Fantini, Mario D.; Weinstein, Gerald
The major thesis of this new approach to pedagogy is that through an understanding of the problems of disadvantaged children the educational problems of all children will be better understood. The functionalism of John Dewey has been brought up to date in this book through the propositions that curriculum should move from the remote to the…
Luschei, Thomas F.; Vega, Laura
The United States has long struggled with the challenge of educating children experiencing extreme disadvantage, including the poor, ethnic and racial minorities, English language learners, and foster children. In this article, we argue that solutions to this problem lie not to the east or west, but to the south. Specifically, we offer the…
Musso, Mandi W; Cosgrove, Seandra J; Peltier, MacKenzie R; McGee, Brian L; Jones, Glenn N
Neurocognitive screeners are used to detect symptoms of HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND). However, the degree to which education and socioeconomic status affect these screeners remains unclear. Neurocognitive screeners were administered to 187 socioeconomically disadvantaged HIV+ individuals upon entering treatment who had no other risk factors for HAND. The false positive rates were: 84% for the Montreal Cognitive Assessment, 59% for the International HIV Dementia Scale, and 28.3% for the Modified HIV Dementia Scale. Given these high false positive rates, the screeners may be more useful for establishing baseline functioning and sequential testing to detect deterioration.
In 1965, following a review of second-level education in Ireland, the report "Investment in Education" was published. While a concern with educational inequality and disadvantage pre-dates this report, it clearly identified the significant socio-economic disparities in educational participation at the time and emphasised an urgent need…
Pridmore, Pat; Jere, Catherine
This paper is concerned with the gap in educational provision for vulnerable learners in Malawi who are at risk of falling behind and dropping out of school due to irregular attendance. It draws on a study in high HIV-prevalence areas that explores the patterns of inequality and disadvantage that disrupt learning and uses this knowledge to design…
Marks, Gary N.
Making use of the longitudinal data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) survey, this study examines the relationship between post-school qualifications and financial disadvantage among Australians during the period 2001 to 2008. Specifically, it is concerned with the extent that education and training, vis-a-vis…
Assessment is always considered to be an important component in the field of higher vocational education. It serves the purpose of evaluating students’achievement and supporting learning and teaching. Assessment plays a key role by relating the in-structional activities to increase students’capabilities. The purpose aims to consider the notion of assessment as a prerequisite and will attempt to explore certain strengths and weaknesses of assessment associated with higher vocational education. Some different types and techniques of assessment in higher vocational education alongside their advantages and disadvantages will also be ex-plored.
Gardner, Margo; Martin, Anne; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
In a sample of urban youth (N = 1,070), we examined the links between primary caregiver affect (i.e., warmth and hostility) and two measures of sexual behavior in adolescence--early sexual initiation and sex with multiple partners. We also examined the extent to which neighborhood disadvantage moderated associations between caregiver affect and…
Full Text Available The article describes the inclusive environment's support practices promoting to basic purposes of inclusive education, i.e., involvement of a bigger number of students with health disabilities into society. The article regards a number of supporting models, which prepare students for transition into an inclusive class, contribute to successful adaptation in the classroom and affect social relations of students as connected with the way they are perceived and accepted by other people. We analyzed the methodological foundation of inclusive education, drawing on theoretical underpinnings of the inclusive model, and tried to observe their coincidences with the concepts of cultural-historical approach in psychology.
The article describes the inclusive environment's support practices promoting to basic purposes of inclusive education, i.e., involvement of a bigger number of students with health disabilities into society. The article regards a number of supporting models, which prepare students for transition into an inclusive class, contribute to successful adaptation in the classroom and affect social relations of students as connected with the way they are perceived and accepted by other people. We anal...
Dyson, Alan; Raffo, Carlo
The proposed development of extended schools in England is part of an international movement towards community-oriented schooling, particularly in areas of disadvantage. Although on the face of it this movement seems like a common-sense approach to self-evident needs, the evaluation evidence on such schools is inconclusive. In order to assess the…
As Barker notes, the link between disadvantage and poor educational attainments is an enduring one. Educational policy over the last 40 years or so has tended to respond to educational inequality in predominately one of two ways--attempts to raise standards across the system as a whole and attempts to redistribute resources to families, schools…
Council for Exceptional Children, Arlington, VA.
Conference papers on early childhood education cover the following topics: individual variation among preschoolers in a cognitive intervention program in low income families presented by Phyllis Levenstein, programmatic research on disadvantaged youth and an ameliorative intervention program by Merle B. Karnes and others, special education and…
Notten, N.; Kraaykamp, G.
This article analyzes the long-term effects of parental media socialization on children’s educational attainment. Data on 8316 individuals from 3257 families in the Netherlands is used to estimate hierarchical models that distinguish between family-specific (socialization) and individual-level effec
Notten, N.J.W.R.; Kraaykamp, G.L.M.
This article analyzes the long-term effects of parental media socialization on children's educational attainment. Data on 8316 individuals from 3257 families in the Netherlands is used to estimate hierarchical models that distinguish between family-specific (socialization) and individual-level effec
Power, Sally; Curtis, Andrew; Whitty, Geoff; Edwards, Tony
It is now nearly thirty years since Margaret Thatcher and her Conservative administration introduced the Assisted Places Scheme (their first education policy) and over ten years since New Labour abolished it. The Scheme, which was designed to provide a ladder of opportunity for academically able students from poor backgrounds to attend private…
Poliakoff, Lorraine, Comp.
This bibliography on the disadvantaged cites 165 documents acquired and processed by the ERIC Clearinghouse on Teacher Education from July 1968 to December 1969. Organization is in terms of document types: bibliographies--9 items; manuals--12 items; programs--77 items; research--27 items; reviews--6 items; others, e.g., conference papers and…
The increased diversity in the student body resulting from massification poses particular challenges to higher education. This article engages the uncritical use of the "disadvantage" discourse and its effect on pedagogy. It explores some of the challenges of coping with student diversity, with particular reference to the South African context.…
Broussard, Vernon; Wulf, Kathleen
Society must take steps to provide desirable employment for disadvantaged minority youth. Since vocational education is the largest of the public-supported training programs, it must be in the vanguard to ensure development of job and career opportunities for all citizens who want to work, especially racial and ethnic minorities, handicapped…
de Ruiter, D.
Segregated schools are associated with problems. Educational disadvantage among pupils at these schools persists and these kinds of schools, more than other kinds of schools, are confronted the most with societal problems. Yet little is known about what actually happens at these schools. This disser
Okun, Barbara S; Friedlander, Dov
Arabs in Israel are a heterogeneous but largely underprivileged minority with a history of disadvantage in several domains, including education and employment. In this paper, we document changes in their attainment of various educational levels across cohorts born from the mid-1920s to the 1970s. We make comparisons among different Arab religious groups, between men and women, and between Arabs and the majority Jewish populations in Israel. We find that over consecutive birth cohorts, substantial ethnic differences in educational attainment have narrowed at the lower levels of schooling, but have increased at higher levels. Moreover, the results indicate that the disadvantage of Muslim Arabs in terms of entry into and completion of high school can be accounted for only partially by differences in the social status of their parents and characteristics of their neighbourhoods. The findings suggest that long-term historical differences among groups and discriminatory practices towards Arabs are important factors in explanations of disparities in educational attainment.
Full Text Available The demographics of massive open online course (MOOC analytics show that the great majority of learners are highly qualified professionals, and not, as originally envisaged, the global community of disadvantaged learners who have no access to good higher education. MOOC pedagogy fits well with the combination of instruction and peer community learning found in most professional development. A UNESCO study therefore set out to test the efficacy of an experimental course for teachers who need but do not receive high-quality continuing professional development, as a way of exploiting what MOOCs can do indirectly to serve disadvantaged students. The course was based on case studies around the world of information and communication technology (ICT in primary education and was carried out to contribute to the UNESCO “Education For All” goal. It used a co-learning approach to engage the primary teaching community in exploring ways of using ICT in primary education. Course analytics, forums and participant surveys demonstrated that it worked well. The paper concludes by arguing that this technology has the power to tackle the large-scale educational problem of developing the primary-level teachers needed to meet the goal of universal education.
Julian C. Müller
Full Text Available Black women in previously disadvantaged communities in South Africa carry the burden of triple oppression: (a the social engineering policies synonymous with apartheid have marginalised women economically and socially; (b patriarchy, embedded in cultural and religious discourses, has rendered women voiceless and powerless and (c HIV/AIDS targets the most vulnerable: women and children. The authors describe a research experience in Atteridgeville, a historically disadvantaged community in South Africa, with a family of women infected and/or affected by HIV/AIDS, about their experiences of care and or the lack thereof. A narrative approach offers useful ideas to facilitate a process in which African women in historically challenged communities can speak out about their experiences of care and or the lack of care.
Pumar Méndez, María J; Armayor, Navidad Canga; Díaz Navarlaz, María Teresa; Wakefield, Ann
The complexity of contemporary clinical practice demands that increasingly skilled high quality health and social care is provided to individuals. However, the failure of health and social care professionals to work collaboratively has been widely reported in the international literature. Hence, interprofessional education has been suggested as a means of improving both interprofessional understanding and respect across a diverse range of practice disciplines. In this way, functional barriers can be challenged or broken down; teamwork enhanced and healthcare outcomes improved. Lack of conclusive evidence to substantiate the above healthcare benefits has been attributed to weak methodological approaches when evaluating such educational initiatives. In Spain barriers to implementing interprofessional education are potentially less challenging. Recent legislative demands following the Bologna Agreement on European Higher Education is compelling Spanish higher education institutes to engage in radical educational reforms. Consequently, this paper examines some of the advantages and disadvantages of introducing interprofessional education into health and social care curricula in Spain to see when and how interprofessional initiatives might be assimilated into the health care curricula. In this way lessons learned from a thorough review of the relevant literature might help to inform such educational reforms across mainland Europe and beyond.
This essay explores aesthetics, affect, and educational politics through the thought of Gilles Deleuze and Jacques Ranciere. It contextualizes and contrasts the theoretical valences of their ethical and democratic projects through their shared critique of Kant. It then puts Ranciere's notion of dissensus to work by exploring it in relation to a…
Elman, Cheryl; Wray, Linda A; Xi, Juan
Recent studies find lasting effects of poor youth health on educational attainment but use young samples and narrow life course windows of observation to explore outcomes. We apply a life course framework to three sets of Health and Retirement Study birth cohorts to examine early health status effects on education and skills attainment measured late in life. The older cohorts that we study were the earliest recipients of U.S. policies promoting continuing education through the GI Bill, community college expansions and new credentials such as the GED. We examine a wide range of outcomes but focus on GEDs, postsecondary school entry and adult human capital as job-related training. We find that older U.S. cohorts had considerable exposure to these forms of attainment and that the effects of youth health on them vary by outcome: health selection and ascription group effects are weak or fade, respectively, in outcomes associated with delayed or adult attainment. However, poorer health and social disadvantage in youth and barriers associated with ascription carry forward to limit attainment of key credentials such as diplomas and college degrees. We find that the human capital - health gradient is dynamic and that narrow windows of observation in existing studies miss much of it. National context also matters for studying health-education linkages over the life course.
Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to examine the effectiveness of educational technology applications and how features of using technology programs and characteristics of these evaluations affect achievement outcomes for disadvantaged students in grades K-12. The review applies consistent inclusion standards to focus on studies that met high methodological standards. A total of 154 qualifying studies were included in the final analysis. The findings of the review suggest that educational technology applications generally produced a positive, though modest, effect (ES=+0.16 in comparison to traditional methods. A marginally significant difference was found among four types of educational technology applications. Larger effect sizes were found with comprehensive models (ES=+0.23 and innovative technology applications (ES=+0.20. Effect sizes for supplemental programs and computer-managed learning were +0.15 and +0.12, respectively. The findings provide some suggestive evidence that approaches that integrated computer and non-computer instruction in the classrooms and innovative approaches are effective in improving student achievement. Differential impacts were also found by both substantive and methodological features.
Martin, Monica J; Conger, Rand D; Sitnick, Stephanie L; Masarik, April S; Forbes, Erika E; Shaw, Daniel S
Using prospective, longitudinal data spanning 10 years (age = 10-20) from a study of 295 economically disadvantaged males, the current investigation evaluated a developmental model that links early family environment and later educational aspirations, extracurricular activities, and educational attainment to substance use in early adulthood. The results indicate that a positive family environment during adolescence (low family conflict, high family warmth, and effective child management) predicted educational involvements during adolescence that promoted educational attainment during early adulthood. Finally, higher levels of educational attainment were associated with less substance use in early adulthood, even after controlling for adolescent substance use. These findings suggest that positive parenting promotes educational achievements that increase resilience to substance use for economically disadvantaged males.
What might science education learn from the recent affective turn in the humanities and social sciences? Framed as a response to Michalinos Zembylas's article, this essay draws from selected theorizing in affect theory, science education and science and technology studies, in pursuit of diverse and productive ways to talk of affect within science…
Stengel, Barbara S.
At present, the structures, practice, and discourse of schooling are anchored to a "commercial spirit" that understands students, educators, and parents as economic operators trading competitively in human capital and to a discourse of failure that is disabling those who seek to understand and enact John Dewey's notion of education as…
What might science education learn from the recent affective turn in the humanities and social sciences? Framed as a response to Michalinos Zembylas's article, this essay draws from selected theorizing in affect theory, science education and science and technology studies, in pursuit of diverse and productive ways to talk of affect within science education. These discussions are framed by desires to transcend traditional epistemic boundaries and practices. The article concludes offering some associated ambiguities and tensions involved.
Takayanagi, Taeko; Shimomura, Takayuki
This paper addresses the life and educational experiences of Ainu women, using the framework of postcolonial feminist theory. It explores the extent to which two factors--gender and ethnic minority status--affect young Ainu women as they attempt to enter mainstream society. The authors analyse life history interviews from three Ainu women aged 25.…
Within the international momentum for achieving Education for All (EFA) and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), many African countries have made considerable progress during the last decade in terms of access to basic education. However, a significant number of children enrolled in the early grades of primary schools either repeat classes or drop out and never graduate. Moreover, there are currently about 30 million school-age children in sub-Saharan Africa who have never attended any form of schooling. In view of this situation, sub-Saharan African countries have been looking for alternative options to educate those who have not been accounted for in the formal school system. This note considers informal Koranic Education Centres (KECs) which are trying to fill the gap of schooling in the Sahel-Saharan strip. The author looks at the challenges this form of schooling faces and at how to meet them efficiently. He sounds out the possibility of using KECs to cater for those who have been left aside by formal schooling. Based on existing studies, data compiled by educational systems and a study conducted by the Working Group on Non-Formal Education (WGNFE) of the Association for the Development of Education in Africa (ADEA) in four West African countries (Burkina Faso, Mali, Mauritania and Senegal) in 2013, the author of this research note came to the conclusion that a holistic approach, where the two systems (the Koranic and the formal) collaborate and support one another, could effectively contribute to alleviating the dropout predicament and to reducing the number of unschooled children. It could offer a second-chance opportunity to dropout and unschooled children in the Sahel and Saharan zone. However, before this can become a viable alternative, a number of major challenges need to be addressed. Through its WGNFE, ADEA intends to further investigate the holistic approach of combining formal "modern" and informal "Koranic" schooling to come up with tangible
I focus on the role of preschool intervention and developmental psychology researchers in defining the concept of the "disadvantaged child" and in designing and evaluating remedies to alleviate educational "disadvantages" in young children. I argue that preschool interventions concentrated especially on compensating for supposedly deficient…
A major impediment to problem solving in mathematics in the great majority of South African schools is that disadvantaged students from seriously impoverished learning environments are lacking in the necessary informal mathematical knowledge to develop their own strategies for solving non-routine problems. A randomized pretest-posttest control…
Bader, James D.
Current conditions in dental hygiene influencing professional education are discussed. Workplace/practice issues include dental hygiene care as a component of dental practice, content, effects, and quality of care, hygienist supply and demand, and job satisfaction. Professional issues include the knowledge base, definitions of practice, and…
Beard, Colin; Clegg, Sue; Smith, Karen
This article argues that we need richer conceptions of students as affective and embodied selves and a clearer theorisation of the role of emotion in educational encounters. These areas are currently under-researched and under-theorised in higher education. The first part of the article explores the literature on emotion. The second reports on a…
Education Law Center, Inc., Newark, NJ.
In "Abbott v. Burke" the New Jersey Supreme Court determined that the state constitutional guarantee to a thorough and efficient education must include a supplemental program designed to wipe out the deficits poor children bring with them to school. In this report, the Education Law Center draws on educational research to identify the…
English education policy has increasingly focused on the need to intervene in an intergenerational cycle of poverty and low attainment. The accompanying policy discourse has tended to emphasise the impact of family background on educational outcomes. However, as the capacity of parents to secure positive educational outcomes for their children is…
Leonard R. Bachman
Full Text Available Architecture concerns not so much an explicit body of transmittable knowledge and protocols as it does a set of implicit understandings, sensitivities and sensibilities. The education of an architect therefore concerns the mission of endowing candidates with those implicit traits. This is not to say that architects do not possess and wield prodigious amounts of explicit cognitive knowledge, because they certainly do. But that explicit component of architectural know-how is actually vested in and deployed by the architect not so much because the knowledge has been invented, discovered, or developed by architects; but rather because they have assimilated it from other disciplines in a special way that gives architects adductive and hermeneutic insight into vast, detailed, and complex design challenges. Engineers make better machines, artists make more meaningful artifacts, and psychologists provide better human environments; but architects are trained to see the underlying opportunity and potential celebration of how those constituent menus might become a feast. In any unresolved complex of space, material and form, architects grasp a unique essence in how they perceive the “happily ever after” of what it might be and how that vision might be made whole and concrete. By the time a student of architecture is fully indoctrinated, this grasp of an underlying ideal essence is so potent that it becomes the student’s identity… and the purpose of that insight becomes an irresistible intention.
Current discourses about science education show a wide concern towards humanisation and a more socio-cultural perspective of school science. They suggest that science education can serve diverse purposes and be responsive to social and environmental situations we currently face. However, these discourses and social approaches to science education…
Marie, Dannette; Fergusson, David M.; Boden, Joseph M.
The present study investigates the roles of Maori cultural identity and socio-economic status in educational outcomes in a New Zealand birth cohort studied from birth to the age of 25. There were statistically significant (all p values less than 0.01) associations between cultural identity and educational outcomes, with those of Maori ethnic…
Dhuey, Elizabeth; Lipscomb, Stephen
Several states and the federal government distribute aid for special education programs based primarily on total district enrollment and a fixed aid amount per student, a method called "census funding." In this policy brief, we address three questions to help policy makers, educators, and researchers better understand census-funding…
Daniel A. Hackman
Full Text Available Lower socioeconomic status (SES is associated with higher levels of life stress, which in turn affect stress physiology. SES is related to basal cortisol and diurnal change, but it is not clear if SES is associated with cortisol reactivity to stress. To address this question, we examined the relationship between two indices of SES, parental education and concentrated neighborhood disadvantage, and the cortisol reactivity of African-American adolescents to a modified version of the Trier Social Stress Test. We found that concentrated disadvantage was associated with cortisol reactivity and this relationship was moderated by gender, such that higher concentrated disadvantage predicted higher cortisol reactivity and steeper recovery in boys but not in girls. Parental education, alone or as moderated by gender, did not predict reactivity or recovery, while neither education nor concentrated disadvantage predicted estimates of baseline cortisol. This finding is consistent with animal literature showing differential vulnerability, by gender, to the effects of adverse early experience on stress regulation and the differential effects of neighborhood disadvantage in adolescent males and females. This suggests that the mechanisms underlying SES differences in brain development and particularly reactivity to environmental stressors may vary across genders.
Drazan, John F; Scott, John M; Hoke, Jahkeen I; Ledet, Eric H
A hands-on learning module called "Science of the Slam" is created that taps into the passions and interests of an under-represented group in the fields of Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM). This is achieved by examining the use of the scientific method to quantify the biomechanics of basketball players who are good at performing the slam dunk. Students already have an intrinsic understanding of the biomechanics of basketball however this "hidden capital" has never translated into the underlying STEM concepts. The effectiveness of the program is rooted in the exploitation of "hidden capital" within the field of athletics to inform and enhance athletic performance. This translation of STEM concepts to athletic performance provides a context and a motivation for students to study the STEM fields who are traditionally disengaged from the classic engineering outreach programs. "Science of the Slam" has the potential to serve as a framework for other researchers to engage under-represented groups in novel ways by tapping into shared interests between the researcher and disadvantaged populations.
Sørensen, Jette Led; Østergaard, Doris; LeBlanc, Vicki
BACKGROUND: Simulation-based medical education (SBME) has traditionally been conducted as off-site simulation in simulation centres. Some hospital departments also provide off-site simulation using in-house training room(s) set up for simulation away from the clinical setting, and these activities...... are called in-house training. In-house training facilities can be part of hospital departments and resemble to some extent simulation centres but often have less technical equipment. In situ simulation, introduced over the past decade, mainly comprises of team-based activities and occurs in patient care...... announced or unannounced, the latter also known as a drill. This article presents and discusses the design of SBME and the advantage and disadvantage of the different simulation settings, such as training in simulation-centres, in-house simulations in hospital departments, announced or unannounced in situ...
In the first volume of the "Oxford Review of Education" Jerome Bruner (1975) showed how the upbringing of the very young is influenced by poverty, and how different kinds of upbringing shape human development. He called the paper "Poverty and childhood" and baldly stated "With respect to virtually any criterion of equal…
Affirmative action in higher education remains a controversial topic in the US today, as it is tied in directly with citizens' varying conceptions of the larger society, and the importance of racial and other differences (in particular, socioeconomic class) in individual experiences and outcomes. This essay examines different arguments for and…
Campbell, Frances A.; And Others
Examined the benefits of providing free educational day care to children of single teen-age mothers. Results indicated that the children benefitted intellectually from the program, scoring significantly higher than controls on a general cognitive index. Mothers had an increased likelihood of completing high school, obtaining postsecondary…
Hardin County Board of Education, Elizabethtown, KY.
A project was designed to measure the effects of integrating basic reading and mathematical instruction with prevocational instruction through the addition of a basic skills resource room, a technical simulation unit, and guidance and counseling to the ninth grade vocational experience program for educable mentally handicapped and disadvantaged…
... person in an appropriate course or courses at the secondary school level. This approval may be made only if the eligible person— (1) Has not received a secondary school diploma (or an equivalency certificate); (2) Needs additional secondary school education, remedial, refresher, or deficiency courses,...
Full Text Available The present paper describes the traditional psychometric parameters thal don 't fit by workingwith children who suffer socio-cultural deprivation (or who are living under socio-cultural disadvantagesand the new assessment and education strategies for this population. Vygotsky's socio-cultural approach, that emphasizes the Zone of Proximal Development, and the Dynamic Assessment and the Mediated Learning developed by Feucrstein and complemented by Coll relatedwith the Significative Learning are stressed.
CALKINS, PATRICIA; GUSSOW, JOAN
THE INFORMATION RETRIEVAL CENTER ON THE DISADVANTAGED (IRCD) OFFERS A WIDE RANGE OF SERVICES TO THE PROFESSIONAL COMMUNITY INTERESTED IN THE EDUCATION OF THE DISADVANTAGED. THE CENTER ANSWERS SPECIFIC QUESTIONS BY DRAWING ON ITS LARGE COLLECTION OF DOCUMENTS AND ABSTRACTS, MAINTAINS A SPECIALIZED LIBRARY, AND PUBLISHES BIBLIOGRAPHIES AND BIMONTHLY…
Seldin, Joel R.
Youth manpower programs, despite their accumulated expertise in serving disadvantaged school dropouts, have been allocated a subsidiary, compensatory role in serving those youth who experience difficulty with formal education methods. The Experimental Manpower Laboratory at Mobilization for Youth has proposed to the New York City Board of…
Heinrich, Carolyn J.; Holzer, Harry J.
Low high school graduation rates and sharply declining employment rates among disadvantaged youth have led to increasing numbers of youth who are disconnected from both school and work. What programs and policies might prevent these disconnections and improve educational and employment outcomes, particularly among young men? We review the evidence…
Zill, Nicholas; Wolpow, Ellen
The first National Education Goal agreed to be President Bush and the nation's governors is that all children will start school ready to learn. The first objective under that goal is that of providing high quality and developmentally appropriate preschool programs for all disadvantaged and disabled children. This paper seeks to assist efforts to…
Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of overweight children in America has doubled to an estimated 10 million in the past 20 years. Establishing healthy dietary behaviors must begin early in childhood and include parents. The Healthy Toddlers intervention focuses on promoting healthy eating habits in 1- to 3-year-old children utilizing the Social Cognitive Theory and a learner-centered approach using Adult Learning principles. This Healthy Toddlers Trial aims to determine the efficacy of a community-based randomized controlled trial of an in-home intervention with economically and educationally disadvantaged mothers of toddlers. The intervention focuses on: (a promoting healthy eating behaviors in toddlers while dietary habits are forming; and (b providing initial evidence for the potential of Healthy Toddlers as a feasible intervention within existing community-based programs. Methods/Design This describes the study protocol for a randomized control trial, a multi-state project in Colorado, Michigan, and Wisconsin with economically and educationally disadvantaged mother-toddler dyads; toddlers are between 12 and 36 months. The Healthy Toddlers intervention consists of eight in-home lessons and four reinforcement telephone contacts, focusing on fruit, vegetable, and sweetened beverage consumption and parental behaviors, taught by paraprofessional instructors. Healthy Toddlers uses a randomized, experimental, short-term longitudinal design with intervention and control groups. In-home data collection (anthropometric measurements, feeding observations, questionnaires, 3-day dietary records occurs at baseline, immediately following the intervention, and 6 months after the intervention. Main toddler outcomes include: a increased fruit and vegetable consumption and decreased sweetened beverage consumption; and b improved toddler-eating skills (self-feeding and self-serving. Main parent outcomes include: a improved psychosocial attributes (knowledge
Full Text Available The paper provides detailed reflections on the educational, economic and social circumstances that impact on the lives of many disadvantaged and vulnerable children and young people. Drawing largely on primary research data collected in Romania, Germany and the United Kingdom, three illustrative case studies are presented for consideration focusing on: life in residential care and youth offending institutions; experiences of educational vulnerability; and human trafficking. The methodological approach adopted across the research projects explored, was shaped by the demands and expectations of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC. All of the reported data reflects the views of children and young people who were interviewed as part of three research projects. It is argued that the difficult and challenging circumstances that many children and young people find themselves in, place them at significant disadvantage and increased vulnerability in terms of their social and educational development and life chances.
It is acknowledged that affection widely affects cognitive activity of individuals in teaching process. While in learning process, affection will greatly affect the motivation of studying and determine whether learners can get as much information as they can. Starting with the problems existed in English Teaching and the definition of affective education, the paper mainly pres-ent several ways to advocate affective education, which includes establish harmonious relations between students and teachers and so on.
Hannula, Markku; Evans, Jeff; Philippou, George; Zan, Rosetta
This document brings into a dialogue some of the theoretical frameworks used to study affect in mathematics education. It presents affect as a representational system, affect as one regulator of the dynamic self, affect in a socio-constructivist framework, and affect as embodied. It also evaluates these frameworks from different perspectives:…
Cunado, Juncal; de Gracia, Fernando Perez
In this paper we study the impact of education on happiness in Spain using individual-level data from the European Social Survey, by means of estimating Ordinal Logit Models. We find both direct and indirect effects of education on happiness. First, we find an indirect effect of education on happiness through income and labour status. That is, we…
Meyer, John W.
Legalization here refers to the introduction into the educational system of new legal rules, emanating from outside the routine channels of educational management. It includes general legal rules from legislation, from the courts, or from higher administrative levels. The key to the definition is lack of integration of the new rules with the main…
Heidorn, Brent; Welch, Mindy M.
