those of Rossi or Bender. If the target for the intertrack effect was the same one for the intratrack effect, it was found in this theory that the contribution of the intertrack effect for the cell lethality was larger than that of the intratrack effect in the case of high LET radiation as well as in that of low LET ones. The survival rates of Escherichia coli B/r and B sub(s-1) irradiated with heavy ions such as He, C, N and O at 4 MeV/a.m.u. and neutrons at 1, 2 and 5 MeV were calculated with this theory. The results were in reasonable agreement with experimental ones. (author)

  11. [Hormonal (levonorgestrel) emergency contraception--effectiveness and mechanism of action].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medard, Lech M; Ostrowska, Lucyna

    2010-07-01

    Periodic abstinence and coitus interruptus are the most popular methods of contraception in Poland. Recent studies have provided us with evidence that the so-called "menstrual calendar" may be much less effective than it was believed. In these circumstances, promotion and use of safe and truly effective contraceptives is very important for Polish women. Emergency contraception (EC) is a method which could be used even in cases when other contraception methods have failed. Mechanism of action of levonorgestrel used for EC and possible disturbances in the process of implantation of the blastocyst in the endometrium, remain the source of heated discussion among medical professionals. The latest publications provide us with evidence that the use of levonorgestrel in EC neither alters endometrial receptivity nor impedes implantation. Hormonal EC effectiveness is another hot topic of gynecological endocrinology and statistics. There is, however, no better, safer, and more ethically accepted method of preventing unwanted pregnancy for patients in need of postcoital contraception.

  12. Effective action for the Regge processes in gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipatov, L.N. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2011-05-15

    It is shown, that the effective action for the reggeized graviton interactions can be formulated in terms of the reggeon fields A{sup ++} and A{sup --} and the metric tensor g{sub {mu}}{sub {nu}} in such a way, that it is local in the rapidity space and has the property of general covariance. The corresponding effective currents j{sup -} and j{sup +} satisfy the Hamilton-Jacobi equation for a massless particle moving in the gravitational field. These currents are calculated explicitly for the shock wave-like fields and a variation principle for them is formulated. As an application, we reproduce the effective lagrangian for the multi-regge processes in gravity together with the graviton Regge trajectory in the leading logarithmic approximation with taking into account supersymmetric contributions. (orig.)

  13. Effective action and the quantum equation of motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branchina, V.; Faivre, H.; Zappala, D.

    2004-01-01

    We carefully analyze the use of the effective action in dynamical problems, in particular the conditions under which the equation (δΓ)/(δφ) = 0 can be used as a quantum equation of motion and illustrate in detail the crucial relation between the asymptotic states involved in the definition of Γ and the initial state of the system. Also, by considering the quantum-mechanical example of a double-well potential, where we can get exact results for the time evolution of the system, we show that an approximation to the effective potential in the quantum equation of motion that correctly describes the dynamical evolution of the system is obtained with the help of the wilsonian RG equation (already at the lowest order of the derivative expansion), while the commonly used one-loop effective potential fails to reproduce the exact results. (orig.)

  14. Immunoregulatory action of melatonin. The mechanism of action and the effect on inflammatory cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Mańka

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Literature data indicate a significant immunoregulatory role of melatonin. Melatonin exerts an effect directly affecting leucocytes bearing specific melatonin receptors or indirectly by means of melatonin regulating other hormones, opioids or cytokines. Despite numerous experiments, the influence of the hormone on the immune system is still controversial. Melatonin affects the immune response acting as both an activator and an inhibitor of the inflammatory process. The hormone acts as an “immunological buffer” activating impaired immunity in immunosuppression, chronic stress or old age as well as suppressing overreaction of the immune system. Melatonin mediates between neurohormonal and immune systems by means of the immune-pineal axis acting as a negative feedback mechanism. The axis connects development of the immune reaction with pineal activity and melatonin secretion induced by inflammatory mediators. The seasonal and circadian fluctuation of the melatonin level and the fluctuation related changes of the immune parameters can be responsible for some autoimmune and infectious diseases. In spite of that, there is a growing number of papers suggesting considerable therapeutic potential of melatonin in inflammatory disease treatment. This paper presents well-systematized information on the mechanism of melatonin action and its influence on cells involved in the inflammatory process – neutrophils and monocytes.

  15. Hamilton-Jacobi approach for first order actions and theories with higher derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertin, M.C.; Pimentel, B.M.; Pompeia, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    In this work, we analyze systems described by Lagrangians with higher order derivatives in the context of the Hamilton-Jacobi formalism for first order actions. Two different approaches are studied here: the first one is analogous to the description of theories with higher derivatives in the hamiltonian formalism according to [D.M. Gitman, S.L. Lyakhovich, I.V. Tyutin, Soviet Phys. J. 26 (1983) 730; D.M. Gitman, I.V. Tyutin, Quantization of Fields with Constraints, Springer-Verlag, New York, Berlin, 1990] the second treats the case where degenerate coordinate are present, in an analogy to reference [D.M. Gitman, I.V. Tyutin, Nucl. Phys. B 630 (2002) 509]. Several examples are analyzed where a comparison between both approaches is made

  16. Wider action plan and multidisciplinar approach could be a wining idea in creation of friendly environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gojkovic-Bukvic, Natasa; Bukvic, Nenad

    2012-01-01

    Herein, we proposed planning of wide transdisciplinary actions, which bring a solution for economic activity such as transportation, strongly related to pollution output with possible repercussions on climate change and public health. To solve logistics problem by introduction of common intermodal policy, and creation of more friendly transport solution, it is possible to obtain sustainable development, climate change prevention, government policy, and regulation which are all related to human health and creation of health-supportive environment. This approach permits environmental and biological monitoring same as economic results measurement by key performance indicators. This approach implementing emerging scientific knowledge in environmental health science such as genetic epidemiology aimed at understanding how genomic variation impacts phenotypic expression and how genes interact with the environment at the population level with subsequent translation into practical information for clinicians as well as for public health policy creation.

  17. Experimental semiotics: a new approach for studying communication as a form of joint action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galantucci, Bruno

    2009-04-01

    In the last few years, researchers have begun to investigate the emergence of novel forms of human communication in the laboratory. I survey this growing line of research, which may be called experimental semiotics, from three distinct angles. First, I situate the new approach in its theoretical and historical context. Second, I review a sample of studies that exemplify experimental semiotics. Third, I present an empirical study that illustrates how the new approach can help us understand the socio-cognitive underpinnings of human communication. The main conclusion of the paper will be that, by reproducing micro samples of historical processes in the laboratory, experimental semiotics offers new powerful tools for investigating human communication as a form of joint action. Copyright © 2009 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  18. Wider Action Plan and Multidisciplinary Approach Could Be a Wining Idea in Creation of Friendly Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gojkovic-Bukvic, N.; Gojkovic-Bukvic, N.; Bukvic, N.

    2012-01-01

    Herein, we proposed planning of wide trans disciplinary actions, which bring a solution for economic activity such as transportation, strongly related to pollution output with possible repercussions on climate change and public health. To solve logistics problem by introduction of common inter modal policy, and creation of more friendly transport solution, it is possible to obtain sustainable development, climate change prevention, government policy, and regulation which are all related to human health and creation of health-supportive environment. This approach permits environmental and biological monitoring same as economic results measurement by key performance indicators. This approach implementing emerging scientific knowledge in environmental health science such as genetic epidemiology aimed at understanding how genomic variation impacts phenotypic expression and how genes interact with the environment at the population level with subsequent translation into practical information for clinicians as well as for public health policy creation

  19. To bind or not to bind? Different temporal binding effects from voluntary pressing and releasing actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ke; Chen, Yu-Hsin; Yan, Wen-Jing; Fu, Xiaolan

    2013-01-01

    Binding effect refers to the perceptual attraction between an action and an outcome leading to a subjective compression of time. Most studies investigating binding effects exclusively employ the "pressing" action without exploring other types of actions. The present study addresses this issue by introducing another action, releasing action or the voluntary lifting of the finger/wrist, to investigate the differences between voluntary pressing and releasing actions. Results reveal that releasing actions led to robust yet short-lived temporal binding effects, whereas pressing condition had steady temporal binding effects up to super-seconds. The two actions also differ in sensitivity to changes in temporal contiguity and contingency, which could be attributed to the difference in awareness of action. Extending upon current models of "willed action," our results provide insights from a temporal point of view and support the concept of a dual system consisting of predictive motor control and top-down mechanisms.

  20. Testing two principles of the Health Action Process Approach in individuals with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippke, Sonia; Plotnikoff, Ronald C

    2014-01-01

    The Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) proposes principles that can be translated into testable hypotheses. This is one of the first studies to have explicitly tested HAPA's first 2 principles, which are (1) health behavior change process can be subdivided into motivation and volition, and (2) volition can be grouped into intentional and action stages. The 3 stage groups are labeled preintenders, intenders, and actors. The hypotheses of the HAPA model were investigated in a sample of 1,193 individuals with Type 2 diabetes. Study participants completed a questionnaire assessing the HAPA variables. The hypotheses were evaluated by examining mean differences of test variables and by the use of multigroup structural equation modeling (MSEM). Findings support the HAPA's 2 principles and 3 distinct stages. The 3 HAPA stages were significantly different in several stage-specific variables, and discontinuity patterns were found in terms of nonlinear trends across means. In terms of predicting goals, action planning, and behavior, differences transpired between the 2 motivational stages (preintenders and intenders), and between the 2 volitional stages (intenders and actors). Results indicate implications for supporting behavior change processes, depending on in which stage a person is at: All individuals should be helped to increase self-efficacy. Preintenders and intenders require interventions targeting outcome expectancies. Actors benefit from an improvement in action planning to maintain and increase their previous behavior. Overall, the first 2 principles of the HAPA were supported and some evidence for the other principles was found. Future research should experimentally test these conclusions. 2014 APA, all rights reserved

  1. Location estimation of approaching objects is modulated by the observer's inherent and momentary action capabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kandula, Manasa; Hofman, Dennis; Dijkerman, H Chris

    2016-01-01

    Action capability may be one of the factors that can influence our percept of the world. A distinction can be made between momentary action capability (action capability at that particular moment) and inherent action capability (representing a stable action capability). In the current study, we

  2. Anticipation of delayed action-effects: learning when an effect occurs, without knowing what this effect will be.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dignath, David; Janczyk, Markus

    2017-09-01

    According to the ideomotor principle, behavior is controlled via a retrieval of the sensory consequences that will follow from the respective movement ("action-effects"). These consequences include not only what will happen, but also when something will happen. In fact, recollecting the temporal duration between response and effect takes time and prolongs the initiation of the response. We investigated the associative structure of action-effect learning with delayed effects and asked whether participants acquire integrated action-time-effect episodes that comprise a compound of all three elements or whether they acquire separate traces that connect actions to the time until an effect occurs and actions to the effects that follow them. In three experiments, results showed that participants retrieve temporal intervals that follow from their actions even when the identity of the effect could not be learned. Furthermore, retrieval of temporal intervals in isolation was not inferior to retrieval of temporal intervals that were consistently followed by predictable action-effects. More specifically, when tested under extinction, retrieval of action-time and action-identity associations seems to compete against each other, similar to overshadowing effects reported for stimulus-response conditioning. Together, these results suggest that people anticipate when the consequences of their action will occur, independently from what the consequences will be.

  3. Clemastine as Antimicrobial Agent: Effectiveness and Mechanism of Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Fazli Bazaz

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, the antimicrobial activity of Clemastine was studied.The Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs of this drug against some bacteria were determined using tube dilution method.To find out the bactericidal activity of Clemastine, the number of living bacteria in the presence of drug was counted by a culture method (pour plate method. Thereafter, the preservative effectiveness of Clemastine was studied in detail using standard method (USP 1985.The results show a good antibacterial but not antifungal activity."nIn considering the mechanism of action of Clemastine, it can be seen that the drug has some effect on cell membrane permeability and causes leakage of intracellular material including the K+ .Comparing the bactericidal results with the leakage of K+, shows that the leakage may be due to the bactericidal activity of the drug.

  4. Building Effective Collaboration in a Comprehensive Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Essens, P.J.M.D.; Thompson, M.T.; Karrasch, A.; Jermalavičius, J.

    2016-01-01

    The Comprehensive Approach (CA) to crisis management operations is an essential element in NATO’s transformation in modern operations. At the Bucharest Summit in April 2008, Allied leaders endorsed an Action Plan for the development and implementation of NATO’s contribution to a Comprehensive

  5. Brane classical and quantum cosmology from an effective action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seahra, Sanjeev S.; Sepangi, H.R.; Ponce de Leon, J.

    2003-01-01

    Motivated by the Randall-Sundrum braneworld scenario, we discuss the classical and quantum dynamics of a (d+1)-dimensional boundary wall between a pair of (d+2)-dimensional topological Schwarzschild-AdS black holes. We assume there are quite general--but not completely arbitrary--matter fields living on the boundary 'brane universe', and that its geometry is that of a Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) model. The effective action governing the model in the minisuperspace approximation is derived. We find that the presence of black hole horizons in the bulk gives rise to a complex action for certain classically allowed brane configurations, but that the imaginary contribution plays no role in the equations of motion. Classical and instanton brane trajectories are examined in general and for special cases, and we find a subset of configuration space that is not allowed at the classical or semiclassical level; this subset corresponds to spacelike branes carrying tachyonic matter. The Hamiltonization and Dirac quantization of the model is then performed for the general case; the latter involves the manipulation of the Hamiltonian constraint before it is transformed into an operator that annihilates physical state vectors. The ensuing covariant Wheeler-DeWitt equation is examined at the semiclassical level, and we consider the possible localization of the brane universe's wave function away from the cosmological singularity. This is easier to achieve for branes with low density and/or spherical spatial sections

  6. Brane classical and quantum cosmology from an effective action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seahra, Sanjeev S.; Sepangi, H. R.; Ponce de Leon, J.

    2003-09-01

    Motivated by the Randall-Sundrum braneworld scenario, we discuss the classical and quantum dynamics of a (d+1)-dimensional boundary wall between a pair of (d+2)-dimensional topological Schwarzschild-AdS black holes. We assume there are quite general—but not completely arbitrary—matter fields living on the boundary “brane universe,” and that its geometry is that of a Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) model. The effective action governing the model in the minisuperspace approximation is derived. We find that the presence of black hole horizons in the bulk gives rise to a complex action for certain classically allowed brane configurations, but that the imaginary contribution plays no role in the equations of motion. Classical and instanton brane trajectories are examined in general and for special cases, and we find a subset of configuration space that is not allowed at the classical or semiclassical level; this subset corresponds to spacelike branes carrying tachyonic matter. The Hamiltonization and Dirac quantization of the model is then performed for the general case; the latter involves the manipulation of the Hamiltonian constraint before it is transformed into an operator that annihilates physical state vectors. The ensuing covariant Wheeler-DeWitt equation is examined at the semiclassical level, and we consider the possible localization of the brane universe’s wave function away from the cosmological singularity. This is easier to achieve for branes with low density and/or spherical spatial sections.

  7. Applying the health action process approach to bicycle helmet use and evaluating a social marketing campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, Florian M; Smith, Jennifer; Piedt, Shannon; Turcotte, Kate; Pike, Ian

    2017-08-05

    Bicycle injuries are of concern in Canada. Since helmet use was mandated in 1996 in the province of British Columbia, Canada, use has increased and head injuries have decreased. Despite the law, many cyclists do not wear a helmet. Health action process approach (HAPA) model explains intention and behaviour with self-efficacy, risk perception, outcome expectancies and planning constructs. The present study examines the impact of a social marketing campaign on HAPA constructs in the context of bicycle helmet use. A questionnaire was administered to identify factors determining helmet use. Intention to obey the law, and perceived risk of being caught if not obeying the law were included as additional constructs. Path analysis was used to extract the strongest influences on intention and behaviour. The social marketing campaign was evaluated through t-test comparisons after propensity score matching and generalised linear modelling (GLM) were applied to adjust for the same covariates. 400 cyclists aged 25-54 years completed the questionnaire. Self-efficacy and Intention were most predictive of intention to wear a helmet, which, moderated by planning, strongly predicted behaviour. Perceived risk and outcome expectancies had no significant impact on intention. GLM showed that exposure to the campaign was significantly associated with higher values in self-efficacy, intention and bicycle helmet use. Self-efficacy and planning are important points of action for promoting helmet use. Social marketing campaigns that remind people of appropriate preventive action have an impact on behaviour. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. A Comprehensive Review on Handcrafted and Learning-Based Action Representation Approaches for Human Activity Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allah Bux Sargano

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Human activity recognition (HAR is an important research area in the fields of human perception and computer vision due to its wide range of applications. These applications include: intelligent video surveillance, ambient assisted living, human computer interaction, human-robot interaction, entertainment, and intelligent driving. Recently, with the emergence and successful deployment of deep learning techniques for image classification, researchers have migrated from traditional handcrafting to deep learning techniques for HAR. However, handcrafted representation-based approaches are still widely used due to some bottlenecks such as computational complexity of deep learning techniques for activity recognition. However, approaches based on handcrafted representation are not able to handle complex scenarios due to their limitations and incapability; therefore, resorting to deep learning-based techniques is a natural option. This review paper presents a comprehensive survey of both handcrafted and learning-based action representations, offering comparison, analysis, and discussions on these approaches. In addition to this, the well-known public datasets available for experimentations and important applications of HAR are also presented to provide further insight into the field. This is the first review paper of its kind which presents all these aspects of HAR in a single review article with comprehensive coverage of each part. Finally, the paper is concluded with important discussions and research directions in the domain of HAR.

  9. Zamolodchikov's c-theorem and string effective actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mavromatos, N.E.; Miramontes, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    Zamolodchikov's c-theorem for 2D renormalisable field theories is presented in a way which allows for a straightforward application to the case of bosonic σ-models. As a consistency check in the latter case, the Curci-Paffuti relation is rederived. It is also shown that the 'metric' in coupling constant space in this case is a c-number function of the backgrounds. Attempts to derive off-shell functional relations between the Weyl anomaly coefficients and field variations of string effective actions, compatible with the c-theorem, are discussed by emphasising the necessity of performing explicit perturbative calculations in order to arrive at definite conclusions. Comments concerning the extension of the c-theorem to the case of supersymmetric and heterotic σ-models are also made. (orig.)

  10. The effective action of a BPS Alice string

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatterjee, Chandrasekhar; Nitta, Muneto [Keio University, Department of Physics, and Research and Education Center for Natural Sciences, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2017-11-15

    Recently a BPS Alice string has been found in a U(1) x SO(3) gauge theory coupled with three charged complex scalar fields in the triplet representation (in JHEP 1709:046 arXiv:1703.08971 [hep-th], 2017). It is a half BPS state preserving a half of the supercharges when embedded into a supersymmetric gauge theory. In this paper, we study zero modes of a BPS Alice string. After presenting U(1) and translational zero modes, we construct the effective action of these modes. In contrast to a previous analysis of the conventional Alice string for which only large distance behaviors are known, we can exactly perform a calculation in the full space thanks to the BPS properties. (orig.)

  11. One-loop effective actions and higher spins. Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonora, L.; Cvitan, M.; Prester, P. Dominis; Giaccari, S.; Štemberga, T.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we continue and improve the analysis of the effective actions obtained by integrating out a scalar and a fermion field coupled to external symmetric sources, started in the previous paper. The first subject we study is the geometrization of the results obtained there, that is we express them in terms of covariant Jacobi tensors. The second subject concerns the treatment of tadpoles and seagull terms in order to implement off-shell covariance in the initial model. The last and by far largest part of the paper is a repository of results concerning all two point correlators (including mixed ones) of symmetric currents of any spin up to 5 and in any dimensions between 3 and 6. In the massless case we also provide formulas for any spin in any dimension.

  12. On non-BPS effective actions of string theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatefi, Ehsan

    2018-05-01

    We discuss some physical prospective of the non-BPS effective actions of type IIA and IIB superstring theories. By dealing with all complete three and four point functions, including a closed Ramond-Ramond string (in terms of both its field strength and its potential), gauge (scalar) fields as well as a real tachyon and under symmetry structures, we find various restricted world volume and bulk Bianchi identities. The complete forms of the non-BPS scattering amplitudes including their Chan-Paton factors are elaborated. All the singularity structures of the non-BPS amplitudes, their all order α ' higher-derivative corrections, their contact terms and various modified Bianchi identities are derived. Finally, we show that scattering amplitudes computed in different super-ghost pictures are compatible when suitable Bianchi identities are imposed on the Ramond-Ramond fields. Moreover, we argue that the higher-derivative expansion in powers of the momenta of the tachyon is universal.

  13. Geometric low-energy effective action in a doubled spacetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chen-Te; Pezzella, Franco

    2018-05-01

    The ten-dimensional supergravity theory is a geometric low-energy effective theory and the equations of motion for its fields can be obtained from string theory by computing β functions. With d compact dimensions, an O (d , d ; Z) geometric structure can be added to it giving the supergravity theory with T-duality manifest. In this paper, this is constructed through the use of a suitable star product whose role is the one to implement the weak constraint on the fields and the gauge parameters in order to have a closed gauge symmetry algebra. The consistency of the action here proposed is based on the orthogonality of the momenta associated with fields in their triple star products in the cubic terms defined for d ≥ 1. This orthogonality holds also for an arbitrary number of star products of fields for d = 1. Finally, we extend our analysis to the double sigma model, non-commutative geometry and open string theory.

  14. A Unified Approach to the Recognition of Complex Actions from Sequences of Zone-Crossings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanromà, G.; Patino, L.; Burghouts, G.J.; Schutte, K.; Ferryman, J.

    2014-01-01

    We present a method for the recognition of complex actions. Our method combines automatic learning of simple actions and manual definition of complex actions in a single grammar. Contrary to the general trend in complex action recognition, that consists in dividing recognition into two stages, our

  15. Person-centred Leadership: a relational approach to leadership derived through action research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardiff, Shaun; McCormack, Brendan; McCance, Tanya

    2018-04-21

    How does person-centred leadership manifest in clinical nursing. Person-centred practice fosters healthful relationships and is gaining increasing attention in nursing and healthcare, but nothing is known about the influence of a person-centred approach to leadership practice. Most leadership models used in nursing were originally developed outside of nursing. A three year participatory action research study where participant leaders planned, researched and learned from their practice development. After an orientation phase, four action spirals focused on: critical and creative reflective inquiries into leadership practice change; leading the implementation and evaluation of a new nursing system; facilitating storytelling sessions with staff and annually reflecting on personal leadership change. Multiple data gathering methods offered insight into leadership development from several perspectives. Critical and creative thematic data analysis revealed a set of attributes, relational processes and contextual factors that influenced the being and becoming of a person-centred leader. Comparing the findings with nursing leadership literature supports a conceptual framework for person-centred leadership. Person-centred leadership is a complex, dynamic, relational and contextualised practice that aims to enable associates and leaders achieve self-actualisation, empowerment and wellbeing. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Risk newsboy: approach for addressing uncertainty in developing action levels and cleanup limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooke, Roger; MacDonell, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    Site cleanup decisions involve developing action levels and residual limits for key contaminants, to assure health protection during the cleanup period and into the long term. Uncertainty is inherent in the toxicity information used to define these levels, based on incomplete scientific knowledge regarding dose-response relationships across various hazards and exposures at environmentally relevant levels. This problem can be addressed by applying principles used to manage uncertainty in operations research, as illustrated by the newsboy dilemma. Each day a newsboy must balance the risk of buying more papers than he can sell against the risk of not buying enough. Setting action levels and cleanup limits involves a similar concept of balancing and distributing risks and benefits in the face of uncertainty. The newsboy approach can be applied to develop health-based target concentrations for both radiological and chemical contaminants, with stakeholder input being crucial to assessing 'regret' levels. Associated tools include structured expert judgment elicitation to quantify uncertainty in the dose-response relationship, and mathematical techniques such as probabilistic inversion and iterative proportional fitting. (authors)

  17. A review of ideomotor approaches to perception, cognition, action, and language: advancing a cultural recycling hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badets, Arnaud; Koch, Iring; Philipp, Andrea M

    2016-01-01

    The term "cultural recycling" derives from the neuronal recycling hypothesis, which suggests that representations of cultural inventions like written words, Arabic numbers, or tools can occupy brain areas dedicated to other functions. In the present selective review article, we propose a recycling hypothesis for the ideomotor mechanism. The ideomotor approach assumes that motor actions are controlled by the anticipation of the expected perceptual consequences that they aim to generate in the environment. Arguably, such action-perception mechanisms contribute to motor behaviour for human and non-human animals since millions of years. However, recent empirical studies suggest that the ideomotor mechanism can also contribute to word processing, number representation, and arithmetic. For instance, it has been shown that the anticipatory simulation of abstract semantics, like the numerical quantitative value of three items can prime processing of the associated Arabic number "3". Arabic numbers, words, or tools represent cultural inventions, so that, from a theoretical perspective, we suggest an ideomotor recycling hypothesis for the interaction with such artefacts. In this view, the ideomotor mechanism spreads its influence to other functions beyond motor control, and is recycled to flexibly adapt different human behaviours towards dealing with more abstract concepts.

  18. Ward Identities for the 2PI effective action in QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinosa, Urko; Serreau, Julien

    2007-01-01

    We study the issue of symmetries and associated Ward-like identities in the context of two-particle-irreducible (2PI) functional techniques for abelian gauge theories. In the 2PI framework, the n-point proper vertices of the theory can be obtained in various different ways which, although equivalent in the exact theory, differ in general at finite approximation order. We derive generalized (2PI) Ward identities for these various n-point functions and show that such identities are exactly satisfied at any approximation order in 2PI QED. In particular, we show that 2PI-resummed vertex functions, i.e. field-derivatives of the so-called 2PI-resummed effective action, exactly satisfy standard Ward identities. We identify another set of n-point functions in the 2PI framework which exactly satisfy the standard Ward identities at any approximation order. These are obtained as field-derivatives of the two-point function φ, which defines the extremum of the 2PI effective action. We point out that the latter is not constrained by the underlying symmetry. As a consequence, the well-known fact that the corresponding gauge-field polarization tensor is not transverse in momentum space for generic approximations does not constitute a violation of (2PI) Ward identities. More generally, our analysis demonstrates that approximation schemes based on 2PI functional techniques respect all the Ward identities associated with the underlying abelian gauge symmetry. Our results apply to arbitrary linearly realized global symmetries as well

  19. Distributed representations of action sequences in anterior cingulate cortex: A recurrent neural network approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahnazian, Danesh; Holroyd, Clay B

    2018-02-01

    Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) has been the subject of intense debate over the past 2 decades, but its specific computational function remains controversial. Here we present a simple computational model of ACC that incorporates distributed representations across a network of interconnected processing units. Based on the proposal that ACC is concerned with the execution of extended, goal-directed action sequences, we trained a recurrent neural network to predict each successive step of several sequences associated with multiple tasks. In keeping with neurophysiological observations from nonhuman animals, the network yields distributed patterns of activity across ACC neurons that track the progression of each sequence, and in keeping with human neuroimaging data, the network produces discrepancy signals when any step of the sequence deviates from the predicted step. These simulations illustrate a novel approach for investigating ACC function.

  20. EVALUATING THE TARGET, EFFECT, ACTION INTERACTION (TEA MODEL OF SPINAL MANIPULATION THERAPY ON SACROILIAC JOINT DYSFUNCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Salman Bashir

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: In physical therapy, usually the effects of treatment on any condition will be evaluated based on the mode of action on the target tissue. Some treatments will have direct and indirect effects. Due to indirect effects, there may be changes in other tissues or systems in and around the target tissue. The interaction between target, effect, and action was studied under TEA model. In sacroiliac joint dysfunction, Muscle Energy Technique (MET and Spinal Manipulation Therapy (SMT were proved as useful treatment approaches but one is targeted on muscles (MET the other targets on joint (SMT. The indirect effects of both the approaches can’t be neglected. This study focused on evaluating indirect effects of SMT. Methods: A pilot study was conducted to see the effect of Spinal Manipulation Therapy on muscles (Transverse Abdominus, Internal Oblique when applied in patients with sacroiliac joint dysfunction. 44 subjects diagnosed with sacroiliac joint dysfunction were recruited in the study. Resting thickness was measured by ultrasound before and after Spinal Manipulation Therapy. SPSS version 17 was used for statistical analysis. Paired t-test compared pre and post test results. Results: After conducting Pilot study revealed that Pre resting thickness of Transverse Abdominus and Internal Oblique is (3.5±0.10 and (5.47± 0.15 Post resting Thickness of TrA (Transverse Abdominus and Internal Oblique (IO is (3.90±0.12 and (7.63±0.80 Results are significant as P-Value 0.000 that is <0.05. Conclusion: Here is concluded that SMT is a useful method to treat muscles through its direct action is on the Sacroiliac joint in Sacroiliac joint dysfunction. So we can use it for treating muscles by applying on joints (Indirect method.

  1. Mechanisms of action of sacubitril/valsartan on cardiac remodeling: a systems biology approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iborra-Egea, Oriol; Gálvez-Montón, Carolina; Roura, Santiago; Perea-Gil, Isaac; Prat-Vidal, Cristina; Soler-Botija, Carolina; Bayes-Genis, Antoni

    2017-01-01

    Sacubitril/Valsartan, proved superiority over other conventional heart failure management treatments, but its mechanisms of action remains obscure. In this study, we sought to explore the mechanistic details for Sacubitril/Valsartan in heart failure and post-myocardial infarction remodeling, using an in silico, systems biology approach. Myocardial transcriptome obtained in response to myocardial infarction in swine was analyzed to address post-infarction ventricular remodeling. Swine transcriptome hits were mapped to their human equivalents using Reciprocal Best (blast) Hits, Gene Name Correspondence, and InParanoid database. Heart failure remodeling was studied using public data available in gene expression omnibus (accession GSE57345, subseries GSE57338), processed using the GEO2R tool. Using the Therapeutic Performance Mapping System technology, dedicated mathematical models trained to fit a set of molecular criteria, defining both pathologies and including all the information available on Sacubitril/Valsartan, were generated. All relationships incorporated into the biological network were drawn from public resources (including KEGG, REACTOME, INTACT, BIOGRID, and MINT). An artificial neural network analysis revealed that Sacubitril/Valsartan acts synergistically against cardiomyocyte cell death and left ventricular extracellular matrix remodeling via eight principal synergistic nodes. When studying each pathway independently, Valsartan was found to improve cardiac remodeling by inhibiting members of the guanine nucleotide-binding protein family, while Sacubitril attenuated cardiomyocyte cell death, hypertrophy, and impaired myocyte contractility by inhibiting PTEN. The complex molecular mechanisms of action of Sacubitril/Valsartan upon post-myocardial infarction and heart failure cardiac remodeling were delineated using a systems biology approach. Further, this dataset provides pathophysiological rationale for the use of Sacubitril/Valsartan to prevent post

  2. Implementation of Health Action Process Approach to Improve Dietary Adherence in Type 2 Diabetic Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusnanto Kusnanto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Type 2 diabetic patients usually unsuccessful to follow the diet recommendation due to lack of motivation, memory and intention. This study attempts to increase the motivation and also to improve intention in dietary adherence through the implementation of Health Action Process Approach (HAPA. Method: This study was a quasy-experiment. The population were type 2 diabetic patients in Puskesmas Krian Sidoarjo in March-April 2015. Respondents were only 16 and had been divided into experiment and control group. The independent variable was the implementation of HAPA. The dependent variable were self-efficacy, dietary adherence and blood sugar levels. The instruments in this study were questionnaires and blood sugar monitoring devices. Data were analyzed using statistical wilcoxon sign rank test and mann whitney u  test with significance level α ≤ 0.05. Result: Wilcoxon sign rank test showed there were differences between pre and post test significantly on self-efficacy (p=0.014, dietary adherence  (p=0.025, blood sugar levels (p=0.009 in  experiment group, while no significant differences in control group. Mann Witney U test showed that there was significant difference on dietary adherence (p=0.002 between two groups. Discussion: In conclusion, the implementation of HAPA can improve dietary adherence in type 2 diabetic patient. Further, following studies are expected with large number respondents and identify the whole variables in the HAPA theory. Keywords: Health Action Process Approach (HAPA, self efficacy, dietary adherence, blood glucose, Diabetes Mellitus (DM

  3. Effects of aging on action-intentional programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoraka, Ali R; Otzel, Dana M; M Zilli, Eduardo; Finney, Glen R; Doty, Leilani; Falchook, Adam D; Heilman, Kenneth M

    2018-03-01

    Action-intentional programs control "when" we initiate, inhibit, continue, and stop motor actions. The purpose of this study was to learn if there are changes in the action-intentional system with healthy aging, and if these changes are asymmetrical (right versus left upper limb) or related to impaired interhemispheric communication. We administered tests of action-intention to 41 middle-aged and older adults (61.9 ± 12.3 years). Regression analyses revealed that older age predicted a decrement in performance for tests of crossed motor response inhibition as well as slower motor initiation with the left hand. Changes in action-intention with aging appear to be related to alterations of interhemispheric communication and/or age-related right hemisphere dysfunction; however, further research is needed to identify the mechanisms for age-related changes in the brain networks that mediate action-intention.

  4. Scales, strategies and actions for effective energy planning: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasimeni, Maria Rita; Petrosillo, Irene; Aretano, Roberta; Semeraro, Teodoro; De Marco, Antonella; Zaccarelli, Nicola; Zurlini, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    This paper is a review of the most recent literature on the interaction between climate change, land-use and energy, based on the analysis of papers collected through the most relevant scientific literature databases. A total of 114 papers published between 2000 and 2011 were reviewed. The aims of this review are: in general (1) to identify the different research topics that have been developed related to the interaction between climate change, land-use and energy; more specifically, (2) to analyze what are the most suitable spatial and temporal scales of investigation to focus on for actions and strategies to reduce critical issues in the field of energy and environment; (3) to identify which actions and strategies are deemed as the most appropriate to mitigate critical issues in energy and environment; and given the research gaps found in the review, (4) to propose research recommendations in the context of effective climate-energy planning. We argue that there are certain gaps and needs for a “nested” environmental governance. It is necessary to understand how different environmental policies overlap and how they can be integrated in order to verify whether there are conflicting targets that may negate each other in the long term. - Highlights: • Energy production and consumption can directly or indirectly affect climate change. • Energy sector is influenced directly and indirectly by changes in climate conditions. • Energy sector and climate change affect and limit alternative uses of land, causing land-use changes. • The most suitable spatial scale for energy planning is the municipal level requiring short-term perspectives. • Several research recommendations to deal with the complexity of energy-land-use-climate change issue are proposed

  5. A dynamic texture-based approach to recognition of facial actions and their temporal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelstra, Sander; Pantic, Maja; Patras, Ioannis

    2010-11-01

    In this work, we propose a dynamic texture-based approach to the recognition of facial Action Units (AUs, atomic facial gestures) and their temporal models (i.e., sequences of temporal segments: neutral, onset, apex, and offset) in near-frontal-view face videos. Two approaches to modeling the dynamics and the appearance in the face region of an input video are compared: an extended version of Motion History Images and a novel method based on Nonrigid Registration using Free-Form Deformations (FFDs). The extracted motion representation is used to derive motion orientation histogram descriptors in both the spatial and temporal domain. Per AU, a combination of discriminative, frame-based GentleBoost ensemble learners and dynamic, generative Hidden Markov Models detects the presence of the AU in question and its temporal segments in an input image sequence. When tested for recognition of all 27 lower and upper face AUs, occurring alone or in combination in 264 sequences from the MMI facial expression database, the proposed method achieved an average event recognition accuracy of 89.2 percent for the MHI method and 94.3 percent for the FFD method. The generalization performance of the FFD method has been tested using the Cohn-Kanade database. Finally, we also explored the performance on spontaneous expressions in the Sensitive Artificial Listener data set.