Physical educators at all levels have observed learners in a school-based physical education setting as well as physical activity or sport settings outside of organized school curricula demonstrating behaviors deemed inappropriate or inconsistent with professional standards. Because sport is such a public, social, and international phenomenon,…
Full Text Available One important field where mobile technology can make significant contributions is education. However one criticism in mobile education is that students receive impersonal teaching. Affective computing may give a solution to this problem. In this paper we describe an affective bi-modal educational system for mobile devices. In our research we describe a novel approach of combining information from two modalities namely the keyboard and the microphone through a multi-criteria decision making theory.
Jæger, Mads Meier
This paper implements a test of the Resource Dilution Hypothesis (RDH) stating that sibship size has a negative causal effect on educational attainment. Most existing studies using conventional methods support the RDH. This paper implements an Instrumental Variable (IV) approach to testing the cl...
This paper analyzes whether there exists a causal relationship between parental employment and children's educational attainment. We address potential endogeneity problems due to (i) selection of parents in the labor market by estimating a model on sibling differences and (ii) reverse causality by focusing on parents' employment when children are…
Birch, Herbert G.; Gussow, Joan Dye
This book examines the relationships between poverty, disadvantage, and educational failure in a way considered to be more comprehensive and complex than is possible when such an examination is based solely on a concept of cultural disadvantage and defective experience. The mortality of infants and their mothers around birth, held to be both the…
Locke, Don C.; Gerler, Edwin R., Jr.
Evaluated the effectiveness of the Human Development Program (HDP) and the Developing Understanding of Self and Others (DUSO) program used with visually impaired children. Although HDP and DUSO affected the behavior of visually impaired children, they did not have any effect on children's attitudes toward school. (RC)
Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen
The past decade has seen major advances in cognitive, affective and social neuroscience that have the potential to revolutionize educational theories about learning. The importance of emotion and social learning has long been recognized in education, but due to technological limitations in neuroscience research techniques, treatment of these…
Lam, Ching Man
With the recognition of the crucial role of family and with the belief that parents have the greatest influence on a child's life, family and parent education has been widely practiced in Hong Kong and many other countries as measure for poverty alleviation. A study, employed quantitative method of a cross-sectional parent survey (N = 10,386) was…
Skoe, Erika; Krizman, Jennifer; Kraus, Nina
Despite the prevalence of poverty worldwide, little is known about how early socioeconomic adversity affects auditory brain function. Socioeconomically disadvantaged children are underexposed to linguistically and cognitively stimulating environments and overexposed to environmental toxins, including noise pollution. This kind of sensory impoverishment, we theorize, has extensive repercussions on how the brain processes sound. To characterize how this impoverishment affects auditory brain function, we compared two groups of normal-hearing human adolescents who attended the same schools and who were matched in age, sex, and ethnicity, but differed in their maternal education level, a correlate of socioeconomic status (SES). In addition to lower literacy levels and cognitive abilities, adolescents from lower maternal education backgrounds were found to have noisier neural activity than their classmates, as reflected by greater activity in the absence of auditory stimulation. Additionally, in the lower maternal education group, the neural response to speech was more erratic over repeated stimulation, with lower fidelity to the input signal. These weaker, more variable, and noisier responses are suggestive of an inefficient auditory system. By studying SES within a neuroscientific framework, we have the potential to expand our understanding of how experience molds the brain, in addition to informing intervention research aimed at closing the achievement gap between high-SES and low-SES children.
Houston Independent School District, TX.
GUIDELINES FOR TEACHING AND UNDERSTANDING THE DISADVANTAGED CHILD ARE PRESENTED IN THIS REPORT. SPECIFICALLY DISCUSSED ARE THE PSYCHOLOGICAL AND PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE DISADVANTAGED CHILD, MOTIVATION AND REINFORCEMENT TECHNIQUES, AND TECHNIQUES FOR INSTRUCTING PUPILS IN LANGUAGE ARTS, SOCIAL SCIENCE, SCIENCE, AND MATHEMATICS. THE DUTIES…
Rathner, Joseph A; Byrne, Graeme
The study of human bioscience is viewed as a crucial curriculum in allied health. Nevertheless, bioscience (and particularly physiology) is notoriously difficult for undergraduates, particularly academically disadvantaged students. So endemic are the high failure rates (particularly in nursing) that it has come to be known as "the human bioscience problem." In the present report, we describe the outcomes for individual success in studying first-year human physiology in a subject that emphasises team-based active learning as the major pedagogy for mastering subject learning outcomes. Structural equation modeling was used to develop a model of the impact team learning had on individual performance. Modeling was consistent with the idea that students with similar academic abilities (as determined by tertiary entrance rank) were advantaged (scored higher on individual assessment items) by working in strong teams (teams that scored higher in team-based assessments). Analysis of covariance revealed that students who studied the subject with active learning as the major mode of learning activities outperformed students who studied the subject using the traditional didactic teaching format (lectures and tutorials, P = 0.000). After adjustment for tertiary entrance rank (via analysis of covariance) on two individual tests (the final exam and a late-semester in-class test), individual student grades improved by 8% (95% confidence interval: 6-10%) and 12% (95% confidence interval: 10-14%) when students engaged in team-based active learning. These data quantitatively support the notion that weaker students working in strong teams can overcome their educational disadvantages.
Full Text Available The importance of education to human development is emphasised by its central place in achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs and reflected in the global initiative Education for All (EFA aimed at securing primary education for all children by the year 2015. There are many impediments to the achievement of universal primary education. These include lack of priority to education on the part of national governments such as, insufficient spending as a percentage of GNP or inequitable distribution of funding and resources. Significant barriers to education, particularly within low income countries, include poverty, child labour, distance from school, unequal access due to gender or cultural factors and the existence of conflict. Although the number of out-of-school primary-age children in the world has fallen in recent years, there has been little improvement in conflict affected countries. These countries are home to half of all children out of school (currently 28.5 million out of 57 million children, yet they receive less than one-fifth of education aid. This paper draws on research for the 2011 EFA Global Monitoring Report to highlight a number of significant challenges for education in these countries and the contribution that education might make to longer term peacebuilding.
Wikström, Per-Olof H.; Treiber, Kyle
In this article, we analyze the relationship between social disadvantage and crime, starting from the paradox that most persistent offenders come from disadvantaged backgrounds, but most people from disadvantaged backgrounds do not become persistent offenders. We argue that despite the fact that social disadvantage has been a key criminological topic for some time, the mechanisms which link it to offending remain poorly specified. Drawing on situational action theory, we suggest social disadvantage is linked to crime because more people from disadvantaged versus affluent backgrounds develop a high crime propensity and are exposed to criminogenic contexts, and the reason for this is that processes of social and self-selection place the former more frequently in (developmental and action) contexts conducive to the development and expression of high crime propensities. This article will explore this hypothesis through a series of analyses using data from the Peterborough Adolescent and Young Adult Development Study (PADS+), a longitudinal study which uses a range of data collection methods to study the interaction between personal characteristics and social environments. It pays particular attention to the macro-to-micro processes behind the intersection of people with certain characteristics and environments with certain features – i.e., their exposure – which leads to their interaction. PMID:27524829
van Dinther, Mart; Dochy, Filip; Segers, Mien
Researchers working in educational settings are increasingly paying attention to the role students' thoughts and beliefs play in the learning process. Self-efficacy, a key element of social cognitive theory, appears to be an important variable because it affects students' motivation and learning. This article investigates empirical literature…
The purpose of the study was to investigate how grading in primary school affected students' achievement measured by grades in 7th, 8th and 9th Grade and educational attainment in upper secondary school (12th Grade), and how the effect varied as a function of students' cognitive ability, gender and socio-economic status. The data derived from the…
Piketty's "Capital in the Twenty-First Century" has brought the issue of inequality to the centre of political debate. This article explores contemporary research on the relationship between education and inequality in conflict-affected contexts with a view to seeing how Piketty's work speaks to these issues as a field of research and…
American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2010
This publication provides a compilation of the issues affecting postsecondary education in America. The contents of this issue include: (1) Overview of Economic and Fiscal Dynamics; (2) Global and Domestic Growth Prospects; (3) Snapshot of Economic Indicators--November 2010; (4) Labor Market Conditions and Post-Recession Economic Impacts; (5)…
Nguyen, Hong Thi; Warren, Wendy; Fehring, Heather
This paper reports part of a study that aims to explore factors affecting the efficacy of non-major English teaching and learning in Vietnamese higher education through an investigation of classroom practices. Eight non-participant class observations were conducted at HUTECH University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. The study's findings show that…
Slattery, W.; Antonucci, C.; Myers, R. J.
The National Science Foundation funded project K-12 Students, Teachers, Parents, Administrators and Higher Education Faculty: Partners Helping Rural Disadvantaged Students Stay on the Pathway to a Geoscience Career is a research-based proof of concept track 1 pilot project that tests the effectiveness of an innovative model for simultaneous K-12 teacher professional development, student learning and workforce development. The project builds a network of science experiences designed to keep eighth and ninth grade students from the Ripley, Union, Lewis, Huntington (RULH) Ohio school district on the path to a geoscience career. During each summer of the ongoing two-year project teams of RULH students, parents, teachers, administrators and college faculty traveled to the facilities of the New Jersey Sea Grant Consortium at Sandy Hook, New Jersey to study science from an Earth system perspective. Teachers had the opportunity to engage in professional development alongside their students. Parents participated in the science activities alongside their children. Administrators interacted with students, parents and their teachers and saw them all learning science in an engaging, collaborative setting. During the first academic year of the project professional development was provided to RULH teachers by a team of university scientists and geoscience educators from the Earth System Science Education Alliance (ESSEA), a National Science Foundation funded project. Teachers selected for professional development were from science disciplines, mathematics, language arts and civics. The teachers selected, taught and assessed ESSEA Earth system science modules to all eighth and ninth grade students, not just those that were selected to go on the summer trips to New Jersey. In addition, all ninth grade RULH students had the opportunity to take a course that includes Earth system science concepts that will earn them both high school and college science credits. Professional
Anderson, Wayne P.; Weinberg, Sheldon
A review of recent innovations in counseling style is presented along with an analysis of the advantages of these innovations over the more traditional counseling framework when dealing with disadvantaged clients. The authors recommend the use of these new, directive methods for the effective counseling of these groups. (Author)
Maurice Guiaux; Annette Roest; Jurjen Iedema
Original title: Voorbestemd tot achterstand? Are children who grow up in poverty destined for disadvantage? Are they still poor 25 years later, when they are adults, and are they also more socially excluded in adulthood? And if so, why? This publication explores the extent to which poverty is
Brien, Louise-Andrée; Legault, Alain; Tremblay, Nicole
Preparing future nurses to care for dying patients and their families represents a challenge for nursing education. Affective learning, essential to nurture a caring perspective in end-of-life care, can elicit strong emotional reactions in students, to which nurse educators must remain keenly sensitive. This article presents the experience of nurse educators and students with experiential and reflective activities addressing the affective domain of learning, within an intensive 4-week undergraduate course on end-of-life care, developed with a competency-based approach. It stressed the importance of strategic teaching for developing interpersonal competencies in end-of-life care, but revealed difficulties for both nurse educators and students in assessing outcomes derived from affective learning.
Incivility in nursing education is a complicated problem which causes disruptions in the learning process and negatively affects future nursing practice. This mixed method research study described incivility as well as incivility's effects through extensive literature review and application of a modified Incivility in Nursing Education (INE) survey. The INE included six demographic items, four quantitative sections, and five open-ended questions. The survey examined emergency nurses' perceptions of incivility and how the experience affected their personal nursing practice. The INE was initially tested in a 2004 pilot study by Dr. Cynthia Clark. For this research study, modifications were made to examine specifically emergency nurse's perceptions of incivility and the effects on their practice. The population was a group of nurses who were members of the emergency nurses association in a Midwestern state. In the quantitative component of the Incivility in Nursing Education (INE) survey, the Likert scale questions indicated that the majority of the participants reported witnessing or experiencing the uncivil behaviors. In the qualitative section of the INE survey, the participants reported that although they have not seen incivility within their own academic career, they had observed faculty incivility with nursing students when the participants were assigned as preceptors as part of their emergency nursing practice.
Lynsay A. Shepherd
Full Text Available Despite the number of tools created to help end-users reduce risky security behaviours, users are still falling victim to online attacks. This paper proposes a browser extension utilising affective feedback to provide warnings on detection of risky behaviour. The paper provides an overview of behaviour considered to be risky, explaining potential threats users may face online. Existing tools developed to reduce risky security behaviours in end-users have been compared, discussing the success rates of various methodologies. Ongoing research is described which attempts to educate users regarding the risks and consequences of poor security behaviour by providing the appropriate feedback on the automatic recognition of risky behaviour. The paper concludes that a solution utilising a browser extension is a suitable method of monitoring potentially risky security behaviour. Ultimately, future work seeks to implement an affective feedback mechanism within the browser extension with the aim of improving security awareness.
Alepis, Efthymios; Virvou, Maria; Kabassi, Katerina
This paper analyses the knowledge and software engineering aspects of educational applications that provide affective bi-modal human-computer interaction. For this purpose, a system that provides affective interaction based on evidence from two different modes has been developed. More specifically, the system's inferences about students' emotions are based on user input evidence from the keyboard and the microphone. Evidence from these two modes is combined by a user modelling component that incorporates user stereotypes as well as a multi criteria decision making theory. The mechanism that integrates the inferences from the two modes has been based on the results of two empirical studies that were conducted in the context of knowledge engineering of the system. The evaluation of the developed system showed significant improvements in the recognition of the emotional states of users.
Full Text Available This paper explores the notion of Affective Pedagogy of Human Rights Education (APHRE on a theoretical level and suggests a concept of curricular framework. APHRE highlights the significance of affectivity and body in the process of learning, factors usually neglected in the mainstream intellectualistic approach to learning, especially in areas under the Confucian tradition. The paper’s first section explores the thinking of three philosophers - Rorty, Merleau-Ponty, and Beardsley - who serve as sources for APHRE. The second section explains how their concepts contribute to APHRE’s development. In the third section, a practical curricular framework is presented. Finally, the paper discusses implementing the framework and concludes by recognizing APHRE as a pedagogic approach for crossing borders among nationalities, cultures, and languages
James F Pagel
Full Text Available The clear association between reports of sleep disturbance and poor school performance has been documented for sleepy adolescents. This study extends that research to students outside the adolescent age grouping in an associated school setting (98 middle school students, 67 high school students, and 64 college students. Reported restless legs and periodic limb movements are significantly associated with lower GPA’s in junior high students. Consistent with previous studies, daytime sleepiness was the sleep variable most likely to negatively affects high school students. Sleep onset and maintenance insomnia were the reported sleep variables significantly correlated with poorer school performance in college students. This study indicates that different sleep disorder variables negatively affect performance at different age and educational levels.
Pagel, James F; Kwiatkowski, Carol F
The clear association between reports of sleep disturbance and poor school performance has been documented for sleepy adolescents. This study extends that research to students outside the adolescent age grouping in an associated school setting (98 middle school students, 67 high school students, and 64 college students). Reported restless legs and periodic limb movements are significantly associated with lower GPA's in junior high students. Consistent with previous studies, daytime sleepiness was the sleep variable most likely to negatively affects high school students. Sleep onset and maintenance insomnia were the reported sleep variables significantly correlated with poorer school performance in college students. This study indicates that different sleep disorder variables negatively affect performance at different age and educational levels.
Using a social reproduction theory framework, analyzes the process by which high school seniors aspiring to high-level positions are sorted out after graduation. Analyzes early educational attainments and changes in occupational expectations. Shows a process of cumulative disadvantage in which White males are more likely to achieve their goals.…
White, M. L.; Murray, Jean
This paper describes exploratory research into the development of innovative visual pedagogies for investigating how pre-service student-teachers articulate their views about the effects of poverty on educational attainment. Social class emerges as the strongest factor in poverty and educational disadvantage in the UK. The resulting issues are…
Rathner, Joseph A.; Byrne, Graeme
The study of human bioscience is viewed as a crucial curriculum in allied health. Nevertheless, bioscience (and particularly physiology) is notoriously difficult for undergraduates, particularly academically disadvantaged students. So endemic are the high failure rates (particularly in nursing) that it has come to be known as "the human…
The monograph is an attempt to describe conditions existing today in rural America that can affect the operation and impact of vocational education in rural areas and, thus, should exercise an influence on policy making. It identifies statistical patterns and characteristics common to rural areas, both within regions and those that cut across…
Yeshiva Univ., New York, NY. Ferkauf Graduate School of Humanities and Social Sciences.
This conference report consists of two presented papers and a selected bibliography. The paper by Joan Gussow, "Behavioral Management and Educational Goals," is concerned with operant conditioning as a theory of learning and an instructional method. Basing their methods on the work of B.F. Skinner, educators who are proponents of this…
Song, Ruiting; Spradlin, Terry E.; Plucker, Jonathan A.
For a great portion of the history of the American education system, multiage education was the norm in one-room schoolhouses throughout the nation. The current graded, curriculum-centered approach in the U.S. appeared during the mid-nineteenth century with the rapid economic development and massive immigration into the country. Concurrently, some…
Full Text Available The student is the main subject in the education process. The goal of the study is to examine the relative weight of the components of learning process in the students’ evaluation assessment for quality of higher medical education. Direct individual inquiry with rank answers for 541 medical students was completed. Logistic regression analysis was done to create predictive models and derive relationships between quality of education factors and its dependents: assessment of quality and students' progress. Tolerance and respectfulness (OR = 13.1, high general culture (OR = 18.4, clearand accessiblecontemporaryteaching (OR = 9.2, engagement of the audience (OR = 3.4, are the teacher characteristics in the model. Application ofnew technologiesinlearning (OR = 4.2,discussion (OR = 5.9, patients observations and live contact (OR = 5.6 are educational methods determine the qualityof education. Accordinginterns quality of education isdetermined mainly by clinical facilities, quality lectures,solving clinical cases, and practical work.
In recent years,though many fruitful achievements in research on education equity of disadvantaged groups have been made,the majority are macro theories,micro research is still in need.Critical ethnography can help us understand the life experience of the subjects of study by the interaction between researchers and the subjects and change the unfavorable situation.Therefore,critical ethnography can become a new field of research on education equity of disadvantaged groups and promote the development of this research.As"insiders",researchers should understand disadvantaged groups and interpret the current situation of this research;reflect on and criticize the hidden ideology and power structure;in macro and micro view,come up with some constructive measures,only in this way can they truly reach the aim of education research.%近年来,我国关于弱势群体教育公平的研究成果颇丰,但是大多数仍然是宏观的政策理论研究,深入到弱势群体的微观实证研究成果还是很缺乏。批判民族志主要是通过研究者与研究对象的互动来理解和诠释研究对象的生活经历,并着手改造教育不公平的现象,因而为我国弱势群体教育公平研究提供了一个新视野,促进研究的深入发展。让研究者以＂局内人＂的身份理解弱势群体,深度描述和诠释弱势群体教育公平的现状;反思与批判背后的意识形态霸权与权力结构;在宏观与微观的视野中,提出建设性的解决对策,这才达到进行教育研究的真正目的。
Ahmmed, Masud; Sharma, Umesh; Deppeler, Joanne
Inclusive education is a worldwide reform strategy intended to include students with different abilities in mainstream regular schools. Evidence from previous research shows that success in implementing effective inclusive teaching practices in the school is contingent on teachers' positive attitudes towards inclusive education. This study was…
Wang, Victor C. X.; Sedivy-Benton, Amy Lynn
Well-reasoned leadership theories are described in many academic books, yet they may not apply specifically to practices in higher education. In higher education, the absence of tailored leadership theories is compounded by the lack of technical skills or leadership ethics, resulting in leadership issues that impact the organization. To illustrate…
Agricultural Education Magazine, 2000
Articles discuss trends and issues in agricultural education, community and technical colleges, career/technical studies, Australian agriculture, agricultural science and technology programs in urban areas, genetic engineering, the impact of changing technologies on agricultural education, volunteers, and performance-based assessment. (JOW)
Johnson, Carrie L.; Schumacher, Joel B.
Using webinar delivery for Extension financial education programs allows educators to reach a broader range of clientele. It can, however, be difficult to gauge participants' learning of concepts in an online environment. Evaluations of two webinar series, one in Montana and the other in South Dakota, sought to determine the effectiveness of using…
Kolm, Ann-Sofie; Larsen, Birthe
endogenously. Job opportunities in an informalsector are available only to workers who choose not to acquirehigher education. We find that increased punishment of informal activitiesincreases the number of educated workers and reduces the number of unemployed workers. Considering welfare, we show it isoptimal...
The topic of the tesis is advantages and disadvantages of work in russian-czech multicultural teams. The research then analyzes the efficiency of such teams primarily from the side of partners and clients of such projects.
Even though computer games hold considerable potential for engaging and facilitating learning among today's children, the adoption of modern educational computer games is still meeting significant resistance in K-12 education. The purpose of this paper is to inform educators and instructional designers on factors affecting teachers' adoption of…
Corrigan, Robert E.; Wood, R. Ronald
A management plan developed for the district-wide coordination of vocational education program planning in the State Center Community College District, California, is presented. Following a discussion of the planning process (in memo form) and a section on how to read flow-block diagrams, the mission profile and narrative description of this model…
English National Board for Nursing, Midwifery and Health Visiting, London.
An evaluation investigated the effectiveness of midwifery education in preparing midwives to care for clients likely to experience inequalities in health and/or inequalities in health care provision in England. The study was undertaken in these three phases: (1) literature review of midwifery and relevant social policy literature; (2) national…
This thesis is a literature review that explores holistic education and meditation in relation to affective and social development. Holistic education is a philosophy of education highlighting the importance of developing all parts of the human in order to reach our full potential and for living a fulfilling life. Learning theories are briefly discussed to gain an understanding of how holistic education is implemented. This thesis does not focus on all aspect of development suppor...
Thanks largely to the work of Kabat-Zinn and associates applications of mindfulness-based practices have grown exponentially over the last decade or so, particularly in the fields of education, psychology, psychotherapy and mind-body health. Having its origins in Buddhist traditions, the more recent secular and therapeutic applications of the…
Sobe, Noah W.
This exploratory paper was prepared for a symposium held at the 2011 ISCHE conference in which participants were asked to envision future challenges in the historiography of education, to predict where the field was moving, and to imagine what innovations and new interests would arise in the subsequent 30 years. While the paper is playfully…
Kanthawongs, Penjuree; Kanthawongs, Penjira; Chitcharoen, Chaisak
[For full proceedings, see ED571332.]The aim of this study is to explore the impact of perspectives on Facebook in education and relational commitment towards perceived satisfaction with Facebook. The sample included 157 students of two private universities in Bangkok and Pathum Thani province of Thailand during April to May of academic year 2015…
Barraza, Laura; Cuaron, Alfredo D.
In this study we analysed the familiarity and understanding of 10 environmental concepts amongst Mexican and English school children (aged 7 to 9). The investigation considered the impact of the educational system and the school ethos on the formation of environmental concepts. Results reveal that in general, children of this age have a low to…
Full Text Available The present study tested how well Ajzen in Fishbein's (1980 Theory of reasoned action (TRA predicted educational intentions and aspiration of the unemployed, who were enrolled in governmental funded educational programs. Study also explores the role of self-efficacy (Bandura, 1997 as the third independent determinant of intention within the theory of reasoned action and its impact on motivation for further education. Questionnaires were administered to a sample of 326 unemployed persons, aged from 16 to 49 years. It turned out that the only significant predictor variable are subjective norms, which had explained 38 % of the variance in intentions (p < 0.001, whereas attitudes toward behavior and self-efficacy did not achieve significance. On the other hand self-efficacy strongly influences individual's educational aspirations and expectations. The results of the study support the hypotheses, that external variables have stronger impact on person's goals, which are under a strong social influence, then on personal beliefs about instrumentality of behavior and perceived competence.
The purpose of this document is to analyze the historical influences of Confucianism and Buddhism on Korean culture and to explore the religions' impact on Korean higher education. Three questions comprised the research: 1) What are the characteristics of Buddhism and Confucianism in Korean cultural history? 2) How did Buddhism have an effect on…
Knudsen, Britta Timm; Robinson, Sarah; Neergaard, Helle
Questions we care about (Objectives) In this paper we address the question of what role affect can play in entrepreneurship education. In particular we seek to explore how educators can create activities that leverage affect to instigate learning in the students. Approach In the paper we use...... data, interviews with the teacher and the students as well as entries from the students’ learning logs. Results The study shows that the entrepreneurship educator in the case did create platforms for affect that were conducive to entrepreneurial learning. We also found the different platforms created...... very different patterns of affect. We suggest that these differences are due to differnces in the space in which the learning activity occurs, and the temporal duration of the activity. Implications Our study suggests that entrepreneurship educators can and should seek to address the issue of affect...
Chandra, Prabha S; Satyanarayana, Veena A
Research in the area of gender and mental health indicates that women are disproportionately affected by common mental disorders (CMDs) as well as co-morbid mental disorders. However, the concept of gender disadvantage, its correlates, and mental health outcomes has received relatively less research attention. In addition, there are no known systematic reviews in the area of gender disadvantage and common mental disorders in recent years. In this review we have therefore attempted to deconstruct the concept of gender disadvantage, identify important correlates of gender disadvantage and illustrate their influence on common mental disorders. Since gender is a social construct and is greatly influenced by one's culture and ethnicity, we have made an attempt to integrate international literature on the subject and highlight cultural and ethnic relevance of topics as they emerge. Finally, we have provided take home messages from existing literature, identified gaps in literature, and formulated directions for future research in this area.
... disadvantaged students attending vocational education programs under the Secondary School Vocational Education... number of economically disadvantaged students attending vocational education programs under the Secondary School Vocational Education Program? (a) For the purposes of § 403.113, a State may determine the...
Dervin, Fred; Tournebise, Céline
This article examines a rather neglected context of intercultural education: intercultural communication education (ICE). ICE can be found in different fields such as business, applied linguistics, intercultural communication and health education, amongst others. The authors start by reviewing the latest and ongoing changes…
Beacom, Amanda M; Newman, Sandra J
Interest in the communication of health information among disadvantaged populations has increased in recent years with the shift from a model of patient-provider communication to one of a more empowered healthcare consumer; with the use of new communication technologies that increase the number of channels through which health information may be accessed; and with the steadily increasing number of people without health insurance. Three separate research literatures contribute to our current understanding of this issue. In the medicine and public health literature, disparities in health access and outcomes among socioeconomic, ethnic, and racial groups are now well documented. In the information sciences literature, scholars note that on a continuum of health information behaviors, ranging from information avoidance and nonseeking to active seeking, nonseeking behaviors are associated with disadvantaged populations. In the communication literature, enthusiasm over the technology-driven growth of online health information seeking is tempered by evidence supporting the knowledge gap hypothesis, which indicates that as potential access to health information increases, systematic gaps in health knowledge also increase as groups with higher socioeconomic status acquire this information at a faster rate than those with lower socioeconomic status. A number of diverse strategies show promise in reducing information and health disparities, including those that focus on technology, such as programs to increase computer and Internet access, skills, and comprehension; those that focus on interpersonal communication, such as the community health worker model; and those that focus on mass media channels, such as entertainment education.
Kevin L. Nunes
Full Text Available Evolutionary theorists have argued that perceived competitive disadvantage may lead to more positive evaluation of, and greater likelihood of engaging in, risky and antisocial behavior. However, experimental studies have not yet examined the effects of competitive disadvantage on perceptions of rape. In the current study, we created a manipulation of perceived competitive status to test its effects on beliefs about rape. In one condition, participants were made to feel disadvantaged relative to male peers in terms of financial, physical, and intellectual power, whereas in the other condition they were made to feel advantaged. Participants were 120 heterosexual male undergraduate students. The manipulation was effective; compared to participants in the advantage condition, those in the disadvantage condition rated themselves as significantly worse off financially, shorter, in worse physical shape, and as having lower course marks than the average male student at the university. Compared to perceived competitive advantage, perceived disadvantage led to less negative attitudes towards rape. However, perceived competitive status did not significantly affect justifications and excuses for rape. Future studies using similar experimental manipulations can complement correlational studies and may contribute to greater clarity, precision, and sophistication of research and theory on the role of competitive disadvantage in rape.
Grant, D. R. B.
This study, conducted by the Bernard Van Leer Foundation Project for Early Childhood Education (PECE), presents the results of a survey which was carried out to identify home deficits in socioeconomically disadvantaged children's preparation for schooling. The study was conducted in Jamaica during July, August, and September, 1970, and was…
This study analyses the citizenship experiences of young non-western migrants in the Netherlands. Young migrants are in a disadvantaged position in education and in the labour market and this leads to concerns about their integration in Dutch society. The focus of this study is on the participation
The author identifies two tendencies affecting higher education. On the one hand, universities and colleges are under pressure to become more market-oriented and to respond to rapid changes in information technology and knowledge production. On the other hand, there is a growing concern that they should work for the benefit of society, promoting social equity and responding to community needs. The author argues that partnerships between the community and institutions of higher education are an effective way of contributing to community development. He describes the potential of South Africa's historically disadvantaged institutions to contribute to reconstruction and development in the aftermath of apartheid.
Johnson, Molly K; Symes, Lene; Bernard, Lillian; Landson, Margie J; Carroll, Theresa L
Recent studies have identified a problematic gap for nursing students between terse clinical writing and formal academic writing. This gap can create a potential barrier to academic and workplace success, especially for disadvantaged nursing students who have not acquired the disciplinary conventions and sophisticated writing required in upper-level nursing courses. The authors demonstrate the need for writing-in-the-discipline activities to enhance the writing skills of nursing students, describe the technical writing workshops they developed to mentor minority and disadvantaged nursing students, and provide recommendations to stimulate educator dialogue across disciplines and institutions.
Ripple, R. E.; And Others
A study of the impact of language of instruction in schools on the divergent thinking, self-esteem, and locus of control of expatriate and Hong Kong native Chinese adolescents is reported and some of the cognitive and affective costs of the immersion method of bilingual education are examined. Hong Kong children in most schools must change…
Ocumpaugh, Jaclyn; Baker, Ryan; Gowda, Sujith; Heffernan, Neil; Heffernan, Cristina
Information and communication technology (ICT)-enhanced research methods such as educational data mining (EDM) have allowed researchers to effectively model a broad range of constructs pertaining to the student, moving from traditional assessments of knowledge to assessment of engagement, meta-cognition, strategy and affect. The automated…
Khan, Sumaira; Haider, Syed Zubair; Bukhari, Amjad Ali
The main objective of this research is to study the different instruction strategies implemented by Mathematics teachers and evaluating its affect on Bachelor of Education (B.Ed) level. To complete the study, two samples 34 teachers and 217 students were taken randomly. A five point Likert scale comprising 40 statements was prepared and…
Quinn, Josephine Crawley; Brooke, Christopher
The paper examines Edward Carpenter's 1899 essay on education that defended the value of powerful same-sex attachments, either between older and younger boys or between teachers and pupils, in the context of Victorian ideologies of same-sex affection. Linda Dowling has described how "a homosexual counterdiscourse able to justify male love in…
Yalçin, Mikail; Bektas, Fatih; Öztekin, Özge; Karadag, Engin
The purpose of this study is to reveal the factors that affect the identification of research problems in educational administration studies. The study was designed using the case study method. Criterion sampling was used to determine the work group; the criterion used to select the participants was that of having a study in the field of…
Creemers, Bert; Kyriakides, Leonidas
The dynamic model of educational effectiveness defines school level factors associated with student outcomes. Emphasis is given to the two main aspects of policy, evaluation, and improvement in schools which affect quality of teaching and learning at both the level of teachers and students: a) teach
Snyder, Thomas R.
This teacher's manual presents affective education as a program to promote student self-actualization and human relations skills. Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs and Erik Erikson's life stages of psychosocial development form the conceptual base for this program. The goals and objectives of this manual are concerned with problem-solving…
Milton, Sansom; Barakat, Sultan
This article examines the role of higher education in the recovery of conflict-affected societies and argues that while the sector is typically a very low reconstruction priority, it has the potential, if addressed strategically, to act as a catalyst for effective and sustainable post-war recovery. The article begins by contextualising higher…
Ball, James W.
Background: In the past decade, distance education enrollment has become more common in colleges and universities, increasing from 1.6 million students in 1998 to an estimated 6.7 million in 2012. The purpose of this study was to identify which constructs in Rogers' (2003) diffusion of innovation theory are more likely to contribute to adoption…
Antonio Vicente Vaquer Chiva
Full Text Available Educational institutions represent the special setting for teenagers´ socialization and development in Spain. The concern for some disruptive phenomenon which take place within the educational setting draws the attention to investigate the aspects of the educational relationship that contribute positively to students´ development and learning. From a qualitative research design, according to the criteria of theoretical sampling proposed in the methodology of qualitative data analysis of the «Grounded Theory», twenty-three individual interviews were done to secondary school parents, teachers and students. The achieved results allow to suggest the «encounter» between student and teacher, with its respective acceptance and mutual appreciation, as a central issue that enables affective link and the practice of "pilot guidance". The emergence of the basic social process referred as «relational nurturing» implies that affective support and an instructional guide empower educational and personal growth. The "pilot guidance" function, both with individuals and in class, constitutes the center of the educational relationship fostering the students´ full growth.
Holm, Anders; Wang, Camilla; Kousholt, Dorte
Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) can enhance the life chances of all children, and especially socially disadvantaged children. In the Nordic daycare systems, however, it is not clear if ECEC provides equal social and intellectual opportunities for socially disadvantaged children. The VIDA...... intervention program Knowledge-based efforts for socially disadvantaged children in daycare – a model program presented in this report, aims at improving all children’s well-being and cognitive functioning, and specifi cally improving the situation for socially disadvantaged children through inclusive efforts...... in daycare. The objective is to improve our knowledge about effective means and methods when implementing a new innovative type of early childhood educational efforts aimed at socially disadvantaged children. This is done by a systematic approach on the basis of methods developed in the VIDA programs...
Rozhan M IDRUS
Full Text Available The Support System in Distance Education:Factors Affecting Achievements Among Women Learners Hanafi ATAN Zuraidah A. RAHMAN Omar MAJID Noraida A. GHANIRozhan M IDRUS School of Distance EducationUniversiti Sains Malaysia11800 Penang, MALAYSIA ABSTRACT Distance education has the potential to contribute to the enhancement of women’s development by overcoming not only temporal and spatial barriers but familial commitments as well. It brings education to their home and allows women to learn at their individual pace, seek skills for individual development and at the same time, enables them to fulfill family responsibilities. An important element of distance education is the provision of the learner support system that provides students the access to learning resources and means of communication that would facilitate the array of educational activities and exposure to various other guidance and advisories. This paper reports on the study undertaken to elucidate the dimensions of the support system provided by the School of Distance Education (SDE, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM to its women learners that would have significant impact on their achievements. The factorial analysis conducted revealed that the role of the faculty is the main contributing factor affecting these achievements, followed by the provision of the intensive course, the electronic portal, video conferencing and to a much lesser extent, the existence of the regional centres. The implications of this study are discussed with the view of improving the support system provided by the institution and the need to put into action the necessary strategies to further improve the achievement of the women learners.
Santos, Olga C.; Saneiro, Mar; Boticario, Jesus G.; Rodriguez-Sanchez, M. C.
This work explores the benefits of supporting learners affectively in a context-aware learning situation. This features a new challenge in related literature in terms of providing affective educational recommendations that take advantage of ambient intelligence and are delivered through actuators available in the environment, thus going beyond previous approaches which provided computer-based recommendation that present some text or tell aloud the learner what to do. To address this open issue, we have applied TORMES elicitation methodology, which has been used to investigate the potential of ambient intelligence for making more interactive recommendations in an emotionally challenging scenario (i.e. preparing for the oral examination of a second language learning course). Arduino open source electronics prototyping platform is used both to sense changes in the learners' affective state and to deliver the recommendation in a more interactive way through different complementary sensory communication channels (sight, hearing, touch) to cope with a universal design. An Ambient Intelligence Context-aware Affective Recommender Platform (AICARP) has been built to support the whole experience, which represents a progress in the state of the art. In particular, we have come up with what is most likely the first interactive context-aware affective educational recommendation. The value of this contribution lies in discussing methodological and practical issues involved.
Full Text Available The intellectual development of socioeconomically disadvantaged preschool children is influenced by several factors. The development of intelligence is a multidimensional concept that is determined by biological, social, and environmental factors. In this literature review, however, only the social and environmental factors are discussed. Some of the factors that have profound effect on children's cognitive development are as follows: environmental stimulation, parental attitudes, maternal age, and education. Successful intervention and prevention programs aimed at enhancing children's cognitive development are also exemplified. It appears that early intervention programs in the second and third year of an infant's life have fundamental effects on the cognitive development of disadvan-taged children. It is clear that learning starts with birth. Longitudinal studies revealed that the most effective period for intervention is early childhood. Those who received early day-care and preschool intervention programs have sustained these gains in adolescence and adulthood. Those benefits include higher IQ scores, better achievement test scores, better reading and math skills, more educational attainment, more college degrees, and fewer psychosocial and mental health problems. Therefore, it appears that investing in early high-quality programs provide multiple advantages for individuals and society. Social activists, psychologists, and counsellors should make every effort to affect the allocation of governmental funds and policies.
Orkin, Mark; Boyes, Mark E; Cluver, Lucie D; Zhang, Yuning
A recent systematic review of studies in the developing world has critically examined linkages from familial HIV/AIDS and associated factors such as poverty and child mental health to negative child educational outcomes. In line with several recommendations in the review, the current study modelled relationships between familial HIV/AIDS, poverty, child internalising problems, gender and four educational outcomes: non-enrolment at school, non-attendance, deficits in grade progression and concentration problems. Path analyses reveal no direct associations between familial HIV/AIDS and any of the educational outcomes. Instead, HIV/AIDS-orphanhood or caregiver HIV/AIDS-sickness impacted indirectly on educational outcomes via the poverty and internalising problems that they occasioned. This has implications for evidence-based policy inferences. For instance, by addressing such intervening variables generally, rather than by seeking to target families affected by HIV/AIDS, interventions could avoid exacerbating stigmatisation, while having a more direct and stronger impact on children's educational outcomes. This analytic approach also suggests that future research should seek to identify causal paths, and may include other intervening variables related to poverty (such as child housework and caring responsibilities) or to child mental health (such as stigma and abuse), that are linked to both familial HIV/AIDS and educational outcomes.
Deepening the reform of physical education in northern universities is an important precondition to comprehensively implement the guiding thought of"human foremost"and"health first". By applying the inclusive education concept in the physical education in northern universities,the paper points out that the application of inclusive education concept has practical significance for the need of harmonious society construction,the embodiment of educational fairness,the discriminatory teaching principle and the development of cooperative awareness. As a theoretical reference for the the full implementation of teaching reform in northern universities and feasibly improving the undergraduates physical quality and life quality,it suggests the implementation ways such as teaching objectives, teaching methods,teaching contents and teaching evaluation.%深化北方高校体育教育改革是全面贯彻和实施“以人为本”“健康第一”教学指导思想的重要前提。将全纳教育观念实践于北方高校的体育教学之中，指出全纳教育观念的实施具有构建和谐社会的需要、教育公平的体现、区别对待教学原则的实施和合作意识的培养等现实意义；提出教学目标、教学方法、教学内容和教学评价等实施途径，为全面实施北方高校的教育教学改革，切实提高全体学生的身体素质和生命质量提供理论依据。
Kayumova, Shakhnoza; Tippins, Deborah
Rational and operationalized views of science and what it means for teachers and students to know and enact legitimate science practices have dominated science education research for many decades (Fusco and Barton in J Res Sci Teach 38(3):337-354, 2001. doi: 10.1002/1098-2736(200103)38:33.0.CO;2-0). Michalinos Zembylas challenges historically prevalent dichotomies of mind/body, reason/emotion, and emotion/affect, calling researchers and educators to move beyond the Cartesian dualisms, which have perpetuated a myth of scientific objectivity devoid of bias, subjectivity and emotions. Zembylas (Crit Stud Teach Learn 1(1):1-21, 2013. doi: 10.14426/cristal.v1i1.2) contends that the role of emotions and affect are best understood as relational and entangled in epistemological, cultural, and historical contexts of education, which represent contested sites of control and resistance. We argue that Zembylas' work is pivotal since "theoretical frames of reference for doing research in science education…[and] what constitutes knowledge and being within a particular frame" carry material bearings over the enactments of science teaching and learning (Kyle in J Res Sci Teach 31:695-696, 1994, p. 321. doi: 10.1002/tea.3660310703). In this paper, we hold cogen dialogue about how re-thinking notions of emotion and affect affords us, both science educators and researchers, to re-envision science education beyond cognitive and social frames. The framing of our dialogue as cogen builds on Wolff-Michael Roth and Kenneth Tobin's (At the elbows of another: learning to teach through coteaching. Peter Lang Publishing, New York, 2002) notion of cogenerative dialogue. Holding cogen is an invitation to an openly dialogic and safe area, which serves as a space for a dialogic inquiry that includes radical listening of situated knowledges and learning from similarities as well as differences of experiences (Tobin in Cult Stud Sci Educ, in review, 2015). From our situated experiences reforms
Diana Yanbarisova - Research Fellow at Institute of Education, HSE. E-mail: s, combining work and study is typical for both low-income students and those who are well off. Such students have an array of reasons to start working, from the ambition to get integrated into the job market and build a career to the desire to fill their spare time. The paper investigates how different combinations of work and study affect academic performance of students in their final ...
Cox, Anne; Duncheon, Nicole; McDavid, Lindley
Research has demonstrated the importance of relatedness perceptions to self-determined motivation in physical education. Therefore, studies have begun to examine the social factors contributing to feelings of relatedness. The purpose of this study was to examine teacher (perceived emotional support) and peer (acceptance, friendship quality) relationship variables to feelings of relatedness, motivation, and affective responses in junior high physical education students (N = 411). Results revealed that perceived relatedness mediated the relationship between variables and self-determined motivation and related directly to the amount of enjoyment and worry students experienced. These findings demonstrate that relationships with both teachers and peers are important for students' relatedness perceptions, motivation, enjoyment, and worry in physical education.
Süleyman Erhan Deveci
Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this survey was to define the hopelessness levels in the students of an occupational education center and the definition of the factors affecting them.Materials and methods: The survey is a descriptive type and was made among 630 students who have been taking an apprenticeship, foremanship and proficiency education at an Occupational Education Centre. The whole universe was included in the survey. A questionnaire of a question set, which is made up of health, social and demographic variables and the factors thought to be related with hopelessness and also of Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS was carried out among 600 students.Results: Totally 88.7% of the students are male, 11.3% are female and their mean age was 20.04 ± 6.0 years. Of all, 83.7% were taking foremanship education; 9.5% apprenticeship education and 6.8% were taking a proficiency education. The average point of BHS was found as 7.31 ± 3.78 (min: 1, max: 19. The rate of the students whose BHS point is ≥10 is 26.2%. The level of hopelessness was found higher among the men who worked more than five days a week, changed jobs, works more than eight hours, don’t like their jobs, had chronic illnesses and smoking and taking alcohol (p<0.05. Also, perception of their health situation goes from positive to negative parallel to increasing hopelessness (p<0.05.Conclusion: Hopelessness mean point of the students was low. But, approximately one per four students’ BHS point is ≥10. Psychological help or guiding activities can be organized, after evaluating the factors affecting their hopelessness.
Dastjerdi, Negin Barat
The incorporation of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) into education systems is an active program and movement in education that illustrates modern education and enables an all-encompassing presence in the third millennium; however, prior to applying ICT, the factors affecting the adoption and use of these technologies should be…
Socially disadvantaged groups are currently a hot media topic.Many Chinese people have become wealthy as a result of rapid development that has thrown others into so-called socially disadvantage dgroups. Since last year the new CPC leadership, headed by Hu Jintao,has sought to redress this imbalance.
Full Text Available Background and Purpose. Residing in “disadvantaged” communities may increase morbidity and mortality independent of individual social resources and biological factors. This study evaluates the impact of population-level disadvantage on incident ischemic stroke likelihood in a multiethnic urban population. Methods. A population based case-control study was conducted in an ethnically diverse community of New York. First ischemic stroke cases and community controls were enrolled and a stroke risk assessment performed. Data regarding population level economic indicators for each census tract was assembled using geocoding. Census variables were also grouped together to define a broader measure of collective disadvantage. We evaluated the likelihood of stroke for population-level variables controlling for individual social (education, social isolation, and insurance and vascular risk factors. Results. We age-, sex-, and race-ethnicity-matched 687 incident ischemic stroke cases to 1153 community controls. The mean age was 69 years: 60% women; 22% white, 28% black, and 50% Hispanic. After adjustment, the index of community level disadvantage (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.7–2.1 was associated with increased stroke likelihood overall and among all three race-ethnic groups. Conclusion. Social inequalities measured by census tract data including indices of community disadvantage confer a significant likelihood of ischemic stroke independent of conventional risk factors.
King, Clement T.
Two psychological theories which seem to have had a great impact on compensatory education programs are Skinnerian reinforcement theory and the cognitive developmental theory derived in part from Jean Piaget. The Englemann-Becker program is a typical example of the Programmed Curricular kind of program; the Florida Project, an Open Framework; and…
... deposits, and grants and loan activities affecting small and minority businesses including women-owned business, and the small business, small minority business, and small women-owned business subcontracting... disadvantaged, and women-owned businesses with the Small Business......
Wortmeyer, Daniela Schmitz; Branco, Angela Uchoa
In this article, our aim is to analyze institutional practices guided to promote the development of moral values within the context of military education of Brazilian Army combatant commissioned officers. From a cultural psychological approach, we discuss how social guidance within military culture operates at different levels of the affective-semiotic regulation of individuals, structuring complex experiences that give rise to hypergeneralized meaning fields regarding morality and military values. For this goal, we first introduce some theoretical topics related to values development, emphasizing their affective roots and role in the emergence, maintenance, amplification and attenuation of all relations between the person and the environment. Following a brief discussion on how social institutions try to promote changes in personal values, we provide an overview of values present in the military culture and socialization. Finally, the text focuses on the education of Brazilian Army combatant commissioned officers, describing how practices related to different levels of affective-semiotic experience combine in order to promote the internalization and externalization of specific moral values. We conclude suggesting issues for future investigation.
Shahsavari Isfahani, Sara; Hosseini, Mohammad Ali; Fallahi Khoshknab, Masood; Peyrovi, Hamid; Khanke, Hamid Reza
Background Recently, global nursing experts have been aggressively encouraging nurses to pursue creativity and innovation in nursing to improve nursing outcomes. Nurses’ creativity plays a significant role in health and well-being. In most health systems across the world, nurses provide up to 80% of the primary health care; therefore, they are critically positioned to provide creative solutions for current and future global health challenges. Objectives The purpose of this study was to explore Iranian nurses’ perceptions and experiences toward the expression of creativity in clinical settings and the outcomes of their creativity for health care organizations. Patients and Methods A qualitative approach using content analysis was adopted. Data were collected through in-depth semistructured interviews with 14 nurses who were involved in the creative process in educational hospitals affiliated to Jahrom and Tehran Universities of Medical Sciences in Iran. Results Four themes emerged from the data analysis, including a) Improvement in quality of patient care, b) Improvement in nurses’ quality of work, personal and social life, c) Promotion of organization, and d) Unpleasant outcomes. Conclusions The findings indicated that nurses’ creativity in health care organizations can lead to major changes of nursing practice, improvement of care and organizational performance. Therefore, policymakers, nurse educators, nursing and hospital managers should provide a nurturing environment that is conducive to creative thinking, giving the nurses opportunity for flexibility, creativity, support for change, and risk taking. PMID:25793116
Fagan, Abigail A; Wright, Emily M; Pinchevsky, Gillian M
Although social disorganization theory hypothesizes that neighborhood characteristics influence youth delinquency, the impact of neighborhood disadvantage on adolescent substance use and racial/ethnic differences in this relationship have not been widely investigated. The present study examines these issues using longitudinal data from 1,856 African American, Hispanic, and Caucasian adolescents participating in the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN). The results indicated that neighborhood disadvantage did not significantly increase the likelihood of substance use for the full sample. When relationships were analyzed by race/ethnicity, one significant (p ≤ .10) effect was found; disadvantage increased alcohol use among African Americans only. The size of this effect differed significantly between African American and Hispanic youth. In no other cases did race/ethnicity moderate the impact of disadvantage on substance use. These results suggest that disadvantage is not a strong predictor of adolescent substance use, although other features of the neighborhood may affect such behaviors.
Wikström, Per-Olof H; Treiber, Kyle
In this article, we analyze the relationship between social disadvantage and crime, starting from the paradox that most persistent offenders come from disadvantaged backgrounds, but most people from disadvantaged backgrounds do not become persistent offenders. We argue that despite the fact that social disadvantage has been a key criminological topic for some time, the mechanisms which link it to offending remain poorly specified. Drawing on situational action theory, we suggest social disadvantage is linked to crime because more people from disadvantaged versus affluent backgrounds develop a high crime propensity and are exposed to criminogenic contexts, and the reason for this is that processes of social and self-selection place the former more frequently in (developmental and action) contexts conducive to the development and expression of high crime propensities. This article will explore this hypothesis through a series of analyses using data from the Peterborough Adolescent and Young Adult Development Study (PADS+), a longitudinal study which uses a range of data collection methods to study the interaction between personal characteristics and social environments. It pays particular attention to the macro-to-micro processes behind the intersection of people with certain characteristics and environments with certain features - i.e., their exposure - which leads to their interaction.
Luk-Fong, Pattie Yuk Yee
This article documents a parent education presentation on "External conditions affecting a harmonious family" within a school-based parent education programme in Hong Kong. The presentation adopted an eco-systems approach for understanding families and argued for the need to include the external conditions for a harmonious family as an…
Osler, James Edward
This monograph provides a psychological rational for the novel field of "Educational Science" and how it conducts in-depth research investigations first presented in an article by the author in the i-manager's "Journal on Mathematics" through the trichotomous analysis of the affective domain. Educational Science uses the…
Shahidul, S. M.; Karim, A. H. M. Zehadul; Mustari, S.
Resources from multiple social contexts influence students' educational aspiration. In the field of social capital a neglected issue is how students obtain social capital from varying contexts and which contexts benefit them more to shape their future educational plan which consequently affects their level of aspiration. In this study, we aim to…
Philip Adoka Okisai
Full Text Available Abstract Governance is an important aspect in the day to day operations of schools and achievement of school goals and attaining development in any part of the world and indeed in Tanzania. The main purpose of this study was to examine the factors affecting governance in catholic run educational institutions in Arusha Tanzania. The study specifically aimed to investigate the effect of policy frameworks monitoring and evaluation and organizational structure in governance in catholic run educational institutions. During the study primary data collection was done using questionnaires and personal interviews. Both simple random and purposive samplings were used to obtain data. The findings of the study indicated that most catholic run educational institutions are aware of the factors of governance which were being investigated. The majority of the leaders were in favor of good governance in their institutions which is characterized by transparency and accountability. This research shows that the presence of good policies brings about guidance and direction in the institution which in place enhances accountability and effectiveness in the part of those in leadership position. The study recommends that the Institutions should endeavor through staff development programs to induct new staff members in the institution to have a harmonious understanding of institutional policy framework and to achieve the set institutional goals.
Randler, Christoph; Demirhan, Eda; Wüst-Ackermann, Peter; Desch, Inga H.
In science education, dissections of animals are an integral part of teaching, but they often evoke negative emotions. We aimed at reducing negative emotions (anxiety, negative affect [NA]) and increasing positive affect (PA) and self-efficacy by an experimental intervention using a predissection video to instruct students about fish dissection.…
Singleterry, Lisa R.; Horodynski, Mildred A.
Objective: To ascertain paraprofessionals' perceptions regarding a self-directed computer-supported nutrition educational intervention to disadvantaged mothers of infants. Design: Qualitative focus group study. Setting: Three county extension programs in a Midwestern state, which serve disadvantaged families. Method: Sixteen paraprofessional…
Neckerman, Kathryn M; Garfinkel, Irwin; Teitler, Julien O; Waldfogel, Jane; Wimer, Christopher
The New York City (NYC) Longitudinal Study of Wellbeing, or "Poverty Tracker," is a survey of approximately 2300 NYC residents. Its purpose is to provide a multidimensional and dynamic understanding of economic disadvantage in NYC. Measures of disadvantage were collected at baseline and a 12-month follow-up, and include 3 types of disadvantage: 1) income poverty, using a measure on the basis of the new Supplemental Poverty Measure; 2) material hardship, including indicators of food insecurity, housing hardship, unmet medical needs, utility cutoffs, and financial insecurity; and 3) adult health problems, which can drain family time and resources. In this article initial results for NYC families with children younger than the age of 18 years are presented. At baseline, 56% of families with children had 1 or more type of disadvantage, including 28% with income poverty, 39% with material hardship, and 17% with an adult health problem. Even among nonpoor families, 33% experienced material hardship and 14% reported an adult health problem. Two-thirds of all families faced disadvantage at either baseline or follow-up, with 46% experiencing some kind of disadvantage at both time points. Respondents with a college education were much less likely to face disadvantage. Even after adjusting for educational attainment and family characteristics, the families of black and Hispanic respondents had increased rates of disadvantage. Considering income poverty alone the extent of disadvantage among families with children in NYC is greatly understated. These results suggest that in addition to addressing income poverty, policymakers should give priority to efforts to reduce material hardship and help families cope with chronic physical or mental illness. The need for these resources extends far above the poverty line.
Strohmer, Douglas C.; Phillips, Susan D.
Examined the preferred counselor characteristics of two groups: students with disabilities and students who were educationally and economically disadvantaged. Counselor characteristics were examined in terms of how preferences are differentially expressed for help with personal-social versus vocational-educational concerns. (Author/BH)
Full Text Available Background: China has made impressive progress towards the Millennium Development Goal (MDG for maternal and reproductive health, but ensuring that progress reaches all segments of the population remains a challenge for policy makers. The aim of this review is to map disadvantaged populations in terms of maternal health in China, and to explain the causes of these inequities to promote policy action. Methods: We searched PUBMED, Popline, Proquest and WanFang and included primary studies conducted in mainland China. Experts were also contacted to identify additional studies. Disadvantaged populations in terms of MDG 5 and the reasons for this disadvantage explored by authors were identified and coded based on the conceptual framework developed by the WHO Commission on the Social Determinants of Health. Results: In China, differences in maternal health service utilization and the maternal mortality ratio among different income groups, and among regions with different socio-economic development still exist, although these differences are narrowing. Groups with low levels of education and ethnic minorities utilize maternal health care less frequently and experience higher maternal mortality, although we could not determine whether these differences have changed in the last decade. Rural-to-urban migrants use maternal health care and contraception to a lower extent than permanent residents of cities, and differential maternal mortality shows a widening trend among these groups. Gender inequity also contributes to the disadvantaged position of women. Intermediary factors that explain these inequities include material circumstances such as long distances to health facilities for women living in remote areas, behavioral factors such as traditional beliefs that result in reduced care seeking among ethnic minorities, and health system determinants such as out-of-pocket payments posing financial barriers for the poor. Conclusions: Inequity in maternal
Full Text Available The aim of this research is to determine the level of internet addiction on the part of students in secondary education in North Cyprus and the factors that affect it. In this research, a survey method which provides a general universal judgment was used to determine the level of internet addiction on the part of such students. It has been found that 59.9% of the students are at low of becoming internet addicts, 20.7% of them are in the high risk category, 13.5% face no risk of addiction, while 5.9% are internet addicts. It was determined that as students’ internet usage hours increase, the risk of addiction increases.