  6. Wong's equations and the small x effective action in QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jalilian-Marian, Jamal; Jeon, Sangyong; Venugopalan, Raju

    2000-07-13

    We propose a new form for the small x effective action in QCD. This form of the effective action is motivated by Wong's equations for classical, colored particles in non-Abelian background fields. We show that the BFKL equation, which sums leading logarithms in x, is efficiently reproduced with this form of the action. We argue that this form of the action may be particularly useful in computing next-to-leading-order results in QCD at small x.

  7. A computational approach to analyze the mechanism of action of the kinase inhibitor bafetinib.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R Burkard

    Full Text Available Prediction of drug action in human cells is a major challenge in biomedical research. Additionally, there is strong interest in finding new applications for approved drugs and identifying potential side effects. We present a computational strategy to predict mechanisms, risks and potential new domains of drug treatment on the basis of target profiles acquired through chemical proteomics. Functional protein-protein interaction networks that share one biological function are constructed and their crosstalk with the drug is scored regarding function disruption. We apply this procedure to the target profile of the second-generation BCR-ABL inhibitor bafetinib which is in development for the treatment of imatinib-resistant chronic myeloid leukemia. Beside the well known effect on apoptosis, we propose potential treatment of lung cancer and IGF1R expressing blast crisis.

  8. The relationship between action-effect monitoring and attention capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Neeraj; Manjaly, Jaison A; Sunny, Meera Mary

    2015-02-01

    Many recent findings suggest that stimuli that are perceived to be the consequence of one's own actions are processed with priority. According to the preactivation account of intentional binding, predicted consequences are preactivated and hence receive a temporal advantage in processing. The implications of the preactivation account are important for theories of attention capture, as temporal advantage often translates to attention capture. Hence, action might modulate attention capture by feature singletons. Experiment 1 showed that a motion onset and color change captured attention only when it was preceded by an action. Experiment 2 showed that the capture occurs only with predictable, but not with unpredictable, consequences of action. Experiment 3 showed that even when half the display changed color at display transition, they were all prioritized. The results suggest that action modulates attentional control.

  9. A mode-of-action approach for the identification of genotoxic carcinogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lya G Hernández

    Full Text Available Distinguishing between clastogens and aneugens is vital in cancer risk assessment because the default assumption is that clastogens and aneugens have linear and non-linear dose-response curves, respectively. Any observed non-linearity must be supported by mode of action (MOA analyses where biological mechanisms are linked with dose-response evaluations. For aneugens, the MOA has been well characterised as disruptors of mitotic machinery where chromosome loss via micronuclei (MN formation is an accepted endpoint used in risk assessment. In this study we performed the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay and immunofluorescence mitotic machinery visualisation in human lymphoblastoid (AHH-1 and Chinese Hamster fibroblast (V79 cell lines after treatment with the aneugen 17-β-oestradiol (E₂. Results were compared to previously published data on bisphenol-A (BPA and Rotenone data. Two concentration-response approaches (the threshold-[Td] and benchmark-dose [BMD] approaches were applied to derive a point of departure (POD for in vitro MN induction. BMDs were also derived from the most sensitive carcinogenic endpoint. Ranking comparisons of the PODs from the in vitro MN and the carcinogenicity studies demonstrated a link between these two endpoints for BPA, E₂ and Rotenone. This analysis was extended to include 5 additional aneugens, 5 clastogens and 3 mutagens and further concentration and dose-response correlations were observed between PODs from the in vitro MN and carcinogenicity. This approach is promising and may be further extended to other genotoxic carcinogens, where MOA and quantitative information from the in vitro MN studies could be used in a quantitative manner to further inform cancer risk assessment.

  10. The quantitation of buffering action II. Applications of the formal & general approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Bernhard M

    2005-01-01

    Background The paradigm of "buffering" originated in acid-base physiology, but was subsequently extended to other fields and is now used for a wide and diverse set of phenomena. In the preceding article, we have presented a formal and general approach to the quantitation of buffering action. Here, we use that buffering concept for a systematic treatment of selected classical and other buffering phenomena. Results H+ buffering by weak acids and "self-buffering" in pure water represent "conservative buffered systems" whose analysis reveals buffering properties that contrast in important aspects from classical textbook descriptions. The buffering of organ perfusion in the face of variable perfusion pressure (also termed "autoregulation") can be treated in terms of "non-conservative buffered systems", the general form of the concept. For the analysis of cytoplasmic Ca++ concentration transients (also termed "muffling"), we develop a related unit that is able to faithfully reflect the time-dependent quantitative aspect of buffering during the pre-steady state period. Steady-state buffering is shown to represent the limiting case of time-dependent muffling, namely for infinitely long time intervals and infinitely small perturbations. Finally, our buffering concept provides a stringent definition of "buffering" on the level of systems and control theory, resulting in four absolute ratio scales for control performance that are suited to measure disturbance rejection and setpoint tracking, and both their static and dynamic aspects. Conclusion Our concept of buffering provides a powerful mathematical tool for the quantitation of buffering action in all its appearances. PMID:15771784

  11. Moduli effective action in warped brane-world compactifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garriga, Jaume; Pujolas, Oriol; Tanaka, Takahiro

    2003-01-01

    We consider a class of 5D brane-world solutions with a power-law warp factor a(y)∝y q , and bulk dilaton with profile phi∝lny, where y is the proper distance in the extra dimension. This class includes the heterotic M-theory brane-world of [Phys. Rev. D 59 (1999) 086001, and] and the Randall-Sundrum (RS) model as a limiting case. In general, there are two moduli fields y ± , corresponding to the 'positions' of two branes (which live at the fixed points of an orbifold compactification). Classically, the moduli are massless, due to a scaling symmetry of the action. However, in the absence of supersymmetry, they develop an effective potential at one loop. Local terms proportional to K ± 4 , where K ± =q/y ± is the local curvature scale at the location of the corresponding brane, are needed in order to remove the divergences in the effective potential. Such terms break the scaling symmetry and hence they may act as stabilizers for the moduli. When the branes are very close to each other, the effective potential induced by massless bulk fields behaves like V∼d -4 , where d is the separation between branes. When the branes are widely separated, the potentials for each one of the moduli generically develop a 'Coleman-Weinberg'-type behaviour of the form a 4 (y ± )K ± 4 ln(K ± /μ ± ), where μ ± are renormalization scales. In the RS case, the bulk geometry is AdS and K ± are equal to a constant, independent of the position of the branes, so these terms do not contribute to the mass of the moduli. However, for generic warp factor, they provide a simple stabilization mechanism. For q > or approx. 10, the observed hierarchy can be naturally generated by this potential, giving the lightest modulus a mass of order m - < or approx. TeV

  12. An Organ System Approach to Explore the Antioxidative, Anti-Inflammatory, and Cytoprotective Actions of Resveratrol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bath, Sundeep

    2015-01-01

    Resveratrol is a phenolic phytochemical, with a stilbene backbone, derived from edible plants such as grape and peanut. It is a bioactive molecule with physiological effects on multiple organ systems. Its effects range from the neuroprotective to the nephroprotective, including cardiovascular, neuronal, and antineoplastic responses as a part of its broad spectrum of action. In this review, we examine the effects of resveratrol on the following organ systems: the central nervous system, including neurological pathology such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease; the cardiovascular system, including disorders such as atherosclerosis, ischemia-reperfusion injury, and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy; the kidneys, including primary and secondary nephropathies and nephrolithiasis; multiple forms of cancer; and metabolic syndromes including diabetes. We emphasize commonalities in extracellular matrix protein alterations and intracellular signal transduction system induction following resveratrol treatment. We summarize the known anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and cytoprotective effects of resveratrol across disparate organ systems. Additionally, we analyze the available literature regarding the pharmacokinetics of resveratrol formulations used in these studies. Finally, we critically examine select clinical trials documenting a lack of effect following resveratrol treatment. PMID:26180596

  13. Effects of action video game training on visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacker, Kara J; Curby, Kim M; Klobusicky, Elizabeth; Chein, Jason M

    2014-10-01

    The ability to hold visual information in mind over a brief delay is critical for acquiring information and navigating a complex visual world. Despite the ubiquitous nature of visual working memory (VWM) in our everyday lives, this system is fundamentally limited in capacity. Therefore, the potential to improve VWM through training is a growing area of research. An emerging body of literature suggests that extensive experience playing action video games yields a myriad of perceptual and attentional benefits. Several lines of converging work suggest that action video game play may influence VWM as well. The current study utilized a training paradigm to examine whether action video games cause improvements to the quantity and/or the quality of information stored in VWM. The results suggest that VWM capacity, as measured by a change detection task, is increased after action video game training, as compared with training on a control game, and that some improvement to VWM precision occurs with action game training as well. However, these findings do not appear to extend to a complex span measure of VWM, which is often thought to tap into higher-order executive skills. The VWM improvements seen in individuals trained on an action video game cannot be accounted for by differences in motivation or engagement, differential expectations, or baseline differences in demographics as compared with the control group used. In sum, action video game training represents a potentially unique and engaging platform by which this severely capacity-limited VWM system might be enhanced.

  14. Regulation of international energy markets: Economic effects of political actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbakova, Anastasia V.

    Recent increases in volatility of energy prices have led many governments to reevaluate their regard of national energy reserves and reconsider future exploration, production, and consumption patterns. The flurry of activity that has been generated by such price volatility has included large-scale nationalizations of energy sectors, unilateral renegotiations of foreign energy development contracts, and expropriations of resources from foreign energy firms on one hand, and on the other hand more rapid energy sector liberalization, intensified search for and development of renewable fuels and technologies, and development of incentives for increased energy efficiency and conservation. The aim of this dissertation is to examine and quantify the extent of positive and negative effects that have resulted from some of these activities. The first chapter focuses on quantifying the effect that nationalistic sentiment has had on economic attractiveness of energy sectors during the decade prior to the recent global economic crisis, as measured by foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows. Empirical results demonstrate that both political and economic conditions play an important role in investors' decisions. A combination of investment friendliness, corruption levels, and democracy all help to explain the trends in energy-sector investment levels over time in my sample countries, although differences in the types of corruption existing in these nations do not. Investment levels, in turn, appear to influence future levels of oil production, underscoring the significance of good investment policies for future success of energy sectors. Chapter two considers the response of energy stock prices to severe regulatory actions. It employs an event study framework to examine causal effects of critical informational announcements (i.e. events of expropriation and nationalization) on daily returns and cumulative losses in firm value of energy corporations. Results show that a firm

  15. Dissociating action-effect activation and effect-based response selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Katharina A; Pfister, Roland; Wirth, Robert; Kunde, Wilfried

    2018-05-25

    Anticipated action effects have been shown to govern action selection and initiation, as described in ideomotor theory, and they have also been demonstrated to determine crosstalk between different tasks in multitasking studies. Such effect-based crosstalk was observed not only in a forward manner (with a first task influencing performance in a following second task) but also in a backward manner (the second task influencing the preceding first task), suggesting that action effect codes can become activated prior to a capacity-limited processing stage often denoted as response selection. The process of effect-based response production, by contrast, has been proposed to be capacity-limited. These observations jointly suggest that effect code activation can occur independently of effect-based response production, though this theoretical implication has not been tested directly at present. We tested this hypothesis by employing a dual-task set-up in which we manipulated the ease of effect-based response production (via response-effect compatibility) in an experimental design that allows for observing forward and backward crosstalk. We observed robust crosstalk effects and response-effect compatibility effects alike, but no interaction between both effects. These results indicate that effect activation can occur in parallel for several tasks, independently of effect-based response production, which is confined to one task at a time. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Polyphenols: Extraction Methods, Antioxidative Action, Bioavailability and Anticarcinogenic Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Brglez Mojzer

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Being secondary plant metabolites, polyphenols represent a large and diverse group of substances abundantly present in a majority of fruits, herbs and vegetables. The current contribution is focused on their bioavailability, antioxidative and anticarcinogenic properties. An overview of extraction methods is also given, with supercritical fluid extraction highlighted as a promising eco-friendly alternative providing exceptional separation and protection from degradation of unstable polyphenols. The protective role of polyphenols against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, UV light, plant pathogens, parasites and predators results in several beneficial biological activities giving rise to prophylaxis or possibly even to a cure for several prevailing human diseases, especially various cancer types. Omnipresence, specificity of the response and the absence of or low toxicity are crucial advantages of polyphenols as anticancer agents. The main problem represents their low bioavailability and rapid metabolism. One of the promising solutions lies in nanoformulation of polyphenols that prevents their degradation and thus enables significantly higher concentrations to reach the target cells. Another, more practiced, solution is the use of mixtures of various polyphenols that bring synergistic effects, resulting in lowering of the required therapeutic dose and in multitargeted action. The combination of polyphenols with existing drugs and therapies also shows promising results and significantly reduces their toxicity.

  17. Quantum effective action in spacetimes with branes and boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barvinsky, A.O.; Nesterov, D.V.

    2006-01-01

    We construct quantum effective action in spacetime with branes/boundaries. This construction is based on the reduction of the underlying Neumann type boundary value problem for the propagator of the theory to that of the much more manageable Dirichlet problem. In its turn, this reduction follows from the recently suggested Neumann-Dirichlet duality which we extend beyond the tree-level approximation. In the one-loop approximation this duality suggests that the functional determinant of the differential operator subject to Neumann boundary conditions factorizes into the product of its Dirichlet counterpart and the functional determinant of a special operator on the brane--the inverse of the brane-to-brane propagator. As a byproduct of this relation we suggest a new method for surface terms of the heat kernel expansion. This method allows one to circumvent well-known difficulties in the heat kernel theory on manifolds with boundaries for a wide class of generalized Neumann boundary conditions. In particular, we easily recover several lowest-order surface terms in the case of Robin and oblique boundary onditions. We briefly discuss multiloop applications of the suggested Dirichlet reduction and the prospects of constructing the universal background-field method for systems with branes/boundaries, analogous to the Schwinger-DeWitt technique

  18. Questions raised by a reasoned action approach: comment on Ogden (2003).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajzen, Icek; Fishbein, Martin

    2004-07-01

    In her critique of social cognition or reasoned action models, J. Ogden (see record 2003-05896-016) claimed that such models are not falsifiable and thus cannot be tested, that the postulated relations among model components are true by definition, and that questionnaires used to test the models may create rather than assess cognitions and thus influence later behavior. The authors of this comment challenge all 3 arguments and contend that the findings Ogden regarded as requiring rejection of the models are, in fact, consistent with them, that there is good evidence for the validity of measures used to assess the models' major constructs, and that the effect of completing a questionnaire on cognitions and subsequent behavior is an empirical question. Copyright 2004 American Psychological Association

  19. Nonlocal effective actions in semiclassical gravity: Thermal effects in stationary geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elías, M.; Mazzitelli, F. D.; Trombetta, L. G.

    2017-11-01

    We compute the gravitational effective action by integrating out quantum matter fields in a weak gravitational field, using the Schwinger-Keldysh (in-in) formalism. We pay particular attention to the role of the initial quantum state in the structure of the nonlocal terms in the effective action, with an eye to nonlinear completions of the theory that may be relevant in astrophysics and cosmology. In this first paper we consider a quantum scalar field in thermal equilibrium, in a stationary gravitational field. We obtain a covariant expression for the nonlocal effective action, which can be expressed in terms of the curvature tensor, the four-velocity of the thermal bath, and the local Tolman temperature. We discuss the connection between the results for ultrastatic and static metrics through conformal transformations, and the main features of the thermal corrections to the semiclassical Einstein equations.

  20. Action Control: Independent Effects of Memory and Monocular Viewing on Reaching Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westwood, D.A.; Robertson, C.; Heath, M.

    2005-01-01

    Evidence suggests that perceptual networks in the ventral visual pathway are necessary for action control when targets are viewed with only one eye, or when the target must be stored in memory. We tested whether memory-linked (i.e., open-loop versus memory-guided actions) and monocular-linked effects (i.e., binocular versus monocular actions) on…

  1. Effective emergency management: reconsidering the bureaucratic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, D M; Phillips, B D

    1995-12-01

    The command and control approach is compared with the Emergent Human Resources Model (EHRM) approach to emergency management. Four decades of systematic research shows that a rigid, bureaucratic command and control approach to emergency management generally leads to an ineffective emergency response. Previous studies and our own research suggest that flexible, malleable, loosely coupled, organizational configurations can create a more effective disaster response.

  2. Developing a web-based information resource for palliative care: an action-research inspired approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gliddon Terry

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background General Practitioners and community nurses rely on easily accessible, evidence-based online information to guide practice. To date, the methods that underpin the scoping of user-identified online information needs in palliative care have remained under-explored. This paper describes the benefits and challenges of a collaborative approach involving users and experts that informed the first stage of the development of a palliative care website 1. Method The action research-inspired methodology included a panel assessment of an existing palliative care website based in Victoria, Australia; a pre-development survey (n = 197 scoping potential audiences and palliative care information needs; working parties conducting a needs analysis about necessary information content for a redeveloped website targeting health professionals and caregivers/patients; an iterative evaluation process involving users and experts; as well as a final evaluation survey (n = 166. Results Involving users in the identification of content and links for a palliative care website is time-consuming and requires initial resources, strong networking skills and commitment. However, user participation provided crucial information that led to the widened the scope of the website audience and guided the development and testing of the website. The needs analysis underpinning the project suggests that palliative care peak bodies need to address three distinct audiences (clinicians, allied health professionals as well as patients and their caregivers. Conclusion Web developers should pay close attention to the content, language, and accessibility needs of these groups. Given the substantial cost associated with the maintenance of authoritative health information sites, the paper proposes a more collaborative development in which users can be engaged in the definition of content to ensure relevance and responsiveness, and to eliminate unnecessary detail. Access to

  3. Testing principle working mechanisms of the health action process approach for subjective physical age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wienert, Julian; Kuhlmann, Tim; Fink, Sebastian; Hambrecht, Rainer; Lippke, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated differences in social-cognitive predictors and self-regulatory planning, as proposed by the health action process approach (HAPA), across three different subjective physical age groups for physical activity. With a cross-sectional design, 521 participants across the chronological age span from 25 to 86 years (M = 48.79; SD = 12.66) were separated into three groups: those who feel physically younger than they are in terms of chronological age, the same perceived and chronological age, and feeling physically older compared to their chronological age. Participants were assessed regarding their perceived vulnerability, outcome expectancies, general intentions, planning, self-efficacy, and stages of physical activity (non-intenders, intenders, and actors). Data were analysed via mean comparison and multigroup structural equation modelling. Mean differences for all but one construct were eminent in all groups, generally showing that those feeling physically younger also report better social-cognitive predictors of physical activity (e.g. lower perceived vulnerability) in comparison to those who feel the same age or older. The model showed that basic working mechanisms of the HAPA can be applied to all groups. With that, the results provide for the first time evidence that principle working mechanism of the HAPA can be applied to all subjective physical age groups. These may be used to tailor health promoting interventions according to participants' needs as a more suitable proxy than chronological age.

  4. Development of a Customizable Programme for Improving Interprofessional Team Meetings: An Action Research Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dongen, Jerôme Jean Jacques; van Bokhoven, Marloes Amantia; Goossens, Wilhelmus Nicolaas Marie; Daniëls, Ramon; van der Weijden, Trudy; Beurskens, Anna

    2018-01-25

    Interprofessional teamwork is increasingly necessary in primary care to meet the needs of people with complex care demands. Needs assessment shows that this requires efficient interprofessional team meetings, focusing on patients' personal goals. The aim of this study was to develop a programme to improve the efficiency and patient-centredness of such meetings. Action research approach: a first draft of the programme was developed, and iteratively used and evaluated by three primary care teams. Data were collected using observations, interviews and a focus group, and analysed using directed content analysis. The final programme comprises a framework to reflect on team functioning, and training activities supplemented by a toolbox. Training is intended for the chairperson and a co-chair, and aims at organizing and structuring meetings, and enhancing patient-centredness. Our findings emphasize the essential role of the team's chairperson, who, in addition to technically structuring meetings, should act as a change agent guiding team development. Findings show that the programme should be customizable to each individual team's context and participants' learning objectives. Becoming acquainted with new structures can be considered a growth process, in which teams have to find their way, with the chairperson as change agent.

  5. Risk perception and motivation to quit smoking: a partial test of the Health Action Process Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Rebecca J; Herzog, Thaddeus A; Simmons, Vani N

    2011-07-01

    The Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) posits a distinction between pre-intentional motivation processes and a post-intentional volition process that leads to the actual behavior change. For smoking cessation, the HAPA predicts that increased risk perceptions would foster a decision to quit smoking. From a cross-sectional perspective, the HAPA predicts that those who do not intend to quit (non-intenders) should have lower risk perceptions than those who do intend to quit (intenders). Adult smokers participated in a cross-sectional survey. Multiple measures of motivation to quit smoking and risk perceptions for smoking were assessed. ANOVA and contrast analysis were employed for data analysis. The results were generally supportive of the HAPA. Non-intenders had systematically lower risk perceptions compared to intenders. Most of these findings were statistically significant. The results demonstrated that risk perceptions distinguish non-intenders from intenders. These results suggest that smokers low in motivation to quit could benefit from information and reminders about the serious health problems caused by smoking. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Low dose evaluation of the antiandrogen flutamide following a Mode of Action approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarrabay, A.; Hilmi, C.; Tinwell, H.; Schorsch, F.; Pallardy, M.; Bars, R.; Rouquié, D.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The dose–response characterization of endocrine mediated toxicity is an on-going debate which is controversial when exploring the nature of the dose–response curve and the effect at the low-end of the curve. To contribute to this debate we have assessed the effects of a wide range of dose levels of the antiandrogen flutamide (FLU) on 7-week male Wistar rats. FLU was administered by oral gavage at doses of 0, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1 and 10 mg/kg/day for 28 days. To evaluate the reproducibility, the study was performed 3 times. The molecular initiating event (MIE; AR antagonism), the key events (LH increase, Leydig cell proliferation and hyperplasia increases) and associated events involved in the mode of action (MOA) of FLU induced testicular toxicity were characterized to address the dose response concordance. Results showed no effects at low doses (< 0.1 mg/kg/day) for the different key events studied. The histopathological changes (Leydig cell hyperplasia) observed at 1 and 10 mg/kg/day were associated with an increase in steroidogenesis gene expression in the testis from 1 mg/kg/day, as well as an increase in testosterone blood level at 10 mg/kg/day. Each key event dose–response was in good concordance with the MOA of FLU on the testis. From the available results, only monotonic dose–response curves were observed for the MIE, the key events, associated events and in effects observed in other sex related tissues. All the results, so far, show that the reference endocrine disruptor FLU induces threshold effects in a standard 28-day toxicity study on adult male rats. - Highlights: • Dose–response characterization of endocrine mediated toxicity is an on-going debate. • A wide range of dose levels of flutamide was evaluated on young adult male rats. • Flutamide induces threshold effects using on standard and molecular tools.

  7. Low dose evaluation of the antiandrogen flutamide following a Mode of Action approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarrabay, A. [INSERM, Université Paris-Sud, Faculté de Pharmacie, Châtenay-Malabry (France); UniverSud, INSERM, UMR-996 “Inflammation, Chemokines and Immunopathology”, Châtenay-Malabry (France); Bayer SAS, 16, rue Jean Marie Leclair, 69009 Lyon (France); Hilmi, C.; Tinwell, H.; Schorsch, F. [Bayer SAS, 16, rue Jean Marie Leclair, 69009 Lyon (France); Pallardy, M. [INSERM, Université Paris-Sud, Faculté de Pharmacie, Châtenay-Malabry (France); UniverSud, INSERM, UMR-996 “Inflammation, Chemokines and Immunopathology”, Châtenay-Malabry (France); Bars, R. [Bayer SAS, 16, rue Jean Marie Leclair, 69009 Lyon (France); Rouquié, D., E-mail: david.rouquie@bayer.com [Bayer SAS, 16, rue Jean Marie Leclair, 69009 Lyon (France)

    2015-12-15

    ABSTRACT: The dose–response characterization of endocrine mediated toxicity is an on-going debate which is controversial when exploring the nature of the dose–response curve and the effect at the low-end of the curve. To contribute to this debate we have assessed the effects of a wide range of dose levels of the antiandrogen flutamide (FLU) on 7-week male Wistar rats. FLU was administered by oral gavage at doses of 0, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1 and 10 mg/kg/day for 28 days. To evaluate the reproducibility, the study was performed 3 times. The molecular initiating event (MIE; AR antagonism), the key events (LH increase, Leydig cell proliferation and hyperplasia increases) and associated events involved in the mode of action (MOA) of FLU induced testicular toxicity were characterized to address the dose response concordance. Results showed no effects at low doses (< 0.1 mg/kg/day) for the different key events studied. The histopathological changes (Leydig cell hyperplasia) observed at 1 and 10 mg/kg/day were associated with an increase in steroidogenesis gene expression in the testis from 1 mg/kg/day, as well as an increase in testosterone blood level at 10 mg/kg/day. Each key event dose–response was in good concordance with the MOA of FLU on the testis. From the available results, only monotonic dose–response curves were observed for the MIE, the key events, associated events and in effects observed in other sex related tissues. All the results, so far, show that the reference endocrine disruptor FLU induces threshold effects in a standard 28-day toxicity study on adult male rats. - Highlights: • Dose–response characterization of endocrine mediated toxicity is an on-going debate. • A wide range of dose levels of flutamide was evaluated on young adult male rats. • Flutamide induces threshold effects using on standard and molecular tools.

  8. Moduli effective action in warped brane-world compactifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garriga, Jaume E-mail: garriga@ifae.es; Pujolas, Oriol; Tanaka, Takahiro

    2003-04-07

    We consider a class of 5D brane-world solutions with a power-law warp factor a(y){proportional_to}y{sup q}, and bulk dilaton with profile phi{proportional_to}lny, where y is the proper distance in the extra dimension. This class includes the heterotic M-theory brane-world of [Phys. Rev. D 59 (1999) 086001, and] and the Randall-Sundrum (RS) model as a limiting case. In general, there are two moduli fields y{sub {+-}}, corresponding to the 'positions' of two branes (which live at the fixed points of an orbifold compactification). Classically, the moduli are massless, due to a scaling symmetry of the action. However, in the absence of supersymmetry, they develop an effective potential at one loop. Local terms proportional to K{sub {+-}}{sup 4}, where K{sub {+-}}=q/y{sub {+-}} is the local curvature scale at the location of the corresponding brane, are needed in order to remove the divergences in the effective potential. Such terms break the scaling symmetry and hence they may act as stabilizers for the moduli. When the branes are very close to each other, the effective potential induced by massless bulk fields behaves like V{approx}d{sup -4}, where d is the separation between branes. When the branes are widely separated, the potentials for each one of the moduli generically develop a 'Coleman-Weinberg'-type behaviour of the form a{sup 4}(y{sub {+-}})K{sub {+-}}{sup 4}ln(K{sub {+-}}/{mu}{sub {+-}}), where {mu}{sub {+-}} are renormalization scales. In the RS case, the bulk geometry is AdS and K{sub {+-}} are equal to a constant, independent of the position of the branes, so these terms do not contribute to the mass of the moduli. However, for generic warp factor, they provide a simple stabilization mechanism. For q > or approx. 10, the observed hierarchy can be naturally generated by this potential, giving the lightest modulus a mass of order m{sub -} < or approx. TeV.

  9. Photonic crystal fibres and effective index approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riishede, Jesper; Libori, Stig E. Barkou; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard

    2001-01-01

    Photonic crystal fibres are investigated with an effective index approach. The effective index of both core and cladding is found to be wavelength dependent. Accurate modelling must respect the rich topology of these fibres.......Photonic crystal fibres are investigated with an effective index approach. The effective index of both core and cladding is found to be wavelength dependent. Accurate modelling must respect the rich topology of these fibres....

  10. Facilitating progress in health behaviour theory development and modification: the reasoned action approach as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Katharine J; Noar, Seth M

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the question: what are barriers to health behaviour theory development and modification, and what potential solutions can be proposed? Using the reasoned action approach (RAA) as a case study, four areas of theory development were examined: (1) the theoretical domain of a theory; (2) tension between generalisability and utility, (3) criteria for adding/removing variables in a theory, and (4) organisational tracking of theoretical developments and formal changes to theory. Based on a discussion of these four issues, recommendations for theory development are presented, including: (1) the theoretical domain for theories such as RAA should be clarified; (2) when there is tension between generalisability and utility, utility should be given preference given the applied nature of the health behaviour field; (3) variables should be formally removed/amended/added to a theory based on their performance across multiple studies and (4) organisations and researchers with a stake in particular health areas may be best suited for tracking the literature on behaviour-specific theories and making refinements to theory, based on a consensus approach. Overall, enhancing research in this area can provide important insights for more accurately understanding health behaviours and thus producing work that leads to more effective health behaviour change interventions.

  11. Conservation without borders: building communication and action across disciplinary boundaries for effective conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margles, Shawn W; Peterson, Richard B; Ervin, Jamison; Kaplin, Beth A

    2010-01-01

    Interdisciplinary approaches to conservation research and environmental management continue to garner interest among practitioners, academics, and students. Yet, cases of practitioners and researchers from different disciplines successfully working in concert towards an integrated conservation approach are rare. What is preventing practitioners of multiple disciplines from harmoniously working together? Why are practitioners and academics struggling to apply their graduate training to real world conservation? What is preventing the benefits of cooperation and partnerships between different disciplines addressing conservation from being realized? This special issue "Conservation without Borders: Building Communication and Action across Disciplinary Boundaries for Effective Conservation" asks readers to consider the numerous interpretations and implications of the phrase "Conservation without Borders" and to reflect on how different academic and disciplinary lenses can contribute to a more integrated approach to tackling conservation challenges. The articles that comprise this special issue offer readers insights into the ways in which different disciplines view conservation work and interdisciplinary approaches to environmental problems. Bringing these perspectives and approaches together in one place is a step towards improving communication across disciplines for the purpose of achieving more successful biodiversity conservation.

  12. PSA approach for the evaluation of external hazards as part of CNSC Fukushima action items

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Michael; Yalaoui, Smain

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the PSA approach that Canadian licensees adopted to address the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) Fukushima Action Items (FAIs) [1] with respect to external hazards evaluation. This paper focus on the FAIs specifically associated with the external hazard evaluation. It also briefly discusses the similarity and differences between the requirements of CNSC FAIs, the Western European Nuclear Regulators' Association (WENRA) Stress Test [2], and the USNRC 'Request for Information'[3]. This paper provides a status update on the completion of the FAIs by the Canadian licensees' and discusses the lessons learned from the implementation of these actions items. It also identifies the importance of a closer interaction between the CNSC and other government agencies for the characterization of as well as for the protection against the external natural hazards. It also highlights some other areas that include research projects on external hazards, combined methodologies from the licensees, etc. The views expressed in this paper are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of CNSC, or any part thereof. All Canadian licensees are currently preparing their plant specific reports to address the relevant FAIs. Some preliminary hazards screening reports, as well as the reports for probabilistic seismic hazards analysis, external flood hazard and high wind hazard have been submitted to CNSC. CNSC, in conjunction other Canadian government agencies, are currently reviewing these reports to determine their acceptability. The licensees are expected to submit all required reports by the end of this year. In the meantime, other Fukushima actions requiring facility enhancements are underway for some licensees. These include: - acquiring additional emergency mitigating portable equipment, such as power generators and pumps, which can be stored onsite and offsite and used to bring reactors to a safe shutdown state, in the unlikely event of a

  13. Quench action approach for releasing the Néel state into the spin-1/2 XXZ chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brockmann, M.; Wouters, B.; Fioretto, D.; De Nardis, J.; Vlijm, R.; Caux, J.-S.