Lewis, Sue; Russell, Andrew
This research article on youth smoking in disadvantaged communities is the product of a qualitative study to understand the issues faced by young smokers--and those trying not to be smokers--in such communities. Environmental factors and peer influence are widely recognised influences on adolescents' take-up and continuation of smoking but less is known about whether, what, how and why circumstances in disadvantaged communities affect young people's pathways towards and away from smoking. Focusing on a youth club in a disadvantaged neighbourhood in the North East of England, narratives about young people's relationships with tobacco provide an ethnographically rich, thick description of the experiences of a group that is too often easily ignored. We argue that young people are caught between competing domains that together exert a form of structural violence. These are, first, the economic and political structures that have overseen de-industrialisation; second, the media structures that create desire for what they cannot afford; third the structures of international organised crime that conspire to provide them with the means to consume from which 'legitimate' structures effectively exclude them. Rather than expecting young people to comply with the health imperative, interventions need to bridge issues of agency and critical consciousness, which structural violence otherwise insidiously erodes.
N. N. Malyarchuk
Full Text Available The paper analyzes a widely discussed problem of the negative health dynamics of the growing generation, and points out the necessity of complex consideration of all the factors adversely affecting children’s health. The special emphasis is on the fallowing harmful factors: intensification of training process; discrepancy between the applied training methods and techniques on the one side, and children’s age, sex and functional specifics and capabilities on the other side; shortcomings in organizing children’s physical activities; limitations of the expositive illustrative methods for developing the healthy lifestyle habits. The other group of factors is related to the teaching style and professional characteristics of the teachers. They include the common practice of «stress» tactics; incompetence in health saving technologies; personal indisposition and psychological drawbacks. The situation is exacerbated by the absence of psychologists and pediatricians in educational institutions. The multilevel approach to solving the problems of students’ health preservation and promotion involves the elicitation of objective, subjective, inschool and out-of-school health determining factors. The paper denotes the actual ways of children’s health preservation at the level of related ministries, departments, and educational institutions.
Schaible, Lonnie M.; Hughes, Lorine A.
Contemporary theories suggest that, due to limited access and generalized distrust, residents of disadvantaged neighborhoods are relatively unlikely to report matters to police. Although existing studies reveal few ecological differences in crime reporting, findings may be limited to victim/offense subsets represented in aggregated victimization…
Nettles, Saundra Murray
Community involvement is conceptualized as a typology of the following processes of social change: (1) conversion; (2) mobilization; (3) allocation of resources; and (4) instruction. The effects of these forms of involvement are considered in a review of 13 evaluations of programs for disadvantaged youth involving the community. (SLD)
Cathorall, Michelle L.; Xin, Huaibo; Peachey, Andrew; Bibeau, Daniel L.; Schulz, Mark; Aronson, Robert
Purpose: To examine the extent to which neighborhood disadvantage accounts for variation in blood pressure. Methods: Demographic, biometric, and self-reported data from 19,261 health screenings were used. Addresses of participants were geocoded and located within census block groups (n = 14,510, 75.3%). Three hierarchical linear models were…
Viviane Melo de Mendonça
Full Text Available It was intended to draw reflections on the subject and affectivity constitution within the theoretical and methodological approach of the socio-historical psychology, having as a field of analysis the question of ethical-political suffering in educational context and teacher’s formation. It was concluded that the challenge for education and formation of undergraduates and teachers is to propose alternatives that enable educational institutions to rethink their social practices with adolescents and youth to produce spaces of rights and respect for differences.
Randler, Christoph; Demirhan, Eda; Wüst-Ackermann, Peter; Desch, Inga H.
In science education, dissections of animals are an integral part of teaching, but they often evoke negative emotions. We aimed at reducing negative emotions (anxiety, negative affect [NA]) and increasing positive affect (PA) and self-efficacy by an experimental intervention using a predissection video to instruct students about fish dissection. We compared this treatment with another group that watched a life history video about the fish. The participants were 135 students studying to become...
Alias, Maizam; Lashari, Tahira Anwar; Abidin Akasah, Zainal; Jahaya Kesot, Mohd.
Learning in the cognitive domain is highly emphasised and has been widely investigated in engineering education. Lesser emphasis is placed on the affective dimension although the role of affects has been supported by research. The lack of understanding on learning theories and how they may be translated into classroom application of teaching and learning is one factor that contributes to this situation. This paper proposes a working framework for integrating the affective dimension of learning into engineering education that is expected to promote better learning within the cognitive domain. Four major learning theories namely behaviourism, cognitivism, socio-culturalism, and constructivism were analysed and how affects are postulated to influence cognition are identified. The affective domain constructs identified to be important are self-efficacy, attitude and locus of control. Based on the results of the analysis, a framework that integrates methodologies for achieving learning in the cognitive domain with the support of the affective dimension of learning is proposed. It is expected that integrated approach can be used as a guideline to engineering educators in designing effective and sustainable instructional material that would result in the effective engineers for future development.
Education and WHO recommendations for fruit and vegetable intake are associated with better cognitive function in a disadvantaged Brazilian elderly population: a population-based cross-sectional study.
Full Text Available Brazil has one of the fastest aging populations in the world and the incidence of cognitive impairment in the elderly is expected to increase exponentially. We examined the association between cognitive impairment and fruit and vegetable intake and associated factors in a low-income elderly population. A cross-sectional population-based study was carried out with 1849 individuals aged 65 or over living in São Paulo, Brazil. Cognitive function was assessed using the Community Screening Instrument for Dementia (CSI-D. Fruit and vegetable intake was assessed with a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ and categorized into quartiles of intake and into total daily fruit and vegetable intake using the cut-off points for the WHO recommendations (<400 grams/day or ≥ 400 grams/day. The association between cognitive impairment and each quartile of intake, and WHO recommendation levels, was evaluated in two separate multivariate logistic models. The WHO recommendations for daily intakes ≥ 400 grams/day were significantly associated with 47% decreased prevalence of cognitive impairment. An effect modification was found in both models between cognitive impairment and "years of education and physical activity" and "years of education and blood levels of HDL" So that, having 1 or more years of education and being physically active or having 1 or more years of education and levels higher than 50 mg/dl of HDL-cholesterol strongly decreased the prevalence of cognitive impairment. In this socially deprived population with very low levels of education and physical activity and fruit and vegetable intake, those who attained WHO recommendations, had 1 year or more of education and were physically active had a significantly lower prevalence of cognitive impairment. A more comprehensive understanding of the social determinants of mental health is needed to develop effective public policies in developing countries.
Loignon, Andrew; Gayton, William F; Brown, Melissa; Steinroeder, William; Johnson, Carrie
Occurrence of the home field disadvantage in professional ice hockey was examined by analyzing data on penalty shots from 1983-2004. This datum was used as it does not involve physical contact for only the player taking the penalty shot is involved in the outcome. As a result, inhibition of anxiety associated with physical contact should not occur, and diffusion of responsibility would not occur since only the shooter is involved. Analysis indicated the player who took the penalty shot did not make significantly fewer shots at home than in away games. The result did not support hypotheses about roles of physical contact and diffusion of responsibility in accounting for past failures to find the home disadvantage in professional ice hockey.
Heller, Sara B
Every day, acts of violence injure more than 6000 people in the United States. Despite decades of social science arguing that joblessness among disadvantaged youth is a key cause of violent offending, programs to remedy youth unemployment do not consistently reduce delinquency. This study tests whether summer jobs, which shift focus from remediation to prevention, can reduce crime. In a randomized controlled trial among 1634 disadvantaged high school youth in Chicago, assignment to a summer jobs program decreases violence by 43% over 16 months (3.95 fewer violent-crime arrests per 100 youth). The decline occurs largely after the 8-week intervention ends. The results suggest the promise of using low-cost, well-targeted programs to generate meaningful behavioral change, even with a problem as complex as youth violence.
Kelly, Lisa-Anne DeGregoria; Kassing, Sharon
Cultural Historical Activity Theory served as the analytical framework for the study of a professional development event for a zoo's education department, specifically designed to build understandings of "Affective Transformation," an element pertinent to the organization's strategic plan. Three key products--an Affective…
Cardinal, Bradley J.; Yan, Zi; Cardinal, Marita K.
People's feelings toward physical activity are often influenced by memories of their childhood experiences in physical education and sport. Unfortunately, many adults remember negative experiences, which may affect their desire to maintain a physically active lifestyle. A survey that asked 293 students about recollections from their childhood…
This paper offers a detailed review of the literature concerning sex differences in the learning of mathematics. It identifies cognitive, affective and educational variables which have been either shown or hypothesized to contribute to sex-related differences in mathematics learning. The author analyzes each study in detail. One important finding…
The current study aims to understand digital citizenship, based on the assumptions of Ribble (2014), by examining factors affecting participation and involvement in the Internet virtual societies among higher education students. A quantitative approach using a survey questionnaire was implemented. The participants were 174 students from the…
Nowadays, the increasing globalization and internationalization bring huge changes to business environment, which has been changed from a lot of dispersed local markets to a single economic market. These changes make businessmen have to think about their international business strategies, such as outsourcing. This article will analyze the advantages and disadvantages of outsourcing in the context of global manufacturing strategy in order to help managers handle it more effectively.
Dyhrberg, Mette Bang
Safety culture is a major issue in accident research. A recently finished ph.d.-study has evaluated the symbolic safety culture approach and found four advantages and two disadvantages. These are presented and discussed in this contribution. It is concluded that the approach can be useful...... in the planning of accident prevention activities if focus is maintained on prevention of accidents and not on changing of the safety culture....
Taymans, Juliana M
Although the exact prevalence is not determined, a noticeable subset of individuals who enroll in adult education and training programs have either diagnosed or undiagnosed specific learning disabilities (SLD). Understanding SLD is important basic information for adult educators to inform program policies as well as determine effective instructional practices. This article discusses the development of definitions of SLD and current agreement on the nature of SLD relevant to working with adults. It concludes with implications for adult education programs.
Although it has been given qualified approval by a number of philosophers of education, the so-called "therapeutic turn" in education has been the subject of criticism by several commentators on post-compulsory and adult learning over the last few years. A key feature of this alleged development in recent educational policy is said to be the…
Sinatra, G. M.
Changing students' ideas about controversial scientific issues, such as human-induced climate change, presents unique challenges for educators (Lombardi & Sinatra, 2010; Sinatra & Mason, 2008). First, climate science is complex and requires "systems thinking," or the ability to think and reason abstractly about emergent systems (Goldstone & Sakamoto, 2003). Appreciating the intricacies of complex systems and emergent processes has proven challenging for students (Chi, 2005). In addition to these challenges, there are specific misconceptions that may lead thinking astray on the issue of global climate change, such as the distinction between weather and climate (Lombardi & Sinatra, 2010). As an example, when students are asked about their views on climate change, they often recall individual storm events or very cold periods and use their personal experiences and recollections of short-term temperature fluctuations to assess whether the planet is warming. Beyond the conceptual difficulties, controversial topics offer another layer of challenge. Such topics are often embedded in complex socio-cultural and political contexts, have a high degree of uncertainty, and may be perceived by individuals as in conflict with their personal or religious beliefs (Levinson, 2006, Sinatra, Kardash, Taasoobshirazi, & Lombardi, 2011). Individuals are often committed to their own views on socio-scientific issues and this commitment may serve as a motivation to actively resist new ideas (Dole & Sinatra, 1998). Individuals may also have strong emotions associated with their misconceptions (Broughton, Pekrun, & Sinatra, 2011). Negative emotions, misconceptions, and resistance do not make a productive combination for learning. Further, teachers who find human-induced climate change implausible have been shown to hold negative emotions about having to teach about climate change (Lombardi & Sinatra, in preparation), which could affect how they present the topic to students. In this
Full Text Available Participation of at least 95% of children between the ages of 4 and the mandatory school age in high-quality preschool programs represents an important contribution to the achievement of the Europe 2020 strategy. Slovenia is not far from achieving this objective; however, if we consider participation in preschool programs from the perspective of the entire population of preschool children and the realisation of children’s rights, we note that nearly a quarter of children - among them (at least in the wider European area the most disadvantaged - have not realised the right to education. We studied the awareness of the importance of ensuring access to preschool programs for all children on a representative sample of 106 Slovenian preschool principals by means of quantitative pedagogical research. The results show a high percentage of disadvantaged children in the preschool areas and in the preschools themselves; on the other hand, only a low percentage (only one-third of preschools collect data about disadvantaged children and implement preschool programs for them; only one-fifth of preschools implement preschool programs for disadvantaged children. In order to act responsibly and enable all children the right to education, we must start devoting greater attention to identifying and including disadvantaged children in preschool programs.
Sun, Wei Yue; Chen, William
Reviews literature on prevalence, mechanisms of fetal toxicity, effects of exposure, socioeconomic factors, and social-support programs to increase awareness of the effects of prenatal exposure to cocaine. Emphasizes the need for drug education and social-support programs for disadvantaged pregnant women to prevent and control cocaine use. (EMK)
Media literacy educators talk about the importance of developing essential social skills, such as collaboration, by using video production in the classroom. Video production with disadvantaged youth can also play a role of art therapy, as students use their creativity to come to terms with traumatizing pasts. This paper offers an account of a…
Henderson, Robyn; Hirst, Elizabeth
This paper revisits a successful short-course in academic literacy that was conducted for 50 "disadvantaged" students enrolled in the first year of an education degree at an Australian regional university (see Hirst, Henderson, Allan, Bode & Kocatepe, 2004). Based on a sociocultural approach to learning and drawing on a conceptualisation of…
Kerr, Kirstin; Dyson, Alan
Community schools have long been accepted as an institutional mechanism for intervening in the relationship between poverty, poor educational outcomes, and limited life chances. At a time when public services are being retracted, and disadvantaged places are being increasingly left to struggle, community schools are poised to become more important…
Full Text Available This article presents the factors affecting the integration of information literacy in the teaching and learning processes of general education courses at an undergraduate level, where information literacy is used as a tool in the student-centered teaching approach. The research was divided into two phases: (1 The study of factors affecting at a policy level – a qualitative research method conducted through an in-depth interview of the vice president for academic affairs and the Director of the General Education Management Center, and (2 The survey of factors affecting in the teaching and learning processes, which is concluded through the questioning of lecturers of general education courses, and librarians. The qualitative data was analyzed on content, and the quantitative data was analyzed through the use of descriptive statistics, weight of score prioritization and percentage. Two major categories were found to have an impact on integrating information literacy in the teaching and learning of general education courses at an undergraduate level. (1 Six factors at a policy level, namely, institutional policy, administrative structure and system, administrators’ roles, resources and infrastructures, learning resources and supporting programs, and teacher evaluation and development. (2 There are eleven instructional factors: roles of lecturers, roles of librarians, roles of learners, knowledge and understanding of information literacy of lecturers and librarians, cooperation between librarians and lecturers, learning outcomes, teaching plans, teaching methods, teaching activities, teaching aids, and student assessment and evaluation.
... business policies. 719.272 Section 719.272 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Policies 719.272 Small disadvantaged business... subcontracting with small disadvantaged businesses and other disadvantaged enterprises based on provisions of...
Mills, Martin; McGregor, Glenda; Baroutsis, Aspa; Te Riele, Kitty; Hayes, Debra
This article considers the ways in which three alternative education sites in Australia support socially just education for their students and how injustice is addressed within these schools. The article begins with recognition of the importance of Nancy Fraser's work to understandings of social justice. It then goes on to argue that her framework…
The use of classroom blogs in higher education serves to engage and motivate students as well as to help them build a professional online profile and connect with fellow classmates. Although many studies have focused on the implementation and benefits of blogging in education, few have investigated best practices in design, which can have a…
Using role playing during physical education provides limitless opportunities for intervention and for the demonstration of personal and social qualities. The purpose of this article is to provide easy steps for implementing role playing as a strategy to teach social skills to students in the physical education setting.
Badia, Antoni; Meneses, Julio; Sigales, Carles
Introduction: The purpose of this study is to identify the main factors that influence teachers' decision-making regarding the educational use of ICT (Information and Communication Technologies) in technology-rich classrooms. Method: We collected data from 278 teachers in Catalonia (Spain) working in eight primary and secondary education schools…
García-Andrés, Concepción; Jorge Cascón, Ana Isabel; Seoane López, Maria Teresa; Pérez Martín, Rosa María; Castro Melián, Natalia; Aguirre-Jaime, Armando; Ramos Fuentes, Manuel Jesús
To obtain a valid, reliable, stable and easy to use questionnaire to be used by professionals non-trained in diabetes education that allowed them to decide priority for diabetical education to a diabetic patient. The initial aim of the study is considered to have been achieved.
Campbell, Samuel P.
This mixed-method explanatory research examined factors that influenced Jamaican Seventh-day Adventist (SDA) members to pursue higher education. It sought to investigate whether the source of the motivation is tied to the Church's general philosophy on education or to its overall programs as experienced by the membership at large. The question of…
James, Asena Muganda; Simiyu, Aggrey Mukasa; Riechi, Andrew
Learners are the key stakeholders of a school for it to be registered by the Department of Education. However the retention of these learners in Kenya's Secondary Level Education is a great challenge in Kenya. Every secondary school dropout signifies unfulfilled objective, goal and aim for the individual as well as the community at large. The…
Byrd, Alex Preston; Anderson, Ryan G.; Paulsen, Thomas H.
Secondary agricultural education teachers were surveyed to examine if a relationship existed between the physical attributes of agricultural mechanics laboratories and agricultural education teachers' enjoyment of teaching agricultural mechanics. Teachers also indicated their competence to teach courses other than agricultural mechanics within the…
Webber, Douglas A.; Ehrenberg, Ronald G.
Rates of tuition increases in both private and public higher education that continually exceed inflation, coupled with the fact that the United States no longer leads the world in terms of the fraction of young adults who have college degrees, have focused attention on why costs keep increasing in higher education and what categories of higher…
随着信息化的发展，人类社会已步入信息化时代，信息化的产物是互联网，互联网的产生和发展改变着人们的生活方式和思维方式。在网络环境下开展高校思想政治教育，既有机遇同时也面临着挑战。%With the development of information technology, the human society has entered the information age, information is the product of the Internet, the emergence and development of Internet has changed people's life style and thinking mode. To carry out ideological and political education in the network environment, there are both opportunities and challenges.
Kamimura, Akiko; Nourian, Maziar M; Jess, Allison; Chernenko, Alla; Assasnik, Nushean; Ashby, Jeanie
Lifestyle interventions have shown to be effective in improving health status, health behaviors, and self-efficacy. However, recruiting participants to health education programs and ensuring the continuity of health education for underserved populations is often challenging. The goals of this study are: to describe the attendance of health education programs; to identify stages of change to a healthy lifestyle; to determine cues to action; and to specify factors affecting perceived benefits and barriers to healthy food choices and physical activity among uninsured primary care patients. Uninsured primary care patients utilizing a free clinic (N=621) completed a self-administered survey from September to December of 2015. US born English speakers, non-US born English speakers, and Spanish speakers reported different kinds of cues to action in attending health education programs. While self-efficacy increases perceived benefits and decreases perceived barriers for physical activity, it increases both perceived benefits and perceived barriers for healthy food choices. The participants who had attended health education programs did not believe that there were benefits for healthy food choices and physical activity. This study adds to the body of literature on health education for underserved populations.
Gussow, Joan Dye
During the 1960's a growing body of experimental evidence suggesting that early malnutrition could affect the development and the functioning of the brain was translated into a concern that nutritional deprivation might be producing permanent mental retardation among "disadvantaged" children. The purpose of this paper is to show, through a review…
Full Text Available BACKGROUND The paper engages in the ongoing debate regarding the determinants of child nutrition in developing countries and stresses the potential contribution of the education of household members other than the child's parents. OBJECTIVE The aim of the paper is threefold: (1 to verify whether there is evidence of the key role of parents' education for children's nutrition; (2 to explore the possible presence of the externalities generated by the literacy of household members different from the child's parents; (3 to test whether there is difference in the influence of these variables on the two indicators of child nutrition, child height-for-age and weight-for-age. METHODS The determinants of child nutrition were analyzed by estimating a series of econometric models through OLS regressions applied on data from the 2003 DHS survey in Mozambique. By means of seemingly unrelated regression together with formal testing we compared the impact of the covariates on the two outcomes. RESULTS In line with previous studies, we find that one year of mother's education increases their children's height-for-age and weight-for-age z-scores by nearly 0.025 and 0.015. The presence of another literate household member has a significant, though limited, effect on child height while it has no influence on child weight. Lastly, there is no statistically significant difference in the effect of parents' education on the two indicators while our measure of proximate literacy has a significantly larger impact on child height. CONCLUSIONS These findings should orient policy-makers toward income-augmenting and education-enhancing policies: the importance of non-parents' literacy opens a further space for investment in education.
Harding, David J
The literature on neighborhood effects on schooling theorizes that neighborhood cultural context is an important mechanism generating such effects. However, explanations that rely on subcultural theories, such as oppositional culture, have met with considerable criticism on empirical grounds, and no alternative account of the cultural context of disadvantaged neighborhoods has been developed in the education literature. This study develops a new account of the cultural context of schooling decisions in disadvantaged neighborhoods based on the concept of cultural heterogeneity, defined as the presence of a wide array of competing and conflicting cultural models. It applies this concept to neighborhood effects on college enrollment. Using survey data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study shows that disadvantaged neighborhoods exhibit greater heterogeneity in college goals and that adolescents in more heterogeneous neighborhoods are less likely to act in concert with the college goals that they articulate.
Russell, Abigail Emma; Ford, Tamsin; Williams, Rebecca; Russell, Ginny
This systematic review examines associations between parental socioeconomic disadvantage and childhood attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Socioeconomic status (SES) was measured by parental income, education, occupation and marital status. Results were mixed by measure of SES with no one aspect being differentially related to ADHD. 42 studies were included in the review, of which 35 found a significant univariate association between socioeconomic disadvantage and ADHD. Meta-analyses of dimensions of SES and their association with ADHD indicate that children in families of low SES are on average 1.85-2.21 more likely to have ADHD than their peers in high SES families. In spite of substantial between-study heterogeneity, there is evidence for an association between socioeconomic disadvantage and risk of ADHD measured in different ways. This is likely mediated by factors linked to low SES such as parental mental health and maternal smoking during pregnancy.
The importance of early childhood education is already in people’s cognitive, emotional education plays a very important role on the development of children in the future, is an important factor to promote the comprehensive development of children. The emotional education significance, goal and content are discussed. And puts forward some suggestions on the imple mentation of emotional education.%儿童早期教育的重要意义早已被人们认知，情感教育对幼儿未来的发展有着极为重要的作用，是促进幼儿全面发展的重要因素。对幼儿情感教育的意义、目标与内容进行了探讨，并对幼儿情感教育的实施提出了一些建议。
Chiner, Esther; Cardona, Maria Cristina
This study examined regular education teachers' perceptions of inclusion in elementary and secondary schools in Spain and how these perceptions may differ depending on teaching experience, skills, and the availability of resources and supports. Stratified random sampling procedures were used to draw a representative sample of 336 general…
Ng, Linda; Eley, Robert; Tuckett, Anthony
The aim of this study was to explore the factors influencing registered nurses' pursuit of postgraduate education in specialty nursing practice in Australia. Despite the increased requirement for postgraduate education for advanced practice, little has been reported on the contributory factors involved in the decision to undertake further education. The Nurses' Attitudes Towards Postgraduate Education instrument was administered to 1632 registered nurses from the Nurses and Midwives e-Cohort Study across Australia, with a response rate of 35.9% (n = 568). Data reduction techniques using principal component analysis with varimax rotation were used. The analysis identified a three-factor solution for 14 items, accounting for 52.5% of the variance of the scale: "facilitators," "professional recognition," and "inhibiting factors." Facilitators of postgraduate education accounted for 28.5% of the variance, including: (i) improves knowledge; (ii) increases nurses' confidence in clinical decision-making; (iii) enhances nurses' careers; (iv) improves critical thinking; (v) improves nurses' clinical skill; and (vi) increased job satisfaction. This new instrument has potential clinical and research applications to support registered nurses' pursuit of postgraduate education.
Christoffersen, Mogens; Soothill, Keith; Francis, Brian
- do young men, convicted of a lethal violent crime (either actual or potential), have the same kind of risk factors related to social disadvantage as other first-time convicted violent offenders (N=1,849) and first-time attempted suicides or completed suicides (N=476)? The paper describes three...... separate analyses of the total 1966 birth cohort followed through a 13-year-period from age 15 to 27 (N=43,403). In each case the discrete-time Cox-model is used to analyse association between the relatively rare response events and the relatively rare stress factors. Results suggest that all three groups...... behaviour but a less strong predictor of suicidal behaviour. In contrast, being battered and being neglected during childhood more strongly predict later suicidal behaviour than violent behaviour. The implications for prevention are considered....
Stender, Marie; Bech-Danielsen, Claus
Disadvantaged social housing areas in Denmark are currently subject to more thorough physical refurbishments, aiming to overcome the isolated character of the housing estates. The ambition is to attract new users and residents by opening up the borders of the area and establish attractive, new...... penthouse flats, new urban functions within the area or spectacular new public spaces near it. In this paper the social impact of such transformations are analysed and discussed based on case-studies in 3 Danish areas. The analysis shows that especially everyday-route strategies adding new public functions...... within the area can pave can the way for integration with the surroundings. The applicability of such strategies is however highly dependent on context, location and existing image. Social distance may sustain though physical borders are removed, yet, the negative image of the areas can in itself call...
MartÍn, Estefanía; Hernán-Losada, Isidoro; Haya, Pablo A.
In the educational context, there is an increasing interest in learning networks. Recommender systems (RSs) can play an important role in achieving educational objectives. Although we can find many papers focused on recommendation techniques and algorithms, in general, less attention has been dedicated to social factors that influence the recommendation process. This process could be improved if we had a deeper understanding of the social factors that influence the quality or validity of a suggestion made by the RS. This work elucidates and analyses the social factors that influence the design and decision-making process of RSs. We conducted a survey in which 126 undergraduate students were asked to extract which are the main factors for improving suggestions when they are interacting with an Online Social Network (OSN) or in an Educational Social Network (ESN). The results show that different factors have to be considered depending on the type of network.
Moslehi, Shandiz; Atefimanesh, Pezhman; Sarabi Asiabar, Ali; Ahmadzadeh, Nahal; Kafaeimehr, Mohamadhosein; Emamgholizadeh, Saeid
Background: There is an increasing trend of outsourcing public departments. Teaching hospitals also outsourced some of their departments to private sectors. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the educational status of students in public and outsourced departments of teaching hospitals affiliated to Iran University of Medical Sciences. Methods: This study was conducted in six teaching hospitals of Iran University of Medical Sciences, which had public and outsourced teaching departments in 2015. One hundred fifty students from the departments of radiology, physiotherapy and laboratory participated in this study and their perceptions about their educational status were assessed. A valid and reliable questionnaire was used; participation in the study was voluntary. Descriptive statistics such as mean (SD), t-test and Kolmogorov-Smirnov were used. Results: No difference was detected between the educational status of students in public and outsourced departments of radiology, physiotherapy and laboratory (p>0.05). Conclusion: Based on the students’ perception, the private sectors could maintain the educational level of the teaching departments similar to the public departments. It is recommended to involve all the stakeholders such as hospital administrators, academic staff and students in the decision- making process when changes in teaching environments are being considered. PMID:27683645
Bunch, J. C.; Robinson, J. Shane; Edwards, M. Craig; Antonenko, Pavlo D.
The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of the lecture and discussion teaching methods and digital game-based learning on student achievement in agriculture and mathematics regarding a unit on swine diseases in animal science courses offered through secondary agricultural education programs in Oklahoma. Three research questions…
Caspi, Avner; Gorsky, Paul
This article examines the impact of several variables on media choice among 51 distance education course coordinators at the Open University of Israel. Hypotheses were drawn from Media Richness Theory (Daft & Lengel, 1984), Social Influence Theory (Fulk, 1993), Media Symbolism (Trevino, Lengel & Daft, 1987), and Experience Account (King & Xia,…
Amsler, Sarah S.
While the need for humanising education is pressing in neoliberal societies, the conditions for its possibility in formal institutions have become particularly cramped. A constellation of factors--the strength of neoliberal ideologies, the corporatisation of universities, the conflation of human freedom with consumer satisfaction and a wider…
Mutindi, Koech Zipporah; Chepngeno, Kabwos Rebecca; Jeruto, Beatrice
Childhood education is crucial in the life of a child because it lays the foundation of intellectual and physical development. Concerns have been raised over the state of the ECDE programmes with regard to the negative teacher attitudes towards selection and use of instructional resources due to low remuneration, lack of time and demotivation. The…
Shelley, Janine Onffroy
Reports the results of electronic mail instruction given to K-12 foreign-language teachers during workshops. Factors found to influence workshop participants' adoption of email included training, the need to keep up with educational technology trends, availability of an easy-to-use system, hands-on experience, school support, and individual…
Rasheed, Muhammad Imran; Humayon, Asad Afzal; Awan, Usama; Ahmed, Affan ud Din
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore/investigate various issues of teachers ' motivation in public sector Higher Educational Institutions of Pakistan. Design/methodology/approach: This is an exploratory research where surveys have been conducted in the well known public sector Universities of Pakistan; primary data have been collected…
PODESTA, EDWARD A.
A PILOT STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO DEVELOP A DESCRIPTIVE INVENTORY OF VOCATIONAL EDUCATION INSTRUCTORS AND TO EVALUATE PRELIMINARY DATA COLLECTION PROCEDURES FOR A REGIONAL OR NATIONAL AUDIT. A QUESTIONNAIRE, DISTRIBUTED TO ALL PUBLIC HIGH SCHOOL AND JUNIOR COLLEGE INSTRUCTORS IN 3,050 INSTITUTIONS, PRODUCED A 55.3 PERCENT RESPONSE RATE. SURVEY…
Based on Social Cognitive Carier Theory (SCCT) (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994, 2002), this study tested the effects of mathematics teacher candidates' self-efficacy in, outcome expectations from, and interest in CAME on their intentions to integrate Computer-Assisted Mathematics Education (CAME). While mathematics teacher candidates' outcome…
Milliron, Brandy-Joe; Woolf, Kathleen; Appelhans, Bradley M.
Objective: This study tested the efficacy of a multicomponent supermarket point-of-purchase intervention featuring in-person nutrition education on the nutrient composition of food purchases. Design: The design was a randomized trial comparing the intervention with usual care (no treatment). Setting and Participants: A supermarket in a…
Eaton, Sarah Elaine; Goddard, J. Tim
This paper examines the theory and practice of the commercialization of education in Canada, using comparative examples from the United States and Australia. Critical theory provides the framework for the study. From the broad focus of business practice, the examination is narrowed down to marketing, and even further to branding, at all levels,…
Sahin, Ertugrul; Barut, Yasar; Ersanli, Ercüment
Although the literature on self-esteem has a long and prolific history in Turkey regarding which demographics may influence the self-esteem of adolescents. The research findings are intricate and undermine the need of further research in Turkey. This cross-sectional study re-examined the effects of age, grade level and education level of a mother…
Bahçekapili, Ekrem; Bahçekapili, Tugba; Fis Erümit, Semra; Göktas, Yüksel; Sözbilir, Mustafa
Research problems in a scientific research are formed after a certain process. This process starts with defining a research topic and transforms into a specific research problem or hypothesis. The aim of this study was to examine the way educational technology researchers identify their research problems. To this end, sources that educational…
<正>Introduction The debate on globalisation takes place in many different areas,such as sociology,cultural studies,economics,political science and education.The word of‘globalisation’points out changes and dynamism over time.It refers to a step or to a series
Brookes, Marilyn; Huisman, Jeroen
The Bologna Process is almost at its end and European policy-makers currently reflect on appropriate objectives and policies for the next decade. Given that the Bologna Process is generally seen as an example of unprecedented change in European higher education and that the major overarching objective of the Process was to increase the…
Waters, Alan; Vilches, Ma. Luz C.
A number of recent studies, especially within the East Asian region, have chronicled the problems involved in successful implementation of the English language teaching component of large-scale, system-wide educational innovations. This paper reports on the findings of research into the implementation, in both general and ELT-related terms, of…
Staples, William H.; Killian, Clyde B.
A survey was sent to every skilled nursing home (N = 495) in Indiana regarding the demographics, education, and whether the severity of dementia impacts the attitudes of people in physical therapy practice. Physical therapists (PTs) and physical therapist assistants (PTAs) practicing in nursing homes spend considerable time (44.0%) working with…
Opdenakker, M.C.; van Damme, J
This study examined effects of school context, student composition and school leadership on school practice and outcomes in secondary education in Flanders. The study reveals that relations between school characteristics do exist and that it is possible to explain an important part of the difference
Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this paper was to examine leadership practices in effective schools located in economically disadvantaged areas of three Canadian provinces: Ontario, Québec, and New Brunswick. Research Design. Our study was conducted in five successful schools selected on the basis of student outcomes on province-wide standardized exams, as well as on some risk factors such as rural area, low socioeconomic level, and proportion of Francophones (Ontario and New Brunswick. To increase the study’s validity, we used triangulation and various data sources: (1 individual interviews; (2 observation of school principals; (3 field documentation; (4 student essays; (5 internal school documents such as mission statement, rules, and directives. Participants. Participants included Department of Education heads and school board administrators, school principals and vice principals, teachers, school counsellors, educational psychologists, parent school board members, and students. Findings. Results show that leadership practices in effective schools can be grouped together around five dimensions: establishing goals and expectations; strategic resourcing; curriculum planning, coordination, and evaluation; promoting and participating in teacher supervision and development; ensuring order and support.
Heisel, Marsel A.
This study aimed to investigate how 132 poor, urban, elderly black persons engage in formal and informal learning activities and the relation of such activities to educational histories and current life satisfaction. Findings show that the population is involved in purposeful learning activities and is motivated to pursue educational interests.…
Dr. Sudhir Pathak
Full Text Available Cloud Computing Technology is perceived by many as a new asset of Information technology for the IT companies, educational institutions, government sectors, etc. In the ever fast growing economy apart from the challenges faced due to recession, the educational institutes find this a big hurdle as to how to provide necessary Information technology support for educational activities and research areas. Cloud Computing, the latest buzzword in IT sector, may come to the rescue, as it can provide an easy and inexpensive access to the state of the art IT technology, software and its applications. Cloud computing is a recent concept that is still evolving across the information technology industry and academia. Cloud computing is Internet (cloud based development and use of computer technology whereby dynamically scalable and often virtualized resources are provided as a service over the Internet. The main aims & Objectives of this research paper is to study the factors which affect the adoption of Cloud Computing Technology in a technical educational institutions, a case study of Engineering colleges in Meerut city(UP.. Questionnaire was used a data collection tool and the results were analyzed by SPSS & R program for statistical analysis
Bredtmann, Julia; Crede, Carsten J; Otten, Sebastian
This paper evaluates the effectiveness of the introduction of a Writing Center at a university, which aims at improving students' scientific writing abilities. In order to deal with the presumed limited utility of student feedback surveys for evaluating the effectiveness of educational programs, we use students' actual learning outcomes as our quality measure. Based on this objective measure, different statistical evaluation methods established in the labor market treatment literature are applied. We present and discuss the validity of these methods to evaluate educational programs and compare the results of these approaches to implications obtained using corresponding student surveys. Although almost all students reported the writing courses to be helpful, we find no significant effect of course participation on students' grades. This result highlights the need for institutions not to rely solely on student course evaluations for evidence-based policy decisions.
Gayton, William F; Steinroeder, William; Bonnica, Corrine; Loignon, Andrew C
Occurrence of the home disadvantage in Davis Cup tennis matches was examined by analyzing the outcome of Davis Cup finals matches from 1900 to 2007. There was no significant home disadvantage when Matches 1 and 2 were compared with Matches 4 and 5. However, there was a significant home disadvantage when Matches 1 and 2 were compared with Match 5. These findings are compared with those from earlier studies in which data from professional basketball and baseball were examined.
While the challenge to retain highly competent teachers affects all schools, the crisis is critical in urban districts, which historically suffer from high teacher turnover (Ingersoll, 2004). This high turnover is especially problematic in the content areas of science (Ingersoll & Perda, 2010). Through ethnographic case studies the first year…
This paper was intended to be read to a class or group of people who will in turn respond to the directions given in the paper. It is an attempt to merge the affective and cognitive experiences of literature in order to provide a more meaningful experience while studying J.R.R. Tolkien's trilogy, "The Lord of the Rings." The directions…
Danvers, Emily Clair
Critical thinking is often understood as a set of tangible, transferrable and measurable skills and competencies. Yet, it is also an intensely affective experience that is complex, contingent and contextualised. Using interview, focus group and observation data conducted with 15 first-year undergraduate social science students at a UK…
Considers whether a socio-affective approach can be effective in promoting international understanding among pupils in primary grades and suggests learning activities which reinforce personal fulfillment, experience sharing, and empathy. Activities involve students in investigation of group social life, alternative ways of comprehending,…
Kenan, Thuraya; Pislaru, Crinela; Othman, Aisha; Elzawi, A.
This paper analyses the social impact and cultural issues which affect the e-learning performance in Libyan\\ud Higher Education institutes (HEIs). It is described the development and implementation of e-learning systems in\\ud various HEIs with the emphasis on the digital gap in Libya and barriers to successful e-learning implementation in\\ud these institutions. Also the social impact of using e-learning packages and Internet by young people in Libya is\\ud studied and a SWOT analysis of ICT an...
Cinar, Dede Nursan
A powerful reflex of the infant in the weeks following birth is sucking. Breastfed babies benefit from both the nutrition in mother's milk and the satisfaction of their sucking instinct. Babies that can not be breastfed due to various reasons may satisfy their sucking instinct by using pacifiers. Pacifier use and digit sucking are believed to be harmless habits. In many places of the world, and especially in developing countries, pacifier use in early childhood is very common. It is said that pacifier use eases the baby and satisfies its sucking instinct. It has been reported in several studies that pacifier use reduces the risk of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). The most important risks of this non-nutritive sucking habit are failure of breastfeeding, dental deformities, recurrent acute otitis media, and the possibility of accidents. The development of latex allergy, tooth decay, oral ulcers and sleep disorders are other problems encountered with pacifier use. Parents may hesitate to use pacifiers for their babies and consult nurses or midwives on this issue. In this article, the advantages and disadvantages of pacifier use are discussed with the aim of providing guidance to nurses and midwives working in the field of pediatrics and infant health.
Kelly, Lisa-Anne DeGregoria; Kassing, Sharon
Cultural Historical Activity Theory served as the analytical framework for the study of a professional development event for a zoo's education department, specifically designed to build understandings of "Affective Transformation," an element pertinent to the organization's strategic plan. Three key products—an Affective Transformation model, scaffolding schematic, and definition, "providing emotional experiences for visitors which increase caring for animals and nature that may lead to zoo-related nature-protective behaviors"—emerged as a result of ongoing deliberation among professional development community members over two days. Participants, including both management- and non-management-level staff, as well as an expert facilitator, contributed complementary expertise to the process. The discussions, therefore, crossed both vertical and horizontal layers of authority. Moreover, leadership was distributed across these levels in the development of these products. Members used pre-existing resources, as well as tools created in the course of the professional development event. Interactions among participants and resources were instrumental in Affective Transformation product development. Examination of one zoo's construction of understanding of affective goals, therefore, may offer insights to other organizations with similar aspirations.
Susana Rodríguez; Bibiana Regueiro; Rebeca Blas; Antonio Valle; Isabel Piñeiro; Rebeca Cerezo
During the past few decades, researchers have proposed that teacher self-efficacy influences student achievement and motivation. The main aim of this work is to identify possible teacher self-efficacy profiles and to determine possible differences in some affective-motivational variables of students. 95 teachers and 1924 students from five Spanish public Universities took part in this study. Using cluster analysis, three distinctive profiles of teachers were generated: high self-efficacy, med...
The total number of children affected by divorce has more than tripled since 1960, even though the total number of children has declined from the 1970s to the 1980s. In 1988 female-headed households with children and no spouse present constituted 44.7 percent of all families at or below the poverty level. The purpose of this paper is to show that…
Lloro-Bidart, Teresa Katrina
Drawing on 14 months of ethnographic fieldwork at the Aquarium of the Pacific and Michel Foucault's governmentality and biopolitics as an overarching theoretical frame, this dissertation engages in a political ecological analysis to explore how the institution, its staff, and nonhumans work to produce various sorts of knowledge about the environment. I argue that the educative assemblages imagined and formed there, which are intimately linked to institutional fiscal survivability, politically deploy nonhuman animals in the Aquarium's "edutainment" project. Through the use of storytelling as a pedagogical tool to entertain, invoke compassion, and convey science to the public, staff encourage guests to have tactile, auditory, and visual encounters with live ocean creatures in order to construct a natural world worthy of being saved, due to its instrumental and intrinsic value. I show how this public conservation re-education project attempts to highlight the voices of the animals being represented there, but not necessarily the voices of the animals actually residing there. I also draw out the implications of these representative practices and argue that the institution ought to utilize staff-nonhuman relationships, which are grounded in care and empathy, as a framework for developing visitor-nonhuman relationships.
Sancar Tokmak, Hatice; Ozgelen, Sinan
This case study aimed to examine early childhood education (ECE) pre-service teachers' perception on the factors affecting integration of educational computer games to their instruction in two areas: selecting and redesigning. Twenty-six ECE pre-service teachers participated in the study. The data was collected through open-ended…
Carney, Clarke G.
The investigation described in this study was a two part procedure which attempted to answer the general question: "Do the constructs of indecision and indecisiveness adequately describe disadvantaged individuals who experience difficulties in making a career decision?" The sampling was from a population of disadvantaged high school and college…
... generally), not absolute deprivation. People who own successful businesses are more affluent, by and large... Office of the Secretary 49 CFR Part 26 RIN 2105-AD75 Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program... administration of the Disadvantaged Business Enterprise (DBE) program by increasing accountability for...
Davis, Nanette J.
This article identifies typical life course situations that women experience, which contribute to a cycle of discrimination or a recurrence of disadvantages simply because of their sex, race, or age. Although men suffer social, health, psychological, and economic disadvantages as they age, this article focuses primarily on women as a more deprived…
... businesses. 706.302-71 Section 706.302-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL... Small disadvantaged businesses. (a) Authority. (1) Citations: Sec. 579, Pub. L. 101-167 (Fiscal Year (FY... business concerns owned and controlled by socially and economically disadvantaged individuals...
Alvaro Echeverri, Juan; Enokakuiodo Román-Jitdutjaaño, Oscar
This letter addresses the indigenous discourse on a set of plant species used by the Witoto Indians of Northwest Amazonia to extract ash or vegetable salt, obtained from the combustion of the tissues of vegetable species, filtering of the ashes, and desiccation of the resulting brine. It aims to demonstrate how the study of the human condition is carried out through a reading of natural entities. The method employed is the indexical analysis of a discourse uttered by the elder Enokakuiodo in the Witoto language from 1995 to 1998, in a verbal genre called rafue, one of several genres of the ‘language of the yard of coca’. The species used to extract ash salt are conceived of as coming from the body of the Creator and as an image of the human body. The rafue of salt performs, in words and gestures, a narrative of human affects and capacities by reading ecological, biological, cultural and linguistic indices from a set of plant species. This discourse on plant species is a discourse on the control and management of bodily affects and capacities, represented as ash salts, that are lessons about sexual development which the Creator left for humanity as a guide—a ‘sexual education’.
Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Harville, Emily Wheeler; Xie, Yiqiong
To study the relationship between neighborhood demographic characteristics (disadvantage, racial concentration) and the birthweight of infants born to adolescent mothers, potentially as mediated by smoking, prenatal care use, or perceptions of neighborhood safety. Data from Waves I and IV of the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health were analyzed. Birthweight (continuous) and low birthweight (<2.5 kg) of singleton infants born to non-Hispanic Black and non-Hispanic White adolescent mothers (<20 years) after Wave I were examined as outcomes. Neighborhood demographic characteristics included Census Block Group socioeconomic disadvantage and Black racial concentration. Possible mediators (smoking during pregnancy, early initiation of prenatal care, and perceptions of safety) were also examined. Controls for adolescent baseline age, age at pregnancy, body mass index (BMI) and parental education were included. Analyses were run stratified on race. Baseline continuous birthweight, BMI and neighborhood demographics varied significantly between non-Hispanic Black and White adolescent mothers, with Black adolescent mothers evidencing lower birthweight and higher BMI, neighborhood disadvantage and Black racial concentration. In multivariable analyses among Black adolescent mothers, Black racial concentration was positively associated with birthweight, and negatively associated with low birthweight; no mediators were supported. Neighborhood disadvantage and Black racial concentration were unassociated with birthweight outcomes among White adolescent mothers. Infants born to Black adolescent mothers evidenced higher birthweight with increasing Black neighborhood concentration. Further exploration of mechanisms by which Black racial concentration may positively impact birthweight is warranted.
Bharati P; Pal M; Bharati S
Objective:The aim of the paper is to see how educational and working status of the parents affect the nutri-tional and immunization status of preschool children in India.Methods:We have used data of more than 24 000 preschool children spread over different states in India.The data were collected by National Family Health Survey (NFHS-2)in 1998-99.For assessing the nutritional status,only the Z-scores of weight-for-height (WHZ)have been computed and for immunization status,it has been seen whether BCG,DPT3,Poli-o3 and measles have been administered.Children who fall below -2SD(-3SD)from median are considered to be moderately (severely)malnourished.Results:According to the NFHS-2 data,70% of children are vac-cinated by BCG,50% receive the full course of DPT,54% get all the three dozes of polio and only 42% are protected from measles by vaccination in India.The percentages of moderately and severely wasted children in India are 12.1 and 2.8,respectively.There is a marked regional variation of these percentages.Bivariate and multivariate analysis clearly points to the need of educational status of mothers rather than fathers for proper nu-tritional and immunization status of preschool children.Parents'occupation and working status also have some effect,but not so pronounced as parents'education.Conclusion:The Indian preschool children need particu-lar attention for high risk of wasting and low immunization.The prevalence of malnutrition can be arrested more by improving the mother's education level rather than their fathers and by raising the standard of living of their house-holds.
Affective education plays a significant role in the English learning of the training school students. This paper reveals that English teaching of training school ignores the effect of the affective factors and stresses the importance of CALP one-sidedly. The author aims to illustrate how the English teachers of the training schools stimulate students' motivation, enthusiasm and confidence to fulfill the combination of knowledge and affection and to establish a good working relationship between teachers and students.%情感教育是影响高职学生英语学习的一个重要因素.本文认为,高职英语教学长期忽视了这一因素的作用,片面强调语言认知能力的培养.在本文中,作者从多方面系统、全面地阐述了高职英语教学应如何“以情促知”,激发学生的学生动机、兴趣和信心,创建良好的师生关系,以实现高职英语教学的知情结合.
Shaver, Debra M.; Dornbusch, Sanford M.
This paper presents findings of a study that investigated the extent to which homeless children in the United States receive the "free and appropriate education" to which they are entitled. Data were collected through several surveys conducted in two San Francisco Bay Area counties: (1) surveys of parents in homeless shelters with 313…
Hossain, Farhana; Terwelp, Emily
In the past four decades, profound changes in the U.S. economy--including falling wages, widening inequality, and the polarization of jobs at the top and bottom of the education and wage distributions--have had dramatic implications for the labor-market fortunes of young adults. Only about half of young people ages 16 to 24 held jobs in 2014, and…
Agus Salim Nuzaihan Aras
Full Text Available The issue of government building defect is keeping on reporting in the media and arising since 2007. These issues of building defects, maintenance and management have existing and it is deliberated up to the parliament level. The government keep continue increased the maintenance allowance in National Budgetary in every year. However, the building disasters and failures keep going develop their number of cases in Malaysia. Most of the issues are related with a weak maintenance management and faulty in design. This reflects to a poorly building condition, create discomfort and danger environment to the building users. Besides, it will result to a low quality building condition and reflect to a weak building maintenance management. Building defects arise through inappropriate or poor design, specification, construction and it will give an impact to maintenance management itself . Errors in the design of the building are being debated and becoming a reason of major factor in building defect reproduction . Thus, this issue will discover the major cause in building design failure that develop the building defects and verify the impact of design defects towards building maintenance management. The study involved with the public higher education institution in Malaysia focusing on main campuses and the distribution of questionnaire to the facility and maintenance management department. This research is aimed to produce a better understanding on the impact of building design failure towards the institution facilities’ condition.
Sunish Kumar O S
Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to suggest a model for improving and retaining the highly qualified teachers in higher technical education. There are numerous researches going on all over the world regarding the key quality factors which are directly linked with teacher’s performance and the methods to improve them. Whatever the methods and measures, the teacher’s active participation and dedication is very important to achieve these objectives. A detailed questionnaire was distributed to highly qualified and experienced teachers who are working in engineering colleges for more than five years. Since the variables in this study are quality factors, the collected data is analyzed using the fuzzy logic and inference is drawn for getting more accurate results compared to probability study of the same case. Based on the results obtained from fuzzy inference system, a new model called Adaptive Performance-Incentive-Development (PID control system for improving the quality as well as retaining the highly qualified teachers in the teaching profession is created.
Al Jazairy, Yousra H; Halawany, Hassan Suliman; Hussainan, Nawaf Al; Maflehi, Nassr Al; Abraham, Nimmi Biju; Jacob, Vimal
A disparity exists in the educational qualifications of dental assistants working in various public and private institutions in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of professional and personal characteristics on job satisfaction among dental assistants. A cross-sectional survey was performed among dental assistants using a 24-item self-administered questionnaire. Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between overall job satisfaction and other variables. The overall response rate was 72.1%. Factor analysis suggested that five underlying factors were related to job satisfaction. The mean score for overall job satisfaction was 3.86 (satisfied) out of 5. Among the work environment factors, the highest mean score, 4.26 (satisfied), was obtained for quality of service, and the lowest mean score, 2.78 (neutral), was obtained for the perception of income. The income and general prospects of the profession was significantly associated with overall job satisfaction. This study suggests that for dental assistants, professional and personal life, quality of service, perception of income and prestige and self-respect are important factors for job satisfaction. Despite differences in professional formation standards, in general, the study participants were considerably satisfied with their jobs.
Policies and programs to address higher education disadvantage reveal four distinct approaches, each revealing certain assumptions about the nature of educational disadvantage. These are: creating mass higher education systems; redistributing or allocating certain places to disadvantaged students; changing the cultural practices of institutions;…
Handley, Elizabeth D.; Rogosch, Fred A.; Guild, Danielle J.; Cicchetti, Dante
The ecological-transactional model proposes that nested contexts interact to influence development. From this perspective, child maltreatment represents an individual-level risk factor posited to interact with numerous other nested contextual levels, such as the neighborhood environment, to affect development. The aim of this study was to investigate whether adolescents with maltreatment histories represent a vulnerable group for whom disadvantaged neighborhoods confer risk for substance use ...
Handley, Elizabeth D; Rogosch, Fred A; Guild, Danielle J; Cicchetti, Dante
The ecological-transactional model proposes that nested contexts interact to influence development. From this perspective, child maltreatment represents an individual-level risk factor posited to interact with numerous other nested contextual levels, such as the neighborhood environment, to affect development. The aim of this study was to investigate whether adolescents with maltreatment histories represent a vulnerable group for whom disadvantaged neighborhoods confer risk for substance use disorders. Participants were 411 adolescents (age 15-18; mean age = 16.24) from an investigation of the developmental sequelae of childhood maltreatment. Multiple-group structural equation models, controlling for family-level socioeconomic status, indicated that neighborhood disadvantage was associated with more marijuana-dependence symptoms among maltreated but not among non-maltreated adolescents. Moreover, among maltreated adolescents, those who experienced multiple subtypes of maltreatment were at greatest risk for problematic marijuana use in the context of neighborhood disadvantage. Interestingly, the direct effect of neighborhood disadvantage, but not the interaction with maltreatment, was related to adolescent alcohol-dependence symptoms. Results highlight the importance of considering multiple levels of influence when examining risk associated with child maltreatment.
Full Text Available During the past few decades, researchers have proposed that teacher self-efficacy influences student achievement and motivation. The main aim of this work is to identify possible teacher self-efficacy profiles and to determine possible differences in some affective-motivational variables of students. 95 teachers and 1924 students from five Spanish public Universities took part in this study. Using cluster analysis, three distinctive profiles of teachers were generated: high self-efficacy, medium self-efficacy, and low self-efficacy. ANOVA results suggest that teachers with intermediate self-efficacy perception have more learning-oriented students than teachers with high self-efficacy. Students of teachers who are overconfident of their teaching capacity seem to engage less in studying to learn, they are more indifferent to the subjects, and they value the contents of the subject less. These students could also be less confident about the results of their efforts, showing a low perception of self-efficacy, greater academic work avoidance, and more anxiety than students of teachers with a moderate perception of self-efficacy. The results are discussed in light of the hypothesis of overconfidence.
Does Early Childhood Teacher Education Affect Students' Cognitive Orientations? The Effect of Different Education Tracks in Teacher Education on Prospective Early Childhood Teachers' Cognitive Orientations in Germany
Mischo, Christoph; Wahl, Stefan; Strohmer, Janina; Wolf, Carina
Early childhood teachers may differ regarding the knowledge base they use when making professional decisions. In this study two orientations are distinguished: the orientation towards scientific knowledge vs. the orientation towards intuition and subjective experience. As different tracks in early childhood teacher education qualify for…
The Advantages and Disadvantages of China’s Vocational Education Research--Based on the Statistical Analysis of the Awarded Winning Items of The Third Vocational and Technical Education Scientific Research Achievement Awarding Activities%我国职业教育科研的优势与短板--基于三届职业技术教育科学研究成果奖获奖项目的统计分析
2006年至2015年，三届“职业技术教育科学研究成果奖”记录了中国职业教育科研的发展脉络。对这些具有中国特色、中国风格和中国气派的科研成果进行梳理，能够从一个侧面看出10年来我国职业教育研究形成的优势与存在的短板。从区域角度来看，职业教育科研成果奖的覆盖面虽然较广，但区域间的获奖差距还比较明显；从机构角度来看，获奖机构虽多，但机构类型间和机构间的差距较大；从研究方向来看，获奖成果的研究方向较为集中，某些研究领域还存在盲点；从研究类型来看，获奖成果中基础研究占比较大，应用研究还不足。%From 2006 to 2015, three “vocational and technical education scientific research achievement awarding activities” recorded the development of China’s vocational education scientific research. By combinging those scientific research achievements with Chinese characteristics, Chinese style and Chinese manner, the advantages and disadvantages of vocational education research in China can be found from one side in 10 years. Seeing from the regional perspective, although the coverage of vocational education scientific research achievement are more widely, but the award-winning gap between regions is obvious; seeing from the institutional perspective, the award-winning institutions is more, but the gaps between institutions and between institution types are obvious; seeing from the point of research direction, research direction of the prize-winning achievements is relatively concentrated, there are blind spots in some areas; seeing from the point of the research type, most of award-winning achievements belong to basic research field, and applied research is still insufficient.
Vygotsky (1986) draws attention to the interrelationship between thought and language and other aspects of mind. Although not widely acknowledged, Vygotsky (1999) also drew attention to the search for the relations between cognition and emotions. This paper discusses the findings of a study which examined imaginary scientific situations within the early years. The central research questions examined: What is the emotional nature of scientific learning? and How does affective imagination support early childhood science learning? Video observations were made of the teaching of science from one site in a south-eastern community in Australia (232 h of video observations). The teachers used fairy tales and Slowmation as cultural devices to support the concept formation of 3- and 4-year-old children (n = 53; range of 3.3 to 4.4; mean of 3.8 years). The findings of this under-researched area (e.g. Roth, Mind, Culture, and Activity 15:2-7, 2008) make a contribution to understanding how affective imagination can work in science education in the early years.