    2014-01-01

    The steady state after a quantum quench from the Néel state to the anisotropic Heisenberg model for spin chains is investigated. Two methods that aim to describe the postquench non-thermal equilibrium, the generalized Gibbs ensemble and the quench action approach, are discussed and contrasted. Using

  14. Improving the Grade Point Average of Our At-Risk Students: A Collaborative Group Action Research Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saurino, Dan R.; Hinson, Kenneth; Bouma, Amy

    This paper focuses on the use of a group action research approach to help student teachers develop strategies to improve the grade point average of at-risk students. Teaching interventions such as group work and group and individual tutoring were compared to teaching strategies already used in the field. Results indicated an improvement in the…

  15. Parental supervision for their children's toothbrushing: Mediating effects of planning, self-efficacy, and action control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Kyra; Cornish, Stephen; Kirkpatrick, Aaron; Kroon, Jeroen; Schwarzer, Ralf

    2018-05-01

    With 60-90% of children worldwide reportedly experiencing dental caries, poor oral health in the younger years is a major public health issue. As parents are important to children's oral hygiene practices, we examined the key self-regulatory behaviours of parents for supervising their children's toothbrushing using the health action process approach. Participants (N = 281, 197 mothers) comprised Australian parents of 2- to 5-year-olds. A longitudinal design was used to investigate the sequential mediation chain for the effect of intention (Time 1) on parental supervision for their youngest child's toothbrushing (Time 3), via self-efficacy and planning (Time 2), and action control (Time 3). A latent-variable structural equation model, controlling for baseline behaviour and habit, revealed significant indirect effects from intention via self-efficacy and action control and intention via planning and action control, on parental supervision behaviour. The model was a good fit to the data, explaining 74% of the variance in parents' supervising behaviour for their children's toothbrushing. While national recommendations are provided to guide parents in promoting good oral hygiene practices with their children, current results show the importance of going beyond simple knowledge transmission to support parents' intentions to supervise their children's toothbrushing actually materialize. Current findings make a significant contribution to the cumulative empirical evidence regarding self-regulatory components in health behaviour change and can inform intervention development to increase parents' participation in childhood oral hygiene practices, thus helping to curb rising oral health conditions and diseases. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Self-regulatory skills are important to translate intentions into behaviour. Self-efficacy, planning, and action control are key self-regulatory skills for behaviour change. What does this study add

  16. Effects of navigated TMS on object and action naming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Hernandez-Pavon

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS has been used to induce speech disturbances and to affect speech performance during different naming tasks. Lately, repetitive navigated TMS (nTMS has been used for non-invasive mapping of cortical speech-related areas. Different naming tasks may give different information that can be useful for presurgical evaluation. We studied the sensitivity of object and action naming tasks to nTMS and compared the distributions of cortical sites where nTMS produced naming errors. Eight healthy subjects named pictures of objects and actions during repetitive nTMS delivered to semi-random left-hemispheric sites. Subject-validated image stacks were obtained in the baseline naming of all pictures before nTMS. Thereafter, nTMS pulse trains were delivered while the subjects were naming the images of objects or actions. The sessions were video-recorded for offline analysis. Naming during nTMS was compared with the baseline performance. The nTMS-induced naming errors were categorized by error type and location. nTMS produced no-response errors, phonological paraphasias, and semantic paraphasias. In seven out of eight subjects, nTMS produced more errors during object than action naming. Both intrasubject and intersubject analysis showed that object naming was significantly more sensitive to nTMS. When the number of errors was compared according to a given area, nTMS to postcentral gyrus induced more errors during object than action naming. Object naming is apparently more easily disrupted by TMS than action naming. Different stimulus types can be useful for locating different aspects of speech functions. This provides new possibilities in both basic and clinical research of cortical speech representations.

  17. An integrated chemical biology approach reveals the mechanism of action of HIV replication inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, Nicholas; Teriete, Peter; Mattmann, Margrith E; Yang, Li; Snyder, Beth A; Cai, Zhaohui; Heil, Marintha L; Cosford, Nicholas D P

    2017-12-01

    Continuous flow (microfluidic) chemistry was employed to prepare a small focused library of dihydropyrimidinone (DHPM) derivatives. Compounds in this class have been reported to exhibit activity against the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), but their molecular target had not been identified. We tested the initial set of DHPMs in phenotypic assays providing a hit (1i) that inhibited the replication of the human immunodeficiency virus HIV in cells. Flow chemistry-driven optimization of 1i led to the identification of HIV replication inhibitors such as 1l with cellular potency comparable with the clinical drug nevirapine (NVP). Mechanism of action (MOA) studies using cellular and biochemical assays coupled with 3D fingerprinting and in silico modeling demonstrated that these drug-like probe compounds exert their effects by inhibiting the viral reverse transcriptase polymerase (RT). This led to the design and synthesis of the novel DHPM 1at that inhibits the replication of drug resistant strains of HIV. Our work demonstrates that combining flow chemistry-driven analogue refinement with phenotypic assays, in silico modeling and MOA studies is a highly effective strategy for hit-to-lead optimization applicable to the discovery of future therapeutic agents. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. 22 CFR 161.12 - Environmental effects abroad of major departmental actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Environmental effects abroad of major... Requirements of NEPA § 161.12 Environmental effects abroad of major departmental actions. Departmental officials shall analyze actions under their cognizance with due regard for the environmental effects in the...

  19. Effectiveness of interim remedial actions at a radioactive waste facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devgun, J.S.; Beskid, N.J.; Peterson, J.M.; Seay, W.M.; McNamee, E.

    1989-01-01

    Over the past eight years, several interim remedial actions have been taken at the Niagara Falls Storage Site (NFSS), primarily to reduce radon and gamma radiation exposures and to consolidate radioactive waste into a waste containment facility. Interim remedial actions have included capping of vents, sealing of pipes, relocation of the perimeter fence (to limit radon risk), transfer and consolidation of waste, upgrading of storage buildings, construction of a clay cutoff wall (to limit the potential groundwater transport of contaminants), treatment and release of contaminated water, interim use of a synthetic liner, and emplacement of an interim clay cap. An interim waste containment facility was completed in 1986. 6 refs., 3 figs

  20. Curriculum Design and Evaluation: An Employer-Centered Action Approach. AIR Forum 1980 Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehallis, Mantha Vlahos

    The development and validation of an employer-centered action system for curriculum development and evaluation are described. The system used a descriptive/action research design whereby a research team interviewed all major employers in Broward County Florida in a two-year period. Results of an employer needs assessment and task analyses were…

  1. Joint Facial Action Unit Detection and Feature Fusion: A Multi-Conditional Learning Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eleftheriadis, Stefanos; Rudovic, Ognjen; Pantic, Maja

    2016-01-01

    Automated analysis of facial expressions can benefit many domains, from marketing to clinical diagnosis of neurodevelopmental disorders. Facial expressions are typically encoded as a combination of facial muscle activations, i.e., action units. Depending on context, these action units co-occur in

  2. Co-production of knowledge-action systems in urban sustainable governance: The KASA approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.A. Munoz-Erickson

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines how knowledge-action-systems the networks of actors involved in the production, sharing and use of policy-relevant knowledge - work in the process of developing sustainable strategies for cities. I developed an interdisciplinary framework- the knowledge-action system analysis (KASA) framework ...

  3. Design of dual action antibiotics as an approach to search for new promising drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tevyashova, A N; Olsufyeva, E N; Preobrazhenskaya, M N

    2015-01-01

    The review is devoted to the latest achievements in the design of dual action antibiotics — heterodimeric (chimeric) structures based on antibacterial agents of different classes (fluoroquinolones, anthracyclines, oxazolidines, macrolides and so on). Covalent binding can make the pharmacokinetic characteristics of these molecules more predictable and improve the penetration of each component into the cell. Consequently, not only does the drug efficacy increase owing to inhibition of two targets but also the resistance to one or both antibiotics can be overcome. The theoretical grounds of elaboration, design principles and methods for the synthesis of dual action antibiotics are considered. The structures are classified according to the type of covalent spacer (cleavable or not) connecting the moieties of two agents. Dual action antibiotics with a spacer that can be cleaved in a living cell are considered as dual action prodrugs. Data on the biological action of heterodimeric compounds are presented and structure–activity relationships are analyzed. The bibliography includes 225 references

  4. International health research monitoring: exploring a scientific and a cooperative approach using participatory action research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantler, Tracey; Cheah, Phaik Yeong; Miiro, George; Hantrakum, Viriya; Nanvubya, Annet; Ayuo, Elizabeth; Kivaya, Esther; Kidola, Jeremiah; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Parker, Michael; Njuguna, Patricia; Ashley, Elizabeth; Guerin, Philippe J; Lang, Trudie

    2014-02-17

    To evaluate and determine the value of monitoring models developed by the Mahidol Oxford Tropical Research Unit and the East African Consortium for Clinical Research, consider how this can be measured and explore monitors' and investigators' experiences of and views about the nature, purpose and practice of monitoring. A case study approach was used within the context of participatory action research because one of the aims was to guide and improve practice. 34 interviews, five focus groups and observations of monitoring practice were conducted. Fieldwork occurred in the places where the monitoring models are coordinated and applied in Thailand, Cambodia, Uganda and Kenya. Participants included those coordinating the monitoring schemes, monitors, senior investigators and research staff. Transcribed textual data from field notes, interviews and focus groups was imported into a qualitative data software program (NVIVO V. 10) and analysed inductively and thematically by a qualitative researcher. The initial coding framework was reviewed internally and two main categories emerged from the subsequent interrogation of the data. The categories that were identified related to the conceptual framing and nature of monitoring, and the practice of monitoring, including relational factors. Particular emphasis was given to the value of a scientific and cooperative style of monitoring as a means of enhancing data quality, trust and transparency. In terms of practice the primary purpose of monitoring was defined as improving the conduct of health research and increasing the capacity of researchers and trial sites. The models studied utilise internal and network wide expertise to improve the ethics and quality of clinical research. They demonstrate how monitoring can be a scientific and constructive exercise rather than a threatening process. The value of cooperative relations needs to be given more emphasis in monitoring activities, which seek to ensure that research protects

  5. Vitamin D - new action mechanisms and effects | Haag | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The classic arena of vitamin D (cholecalciferol) action is the maintenance of calcium homeostasis. Intestinal ... Recently many other tissues have also joined the classic target organs of calcitriol, for example the pancreas, the immune system, the skin and the parathyroid gland, as well as an array of tumour"tissues. In these ...

  6. DAPs: Deep Action Proposals for Action Understanding

    KAUST Repository

    Escorcia, Victor

    2016-09-17

    Object proposals have contributed significantly to recent advances in object understanding in images. Inspired by the success of this approach, we introduce Deep Action Proposals (DAPs), an effective and efficient algorithm for generating temporal action proposals from long videos. We show how to take advantage of the vast capacity of deep learning models and memory cells to retrieve from untrimmed videos temporal segments, which are likely to contain actions. A comprehensive evaluation indicates that our approach outperforms previous work on a large scale action benchmark, runs at 134 FPS making it practical for large-scale scenarios, and exhibits an appealing ability to generalize, i.e. to retrieve good quality temporal proposals of actions unseen in training.

  7. In-situ storage: An approach to interim remedial action - recent case studies in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelmer, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Office (LLRWMO) acts on behalf of the federal government to manage historic low-level radioactive wastes. Recent interim remedial work in the Town of Port Hope, Ontario has included the consolidation of radium and uranium contaminated soils into temporary storage facilities on two sites to await final disposal elsewhere. Simple containments constructed and sited on already contaminated sites have been found effective as part of an interim remedial strategy. The approach has been accepted and supported by the local public. Lessons have been learned from a project management, environmental remediation and engineering design point of view

  8. [Effects of dauricine on action potentials and slow inward currents of guinea pig ventricular papillary muscles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S N; Zhang, K Y

    1992-11-01

    Effects of dauricine (Dau) on the action potentials (AP), the slow action potentials (SAP), and the slow inward currents (Isi) of guinea pig ventricular papillary muscles were observed by means of intracellular microelectrode and single sucrose gap voltage clamp technique. In the early stage, Dau shortened action potential duration 100 (APD100) and effective refractory period (ERP) (ERP/APD ERP, and APD20, significantly decreased action potential amplitude (APA), maximum velocity (Vmax), and overshot (OS) (ERP/APD > 1; P SAP induced by isoprenaline (P < 0.01), and remarkably inhibited Isi (P < 0.01). The results suggested that Dau exerted an inhibitory effect on Na+, Ca2+, and K+ channels.

  9. Effect of mutagen combined action on Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells. II. Dependence of lethal effect on mutagen dose and on conditions of cultivation following mutagen action. [In Slovak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podstavkova, S; Vlcek, D; Dubovsky, J [Komenskeho Univ., Bratislava (Czechoslovakia). Prirodovedecka Fakulta

    1978-01-01

    The effect of UV radiation and UV radiation combined with alkylnitrosourea derivatives (N-methyl-N-nitrosourea and N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea) was observed on survival of cells of the algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. In particular, single parts were evaluated of the overall lethal effect - dying of cells before division and dying of cells after division. It was found that the combined action of low doses of UV radiation and alkylnitrosoureas result in a pronounced protective effect which manifests itself by a higher frequency of surviving cells than was that effected by the action of alkylnitrosoureas alone. As a result of combined action with higher doses of UV radiation this effect is lost, and the resultant values will come close to the theoretically anticipated values. This gradual transition from a protective to an additive effect mainly manifests itself by changes in the proportion of cells dying before division.

  10. Response selection difficulty modulates the behavioral impact of rapidly learnt action effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uta eWolfensteller

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that we can pick up action effect associations when acting in a free-choice intentional mode. However, it is less clear whether and when action effect associations are learnt and actually affect behavior if we are acting in a forced-choice mode, applying a specific stimulus-response (S-R rule. In the present study, we investigated whether response selection difficulty imposed by S-R rules influences the initial rapid learning and the behavioral expression of previously learnt but weakly practiced action effect associations when those are re-activated by effect exposure. Experiment 1 showed that the rapid acquisition of action effect associations is not directly influenced by response selection difficulty. By contrast, the behavioral expression of re-activated action effect associations is prevented when actions are directly activated by highly over-learnt response cues and thus response selection difficulty is low. However, all three experiments showed that if response selection difficulty is sufficiently high during re-activation, the same action effect associations do influence behavior. Experiment 2 and 3 revealed that the effect of response selection difficulty cannot be fully reduced to giving action effects more time to prime an action, but seems to reflect competition during response selection. Finally, the present data suggest that when multiple novel rules are rapidly learnt in succession, which requires a lot of flexibility, action effect associations continue to influence behavior only if response selection difficulty is sufficiently high. Thus, response selection difficulty might modulate the impact of experiencing multiple learning episodes on action effect expression and learning, possibly via inducing different strategies.

  11. The effective action in (2+1)-dimensional gravity and generalized BF topological field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birmingham, D. (Theory Div., CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)); Gibbs, R.; Mokhtari, S. (Physics Dept., Louisiana Tech Univ., Ruston, LA (United States))

    1991-07-11

    The one-loop off-shell effective action is studied for the case of generalized BF theories in three dimensions, including, for example, (2 + 1)-dimensional gravity with a cosmological constant. The phase contribution to the effective action, originating from the {eta}-function of a particular first order operator, is calculated using a momentum space technique. It is found that the {eta}-function is proportional to the classical action. (orig.).

  12. The effective action in (2+1)-dimensional gravity and generalized BF topological field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birmingham, D.; Gibbs, R.; Mokhtari, S.

    1991-01-01

    The one-loop off-shell effective action is studied for the case of generalized BF theories in three dimensions, including, for example, (2 + 1)-dimensional gravity with a cosmological constant. The phase contribution to the effective action, originating from the η-function of a particular first order operator, is calculated using a momentum space technique. It is found that the η-function is proportional to the classical action. (orig.)

  13. Long-term and short-term action-effect links and their impact on effect monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Robert; Steinhauser, Robert; Janczyk, Markus; Steinhauser, Marco; Kunde, Wilfried

    2018-04-23

    People aim to produce effects in the environment, and according to ideomotor theory, actions are selected and executed via anticipations of their effects. Further, to ensure that an action has been successful and an effect has been realized, we must be able to monitor the consequences of our actions. However, action-effect links might vary between situations, some might apply for a majority of situations, while others might only apply to special occasions. With a combination of behavioral and electrophysiological markers, we show that monitoring of self-produced action effects interferes with other tasks, and that the length of effect monitoring is determined by both, long-term action-effect links that hold for most situations, and short-term action-effect links that emerge from a current setting. Effect monitoring is fast and frugal when these action-effect links allow for valid anticipation of action effects, but otherwise effect monitoring takes longer and delays a subsequent task. Specific influences of long-term and short-term links on the P1/N1 and P3a further allow to dissect the temporal dynamics of when these links interact for the purpose of effect monitoring. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Cumulative effects assessment in Canada: an agenda for action and research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, E.B.; Chan, Y.-H.; Peterson, N.M.; Constable, G.A.; Caton, R.B.; Davis, C.S.; Wallace, R.R.; Yarranton, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    This review of cumulative environmental effects assessment in Canada identified 13 sets of issues that are considered to be of particular significance to Canadians over the next decade or two. They are: long-range transport of air pollutants; urban air quality and airshed saturation, mobilization of persistent or bioaccumulated substances, climatic modification, land occupation by man-made features, habitat alienation and fragmentation, soil losses, effects of agricultural chemicals, groundwater supply reduction and contamination, increased sediment, chemical and thermal loading of freshwater and marine habitats, accelerating rates of renewable resource harvesting, and long-term containment and disposal of toxic wastes. There is a diverse set of examples in which cumulative effects have been recognized and brought under control and management, and the scientific and institutional factors that promoted a successful approach are summarized. It was confirmed that there are well-defined limitations in the degree to which project referrals and project-specific environmental impact assessments can be adapted to manage cumulative effects successfully. In general, this review confirmed the hypothesis that current approaches for both scientific analyses and institutional arrangements to manage cumulative effects remain inadequately developed in Canada. To address this weakness, action is required on improving links between ecosystems, research, and management. Recommendations are made and a research agenda is presented. 171 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Development of Nutrient Management Strategies for ASAL using Participatory Learning and Action Research (PLAR) Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguluu, S.N.

    2002-01-01

    Participatory diagnosis of soil fertility problems and subsequent experimentation was carried out at Kibwezi Division, Makweni district, using Participatory learning and Action Research (PLAR) methodologies. results of the soil analysis showed that nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and carbon (C) were the most limiting nutrients to the crop production. Farmers were excited to learn how to identify deficiency symptoms of N and P by looking at plant leaves. Farmers also identified and implemented practical options under rain-fed and irrigated conditions for solving the soil fertility problems such as use of manure, fertilisers or a combination of both. Fertiliser application at the rate of 40N + 40P 2 O 5 ha -1 and 60N + 60P 2 O 5 ha -1 produced significantly yield responses under rain-fed conditions. However, application of 20 t ha -1 and 40 t ha -1 of farm yard manure had no effect on grain yield of maize. Maize gross margins were positive with increasing fertilizer application. Similarly, fresh yields of Chili showed marked yield increasing with increasing fertility conditions. In contrast, onions and tomatoes showed a corresponding smaller yield increase with fertility improvement. Chili, onions and tomatoes had positive gross margins as nutrient application was increased indicating that benefit was higher with increasing fertiliser inputs. The PLAR methodology provided farmers with knowledge and skills that helped them to change their attitude towards soil fertility improvement interventions

  16. The SPIRIT Action Framework: A structured approach to selecting and testing strategies to increase the use of research in policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, Sally; Turner, Tari; Davies, Huw; Williamson, Anna; Haynes, Abby; Brennan, Sue; Milat, Andrew; O'Connor, Denise; Blyth, Fiona; Jorm, Louisa; Green, Sally

    2015-07-01

    The recent proliferation of strategies designed to increase the use of research in health policy (knowledge exchange) demands better application of contemporary conceptual understandings of how research shapes policy. Predictive models, or action frameworks, are needed to organise existing knowledge and enable a more systematic approach to the selection and testing of intervention strategies. Useful action frameworks need to meet four criteria: have a clearly articulated purpose; be informed by existing knowledge; provide an organising structure to build new knowledge; and be capable of guiding the development and testing of interventions. This paper describes the development of the SPIRIT Action Framework. A literature search and interviews with policy makers identified modifiable factors likely to influence the use of research in policy. An iterative process was used to combine these factors into a pragmatic tool which meets the four criteria. The SPIRIT Action Framework can guide conceptually-informed practical decisions in the selection and testing of interventions to increase the use of research in policy. The SPIRIT Action Framework hypothesises that a catalyst is required for the use of research, the response to which is determined by the capacity of the organisation to engage with research. Where there is sufficient capacity, a series of research engagement actions might occur that facilitate research use. These hypotheses are being tested in ongoing empirical work. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of context on visuomotor interference depends on the perspective of observed actions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Bortoletto

    Full Text Available Visuomotor interference occurs when the execution of an action is facilitated by the concurrent observation of the same action and hindered by the concurrent observation of a different action. There is evidence that visuomotor interference can be modulated top-down by higher cognitive functions, depending on whether own performed actions or observed actions are selectively attended. Here, we studied whether these effects of cognitive context on visuomotor interference are also dependent on the point-of-view of the observed action. We employed a delayed go/no-go task known to induce visuomotor interference. Static images of hand gestures in either egocentric or allocentric perspective were presented as "go" stimuli after participants were pre-cued to prepare either a matching (congruent or non-matching (incongruent action. Participants performed this task in two different cognitive contexts: In one, they focused on the visual image of the hand gesture shown as the go stimulus (image context, whereas in the other they focused on the hand gesture they performed (action context. We analyzed reaction times to initiate the prepared action upon presentation of the gesture image and found evidence of visuomotor interference in both contexts and for both perspectives. Strikingly, results show that the effect of cognitive context on visuomotor interference also depends on the perspective of observed actions. When focusing on own-actions, visuomotor interference was significantly less for gesture images in allocentric perspective than in egocentric perspective; when focusing on observed actions, visuomotor interference was present regardless of the perspective of the gesture image. Overall these data suggest that visuomotor interference may be modulated by higher cognitive processes, so that when we are specifically attending to our own actions, images depicting others' actions (allocentric perspective have much less interference on our own actions.

  18. Identifying determinants of medication adherence following myocardial infarction using the Theoretical Domains Framework and the Health Action Process Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presseau, Justin; Schwalm, J D; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Witteman, Holly O; Natarajan, Madhu K; Linklater, Stefanie; Sullivan, Katrina; Ivers, Noah M

    2017-10-01

    Despite evidence-based recommendations, adherence with secondary prevention medications post-myocardial infarction (MI) remains low. Taking medication requires behaviour change, and using behavioural theories to identify what factors determine adherence could help to develop novel adherence interventions. Compare the utility of different behaviour theory-based approaches for identifying modifiable determinants of medication adherence post-MI that could be targeted by interventions. Two studies were conducted with patients 0-2, 3-12, 13-24 or 25-36 weeks post-MI. Study 1: 24 patients were interviewed about barriers and facilitators to medication adherence. Interviews were conducted and coded using the Theoretical Domains Framework. Study 2: 201 patients answered a telephone questionnaire assessing Health Action Process Approach constructs to predict intention and medication adherence (MMAS-8). Study 1: domains identified: Beliefs about Consequences, Memory/Attention/Decision Processes, Behavioural Regulation, Social Influences and Social Identity. Study 2: 64, 59, 42 and 58% reported high adherence at 0-2, 3-12, 13-24 and 25-36 weeks. Social Support and Action Planning predicted adherence at all time points, though the relationship between Action Planning and adherence decreased over time. Using two behaviour theory-based approaches provided complimentary findings and identified modifiable factors that could be targeted to help translate Intention into action to improve medication adherence post-MI.

  19. A multi-criteria decision approach to sorting actions for promoting energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pires Neves, Luis; Gomes Martins, Antonio; Henggeler Antunes, Carlos; Candido Dias, Luis

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a multi-criteria decision approach for sorting energy-efficiency initiatives, promoted by electric utilities, with or without public funds authorized by a regulator, or promoted by an independent energy agency, overcoming the limitations and drawbacks of cost-benefit analysis. The proposed approach is based on the ELECTRE-TRI multi-criteria method and allows the consideration of different kinds of impacts, although avoiding difficult measurements and unit conversions. The decision is based on all the significant effects of the initiative, both positive and negative, including ancillary effects often forgotten in cost-benefit analysis. The ELECTRE-TRI, as most multi-criteria methods, provides to the decision maker the ability of controlling the relevance each impact can have on the final decision in a transparent way. The decision support process encompasses a robustness analysis, which, together with a good documentation of the parameters supplied into the model, should support sound decisions. The models were tested with a set of real-world initiatives and compared with possible decisions based on cost-benefit analysis

  20. Spatio-temporal dynamics of action-effect associations in oculomotor control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riechelmann, Eva; Pieczykolan, Aleksandra; Horstmann, Gernot; Herwig, Arvid; Huestegge, Lynn

    2017-10-01

    While there is ample evidence that actions are guided by anticipating their effects (ideomotor control) in the manual domain, much less is known about the underlying characteristics and dynamics of effect-based oculomotor control. Here, we address three open issues. 1) Is action-effect anticipation in oculomotor control reflected in corresponding spatial saccade characteristics in inanimate environments? 2) Does the previously reported dependency of action latency on the temporal effect delay (action-effect interval) also occur in the oculomotor domain? 3) Which temporal effect delay is optimally suited to develop strong action-effect associations over time in the oculomotor domain? Participants executed left or right free-choice saccades to peripheral traffic lights, causing an (immediate or delayed) action-contingent light switch in the upper vs. lower part of the traffic light. Results indicated that saccades were spatially shifted toward the location of the upcoming change, indicating anticipation of the effect (location). Saccade latency was affected by effect delay, suggesting that corresponding time information is integrated into event representations. Finally, delayed (vs. immediate) effects were more effective in strengthening action-effect associations over the course of the experiment, likely due to greater saliency of perceptual changes occurring during target fixation as opposed to changes during saccades (saccadic suppression). Overall, basic principles underlying ideomotor control appear to generalize to the oculomotor domain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The pulling power of chocolate: Effects of approach-avoidance training on approach bias and consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Hugh; Kavanagh, David J; MacLeod, Colin

    2016-04-01

    Previous research has shown that action tendencies to approach alcohol may be modified using computerized Approach-Avoidance Task (AAT), and that this impacted on subsequent consumption. A recent paper in this journal (Becker, Jostman, Wiers, & Holland, 2015) failed to show significant training effects for food in three studies: Nor did it find effects on subsequent consumption. However, avoidance training to high calorie foods was tested against a control rather than Approach training. The present study used a more comparable paradigm to the alcohol studies. It randomly assigned 90 participants to 'approach' or 'avoid' chocolate images on the AAT, and then asked them to taste and rate chocolates. A significant interaction of condition and time showed that training to avoid chocolate resulted in faster avoidance responses to chocolate images, compared with training to approach it. Consistent with Becker et al.'s Study 3, no effect was found on amounts of chocolate consumed, although a newly published study in this journal (Schumacher, Kemps, & Tiggemann, 2016) did do so. The collective evidence does not as yet provide solid basis for the application of AAT training to reduction of problematic food consumption, although clinical trials have yet to be conducted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Process’s Effectiveness in Popular Actions

    OpenAIRE

    Alencar, Rafael Vieira de; Albuquerque, Felipe Braga

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work the study of the limits and possibilities of the known " general power of realization of judicial protection ". Concomitantly were delineated the structural goals of executory judge's powers, notably with the aim of establishing a study related to the procedure of displaying documents in popular action, the application of a daily fine for noncompliance and the presumption of veracity of the facts narrated in the popular original. As regards the methodology, it has been ca...

  3. Exploring the bases for a mixed reality stroke rehabilitation system, Part I: A unified approach for representing action, quantitative evaluation, and interactive feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Although principles based in motor learning, rehabilitation, and human-computer interfaces can guide the design of effective interactive systems for rehabilitation, a unified approach that connects these key principles into an integrated design, and can form a methodology that can be generalized to interactive stroke rehabilitation, is presently unavailable. Results This paper integrates phenomenological approaches to interaction and embodied knowledge with rehabilitation practices and theories to achieve the basis for a methodology that can support effective adaptive, interactive rehabilitation. Our resulting methodology provides guidelines for the development of an action representation, quantification of action, and the design of interactive feedback. As Part I of a two-part series, this paper presents key principles of the unified approach. Part II then describes the application of this approach within the implementation of the Adaptive Mixed Reality Rehabilitation (AMRR) system for stroke rehabilitation. Conclusions The accompanying principles for composing novel mixed reality environments for stroke rehabilitation can advance the design and implementation of effective mixed reality systems for the clinical setting, and ultimately be adapted for home-based application. They furthermore can be applied to other rehabilitation needs beyond stroke. PMID:21875441

  4. Effective field theory approach to nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saviankou, P.; Gruemmer, F.; Epelbaum, E.; Krewald, S.; Meissner, Ulf-G.

    2006-01-01

    Effective field theory provides a systematic approach to hardon physics and few-nucleon systems. It allows one to determine the effective two-, three-, and more-nucleon interactions which are consistent with each other. We present a project to derive bulk properties of nuclei from the effective nucleonic interactions

  5. The role of objects and effects in action imitation: Comparing the imitation of object-related actions vs. gestures in 18-month-old infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ziyon; Óturai, Gabriella; Király, Ildikó; Knopf, Monika

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to systematically investigate 18-month-old infants' imitation of object-related actions compared to motorically similar gestures. An additional goal of the study was to examine the role of action effects on infants' imitation of target actions. One group of infants (n=17) observed object-related actions and gestures leading to salient effects (sounds or visual resp. social effects), and the other group (n=16) watched the same actions without effects. Furthermore, this study examined whether infants show a consistent imitation ability for object-related actions and gestures. First, the present study showed that 18-month-old infants imitated object-related actions more frequently than gestures. Second, the presence of an effect significantly increased the imitation rate of object-related actions; however, this difference was not found for gestures. Third, indications for a general imitation ability were found as results on an individual level showed that object-related action imitation significantly correlated with gesture imitation. Implications of the results for theory and future studies are discussed with a focus on the role of objects and effects in 18-month-old infants' action imitation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The spillover effects of affirmative action on competitiveness and unethical behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Nabanita Datta; Banerjee, Ritwik; Villeval, Marie Claire

    2018-01-01

    We conduct an artefactual field experiment to examine various spillover effects of Affirmative Action policies in the context of castes in India. We test a) if individuals who enter tournaments in the presence of an Affirmative Action policy remain competitive after the policy has been removed...... find no spillover effect on confidence and competitiveness once Affirmative Action is withdrawn. Furthermore, the discrimination by the dominant category against the backward category is not significantly aggravated by Affirmative Action, except when individuals learn that they have lost the previous...

  7. The Spillover Effects of Affirmative Action on Competitiveness and Unethical Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banerjee, Ritwik; Gupta, Nabanita Datta; Villeval, Marie Claire

    We conduct an artefactual field experiment to examine various spillover effects of Affirmative Action policies in the context of castes in India. We test a) if individuals who compete in the presence of Affirmative Action policies remain competitive in the same proportion after the policy has been...... frequently a tournament payment scheme. However, we find no spillover effect on confidence and competitiveness once Affirmative Action is withdrawn: any lower caste’s gain in competitiveness due to the policy is then entirely wiped out. Furthermore, the strong existing bias of the dominant caste against...... the lower caste is not significantly aggravated by Affirmative Action....

  8. Effective Chern-Simons actions of particles coupled to 3D gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trześniewski, Tomasz

    2018-03-01

    Point particles in 3D gravity are known to behave as topological defects, while gravitational field can be expressed as the Chern-Simons theory of the appropriate local isometry group of spacetime. In the case of the Poincaré group, integrating out the gravitational degrees of freedom it is possible to obtain the effective action for particle dynamics. We review the known results, both for single and multiple particles, and attempt to extend this approach to the (anti-)de Sitter group, using the factorizations of isometry groups into the double product of the Lorentz group and AN (2) group. On the other hand, for the de Sitter group one can also perform a contraction to the semidirect product of AN (2) and the translation group. The corresponding effective action curiously describes a Carrollian particle with the AN (2) momentum space. We derive this contraction in a more rigorous manner and further explore its properties, including a generalization to the multiparticle case.

  9. Effective Chern–Simons actions of particles coupled to 3D gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Trześniewski

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Point particles in 3D gravity are known to behave as topological defects, while gravitational field can be expressed as the Chern–Simons theory of the appropriate local isometry group of spacetime. In the case of the Poincaré group, integrating out the gravitational degrees of freedom it is possible to obtain the effective action for particle dynamics. We review the known results, both for single and multiple particles, and attempt to extend this approach to the (anti-de Sitter group, using the factorizations of isometry groups into the double product of the Lorentz group and AN(2 group. On the other hand, for the de Sitter group one can also perform a contraction to the semidirect product of AN(2 and the translation group. The corresponding effective action curiously describes a Carrollian particle with the AN(2 momentum space. We derive this contraction in a more rigorous manner and further explore its properties, including a generalization to the multiparticle case.

  10. The use of innovation action research approach in the preparation of a regulation on costing standard 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Raulinajtys-Grzybek

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the applicability of the innovation action research method for activities related to the preparation of a concept of a costing standard for healthcare providers which is subject to legal regula- tion. This legislation regulates the way providers, reporting data for the purpose of the regulated pricing of health services, identify and calculate costs. A 39-month long research project was carried out in ac- cordance with the innovation action research approach, which resulted in the creation of a novel concept of a costing model. The generation of new knowledge occurred as a result of a collaboration between researchers and practitioners, which is a basic assumption of action research. The consecutive steps of the research have been characterized in order to present the influence of the research method on the devel- opment and modification of the initial concept.

  11. From Principle to Action. An Analysis of the Financial Sector's Approach to Addressing Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mudde, P.; Abadie, A.

    2008-05-01

    The Ministry of the Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment of the Netherlands (VROM), has taken the initiative to commission a study to determine best practice approaches within the financial sector regarding climate change. This study focuses on the indirect climate change footprint of the financial sector, i.e. the impact of the financial sector's clients on climate change. The study sets out to further the body of knowledge relating to the financial sector's approach to understanding and managing the effects of climate change on their clients' business. Specifically, it offers recommendations and potential next steps for both the financial sector and the Dutch government to enable a more focused and definitive approach to understanding, addressing and incorporating climate change considerations into decision-making procedures and policy development. The paper comprises the following analysis: Chapter 1 is an introduction describing why climate change is relevant to the financial sector, and introduces 18 financial institutions which were selected as the basis for the study. Chapter 2 elaborates on challenges for the financial sector regarding the incorporation of climate change considerations into enhanced risk analysis and decision making. Chapter 3 provides a comprehensive overview of the main international business initiatives regarding climate change and sustainability. It can be seen as a summary of Annex I to this report, which identifies which initiatives the 18 financial institutions are involved in. Chapter 4 highlights selected best practices amongst the 18 financial institutions assessed. Chapter 5 provides the main conclusions of the study and puts forward general and specific recommendations and potential next steps for the Dutch government and the financial sector. The Annexes contain fact sheets containing information about the climate change strategy and main activities of these organisations

  12. Sustained Large-Scale Collective Climate Action Supported by Effective Climate Change Education Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niepold, F., III; Crim, H.; Fiorile, G.; Eldadah, S.