Callander, Emily J; Schofield, Deborah J; Shrestha, Rupendra N
Using the newly created Freedom Poverty Measure, a multidimensional measure of poverty, it can be seen that there were 534,700 individuals who were in freedom poverty, who had either poor health or poor education in addition to having low incomes. This multidimensional disadvantage would not normally be captured by single measures of poverty, such as income poverty measures. Men were significantly less likely to be in freedom poverty than women (OR = 0.63, 95% CI: 0.54-0.74, p poverty increased with age, with those older than 85 being 2.3 times more likely to be in freedom poverty than those aged 65 to 69 years (95% CI: 1.73-3.11, p < .0001). Policy responses to address the marginalization of disadvantaged older people should take a multidisciplinary approach, addressing health inequalities in particular, not just low income.
... distinguishing feature that has contributed to social disadvantage, such as race, ethnic origin, gender, physical... treatment in opportunities for government contracts or other work, unequal treatment by potential customers and business associates, and exclusion from business or professional organizations. (d)...
Daughton, Joan M.; Kratochvil, Christopher J.
The advantages, disadvantages, as well as helpful hints on when to use several drug therapies against attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are discussed. The drugs discussed are methylphenidate, atomoxetine, clonidine, and bupropion.
Defines "disadvantaged youth" and reviews vocational training and employment programs designed for them. Finds that these activities tend to favor the relatively privileged rather than those with the greatest need. (SK)
Gayton, William F; Perry, Scott M; Loignon, Andrew C; Ricker, Angela
Occurrence of the home disadvantage in professional ice hockey was examined by analyzing shootout data from 2005 through 2008. Results indicated that teams involved in shootouts playing at their home arenas did not lose significantly more games at home than on the road. Results did not support the hypotheses that emphasize the roles of physical contact and diffusion of responsibility in accounting for past failures to find the home disadvantage in professional ice hockey.
木拉提.克扎衣别克; Nazigul Talipbai; Bahytgul Kizaibek
In this paper,the advantages and disadvantages for English learners among Kazakh students in Xinjiang are discussed.The main advantages given them are the consistency of Kazakh alphabet with English alphabet; the cognate words shared by these two language; and the positive impact of Kazakh rich vocabulary resource on language learning.Disadvantages mainly include linguistic differences between the two language as well as the lack of appropriate text books for Kazakh students.
Capacitacion de educadores para areas marginales--I: Caracteristicas y necesidades educativas de los ninos, jovenes y adultos en las poblaciones menos favorecidas, rurales y urbanas. Tercera edicion (Preparation of Educators for Marginal Areas--I: Educational Needs and Characteristics of Children, Youth and Adults in Disadvantaged Populations, Rural and Urban. Third Edition).
Tedesco, Juan Carlos
Forty percent of the families in Latin America have an income which does not provide essential necessities. Two-thirds of poor families live in the countryside, while the remainder reside in urban slums. The key variable in explaining poverty is education. Without education these families have irregular, unstable, and low paying employment…
It is NASA's intent to provide small disadvantaged businesses, including women-owned, historically black colleges and universities and minority education institutions the maximum practicable opportunity to receive a fair proportion of NASA prime and subcontracted awards. Annually, NASA will establish socioeconomic procurement goals including small disadvantaged business goals, with a target of reaching the eight percent level by the end of FY 1994. The NASA Associate Administrators, who are responsible for the programs at the various NASA Centers, will be held accountable for full implementation of the socioeconomic procurement plans. Various aspects of this plan, including its history, are discussed.
Ibtehaj Taha Jawad
Full Text Available This study is an overview of previous studies on lime (quick and hydrated -treated soil. Lime is the oldest traditional stabilizer used for soil stabilization. The mechanism of soil-lime treatment involves cation exchange, which leads to the flocculation and agglomeration of soil particles. The high pH environment then causes a pozzolanic reaction between the free Ca+2 cations and the dissolved silica and alumina. Lime-treated soil effectively increases the strength, durability and workability of the soil. Such treatment also improves soil compressibility. A fluctuation behavior was observed on the influence of lime on soil permeability. However, the factors affecting the permeability of the soil-lime mixture should be extensively studied. Nonetheless, lime treatment has a number of inherent disadvantages, such as carbonation, sulfate attack and environment impact. Magnesium oxide/hydroxide are thus proposed as a suitable alternative stabilizer to overcome at least some of the disadvantages of using lime in soil stabilization.
Full Text Available The association between mental illness and poor physical health and socioeconomic outcomes has been well established. In the twenty-first century, the challenge of how mental illnesses such as psychosis are managed in the provision of public health services remains complex. Developing effective clinical mental health support and interventions for individuals requires a coordinated and robust mental health system supported by social as well as health policy that places a priority on addressing socioeconomic disadvantage in mental health cohorts. This paper thus examines the complex relationship between socioeconomic disadvantage, family/social supports, physical health and health service utilisation in a community sample of 402 participants diagnosed with psychosis. The paper utilises quantitative data collected from the 2010 Survey of High Impact Psychosis research project conducted in a socioeconomically disadvantaged region of Adelaide, South Australia. Participants (42% female provided information about socio-economic status, education, employment, physical health, contact with family and friends, and health service utilisation. The paper highlights that socio-economic disadvantage is related to increased self-reported use of emergency departments, decreased use of general practitioners for mental health reasons, higher body mass index, less family contact and less social support. In particular, the paper explores the multifaceted relationship between socioeconomic disadvantage and poor health confronting individuals with psychosis, highlighting the complex link between socioeconomic disadvantage and poor health. It emphasizes that mental health service usage for those with higher levels of socioeconomic disadvantage differs from those experiencing lower levels of socioeconomic disadvantage. The paper also stresses that the development of health policy and practice that seeks to redress the socioeconomic and health inequalities created by
Ramirez, Dawn Marie
The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the factors that affect women administrators in higher education at four-year public and private universities in Texas. By comparing private and public universities, the research provided an assessment of similarities and differences of the factors impacting achievement of women in higher…
United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.
This report is concerned with the development of population education in Asian countries through the assistance of UNESCO. It includes guidelines and goals for a comprehensive population education program feasible for most Asian nations. Included in the program goals are the development and implementation of educational programs at all grade…
Teresi, Jeanne A.; Grober, Ellen; Eimicke, Joseph P.; Ehrlich, Amy R.
A randomized controlled trial examined whether the diagnostic process for Alzheimer's disease and other dementias may be influenced by knowledge of the patient's education and/or self-reported race. Four conditions were implemented: diagnostic team knows (a) race and education, (b) education only, (c) race only, or (d) neither. Diagnosis and…
This article draws on the concept of race and racism as "technologies of affect" to think with some of the interventions and arguments of critical affect studies. The author suggests that critical affect theories enable the theorization of race and racism as affective modes of being that recognize the historically specific assemblages…
Mustonen, Sari; Oerlemans, Patty; Tuorila, Hely
The present study investigated whether the familiarity with and affective responses to foods are predicted by the individual trait food neophobia and by parental education in school children. The cross-sectional data collection involved children (N=208, 8- and 11-year-old) from Helsinki, and their parents. A questionnaire assessing children's food neophobia with Food Neophobia Scale (FNS), and familiarity with and affective responses to 36 foods was completed by parents. Children with low FNS were familiar with a larger number of foods than those with high FNS. High FNS was associated with low pleasantness assessment of most food groups, including cheese, fruit/vegetables, fish, starch/cereals, and ethnic/exotic. Children of well educated parents had tasted a larger number of foods, thus displaying lower behavioral neophobia, and had lower FNS scores than children of less educated parents. Both low FNS scores and high parental education predicted the number of tasted foods. Parental education was not associated with pleasantness ratings (exception: cheese). To conclude, high food neophobia lowers the pleasantness ratings of foods, and parental education moderates behavioral neophobia.
Kilpi-Jakonen, Elina; Vono de Vilhena, Daniela; Blossfeld, Hans-Peter
Adult learning is an increasingly important form of education in globalised and aging societies. While current policy recommendations tend to focus on increasing participation rates, the authors of this article argue that higher participation rates do not necessarily lead to lower social/educational inequalities in participation. The aim of this paper is to examine the relationship between social inequalities and adult learning by exploring cross-national patterns of participation in different adult learning activities and the consequences of participation on individual labour market trajectories. The empirical basis of the paper is an analysis of 13 country studies (as well as two cross-national analyses) brought together by the international comparative research project "Education as a lifelong process - comparing educational trajectories in modern societies" ( eduLIFE). Despite wide variations in participation rates across countries, mechanisms of social/educational inequality in engagement in job-related adult learning tend to be relatively similar across countries, in particular with regard to non-formal learning. Effects tend most frequently to be a presence of cumulative advantage, though in some countries a certain degree of equalisation is noticeable with regard to formal adult education. The authors conclude that it is relatively clear that currently almost no country is truly able to reduce social inequalities through adult learning. Their recommendation is that public policy makers should place greater emphasis on making adult learning more accessible (in terms of entry requirements, affordability as well as motivation) to underrepresented groups, in particular those who are educationally disadvantaged.
Jane L Ebejer
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Prevalence and persistence of ADHD have not been described in young Australian adults and few studies have examined how conduct problems (CP are associated with ADHD for this age group. We estimate lifetime and adult prevalence and persistence rates for three categories of ADHD for 3795 Australian adults, and indicate how career, health and childhood risk factors differ for people with ADHD symptoms and ADHD symptoms plus CP. METHODOLOGY: Trained interviewers collected participant experience of ADHD, CP, education, employment, childhood experience, relationship and health variables. Three diagnostic definitions of ADHD used were (i full DSM-IV criteria; (ii excluding the age 7 onset criterion (no age criterion; (iii participant experienced difficulties due to ADHD symptoms (problem symptoms. RESULTS: Prevalence rates in adulthood were 1.1%, 2.3% and 2.7% for each categorization respectively. Persistence of ADHD from childhood averaged across gender was 55.3% for full criteria, 50.3% with no age criterion and 40.2% for problem symptoms. ADHD symptoms were associated with parental conflict, poor health, being sexually assaulted during childhood, lower education, income loss and higher unemployment. The lifetime prevalence of conduct problems for adults with ADHD was 57.8% and 6.9% for adults without ADHD. The greatest disadvantage was experienced by participants with ADHD plus CP. CONCLUSION: The persistence of ADHD into adulthood was greatest for participants meeting full diagnostic criteria and inattention was associated with the greatest loss of income and disadvantage. The disadvantage associated with conduct problems differed in severity and was relevant for a high proportion of adults with ADHD. Women but not men with ADHD reported more childhood adversity, possibly indicating varied etiology and treatment needs. The impact and treatment needs of adults with ADHD and CP and the report of sexual assault during childhood by
Schmitz, Birgit; Hoffmann, Marvin; Klamma, Ralf; Klemke, Roland; Specht, Marcus
Schmitz, B., Hoffmann, M., Klamma, R., Klemke, R., & Specht, M. (2012). Developing a Mobile Game Environment to Support Disadvantaged Learners. Proceedings of 12th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT 2012) (pp. 223-227). July, 4-6, 2012, Rome, Italy: IEEE Computer
This study was created primarily to explore new techniques and to generate fruitful new hypotheses and procedures for the (1) description of variations in expressed curiosity and constructive exploration among disadvantaged preschool children and (2) assessment of the relationship between such curiosity and exploration and other aspects of the…
... ability to compete in the free enterprise system has been impaired due to diminished capital and credit... family member, or to a trust a beneficiary of which is an immediate family member, for less than fair... disadvantaged status can demonstrate that the transfer is to or on behalf of an immediate family member for...
Maree, J. G.; Fletcher, L.; Sommerville, J.
One hundred and fifty-nine Grade 11 prospective disadvantaged students in the natural sciences at the University of Pretoria completed the Study Orientation Questionnaire in Mathematics and the Senior Aptitude Test (Advanced). Fifty-nine male students (M age = 16.05; SD = 0.57) and 100 females (M age = 16.02; SD = 0.512) scored significantly…
Kirst, Michael W.; Gifford, Bernard
This paper discusses the significant political advances for disadvantaged children that have been dependent upon trends and upheavals in the economy and major social or political movements. Evidence is provided which indicates that large scale U.S. government programs are rarely based on a public concern for children, but rather on a more…
German, Danielle; Latkin, Carl A
Social stability is an understudied construct in public health that offers a useful framework for understanding social disadvantage across multiple domains. This study investigated prevalence and patterns of cooccurrence among a hypothesized set of social stability characteristics (housing, residential transition, employment, income, incarceration, and partner relationship), evaluated the possibility of underlying subgroups of social stability, and investigated the association between social ...
THE ASSUMPTION THAT SOME CHILDREN ARE LOW ACHIEVERS BECAUSE OF CULTURAL, SENSORY, OR DEVELOPMENTAL DEPRIVATION IS CRITICIZED BECAUSE IT LEADS MAINLY TO A GRASPING FOR NEW AND DIFFERENT TEACHING TECHNOLOGIES. WHAT SHOULD BE INCLUDED IN A COHESIVE VIEW OF THE DISADVANTAGED ARE THEORETICAL UNDERPINNINGS FROM WHICH ACTION PROGRAMS CAN BE DERIVED. THE…
Brenner, Allison B.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Bauermeister, Jose A.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.
Evidence suggests that the consequences of chronic exposure to stressors extend beyond psychological effects, and that adolescents living in socio-economically disadvantaged neighborhoods may experience an accumulation of exposure to stressors that wears down the physical systems in the body, resulting in hyper-activation of the stress response.…
Sky Lark, Taj'ullah
The instability of the U.S. economy and its competitiveness in the global market has lead to increase request for investment in Higher Education programs. There exists a rising awareness among scholars of how inextricably education is tied to the strength of the economy, the well being of its populace, as well as the importance of a diversified…
Shafiq, M. Najeeb
Using micro-level public opinion data from the "Pew Global Attitudes Project 2005", this study investigates the effect of educational attainment and income on support for democracy in five predominantly Muslim countries: Indonesia, Jordan, Lebanon, Pakistan, and Turkey. Holding all else constant and compared to not finishing primary education,…
We assess the implementation of income contingent loan (ICL) schemes for higher education in a context characterized by two main features: a formerly tuition-free system and a great heterogeneity in the quality and cost of higher education. In that case, ICL implementation leads to a trade-off between increasing "career" equity in terms…
The concept of student support within distance education is particularly diffuse. A learner- or student-centered vision of education considers the needs of individual learners. Another view confines the concept to an add-on, complementary or compensatory approach. One way to consider the question of what student support is necessary is to appraise…
Drawing into a discussion of the politicisation of emotion, this paper develops a framework to analyse some of the processes and strategies by which educational policies and pedagogical practices "emotionalise" the representation of refugees in conflict-ridden societies such as Cyprus and explores the implications for peace education. In…
Miriam PRIETO EGIDO
Full Text Available What place have emotions taken in the definition of human being on which the Spanish Educational Theory has been built? What recognition has been given to the affective system in reflections about what is or must be education? These are both questions that the present article tries to answer. To do so, a review of the work that has been made within the Seminario Interuniversitario de Teoría de la Educación is presented, considering the important role it has played in shaping the Theory of Education in Spain. The answers to these questions come from the members of the seminar themselves, whose reflections in this regard are presented in a summarized but detailed way, in such way that the own reader is able to follow this development
Wang, Xin; Li, Xian; Vaartjes, Ilonca; Neal, Bruce; Bots, Michiel L.; Hoes, Arno W.; Wu, Yangfeng
Background: Whether educational level influences the effects of health education is not clearly defined. This study examined whether the impact of a community-based dietary salt reduction program was affected by the level of education of participants. Methods: The China Rural Health Initiative Sodiu
Wang, Xin; Li, Xian; Vaartjes, Ilonca; Neal, Bruce; Bots, Michiel L.; Hoes, Arno W.; Wu, Yangfeng
BACKGROUND: Whether educational level influences the effects of health education is not clearly defined. This study examined whether the impact of a community-based dietary salt reduction program was affected by the level of education of participants. METHODS: The China Rural Health Initiative Sodiu
A Case Study of Peer Educators in a Community-Based Program to Reduce Teen Pregnancy: Selected Characteristics Prior to Training, Perceptions of Training and Work, and Perceptions of How Participation in the Program Has Affected Them
Beshers, Sarah C.
This investigation is a case study of peer educators in a community-based teen pregnancy prevention program. Research questions focused on identifying ways in which peer educators differed from other teens and exploring the perceptions of the peer educators about their experience in the program and the ways in which it has affected them. Data were…
Arora, Amit; Schwarz, Eli; Blinkhorn, Anthony Stevenson
Early childhood caries is a significant international public health problem. The aim of this paper was to review the current evidence of the risk factors for dental caries in disadvantaged children under 6 years of age. Medline, Cochrane, and PubMed database searches were conducted. Systematic reviews were used where available, or meta-analyses; randomized, controlled trials; and cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies (in that order). Studies were restricted to those published in English from 1990 to October 2010. Early childhood caries has a complex etiology with biological, behavioral, and sociodemographic influences. Evidence suggests that young children are most likely to develop caries if Streptococcus mutans is acquired at an early age, although this is influenced by other factors, such as oral hygiene, fluoride, diet, dental visit patterns, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, and health literacy. Etiological pathways should be taken into consideration when designing interventions to prevent dental caries in disadvantaged preschool children.
Full Text Available Over the last years, organic food consumption has become one of the most popular trends amongst general public. The perception would be that organic food is much healthier for the consumer and that the farming practices used for producing the food are more environmentally friendly. There are however both advantages and disadvantages when it comes to production of organic food, the choice of many farmers being not to produce organic food.
Bonnet, Cédrick T
To understand the maintenance of upright stance, researchers try to discover the fundamental mechanisms and attentional resources devoted to postural control and eventually to the performance of other tasks (e.g., counting in the head). During their studies, some researchers require participants to stand as steady as possible and other simply ask participants to stand naturally. Surprisingly, a clear and direct explanation of the usefulness of the steadiness requirement seems to be lacking, both in experimental and methodological discussions. Hence, the objective of the present note was to provide advantages and disadvantages of this steadiness requirement in studies of postural control. The advantages may be to study fundamental postural control, to eliminate useless postural variability, to control spurious body motions and to control the participants' thoughts. As disadvantages, this steadiness requirement only leads to study postural control in unnatural upright stance, it changes the focus of attention (internal vs. external) and the nature of postural control (unconscious vs. conscious), it increases the difficulty of a supposedly easy control task and it eliminates or reduces the opportunity to record exploratory behaviors. When looking carefully at the four advantages of the steadiness requirement, one can believe that they are, in fact, more disadvantageous than advantageous. Overall therefore, this requirement seems illegitimate and it is proposed that researchers should not use it in the study of postural control. They may use this requirement only if they search to know the limit until which participants can consciously reduce their postural sway.
Full Text Available This paper is focused on general properties of straw bale as a building material which has been proven by buildings throughout the world to be an appropriate material choice. Still, there are many hesitations about using this alternative building material. The building techniques are relatively easy to learn and the performance of straw bale structures has a high value in terms of several aspects as long as general requirements are followed. The primary benefit of straw bale as a building material is its low embodied energy. It also has high thermal and sound insulation properties. Many previous research studies on straw bale building have been focused on structural stability, fire resistance and assessing moisture content in straw bales which is one of the major issues. Therefore, special attention needs to be devoted to details to insure proper building safety. Render selection is especially crucial and an extremely important step in straw bale building, not only in matters concerning moisture but also structural capacity and fire protection. A major disadvantage of straw bale construction is its lack of material research. The paper is divided into three parts in which advantages and disadvantages of such a building are discussed. In the third part, results are presented for a survey in which correspondents emphasized the advantages and disadvantages of living in a straw bale building.
Full Text Available Community schools have long been accepted as an institutional mechanism for intervening in the relationship between poverty, poor educational outcomes, and limited life chances. At a time when public services are being retracted, and disadvantaged places are being increasingly left to struggle, community schools are poised to become more important in offering a response to the needs of children, families, and communities in these places. Yet, despite their apparent promise, community schools remain badly under-conceptualized. As an international field, research on community schooling has rarely articulated or questioned how—by providing additional learning and leisure opportunities and personal and social supports—community schools might create a viable intervention in the relationship between poverty and poor outcomes. This paper explicitly addresses this significant challenge. Conceptualizing empirical findings emerging from a research-practice partnership, it identifies the core features of a new institutional design for community schools which can help to clarify their potential contribution to addressing disadvantage. Marking a considerable shift from a traditional design of simply adding new services to the school day, it argues that community schools will need to operate as social enterprises with networked governance arrangements, and to develop strategies which engage with children’s social ecologies, and are risk-reducing and resilience-building within these. This, in turn, sets a new agenda for significantly advancing the field of community schooling by further defining—conceptually and empirically—the core elements of a new institutional design as identified here.
Beachboard, Martine Robinson; Beachboard, John C.; Li, Wenling; Adkison, Stephen R.
This study examines whether feelings of relatedness constitute a substantial means by which learning communities (cohorts) improve learning outcomes in higher education. It applies Ryan and Deci's Self-Determination Theory to an analysis of the National Survey of Student Engagement. The SDT hypothesizes that environments that support perceptions…
Alrasheedi, Muasaad; Capretz, Luiz Fernando; Raza, Arif
Mobile learning (m-Learning) is considered to be one of the fastest growing learning platforms. The immense interest in m-Learning is attributed to the incredible rate of growth of mobile technology and its proliferation into every aspect of modern life. Despite this, m-Learning has not experienced a similar adoption rate in the education sector,…
Badia, Antoni; Meneses, Julio; Sigales, Carles
Introduction: The purpose of this study is to identify the main factors that influence teachers' decision-making regarding the educational use of ICT (Information and Communication Technologies) in technology-rich classrooms. Method: We collected data from 278 teachers in Catalonia (Spain) working in eight primary and secondary education…
Young-Jones, Adena; Fursa, Sophie; Byrket, Jacqueline S.; Sly, James S.
Bullying has become a prominent topic within education due to recent media headlines in the United States and abroad. The impact of these occurrences ripples beyond the bully and victim to include administrators, parents, and fellow students. While previous research has concluded bullying behaviors decrease as a child progresses in school, more…
Unfortunately, Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) states are not immune to the economic slowdown sweeping the nation. States are taking action to bring budgets into balance while working to protect essential services and programs. In a 1991 report, "Coping With the Sluggish Economy," SREB noted the accelerated efforts to reshape schools and…
Maguire, Rebecca; Egan, Arlene; Hyland, Philip; Maguire, Phil
Student engagement is a key predictor of academic performance, persistence and retention in higher education. While many studies have identified how aspects of the college environment influence engagement, fewer have specifically focused on emotional intelligence (EI). In this study, we sought to explore whether EI could predict cognitive and/or…
Liu, Shih-Hsiung; Tsao, Shih-Chieh
The study investigates how Taiwanese pre-service teachers make meaning after reading positive or negative news coverage of educational events and how they construct meaning impact their pedagogical beliefs. An experiment with a two-group pre-test-post-test design, consisting of a positive and negative news group, is conducted. Multimedia news…
Green, Paul A.; And Others
The effectiveness of three methods of physical education programing for improving the physical performance and reducing undesirable behavior of 96 emotionally disturbed boys (ages 8 to 14 years) was studied in an 8-week summer camp setting. Subjects were initially diagnosed and grouped by psychiatrists as aggressive, hyperactive, or withdrawn.…
Clements, Tarol P.
This disability category study was created to examine the relationship between the effects of inclusion with co-teaching methodologies on mathematics and language arts scores recorded from TCAP scores for 7th grade students who were found eligible for Special Education as having either a Specific Learning Disability or an Intellectual Disability.…
Aytekin Kanadli, Keriman; Ovayolu, Nimet; Ovayolu, Özlem
The major goal of diabetes control is to assist patients to perform self-care and metabolic control. One possible way to achieve this goal is education and regular monitoring of patients by telephone. Thus, the present study was conducted with the aim of investigating the impact of education and telephone follow-up on self-care and metabolic control in diabetic patients. This experimental study was conducted at a hospital in the Central Anatolia region of Turkey, with 88 diabetic patients including 44 intervention subjects and 44 control subjects. After an initial discussion, patients in the intervention group received education and telephone follow-up for 3 months. Required approvals were obtained before initiation of the study. Data were collected using a questionnaire form and the Diabetes Self-Care Scale. The Diabetes Self-Care Scale scores ranged between 140 and 210, where higher scores indicated increased self-care activities of patients. At the end of the study, the self-care score was found to increase from 61.3 ± 10.9 to 89.9 ± 12.3 in the intervention group (P self-care scores and had a positive impact on metabolic control variables. In light of these findings, we suggest that education and tele-health home monitoring may be provided on a continuous basis to help patients sustain self-care behaviors that they have adopted during the study period.
Haji, Faizal A.; Hoppe, Daniel J.; Morin, Marie-Paule; Giannoulakis, Konstantine; Koh, Jansen; Rojas, David; Cheung, Jeffrey J. H.
Rapid technological advances and concern for patient safety have increased the focus on simulation as a pedagogical tool for educating health care providers. To date, simulation research scholarship has focused on two areas; evaluating instructional designs of simulation programs, and the integration of simulation into a broader educational…
Jippes, Erik; Steinert, Yvonne; Pols, Jan; Achterkamp, Marjolein C.; van Engelen, Jo M. L.; Brand, Paul L. P.
Purpose To examine the impact of social networks and a two-day faculty development course on clinical supervisors' adoption of an educational innovation. Method During 2007-2010, 571 residents and 613 clinical supervisors in four specialties in the Netherlands were invited to complete a Web-based qu
Skovdal, Morten; Campbell, Catherine
of Education Development, we argue that such a field can facilitate a much needed discussion on the role of schools in supporting and protecting vulnerable children, highlighting how schools both contribute to and actively address disadvantages and hardship facing children. We end the paper by charting out key...
Baker, Victoria J.
Comparative examination of the national goals of education as presented by various developing countries shows such goals to be often abstract and overly idealistic: a long way from the harsh reality of most rural village schools. Drawing on the results of a lengthy field study in a disadvantaged area of Sri Lanka, this article discusses the matter of feasibility in the shadow of too high expectations. It is concluded that ambitious goals should be operationalized at a practicable level, and recommendations are put forward for feasible action. As a rigidly ordered system of schooling may be an inevitable stage in a progressive evolution of schooling types, patience is needed before criticizing schools which lack creative teaching and problem-solving approaches. It is emphasised that the most important raw materials of the educational system are abundantly present, i.e., human resources. Children are eager to learn; parents are potentially supportive and want education for the sake of learning as well as for jobs. And most importantly for the success of the schools, dedicated principals and teachers are present in unexpectedly high numbers considering the constraints they face. The importance of such educators is stressed, along with implications for selection, training and remuneration.
...--PARTICIPATION BY DISADVANTAGED BUSINESS ENTERPRISES IN DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE... Office of the Secretary 49 CFR Part 26 RIN 2105-AD76 Participation by Disadvantaged Business Enterprises in Department of Transportation Financial Assistance Programs AGENCY: Office of the Secretary...
Tumurkhuu, Tsasan; Fujiwara, Takeo; Komazaki, Yuko; Kawaguchi, Yoko; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Inazawa, Johji; Ganburged, Ganjargal; Bazar, Amarsaikhan; Ogawa, Takuya; Moriyama, Keiji
Objective Malocclusion is a highly prevalent condition, affecting 20–60% of adolescents worldwide. Although its treatment is often expensive and unaffordable for disadvantaged individuals, few studies have examined the relationship between malocclusion and socioeconomic status. We investigated the prevalence of malocclusion among Mongolian adolescents and its association with maternal education in a community-based sample in Mongolia. Design Cross-sectional study. Settings 2 large secondary s...
Anil K Chillimuntha
Full Text Available Disadvantaged rural health reflected by significantly higher mortality rates in rural areas which indicate less attention paid by the government. The issue of health disadvantage to the rural area in the country is far from settled. The public expenditure on health in India is far too inadequate, less than 10% of the total health budget is allocated to rural area where 75% people live. In spite of rising budgetary provision, many of the rural populace dies without any medical attention. Access to high quality health care services plays an important part in the health of rural communities and individuals. Resolving the health problems of rural communities will require more than simply increasing the quality and accessibility of health services. Until governments begin to take an upside-down perspective, focusing on building healthy communities rather than simply on building hospitals to make communities healthy, the disadvantages faced by rural people will continue to be exacerbated. Underutilization of existing rural hospitals and health care facilities can be addressed by a market-centered approach, and more effective government intervention for horizontal and vertical hospital integration. Tele-healthcare, Mobile Health Units and Community-based health insurance are proven helpful in rural areas. Autonomy enjoyed by women and exposure to media also has a significant impact on maternal health care utilization. Accessibility to health facilities is a critical factor in effective health treatment for people in rural areas. Locationallocation models prescribe optimal configurations of health facilities in order to maximize accessibility. [Natl J of Med Res 2013; 3(1.000: 80-82
Giudici, Francesco; Pallas, Aaron M
The social stratification that takes place during the transition out of high school is traditionally explained with theoretical frameworks such as status attainment and social reproduction. In our paper, we suggest the cumulative dis/advantage hypothesis as an alternative theoretical and empirical approach that explains this divergence in institutional pathways as the result of the dynamic interplay between social institutions (in our case, schools) and individuals' resources. We use data from the NLSY79 in order to compute institutional pathways (defined by educational and occupational status) of 9,200 high school graduates. Optimal Matching Analysis and Cluster Analysis generated a typology of life course pathways. Our results show that both ascribed characteristics and students' high school characteristics and resources are predictors of post-high school pathways.
d’Ávila Nunes, Marcos
This book presents a comparison analysis of two cancer treatment therapies: carbon ion therapy and protontherapy. It is divided in 5 sections. The first ones gives the reader a brief history of Radiotherapy and types of radiation. In the second section, the techniques and equipments, including new ones in development such as Cyclinac , Laser and DWA, are described. The third section describes biophysical (such as stopping power and LET) and biological (such as RBE and OER) properties, the fundamental experiments and clinical area. The fourth section presents models and the fifth section compares both techniques, showing advantages and disadvantages of each, and their similarities.
The group cooperative learning is a studentcentered learning activities.In the practice of the English teaching reform,cooperative learning is beneficial to reflect the students’ main body status,to provide students more chance to exercise,promoting the all-round development of students,and is conducive to the harmonious relationship between teachers and students; at the same time,cooperative learning also has some disadvantages,such as hard to control the student,good students become the authority of the group activities,cooperation too often that ignored the students’ independent thinking,etc.
The group cooperative learning is a student-centered learning activities.In the practice of the English teaching reform,cooperative learning is beneficial to reflect the students' main body status,to provide students more chance to exercise,promoting the all-round development of students,and is conducive to the harmonious relationship between teachers and students; at the same time,cooperative learning also has some disadvantages,such as hard to control the student,good students become the authority of the group activities,cooperation too often that ignored the students' independent thinking,etc.
Maria de Lourdes Machado-Taylor
Full Text Available An important constituent group and a key resource of higher education institutions (HEIs is the faculty or academic staff. The centrality of the faculty role makes it a primary sculptor of institutional culture and has implications for the quality of the institution and therefore has a major role in achieving the objectives of the institution. Demand for academic staff in higher education has been increasing and may be expected to continue to increase. Moreover the performance of academic staff as teachers and researchers determines much of the student satisfaction and has an impact on student learning. There are many factors that serve to undermine the commitment of academics to their institutions and careers. Job satisfaction is important in revitalizing staff motivation and in keeping their enthusiasm alive. Well motivated academic staff can, with appropriate support, build a national and international reputation for themselves and the institution in the professional areas, in research and in publishing. This paper aims to identify the issues and their impacts on academic staff job satisfaction and motivation within Portuguese higher education institutions reporting an ongoing study financed by the European Union through the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology.
McGovern, Mary Francis
Non-formal environmental education provides students the opportunity to learn in ways that would not be possible in a traditional classroom setting. Outdoor learning allows students to make connections to their environment and helps to foster an appreciation for nature. This type of education can be interdisciplinary---students not only develop skills in science, but also in mathematics, social studies, technology, and critical thinking. This case study focuses on a non-formal marine education program, the South Carolina Department of Natural Resources' (SCDNR) Discovery vessel based program. The Discovery curriculum was evaluated to determine impact on student knowledge about and attitude toward the estuary. Students from two South Carolina coastal counties who attended the boat program during fall 2014 were asked to complete a brief survey before, immediately after, and two weeks following the program. The results of this study indicate that both student knowledge about and attitude significantly improved after completion of the Discovery vessel based program. Knowledge and attitude scores demonstrated a positive correlation.
Smith, Erica; Green, Annette
This report describes and analyses how the work activities undertaken by students while at school affect their post-school pathways into and between work and study. Increasingly, students are involved with workplaces while still at school. The three major ways in which this is happening (in order of extent of engagement) are through work…
Rovai, Alfred P.; Wighting, Mervyn J.; Baker, Jason D.; Grooms, Linda D.
The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a self-report instrument that can be used to measure learning in the cognitive, affective, and psychomotor domains. The study underwent three phases, each with its own data collection and analysis. Phase I featured the development, testing, and factor analysis of an 80-item instrument that…
Ether, John A.
This tipsheet reports that the first series of books written especially to help prepare teachers of minorities and the disadvantaged were general books of readings. Among these is "The Disadvantaged Learner" by Staten Webster. Over 600 pages in length, it is loosely organized around three themes: knowing the disadvantaged, understanding the…
... disadvantaged business concern in accordance with 13 CFR 124, subpart B, and a decision on that application is... disadvantaged business concerns that have not waived the adjustment; and (ii) An otherwise successful offer from... Adjustment for Small Disadvantaged Business Concerns. 52.219-23 Section 52.219-23 Federal...
In this chapter, it introduces different educations in the world. Through these differences, it can help us better know about the advantage and disadvantage of Chinese education styles. So we can improve our teaching style and teaching level.
In the year 2000, more than 160 governments adopted six goals aimed at vastly improving learning opportunities for children, youth, and adults by 2015. This article, based on an annual international report that tracks progress toward these goals and levels of aid to basic education, analyzes the significance of expanding learning opportunities for human, social, and economic development. It assesses where the world stands on meeting its commitments--developing nations and donors included. The picture is mixed, with considerable progress in some cases, especially toward universal primary education and gender parity at the primary level. Much less attention is being given to other age groups, notably through early childhood care and education programs and adult literacy--a global scourge affecting 781 million adults. Low education quality, lack of learning opportunities for the most disadvantaged groups, and insufficient aid to basic education are holding many countries back. The article outlines some of the greatest challenges for decision makers: holistic early childhood programs that target the most disadvantaged children; policies to make school free, accessible, and safe for girls and boys; and scaling up adult literacy programs. Education quality--from the recruitment and training of teachers to textbooks, sufficient instructional time, and initial instruction in the mother tongue--has a documented influence on learning outcomes. Increased domestic and international spending on education is essential. Such an agenda requires long-term vision and strong political commitment at the highest level.
Full Text Available Abstract: Information and communication technology has had effects on the different aspects of living, like working ways. One of these effects is to work anywhere, far away office and without geographical limitation. This working method has advantages and disadvantages that can affect on its performance and contituity in organizations and offices. This article reviewed shortly the literature of teleworking and the advantages and disadvantages of teleworking, then surveyed the viewpoint of teleworkers in department of information processing in National Libray and Archives of I.R. of Iran. The results showed that teleworking had benefits and porblems in this department and despite of that fact (especially weakness in techonogical infrastructs, all of teleworkers in research population (100% tended continue teleworking. Teleworkers had a high satisfaction of teleworking (5/53.
Margarita Calderón López
Full Text Available This study explores the role of literacy in disadvantaged environments and the interplay between self-generated literacy practices and their conceptualization of literacy in 7 to 10-year-old Chilean pupils from two different schools located in Santiago, Chile. The study was framed within a participatory approach focused on promoting the children’s agency and voice in the research. A range of second-level data materials were collected through interviews with parents, photographs and existing documents. Although at a resources-associated level the sociocultural context did not inhibit the emergence of literacy practices, the context did contribute to the children’s understanding of literacy. This study raises the need for considering how children’s understanding of literacy influence their involvement and learning about reading and writing as their experiences and perceptions have an important role in their learning process, particularly on how they develop their reading and writing practices. The findings implied that by raising the participants’ awareness of the relevance of everyday practices in relation with reading and writing, they are likelier to feel more comfortable and empowered towards their own literacy practices. Particularly, the empowerment of children coming from a disadvantaged background would give them more opportunities to support their learning. By making the children aware of the relevance of their own perceptions and practices, the pupils could gain in confidence, be agents of their learning processes, and have more resources to succeed on the demanding school environment.
Gartrell, Alexandra; Jennaway, Megan; Manderson, Lenore; Fangalasuu, Judy; Dolaiano, Simon
Development discourse widely recognises that disability is the result of economic and social processes and structures that fail to accommodate persons with disabilities. Empirical work on the relationship between disability and poverty however, conceptualize poverty through an economic resource lens in high-income countries. To address this conceptual gap this article uses a social determinants of health perspective to examine how socio-cultural, economic and political contexts shape disability-based disadvantage. This article draws upon ethnographic research and supplementary data collected using rapid assessment techniques in Solomon Islands. Findings suggest that the disability-poverty nexus and inequalities in health, wellbeing and quality of life must be understood within broader patterns of social vulnerability that are institutionalised in landownership and patterns of descent, gendered power relations and disability specific stigmas that preclude social and productive engagement . This article demonstrates how a social determinant of health perspective that closely examines lived experiences of disability provides critical analytical insights into the structural mechanisms that constitute disability-based disadvantage. This article provides foundation knowledge on which policies and further research to promote disability-inclusion and equity can be based.
Parveen, Khadeeja; Banse, Viktoria; Ledwani, Lalita
The nanotechnology and biomedical sciences opens the possibility for a wide variety of biological research topics and medical uses at the molecular and cellular level. The biosynthesis of nanoparticles has been proposed as a cost-effective and environmentally friendly alternative to chemical and physical methods. Plant-mediated synthesis of nanoparticles is a green chemistry approach that connects nanotechnology with plants. Novel methods of ideally synthesizing NPs are thus thought that are formed at ambient temperatures, neutral pH, low costs and environmentally friendly fashion. Keeping these goals in view nanomaterials have been synthesized using various routes. Among the biological alternatives, plants and plant extracts seem to be the best option. Plants are nature's "chemical factories". They are cost efficient and require low maintenance. The advantages and disadvantages of nanotechnology can be easily enumerated. This study attempts to review the diversity of the field, starting with the history of nanotechnology, the properties of the nanoparticle, various strategies of synthesis, the many advantages and disadvantages of different methods and its application.
Full Text Available The study investigated the role of motivation and metacognition in the formation of cognitive and affective outcomes from participation in physical education lessons within the framework of self-determination theory. A sample of 630 adolescents (M age = 14.06, SD = .29 participated in the study. Participants completed questionnaires including measures of perceived autonomy support in PE, autonomous motivation in PE, metacognitive processes in PE, enjoyment, boredom in PE and intention for leisure-time physical activity. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that perceptions of autonomy supportive motivational climate significantly predicted enjoyment, boredom and intentions towards leisure-time physical activity. In addition autonomous motivation and metacognition significantly predicted enjoyment, boredom and intentions, whereas controlling motivation was a significant predictor of boredom. Multiple mediation modeling indicated that perceptions of autonomy supporting climate on these responses was mediated mainly by autonomous motivation and metacognition. The findings of the present study provide valuable information on the mediating role of autonomous motivation and metacognition on the effects of autonomy supportive motivational climate on students’ cognitive and affective responses during physical education lessons.
Ashourizadeh, Shayegheh; Schøtt, Thomas
broader than female entrepreneurs, especially in the public sphere and especially in traditional culture, whereas women network more intensely in the private sphere. Age influences networking in the way that networking in the private sphere is more extensive among young than among older entrepreneurs......The purpose is to account for entrepreneurs’ networking in private and public spheres, as influenced by gender, age and education in the context of culture. The Global Entrepreneurship Monitor has surveyed 17,742 entrepreneurs’ networking for advice in Denmark and 14 countries representative...... of the Middle East and North Africa. Analyses show that entrepreneurs are networking in the private sphere of family and friends, especially in traditional culture in Middle East and North Africa, and are networking in public spheres, especially in secular-rational culture in Denmark. Male entrepreneurs network...
Hastie, P A
This study describes the changes which occurred in the instructional ecology of a boys' physical education class with a change of teacher. Moreover, it examines the critical incidences which promoted and inhibited that teacher's attempts to change the accountability system of the class from one of attendance and minimal participation to one of performance quality. Twenty-two eighth and ninth grade boys participated in a 6-week program of physical activity with the researcher as the new teacher. Through an action research methodology, using the teacher's reflective accounts of lessons together with formal and informal interviews with the students, it was determined that three factors were critical in the change process: the students' previous history with the subject, the nature of the set tasks, and the emotional climate of the class.
method for the delivery of educational services. Social Support Parental involvement in the education process is critical for improving...student performance as parental involvement in their children’s education.” 28
教育公平是社会公平的底线，也是解决备受社会关注的家庭经济困难学生系列问题的有效途径。在日益严峻的就业环境下，从教育公平的角度出发，保障每一位大学生受教育公平的权益，提升家庭经济困难学生的就业竞争力，有利于推动教育公平从理论走向实践、从宏观进入微观，尤其是实证研究的加强，进一步落实我国高校的教育公平体系建设。%Educational equity is the bottom line of social equity, and also an effective way to resolve the problems of students from poor families. In the increasingly severe employment environment, from the perspective of educational equity, guarantee that every university student educational equity interests, enhance the employability and competitiveness, will help promote educational equity from theory to practice, from the macro into the microscopic, especially empirical research to strengthen further the implementation of a fair system of Education in China Universities.
Full Text Available Value-added estimates of teachers’ contributions to student achievement have been criticized for bias relating to the sorting of students to classrooms. More recently, research has raised the possibility that sorting leads to differences in practice evaluation ratings between teachers of more or less disadvantaged and/or higher- and lower-achieving students. Adjusting observation ratings for the relevant characteristics of teachers’ classrooms has been proposed as a remedy, analogous to how value-added teacher effectiveness estimates are developed. However, the appropriateness of adjustment depends on the cause of observed differences in average ratings and the use of the ratings. Potential causes include rater bias rubric deficiency, differences in teacher skills and beliefs, and true differences in difficulty of teaching groups of students. The appropriateness of adjustment given these causes and typical uses of the ratings is discussed as well as research needed to identify the influence of the causes.
Several disadvantaged social housing areas in Denmark are currently undergo-ing thorough physical refurbishments, aiming to integrate them better with the surrounding city. The ambition is to attract new users and residents by opening up the borders of the area and establish attractive, new...... that especially eve-ryday-route strategies adding new public functions within the area can pave the way for integration with the surroundings. The applicability of such strategies is however highly dependent on the context, location and existing image of the ar-ea. Social distance may sustain though physical...... borders are removed, yet, in combination with other initiatives, linking the area better to the surroundings can over time benefit the image of the area....
Nieuwenhuis, Jaap; Hooimeijer, Pieter; Meeus, Wim
Research has repeatedly shown that neighbourhood disadvantage negatively influences individual educational outcomes. However, the great variation in outcomes indicates substantial unobserved heterogeneity. Looking at the rates of obtaining a basic educational qualification, the hypothesis is that in
German, Danielle; Latkin, Carl A
Social stability is an understudied construct in public health that offers a useful framework for understanding social disadvantage across multiple domains. This study investigated prevalence and patterns of cooccurrence among a hypothesized set of social stability characteristics (housing, residential transition, employment, income, incarceration, and partner relationship), evaluated the possibility of underlying subgroups of social stability, and investigated the association between social stability and health outcomes. Data were from comprehensive interviews with primarily African-American low income urban women and their female social network members (n = 635) in Baltimore. Analysis included exploratory statistics, latent class analysis, and latent class regression accounting for clustered data using Stata and Mplus software. Social stability characteristics cooccurred in predictable directions, but with heterogeneity. Respondents had an average of three stability characteristics (S.D.: 1.4). Latent class analysis identified two classes of social stability: low (25%) and high (75%), with the higher class less likely to experience each of the included indicators. In controlled models, higher social stability was significantly correlated with social network characteristics and neighborhood integration. Higher social stability was independently associated with reduced risk of chronic illness (AOR: 0.54, 95% C.I.: 0.31, 0.94), mental illness history (AOR: 0.24, 95% CI: 0.15, 0.39), and current depressive symptoms (AOR: 0.35, 95% C.I.: 0.22, 0.57). The current set of social stability characteristics appears to represent a single construct with identifiable underlying subgroups and associated health disparities. Findings suggest a need for comprehensive policies and programs that address structural determinants of cooccurring social disadvantage and help to mitigate the likely spiral effect of instability experiences.
Rivers, L F
The advantages of practice in a community encompassing a population of about 35 000 include readily available beds and operating rooms, a relative diversity of surgical problems, increased job satisfaction and solid community support through service clubs and other volunteer organizations. Disadvantages in some situations can include lack of investigational facilities and of internists for consultation. A lack of surgical assistants, anesthetists and intensive-care-unit support are other potential negative factors. The quest for continuing medical education requires definite resolve, and practice finesse must be well honed.
Spriggs, Aubrey L; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Herring, Amy H; Schoenbach, Victor J
Although low socioeconomic status has been positively associated with adult partner violence, its relationship to adolescent dating violence remains unclear. Further, few studies have examined the relationship between contextual disadvantage and adolescent dating violence, or the interactive influences of family and contextual disadvantage. Guided by social disorganization theory, relative deprivation theory, and gendered resource theory, we analyzed data from the U.S. National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (1994-1996) to explore how family and school disadvantage relate to dating violence victimization. Psychological and minor physical victimization were self-reported by adolescents in up to six heterosexual romantic or sexual relationships. Family and school disadvantage were based on a principal component analysis of socioeconomic indicators reported by adolescents and parents. In weighted multilevel random effects models, between-school variability in dating violence victimization was proportionately small but substantive: 10% for male victimization and 5% for female victimization. In bivariate analyses, family disadvantage was positively related to victimization for both males and females; however, school disadvantage was only related to males' physical victimization. In models adjusted for race/ethnicity, relative age within the school, and mean school age, neither family nor school disadvantage remained related to males' victimization. For females, family disadvantage remained significantly positively associated with victimization, but was modified by school disadvantage: family disadvantage was more strongly associated with dating violence victimization in more advantaged schools. Findings support gendered resource theory, and suggest that status differentials between females and their school context may increase their vulnerability to dating violence victimization.
Full Text Available This study is carried out to determine the nutritional habits of students in Physical Education and Sport High School and the factors affecting the nutrition habits.Universe of the study was consisted of 224 undergraduate student from Afyon Kocatepe University Physical Education and Sport High School. In this study no sampling method was used and tried to reach all of the universe. 208 student joined this study. To collect data a survey was used which consist 24 question about nutrition habits and socio-demographic chracteristics. In analyzing the data SPSS 18.0 packet programme is used. After finding the frequency and percentage (% distributions, Chi-Square Test was used to evaluate the affects of socio-demographic chracteristic on the nutrition habits. Significance level is determined to be 0.01 and 0.05 for Chi-Square Test.It was found that the mean age in men 21,9±2,07 and women 21,12±2,25. In this study it was determined that % 83,2 of the students were passed meal because of time (% 46,6 and anorexia (% 26,4 . It was determined that 61.5% of the students' did not do the regular breakfast and a very low proportion of students have regularly breakfast (38.5%.It was seen that 47.1% of the students have 2 meals in a day and evening meals were more regular than breakfast and lunch. While chosing their favorite meal students cleanless of dishes (48.6%, favorite meal (59%, 6 and satisfactory (39.4% is effective in preference. Only 14.4% of the students have believed that they have balanced and regularly nutrition and 45.7% of them thought they have partly balanced and regularly nutrition.It was determined that sociodemographic characteristics of the students were effective in nutrition, students living in the dormitory, with good economic status and who believe that they have got adequate level of nutrition knowledge have passed less meal and have regular breakfast.As a result, it was found that students from Physical Education and Sport High
Full Text Available Objective: To determine the coverage of childhood immunization appropriate for age among socio-economically disadvantaged recent migrants living in East China and to identify the determinants of full immunization uptake among these migrant children. Methods: This is a cross-sectional survey of 1,426 migrant mothers with a child aged ≤24 months, who were interviewed with a pretested questionnaire. Various vaccines, migration history and some other social-demographic and income details were collected. Single-level logistic regression analyses were applied to identify the determinants of full immunization status. Results: Immunization coverage rates are lower among migrants and even lower among recent migrants. The likelihood of a child receiving full immunization rise with parents’ educational level and the frequency of mother’s utilization of health care. Higher household income also significantly increase the likelihood of full immunization, as dose post-natal visits by a health worker. Conclusions: Recent migrant status favours low immunization uptake, particularly in the vulnerability context of alienation and livelihood insecurity. Services must be delivered with a focus on recent migrants. Investments are needed in education, socio-economic development and secure livelihoods to improve and sustain equitable health care services.
Full Text Available The educational achievement of children from non-Western migrant families in the Netherlands and other Western countries lags behind that of natives, especially when it comes to language proficiency and reading ability. This literature review pinpoints what is known and what is as yet unknown about reducing learning disadvantages through school libraries to point to directions for future research. A considerable body of research has shown that school libraries are positively related to learning outcomes in children, as well as to their reading behavior and attitude toward reading, factors that correlate positively with reading and language skills. However, on the basis of existing research, it is hard to draw firm conclusions about the effect of school libraries on students from migrant families in particular. This article indicates that future research should explicitly focus on the impact of school libraries’ reading promotion efforts on the reading behavior, attitude toward reading, and reading and language skills of migrant students, leading to more effective educational policies.
de Valk, H.; Crul, M.; Crul, M.; Heering, L.
Education is of crucial importance in the lives of young adults. Attending school is not only a major part of everyday life, but education is a decisive factor for the future. In literature, educational attainment has been tied to a host of outcomes in adult life. Education is perceived as the key f
为推进我国学前教育公平和健康发展，国家及部分省（市、自治区）积极探索并出台了学前儿童教育资助政策。以保障基本受教育权为核心，无歧视与特殊保护原则并行；以经济困难儿童、孤儿、残疾儿童为资助重点，走向全纳；建立财政投入为主，幼儿园、社会与家庭共同分担的资助机制；以就读普惠性园所幼儿为资助主体，按比例有差异进行资助；建立以补助为主体，减费、免费为补充的多种资助方式；设置专门机构统筹管理，并建立责任与问责机制。各地改革探索的政策与经验有助于中央和地方各级政府了解当前学前教育资助政策的走向与特色，为国家和各地进一步制定和完善学前儿童教育资助政策，促进学前教育公平发展提供有益启示。%In order to promote the equity in and sound development of early childhood education, the country and more than ten provinces have actively implement various support policies to ensure SD children' s equal right to early childhood education. By analy- zing these policies, the authors point out main features as following. The core is to protect the SD children' s basic right to education, the basic principles are no discrimination and giving them special protection; the focus is to help childhood whose family is poor, or- phans and disabled children, and the trend is toward inclusive education; The funding mechanism is financial investment - based, kin- dergarten, social and family to share approPriately; the main body is the children who study in inclusive kindergartens according to the proportion of different; establish a variety of support systems to provide SD children with compensation Education, financially supported education and free education; set up a special organization leadership, and establish the responsibility and accountability mechanism. In - depth analysis of the policies of the country and more
Emran, M. Shahe; Sun, Yan
This paper relaxes the single-factor model of intergenerational educational mobility and analyzes heterogeneous effects of family background on children’s education in villages, with a focus on the role of nonfarm occupations. The analysis uses data from rural China that cover three generations, and are not subject to coresident sample selection. Evidence from a battery of econometric appr...
Richardson, Robert B.
This paper provides the groundwork for Active Affective Learning and teaching adapted to the needs of the disadvantaged, at-risk students served by the Accelerated Schools Movement. One of the "golden rules" for the practice of Accelerated Learning, according to psychiatrist Georgi Lozanov, has been to maintain an "up-beat" classroom presentation…
Gaimari, G.; Russo, C.; Palaia, G.; Tenore, G.; Del Vecchio, A.; Romeo, U.
Introduction: Leukoplakia is a potentially malignant epithelial lesion with carcinomatous percentages transformation comprehended between 1% and 7% for the homogeneous forms and from 4% to 15% for the non-homogeneous ones. Their removal can be performed by scalpel or laser surgery (excision or vaporization). Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a bloodless treatment option, based on the involvement of three elements: light, photosensitizer and oxygen. When the molecules of the photosensitizer are activated by a low power laser, energy is transferred to molecular oxygen creating highly reactive radicals of oxygen, that have a cytotoxic effect on target cells. Aim of the study: According to several studies in Literature, it has been decided to evaluate through an initial clinical trial, the efficacy of PDT using topical aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) activated by a laser diode (λ = 635 nm) to treat potentially oral malignant lesions and to illustrate the advantages and disadvantages derived from the use of this technique. Materials and Methods: Five patients, affected by oral leukoplakia (OL) and oral verrucous leukoplakia (OVL) on the mucosal cheeks, labial commissure, fornix and retromolar areas, have been treated using the PDT. Irradiation time with Diode laser: 1000s. Irradiation mode: Scanning. 5 cycles of 3 minute + final cycle of 100 seconds. Each cycle has been interrupted by pauses of 3 minutes. Results and conclusion: PDT results to be effective in the treatment of OL, especially on OVL. In fact, OVL, due to its irregularity, has got an area of increased retention for the gel that is more difficult to be removed by salivary flow. This could explain the better results obtained in this case rather than in those ones of OL. Furthermore, the advantages have been represented by: less invasivity, high sensitivity for altered tissues, minimal scar tissue, less side effects and no pain during and after operation. In contrast to this, the disadvantages were: longer treatment
The renowned foreign language teaching expert,H,H,stern had said that affective education plays an important role in English study,but for a long time,in middle school English teaching of our country,stress is only purely laid on the instruction of knowledge.Teaching should be an interactive between the teacher and the students,but students cannot get the encouragement and support of education and experience the pleasure of learning,so they feel tired of English learning.As a teacher,he should pay special attention to students＇ mental condition and infiltrate mental education in all teaching links%著名外语教学专家H.H.Stern曾经说过,情感教育对英语学习的影响起到至关重要的作用。但是长期以来,我国中学英语教学中,单纯强调知识的传授与掌握,忽略了情感的关注。这样导致很多学生失去对英语的热情,甚至提到英语,心里就产生一种恐惧的心理,究其原因,是感情因素起了决定作用。学生得不到教育的鼓励和支持,体验不到学习的乐趣,因此对英语学习产生厌倦、消极心理。作为教师,特别要关注学生的情感,把情感教育渗透到教学各环节中去。
The lack of financial resources is no longer seen as the only hurdle to be surmounted by the poor potential college student. The Upward Bound program was created in 1964 to provide cultural and educational activities during the summer for disadvantaged high school students. The Educational Talen t Search program began in 1965 as a supplement to…
Hoorman, James J.