    2017-12-01

    Since 2012, the Climate and Energy Literacy community have realized that as cities, nations and the international community seek solutions to global climate change over the coming decades, a more comprehensive, interdisciplinary approach to climate literacy—one that includes economic and social considerations—will play a vital role in knowledgeable planning, decision-making, and governance. City, county and state leaders are now leading the American response to a changing climate by incubating social innovation to prevail in the face of unprecedented change. Cities are beginning to realize the importance of critical investments to support the policies and strategies that will foster the climate literacy necessary for citizens to understand the urgency of climate actions and to succeed in a resilient post-carbon economy and develop the related workforce. Over decade of federal and non-profit Climate Change Education effective methods have been developed that can support municipality's significant educational capabilities for the purpose of strengthening and scaling city, state, business, and education actions designed to sustain and effectively address this significant social change. Looking to foster the effective and innovative strategies that will enable their communities several networks have collaborated to identify recommendations for effective education and communication practices when working with different types of audiences. U.S. National Science Foundation funded Climate Change Education Partnership (CCEP) Alliance, the National Wildlife Federation, NOAA Climate Program Office, Tri-Agency Climate Change Education Collaborative and the Climate Literacy and Energy Awareness Network (CLEAN) are working to develop a new web portal that will highlight "effective" practices that includes the acquisition and use of climate change knowledge to inform decision-making. The purpose of the web portal is to transfer effective practice to support communities to be

  13. Mechanisms underlying alcohol approach action tendencies: the role of emotional primes and drinking motives

    OpenAIRE

    Janna eCousijn; Janna eCousijn; Maartje eLuijten; Maartje eLuijten; Reinout eWiers

    2014-01-01

    The tendency to approach alcohol-related stimuli is known as the alcohol approach bias and has been related to heavy alcohol use. It is currently unknown whether the alcohol approach bias is more pronounced after emotional priming. The main aim of this study was to investigate whether positive and negative emotional primes would modulate the alcohol approach bias. For this purpose a new contextual Emotional Prime - Approach Avoidance Task (EP-AAT) was developed, containing both negative and p...

  14. Moving from conceptual ambiguity to knowledgeable action: using a critical realist approach to studying moral distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musto, Lynn C; Rodney, Patricia A

    2016-04-01

    Moral distress is a phenomenon that has been receiving increasing attention in nursing and other health care disciplines. Moral distress is a concept that entered the nursing literature - and subsequently the health care ethics lexicon - in 1984 as a result of the work done by American philosopher and bioethicist Andrew Jameton. Over the past decade, research into moral distress has extended beyond the profession of nursing as other health care disciplines have come to question the impact of moral constraint on individual practitioners, professional practice, and patient outcomes. Along with increased interest in the phenomenon of moral distress have come increasing critiques - critiques that in their essence point to a serious lack of conceptual clarity in the definition, study, and application of the concept. Foundational to gaining conceptual clarity in moral distress in order to develop strategies to prevent and ameliorate the experience is a careful revisiting of the epistemological assumptions underpinning our knowledge and use of the concept of moral distress. It is our contention that the conceptual challenges reveal flaws in the original understanding of moral distress that are based on an epistemological stance that holds a linear conception of cause and effect coupled with a simplistic perspective of 'constraint' and 'agency'. We need a more nuanced approach to our study of moral distress such that our ontological and epistemological stances help us to better appreciate the complexity of moral agents acting in organizational contexts. We believe that critical realism offers such a nuanced approach. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Predicting physical activity in adolescents: the role of compensatory health beliefs within the Health Action Process Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berli, Corina; Loretini, Philipp; Radtke, Theda; Hornung, Rainer; Scholz, Urte

    2014-01-01

    Compensatory health beliefs (CHBs), defined as beliefs that healthy behaviours can compensate for unhealthy behaviours, may be one possible factor hindering people in adopting a healthier lifestyle. This study examined the contribution of CHBs to the prediction of adolescents' physical activity within the theoretical framework of the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA). The study followed a prospective survey design with assessments at baseline (T1) and two weeks later (T2). Questionnaire data on physical activity, HAPA variables and CHBs were obtained twice from 430 adolescents of four different Swiss schools. Multilevel modelling was applied. CHBs added significantly to the prediction of intentions and change in intentions, in that higher CHBs were associated with lower intentions to be physically active at T2 and a reduction in intentions from T1 to T2. No effect of CHBs emerged for the prediction of self-reported levels of physical activity at T2 and change in physical activity from T1 to T2. Findings emphasise the relevance of examining CHBs in the context of an established health behaviour change model and suggest that CHBs are of particular importance in the process of intention formation.

  16. The technical approach: The IAEA action plan on the safety of radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilbao, A.; Wrixon, A.; Ortiz-Lopez, P.

    2001-01-01

    As part of the measures to strengthen international co-operation in nuclear, radiation and waste safety, the report refers to the implementation of the Action Plan for the Safety of Radiation Sources and the Security of Radioactive Materials. Starting with background information, the report references the main results of the Dijon Conference and of General Conference resolution GC(42)/RES/12 in September 1998, describing the actions taken by the Secretariat pursuant such resolution and also by the Board of Governors, in its sessions of March and September 1999, as well as by the General Conference, in October 1999 when by resolution GC(43)/RES/10 the Action Plan was endorsed and the Secretariat was urged to implement it. Finally, the report provides information on the status of implementation of the seven areas covered by the Action Plan and on the suggested further actions to be carried out for its implementation taking into account the decisions of the Board in its meeting of 11 September 2000 and the resolutions GC(44)/RES/11, GC(44)/RES/13 and GC(44)/RES/16 of the forty-fourth regular session of the General Conference. (author)

  17. Using a combined protection motivation theory and health action process approach intervention to promote exercise during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaston, Anca; Prapavessis, Harry

    2014-04-01

    Despite the benefits of exercise during pregnancy, many expectant mothers are inactive. This study examined whether augmenting a protection motivation theory (PMT) intervention with a Health Action Process Approach can enhance exercise behavior change among pregnant women. Sixty inactive pregnant women were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups: PMT-only, PMT + action-planning, and PMT + action-and-coping-planning. Week-long objective (accelerometer) and subjective (self-report) exercise measures were collected at baseline, and at 1- and 4-weeks post-intervention. Repeated-measures ANOVAs demonstrated that while all participants reported increased exercise from baseline to 1-week post-intervention, participants in both planning groups were significantly more active (p < .001) than those in the PMT-only group by 4-weeks post-intervention (η (2) = .13 and .15 for accelerometer and self-report data, respectively). In conclusion, augmenting a PMT intervention with action or action-and-coping-planning can enhance exercise behavior change in pregnant women.

  18. Learning to reach by reinforcement learning using a receptive field based function approximation approach with continuous actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamosiunaite, Minija; Asfour, Tamim; Wörgötter, Florentin

    2009-03-01

    Reinforcement learning methods can be used in robotics applications especially for specific target-oriented problems, for example the reward-based recalibration of goal directed actions. To this end still relatively large and continuous state-action spaces need to be efficiently handled. The goal of this paper is, thus, to develop a novel, rather simple method which uses reinforcement learning with function approximation in conjunction with different reward-strategies for solving such problems. For the testing of our method, we use a four degree-of-freedom reaching problem in 3D-space simulated by a two-joint robot arm system with two DOF each. Function approximation is based on 4D, overlapping kernels (receptive fields) and the state-action space contains about 10,000 of these. Different types of reward structures are being compared, for example, reward-on- touching-only against reward-on-approach. Furthermore, forbidden joint configurations are punished. A continuous action space is used. In spite of a rather large number of states and the continuous action space these reward/punishment strategies allow the system to find a good solution usually within about 20 trials. The efficiency of our method demonstrated in this test scenario suggests that it might be possible to use it on a real robot for problems where mixed rewards can be defined in situations where other types of learning might be difficult.

  19. Local Action Groups and Rural Sustainable Development. A spatial multiple criteria approach for efficient territorial planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmisano, Giovanni Ottomano; Govindan, M.E., PhD.,, Kannan; Boggia, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Local Action Groups in order to promote the objectives of Rural Sustainable Development within rural municipalities. Each Local Action Group applies the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats analysis in order to identify for its own rural municipalities the strategic elements to which...... and a Weakness factors and decision alternatives, as well as impossibility of ranking the decision alternatives. Thus, this research aims to overcome the drawbacks of the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats analysis and to support Local Action Group partnerships in the sustainability evaluation...... of their rural municipalities, and therefore to aid the identification of a common Rural Sustainable Development strategy to allocate the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development budget. This decision problem was tackled by applying a Multiple Criteria Spatial Decision Support System that integrates...

  20. Integrating transformative learning and action learning approaches to enhance ethical leadership for supervisors in the hotel business

    OpenAIRE

    Boonyuen Saranya; Charungkaittikul Suwithida; Ratana-ubol Archanya

    2016-01-01

    Ethical leadership is now increasingly focused in leadership development. The main purpose of this study is to explore two methods of adult learning, action learning and transformative learning, and to use the methods to enhance ethical leadership. Building ethical leadership requires an approach that focuses on personal values, beliefs, or frames of references, which is transformative learning. Transformative learning requires a series of meetings to conduct critical discourse and to follow ...

  1. Understanding African American women's decisions to buy and eat dark green leafy vegetables: an application of the reasoned action approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheats, Jylana L; Middlestadt, Susan E; Ona, Fernando F; Juarez, Paul D; Kolbe, Lloyd J

    2013-01-01

    Examine intentions to buy and eat dark green leafy vegetables (DGLV). Cross-sectional survey assessing demographics, behavior, intention, and Reasoned Action Approach constructs (attitude, perceived norm, self-efficacy). Marion County, Indiana. African American women responsible for buying and preparing household food. Reasoned Action Approach constructs explaining intentions to buy and eat DGLV. Summary statistics, Pearson correlations, and multiple regression analyses. Among participants (n = 410, mean age = 43 y), 76% and 80%, respectively, reported buying and eating DGLV in the past week. Mean consumption was 1.5 cups in the past 3 days. Intentions to buy (r = 0.20, P Reasoned Action Approach constructs explained 71.2% of the variance in intention to buy, and 60.9% of the variance in intention to eat DGLV. Attitude (β = .63) and self-efficacy (β = .24) related to buying and attitude (β = .60) and self-efficacy (β = .23) related to eating DGLV explained significant amounts of variance in intentions to buy and eat more DGLV. Perceived norm was unrelated to either intention to buy or eat DGLV. Interventions designed for this population of women should aim to improve DGLV-related attitudes and self-efficacy. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Mechanisms underlying alcohol-approach action tendencies: The role of emotional primes and drinking motives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cousijn, J.; Luijten, M.; Wiers, R.W.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    The tendency to approach alcohol-related stimuli is known as the alcohol-approach bias and has been related to heavy alcohol use. It is currently unknown whether the alcohol-approach bias is more pronounced after emotional priming. The main aim of this study was to investigate whether positive and

  3. Mechanisms underlying alcohol-approach action tendencies : the role of emotional primes and drinking motives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cousijn, Janna; Luijten, Maartje; Wiers, Reinout W

    The tendency to approach alcohol-related stimuli is known as the alcohol-approach bias and has been related to heavy alcohol use. It is currently unknown whether the alcohol-approach bias is more pronounced after emotional priming. The main aim of this study was to investigate whether positive and

  4. Mechanisms underlying alcohol-approach action tendencies: the role of emotional primes and drinking motives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cousijn, J.; Luijten, M.; Wiers, R.W.

    2014-01-01

    The tendency to approach alcohol-related stimuli is known as the alcohol-approach bias and has been related to heavy alcohol use. It is currently unknown whether the alcohol-approach bias is more pronounced after emotional priming. The main aim of this study was to investigate whether positive and

  5. Mechanisms underlying alcohol-approach action tendencies: The role of emotional primes and drinking motives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Cousijn (Janna); M. Luijten (Maartje); R.W. Wiers (Reinout)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThe tendency to approach alcohol-related stimuli is known as the alcohol-approach bias and has been related to heavy alcohol use. It is currently unknown whether the alcohol-approach bias is more pronounced after emotional priming. The main aim of this study was to investigate whether

  6. The quantum Hall effects: Philosophical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer, P.

    2015-05-01

    The Quantum Hall Effects offer a rich variety of theoretical and experimental advances. They provide interesting insights on such topics as gauge invariance, strong interactions in Condensed Matter physics, emergence of new paradigms. This paper focuses on some related philosophical questions. Various brands of positivism or agnosticism are confronted with the physics of the Quantum Hall Effects. Hacking's views on Scientific Realism, Chalmers' on Non-Figurative Realism are discussed. It is argued that the difficulties with those versions of realism may be resolved within a dialectical materialist approach. The latter is argued to provide a rational approach to the phenomena, theory and ontology of the Quantum Hall Effects.

  7. Climate Masters of Nebraska: An Innovative Action-Based Approach for Climate Change Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Tapan B.; Bernadt, Tonya; Umphlett, Natalie

    2014-01-01

    Climate Masters of Nebraska is an innovative educational program that strategically trains community volunteers about climate change science and corresponding ways to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in an interactive and action-based teaching environment. As a result of the program, 91% of participants indicated that they made informed changes in…

  8. Developing Library GIS Services for Humanities and Social Science: An Action Research Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Ningning; Fosmire, Michael; Branch, Benjamin Dewayne

    2017-01-01

    In the academic libraries' efforts to support digital humanities and social science, GIS service plays an important role. However, there is no general service model existing about how libraries can develop GIS services to best engage with digital humanities and social science. In this study, we adopted the action research method to develop and…

  9. Assisting School Management Teams to Construct Their School Improvement Plans: An Action Learning Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Voort, Geoffrey; Wood, Lesley

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on a first cycle of a larger action research study conducted to determine how Circuit Teams could support School Management Teams of underperforming high schools towards whole-school development. Although it is a mandated requirement by the Department of Education, none of the four schools involved in the study had developed a…

  10. Between altruism and narcissism: An action theoretical approach of personal homepages devoted to existential meaning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hijmans, E.J.S.; Selm, M. van

    2002-01-01

    This article aims to examine existential meaning constructions from an action theoretical perspective in a specific Internet environment: the personal homepage. Personal homepages are on-line multi-media documents addressing the question Who am I? Authors of personal homepages provide information on

  11. Dialogue--Missing in Action Competence: A Cultural Historical Activity Theory Approach in a Botswana School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silo, Nthalivi

    2013-01-01

    An in-depth case study on children's participation in environmental management activities in a primary school in Botswana was undertaken, drawing on cultural historical activity theory (CHAT) and the action competence model. This research revealed that due to a lack of dialogue between teachers and children, teachers tended to view children's…

  12. A Graph-Based Approach to Action Scheduling in a Parallel Database System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grefen, P.W.P.J.; Apers, Peter M.G.

    Parallel database machines are meant to obtain high performance in transaction processing, both in terms of response time adn throughput. To obtain high performance, a good scheduling of the execution of the various actions in transactions is crucial. This paper describes a graph-based technique for

  13. Doing Without Schema Hierarchies: A Recurrent Connectionist Approach to Normal and Impaired Routine Sequential Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botvinick, Matthew; Plaut, David C.

    2004-01-01

    In everyday tasks, selecting actions in the proper sequence requires a continuously updated representation of temporal context. Previous models have addressed this problem by positing a hierarchy of processing units, mirroring the roughly hierarchical structure of naturalistic tasks themselves. The present study considers an alternative framework,…

  14. Biological actions and effects of low-frequency fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brix, J.

    1993-01-01

    Cell culture studies have shown that low-frequency electromagnetic fields may affect cell behaviour. The fact that the corresponding field strengths are too weak to affect membrane potential, suggests that these fields trigger enzymatic reactions at the outer face of the membrane, i.e. cell-intrinsic reaction cascades and a biological modification of the affected biological system take place. These are working models and hypotheses which need to substantiated by further studies in this field. Epidemiological studies suggest that electromagnetic fields influence cancer development in man. However there is no action model indicating exposure to fields to be a genotoxic agent possible triggering a direct genetic modification which precludesr any initialization. (orig.) [de

  15. System markets: Indirect network effects in action, or inaction?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.L.G. Binken (Jeroen)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIn this dissertation, I empirically examine system markets up close. More specifically I examine indirect network effects, both demand-side and supply-side indirect network effects. Indirect network effects are the source of positive feedback in system markets, or so network effect

  16. Effects of Affordance Perception on the Initiation and Actualization of Action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, Joanne; Pepping, Gert-Jan

    2010-01-01

    Studies have shown information specifying some affordances may be faster or easier to perceive than others. This article investigates the effect of affordance perception on the time taken to initiate and perform an action. In particular it focuses on how action timing varies as a function of a

  17. The robust corrective action priority-an improved approach for selecting competing corrective actions in FMEA based on principle of robust design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutrisno, Agung; Gunawan, Indra; Vanany, Iwan

    2017-11-01

    In spite of being integral part in risk - based quality improvement effort, studies improving quality of selection of corrective action priority using FMEA technique are still limited in literature. If any, none is considering robustness and risk in selecting competing improvement initiatives. This study proposed a theoretical model to select risk - based competing corrective action by considering robustness and risk of competing corrective actions. We incorporated the principle of robust design in counting the preference score among corrective action candidates. Along with considering cost and benefit of competing corrective actions, we also incorporate the risk and robustness of corrective actions. An example is provided to represent the applicability of the proposed model.

  18. Approach and plan for cleanup actions in the 100-FR-2 operable unit of the Hanford Site, Revision 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    A new administrative approach is being used to reach a cleanup decision for the 100-FR-2 Operable Unit. The unit, located at the 100-F Area, contains solid waste sites and is one of the remaining operable units scheduled for characterization and cleanup in the 100 Area. This Focus Package (1) describes the new approach and activities needed to reach a decision on cleanup actions for the 100-FR-2 Operable Unit and (2) invites public participation into the planning process. The previous approach included the production of a Work Plan, a Limited Field Investigation Report, a Qualitative Risk Assessment, a Focused Feasibility Study, and a Proposed Plan, all culminating in an interim action Record of Decision. Information gathered to date on other operable units allows the analgous site approach to be used on the 100-FR-2 Operable Unit, and therefore, a reduction in documentation preparation. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington State Department of Ecology, and the U.S. Department of Energy (Tri-Party Agreement) believe that the new approach will save time and funding. In the new approach, the Work Plan has been condensed into this 12 page Focus Package. The Focus Package includes a summary of 100-F Area information, a list of waste sites in the 100-FR-2 Operable Unit, a summary of proposed work, and a schedule. The new approach will also combine the Limited Field Investigation and Qualitative Risk Assessment reports into the Focused Feasibility Study. The Focused Feasibility Study will analyze methods and costs to clean up waste sites. Consolidating the documents should reduce the time to complete the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) process by 16 months, compared to the previous approach

  19. The Effect of Rapacuronium or Succinylcholine on the Duration of Action of Rocuronium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-10-01

    THESIS APPROVAL FORM THE EFFECT OF RAPACURONIUM OR SUCCINYLCHOLINE ON THE DURATION OF ACTION OF ROCURONIUM Rachael Fontanilla, Capt...on the Duration of Action of Rocuronium ” beyond brief excerpts is with the permission of the copyright owner, and will save and hold harmless...side effects. Non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents achieve the same efficacy as succinylcholine without the adverse effects. Rocuronium , an

  20. High-energy effective action from scattering of QCD shock waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ian Balitsky

    2005-07-01

    At high energies, the relevant degrees of freedom are Wilson lines - infinite gauge links ordered along straight lines collinear to the velocities of colliding particles. The effective action for these Wilson lines is determined by the scattering of QCD shock waves. I develop the symmetric expansion of the effective action in powers of strength of one of the shock waves and calculate the leading term of the series. The corresponding first-order effective action, symmetric with respect to projectile and target, includes both up and down fan diagrams and pomeron loops.

  1. The effects of an action video game on visual and affective information processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Kira; West, Robert

    2013-04-04

    Playing action video games can have beneficial effects on visuospatial cognition and negative effects on social information processing. However, these two effects have not been demonstrated in the same individuals in a single study. The current study used event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to examine the effects of playing an action or non-action video game on the processing of emotion in facial expression. The data revealed that 10h of playing an action or non-action video game had differential effects on the ERPs relative to a no-contact control group. Playing an action game resulted in two effects: one that reflected an increase in the amplitude of the ERPs following training over the right frontal and posterior regions that was similar for angry, happy, and neutral faces; and one that reflected a reduction in the allocation of attention to happy faces. In contrast, playing a non-action game resulted in changes in slow wave activity over the central-parietal and frontal regions that were greater for targets (i.e., angry and happy faces) than for non-targets (i.e., neutral faces). These data demonstrate that the contrasting effects of action video games on visuospatial and emotion processing occur in the same individuals following the same level of gaming experience. This observation leads to the suggestion that caution should be exercised when using action video games to modify visual processing, as this experience could also have unintended effects on emotion processing. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. System markets: Indirect network effects in action, or inaction?

    OpenAIRE

    Binken, Jeroen

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIn this dissertation, I empirically examine system markets up close. More specifically I examine indirect network effects, both demand-side and supply-side indirect network effects. Indirect network effects are the source of positive feedback in system markets, or so network effect theory tells us. Systems are composed of complementary and interdependent products, such as hardware and software. For instance, a video game system is composed of the video game console, on the one han...

  3. Automatic imitation in rhythmical actions: kinematic fidelity and the effects of compatibility, delay, and visual monitoring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel L Eaves

    Full Text Available We demonstrate that observation of everyday rhythmical actions biases subsequent motor execution of the same and of different actions, using a paradigm where the observed actions were irrelevant for action execution. The cycle time of the distractor actions was subtly manipulated across trials, and the cycle time of motor responses served as the main dependent measure. Although distractor frequencies reliably biased response cycle times, this imitation bias was only a small fraction of the modulations in distractor speed, as well as of the modulations produced when participants intentionally imitated the observed rhythms. Importantly, this bias was not only present for compatible actions, but was also found, though numerically reduced, when distractor and executed actions were different (e.g., tooth brushing vs. window wiping, or when the dominant plane of movement was different (horizontal vs. vertical. In addition, these effects were equally pronounced for execution at 0, 4, and 8 s after action observation, a finding that contrasts with the more short-lived effects reported in earlier studies. The imitation bias was also unaffected when vision of the hand was occluded during execution, indicating that this effect most likely resulted from visuomotor interactions during distractor observation, rather than from visual monitoring and guidance during execution. Finally, when the distractor was incompatible in both dimensions (action type and plane the imitation bias was not reduced further, in an additive way, relative to the single-incompatible conditions. This points to a mechanism whereby the observed action's impact on motor processing is generally reduced whenever this is not useful for motor planning. We interpret these findings in the framework of biased competition, where intended and distractor actions can be represented as competing and quasi-encapsulated sensorimotor streams.

  4. Action potential influences spatial perception: Evidence for genuine top-down effects on perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Jessica K

    2017-08-01

    The action-specific account of spatial perception asserts that a perceiver's ability to perform an action, such as hitting a softball or walking up a hill, impacts the visual perception of the target object. Although much evidence is consistent with this claim, the evidence has been challenged as to whether perception is truly impacted, as opposed to the responses themselves. These challenges have recently been organized as six pitfalls that provide a framework with which to evaluate the empirical evidence. Four case studies of action-specific effects are offered as evidence that meets the framework's high bar, and thus that demonstrates genuine perceptual effects. That action influences spatial perception is evidence that perceptual and action-related processes are intricately and bidirectionally linked.

  5. The effects of familiarity on thought--action fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Noah C; Wheaton, Michael G; Fabricant, Laura E; Jacobson, Spenser R; Abramowitz, Jonathan S

    2011-10-01

    The present study examined whether beliefs about the importance of thoughts (i.e., thought--action fusion; TAF) are related to the target subject of the negative thought. One hundred and seven undergraduate students were randomly assigned to imagine either a beloved relative or a stranger being diagnosed with cancer and provided in vivo ratings of anxiety, likelihood, moral wrongness, urge to neutralize, and how upsetting the event would be if it occurred. Results indicated that thinking of a relative being diagnosed with cancer provoked more distress, urges to neutralize, and higher estimates of likelihood, as well greater use of mental neutralizing behaviors, compared to thinking of a stranger. Contrary to our prediction, the groups did not differ in their ratings of the moral wrongness. These findings broadly support the assertion that the more personally significant a negative intrusive thought, the more it will provoke distress and urges to neutralize. Results are discussed in terms of the cognitive model of obsessions and clinical implications are addressed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Modeling Approach/Strategy for Corrective Action Unit 97, Yucca Flat and Climax Mine , Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janet Willie

    2003-08-01

    The objectives of the UGTA corrective action strategy are to predict the location of the contaminant boundary for each CAU, develop and implement a corrective action, and close each CAU. The process for achieving this strategy includes modeling to define the maximum extent of contaminant transport within a specified time frame. Modeling is a method of forecasting how the hydrogeologic system, including the underground test cavities, will behave over time with the goal of assessing the migration of radionuclides away from the cavities and chimneys. Use of flow and transport models to achieve the objectives of the corrective action strategy is specified in the FFACO. In the Yucca Flat/Climax Mine system, radionuclide migration will be governed by releases from the cavities and chimneys, and transport in alluvial aquifers, fractured and partially fractured volcanic rock aquifers and aquitards, the carbonate aquifers, and in intrusive units. Additional complexity is associated with multiple faults in Yucca Flat and the need to consider reactive transport mechanisms that both reduce and enhance the mobility of radionuclides. A summary of the data and information that form the technical basis for the model is provided in this document.

  7. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 574: Neptune, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2011-08-31

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan identifies the activities required for closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 574, Neptune. CAU 574 is included in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (1996 [as amended March 2010]) and consists of the following two Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Area 12 of the Nevada National Security Site: (1) CAS 12-23-10, U12c.03 Crater (Neptune); (2) CAS 12-45-01, U12e.05 Crater (Blanca). This plan provides the methodology for the field activities that will be performed to gather the necessary information for closure of the two CASs. There is sufficient information and process knowledge regarding the expected nature and extent of potential contaminants to recommend closure of CAU 574 using the SAFER process. Based on historical documentation, personnel interviews, site process knowledge, site visits, photographs, field screening, analytical results, the results of the data quality objective (DQO) process (Section 3.0), and an evaluation of corrective action alternatives (Appendix B), closure in place with administrative controls is the expected closure strategy for CAU 574. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a field investigation to verify and support the expected closure strategy and provide a defensible recommendation that no further corrective action is necessary. This will be presented in a Closure Report that will be prepared and submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) for review and approval.

  8. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Work Plan for Corrective Action Unit 461: Joint Test Assembly Sites and Corrective Action Unit 495: Unconfirmed Joint Test Assembly Sites Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeff Smith

    1998-08-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration plan addresses the action necessary for the clean closure of Corrective Action Unit 461 (Test Area Joint Test Assembly Sites) and Corrective Action Unit 495 (Unconfirmed Joint Test Assembly Sites). The Corrective Action Units are located at the Tonopah Test Range in south central Nevada. Closure for these sites will be completed by excavating and evaluating the condition of each artillery round (if found); detonating the rounds (if necessary); excavating the impacted soil and debris; collecting verification samples; backfilling the excavations; disposing of the impacted soil and debris at an approved low-level waste repository at the Nevada Test Site

  9. Action time effect of lime on its depressive ability for pyrite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tichang Sun

    2004-01-01

    Two sample groups of bulk concentrates consisting mainly of pyrite and chalcopyrite from Daye and Chenghchao Mines in Hubei Province of China were used to investigate the effect of the action time of lime on its depressive ability for pyrite. The experimental results conducted with different samples and collectors showed that the action time between lime and pyrite markedly influences the depressive ability of lime. The depressive ability of lime increased with the action time increasing. It was also proved that the depressive results obtained at a large lime dosage after a shorter action time are similar to those obtained at a small lime dosage after a longer action time. The increase of depressive ability of lime after a longer action time is because that there are different mechanisms in different action time. The composition on the surface of pyrite acted for different time with lime was studied by using ESCA (Electron Spectroscopic Chemical Analysis). The results showed that iron hydroxide and calcium sulphate formed on the pyrite surface at the presence of lime in the pulp but the amounts of iron hydroxide and calcium sulphate were different at different action time. At the beginning action time the compound formed on the pyrite surface was mainly calcium sulphate and almost no iron hydroxide formed; but with the action time increasing, iron hydroxide formed. The longer the action time, the more iron hydroxide and the less calcium sulphate formed. It was considered that the stronger depressive ability of lime after a longer action time is because more iron hydroxide forms on the pyrite surface.

  10. Re-training automatic action tendencies to approach cigarettes among adolescent smokers: a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kong, G.; Larsen, H.; Cavallo, D.A.; Becker, D.; Cousijn, J.; Salemink, E.; Collot D'Escury-Koenigs, A.L.; Morean, M.E.; Wiers, R.W.; Krishnan-Sarin, S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: This pilot study conducted a preliminary examination of whether Cognitive Bias Modification (CBM), a computerized task to retrain cognitive-approach biases towards smoking stimuli (a) changed approach bias for cigarettes, and (b) improved smoking cessation outcomes in adolescent smokers.

  11. Developing an effective corrective action process : lessons learned from operating a confidential close call reporting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    In 2007, the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) launched : C3RS, the Confidential Close Call Reporting System, as a : demonstration project to learn how to facilitate the effective : reporting and implementation of corrective actions, and assess t...

  12. Fight against the greenhouse effect. From the local to the international action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mousel, M.

    2002-01-01

    In the fight against the greenhouse gases emissions, the local government are directly concerned. This sheet aims to explain the greenhouse effect, the kyoto protocol, the french national policy and to orientate the local actions. (A.L.B.)

  13. The Effects of Motoric Action and Organization on Children's Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heindel, Patricia; Kose, Gary

    1990-01-01

    Two experiments examined preschool, first, and third grade students for the effects of motoric activities on memory performance. Findings for the first experiment revealed that, although organizational differences affected memory performance, the drawing of configurations enhanced the effect of unitary organization. In the second experiment,…

  14. Biological effects under combined action of radiation and chemical factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malenchenko, A.F.

    1990-01-01

    The paper considers the manifoild factors of environmental pollution effect upon living organisms and their possible response manifested in additivity, synergism and anthogonism. Consideration is also given to the possible practical measures for improving ecological situation and decreasing the risk of anthropogenesis negative after-effects

  15. Strategic Action in Nuclear Waste Disposal: Canada's Adaptive Phased Management Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durant, Darrin

    2006-01-01

    It has been noted that Sweden's SKB has shifted emphasis in its waste management approach, from an emphasis upon geological barriers to engineering barriers. This shift has been called strategic adaptation, though, with the appearance of responsiveness to external demands actually allowing the piloting of previously preferred options. This paper argues that a similar case of strategic adaptation has taken place in Canada, with the NWMO using dialogue with the public and an emphasis upon adaptability in order to pilot through decade-old technical preferences. Is dialogue a cure-all for participatory democracy advocates, and what implications does strategic adaptation have for discussions of the risk society? Nuclear waste disposal programs are now routinely confronting the question of whether to limit the notion of 'risk' to a quantitative discourse about biological and physical effects or allow the discussion to broaden to considerations of social perceptions of acceptability. While the effects of a limited discourse are well studied, this paper explores the other side of the coin, analyzing institutionalized discourse about radwaste management that has broadened to include social perceptions of acceptability. The case in question is Canada's Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO). Despite its inclusive rhetoric, this paper suggests the NWMO's participatory discourse is in fact strategic adaptation: the construction of 'socially acceptable risk' co-opts social acceptance in the preservation of previously preferred technical and policy options. This alternative reading is consistent with trends in other nations, while posing difficult questions for risk society theorists. In both the Finnish and Swedish cases, Lidskog and Litmanen showed that relatively stable social definitions of the risk situation have been packaged differently as local circumstances demand. Strategic arguments have been used to defend and/or justify more basic social definitions. In a

  16. Automatic Imitation in Rhythmical Actions: Kinematic Fidelity and the Effects of Compatibility, Delay, and Visual Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaves, Daniel L.; Turgeon, Martine; Vogt, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate that observation of everyday rhythmical actions biases subsequent motor execution of the same and of different actions, using a paradigm where the observed actions were irrelevant for action execution. The cycle time of the distractor actions was subtly manipulated across trials, and the cycle time of motor responses served as the main dependent measure. Although distractor frequencies reliably biased response cycle times, this imitation bias was only a small fraction of the modulations in distractor speed, as well as of the modulations produced when participants intentionally imitated the observed rhythms. Importantly, this bias was not only present for compatible actions, but was also found, though numerically reduced, when distractor and executed actions were different (e.g., tooth brushing vs. window wiping), or when the dominant plane of movement was different (horizontal vs. vertical). In addition, these effects were equally pronounced for execution at 0, 4, and 8 s after action observation, a finding that contrasts with the more short-lived effects reported in earlier studies. The imitation bias was also unaffected when vision of the hand was occluded during execution, indicating that this effect most likely resulted from visuomotor interactions during distractor observation, rather than from visual monitoring and guidance during execution. Finally, when the distractor was incompatible in both dimensions (action type and plane) the imitation bias was not reduced further, in an additive way, relative to the single-incompatible conditions. This points to a mechanism whereby the observed action’s impact on motor processing is generally reduced whenever this is not useful for motor planning. We interpret these findings in the framework of biased competition, where intended and distractor actions can be represented as competing and quasi-encapsulated sensorimotor streams. PMID:23071623

  17. Quasiconfigurations: an approach to effective forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poves, A.; Pasquini, E.; Zuker, A.P.

    1978-01-01

    Many body effective operators appear naturally by dressing states through a perturbative unitary transformation. They have forms that differ from those obtained in the Bloch-Horowitz approach. The fsub(7/2)sup(n) problem is treated explicitly. Pandya's transforms are generalized

  18. Philosophical inquiry and the goals of nursing: a critical approach for disciplinary knowledge development and action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Pamela J; Perry, Donna J

    2013-01-01

    Philosophical inquiry remains critically important for nursing education, practice, and knowledge development. We propose a 3-level taxonomy of philosophical inquiry to guide nursing curricula and research development. Important background information about philosophy and the development of philosophical methods is given. Then philosophical inquiry is linked to the goals of nursing using our proposed taxonomy: level I-cultivating an attitude of "critical consciousness" related to all nursing situations and actions, level II-analysis and application of philosophical perspectives to nursing problems and level III-generating new knowledge for nursing purposes including new theories of practice and research.

  19. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 408: Bomblet Target Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2006-01-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan provides the details for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 408, Bomblet Target Area. CAU 408 is located at the Tonopah Test Range and is currently listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order of 1996. One Corrective Action Site (CAS) is included in CAU 408: (lg b ullet) CAS TA-55-002-TAB2, Bomblet Target Areas Based on historical documentation, personnel interviews, process knowledge, site visits, aerial photography, multispectral data, preliminary geophysical surveys, and the results of data quality objectives process (Section 3.0), clean closure will be implemented for CAU 408. CAU 408 closure activities will consist of identification and clearance of bomblet target areas, identification and removal of depleted uranium (DU) fragments on South Antelope Lake, and collection of verification samples. Any soil containing contaminants at concentrations above the action levels will be excavated and transported to an appropriate disposal facility. Based on existing information, contaminants of potential concern at CAU 408 include explosives. In addition, at South Antelope Lake, bomblets containing DU were tested. None of these contaminants is expected to be present in the soil at concentrations above the action levels; however, this will be determined by radiological surveys and verification sample results. The corrective action investigation and closure activities have been planned to include data collection and hold points throughout the process. Hold points are designed to allow decision makers to review the existing data and decide which of the available options are most suitable. Hold points include the review of radiological, geophysical, and analytical data and field observations

  20. Theories of opportunity creation and effective entrepreneurial actions in opportunity creation context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrooz Jamali

    2018-09-01

    Full Text Available Created opportunities are refered as the opportunities in which none of the supply and demand parties exists clearly and obviously one or both of them must be created. Therefore, several economic inventions should take place in marketing, franchising, etc. so that opportunity can be created. This perception of opportunity deals with the creation of new markets. In the meantime, identifying some entrepreneurial actions influencing on the creation of entrepreneurial opportunities can provide backgrounds for the formation and empowering the opportunity creation. In this paper, some basic ideas about the creation of entrepreneurial opportunities and the evolution of opportunity creation theories are examined. Then effective actions on the opportunity creation are identified. Finally, the structure of the investigated actions is examined using the DEMATLE Method. The results which were according to the opinions of 15 experts of entrepreneurship showed that leadership, decision making, and strategy actions influence other entrepreneurial actions.

  1. World-volume effective action of exotic five-brane in M-theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Tetsuji; Sasaki, Shin; Yata, Masaya

    2016-01-01

    We study the world-volume effective action of an exotic five-brane, known as the M-theory 5"3-brane (M5"3-brane) in eleven dimensions. The supermultiplet of the world-volume theory is the N=(2,0) tensor multiplet in six dimensions. The world-volume action contains three Killing vectors k̂_I_̂"M (Î=1,2,3) associated with the U(1)"3 isometry. We find the effective T-duality rule for the eleven-dimensional backgrounds that transforms the M5-brane effective action to that of the M5"3-brane. We also show that our action provides the source term for the M5"3-brane geometry in eleven-dimensional supergravity.

  2. World-volume effective action of exotic five-brane in M-theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Tetsuji [Research and Education Center for Natural Sciences, Keio University, Hiyoshi 4-1-1, Yokohama, Kanagawa 223-8521 (Japan); Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology,Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Sasaki, Shin [Department of Physics, Kitasato University,Sagamihara 252-0373 (Japan); Yata, Masaya [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore,2, Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore)

    2016-02-25

    We study the world-volume effective action of an exotic five-brane, known as the M-theory 5{sup 3}-brane (M5{sup 3}-brane) in eleven dimensions. The supermultiplet of the world-volume theory is the N=(2,0) tensor multiplet in six dimensions. The world-volume action contains three Killing vectors k̂{sub Î}{sup M} (Î=1,2,3) associated with the U(1){sup 3} isometry. We find the effective T-duality rule for the eleven-dimensional backgrounds that transforms the M5-brane effective action to that of the M5{sup 3}-brane. We also show that our action provides the source term for the M5{sup 3}-brane geometry in eleven-dimensional supergravity.

  3. [The effect of food intake on drug action].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pletscher, W; Peretti, E

    1990-01-01

    Interactions between medicaments and food are only incompletely documented--despite their frequent occurrence. Food can influence the effect of medicaments in a variety of ways: the effect of the medicament can be delayed or weakened; in some cases the effect may also be increased. The interactions between the kinetics of medicaments and food are described in the present survey. The absorption conditions in the stomach and small intestine are influenced physiologically and chemically by food. In very rare cases the elimination of active ingredients too can be modified by the quality and quantity of the food. Detailed knowledge about the physical-chemical properties of the medicaments used help to optimize the pharmacotherapy in the individual case. For the patient, the easiest suggestion to follow would be to take the medicaments with plenty of water and always at the same time.

  4. The Greenhouse effect: from research to political action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, A.; Charmant, A.; Ladoux, N.; Vielle, M.

    1992-01-01

    What would be the ecological and socio-economic consequences of the warming of the planet Earth. The greenhouse effect is better defined today, but evaluating the dangers is still a risky business which demands extreme caution. The study recapitulates the current state of knowledge, and the preventive measures under consideration, so as to encourage the examination of the question

  5. Acute Stressor Effects on Goal-Directed Action in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Stephanie; Hauber, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Here we examined effects of acute stressors that involve either systemic coadministration of corticosterone/yohimbine (3 mg/kg each) to increase glucocorticoid/noradrenaline activity (denoted as "pharmacological" stressor) or one or several distinct restraint stressors (denoted as "single" vs. "multiple" stressor) on…

  6. Effectiveness of Mentoring Program Practices. Research in Action. Issue 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBois, David L.

    2007-01-01

    This article focuses on mentoring program practices in relation to issues of effectiveness, while recognizing that implications for program quality conceptualized more broadly is a key concern in need of greater investigation. The author provides an overview of selected conceptual and methodological issues involved with identification of…

  7. Estimation of several political action effects of energy prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew B. Whitford

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One important effect of price shocks in the United States has been increased political attention paid to the structure and performance of oil and natural gas markets, along with some governmental support for energy conservation. This article describes how price changes helped lead to the emergence of a political agenda accompanied by several interventions, as revealed through Granger causality tests on change in the legislative agenda.

  8. Heart Surgery Waiting Time: Assessing the Effectiveness of an Action

    OpenAIRE

    Badakhshan, Abbas; Arab, Mohammad; Gholipour, Mahin; Behnampour, Naser; Saleki, Saeid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Waiting time is an index assessing patient satisfaction, managerial effectiveness and horizontal equity in providing health care. Although heart surgery centers establishment is attractive for politicians. They are always faced with the question of to what extent they solve patient’s problems. Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate factors influencing waiting time in patients of heart surgery centers, and to make recommendations for health-care policy-makers for r...

  9. A call for action: comparative effectiveness research in asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnan, Jerry A.; Schatz, Michael X.; Apter, Andrea J.

    2010-01-01

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) has received considerable research attention in recent months, and efforts to promote CER are part of the newly enacted Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. In this paper, we define CER, how it complements traditional efficacy research in asthma, and discuss how CER can help provide the basis for rational decision-making about the care of individual patients with asthma and how best to deliver this care in real-world settings. We present informa...

  10. Guar gum: Its effects and mechanism of action in humans.

    OpenAIRE

    Tredger, Jacki A.

    1984-01-01

    In acute studies guar flour, guar powder and guar granules reduced mean post prandial insulin levels in normal subjects following liquid glucose. The flour and powder also reduced mean plasma GIP levels compared to glucose alone. Guar granules had no effect on the mean plasma glucose, insulin or GIP responses of either normal or non insulin dependent diabetic (NIDDM) subjects to a solid mixed meal but guar powder reduced mean post prandial plasma glucose, insulin, and GIP levels in both group...

  11. Strategic Action in Nuclear Waste Disposal: Canada's Adaptive Phased Management Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durant, Darrin [York Univ., Toronto (Canada). Program in Science and Technology Studies

    2006-09-15

    It has been noted that Sweden's SKB has shifted emphasis in its waste management approach, from an emphasis upon geological barriers to engineering barriers. This shift has been called strategic adaptation, though, with the appearance of responsiveness to external demands actually allowing the piloting of previously preferred options. This paper argues that a similar case of strategic adaptation has taken place in Canada, with the NWMO using dialogue with the public and an emphasis upon adaptability in order to pilot through decade-old technical preferences. Is dialogue a cure-all for participatory democracy advocates, and what implications does strategic adaptation have for discussions of the risk society? Nuclear waste disposal programs are now routinely confronting the question of whether to limit the notion of 'risk' to a quantitative discourse about biological and physical effects or allow the discussion to broaden to considerations of social perceptions of acceptability. While the effects of a limited discourse are well studied, this paper explores the other side of the coin, analyzing institutionalized discourse about radwaste management that has broadened to include social perceptions of acceptability. The case in question is Canada's Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO). Despite its inclusive rhetoric, this paper suggests the NWMO's participatory discourse is in fact strategic adaptation: the construction of 'socially acceptable risk' co-opts social acceptance in the preservation of previously preferred technical and policy options. This alternative reading is consistent with trends in other nations, while posing difficult questions for risk society theorists. In both the Finnish and Swedish cases, Lidskog and Litmanen showed that relatively stable social definitions of the risk situation have been packaged differently as local circumstances demand. Strategic arguments have been used to defend and/or justify more

  12. Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project approach to building dismantlement and demolition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spittler, F.J.

    1996-01-01

    When remediation began at the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP), there were 41 buildings on site. Twenty-nine of these buildings were ancillary structures and were not used for processing radioactive material. Most of these have been torn down. The remaining 12 buildings were used for uranium and thorium processing or were major support structures, such as the laboratory. Two of the buildings were major processing operations occurred were successfully demolished in February of this year. Demolition of all structures will be complete in September of this year. To give an understanding of the magnitude of the work, the following is a description of the physical characteristics of the green salt building. This building was used to convert brown oxide (UO3) to green salt (UF4), which is the last intermediate step in purifying the mostly yellow cake feed material into uranium metal.

  13. A facet approach to extending the normative component of the theory of reasoned action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald, I; Cooper, S R

    2001-12-01

    Using facet theory, this study addresses the weak explanatory power of normative influence in theories of reasoned action or planned behaviour. A broad normative construct is hypothesized as being characterized by two facets--social unit and behavioural modality--each of which is examined in relation to recreational drug use. A questionnaire was developed from the facets and administered to undergraduate students. Data (N = 181) were analysed using Smallest Space Analysis (SSA). The results suggest that the facets provide an adequate description of the normative construct and that personal and social normative beliefs, behavioural norms and behavioural intentions can be distinguished empirically. The results also lend partial support to Ajzen's (1988; Ajzen & Fishbein, 1977) principle of compatibility. Implications for how social influence is operationalized and conceptualized are also discussed.

  14. THEORY OF REASONED ACTION FOR CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT CAPABILITIES: A BEHAVIORAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Siegler

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The importance of interaction between Operations Management (OM and Human Behavior has been recently re-addressed. This paper introduced the Reasoned Action Theory suggested by Froehle and Roth (2004 to analyze Operational Capabilities exploring the suitability of this model in the context of OM. It also seeks to discuss the behavioral aspects of operational capabilities from the perspective of organizational routines. This theory was operationalized using Fishbein and Ajzen (F/A behavioral model and a multi-case strategy was employed to analyze the Continuous Improvement (CI capability. The results posit that the model explains partially the CI behavior in an operational context and some contingency variables might influence the general relationsamong the variables involved in the F/A model. Thus intention might not be the determinant variable of behavior in this context.

  15. Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project approach to building dismantlement and demolition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spittler, F.J.

    1996-01-01

    When remediation began at the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP), there were 41 buildings on site. Twenty-nine of these buildings were ancillary structures and were not used for processing radioactive material. Most of these have been torn down. The remaining 12 buildings were used for uranium and thorium processing or were major support structures, such as the laboratory. Two of the buildings were major processing operations occurred were successfully demolished in February of this year. Demolition of all structures will be complete in September of this year. To give an understanding of the magnitude of the work, the following is a description of the physical characteristics of the green salt building. This building was used to convert brown oxide (UO3) to green salt (UF4), which is the last intermediate step in purifying the mostly yellow cake feed material into uranium metal

  16. Protective action evaluation, Part 1. Effectiveness of sheltering as a protective action against nuclear accidents involving gaseous releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anno, G.H.; Dore, M.A.

    1978-04-01

    In an airborne release of radioactive material from a nuclear power plant accident, sheltering of individuals is of importance in emergency protective action planning. An analysis to estimate the effectiveness or benefit that might be derived from sheltering is described. The objective of this effort is the development of sheltering effectiveness information for those responsible for formulating required emergency plans for nuclear power plant siting. Shelter effectiveness is specifically defined as the dose reduction factor (DRF). DRF estimates for different conditions of source release, shelter structure assumptions, and operational time parameters are made for both whole-body and thyroid doses separately, based on a single-compartment structural model of the time-varying outside and inside gaseous radionuclide sources of krypton, zenon, and iodine. Design basis accident (DBA) assumptions are made for the gaseous radionuclide release. The magnitude of the release and dose estimates are based on radionuclide data from The Reactor Safety Study (WASH-1400). Source release time and duration assumptions are related to release categories PWR 1, PWR 3, and PWR 4, for which release times range from 1.5 to 2.5 hr and the release duration ranges from 0.5 to 3 hr. The basic shelter model characteristics considered are gamma ray attentuation, source geometry, gaseous fission-product ingress, and air change rate. Temporal parameters considered are source release time and duration, cloud travel time, and time spent in the shelter structure. Also, the analysis of shelter effectiveness is based on a time-frame model, which can be conveniently related to other operational times important for emergency planning. In addition to developing shelter-effectiveness estimates parametrically, the advantage of exiting and evacuating the vicinity of the shelter area after some initial time in the shelter is analyzed from the standpoint of the DRF and temporal considerations

  17. 21 CFR 25.60 - Environmental effects abroad of major agency actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Environmental effects abroad of major agency... SERVICES GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Other Requirements § 25.60 Environmental effects abroad of major agency actions. (a) In accordance with Executive Order 12114, “Environmental Effects...

  18. 14 CFR 1216.321 - Environmental effects abroad of major Federal actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental effects abroad of major...) Other Requirements § 1216.321 Environmental effects abroad of major Federal actions. (a) In accordance with these procedures and E.O. 12114, “Environmental Effects Abroad of Major Federal Actions” (44 FR...

  19. Effects of policosanol on gastroprotective action of D-002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisy Carbajal Quintana

    Full Text Available Introduction: policosanol, a mixture of higher aliphatic alcohols purified from sugar cane wax, is used to treat hypercholesterolemia. D-002 (Abexol, a mixture of higher aliphatic alcohols from beeswax, is an antioxidant supplement with gastroprotective effects. Then, concomitant intake of D-002 and policosanol may occur in routine practice, so potential pharmacological interactions between them should be researched on. Objective: to find out the influence of policosanol on the gastroprotective effect of D-002 on the ethanol-induced gastric ulcer model. Methods: rats were randomized into eight groups: one treated with the vehicle (control, two with D-002 (25 and 200 mg/kg, two with policosanol (25 and 200 mg/kg, two with the same doses of D-002 + policosanol and other with sucralfate (100 mg/kg. Treatments were given as single oral doses. One hour after treatment, rats received 60% ethanol orally and one hour later they were killed and their stomachs exposed. Effects on ulcer indexes (UI were assessed. Results: acute oral administration of D-002 (25 and 200 mg/kg significantly reduced the ulcer indexes by 40 % and 68 %, respectively, as compared to the control group, and policosanol by 26 % and 47 %, respectively. The concomitant administration of the same doses of D-002 and policosanol significantly decreased ulcer indexes by 64 % (both given at 25 mg/kg and by 92 % (both given at 200 mg/kg as compared to the respective monotherapies. Sucralfate (100 mg/kg significantly reduced (@ 99 % ulcer indexes compared to the control group. Conclusions: the concomitant oral administration of policosanol with D-00 2 gives greater gastroprotection than D-002 monotherapy, so both products can be taken together.

  20. Dose rate effects in the antioxidant action in polypropilene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novakovic, Lj.; Milosavljevic, B.H.

    1998-01-01

    Due to its economic importance, radiation induced oxidation of polypropylene (hereafter referred to as PP) has been studied by various methods to predict the stability of medical equipment sterilized with ionizing radiation. It is well documented that the deterioration proceeds via oxidation initiated by radiation. However, the mechanism is still not clear, because of complicated effects such as inhomogeneous oxidation, dependence of polymer morphology, and the effects of additives. Stabilization of PP to high energy radiation can be achieved by controlling the radical reactions as well as the oxidation reactions. The oxidation reactions can be controlled by dissolving one or more stabilizers into polymer products; synergistic effects are observed as well. These stabilizers not only protect PP during irradiation, but also provide a necessary and important long-term stability during the subsequent storage period. The large body of knowledge concerning polymer antioxidants is preeminently empirical and lacks the understanding of reaction kinetics and mechanisms. Stabilization of PP to high energy radiation induced oxidation is even more complex in the case of nuclear track membranes. The two diverse processes taking place in irradiated polymer during and after irradiation should be controlled and balanced; first, to promote a scission and increase the radical concentration in heavy ion tracks in order to enable and speed up the hole making process and second, to prevent oxidation in the unirradiated portion of polymer film in order to preserve good mechanical properties of the membrane. In order to solve this problem, detailed knowledge of the radiation induced reactions in irradiated PP and PP's chemistry of aging has to be gained. (author)

  1. Managing effective reform for Community Medicine subject: Vision to actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amiruddin Kadri

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Reforming Community Medicine discipline is the felt need amongst fraternities of Community Medicine but making effective change is the greatest challenge. It is uphill task and many big organizations failed in ushering the change without full thought to how to manage reform? With changing demand and role of the subject, Royal Colleges of Physicians of United Kingdom had tried to change Faculty of Public Health to Faculty of Community Medicine and then to Faculty of Public Health Medicine to manage the change but it failed (1. However, we need to learn from them and succeed in managing the change.

  2. Evolution of the violin: The law of effect in action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Edward A; Cullen, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    As is true for most other human inventions, the origin of the violin is unknown. What is known is that this popular and versatile instrument has notably changed over the course of several hundred years. At issue is whether those evolutionary changes in the construction of the violin are the result of premeditated, intelligent design or whether they arose through a trial-and-error process. Recent scientific evidence favors the latter account. Our perspective piece puts these recent empirical findings into a comprehensive selectionist framework. According to this view, the many things we do and make--like violins--arise from a process of variation and selection which accords with the law of effect. Contrary to popular opinion, there is neither mystique nor romance in this process; it is as fundamental and ubiquitous as the law of natural selection. As with the law of natural selection in the evolution of organisms, there is staunch resistance to the role of the law of effect in the evolution of human inventions. We conclude our piece by considering several objections to our perspective. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Antipyretic Effects of Citral and Possible Mechanisms of Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emílio-Silva, Maycon T; Mota, Clarissa M D; Hiruma-Lima, Clélia A; Antunes-Rodrigues, José; Cárnio, Evelin C; Branco, Luiz G S

    2017-10-01

    Citral is a mixture of the two monoterpenoid isomers (neral and geranial) widely used as a health-promoting food additive safe for human and animal (approved by the US Food and Drug Administration). In vitro studies have reported on the capability of citral to reduce inflammation. Here, we report antipyretic effects of citral in vivo using the most well-accepted model of sickness syndrome, i.e., systemic administration of lipopolysaccharide ( LPS ) to rats. Citral given by gavage caused no change in control euthermic rats (treated with saline) but blunted most of the assessed parameters related to the sickness syndrome [fever (hallmark of infection), plasma cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α) release, and prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) synthesis (both peripherally and hypothalamic)]. Moreover, LPS caused a sharp increase in plasma corticosterone levels that was unaltered by citral. These data are consistent with the notion that citral has a corticosterone-independent potent antipyretic effect, acting on the peripheral febrigenic signaling (plasma levels of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and PGE 2 ), eventually down-modulating hypothalamic PGE 2 production.

  4. A simple and feasible method of effectiveness evaluation on radioactive decontamination action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Lin; Geng Xiaobing; Sun Jian; Wang Jihong; Guo Lijun

    2012-01-01

    Radioactive decontamination is a vital task in nuclear emergency response. The assessment of decontamination effectiveness is of great importance to decision-making. An index system for effectiveness evaluation of radioactive decontamination action in nuclear emergency response is produced. A method of decontamination effectiveness evaluation based on analytic hierarchy process and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation is presented. Index weights are determined through analytic hierarchy process. And scores of objects in each hierarchy are judged by fuzzy comprehensive evaluation. Then comprehensive effectiveness of the top object can be obtained, which can offer a basis for decision-making of decontamination action. (authors)

  5. Adopting a Blended Learning Approach: Challenges Encountered and Lessons Learned in an Action Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Jane; Newcombe, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Adopting a new teaching approach is often a daunting task especially if one is an early adopter in a limited-resource environment. This article describes the challenges encountered and the strategies used in pilot testing a blended instructional method in a large size class within the college of education at a medium-sized university. The main…

  6. Re-approaching social development: a field of action between social life and policy processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arce, A.M.G.

    2003-01-01

    This article reflects on contemporary social development, and suggests that we need to initiate a process of thinking about a post neo-liberal development agenda. As a step in this direction, it is suggested we need to re-approach the social as a conceptual category in order to consider social

  7. Using Student-Centered Cases in the Classroom: An Action Inquiry Approach to Leadership Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Pacey; Carboni, Inga

    2009-01-01

    This article addresses the concern that business schools are not adequately developing the practical leadership skills that are required in the real world of management. The article begins by discussing the limitations of traditional case methods for teaching behavioral skills. This approach is contrasted with an alternative case method drawn from…

  8. Neurocognitive mechanisms underlying social learning in infancy: infants' neural processing of the effects of others' actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Markus; Hunnius, Sabine; Bekkering, Harold

    2013-10-01

    Social transmission of knowledge is one of the reasons for human evolutionary success, and it has been suggested that already human infants possess eminent social learning abilities. However, nothing is known about the neurocognitive mechanisms that subserve infants' acquisition of novel action knowledge through the observation of other people's actions and their consequences in the physical world. In an electroencephalogram study on social learning in infancy, we demonstrate that 9-month-old infants represent the environmental effects of others' actions in their own motor system, although they never achieved these effects themselves before. The results provide first insights into the neurocognitive basis of human infants' unique ability for social learning of novel action knowledge.

  9. 2PI effective action for the SYK model and tensor field theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Dario; Gurau, Razvan

    2018-05-01

    We discuss the two-particle irreducible (2PI) effective action for the SYK model and for tensor field theories. For the SYK model the 2PI effective action reproduces the bilocal reformulation of the model without using replicas. In general tensor field theories the 2PI formalism is the only way to obtain a bilocal reformulation of the theory, and as such is a precious instrument for the identification of soft modes and for possible holographic interpretations. We compute the 2PI action for several models, and push it up to fourth order in the 1 /N expansion for the model proposed by Witten in [1], uncovering a one-loop structure in terms of an auxiliary bilocal action.

  10. Two-particle irreducible effective actions versus resummation: Analytic properties and self-consistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Brown

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Approximations based on two-particle irreducible (2PI effective actions (also known as Φ-derivable, Cornwall–Jackiw–Tomboulis or Luttinger–Ward functionals depending on context have been widely used in condensed matter and non-equilibrium quantum/statistical field theory because this formalism gives a robust, self-consistent, non-perturbative and systematically improvable approach which avoids problems with secular time evolution. The strengths of 2PI approximations are often described in terms of a selective resummation of Feynman diagrams to infinite order. However, the Feynman diagram series is asymptotic and summation is at best a dangerous procedure. Here we show that, at least in the context of a toy model where exact results are available, the true strength of 2PI approximations derives from their self-consistency rather than any resummation. This self-consistency allows truncated 2PI approximations to capture the branch points of physical amplitudes where adjustments of coupling constants can trigger an instability of the vacuum. This, in effect, turns Dyson's argument for the failure of perturbation theory on its head. As a result we find that 2PI approximations perform better than Padé approximation and are competitive with Borel–Padé resummation. Finally, we introduce a hybrid 2PI–Padé method.

  11. Action-effect binding is decreased in motor conversion disorder: implications for sense of agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranick, Sarah M; Moore, James W; Yusuf, Nadia; Martinez, Valeria T; LaFaver, Kathrin; Edwards, Mark J; Mehta, Arpan R; Collins, Phoebe; Harrison, Neil A; Haggard, Patrick; Hallett, Mark; Voon, Valerie

    2013-07-01

    The abnormal movements seen in motor conversion disorder are affected by distraction and entrainment, similar to voluntary movement. Unlike voluntary movement, however, patients lack a sense of control for the abnormal movements, a failure of "self-agency." The action-effect binding paradigm has been used to quantify the sense of self-agency, because subjective contraction of time between an action and its effect only occurs if the patient feels that they are the agent responsible for the action. We used this paradigm, coupled with emotional stimuli, to investigate the sense of agency with voluntary movements in patients with motor conversion disorder. Twenty patients with motor conversion disorder and 20 age-matched and sex-matched healthy volunteers used a rotating clock to judge the time of their own voluntary key presses (action) and a subsequent auditory tone (effect) after they completed conditioning blocks in which high, medium, and low tones were coupled to images of happy, fearful, and neutral faces. The results replicated those produced previously: it was reported that an effect after a voluntary action occurred earlier, and the preceding action occurred later, compared with trials that used only key presses or tones. Patients had reduced overall binding scores relative to healthy volunteers, suggesting a reduced sense of agency. There was no effect of the emotional stimuli (faces) or other interaction effects. Healthy volunteers with subclinical depressive symptoms had higher overall binding scores. We demonstrate that patients with motor conversion disorder have decreased action-effect binding for normal voluntary movements compared with healthy volunteers, consistent with the greater experience of lack of control. Copyright © 2013 Movement Disorder Society.

  12. Multinational corporations and health care in the United States and Latin America: strategies, actions, and effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasso-Aguilar, Rebeca; Waitzkin, Howard; Landwehr, Angela

    2004-01-01

    In this article we analyze the corporate dominance of health care in the United States and the dynamics that have motivated the international expansion of multinational health care corporations, especially to Latin America. We identify the strategies, actions, and effects of multinational corporations in health care delivery and public health policies. Our methods have included systematic bibliographical research and in-depth interviews in the United States, Mexico, and Brazil. Influenced by public policy makers in the United States, such organizations as the World Bank, International Monetary Fund, and World Trade Organization have advocated policies that encourage reduction and privatization of health care and public health services previously provided in the public sector. Multinational managed care organizations have entered managed care markets in several Latin American countries at the same time as they were withdrawing from managed care activities in Medicaid and Medicare within the United States. Corporate strategies have culminated in a marked expansion of corporations' access to social security and related public sector funds for the support of privatized health services. International financial institutions and multinational corporations have influenced reforms that, while favorable to corporate interests, have worsened access to needed services and have strained the remaining public sector institutions. A theoretical approach to these problems emphasizes the falling rate of profit as an economic motivation of corporate actions, silent reform, and the subordination of polity to economy. Praxis to address these problems involves opposition to policies that enhance corporate interests while reducing public sector services, as well as alternative models that emphasize a strengthened public sector

  13. Engagement With a Trauma Recovery Internet Intervention Explained With the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA): Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeager, Carolyn M; Shoji, Kotaro; Luszczynska, Aleksandra; Benight, Charles C

    2018-04-10

    There has been a growing trend in the delivery of mental health treatment via technology (ie, electronic health, eHealth). However, engagement with eHealth interventions is a concern, and theoretically based research in this area is sparse. Factors that influence engagement are poorly understood, especially in trauma survivors with symptoms of posttraumatic stress. The aim of this study was to examine engagement with a trauma recovery eHealth intervention using the Health Action Process Approach theoretical model. Outcome expectancy, perceived need, pretreatment self-efficacy, and trauma symptoms influence the formation of intentions (motivational phase), followed by planning, which mediates the translation of intentions into engagement (volitional phase). We hypothesized the mediational effect of planning would be moderated by level of treatment self-efficacy. Trauma survivors from around the United States used the eHealth intervention for 2 weeks. We collected baseline demographic, social cognitive predictors, and distress symptoms and measured engagement subjectively and objectively throughout the intervention. The motivational phase model explained 48% of the variance, and outcome expectations (beta=.36), perceived need (beta=.32), pretreatment self-efficacy (beta=.13), and trauma symptoms (beta=.21) were significant predictors of intention (N=440). In the volitional phase, results of the moderated mediation model indicated for low levels of treatment self-efficacy, planning mediated the effects of intention on levels of engagement (B=0.89, 95% CI 0.143-2.605; N=115). Though many factors can affect engagement, these results offer a theoretical framework for understanding engagement with an eHealth intervention. This study highlighted the importance of perceived need, outcome expectations, self-efficacy, and baseline distress symptoms in the formation of intentions to use the intervention. For those low in treatment self-efficacy, planning may play an important

  14. Developing an approach to assessing the political feasibility of global collective action and an international agreement on antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers Van Katwyk, Susan; Danik, Marie Évelyne; Pantis, Ioana; Smith, Rachel; Røttingen, John-Arne; Hoffman, Steven J

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global issue. International trade, travel, agricultural practices, and environmental contamination all make it possible for resistant microbes to cross national borders. Global collective action is needed in the form of an international agreement or other mechanism that brings states together at the negotiation table and commits them to adopt or implement policies to limit the spread of resistant microorganisms. This article describes an approach to assessing whether political and stakeholder interests can align to commit to tackling AMR. Two dimensions affecting political feasibility were selected and compared across 82 countries: 1) states' global influence and 2) self-interest in addressing AMR. World Bank GDP ranking was used as a proxy for global influence, while human antibiotic consumption (10-year percent change) was used as a proxy for self-interest in addressing AMR. We used these data to outline a typology of four country archetypes, and discuss how these archetypes can be used to understand whether a proposed agreement may have sufficient support to be politically feasible. Four types of countries exist within our proposed typology: 1) wealthy countries who have the expertise and financial resources to push for global collective action on AMR, 2) wealthy countries who need to act on AMR, 3) countries who require external assistance to act on AMR, and 4) neutral countries who may support action where applicable. Any international agreement will require substantial support from countries of the first type to lead global action, and from countries of the second type who have large increasing antimicrobial consumption levels. A large number of barriers exist that could derail efforts towards global collective action on AMR; issues of capacity, infrastructure, regulation, and stakeholder interests will need to be addressed in coordination with other actors to achieve an agreement on AMR. Achieving a global agreement on

  15. PROBABILISTIC APPROACH OF STABILIZED ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD EFFECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FELEA. I.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the omnipresence of the electromagnetic field are certain and recognized. Assessing as accurately as possible these effects, which characterize random phenomena require the use of statistical-probabilistic calculation. This paper aims at assessing the probability of exceeding the admissible values of the characteristic sizes of the electromagnetic field - magnetic induction and electric field strength. The first part justifies the need for concern and specifies how to approach it. The mathematical model of approach and treatment is presented in the second part of the paper and the results obtained with reference to 14 power stations are synthesized in the third part. In the last part, are formulated the conclusions of the evaluations.

  16. On the Nature of the Semiotic Structure of the Didactic Action: The Joint Action Theory in Didactics within a Comparative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensevy, Gérard; Gruson, Brigitte; Forest, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we first sketch the joint action theory paradigm from a general viewpoint in sciences of culture. Then we specify this generic description by focusing on the joint action theory in didactics (JATD). We elaborate on three currently developed elements of the theory: the reticence-expression dialectics; the contract-milieu dialectics,…

  17. An Approach to Monitor and Initiate Community Led Actions for Antenatal Care in Rural India – A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongre AR

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Utilization of antenatal care in rural India is far from universal. It requires monitoring and identification of specific needs at field level for timely corrective actions. To pilot test the triangulation of rapid quantitative (Lot Quality Assurance Sampling and qualitative (Focus Group Discussion monitoring tools for ensuring antenatal care in a community based program. Methods: The present study was undertaken in surrounding 23 villages of Kasturba Rural Health Training Centre (KRHTC, Anji, which is also a field practice area of Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences (MGIMS, Sewagram. The monthly monitoring and action system of the study was based on the rapid quantitative monitoring tool (Lot Quality Assurance Sampling, LQASto find out poor performing supervision areas and overall antenatal service coverage and the qualitative methods (Focus group discussions (FGDs, and free listing for exploring ongoing operational constraints in the processes for timely decision making at program and community level. A trained program supervisor paid house visit to 95 randomly selected pregnant women from 5 supervision areas by using pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire. For poor performing indicators, semi structured FGDs and free listing exercise were undertaken to identify unmet service needs and reasons for its poor performance. Results: Registration of pregnancy within 12 weeks improved from 22.8% to 29.6%. The consumption of 100 or more IFA tablets during pregnancy significantly improved from 6.3% to 17.3%. There was significant improvement in awareness among pregnant women regarding danger signs and symptoms during pregnancy. Over three months period, the overall antenatal registration improved from 253 (67% to 327 (86.7%. Conclusion: The present field based monitoring and action approach constructively identified the reasons for failures and directed specific collective actions to achieve the targets.

  18. Using the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) to produce actionable findings: a rapid-cycle evaluation approach to improving implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Rosalind E; Crosson, Jesse C; O'Malley, Ann S; Cromp, DeAnn; Taylor, Erin Fries

    2017-02-10

    Much research does not address the practical needs of stakeholders responsible for introducing health care delivery interventions into organizations working to achieve better outcomes. In this article, we present an approach to using the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) to guide systematic research that supports rapid-cycle evaluation of the implementation of health care delivery interventions and produces actionable evaluation findings intended to improve implementation in a timely manner. To present our approach, we describe a formative cross-case qualitative investigation of 21 primary care practices participating in the Comprehensive Primary Care (CPC) initiative, a multi-payer supported primary care practice transformation intervention led by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Qualitative data include observational field notes and semi-structured interviews with primary care practice leadership, clinicians, and administrative and medical support staff. We use intervention-specific codes, and CFIR constructs to reduce and organize the data to support cross-case analysis of patterns of barriers and facilitators relating to different CPC components. Using the CFIR to guide data collection, coding, analysis, and reporting of findings supported a systematic, comprehensive, and timely understanding of barriers and facilitators to practice transformation. Our approach to using the CFIR produced actionable findings for improving implementation effectiveness during this initiative and for identifying improvements to implementation strategies for future practice transformation efforts. The CFIR is a useful tool for guiding rapid-cycle evaluation of the implementation of practice transformation initiatives. Using the approach described here, we systematically identified where adjustments and refinements to the intervention could be made in the second year of the 4-year intervention. We think the approach we describe has broad

  19. Reviewing Biosphere Reserves globally: effective conservation action or bureaucratic label?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetzer, Kaera L; Witkowski, Edward T F; Erasmus, Barend F N

    2014-02-01

    The Biosphere Reserve (BR) model of UNESCO's Man and the Biosphere Programme reflects a shift towards more accountable conservation. Biosphere Reserves attempt to reconcile environmental protection with sustainable development; they explicitly acknowledge humans, and human interests in the conservation landscape while still maintaining the ecological values of existing protected areas. Conceptually, this model is attractive, with 610 sites currently designated globally. Yet the practical reality of implementing dual 'conservation' and 'development' goals is challenging, with few examples successfully conforming to the model's full criteria. Here, we review the history of Biosphere Reserves from first inception in 1974 to the current status quo, and examine the suitability of the designation as an effective conservation model. We track the spatial expansion of Biosphere Reserves globally, assessing the influence of the Statutory Framework of the World Network of Biosphere Reserves and Seville strategy in 1995, when the BR concept refocused its core objectives on sustainable development. We use a comprehensive range of case studies to discuss conformity to the Programme, the social and ecological consequences associated with implementation of the designation, and challenges in aligning conservation and development. Given that the 'Biosphere Reserve' label is a relatively unknown designation in the public arena, this review also provides details on popularising the Biosphere Reserve brand, as well as prospects for further research, currently unexploited, but implicit in the designation. © 2013 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2013 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  20. Effects of tacrolimus on action potential configuration and transmembrane ion currents in canine ventricular cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, László; Szentandrássy, Norbert; Kistamás, Kornél; Hegyi, Bence; Ruzsnavszky, Ferenc; Váczi, Krisztina; Horváth, Balázs; Magyar, János; Bányász, Tamás; Pál, Balázs; Nánási, Péter P

    2013-03-01

    Tacrolimus is a commonly used immunosuppressive agent which causes cardiovascular complications, e.g., hypertension and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. In spite of it, there is little information on the cellular cardiac effects of the immunosuppressive agent tacrolimus in larger mammals. In the present study, therefore, the concentration-dependent effects of tacrolimus on action potential morphology and the underlying ion currents were studied in canine ventricular cardiomyocytes. Standard microelectrode, conventional whole cell patch clamp, and action potential voltage clamp techniques were applied in myocytes enzymatically dispersed from canine ventricular myocardium. Tacrolimus (3-30 μM) caused a concentration-dependent reduction of maximum velocity of depolarization and repolarization, action potential amplitude, phase-1 repolarization, action potential duration, and plateau potential, while no significant change in the resting membrane potential was observed. Conventional voltage clamp experiments revealed that tacrolimus concentrations ≥3 μM blocked a variety of ion currents, including I(Ca), I(to), I(K1), I(Kr), and I(Ks). Similar results were obtained under action potential voltage clamp conditions. These effects of tacrolimus developed rapidly and were fully reversible upon washout. The blockade of inward currents with the concomitant shortening of action potential duration in canine myocytes is the opposite of those observed previously with tacrolimus in small rodents. It is concluded that although tacrolimus blocks several ion channels at higher concentrations, there is no risk of direct interaction with cardiac ion channels when applying tacrolimus in therapeutic concentrations.

  1. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 121: Storage Tanks and Miscellaneous Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-01-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan identifies the activities required for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 121, Storage Tanks and Miscellaneous Sites. CAU 121 is currently listed in Appendix III of the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO, 1996) and consists of three Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Area 12 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS): CAS 12-01-01, Aboveground Storage Tank; CAS 12-01-02, Aboveground Storage Tank; and CAS 12-22-26, Drums; 2 AST's. CASs 12-01-01 and 12-01-02 are located to the west of the Area 12 Camp, and CAS 12-22-26 is located near the U-12g Tunnel, also known as G-tunnel, in Area 12 (Figure 1). The aboveground storage tanks (ASTs) present at CASs 12-01-01 and 12-01-02 will be removed and disposed of at an appropriate facility. Soil below the ASTs will be sampled to identify whether it has been impacted with chemicals or radioactivity above action levels. If impacted soil above action levels is present, the soil will be excavated and disposed of at an appropriate facility. The CAS 12-22-26 site is composed of two overlapping areas, one where drums had formerly been stored, and the other where an AST was used to dispense diesel for locomotives used at G-tunnel. This area is located above an underground radioactive materials area (URMA), and within an area that may have elevated background radioactivity because of containment breaches during nuclear tests and associated tunnel reentry operations. CAS 12-22-26 does not include the URMA or the elevated background radioactivity. An AST that had previously been used to store liquid magnesium chloride (MgCl) was properly disposed of several years ago, and releases from this tank are not an environmental concern. The diesel AST will be removed and disposed of at an appropriate facility. Soil at the former drum area and the diesel AST area will be sampled to identify whether it has been impacted by releases, from the drums or the

  2. An information-theoretic approach to motor action decoding with a reconfigurable parallel architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craciun, Stefan; Brockmeier, Austin J; George, Alan D; Lam, Herman; Príncipe, José C

    2011-01-01

    Methods for decoding movements from neural spike counts using adaptive filters often rely on minimizing the mean-squared error. However, for non-Gaussian distribution of errors, this approach is not optimal for performance. Therefore, rather than using probabilistic modeling, we propose an alternate non-parametric approach. In order to extract more structure from the input signal (neuronal spike counts) we propose using minimum error entropy (MEE), an information-theoretic approach that minimizes the error entropy as part of an iterative cost function. However, the disadvantage of using MEE as the cost function for adaptive filters is the increase in computational complexity. In this paper we present a comparison between the decoding performance of the analytic Wiener filter and a linear filter trained with MEE, which is then mapped to a parallel architecture in reconfigurable hardware tailored to the computational needs of the MEE filter. We observe considerable speedup from the hardware design. The adaptation of filter weights for the multiple-input, multiple-output linear filters, necessary in motor decoding, is a highly parallelizable algorithm. It can be decomposed into many independent computational blocks with a parallel architecture readily mapped to a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) and scales to large numbers of neurons. By pipelining and parallelizing independent computations in the algorithm, the proposed parallel architecture has sublinear increases in execution time with respect to both window size and filter order.

  3. Heart Surgery Waiting Time: Assessing the Effectiveness of an Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badakhshan, Abbas; Arab, Mohammad; Gholipour, Mahin; Behnampour, Naser; Saleki, Saeid

    2015-08-01

    Waiting time is an index assessing patient satisfaction, managerial effectiveness and horizontal equity in providing health care. Although heart surgery centers establishment is attractive for politicians. They are always faced with the question of to what extent they solve patient's problems. The objective of this study was to evaluate factors influencing waiting time in patients of heart surgery centers, and to make recommendations for health-care policy-makers for reducing waiting time and increasing the quality of services from this perspective. This cross-sectional study was performed in 2013. After searching articles on PubMed, Elsevier, Google Scholar, Ovid, Magiran, IranMedex, and SID, a list of several criteria, which relate to waiting time, was provided. Afterwards, the data on waiting time were collected by a researcher-structured checklist from 156 hospitalized patients. The data were analyzed by SPSS 16. The Kolmogorov Smirnov and Shapiro tests were used for determination of normality. Due to the non-normal distribution, non-parametric tests, such as Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney were chosen for reporting significance. Parametric tests also used reporting medians. Among the studied variables, just economic status had a significant relation with waiting time (P = 0.37). Fifty percent of participants had diabetes, whereas this estimate was 43.58% for high blood pressure. As the cause of delay, 28.2% of patients reported financial problems, 18.6% personal problem and 13.5% a delay in providing equipment by the hospital. It seems the studied hospital should review its waiting time arrangements and detach them, as far as possible, from subjective and personal (specialists) decisions. On the other hand, ministries of health and insurance companies should consider more financial support. It is also recommend that hospitals should arrange preoperational psychiatric consultation for increasing patients' emotionally readiness.

  4. Expediting site closures using a risk-based corrective action approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sims, J.T.; Douthit, T.

    1995-01-01

    A new tool, the Risk Analysis Testing Laboratory (RATL), extends the opportunity for collection of high accuracy data on-site during the risk analysis and remediation feasibility stages of subsurface corrective action. The RATL system is driven by onboard data acquisition and processing hardware and software which provides necessary site parameters to determine potential exposure, prioritize sites, and if necessary, design remediation systems on-site in one mobilization. During the removal of underground storage tanks (USTs) at an abandoned service station facility, elevated concentrations of hydrocarbon compounds in the soils surrounding the USTs, as well as a hydrocarbon sheen were identified on the groundwater at the bottom of the UST excavation area. Although 1,000 tons of hydrocarbon-impacted soils had been removed from the UST area, the vertical and lateral extent of subsurface hydrocarbon impact had not been sufficiently delineated. Groundwater sampling was performed with a modified narrow diameter sampling device at 24 locations in a two day period. A total of 32 soil samples were collected in conjunction with groundwater sampling. The soil samples were field screened on-site using a photoionization detector (PID) for volatile organic compounds (VOC) and were classified by the site hydrogeologists. Based on the field screening, selected soil samples were submitted for GC analysis in the RATL

  5. Illegitimacy moderates the effects of power on approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, Joris; Galinsky, Adam D.; Gordijn, Ernestine H.; Otten, Sabine

    A wealth of research has found that power leads to behavioral approach and action. Four experiments demonstrate that this link between power and approach is broken when the power relationship is illegitimate. When power was primed to be legitimate or when power positions were assigned legitimately,

  6. Studying the intervention of an unusual term in f(T) gravity via the Noether symmetry approach. On a new term for gravity actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tajahmad, Behzad [University of Tabriz, Faculty of Physics, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-08-15

    As has been done before, we study an unknown coupling function, i.e. F(φ), together with a function of torsion and also curvature, i.e. f(T) and f(R), generally depending upon a scalar field. In the f(R) case, it comes from quantum correlations and other sources. Now, what if beside this term in f(T) gravity context, we enhance the action through another term which depends upon both scalar field and its derivatives? In this paper, we have added such an unprecedented term in the generic common action of f(T) gravity such that in this new term, an unknown function of torsion has coupled with an unknown function of both scalar field and its derivatives. We explain in detail why we can append such a term. By the Noether symmetry approach, we consider its behavior and effect. We show that it does not produce an anomaly, but rather it works successfully, and numerical analysis of the exact solutions of field equations coincides with all most important observational data, particularly late-time-accelerated expansion. So, this new term may be added to the gravitational actions of f(T) gravity. (orig.)

  7. Gravitational effective action at second order in curvature and gravitational waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calmet, Xavier; Capozziello, Salvatore; Pryer, Daniel

    2017-09-01

    We consider the full effective theory for quantum gravity at second order in curvature including non-local terms. We show that the theory contains two new degrees of freedom beyond the massless graviton: namely a massive spin-2 ghost and a massive scalar field. Furthermore, we show that it is impossible to fine-tune the parameters of the effective action to eliminate completely the classical spin-2 ghost because of the non-local terms in the effective action. Being a classical field, it is not clear anyway that this ghost is problematic. It simply implies a repulsive contribution to Newton's potential. We then consider how to extract the parameters of the effective action and show that it is possible to measure, at least in principle, the parameters of the local terms independently of each other using a combination of observations of gravitational waves and measurements performed by pendulum type experiments searching for deviations of Newton's potential.

  8. Gravitational effective action at second order in curvature and gravitational waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calmet, Xavier; Pryer, Daniel; Capozziello, Salvatore

    2017-01-01

    We consider the full effective theory for quantum gravity at second order in curvature including non-local terms. We show that the theory contains two new degrees of freedom beyond the massless graviton: namely a massive spin-2 ghost and a massive scalar field. Furthermore, we show that it is impossible to fine-tune the parameters of the effective action to eliminate completely the classical spin-2 ghost because of the non-local terms in the effective action. Being a classical field, it is not clear anyway that this ghost is problematic. It simply implies a repulsive contribution to Newton's potential. We then consider how to extract the parameters of the effective action and show that it is possible to measure, at least in principle, the parameters of the local terms independently of each other using a combination of observations of gravitational waves and measurements performed by pendulum type experiments searching for deviations of Newton's potential. (orig.)

  9. Gravitational effective action at second order in curvature and gravitational waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calmet, Xavier; Capozziello, Salvatore; Pryer, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    We consider the full effective theory for quantum gravity at second order in curvature including non-local terms. We show that the theory contains two new degrees of freedom beyond the massless graviton: namely a massive spin-2 ghost and a massive scalar field. Furthermore, we show that it is impossible to fine-tune the parameters of the effective action to eliminate completely the classical spin-2 ghost because of the non-local terms in the effective action. Being a classical field, it is not clear anyway that this ghost is problematic. It simply implies a repulsive contribution to Newton's potential. We then consider how to extract the parameters of the effective action and show that it is possible to measure, at least in principle, the parameters of the local terms independently of each other using a combination of observations of gravitational waves and measurements performed by pendulum type experiments searching for deviations of Newton's potential.

  10. An addendum to the Heisenberg-Euler effective action beyond one loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gies, Holger; Karbstein, Felix [Helmholtz-Institut Jena,Fröbelstieg 3, 07743 Jena (Germany); Theoretisch-Physikalisches Institut, Abbe Center of Photonics,Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany)

    2017-03-21

    We study the effective interactions of external electromagnetic fields induced by fluctuations of virtual particles in the vacuum of quantum electrodynamics. Our main focus is on these interactions at two-loop order. We discuss in detail the emergence of the renowned Heisenberg-Euler effective action from the underlying microscopic theory of quantum electrodynamics, emphasizing its distinction from a standard one-particle irreducible effective action. In our explicit calculations we limit ourselves to constant and slowly varying external fields, allowing us to adopt a locally constant field approximation. One of our main findings is that at two-loop order there is a finite one-particle reducible contribution to the Heisenberg-Euler effective action in constant fields, which was previously assumed to vanish. In addition to their conceptual significance, our results are relevant for high-precision probes of quantum vacuum nonlinearity in strong electromagnetic fields.

  11. Differential effects of thioridazine enantiomers on action potential duration in rabbit papillary muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ask Schou; Pennisi, Cristian Pablo; Sevcencu, Cristian

    2015-01-01

    with (+)-thioridazine. In this study we for the first time investigate the cardiotoxicity of the isolated thioridazine enantiomers and show their effects on ventricular repolarization. The effects of (+)-thioridazine, (-)-thioridazine, and racemate on the rabbit ventricular action potential duration (APD) were...... investigated in a randomized controlled blinded experiment. Action potentials were measured in papillary muscles isolated from 21 female rabbits, and the drug effect on 90% APD in comparison with control (DeltaDelta-APD90) was evaluated. Increasing concentrations of (+)-thioridazine and the racemate caused...

  12. 20 CFR 405.420 - Effect of Decision Review Board action on the right to seek judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... § 405.420 Effect of Decision Review Board action on the right to seek judicial review. (a)(1) Subject to... must wait for the Board to take action. The appeal rights, if any, that will be available at that time... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effect of Decision Review Board action on the...

  13. A Systems Biology Approach to Understanding the Mechanisms of Action of an Alternative Anticancer Compound in Comparison to Cisplatin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Elise P.; Padula, Matthew P.; Higgins, Vincent J.; Aldrich-Wright, Janice R.; Coorssen, Jens R.

    2014-01-01

    Many clinically available anticancer compounds are designed to target DNA. This commonality of action often yields overlapping cellular response mechanisms and can thus detract from drug efficacy. New compounds are required to overcome resistance mechanisms that effectively neutralise compounds like cisplatin and those with similar chemical structures. Studies have shown that 56MESS is a novel compound which, unlike cisplatin, does not covalently bind to DNA, but is more toxic to many cell lines and active against cisplatin-resistant cells. Furthermore, a transcriptional study of 56MESS in yeast has implicated iron and copper metabolism as well as the general yeast stress response following challenge with 56MESS. Beyond this, the cytotoxicity of 56MESS remains largely uncharacterised. Here, yeast was used as a model system to facilitate a systems-level comparison between 56MESS and cisplatin. Preliminary experiments indicated that higher concentrations than seen in similar studies be used. Although a DNA interaction with 56MESS had been theorized, this work indicated that an effect on protein synthesis/ degradation was also implicated in the mechanism(s) of action of this novel anticancer compound. In contrast to cisplatin, the different mechanisms of action that are indicated for 56MESS suggest that this compound could overcome cisplatin resistance either as a stand-alone treatment or a synergistic component of therapeutics. PMID:28250393

  14. Forming, changing, and acting on attitude toward affirmative action programs in employment: a theory-driven approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, M P; Harrison, D A; McLaughlin, M E

    2000-10-01

    A model of attitude toward affirmative action programs (AAPs) was applied in 4 studies involving 1,622 participants. In Study 1, attributes people tacitly associate with AAPs were identified by open-ended elicitation. Using those attributes, an instrument was developed and administered in Studies 2, 3, and 4. In those studies, a multiplicative composite of beliefs and evaluations about the AAP attributes predicted AAP attitude, consistent with M. Fishbein and I. Ajzen's (1975) theory of reasoned action. Demographic effects on AAP attitude were partially mediated by this composite. In Studies 3 and 4, an experimental manipulation of AAP information was successful in changing AAP attitude, but in a way that polarized existing demographic differences. Study 4 also showed that AAP attitude and subjective norm jointly and uniquely predicted intentions to perform AAP-related behaviors. Intentions predicted the actual behavior of mailing postcards to political representatives reflecting participants' support for AAPs.

  15. Effect of Action Video Games on the Spatial Distribution of Visuospatial Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, C. Shawn; Bavelier, Daphne

    2006-01-01

    The authors investigated the effect of action gaming on the spatial distribution of attention. The authors used the flanker compatibility effect to separately assess center and peripheral attentional resources in gamers versus nongamers. Gamers exhibited an enhancement in attentional resources compared with nongamers, not only in the periphery but…

  16. 43 CFR 46.170 - Environmental effects abroad of major Federal actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Environmental effects abroad of major... IMPLEMENTATION OF THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT OF 1969 Protection and Enhancement of Environmental Quality § 46.170 Environmental effects abroad of major Federal actions. (a) In order to facilitate...

  17. Individual and combined effects of enactment and testing on memory for action phrases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubik, Veit; Söderlund, Hedvig; Nilsson, Lars-Göran; Jönsson, Fredrik U

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the individual and combined effects of enactment and testing on memory for action phrases to address whether both study techniques commonly promote item-specific processing. Participants (N = 112) were divided into four groups (n = 28). They either exclusively studied 36 action phrases (e.g., "lift the glass") or both studied and cued-recalled them in four trials. During study trials participants encoded the action phrases either by motorically performing them, or by reading them aloud, and they took final verb-cued recall tests over 18-min and 1-week retention intervals. A testing effect was demonstrated for action phrases, however, only when they were verbally encoded, and not when they were enacted. Similarly, enactive (relative to verbal) encoding reduced the rate of forgetting, but only when the action phrases were exclusively studied, and not when they were also tested. These less-than-additive effects of enactment and testing on the rate of forgetting, as well as on long-term retention, support the notion that both study techniques effectively promote item-specific processing that can only be marginally increased further by combining them.

  18. The carbon-budget approach to climate stabilization: Costeffective subglobal versus global action

    OpenAIRE

    Eichner, Thomas; Pethig, Rüdiger

    2010-01-01

    Scientific expertise suggests that mitigating extreme world-wide climate change damages requires avoiding increases in the world mean temperature exceeding 2ê Celsius. To achieve the two degree target, the cumulated global emissions must not exceed some limit, the so-called global carbon budget. In a two-period twocountry general equilibrium model with a finite stock of fossil fuels we compare the cooperative cost-effective policy with the unilateral cost-effective policy of restricting emiss...

  19. Effectiveness of participatory adolescent strategic health action (PASHA for lifestyle modification among adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha P Shetty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lifestyle modification is one of the methods to promote healthy lifestyle among adolescents. In this study, the researcher planned to develop, implement and evaluate a need based Participatory Adolescent Strategic Health Action (PASHA for lifestyle modification among selected adolescents. Materials and Methods: An evaluative approach with Quasi experimental one group pretest post test design (time series was adopted. Sample constituted 103 adolescents, aged 12-17 years studying in high schools and pre university colleges of Udupi district selected based on convenient sampling. Data was gathered using reliable and valid tools. Results: The mean combined preventive health lifestyle score among all adolescents increased from 75.65-81.56. Similarly the number of adolescents with healthy lifestyle score also increased from 28.2-53.4% after practicing for 180 days. Analysis of all the components of lifestyle showed that the adolescents had adopted healthy lifestyle practices in all the components of lifestyle. The number of adolescents with combined health status score also showed an increase from 31.1-54.4% after implementing PASHA practice. Analysis of reported outcome among subjects indicated that PASHA was motivating to improve their lifestyle practices. Conclusion: PASHA was found to be effective in lifestyle modification of adolescents. It is reiterated that when lifestyle modification is to be done, a strategy to improve self directedness and self efficacy should be adopted.

  20. Physicians' intention to prescribe hydrocodone combination products after rescheduling: A theory of reasoned action approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Marc L; Driver, Larry; Sansgiry, Sujit S; Abughosh, Susan M; Wanat, Matthew; Sawant, Ruta V; Ferries, Erin; Reeve, Kathleen; Todd, Knox H

    The U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) rescheduled hydrocodone combination products (HCPs) in an attempt to mitigate the prescription opioid epidemic. Many in the medical and pharmacy community expressed concerns of unintended consequences as a result of rescheduling. This study examined physicians' intentions to prescribe HCPs after rescheduling using the framework of the theory of reasoned action (TRA). A cover letter containing a link to the online questionnaire was sent to physicians of the Texas Medical Association who were likely to prescribe opioids. The questionnaire assessed physicians' intentions to prescribe HCPs after rescheduling. Predictor variables included attitude toward rescheduling, subjective norm toward HCP prescribing, and past prescribing behavior of schedule II prescriptions. All variables were measured on a 7-point, Likert-type scale. Intention to prescribe as a dependent variable was regressed over TRA variables and respondent characteristics. A total of 1176 usable responses were obtained, yielding a response rate of 13.3%. Mean (M) age was 53.07 ± 11 and most respondents were male (70%) and Caucasian (75%). Physicians held a moderately positive intention to prescribe HCPs (M = 4.36 ± 2.08), held a moderately negative attitude towards rescheduling, M = 4.68 ± 1.51 (reverse coded). Subjective norm was moderately low, M = 3.06 ± 1.78, and past prescribing behavior M = 2.43 ± 1.21. The linear regression analysis indicated that attitude (β = 0.10; P = 0.006), subjective norm (β = 0.35; P < 0.0001) and past prescribing behavior (β = 0.59; P < 0.0001) were significant predictors of intention to prescribe HCPs after rescheduling. TRA was shown to be a predictive model of physicians' intentions to prescribe HCPs after rescheduling. Overall, physicians held a moderately positive intention to prescribe HCPs. Past behavior concerning schedule II prescribing was found to be the most significant predictor

  1. The effective action for edge states in higher-dimensional quantum Hall systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karabali, Dimitra; Nair, V.P.

    2004-01-01

    We show that the effective action for the edge excitations of a quantum Hall droplet of fermions in higher dimensions is generically given by a chiral bosonic action. We explicitly analyze the quantum Hall effect on complex projective spaces CP k , with a U(1) background magnetic field. The edge excitations are described by Abelian bosonic fields on S 2k-1 with only one spatial direction along the boundary of the droplet relevant for the dynamics. Our analysis also leads to an action for edge excitations for the case of the Zhang-Hu four-dimensional quantum Hall effect defined on S 4 with an SU(2) background magnetic field, using the fact that CP 3 is an S 2 -bundle over S 4

  2. A gauge/gravity relation in the one-loop effective action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basar, Goekce; Dunne, Gerald V

    2010-01-01

    We identify an unusual new gauge/gravity relation: the one-loop effective action for a massive spinor in 2n-dimensional AdS space is expressed in terms of precisely the same function (a certain multiple gamma function) as the one-loop effective action for a massive charged scalar in 4n dimensions in a maximally symmetric background electromagnetic field (one for which the eigenvalues of F μν are maximally degenerate, corresponding in four dimensions to a self-dual field, equivalently to a field of definite helicity), subject to the identification F 2 ↔Λ, where Λ is the gravitational curvature. Since these effective actions generate the low energy limit of all one-loop multi-leg graviton or gauge amplitudes, this implies a nontrivial gauge/gravity relation at the non-perturbative level and at the amplitude level. (fast track communication)

  3. Accreditation of prior learning: andragogy in action or a 'cut price' approach to education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, S

    1993-11-01

    The rapid changes in nurse education are proceeding within the wider context of developments in adjacent educational fields, which are themselves subject to external influences, and one such development is the accreditation of prior experiential learning (APEL). In order to be critically aware of the potential involved in embracing this concept, it is necessary to clarify and examine the influencing factors which guide the current andragogical climate of nurse education, and those which predispose to the recognition of APEL. Utilizing a case-study approach, this paper will examine the relevant issues as they relate to experienced students pursuing the learning outcomes of Project 2000, and will address the question of value for all parties concerned.

  4. Integrated approach to fire safety at the Krsko nuclear power plant - fire protection action plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambright, J.A.; Cerjak, J.; Spiler, J.; Ioannidi, J.

    1998-01-01

    Nuclear Power Plant Krsko (NPP Krsko) is a Westinghouse design, single-unit, 1882 Megawatt thermal (MWt), two-loop, pressurized water nuclear power plant. The fire protection program at NPP Krsko has been reviewed and reports issued recommending changes and modifications to the program, plant systems and structures. Three reports were issued, the NPP Krsko Fire Hazard Analysis (Safe Shout down Separation Analysis Report), the ICISA Analysis of Core Damage Frequency Due to Fire at the NPP Krsko and IPEEE (Individual Plant External Event Examination) related to fire risk. The Fire Hazard Analysis Report utilizes a compliance - based deterministic approach to identification of fire area hazards. This report focuses on strict compliance from the perspective of US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC), standards, guidelines and acceptance criteria and does not consider variations to comply with the intent of the regulations. The probabilistic analysis methide used in the ICISA and IPEEE report utilizes a risk based nad intent based approach in determining critical at-risk fire areas. NPP Krsko has already completed the following suggestions/recommendations from the above and OSART reports in order to comply with Appendix R: Installation of smoke detectors in the Control Room; Installation of Emergency Lighting in some plant areas and of Remote Shout down panels; Extension of Sound Power Communication System; Installation of Fire Annunciator Panel at the On-site Fire Brigade Station; Installation of Smoke Detection System in the (a) Main Control Room Panels, (b) Essential Service Water Building. (c) Component Cooling Building pump area, chiller area and HVAC area, (d) Auxiliary Building Safety pump rooms, (e) Fuel Handling room, (f) Intermediate Building AFFW area and compressor room, and (g) Tadwaste building; inclusion of Auxiliary operators in the Fire Brigade; training of Fire Brigade Members in Plant Operation (9 week course); Development of Fire Door Inspection and

  5. Investigating the Constrained Action Hypothesis: A Movement Coordination and Coordination Variability Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Anthony; Wu, Will; Nakajima, Mimi; Becker, James

    2017-09-19

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of focus of attention cues on movement coordination and coordination variability in the lower extremity. Twenty participants performed the standing long jump under both internal and external focus of attention conditions. A modified vector coding technique was used to evaluate the influence of attentional focus cues on lower extremity coordination patterns and coordination variability during the jumps. Participants jumped significantly further under an external focus of attention condition compared with an internal focus of attention condition (p = .035, effect size = .29). Focus of attention also influenced coordination between the ankle and knee, F(6, 19) = 2.87, p = .012, effect size = .388, with participants primarily using their knees under the internal focus of attention, and using both their ankles and knees under the external focus of attention. Attentional focus cues did not influence ankle-knee, F(1, 19) = 0.02, p = .98, effect size = .02, or hip-knee, F(1, 19) = 5.00, p = .49, effect size = .16, coordination variability. Results suggest that while attentional focus may not directly influence movement coordination condition, there is still a change in movement strategy resulting in greater jump distances following an external focus of attention.

  6. Exact effective actions for quarks in pure and self-dual mean fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elizalde, E.; Soto, J.

    1985-01-01

    The QCD effective action for ordinary quarks in the presence of a constant self-dual, pure colormagnetic or pure color-electric background created by themselves is calculated at all loop orders. This is done in a very simple way, by using zeta-function regularization and the fact that the dependence of the effective action on the background can be factorized in these three cases, leaving a well-defined constant factor. The zero mode problem and the imaginary contributions are seen to be mere one-loop artifacts which automatically vanish when the exact calculation is carried out. (orig.)

  7. On low-energy effective action in three-dimensional = 2 and = 4 supersymmetric electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchbinder, I. L.; Merzlikin, B. S.; Samsonov, I. B.

    2013-11-01

    We discuss general structure of low-energy effective actions in = 2 and = 4 three-dimensional supersymmetric electrodynamics (SQED) in gauge superfield sector. There are specific terms in the effective action having no four-dimensional analogs. Some of these terms are responsible for the moduli space metric in the Coulomb branch of the theory. We find two-loop quantum corrections to the moduli space metric in the = 2 SQED and show that in the = 4 SQED the moduli space does not receive two-loop quantum corrections.

  8. Quark contribution to the gluon Regge trajectory at NLO from the high energy effective action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chachamis, G.; Hentschinski, M.; Madrigal Martínez, J.D.; Sabio Vera, A.

    2012-01-01

    The two loop (NLO) diagrams with quark content contributing to the gluon Regge trajectory are computed within the framework of Lipatov's effective action for QCD, using the regularization procedure for longitudinal divergencies recently proposed by two of us in (M. Hentschinski and A. Sabio Vera, 2011). Perfect agreement with previous results in the literature is found, providing a robust check of the regularization prescription and showing that the high energy effective action is a very useful computational tool in the quasi-multi-Regge limit.

  9. Exploring Professional Knowing, Being and Becoming through Inclusive Pedagogical Approach in Action (IPAA) Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klibthong, Sunanta; Agbenyega, Joseph S.

    2018-01-01

    Despite extensive changes in early childhood inclusive education policy and practice, various barriers continue to inhibit access and participation of children with special needs in inclusive schools. Often mentioned barriers include negative beliefs, lack of understanding of inclusive pedagogy and the effectiveness of professional development to…

  10. Multi-Stakeholder Sustainability Alliances in Agri-Food Chains: A theory of Reasoned Action Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dentoni, D.; Peterson, H.C.

    2011-01-01

    This study provides a definition of Multi-Stakeholder Sustainability Alliances (MSSAs) based on describing the platforms formed and/or joined by the fifty largest food and beverage multinational corporations (MNCs). It develops an inductive framework on how MNCs use MSSAs to effectively signal to

  11. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 107: Low Impact Soil Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan covers activities associated with Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 107 of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996 (as amended February 2008)). CAU 107 consists of the following Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 9, 10, and 18 of the Nevada Test Site. (1) CAS 01-23-02, Atmospheric Test Site - High Alt; (2) CAS 02-23-02, Contaminated Areas (2); (3) CAS 02-23-03, Contaminated Berm; (4) CAS 02-23-10, Gourd-Amber Contamination Area; (5) CAS 02-23-11, Sappho Contamination Area; (6) CAS 02-23-12, Scuttle Contamination Area; (7) CAS 03-23-24, Seaweed B Contamination Area; (8) CAS 03-23-27, Adze Contamination Area; (9) CAS 03-23-28, Manzanas Contamination Area; (10) CAS 03-23-29, Truchas-Chamisal Contamination Area; (11) CAS 04-23-02, Atmospheric Test Site T4-a; (12) CAS 05-23-06, Atmospheric Test Site; (13) CAS 09-23-06, Mound of Contaminated Soil; (14) CAS 10-23-04, Atmospheric Test Site M-10; and (15) CAS 18-23-02, U-18d Crater (Sulky). Based on historical documentation, personnel interviews, site process knowledge, site visits, photographs, engineering drawings, field screening, analytical results, and the results of data quality objectives process (Section 3.0), closure in place with administrative controls or no further action will be implemented for CAU 107. CAU 107 closure activities will consist of verifying that the current postings required under Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 835 are in place and implementing use restrictions (URs) at two sites, CAS 03-23-29 and CAS 18-23-02. The current radiological postings combined with the URs are adequate administrative controls to limit site access and worker dose

  12. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 107: Low Impact Soil Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan covers activities associated with Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 107 of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (1996 (as amended February 2008)). CAU 107 consists of the following Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 9, 10, and 18 of the Nevada Test Site. (sm b ullet) CAS 01-23-02, Atmospheric Test Site - High Alt(sm b ullet) CAS 02-23-02, Contaminated Areas (2)(sm b ullet) CAS 02-23-03, Contaminated Berm(sm b ullet) CAS 02-23-10, Gourd-Amber Contamination Area(sm b ullet) CAS 02-23-11, Sappho Contamination Area(sm b ullet) CAS 02-23-12, Scuttle Contamination Area(sm b ullet) CAS 03-23-24, Seaweed B Contamination Area(sm b ullet) CAS 03-23-27, Adze Contamination Area(sm b ullet) CAS 03-23-28, Manzanas Contamination Area(sm b ullet) CAS 03-23-29, Truchas-Chamisal Contamination Area(sm b ullet) CAS 04-23-02, Atmospheric Test Site T4-a(sm b ullet) CAS 05-23-06, Atmospheric Test Site(sm b ullet) CAS 09-23-06, Mound of Contaminated Soil(sm b ullet) CAS 10-23-04, Atmospheric Test Site M-10(sm b ullet) CAS 18-23-02, U-18d Crater (Sulky) Based on historical documentation, personnel interviews, site process knowledge, site visits, photographs, engineering drawings, field screening, analytical results, and the results of data quality objectives process (Section 3.0), closure in place with administrative controls or no further action will be implemented for CAU 107.

  13. The joint Simon effect depends on perceived agency, but not intentionality, of the alternative action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eStenzel

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A co-actor’s intentionality has been suggested to be a key modulating factor for joint action effects like the joint Simon effect (JSE. However, in previous studies intentionality has often been confounded with agency defined as perceiving the initiator of an action as being the causal source of the action. The aim of the present study was to disentangle the role of agency and intentionality as modulating factors of the JSE. In Experiment 1, participants performed a joint go/nogo Simon task next to a co-actor who either intentionally controlled a response button with own finger movements (agency+/intentionality+ or who passively placed the hand on a response button that moved up and down on its own as triggered by computer signals (agency-/intentionality-. In Experiment 2, we included a condition in which participants believed that the co-actor intentionally controlled the response button with a Brain-Computer Interface while placing the response finger clearly besides the response button, so that the causal relationship between agent and action effect was perceptually disrupted (agency-/intentionality+. As a control condition, the response button was computer controlled while the co-actor placed the response finger besides the response button (agency-/intentionality-. We observed a JSE when the co-actor responded intentionally and the causal relationship between co-actor and action effect could be perceived, but not when the co-actor did not respond intentionally and the causal relationship was disrupted (Experiment 1. When the intentionality of the co-actor was maintained but the perception of the causal relationship between co-actor and action effect destroyed, the JSE was absent (Experiment 2. Our findings clearly indicate a vital role of a co-actor’s agency for the JSE and suggest that the ascription of agency is strongly perceptually grounded.

  14. Effects of pioglitazone on cardiac ion currents and action potential morphology in canine ventricular myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistamás, Kornél; Szentandrássy, Norbert; Hegyi, Bence; Ruzsnavszky, Ferenc; Váczi, Krisztina; Bárándi, László; Horváth, Balázs; Szebeni, Andrea; Magyar, János; Bányász, Tamás; Kecskeméti, Valéria; Nánási, Péter P

    2013-06-15

    Despite its widespread therapeutical use there is little information on the cellular cardiac effects of the antidiabetic drug pioglitazone in larger mammals. In the present study, therefore, the concentration-dependent effects of pioglitazone on ion currents and action potential configuration were studied in isolated canine ventricular myocytes using standard microelectrode, conventional whole cell patch clamp, and action potential voltage clamp techniques. Pioglitazone decreased the maximum velocity of depolarization and the amplitude of phase-1 repolarization at concentrations ≥3 μM. Action potentials were shortened by pioglitazone at concentrations ≥10 μM, which effect was accompanied with significant reduction of beat-to-beat variability of action potential duration. Several transmembrane ion currents, including the transient outward K(+) current (Ito), the L-type Ca(2+) current (ICa), the rapid and slow components of the delayed rectifier K(+) current (IKr and IKs, respectively), and the inward rectifier K(+) current (IK1) were inhibited by pioglitazone under conventional voltage clamp conditions. Ito was blocked significantly at concentrations ≥3 μM, ICa, IKr, IKs at concentrations ≥10 μM, while IK1 at concentrations ≥30 μM. Suppression of Ito, ICa, IKr, and IK1 has been confirmed also under action potential voltage clamp conditions. ATP-sensitive K(+) current, when activated by lemakalim, was effectively blocked by pioglitazone. Accordingly, action potentials were prolonged by 10 μM pioglitazone when the drug was applied in the presence of lemakalim. All these effects developed rapidly and were readily reversible upon washout. In conclusion, pioglitazone seems to be a harmless agent at usual therapeutic concentrations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Critical approach under the optics of Habermas's communicative action: participative management in Campus Serra of the IFES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eglalciane Lyrio Tongo Castro

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to understand, critically, as is characterized the participative management on IFES – Campus Serra, from the understanding and the interactive process of the administrative technicians staff (TAEs classes C, D and E and immediate supervisors. Thus, Jürgen Habermas's Communicative Action Theory (CAT, as well as its proposal for democracy deliberative, were undertaken as a theoretical framework for understanding this process. This work is characterized as a qualitative research and has a critical approach with dialectical view of social reality. Empirical data were produced by desk research, participant observation and semi-structured interviews. The content analysis was used for the treatment of interview. The results point to the construction of participatory actions of instrumental nature, established based on the interests of the management of specific and individual groups. Thus, the practice of participative management is characterized as a strategic space to reach the success and not the understanding, where the TAEs share the responsibility in the process of maintenance and construction of the phenomena that hamper the development of democratic participation.

  16. Community College Students' Health Insurance Enrollment, Maintenance, and Talking With Parents Intentions: An Application of the Reasoned Action Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhman, Marian; Quick, Brian L; Payne, Laura

    2016-05-01

    A primary objective of health care reform is to provide affordable and quality health insurance to individuals. Currently, promotional efforts have been moderately successful in registering older, more mature adults yet comparatively less successful in registering younger adults. With this challenge in mind, we conducted extensive formative research to better understand the attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control of community college students. More specifically, we examined how each relates to their intentions to enroll in a health insurance plan, maintain their current health insurance plan, and talk with their parents about their parents having health insurance. In doing so, we relied on the revised reasoned action approach advanced by Fishbein and his associates (Fishbein & Ajzen, 2010; Yzer, 2012, 2013). Results showed that the constructs predicted intentions to enroll in health insurance for those with no insurance and for those with government-sponsored insurance and intentions to maintain insurance for those currently insured. Our study demonstrates the applicability of the revised reasoned action framework within this context and is discussed with an emphasis on the practical and theoretical contributions.

  17. Field theory approach to quantum hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabo, A.; Chaichian, M.

    1990-07-01

    The Fradkin's formulation of statistical field theory is applied to the Coulomb interacting electron gas in a magnetic field. The electrons are confined to a plane in normal 3D-space and also interact with the physical 3D-electromagnetic field. The magnetic translation group (MTG) Ward identities are derived. Using them it is shown that the exact electron propagator is diagonalized in the basis of the wave functions of the free electron in a magnetic field whenever the MTG is unbroken. The general tensor structure of the polarization operator is obtained and used to show that the Chern-Simons action always describes the Hall effect properties of the system. A general proof of the Streda formula for the Hall conductivity is presented. It follows that the coefficient of the Chern-Simons terms in the long-wavelength approximation is exactly given by this relation. Such a formula, expressing the Hall conductivity as a simple derivative, in combination with diagonal form of the full propagator allows to obtain a simple expressions for the filling factor and the Hall conductivity. Indeed, these results, after assuming that the chemical potential lies in a gap of the density of states, lead to the conclusion that the Hall conductivity is given without corrections by σ xy = νe 2 /h where ν is the filling factor. In addition it follows that the filling factor is independent of the magnetic field if the chemical potential remains in the gap. (author). 21 ref, 1 fig

  18. A Machine Learning Approach to Discover Rules for Expressive Performance Actions in Jazz Guitar Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo, Sergio I.; Ramirez, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Expert musicians introduce expression in their performances by manipulating sound properties such as timing, energy, pitch, and timbre. Here, we present a data driven computational approach to induce expressive performance rule models for note duration, onset, energy, and ornamentation transformations in jazz guitar music. We extract high-level features from a set of 16 commercial audio recordings (and corresponding music scores) of jazz guitarist Grant Green in order to characterize the expression in the pieces. We apply machine learning techniques to the resulting features to learn expressive performance rule models. We (1) quantitatively evaluate the accuracy of the induced models, (2) analyse the relative importance of the considered musical features, (3) discuss some of the learnt expressive performance rules in the context of previous work, and (4) assess their generailty. The accuracies of the induced predictive models is significantly above base-line levels indicating that the audio performances and the musical features extracted contain sufficient information to automatically learn informative expressive performance patterns. Feature analysis shows that the most important musical features for predicting expressive transformations are note duration, pitch, metrical strength, phrase position, Narmour structure, and tempo and key of the piece. Similarities and differences between the induced expressive rules and the rules reported in the literature were found. Differences may be due to the fact that most previously studied performance data has consisted of classical music recordings. Finally, the rules' performer specificity/generality is assessed by applying the induced rules to performances of the same pieces performed by two other professional jazz guitar players. Results show a consistency in the ornamentation patterns between Grant Green and the other two musicians, which may be interpreted as a good indicator for generality of the ornamentation rules

  19. A Machine Learning Approach to Discover Rules for Expressive Performance Actions in Jazz Guitar Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Ivan Giraldo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Expert musicians introduce expression in their performances by manipulating sound properties such as timing, energy, pitch, and timbre. Here, we present a data driven computational approach to induce expressive performance rule models for note duration, onset, energy, and ornamentation transformations in jazz guitar music. We extract high-level features from a set of 16 commercial audio recordings (and corresponding music scores of jazz guitarist Grant Green in order to characterize the expression in the pieces. We apply machine learning techniques to the resulting features to learn expressive performance rule models. We (1 quantitatively evaluate the accuracy of the induced models, (2 analyse the relative importance of the considered musical features, (3 discuss some of the learnt expressive performance rules in the context of previous work, and (4 assess their generailty. The accuracies of the induced predictive models is significantly above base-line levels indicating that the audio performances and the musical features extracted contain sufficient information to automatically learn informative expressive performance patterns. Feature analysis shows that the most important musical features for predicting expressive transformations are note duration, pitch, metrical strength, phrase position, Narmour structure, and tempo and key of the piece. Similarities and differences between the induced expressive rules and the rules reported in the literature were found. Differences may be due to the fact that most previously studied performance data has consisted of classical music recordings. Finally, the rules’ performer specificity/generality is assessed by applying the induced rules to performances of the same pieces performed by two other professional jazz guitar players. Results show a consistency in the ornamentation patterns between Grant Green and the other two musicians, which may be interpreted as a good indicator for generality of the

  20. A Machine Learning Approach to Discover Rules for Expressive Performance Actions in Jazz Guitar Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo, Sergio I; Ramirez, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Expert musicians introduce expression in their performances by manipulating sound properties such as timing, energy, pitch, and timbre. Here, we present a data driven computational approach to induce expressive performance rule models for note duration, onset, energy, and ornamentation transformations in jazz guitar music. We extract high-level features from a set of 16 commercial audio recordings (and corresponding music scores) of jazz guitarist Grant Green in order to characterize the expression in the pieces. We apply machine learning techniques to the resulting features to learn expressive performance rule models. We (1) quantitatively evaluate the accuracy of the induced models, (2) analyse the relative importance of the considered musical features, (3) discuss some of the learnt expressive performance rules in the context of previous work, and (4) assess their generailty. The accuracies of the induced predictive models is significantly above base-line levels indicating that the audio performances and the musical features extracted contain sufficient information to automatically learn informative expressive performance patterns. Feature analysis shows that the most important musical features for predicting expressive transformations are note duration, pitch, metrical strength, phrase position, Narmour structure, and tempo and key of the piece. Similarities and differences between the induced expressive rules and the rules reported in the literature were found. Differences may be due to the fact that most previously studied performance data has consisted of classical music recordings. Finally, the rules' performer specificity/generality is assessed by applying the induced rules to performances of the same pieces performed by two other professional jazz guitar players. Results show a consistency in the ornamentation patterns between Grant Green and the other two musicians, which may be interpreted as a good indicator for generality of the ornamentation rules.

  1. Knowledge management as a tool for improving business processes: an action research approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora Martínez-Martínez

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study is to investigate the importance of Knowledge Management as a tool for improving business processes in a different context from the industrial organizations, as an archaeological museum. Design/methodology/approach: Using data collected from the National Museum of the Sultanate of Oman in Muscat, a methodology for analysis and improvement of processes (the Business Cycle Management Process, CMP is designed and validated. This application is described as an eight phases process based on Six Sigma DMAIC. The model has a characteristic "P" shape. Findings: As the results obtained by the process improvement initiative show, we highlight the relevance of the improvement in all aspects regarding the security in showcases in that context. Research limitations/implications: The complexity of implementing indicators and the partial vision of the project as data were only obtained from a part of one of the companies involved in the construction of the museum. An important implication of this paper is in order to present a methodology to improve the museum processes focusing on the reduction of errors and also adding value for the visitors. Practical implications: The relevance to intervene on certain relevant variables at different levels of management performance is verified. Social implications: Improving the quality of leisure services in order to the identification of certain challenges regarding the nature and competitiveness of cultural services. Originality/value: The current work has served as a repository of knowledge applicable to new similar projects, in which to take into account the peculiarities of each case and in particular the level of quality demanded by the client in a cultural context. It is important to take into account the degree of avoidable dissatisfaction (number of solvable problems that would lead to dissatisfaction, the opportunity for improvement, the reduction of operational waste and the need

  2. Effects of Corporate Social Responsibility Actions on South Korean Adolescents’ Perceptions in the Food Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-Hee Lim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Our objective in this study is to understand how adolescents respond to the food industry’s corporate social responsibility (CSR activities, especially the effects of such activities on consumers’ emotional responses, perceived authenticity, and attitudes toward the company. Understanding which types of CSR actions most influence adolescents is important for managers. This study examines adolescents’ responses to three types of CSR actions (career-related, environment-related, and wellbeing-related across two types of products (unhealthy and healthy foods. We find that CSR actions related to career issues have the greatest effects on adolescents’ emotional responses, perceived authenticity,and attitudes toward a company under the condition of healthy food products. In other words, when a healthy food company offers a career-related CSR program, adolescents have better responses than when an unhealthy food company offers the same CSR program.

  3. Covariant and background independent functional RG flow for the effective average action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safari, Mahmoud; Vacca, Gian Paolo [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN - Sezione di Bologna,via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy)

    2016-11-23

    We extend our prescription for the construction of a covariant and background-independent effective action for scalar quantum field theories to the case where momentum modes below a certain scale are suppressed by the presence of an infrared regulator. The key step is an appropriate choice of the infrared cutoff for which the Ward identity, capturing the information from single-field dependence of the ultraviolet action, continues to be exactly solvable, and therefore, in addition to covariance, manifest background independence of the effective action is guaranteed at any scale. A practical consequence is that in this framework one can adopt truncations dependent on the single total field. Furthermore we discuss the necessary and sufficient conditions for the preservation of symmetries along the renormalization group flow.

  4. Effects of action planning and coping planning within the theory of planned behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pakpour, Amir H.; Zedi, Isa mohammadi; Chatzisarantis, Nikos

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Patients on dialysis have low physical activity levels. The aim of the study was to examine the validity of action planning and coping planning within the theory of planned behaviour framework, for predicting physical activity behaviour of patients on hemodialysis. Methods: One hundred...... and forty four patients who were undergoing emodialysis were selected from dialysis centers. The mean age of the patients was 56.61 (SD= 11.38) years. The patients completed a questionnaire including variables from the theory of planned behaviour, action planning and coping planning. Physical activity...... was prospectively assessed at 4-weeks with the validated International Physical Activity Questionnaire self-report measure. A hierarchical regression analysis was performed to examine the effects of action planning and coping planning on physical activity behaviour. Results: There was a main effect for coping...

  5. Radioimmunotherapy: Development of an effective approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    Goals of this program are to answer the fundamental scientific questions for the development of an effective approach for delivering radiation therapy to cancer on antibody-based radiopharmaceuticals. The following list consists of highlights of developments from our program: documented therapeutic response of lymphoma in patients receiving radioimmunotherapy; development and application of quantitative radionuclide imaging techniques for therapy planning and dosimetry calculations; multicompartmental modeling and analysis of the in vivo MoAb kinetics in patients; a MoAb macrocycle chelate for Cu-67: development, production, in vitro and in vivo testing; NMR analysis of immunoradiotherapeutic effects on the metabolism of lymphoma; analysis of the variable molecular characteristics of the MoAb radiopharmaceutical, and their significance; in vivo studies in mice and patients of the metabolism of radioiodinated MoAb as well as In-111 CITC MoAb; and biodistribution of Cu-67 TETA MoAb in nude mice with human lymphoma.

  6. Radioimmunotherapy: Development of an effective approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Goals of this program are to answer the fundamental scientific questions for the development of an effective approach for delivering radiation therapy to cancer on antibody-based radiopharmaceuticals. The following list consists of highlights of developments from our program: documented therapeutic response of lymphoma in patients receiving radioimmunotherapy; development and application of quantitative radionuclide imaging techniques for therapy planning and dosimetry calculations; multicompartmental modeling and analysis of the in vivo MoAb kinetics in patients; a MoAb macrocycle chelate for Cu-67: development, production, in vitro and in vivo testing; NMR analysis of immunoradiotherapeutic effects on the metabolism of lymphoma; analysis of the variable molecular characteristics of the MoAb radiopharmaceutical, and their significance; in vivo studies in mice and patients of the metabolism of radioiodinated MoAb as well as In-111 CITC MoAb; and biodistribution of Cu-67 TETA MoAb in nude mice with human lymphoma

  7. Communicative action: the Habermasian and Freirean dialogical approach to participatory communication for social change in a post-1994 South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Otto

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite its almost four decade mainstay, the field of parti-cipatory communication for social change still experiences a definitional and pragmatic problem regarding what exactly participation is (cf. Jacobson & Storey, 2004; Chambers, 1994; Melkote & Steeves, 2001; Rogers, 1976; Lerner, 1964; Schramm, 1964; Servaes, 1995. What remains is a vastly under-theorised field of participatory communication for social change. This article examines the possibility of participatory communication approaching the Habermasian “ideal speech situation” in which people, as communicators, are seen as having a value in their own right and not simply regarded as a means to an end (cf. Habermas, 1984; 1987; 1989. Consistent with the Freirean “liberal pedagogy”, the praxis of dialogical communication or intersubjective communication is seen as putting right the “participative” quality of participatory com-munication (cf. Freire, 1970. For both theorists, transformative action can only occur if reflective and collective learning occurs in linguistically constructed settings where the normative dimensions of truth (logos, rightfulness (ethos and truthfulness (pathos are raised and met in the developmental conversation. This is especially significant in a globalised world and fragmented, post-bourgeois public sphere where debate among developmental stakeholders is becoming more marginal, in-strumentalist, and less public. Based on available analyses of development communication literature, this article proposes that the chosen dialogical approaches share a type of communi-cative behaviour (i.e. action theoretic, rather than representing a particular paradigm or school of thought. This could offer further definitional clarification of proper participatory communi-cation for social change in a post-1994 South Africa.

  8. Effect of an educational game on university students' learning about action potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchi, Kelly Cristina Gaviao; Montrezor, Luís Henrique; Marcondes, Fernanda K

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an educational game that is used for teaching the mechanisms of the action potentials in cell membranes. The game was composed of pieces representing the intracellular and extracellular environments, ions, ion channels, and the Na + -K + -ATPase pump. During the game activity, the students arranged the pieces to demonstrate how the ions move through the membrane in a resting state and during an action potential, linking the ion movement with a graph of the action potential. To test the effect of the game activity on student understanding, first-year dental students were given the game to play at different times in a series of classes teaching resting membrane potential and action potentials. In all experiments, students who played the game performed better in assessments. According to 98% of the students, the game supported the learning process. The data confirm the students' perception, indicating that the educational game improved their understanding about action potentials. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Analysis of a physics teacher's pedagogical `micro-actions' that support 17-year-olds' learning of free body diagrams via a modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Su Lynn; Yeo, Jennifer

    2018-01-01

    Great teaching is characterised by the specific actions a teacher takes in the classroom to bring about learning. In the context of model-based teaching (MBT), teachers' difficulty in working with students' models that are not scientifically consistent is troubling. To address this problem, the aim of this study is to identify the pedagogical micro-actions to support the development of scientific models and modelling skills during the evaluation and modification stages of MBT. Taking the perspective of pedagogical content knowing (PCKg), it identifies these micro-actions as an in-situ, dynamic transformation of knowledges of content, pedagogy, student and environment context. Through a case study approach, a lesson conducted by an experienced high-school physics teacher was examined. Audio and video recordings of the lesson contributed to the data sources. Taking a grounded approach in the analysis, eight pedagogical micro-actions enacted by the teacher were identified, namely 'clarification', 'evaluation', 'explanation', 'modification', 'exploration', 'referencing conventions', 'focusing' and 'meta-representing'. These micro-actions support students' learning related to the conceptual, cognitive, discursive and epistemological aspects of modelling. From the micro-actions, we identify the aspects of knowledges of PCKg that teachers need in order to competently select and enact these micro-actions. The in-situ and dynamic transformation of these knowledges implies that professional development should also be situated in the context in which these micro-actions are meaningful.

  10. The influence of action-effect anticipation on bistable perception: Differences between onset rivalry and ambiguous motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dogge, M.; Gayet, S.; Custers, R.; Aarts, H.A.G.

    2018-01-01

    Perception is strongly shaped by the actions we perform. According to the theory of event coding, and forward models of motor control, goal-directed action preparation activates representations of desired effects. These expectations about the precise stimulus identity of one's action-outcomes (i.e.

  11. An approach to incorporate the operator actions in the simulation of accident sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposito, A.; Quiroga, J.A.; Ibarra, A.; Hortal, J.; Hulsund, J.E.; Bisio, R.; Nilsen, S.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of the project is to develop a procedure validation system that is able to simulate the effect of operator actuations. This tool consists of the combination of a plant transient simulation code TRETA, a computerized procedure system COPMA-III, adapted for simulation and a software interface that provides the communication between COPMA-III and TRETA. During the first stage of the project three principal tasks have been carried out: the plant model for TRETA, the interpretation and computerization of the Emergency Operating Procedures (EOP), which was done concerning the steam line break as a pilot application, and the COPMA/TRETA connection and the definition of the communication protocol developed using the Software BUS data communication system. (author)

  12. The Effects of Issue Investigation and Action Training on Eighth-Grade Students' Environmental Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, John M.

    1993-01-01

    Reports the instructional effects of a formal environmental education methodology, issue investigation and action training (IIAT), on eighth-grade students. Focuses on whether IIAT can improve responsible environmental behavior in middle school students and whether variables associated with responsible adult environmental behavior will be…

  13. The generalized Schwinger-DeWitt technique and the unique effective action in quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barvinsky, A.O.; Vilkovisky, G.A.

    1983-01-01

    We consider the one-loop approximation to the recently proposed unique effective action in gauge theory. The Schwinger-DeWitt technique is generalized and applied to the computation of the unique gravitational counterterms. The issue of asymptotic freedom is reexamined. (orig.)

  14. On Some Calculations of Effective Action and Fujikawa Regularized Anomaly in the Chiral Schwinger Model

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrdad, GOSHTASBPOUR; Center for Theoretical Physics and Mathematics, AEOI:Department of Physics, Shahid Beheshti University

    1991-01-01

    Extended D^†+D-DD^† Fujikawa regularization of anomaly and a method of integration of fermions for the chiral Schwinger model are criticized. On the basis of the corrected integration method, a new extended version of D^2 is obtained, resulting in the Jackiw-Rajaraman effective action.

  15. Effective action for superfluid Fermi systems in the strong-coupling limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuis, N.

    2005-01-01

    We derive the low-energy effective action for three-dimensional superfluid Fermi systems in the strong-coupling limit, where superfluidity originates from Bose-Einstein condensation of composite bosons. Taking into account density and pairing fluctuations on the same footing, we show that the effective action involves only the fermion density ρ r and its conjugate variable, the phase θ r of the pairing order parameter Δ r . We recover the standard action of a Bose superfluid of density ρ r /2, where the bosons have a mass m B =2m and interact via a repulsive contact potential with amplitude g B =4πa B /m B ,a B =2a (a the s-wave scattering length associated to the fermion-fermion interaction in vacuum). For lattice models, the derivation of the effective action is based on the mapping of the attractive Hubbard model onto the Heisenberg model in a uniform magnetic field, and a coherent state path integral representation of the partition function. The effective description of the Fermi superfluid in the strong-coupling limit is a Bose-Hubbard model with an intersite hopping amplitude t B =J/2 and an on-site repulsive interaction U B =2Jz, where J=4t 2 /U (t and -U are the intersite hopping amplitude and the on-site attraction in the (fermionic) Hubbard model, z the number of nearest-neighbor sites)

  16. Effective action for superfluid Fermi systems in the strong-coupling limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis, N.

    2005-07-01

    We derive the low-energy effective action for three-dimensional superfluid Fermi systems in the strong-coupling limit, where superfluidity originates from Bose-Einstein condensation of composite bosons. Taking into account density and pairing fluctuations on the same footing, we show that the effective action involves only the fermion density ρr and its conjugate variable, the phase θr of the pairing order parameter Δr . We recover the standard action of a Bose superfluid of density ρr/2 , where the bosons have a mass mB=2m and interact via a repulsive contact potential with amplitude gB=4πaB/mB,aB=2a ( a the s -wave scattering length associated to the fermion-fermion interaction in vacuum). For lattice models, the derivation of the effective action is based on the mapping of the attractive Hubbard model onto the Heisenberg model in a uniform magnetic field, and a coherent state path integral representation of the partition function. The effective description of the Fermi superfluid in the strong-coupling limit is a Bose-Hubbard model with an intersite hopping amplitude tB=J/2 and an on-site repulsive interaction UB=2Jz , where J=4t2/U ( t and -U are the intersite hopping amplitude and the on-site attraction in the (fermionic) Hubbard model, z the number of nearest-neighbor sites).

  17. Non-abelian chiral anomalies and Wess-Zumino effective actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, J.L.

    1984-06-01

    An elementary account is given of the construction of anomalies and effective actions for Goldstone bosons, using the techniques of differential geometry. The emphasis is on simplicity of presentation, comparison of different renormalization schemes and the relationship to bosonization in the case of 2 dimensions. (Auth.)

  18. Modulatory effect of raloxifene and estrogen on the metabolic action of growth hormone in hypopituitary women.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Birzniece, Vita

    2010-05-01

    The metabolic action of GH is attenuated by estrogens administered via the oral route. Selective estrogen receptor modulators lower IGF-I to a lesser degree than 17beta-estradiol in GH-deficient women, and their effect on fat and protein metabolism is unknown.

  19. Effects of threat, trait anxiety and state anxiety on police officers’ actions during an arrest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renden, Peter G.; Landman, Annemarie; Daalder, Nathalie R.; de Cock, Hans P.; Savelsbergh, Geert J. P.; Oudejans, Raôul R. D.

    Purpose: We investigated the effects of threat and trait anxiety on state anxiety and how that affects police officers’ actions during an arrest. Most experiments on police performance under anxiety test the performance of one particular skill. Yet, police work often involves concerted use of a

  20. Effects of threat, trait anxiety and state anxiety on police officers' actions during an arrest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renden, P.G.; Landman, H.M.; Daalder, N.R.; de Cock, H.P.; Savelsbergh, G.J.P.; Oudejans, R.R.D.

    Purpose: We investigated the effects of threat and trait anxiety on state anxiety and how that affects police officers' actions during an arrest. Most experiments on police performance under anxiety test the performance of one particular skill. Yet, police work often involves concerted use of a

  1. Positive Education for School Leaders: Exploring the Effects of Emotion-Gratitude and Action-Gratitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Lea; Stokes, Helen

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study describes the effect of two gratitude interventions designed to trigger emotion-gratitude (gratitude diary) and action-gratitude (gratitude letter) in school leaders. Case study methodology was applied to analyse reflective journals of 27 school leaders. The gratitude diary served to foster a more balanced view of the…

  2. Effect of an Educational Game on University Students' Learning about Action Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchi, Kelly Cristina Gaviao; Montrezor, Luís Henrique; Marcondes, Fernanda K.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an educational game that is used for teaching the mechanisms of the action potentials in cell membranes. The game was composed of pieces representing the intracellular and extracellular environments, ions, ion channels, and the Na+-K+-ATPase pump. During the game activity, the students arranged…

  3. Maximizing effectiveness of adaptation action in Pacific Island communities using coastal wave attenuation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, H.; Carruthers, T.; Allison, M. A.; Weathers, D.; Moss, L.; Timmermans, H.

    2017-12-01

    Pacific Island communities are highly vulnerable to the effects of climate change, specifically accelerating rates of sea level rise, changes to storm intensity and associated rainfall patterns resulting in flooding and shoreline erosion. Nature-based adaptation is being planned not only to reduce the risk from shoreline erosion, but also to support benefits of a healthy ecosystem (e.g., supporting fisheries or coral reefs). In order to assess potential effectiveness of the nature-based actions to dissipate wave energy, two-dimensional X-Beach models were developed to predict the wave attenuation effect of coastal adaptation actions at the pilot sites—the villages of Naselesele and Somosomo on Taveuni island, Fiji. Both sites are experiencing serious shoreline erosion due to sea level rise and storm wave. The water depth (single-beam bathymetry), land elevation (truck-based LiDAR), and vegetation data including stem density and height were collected in both locations in a June 2017 field experiment. Wave height and water velocity were also measured for the model setup and calibration using a series of bottom-mounted instruments deployed in the 0-15 m water depth portions of the study grid. The calibrated model will be used to evaluate a range of possible adaptation actions identified by the community members of Naselesele and Somosomo. Particularly, multiple storm scenario runs with management-relevant shoreline restoration/adaptation options will be implemented to evaluate efficiencies of each adaptation action (e.g., no action, with additional planted trees, with sand mining, with seawalls constructed with natural materials, etc.). These model results will help to better understand how proposed adaption actions may influence future shoreline change and maximize benefits to communities in island nations across the SW Pacific.

  4. Effect of Process Approach to Writing on Senior Secondary Students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Process Approach to Writing on Senior Secondary Students' ... The study adopted a quasi-experimental non equivalent pretest-posttest research design. ... Key words: process approach, product approach, essay, writing, achievement.

  5. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 538: Spill Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfred Wickline

    2006-04-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the actions necessary for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 538: Spill Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. It has been developed in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense. A SAFER may be performed when the following criteria are met: (1) Conceptual corrective actions are clearly identified (although some degree of investigation may be necessary to select a specific corrective action before completion of the Corrective Action Investigation [CAI]). (2) Uncertainty of the nature, extent, and corrective action must be limited to an acceptable level of risk. (3) The SAFER Plan includes decision points and criteria for making data quality objective (DQO) decisions. The purpose of the investigation will be to document and verify the adequacy of existing information; to affirm the decision for either clean closure, closure in place, or no further action; and to provide sufficient data to implement the corrective action. The actual corrective action selected will be based on characterization activities implemented under this SAFER Plan. This SAFER Plan identifies decision points developed in cooperation with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) and where DOE will reach consensus with NDEP before beginning the next phase of work.

  6. Analysing the Continuity of Teaching and Learning in Classroom Actions: When the Joint Action Framework in Didactics Meets the Pragmatist Approach to Classroom Discourses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligozat, Florence; Lundqvist, Eva; Amade-Escot, Chantal

    2018-01-01

    One strand of comparative didactics aims at discussing the relationships between the theoretical constructions developed within subject didactics and how these can contribute to research about teaching and learning. This article explores the relationships between categories for analysing joint actions of teacher and students (didactic contract,…

  7. Unsupervised Learning of Action Primitives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baby, Sanmohan; Krüger, Volker; Kragic, Danica

    2010-01-01

    and scale, the use of the object can provide a strong invariant for the detection of motion primitives. In this paper we propose an unsupervised learning approach for action primitives that makes use of the human movements as well as the object state changes. We group actions according to the changes......Action representation is a key issue in imitation learning for humanoids. With the recent finding of mirror neurons there has been a growing interest in expressing actions as a combination meaningful subparts called primitives. Primitives could be thought of as an alphabet for the human actions....... In this paper we observe that human actions and objects can be seen as being intertwined: we can interpret actions from the way the body parts are moving, but as well from how their effect on the involved object. While human movements can look vastly different even under minor changes in location, orientation...

  8. Mechanisms underlying effects of approach-avoidance training on stimulus evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dessel, Pieter; Eder, Andreas B; Hughes, Sean

    2018-04-12

    Over the past decade an increasing number of studies across a range of domains have shown that the repeated performance of approach and avoidance (AA) actions in response to a stimulus leads to changes in the evaluation of that stimulus. The dominant (motivational-systems) account in this area claims that these effects are caused by a rewiring of mental associations between stimulus representations and AA systems that evolved to regulate distances to positive and negative stimuli. In contrast, two recently forwarded alternative accounts postulate that AA effects are caused by inferences about the valence of actions and stimuli (inferential account) or a transfer of valenced action codes to stimulus representations (common-coding account). Across four experiments we set out to test these three competing accounts against each other. Experiments 1-3 illustrate that changes in stimulus evaluations can occur when people perform valenced actions that bear no relation to a distance regulation, such as moving a manikin upward or downward. The observed evaluative effects were dependent on the evaluative implication of the instructed movement goal rather than whether the action implied a movement toward or away from the stimuli. These results could not be explained with a rewiring of associations to motivational systems. Experiment 4 showed that changes in stimulus evaluations occurred after participants passively observed approach-avoidance movements, supporting an explanation in terms of cognitive inferences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Explicit learning of arbitrary and non-arbitrary action-effect relations in adults and 4-year-olds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Alexander eVerschoor

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Ideomotor theories claim that carrying out a movement that produces a perceivable effect creates a bidirectional association between the two, which can be used by action control processes to retrieve the associated action by anticipating its outcome. Indeed, previous implicit-learning studies have shown that practice renders novel but action-contingent stimuli effective retrieval cues of the action they used to follow, suggesting that experiencing sequences of actions and effects creates bidirectional action-effect associations. We investigated whether action-effect associations are also acquired under explicit-learning conditions and whether familiar action-effect relations (such as between a trumpet and a trumpet sound are learned the same way as novel, arbitrary relations are. We also investigated whether these factors affect adults and 4-year-old children equally. Our findings suggest that explicit learning produces the same bidirectional action-effect associations as implicit learning does, that non-arbitrary relations improve performance without affecting learning per se, and that adults and young children show equivalent performance—apart from the common observation that children have greater difficulty to withstand stimulus-induced action tendencies.

  10. The Effect of Sympathetic Antagonists on the Antidepressant Action of Alprazolam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorash ZM

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Alprazolam is an anti-anxiety drug shown to be effective in the treatment of depression. In this study, the effect of sympathetic receptor antagonists on alprazolam–induced antidepressant action was studied using a mouse model of forced swimming behavioral despair. The interaction of three sympathetic receptor antagonists with benzodiazepines, which may impact the clinical use of alprazolam, was also studied. Behavioral despair was examined in six groups of albino mice. Drugs were administered intraperitoneally. The control group received only a single dose of 1% Tween 80. The second group received a single dose of alprazolam, and the third group received an antagonist followed by alprazolam. The fourth group was treated with imipramine, and the fifth group received an antagonist followed by imipramine. The sixth group was treated with a single dose of an antagonist alone (atenolol, a β1-selective adrenoceptor antagonist; propranolol, a non selective β-adrenoceptor antagonist; and prazocin, an α1-adrenoceptor antagonist. Results confirmed the antidepressant action of alprazolam and imipramine. Prazocin treatment alone produced depression, but it significantly potentiated the antidepressant actions of imipramine and alprazolam. Atenolol alone produced an antidepressant effect and potentiated the antidepressant action of alprazolam. Propranolol treatment alone produced depression, and antagonized the effects of alprazolam and imipramine, even producing depression in combined treatments. In conclusion, our results reveal that alprazolam may produce antidepressant effects through the release of noradrenaline, which stimulates β2 receptors to produce an antidepressant action. Imipramine may act by activating β2 receptors by blocking or down-regulating β1 receptors.

  11. arXiv Bose enhancement, the Liouville effective action and the high multiplicity tail in p-A collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Kovner, Alex

    In the framework of dense-dilute CGC approach we study fluctuations in the multiplicity of produced particles in p-A collisions. We show that the leading effect that drives the fluctuations is the Bose enhancement of gluons in the proton wave function. We explicitly calculate the moment generating function that resums the effects of Bose enhancement. We show that it can be understood in terms of the Liouville effective action for the composite field which is identified with the fluctuating density, or saturation momentum of the proton. The resulting probability distribution turns out to be very close to the gamma-distribution. We also calculate the first correction to this distribution which is due to pairwise Hanbury Brown-Twiss correlations of produced gluons.

  12. Unintended out-of-plane actions in size effect tests of structural concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramallo, J.C.; Danesi, R.F.; Kotsovos, M.D.; Pavlovic, M.N.

    1995-01-01

    This paper is part of a larger research program on the causes of size-effect in structural concrete. The obtained results through the application of a nonlinear finite element analysis using material models extensive tested reliability, pointed out a possible connection between unintended out-of-plane actions and the ultimate strength of reinforced concrete (RC) structures, The computational analysis brought up unacceptable discrepancies only in those cases where possible unintended out-of-plane actions could not be negligible nor neutralized. Herein, it arises the need of experimental on such situations to inquire into the role played for those actions and. if they really were detected, to try to link them to some suitable parameters that would allow to take into account their presence in numerical analysis. (author). 13 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  13. [Antihypoxic effect of 3-hydroxypyridine and succinic acid derivatives and their nootropic action in alloxan diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volchegorskiĭ, I A; Rassokhina, L M; Miroshnichenko, I Iu

    2011-01-01

    Relationship between the antihypoxic effect of 3-hydroxypyridine and succinic acid derivatives (emoxipine, reamberin and mexidol) and their effect on conditional learning, glycemia, and lipidemia was studied in rats with alloxan-induced diabetes. In parallel, the analogous relationship was investigated for alpha-lipoic acid that is regarded as a "gold standard" in treatment of diabetic neuropathy. It was established that single administration of emoxipine and mexidol in mice in doses equivalent to therapeutic-range doses in humans produces antihypoxic effect manifested by increased resistance to acute hypoxic hypoxia in test animals. Alpha-lipoic acid is inferior to emoxipin and mexidol in the degree of antihypoxic action. Reamberin does not exhibit this effect. The introduction of emoxipin, reamberin, mexidol, and alpha-lipoic acid in rats with alloxan diabetes during 7 or 14 days in doses equivalent to therapeutic-range doses in humans corrects conditional learning disorders in direct relationship with the antihypoxic activity of these drugs. The development of the nootropic effect of emoxipin, mexidol, and alpha-lipoic acid is related to a decrease in hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in rats with alloxan diabetes. The nootropic action of reamberin is accompanied by a transient hypoglycemizing effect and aggravation of dyslipidemic disorders. The antihypoxic activity of investigated drugs determines the direction and expression of their lipidemic effect, but is not correlated with the hypoglycemizing action these drugs on test animals with alloxan diabetes.

  14. A human factors approach to effective maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penington, J.; Shakeri, S.

    2006-01-01

    Traditionally in the field of Human Factors within the nuclear industry, the focus has been to identify the potential for human errors in operating tasks, and develop strategies to prevent their occurrence, provide recovery mechanisms, and mitigate the consequences of error as appropriate. Past experience has demonstrated however a significant number of human errors within the nuclear industry occur during maintenance tasks. It is for this reason, and the fact that our nuclear power plants are ageing and increasingly in need of maintenance, that the industry must pay more attention to maintenance tasks. The purpose of this paper is to present a framework for effective maintenance programs, and based upon this framework discuss an approach (an audit tool) that can be used to both design such a program, and to assess existing programs. In addition, this tool can form the basis of cost benefit decisions relating to priorities for improvements to existing programs. (author)

  15. Effective Disclosure in the Fast-Fashion Industry: from Sustainability Reporting to Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Garcia-Torres

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This work, set in the context of the apparel industry, proposes an action-oriented disclosure tool to help solve the sustainability challenges of complex fast-fashion supply chains (SCs. In a search for effective disclosure, it focusses on actions towards sustainability instead of the measurements and indicators of its impacts. We applied qualitative and quantitative content analysis to the sustainability reporting of the world’s two largest fast-fashion companies in three phases. First, we searched for the challenges that the organisations report they are currently facing. Second, we introduced the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs framework to overcome the voluntary reporting drawback of ‘choosing what to disclose’, and revealed orphan issues. This broadened the scope from internal corporate challenges to issues impacting the ecosystems in which companies operate. Third, we analysed the reported sustainability actions and decomposed them into topics, instruments, and actors. The results showed that fast-fashion reporting has a broadly developed analysis base, but lacks action orientation. This has led us to propose the ‘Fast-Fashion Sustainability Scorecard’ as a universal disclosure framework that shifts the focus from (i reporting towards action; (ii financial performance towards sustainable value creation; and (iii corporate boundaries towards value creation for the broader SC ecosystem.

  16. Prefrontal involvement in imitation learning of hand actions: effects of practice and expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Stefan; Buccino, Giovanni; Wohlschläger, Afra M; Canessa, Nicola; Shah, N Jon; Zilles, Karl; Eickhoff, Simon B; Freund, Hans-Joachim; Rizzolatti, Giacomo; Fink, Gereon R

    2007-10-01

    In this event-related fMRI study, we demonstrate the effects of a single session of practising configural hand actions (guitar chords) on cortical activations during observation, motor preparation and imitative execution. During the observation of non-practised actions, the mirror neuron system (MNS), consisting of inferior parietal and ventral premotor areas, was more strongly activated than for the practised actions. This finding indicates a strong role of the MNS in the early stages of imitation learning. In addition, the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) was selectively involved during observation and motor preparation of the non-practised chords. This finding confirms Buccino et al.'s [Buccino, G., Vogt, S., Ritzl, A., Fink, G.R., Zilles, K., Freund, H.-J., Rizzolatti, G., 2004a. Neural circuits underlying imitation learning of hand actions: an event-related fMRI study. Neuron 42, 323-334] model of imitation learning: for actions that are not yet part of the observer's motor repertoire, DLPFC engages in operations of selection and combination of existing, elementary representations in the MNS. The pattern of prefrontal activations further supports Shallice's [Shallice, T., 2004. The fractionation of supervisory control. In: Gazzaniga, M.S. (Ed.), The Cognitive Neurosciences, Third edition. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, pp. 943-956] proposal of a dominant role of the left DLPFC in modulating lower level systems and of a dominant role of the right DLPFC in monitoring operations.

  17. The Effects of Optical Illusions in Perception and Action in Peripersonal and Extrapersonal Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jaeho; van der Kamp, John

    2017-09-01

    While the two visual system hypothesis tells a fairly compelling story about perception and action in peripersonal space (i.e., within arm's reach), its validity for extrapersonal space is very limited and highly controversial. Hence, the present purpose was to assess whether perception and action differences in peripersonal space hold in extrapersonal space and are modulated by the same factors. To this end, the effects of an optic illusion in perception and action in both peripersonal and extrapersonal space were compared in three groups that threw balls toward a target at a distance under different target eccentricity (i.e., with the target fixated and in peripheral field), viewing (i.e., binocular and monocular viewing), and delay conditions (i.e., immediate and delayed action). The illusory bias was smaller in action than in perception in peripersonal space, but this difference was significantly reduced in extrapersonal space, primarily because of a weakening bias in perception. No systematic modulation of target eccentricity, viewing, and delay arose. The findings suggest that the two visual system hypothesis is also valid for extra personal space.

  18. Effect of actions promoting healthy eating on students' lipid profile: A controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita De Cássia Ribeiro-Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of nutrition intervention actions on the lipid profile of children and adolescents enrolled in public elementary schools. METHODS: This nine-month, controlled, intervention study included 202 students aged 7 to 14 years attending two schools (intervention/control located in a poor neighborhood of the municipality of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Actions were implemented in the intervention school to promote healthy eating habits, presented as "Ten steps to healthy eating". The effect of these actions was assessed by subjecting the students at baseline and end of the follow-up to biochemical, maturation, and anthropometric measurements and a produce intake survey. The dependent variables were the changes in the study biochemical parameters: total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and triglycerides. Analysis of covariance assessed the changes that occurred over the study period. RESULTS: The mean total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and triglycerides of the intervention students decreased 13.18 mg/dL (p=0.001, 7.41 mg/dL (p=0.038, and 12.37 mg/dL (p=0.029, respectively, compared with the control students. CONCLUSION: Actions of this nature have a positive impact on lipid profile. This study adds to those that use effective and viable public health strategies implementable at the primary care level.

  19. Feature activation during word recognition: action, visual, and associative-semantic priming effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin J.Y. Lam

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Embodied theories of language postulate that language meaning is stored in modality-specific brain areas generally involved in perception and action in the real world. However, the temporal dynamics of the interaction between modality-specific information and lexical-semantic processing remain unclear. We investigated the relative timing at which two types of modality-specific information (action-based and visual-form information contribute to lexical-semantic comprehension. To this end, we applied a behavioral priming paradigm in which prime and target words were related with respect to (1 action features, (2 visual features, or (3 semantically associative information. Using a Go/No-Go lexical decision task, priming effects were measured across four different inter-stimulus intervals (ISI = 100 ms, 250 ms, 400 ms, and 1,000 ms to determine the relative time course of the different features . Notably, action priming effects were found in ISIs of 100 ms, 250 ms, and 1,000 ms whereas a visual priming effect was seen only in the ISI of 1,000 ms. Importantly, our data suggest that features follow different time courses of activation during word recognition. In this regard, feature activation is dynamic, measurable in specific time windows but not in others. Thus the current study (1 demonstrates how multiple ISIs can be used within an experiment to help chart the time course of feature activation and (2 provides new evidence for embodied theories of language.

  20. Event-related potential effects of superior action anticipation in professional badminton players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hua; Xu, Guiping; Zhang, John X; Gao, Hongwei; Ye, Zuoer; Wang, Pin; Lin, Huiyan; Mo, Lei; Lin, Chong-De

    2011-04-04

    The ability to predict the trajectory of a ball based on the opponent's body kinematics has been shown to be critical to high-performing athletes in many sports. However, little is known about the neural correlates underlying such superior ability in action anticipation. The present event-related potential study compared brain responses from professional badminton players and non-player controls when they watched video clips of badminton games and predicted a ball's landing position. Replicating literature findings, the players made significantly more accurate judgments than the controls and showed better action anticipation. Correspondingly, they showed enlarged amplitudes of two ERP components, a P300 peaking around 350ms post-stimulus with a parietal scalp distribution and a P2 peaking around 250ms with a posterior-occipital distribution. The P300 effect was interpreted to reflect primed access and/or directing of attention to game-related memory representations in the players facilitating their online judgment of related actions. The P2 effect was suggested to reflect some generic learning effects. The results identify clear neural responses that differentiate between different levels of action anticipation associated with sports expertise. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The climate mitigation gap: education and government recommendations miss the most effective individual actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynes, Seth; Nicholas, Kimberly A.

    2017-07-01

    Current anthropogenic climate change is the result of greenhouse gas accumulation in the atmosphere, which records the aggregation of billions of individual decisions. Here we consider a broad range of individual lifestyle choices and calculate their potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in developed countries, based on 148 scenarios from 39 sources. We recommend four widely applicable high-impact (i.e. low emissions) actions with the potential to contribute to systemic change and substantially reduce annual personal emissions: having one fewer child (an average for developed countries of 58.6 tonnes CO2-equivalent (tCO2e) emission reductions per year), living car-free (2.4 tCO2e saved per year), avoiding airplane travel (1.6 tCO2e saved per roundtrip transatlantic flight) and eating a plant-based diet (0.8 tCO2e saved per year). These actions have much greater potential to reduce emissions than commonly promoted strategies like comprehensive recycling (four times less effective than a plant-based diet) or changing household lightbulbs (eight times less). Though adolescents poised to establish lifelong patterns are an important target group for promoting high-impact actions, we find that ten high school science textbooks from Canada largely fail to mention these actions (they account for 4% of their recommended actions), instead focusing on incremental changes with much smaller potential emissions reductions. Government resources on climate change from the EU, USA, Canada, and Australia also focus recommendations on lower-impact actions. We conclude that there are opportunities to improve existing educational and communication structures to promote the most effective emission-reduction strategies and close this mitigation gap.

  2. [Effect of pulse magnetic field on distribution of neuronal action potential].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yu; Cai, Di; Wang, Jin-Hai; Li, Gang; Lin, Ling

    2014-08-25

    The biological effect on the organism generated by magnetic field is widely studied. The present study was aimed to observe the change of sodium channel under magnetic field in neurons. Cortical neurons of Kunming mice were isolated, subjected to 15 Hz, 1 mT pulse magnetic stimulation, and then the currents of neurons were recorded by whole-cell patch clamp. The results showed that, under magnetic stimulation, the activation process of Na(+) channel was delayed, and the inactivation process was accelerated. Given the classic three-layer model, the polarization diagram of cell membrane potential distribution under pulse magnetic field was simulated, and it was found that the membrane potential induced was associated with the frequency and intensity of magnetic field. Also the effect of magnetic field-induced current on action potential was simulated by Hodgkin-Huxley (H-H) model. The result showed that the generation of action potential was delayed, and frequency and the amplitudes were decreased when working current was between -1.32 μA and 0 μA. When the working current was higher than 0 μA, the generation frequency of action potential was increased, and the change of amplitudes was not obvious, and when the working current was lower than -1.32 μA, the time of rising edge and amplitudes of action potential were decreased drastically, and the action potential was unable to generate. These results suggest that the magnetic field simulation can affect the distribution frequency and amplitude of action potential of neuron via sodium channel mediation.

  3. Effects of Acetylcholine and Noradrenalin on Action Potentials of Isolated Rabbit Sinoatrial and Atrial Myocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkerk, Arie O.; Geuzebroek, Guillaume S. C.; Veldkamp, Marieke W.; Wilders, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system controls heart rate and contractility through sympathetic and parasympathetic inputs to the cardiac tissue, with acetylcholine (ACh) and noradrenalin (NA) as the chemical transmitters. In recent years, it has become clear that specific Regulators of G protein Signaling proteins (RGS proteins) suppress muscarinic sensitivity and parasympathetic tone, identifying RGS proteins as intriguing potential therapeutic targets. In the present study, we have identified the effects of 1 μM ACh and 1 μM NA on the intrinsic action potentials of sinoatrial (SA) nodal and atrial myocytes. Single cells were enzymatically isolated from the SA node or from the left atrium of rabbit hearts. Action potentials were recorded using the amphotericin-perforated patch-clamp technique in the absence and presence of ACh, NA, or a combination of both. In SA nodal myocytes, ACh increased cycle length and decreased diastolic depolarization rate, whereas NA decreased cycle length and increased diastolic depolarization rate. Both ACh and NA increased maximum upstroke velocity. Furthermore, ACh hyperpolarized the maximum diastolic potential. In atrial myocytes stimulated at 2 Hz, both ACh and NA hyperpolarized the maximum diastolic potential, increased the action potential amplitude, and increased the maximum upstroke velocity. Action potential duration at 50 and 90% repolarization was decreased by ACh, but increased by NA. The effects of both ACh and NA on action potential duration showed a dose dependence in the range of 1–1000 nM, while a clear-cut frequency dependence in the range of 1–4 Hz was absent. Intermediate results were obtained in the combined presence of ACh and NA in both SA nodal and atrial myocytes. Our data uncover the extent to which SA nodal and atrial action potentials are intrinsically dependent on ACh, NA, or a combination of both and may thus guide further experiments with RGS proteins. PMID:22754533

  4. Endocrine disrupting chemicals in fish: developing exposure indicators and predictive models of effects based on mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankley, Gerald T; Bencic, David C; Breen, Michael S; Collette, Timothy W; Conolly, Rory B; Denslow, Nancy D; Edwards, Stephen W; Ekman, Drew R; Garcia-Reyero, Natalia; Jensen, Kathleen M; Lazorchak, James M; Martinović, Dalma; Miller, David H; Perkins, Edward J; Orlando, Edward F; Villeneuve, Daniel L; Wang, Rong-Lin; Watanabe, Karen H

    2009-05-05

    Knowledge of possible toxic mechanisms (or modes) of action (MOA) of chemicals can provide valuable insights as to appropriate methods for assessing exposure and effects, thereby reducing uncertainties related to extrapolation across species, endpoints and chemical structure. However, MOA-based testing seldom has been used for assessing the ecological risk of chemicals. This is in part because past regulatory mandates have focused more on adverse effects of chemicals (reductions in survival, growth or reproduction) than the pathways through which these effects are elicited. A recent departure from this involves endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), where there is a need to understand both MOA and adverse outcomes. To achieve this understanding, advances in predictive approaches are required whereby mechanistic changes caused by chemicals at the molecular level can be translated into apical responses meaningful to ecological risk assessment. In this paper we provide an overview and illustrative results from a large, integrated project that assesses the effects of EDCs on two small fish models, the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and zebrafish (Danio rerio). For this work a systems-based approach is being used to delineate toxicity pathways for 12 model EDCs with different known or hypothesized toxic MOA. The studies employ a combination of state-of-the-art genomic (transcriptomic, proteomic, metabolomic), bioinformatic and modeling approaches, in conjunction with whole animal testing, to develop response linkages across biological levels of organization. This understanding forms the basis for predictive approaches for species, endpoint and chemical extrapolation. Although our project is focused specifically on EDCs in fish, we believe that the basic conceptual approach has utility for systematically assessing exposure and effects of chemicals with other MOA across a variety of biological systems.

  5. Inverse Scattering Method and Soliton Solution Family for String Effective Action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ya-Jun, Gao

    2009-01-01

    A modified Hauser–Ernst-type linear system is established and used to develop an inverse scattering method for solving the motion equations of the string effective action describing the coupled gravity, dilaton and Kalb–Ramond fields. The reduction procedures in this inverse scattering method are found to be fairly simple, which makes the proposed inverse scattering method applied fine and effective. As an application, a concrete family of soliton solutions for the considered theory is obtained

  6. Mechanisms of action underlying the antiandrogenic effects of the fungicide prochloraz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laier, Peter; Metzdorff, Stine Broeng; Boberg, Julie

    2006-01-01

    The fungicide prochloraz has got multiple mechanisms of action that may influence the demasculinizing and reproductive toxic effects of the compound. In the present study, Wistar rats were dosed perinatally with prochloraz (50 and 150 mg/kg/day) from gestational day (GD) 7 to postnatal day (PND) ...... acts directly on the fetal testis to inhibit steroidogenesis and that this effect is exhibited at protein, and not at genomic, level. (c) 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved....

  7. Brain negativity as an indicator of predictive error processing: the contribution of visual action effect monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joch, Michael; Hegele, Mathias; Maurer, Heiko; Müller, Hermann; Maurer, Lisa Katharina

    2017-07-01

    The error (related) negativity (Ne/ERN) is an event-related potential in the electroencephalogram (EEG) correlating with error processing. Its conditions of appearance before terminal external error information suggest that the Ne/ERN is indicative of predictive processes in the evaluation of errors. The aim of the present study was to specifically examine the Ne/ERN in a complex motor task and to particularly rule out other explaining sources of the Ne/ERN aside from error prediction processes. To this end, we focused on the dependency of the Ne/ERN on visual monitoring about the action outcome after movement termination but before result feedback (action effect monitoring). Participants performed a semi-virtual throwing task by using a manipulandum to throw a virtual ball displayed on a computer screen to hit a target object. Visual feedback about the ball flying to the target was masked to prevent action effect monitoring. Participants received a static feedback about the action outcome (850 ms) after each trial. We found a significant negative deflection in the average EEG curves of the error trials peaking at ~250 ms after ball release, i.e., before error feedback. Furthermore, this Ne/ERN signal did not depend on visual ball-flight monitoring after release. We conclude that the Ne/ERN has the potential to indicate error prediction in motor tasks and that it exists even in the absence of action effect monitoring. NEW & NOTEWORTHY In this study, we are separating different kinds of possible contributors to an electroencephalogram (EEG) error correlate (Ne/ERN) in a throwing task. We tested the influence of action effect monitoring on the Ne/ERN amplitude in the EEG. We used a task that allows us to restrict movement correction and action effect monitoring and to control the onset of result feedback. We ascribe the Ne/ERN to predictive error processing where a conscious feeling of failure is not a prerequisite. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological

  8. Effect of silver ion, carbon dioxide, and oxygen on ethylene action and metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, E.M. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The relationship between ethylene action and metabolism was investigated in the etiolated pea seedling (Pisum sativum L. cv. Alaska) by inhibiting ethylene action with Ag + , high CO 2 , and low O 2 and then determining if ethylene metabolism was inhibited in a similar manner. Ag + (100 milligrams per liter) was clearly the most potent antiethylene treatment. Ag + pretreatment inhibited the growth retarding action of 0.2 microliters per liter ethylene by 48% and also inhibited the incorporation of 14 C 2 H 4 into pea tips by the same amount. As the ethylene concentration was increased from 0.2 to 30 microliters per liter, the effectiveness of Ag + in reducing ethylene action and metabolism declined in a similar fashion. Although Ag + significantly inhibited the incorporation of 14 C 2 H 4 into tissue metabolites, the oxidation of 14 C 2 H 4 to 14 CO 2 was unaffected. CO 2 (7%) inhibited ethylene-induced growth retardation but its effectiveness diminished at a greater rate than that of Ag + with increasing ethylene concentration. High CO 2 had just the opposite effect of Ag + since it inhibited 14 C 2 H 4 oxidation to 14 CO 2 without affecting tissue incorporation. In contrast to Ag + , CO 2 did not inhibit ethylene action and metabolism to exactly the same extent, and the inhibition of metabolism did not rapidly decline with increasing 14 C 2 H 4 concentration. However, high CO 2 did alter the ratio of 14 C 2 H 4 tissue incorporation to 14 CO 2 production in a manner consistent with changes in ethylene effectiveness. Lowering the O 2 concentration to 5% reduced ethylene-induced growth retardation and inhibited 14 C 2 H 4 tissue incorporation and oxidation to 14 CO 2 by 26 and 45%, respectively. Low O 2 reduced pea seedling growth under these conditions thereby severely limiting its usefulness as a specific antiethylene treatment

  9. Promoting the translation of intentions into action by implementation intentions: Behavioral effects and physiological correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank eWieber

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present review addresses the physiological correlates of planning effects on behavior. Although intentions to act qualify as predictors of behavior, accumulated evidence indicates that there is a substantial gap between even strong intentions and subsequent action. One effective strategy to reduce this intention-behavior gap is the formation of implementation intentions that specify when, where, and how to act on a given goal in an if-then format (If I encounter situation Y, then I will initiate action Z!. It has been proposed that implementation intentions render the mental representation of the situation highly accessible and establish a strong associative link between the mental representations of the situation and the action. These process assumptions have been examined in behavioral research, and in physiological research, a field that has begun to investigate the temporal dynamics of and brain areas involved in implementation intention effects. In the present review, we first summarize studies on the cognitive processes that are central to the strategic automation of action control by implementation intentions. We then examine studies involving critical samples with impaired self-regulation. Lastly, we review studies that have applied physiological measures such as heart rate, cortisol level, and eye movement, as well as electroencephalography (EEG and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI studies on the neural correlates of implementation intention effects. In support of the assumed processes, implementation intentions increased goal attainment in studies on cognitive processes and in critical samples, modulated brain waves related to perceptual and decision processes, and generated less activity in brain areas associated with effortful action control. In our discussion, we reflect on the status quo of physiological research on implementation intentions, methodological and conceptual issues, related research, and propose future

  10. The Utility of the Health Action Process Approach Model for Predicting Physical Activity Intentions and Behavior in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly P. Arbour-Nicitopoulos

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Research is needed to develop evidence-based behavioral interventions for preventing and treating obesity that are specific to the schizophrenia population. This study is the precursor to such intervention research where we examined the utility of the social cognitions outlined within the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA model for predicting moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA intentions and behavior among individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. A prospective cohort design [baseline (T1, week 2 (T2, and week 4 (T3] was used to examine the HAPA constructs and MVPA across a sample of 101 adults (Mage = 41.5 ± 11.7 years; MBMI = 31.2 ± 7.8 kg/m2; 59% male. Two hierarchical regression analyses were conducted controlling for age, gender, BMI, and previous self-reported MVPA. In the first regression, intentions at T1 were regressed onto the T1 motivational HAPA constructs (risk perception, affective attitudes, task self-efficacy and social support; MVPA status (meeting vs. not meeting the MVPA guidelines assessed via accelerometry at T3 was regressed onto T1 social support and intentions followed by T2 action and coping planning, and maintenance self-efficacy in the second analysis. Overall, the motivational and social support variables accounted for 28% of the variance in intentions, with affective attitudes (β = 0.33, p < 0.01 and task self-efficacy (β = 0.25, p < 0.05 exhibiting significant, positive relationships. For MVPA status, the model as a whole explained 39% of the variance, with the volitional HAPA constructs explaining a non-significant 3% of this total variance. These findings suggest a need for interventions targeting self-efficacy and affective attitudes within this clinical population.

  11. Procuring a Sustainable Future: An Action Learning Approach to the Development and Modelling of Ethical and Sustainable Procurement Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boak, George; Watt, Peter; Gold, Jeff; Devins, David; Garvey, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This paper contributes to an understanding of the processes by which organisational actors learn how to affect positive and sustainable social change in their local region through action learning, action research and appreciative inquiry. The paper is based on a critically reflective account of key findings from an ongoing action research project,…

  12. An Effective Approach to Teaching Electrochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birss, Viola I.; Truax, D. Rodney

    1990-01-01

    An approach which may be useful for teaching electrochemistry in freshman college chemistry courses is presented. Discussed are the potential problems with teaching this subject and solutions provided by this approach. (CW)

  13. Different goods, different effects: Exploring the effects of generalized social trust in large-N collective action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar

    2009-01-01

    Does generalized social trust help solve large-N collective action problems? This paper argues so, offering a novel explanation for the relationship: People tend to cooperate if they expect others to be cooperating, which implies that people holding generalized social trust more readily cooperate...... in large-N dilemmas because they expect that most people will cooperate. The paper tests the explanation in a rigorous design. The analyses show a positive, robust effect of generalized social trust on public good provision, but no effect is found in a joint product situation. This supports the hypothesis......, indicating that trust specifically enhances cooperation in collective action dilemmas....

  14. From action planning and plan enactment to fruit consumption: moderated mediation effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasten, Stefanie; van Osch, Liesbeth; Eggers, Sander Matthijs; de Vries, Hein

    2017-10-23

    Sufficient fruit consumption is beneficial for a healthy live. While many Dutch adults intent to eat the recommended amount of fruit, only 5-10% of the population actually adheres to the recommendation. One mechanism that can help to narrow this gap between intention and actual fruit consumption is action planning. However, action planning is only assumed to be effective if plans are enacted. This study assessed which action plans are made and enacted, and further aimed to investigate two main hypotheses: 1. the effect of action planning (at T1) on fruit consumption (at T2) is mediated by plan enactment (at T3); 2. positive intentions (2a), high self-efficacy (2b) and a strong habit to eat fruit (2c) enhance the mediation of plan enactment, whereas a strong habit to eat snacks (2d) hinders the mediation of plan enactment. This study was a self-reported longitudinal online survey study. A total of 428 participants filled in a survey, measuring demographic factors (e.g. gender, age, education level), several socio-cognitive constructs (i.e. attitudes, self-efficacy, habit, action planning, plan enactment), and fruit consumption, at three points in time (baseline, after 1 month, and after 3 months). Mediation and moderated mediation analyses were used to investigate the planning-plan enactment- fruit consumption relationship. Up to 70% of the participants reported to have enacted their T1 action plans at T2. Action planning on fruit consumption was fully mediated by plan enactment (Hypothesis 1). All four proposed moderators (i.e. intention, self-efficacy, habit to consume fruit, and habit to consume snacks) significantly influenced the mediation (Hypotheses 2a-2d). Mediation of plan enactment was only present with high levels of intention, high levels of self-efficacy, strong habits to eat fruit, and weak habits to eat snacks. The study suggests the importance of plan enactment for fruit consumption. Furthermore, it emphasizes the necessity of facilitating factors

  15. HERCA-WENRA Approach for a better cross-border coordination of protective actions during the early phase of a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bijlholt, Jette; Constantinou, Costas; Janssens, Augustin; ); Djounova, Jana; Fueloep, Nandor; Gering, Florian; Lieser, Joachim; Halldorsson, Oskar; Haywood, Stephanie; Hofer, Peter; Isnard, Olivier; Kuhlen, Johannes; Rother, Wolfram; Majerus, Patrick; Murith, Christophe; Nizamska, Marina; Rauber, Dominique; Rusch, Ronald; Stahl, Thorsten; Stephen, Patrick; Tkavc, Marjan; Van Gelder, Iris; Degueldre, Didier; Vandecasteele, Christian; Fuchsova, Dagmar; Genthon, Benedicte; Jamet, Philippe; Gilli, Ludivine; Lachaume, Jean-Luc; Perrin, Marie-Line; Xicluna, Delphine; Goerts, Peter; Greipl, Christian; Kuhlen, Johannes; Gurgui, Antoni; Mozas, Alfredo; Calvaro, Jose-Manuel Martin; Hohl, Harry; Rauber, Dominique; Hubbard, Lynn; Lindh, Karin; Majerus, Patrick; McMahon, Ciara; Metke, Eduard; Sokolikova, Adriana; Piller, Georges; Reiman, Lasse; Aaltonen, Hannele; Kuusi, Antero; Senior, David; Temple, Charles; Ugletveit, Finn; Holo, Eldri; Vandecasteele, Christian; Guzman, Olvido; Mueller-Ecker, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    The HERCA-WENRA Approach is an incentive approach that comprises the necessary mechanisms for countries to exchange adequate information and to achieve practical and operational solutions on a voluntary basis during an emergency leading to a uniform way of dealing with any serious radiological emergency situation, regardless of national border line, hence allowing for coherent and coordinated protective actions. The HERCA-WENRA Approach has the potential to improve the coherence of the response in case of a nuclear accident with impact on territories of other countries and to be used as guidance to implement Article 99.11 and 99.22 of the Euratom-BSS. It also fulfils recommendation No. 12.7.b of the so-known ENCO study and it further addresses some of the other recommendations. Content: General presentation of the HERCA WENRA Approach for a better cross-border coordination of protective actions during the early phase of a nuclear accident. Part I - HERCA-WENRA Approach for a better cross-border coordination of protective actions during the early phase of a nuclear accident. - General Mechanism. Part II - HERCA-WENRA Approach in case of a Severe Accident requiring Rapid Decisions for Protective Actions, while very little is known about the Situation

  16. Mixed heavy–light matching in the Universal One-Loop Effective Action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, Sebastian A.R.; Quevillon, Jérémie; You, Tevong; Zhang, Zhengkang

    2016-01-01

    Recently, a general result for evaluating the path integral at one loop was obtained in the form of the Universal One-Loop Effective Action. It may be used to derive effective field theory operators of dimensions up to six, by evaluating the traces of matrices in this expression, with the mass dependence encapsulated in the universal coefficients. Here we show that it can account for loops of mixed heavy–light particles in the matching procedure. Our prescription for computing these mixed contributions to the Wilson coefficients is conceptually simple. Moreover it has the advantage of maintaining the universal structure of the effective action, which we illustrate using the example of integrating out a heavy electroweak triplet scalar coupling to a light Higgs doublet. Finally we also identify new structures that were previously neglected in the universal results.

  17. Low-energy effective action in nonperturbative electrodynamics in curved space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avramidi, Ivan G.; Fucci, Guglielmo

    2009-01-01

    We study the heat kernel for the Laplace-type partial differential operator acting on smooth sections of a complex spin-tensor bundle over a generic n-dimensional Riemannian manifold. Assuming that the curvature of the U(1) connection (that we call the electromagnetic field) is constant, we compute the first two coefficients of the nonperturbative asymptotic expansion of the heat kernel which are of zero and the first order in Riemannian curvature and of arbitrary order in the electromagnetic field. We apply these results to the study of the effective action in nonperturbative electrodynamics in four dimensions and derive a generalization of the Schwinger's result for the creation of scalar and spinor particles in electromagnetic field induced by the gravitational field. We discover a new infrared divergence in the imaginary part of the effective action due to the gravitational corrections, which seems to be a new physical effect.

  18. Low-energy effective action in two-dimensional SQED: a two-loop analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsonov, I. B.

    2017-07-01

    We study two-loop quantum corrections to the low-energy effective actions in N=(2,2) and N=(4,4) SQED on the Coulomb branch. In the latter model, the low-energy effective action is described by a generalized Kähler potential which depends on both chiral and twisted chiral superfields. We demonstrate that this generalized Kähler potential is one-loop exact and corresponds to the N=(4,4) sigma-model with torsion presented by Roček, Schoutens and Sevrin [1]. In the N=(2,2) SQED, the effective Kähler potential is not protected against higher-loop quantum corrections. The two-loop quantum corrections to this potential and the corresponding sigma-model metric are explicitly found.

  19. Enactment effects and integration processes in younger and older adults' memory for actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyereisen, Pierre

    2009-05-01

    The positive effects of gesturing on memory are robust but their interpretation is still controversial. To clarify the issue, recognition and cued recall of action phrases were compared in 24 younger (M=20 years) and 20 older adults (M=68 years), in three encoding conditions--purely verbal tasks (VTs), subject-performed tasks (SPTs), and experimenter-performed tasks (EPTs)--for well- and poorly integrated phrases. As expected, the effects of these factors were significant, but there was no interaction between age-related differences, enactment effects, and semantic association. In particular, both SPT and EPT displayed similar advantages over VT conditions in both age groups and in the two memory tasks. These results are discussed in relation to the debate between Engelkamp on one side, and Kormi-Nouri and Nilsson on the other side, about the role of motor components in the episodic integration of verbs and nouns in action phrases.

  20. For your eyes only: Effect of confederate's eye level on reach-to-grasp action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois eQuesque

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that the spatio-temporal parameters of reach-to-grasp movement are influenced by the social context in which the motor action is performed. In particular, when interacting with a confederate, movements are slower, with longer initiation times and more ample trajectories, which has been interpreted as implicit communicative information emerging through voluntary movement to catch the partner’s attention and optimize cooperation (Quesque et al., 2013. Because gaze is a crucial component of social interactions, the present study evaluated the role of a confederate's eye level on the social modulation of trajectory curvature. An actor and a partner facing each other took part in a cooperative task consisting, for one of them, of grasping and moving a wooden dowel under time constraints. Before this Main action, the actor performed a Preparatory action, which consisted of placing the wooden dowel on a central marking. The partner's eye level was unnoticeably varied using an adjustable seat that matched or was higher than the actor’s seat. Our data confirmed the previous effects of social intention on motor responses. Furthermore, we observed an effect of the partner's eye level on the Preparatory action, leading the actors to exaggerate unconsciously the trajectory curvature in relation to their partner's eye level. No interaction was found between the actor's social intention and their partner's eye level. These results suggest that other bodies are implicitly taken into account when a reach-to-grasp movement is produced in a social context.