Soil health and cover crops are topics of interest to farmers, gardeners, and students. Three soil health and cover crop demonstrations provide educational resources. Demonstrations one outlines two educational cover crop seed displays, including the advantages and disadvantages. Demonstration two shows how to construct and grow a cover crop root…
Paoletti, Franco; Carlucci, Lisa Marie
In this ever-changing world, technology is affecting how people view learning and the overall educational process. For an educator, the successful implementation of technology can be one of the most effective tools in the classroom. The introduction of virtual simulations of real life situations into what was once considered a teacher-centered classroom, allows the educator to meet the complex differentiated needs of a multi-faced student population. In this modified classroom, the focus naturally shifts on the students and their interaction with the rest of the class and beyond. Effective integration of technology literally opens a window onto the outside world providing students with increased motivation and with the necessary expertise to enter the workforce or successfully pursue higher education. This work analyzes the impact of technology, the methodologies currently in use, advantages and disadvantages, providing examples on how to successfully implement effective programs under budgetary constraints.
Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE This paper seeks to revisit Gramsci’s legacy on counter-hegemony, the subaltern and affectivity, by focusing on the implications of his cutting-edge position on the role of subaltern feelings in the formation of an emotional pedagogy of activism in the context of higher education. Three insights follow from this analysis. First, Gramsci’s work facilitates an understanding of how affect and ideology are entangled. Second, Gramsci’s concepts of counter-hegemony, the subaltern, and the organic intellectual in relation to his views about the unity of reason and emotion offer points of departure for activism, especially small acts of everyday life that often go unnoticed. Finally, Gramsci’s concern with the emotional potential of subaltern subjects shows how important it is to consider subaltern passions as political resources that challenge hegemonic conditions and formulate strategic counter-hegemonic responses.
Abstract: As one of the Web 2.0 tools, blogs are widely used in US education. This paper gives a brief overview of blogs such as advantages, disadvantages, and major software for creating blogs, and then it reviews some EduBlogs, its usage, and examples in US education. The purpose is to motivate more educators to use blogs in teaching and…
ALINA T. CHICOŞ
Full Text Available This paper gives an insight into the statistical interpretation of socio-spatial changes of Bucharest urban landscape in connection to the transformations of the urban planning visions across the last decades. Special emphasis is placed on the emergence of disadvantaged neighbourhoods which are defined by a clear homogenisation of certain social classes on a precarious housing infrastructure. This came as a result of a historical hierarchy of the urban social space. Moreover, Bucharest was shaped in relation to different socio-economic and socio-cultural policies that determined the creation of a polarisation between north and south or between centre and periphery which were subject to numerous socio-urban inversions during the communist and post-communist eras. Hence, life in a large metropolis is vulnerable to inequalities appearing within the urban pattern that intensifies, in some cases, towards residential segregation. The historical-geographical analysis of vectors behind clusters of sensitive areas in the 20th and 21st centuries strengthens the importance of social cohesion measures in the future urban policies and territorial planning.
Andreu, Antonia; Matas, Lurdes
This article aims to reflect on which areas or tasks of microbiology laboratories could be unified with those of clinical biochemistry, hematology, immunology or pathology laboratories to benefit patients and the health system, as well as the areas that should remain independent since their amalgamation would not only fail to provide a benefit but could even jeopardize the quality of microbiological diagnosis, and consequently patient care. To do this, the distinct analytic phases of diagnosis are analyzed, and the advantages and disadvantages of amalgamation are evaluated in each phase. The pros and cons of the unification of certain areas such as the computer system, occupational risk units, customer service, purchasing logistics, and materials storage, etc, are also discussed. Lastly, the effect of unification on urgent microbiology diagnosis is analyzed. Microbiological diagnosis should be unique. The microbiologist should perform an overall evaluation of the distinct techniques used for a particular patient, both those that involve direct diagnosis (staining, culture, antigen detection techniques or molecular techniques) and indirect diagnosis (antibody detection). Moreover, the microbiology laboratory should be independent, with highly trained technicians and specialists in microbiology that provide added value as experts in infection and as key figures in the process of establishing a correct etiological diagnosis.
In Japan, laws and ordinances were enforced to relax the regulation of the clinical laboratory setting in hospitals by revising the law of medical institutions in 2001. For this reason, outsourcing hospital microbiological testing, particularly by medium- or small-sized hospitals, was encouraged. The advantage of outsourcing microbiological testing is promotion of an efficient hospital management by cost saving. In contrast, the disadvantages are as follows: deterioration of specimen quality by extension of transportation time, delay in reporting by an independent laboratory compared with that by a hospital-based laboratory; this report is generally obtained within 1 or 2 days, difficulty and lack of communication between the laboratory staff and physician, and deterioration of the value of the microbiology report and the quality of the infection control system in a hospital. In addition to performing profit-related maintenance, independent laboratories should strive hard to maintain the same quality as that of a laboratory registered in a hospital. Furthermore, the new role of independent laboratories demands them to have a system allowing instant communication of information regarding the crisis control of infectious diseases to a hospital.
This investigation examines the role of students' home and school variables in producing the achievement gap between second-generation Turkish students and their native peers in Austria, Germany, and Switzerland. Using the data from PISA 2006, this study supports past findings that both home and school resources affect the educational outcomes of…
FROST, JOE L.
SINCE THE DEFICITS OF THE DISADVANTAGED INDIVIDUAL ARE USUALLY INDUCED BY HIS ENVIRONMENT, IT IS ONLY THROUGH A POSITIVE MANIPULATION OF HIS TOTAL ENVIRONMENT THAT THESE DEFICITS CAN BE REMOVED. DISADVANTAGED GROUPS LIVE IN A WORLD ISOLATED FROM THE CULTURAL MAINSTREAM AND ARE, THUS, ALIENATED FROM THE EDUCATIONAL PROCESS AND FROM MIDDLE-CLASS…
Full Text Available Nowadays, there are many demands coming from all over the world to establish or to secure the possibility of comparability of the information provided in financial statements, and to make this information as reliable and accurate as possible, and therefore making it useful and beneficial for anyone who uses them. These requests demand adjustment of the content of accounted data in every single country, which might have its own accounting standards, to international norms of accounting. Substantial form of the synchronization or unification that attempts to harmonize accounting is the International Accounting Standards / International Financial Reporting Standards (IAS/IFRS, which are mainly focusing on financial statements, and seeking the solutions for problems connected with it. Financial statements, being one of the main concerns of the IAS/IFRS that should lead to a better comparability, higher predication and also to achieve higher utility for users, is getting more and more important. One of the tools that should help achieve these demands in financial statements is called “Fair value”. Despite the intents and plans, however it is still quite difficult to establish, whether its contribution to the improvement of accounting standards is really beneficial. Main aim of this paper is to examine and depict the advantages and disadvantages connected to the fair value, providing the reader with objective information and thorough insight into the problems and benefits of fair value.Partial objectives of this paper are to define the concept of fair value, to provide information about theoretical background and evolution of fair value and to examine and describe the possible future development of fair value.
Conclusions: The high prevalence of anemia found in poor patients with AIDS suggests that poverty increases the risk to suffer from this hematological complication. The relationship between economic development policies and AIDS is complex. Our results seem to point to the fact that AIDS epidemic may affect economic development and in turn be affected by it. If we consider that AIDS affects the economically active adult population, despite recent medical progress it usually brings about fatal consequences, especially within the poorest sectors of society where the disease reduces the average life expectancy, increases health care demand and tends to exacerbate poverty and iniquity.
Full Text Available This study is carried out to determine the nutritional habits of students in Physical Education and Sport High School and the factors affecting the nutrition habits.Universe of the study was consisted of 224 undergraduate student from Afyon Kocatepe University Physical Education and Sport High School. In this study no sampling method was used and tried to reach all of the universe. 208 student joined this study. To collect data a survey was used which consist 24 question about nutrition habits and socio-demographic chracteristics. In analyzing the data SPSS 18.0 packet programme is used. After finding the frequency and percentage (% distributions, Chi-Square Test was used to evaluate the affects of socio-demographic chracteristic on the nutrition habits. Significance level is determined to be 0.01 and 0.05 for Chi-Square Test.It was found that the mean age in men 21,9±2,07 and women 21,12±2,25. In this study it was determined that % 83,2 of the students were passed meal because of time (% 46,6 and anorexia (% 26,4 . It was determined that 61.5% of the students' did not do the regular breakfast and a very low proportion of students have regularly breakfast (38.5%.It was seen that 47.1% of the students have 2 meals in a day and evening meals were more regular than breakfast and lunch. While chosing their favorite meal students cleanless of dishes (48.6%, favorite meal (59%, 6 and satisfactory (39.4% is effective in preference. Only 14.4% of the students have believed that they have balanced and regularly nutrition and 45.7% of them thought they have partly balanced and regularly nutrition.It was determined that sociodemographic characteristics of the students were effective in nutrition, students living in the dormitory, with good economic status and who believe that they have got adequate level of nutrition knowledge have passed less meal and have regular breakfast.As a result, it was found that students from Physical
... and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (SDB). 719.271-2 Section 719.271-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Policies 719.271-2 The USAID Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (SDB). (a) SDB...
de Greeff, J. W.; Hartman, E.; Mullender-Wijnsma, M. J.; Bosker, R. J.; Doolaard, S.; Visscher, C.
This study examined the differences between children with a low socioeconomic status [socially disadvantaged children (SDC)] and children without this disadvantage (non-SDC) on physical fitness and academic performance. In addition, this study determined the association between physical fitness and academic performance, and investigated the…
de Greeff, J. W.; Hartman, Esther; Mullender-Wijnsma, M. J.; Bosker, Roel J; Doolaard, Simone; Visscher, Chris
This study examined the differences between children with a low socioeconomic status [socially disadvantaged children (SDC)] and children without this disadvantage (non-SDC) on physical fitness and academic performance. In addition, this study determined the association between physical fitness and
OECD Publishing, 2016
Socio-economically advantaged and disadvantaged students are not equally exposed to mathematics problems and concepts at school. Exposure to mathematics at school has an impact on performance, and disadvantaged students' relative lack of familiarity with mathematics partly explains their lower performance. Widening access to mathematics content…
Lee, Hedwig; Harris, Kathleen M.; Lee, Joyce
Background: The rise in adolescent obesity has become a public health concern, especially because of its impact on disadvantaged youth. This article examines the role of disadvantage at the family-, peer-, school-, and neighborhood-level, to determine which contexts are related to obesity in adolescence and young adulthood. Methods: We analyzed…
As the recent economic crisis has demonstrated, inequality often spans credit and labor markets, supporting a system of cumulative disadvantage. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this research draws on stigma, cumulative disadvantage and status characteristics theories to examine whether credit and labor markets intersect…
McPhillips, Martin; Jordan-Black, Julie-Anne
Background: Empirical research suggests that social disadvantage has a negative effect on the development of language, and related cognitive skills such as reading. There is, however, no corresponding body of research on the impact of social disadvantage on motor development. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of…
Van Zomeren, M.; Postmes, T.; Spears, R.
The social psychology of collective action against collective disadvantage has hitherto underspecified, not to say neglected, the profound power of moral motivations. This is particularly important because moral motivations can unite disadvantaged and advantaged group members to fight for a joint ca
... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What procedures apply to disadvantaged status protests? 124.1010 Section 124.1010 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS..., Certification, and Protests Relating to Federal Small Disadvantaged Business Programs § 124.1010 What...
... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business... ASSISTANCE RULES General § 600.7 Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business participation. (a) DOE encourages the participation in financial assistance awards of small businesses, including those owned...
Stephens, Lena D.; McNaughton, Sarah A; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie
Background Links between socioeconomic disadvantage and unhealthy eating behaviours among adolescents are well established. Little is known about strategies that might support healthy eating among this target group. This study aimed to identify potential strategies and preferred dissemination methods that could be employed in nutrition promotion initiatives focussed on improving eating behaviours among socioeconomically disadvantaged adolescents. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conduc...
... farmer or rancher. 760.107 Section 760.107 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... disadvantaged, limited resource, or beginning farmer or rancher. (a) Risk management purchase requirements, as...) of this section, is eligible to be considered a “socially disadvantaged farmer or rancher,”...
Zikhali, Joyce; Perumal, Juliet
This qualitative multiple case study explored the sources of emotional stress experienced by 12 female Zimbabwean primary heads leading in socio-economic disadvantaged schools in Masvingo District and their attempts to alleviate the challenges that the children from these disadvantaged contexts presented them with. Data was generated through…
影響國中階段貧窮學生學業表現之因素探析―以臺灣兒童暨家庭扶助基金會扶助對象為例 Factors Affecting the Academic Achievement of Financially Disadvantaged Junior High School Students: A Case Study of Beneficiaries of the Taiwan Fund for Children and Families
丁學勤 Shueh-Chin Ting
Full Text Available 本研究是以財團法人臺灣兒童暨家庭扶助基金會執行並釋出的「臺灣兒童及少年長期追蹤調查計畫」，共有1402位國中學生進行分析，以瞭解親子關係、師生關係、教育期望及學習狀況等因素對學業表現的影響。相關資料經由結構方程模式統計檢定後，整體效果的分析顯示：1.親子關係對學業表現有負向顯著性影響；2.師生關係對學業表現有負向顯著性影響；3.師生關係對學習狀況會產生顯著正向影響；4.教育期望對學習狀況會產生顯著正向影響；5.學習狀況會對學業表現產生顯著正向影響；6.親子關係、師生關係、教育期望對學業表現的影響路徑亦可透過學習狀況的中介效果進而影 響。最後根據研究結果，提出相關建議供學校參考。 This research aimed to explore the effects of parent-child relationships, teacher-student relationships, educational expectations, learning situations, and academic achievement on academic performance. The sample was comprised of 1402 junior high school students, and was drawn from the “Taiwan panel study of children and youth”. After analysis, the major conclusions of the study were as follows: 1. parent-child relationships have a negative influence on academic achievement; 2. teacher-student relationships have a negative influence on academic achievement; 3. teacher-student relationships have a positive influence on learning situations; 4. educational expectations have a positive influence on learning situations; 5. learning situations have a positive influence on academic achievement; 6. learning situations have a significant mediating effect on the relationships among parent-child relationships, teacher-student relationships, and educational expectations. Finally, a number of suggestions based on the findings are offered as a reference for school administrators.
Snow, Pamela C; Eadie, Patricia A; Connell, Judy; Dalheim, Brenda; McCusker, Hugh J; Munro, John K
This study examined the impact of teacher professional development aimed at improving the capacity of primary teachers in disadvantaged schools to strengthen children's expressive and receptive oral language skills and early literacy success in the first 2 years of school. Fourteen low-SES schools in Victoria, Australia were randomly allocated to a research (n = 8) or control arm (n = 6), resulting in an initial sample of 1254 students, (n = 602 in research arm and n = 652 in control arm). The intervention comprised 6 days of teacher and principal professional development (delivered by language and literacy experts), school-based continuing contact with the research team and completion by one staff member of each research school of a postgraduate unit on early language and literacy. Schools in the control arm received standard teaching according to state auspiced curriculum guidelines. Full data were available on 979 students at follow-up (time 2). Students in the research arm performed significantly better on Test of Language Development: Primary (Fourth Edition) sub-tests (p ≤ .002) and the Reading Progress Test (F = 10.4(1); p = .001) than students in the control arm at time 2. Narrative scores were not significantly different at time 2, although students in research schools showed greater gains. Findings provide "proof of concept" for this approach, and are discussed with respect to implications for teacher professional development and pre-service education concerning the psycholinguistic competencies that underpin the transition to literacy.
Thelma Simões Matsukuraa
Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to identify and compare different situations of risk or protection in the socio-emotional development of children living in socioeconomically disadvantaged contexts. Seven (7 children aged eight to ten and their respective parents participated in the present survey. The children were 2nd to 5th grade students at an elementary public school in the countryside of Sao Paulo state. The subjects involved in this survey were divided into two different groups: one composed of children evaluated by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ – with clinical symptoms (Group with Clinical Symptoms of Mental Health - GSC; the other group was composed of children that did not present clinical symptoms (Group with Typical Development - GDT and their parents. Two different interview scripts were used for data collection: one answered by the children and the other responded by the parents. Data analysis was based on the technique of Collective Subject Discourse (CSD. The results showed similarities and differences between the GSC and GDT groups. Regarding the similarities, all the children have rules and responsibilities, and all the parents seek assistance in the care of their children by means of social, health and educational services. Concerning the differences, children in the GSC group refer to school in a negative way and have less support from their parents in school activities. It is worth mentioning that studies of this nature can contribute to the debate on public policies and practices aimed at this population.
Michael G. Prucha
Full Text Available Tobacco use is increasing globally, particularly in low and middle-income countries like the Dominican Republic (DR where data have been lacking. Health care worker (HCW interventions improve quit rates; asking patients about tobacco use at each visit is an evidence-based first step. This study provides the first quantitative examination of knowledge, attitudes and practices of DR HCWs regarding tobacco use. All HCWs (N = 153 in 7 economically disadvantaged DR communities were targeted with anonymous surveys. Approximately 70% (N = 107 completed the primary outcome item, asking about tobacco use at each encounter. Despite >85% strongly agreeing that they should ask about tobacco use at each encounter, only 48.6% reported doing so. While most (94.39% strongly agreed that smoking is harmful, knowledge of specific health consequences varied from 98.13% for lung cancer to 41.12% for otitis media. Few received training in tobacco intervention (38.32%. Exploratory analyses revealed that always asking even if patients are healthy, strongly agreeing that tobacco causes cardiac disease, and always advising smoke-free homes were associated with always asking. Overall, results demonstrate a disconnect between HCW belief and practice. Though most agreed that always asking about tobacco was important, fewer than half did so. Gaps in HCW knowledge and practices suggest a need for education and policy/infrastructure support. To our knowledge, this is the first reported survey of DR HCWs regarding tobacco, and provides a foundation for future tobacco control in the DR.
Poreddi, Vijayalakshmi; Ramachandra; Thimmaiah, Rohini; Math, Suresh Bada
Background: Globally women confront manifold violations of human rights and women with poverty and mental illness are doubly disadvantaged. Aim: The aim was to examine the influence of poverty in meeting human rights needs among recovered women with mental illness at family and community level. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive study carried out among randomly selected (n = 100) recovered women with mental illness at a tertiary care center. Data were collected through face-to-face interview using structured needs assessment questionnaire. Results: Our findings revealed that below poverty line (BPL) participants were not satisfied in meeting their physical needs such as “access to safe drinking water” (χ2 = 8.994, P rights needs in emotional dimension, that is, afraid of family members (χ2 = 8.233, P women from APL group expressed that they were discriminated and exploited by the community members (χ2 = 17.490, P women with mental illness. Further, mental health professionals play an essential role in educating the family and public regarding human rights of people with mental illness. PMID:26124524
Gallo, Linda C; Penedo, Frank J; Espinosa de los Monteros, Karla; Arguelles, William
Hispanics living in the United States may face substantial adversity, given stresses of immigration and acculturation, low incomes, poor educational and occupational opportunities, inadequate access to health care, and exposure to discrimination. Despite these disadvantages, the Hispanic population often shows equal or better health outcomes when compared to non-Hispanic Whites, a trend that has puzzled researchers and has been referred to as the "Hispanic Paradox." Hispanics with non-U.S. nativity also tend to show better health than those born in the United States, although this advantage dissipates with increasing time spent in the United States. The current article discusses the Reserve Capacity Model (L.C. Gallo & K. A. Matthews, 2003) as a potential framework for understanding how psychosocial risk and resilient factors may contribute to health disparities associated with broad sociocultural factors, such as low socioeconomic status or minority ethnicity. In addition, we examine theory concerning features of the Hispanic culture that may enhance resilience (e.g., social resources, familism, religiousness; G. Marin & B. V. Marin, 1991) in the face of adverse circumstances. We summarize some of our recent work that has empirically tested effects of risk and resilient factors in Hispanic health in the contexts of prostate cancer and cardiovascular disease. We conclude by discussing future directions and opportunities for researchers interested in culture-specific resiliency factors in relation to health outcomes.
Legro, Susan [Eco Ltd (Czech Republic)
This paper examines two community projects implemented by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). The first, Promoting Access to Energy Services to Foster Integration and Human Development for Disadvantaged Communities in Hungary and Slovakia with a Special Focus on the Roma, built on regional development work with isolated communities without reliable access to heat and electricity. The second, Energy Efficiency in Housing in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH), focused on a network of communities where rebuilding was underway following the Balkans conflict. While the projects took place in different environments, both shared common approaches. First, they focused on community energy planning in areas where infrastructure was severely deficient. Planning was designed so that current investments in building stock would not have to be retrofitted later for efficiency. Second, they linked energy agencies and NGOs with institutions outside of the energy/environment community, such as the National Minority Self Government in Hungary and the Ministry of Refugees in BiH . The projects thus leveraged funds and expertise from new sources while raising awareness of sustainable energy issues in organizations already funding infrastructure.While time and funding were limited by the terms of the grants, both projects established a foundation of information, planning, and partnerships. Both projects included baseline energy studies, training workshops, and practical guides for local leaders. In addition, there were tangible community benefits in education (reliable heat supply for a new kindergarten), jobs creation (wood-chipping in a municipal forest), and business development (contracts for efficient construction)
Bandias, Susan; Fuller, Don; Larkin, Steven
Important recent objectives of indigenous education policy in Australia have been aimed at redressing indigenous economic and social disadvantage through increasing student retention, progression and completion rates in both compulsory and post-compulsory education. The two sectors of the tertiary education system, vocational education and…
Full Text Available El perfeccionismo en la adolescencia ha sido asociado a altos niveles de desajuste y trastorno psicológico y bajos niveles de bienestar subjetivo y ajuste psicológico. Pero, no todas las dimensiones del perfeccionismo son insanas y desadaptativas. Mediante un análisis path se exploró un modelo para determinar cómo son las relaciones entre las dimensiones del perfeccionismo (autoexigencia y presión externa, la afectividad (positiva y negativa y la satisfacción con la vida, en el contexto de la educación física. Participaron 388 estudiantes de 1º a 4º de Secundaria (222 varones y 166 mujeres; M = 14.24 ± 1.45 años. La autoexigencia predijo de manera positiva y directa la satisfacción con la vida; el afecto positivo también medió esta relación. La presión externa predijo directa y negativamente la satisfacción con la vida, cuya relación fue también mediada por el afecto negativo. Los resultados confirman una dimensión saludable de perfeccionismo (autoexigencia y otra no saludable (presión externa en la adolescencia. Abstract Perfectionism during adolescence has been associated to high levels of psychological unbalance and distress, and low levels of subjective wellness and psychological adjustment. However, not all dimensions of perfectionism are negative and maladaptive. A path analysis was used to explore a model to determine the relations between two dimensions of perfectionism (Self-imposed and External pressures, affectivity (positive and negative and life satisfaction in physical education. 388 1st to 4th secondary students (222 males and 166 females; M = 14.24 ± 1.45 years agreed to participate. Self-imposed positively predicted life satisfaction, while positive affect mediated this effect. External pressures negatively predicted life satisfaction and negative affect mediated this effect. Results confirm a healthy dimension of perfectionism (self-imposed, and an unhealthy dimension (external pressures in adolescence.
Damian, Rodica Ioana; Su, Rong; Shanahan, Michael; Trautwein, Ulrich; Roberts, Brent W
This study investigated the interplay of family background and individual differences, such as personality traits and intelligence (measured in a large U.S. representative sample of high school students; N = 81,000) in predicting educational attainment, annual income, and occupational prestige 11 years later. Specifically, we tested whether individual differences followed 1 of 3 patterns in relation to parental socioeconomic status (SES) when predicting attained status: (a) the independent effects hypothesis (i.e., individual differences predict attainments independent of parental SES level), (b) the resource substitution hypothesis (i.e., individual differences are stronger predictors of attainments at lower levels of parental SES), and (c) the Matthew effect hypothesis (i.e., "the rich get richer"; individual differences are stronger predictors of attainments at higher levels of parental SES). We found that personality traits and intelligence in adolescence predicted later attained status above and beyond parental SES. A standard deviation increase in individual differences translated to up to 8 additional months of education, $4,233 annually, and more prestigious occupations. Furthermore, although we did find some evidence for both the resource substitution and the Matthew effect hypotheses, the most robust pattern across all models supported the independent effects hypothesis. Intelligence was the exception, the interaction models being more robust. Finally, we found that although personality traits may help compensate for background disadvantage to a small extent, they do not usually lead to a "full catch-up" effect, unlike intelligence. This was the first longitudinal study of status attainment to test interactive models of individual differences and background factors.
Pettit, E. C.; Conner, L.; Tzou, C.
Expeditionary science differs from laboratory science in that expeditionary science teams conduct investigations in conditions that are often physically and socially, as well as intellectually, challenging. Team members live in close quarters for extended periods of time, team building and leadership affect the scientific process, and research tools are limited to what is available on site. Girls on Ice is an expeditionary science experience primarily for disadvantaged girls; it fully immerses girls in a mini scientific expedition to study alpine, glacierized environments. In addition to mentoring the girls through conducting their own scientific research, we encourage awareness and discussion of different sociocultural perspectives on the relation between the natural world, science, and society. The experience aligns closely with the apprenticeship model of learning, which can be effective in enhancing identification with science. Using a mixed-methods approach, we show that the Girls on Ice model helps girls (1) increase their interest and engagement in science and build a stronger science identity, (2) develop confidence, importantly they develop a combined physical and intellectual confidence; (3) engage in authentic scientific thinking, including critical thinking and problem solving; and (4) enhance leadership self-confidence. We discuss these results in a learning sciences framework, which posits that learning is inseparable from the social and physical contexts in which it takes place.
Full Text Available This research examined disadvantageous inequality aversion in 4- and 6-year-old children. Using the resource allocation paradigm, we explored how inequality aversion was influenced by whether a cost was associated with the equitable choice. We also investigated whether preferences for equality differed depending on whether the inequitable choice presented a small or large discrepancy between the payoff of the participant and their partner. The results demonstrated that cost plays a large role in decision-making, as children preferred equality more when there was no cost associated with it compared to when there was a cost. Interestingly, the effect of cost also affected discrepancy, with children more likely to choose equality when the discrepancy was large as opposed to small, in cost trials but not in no cost trials. Finally, the effect of discrepancy also interacted with age, with older children being more sensitive to the discrepancy between themselves and their partner Together, these results suggest that children’s behaviour is not indiscriminately guided by a generalized aversion to inequality or established fairness norms. Alternate motives for inequality aversion are discussed.
Full Text Available In today’s society, following the exponential development of ICT, the classical method of learning has undergone numerous changes. The emergence of the Internet has accelerated these changes due to its capacity to offer multiple possibilities of access to information, instruction, all based on dynamic technologies, transparency and open dialogue. It can be well said that the Internet is turning into an arbiter for the access to education and culture, while eLearning is a new form of education that suggests itself as an alternative with a view to the needs of continuing training and knowledge. The most widely known results of this change are obvious in two learning models mediated by ICT: eLearning and Computer-assisted learning. As well as the classical models, these models imply an efficient learning process based on well-grounded cooperation and communication activities. Moreover, these models require appropriate technology and equipment. It is also important for the eLearners to have knowledge of the new technologies. The great advantage of eLearning is the abolition of formal barriers by eliminating distances, by introducing temporal flexibility and the creation of a new type of student-teacher relationship. The authors have asked the question whether the greatest advantages of this new way of learning and refreshing will still hold for those of a higher educational and financial status, thus deepening unequal opportunity of chances. A team of members of the teaching staff of "Alexandru Ioan Cuza" University of Iasi (UAIC and the Academy of Economic Studies of Bucharest (ASE have carried out a survey among the students of the two institutions regarding the students' perceptions, expectations and attitudes related to eLearning and the identifi-cation of the profile of the student with access to this form of education. The paper presents some of the most important findings of this research.
Master Plan for California Public Education, March 2000, 1; available at <http://www.kern.org/ masterplan / access.html>. 43 Ravitch, Left Back, 19. 44...Access and Equity for All Students.” A Master Plan for California Public Education, March 2000. Available at <http://www.kern.org/ masterplan
影響國中階段貧窮學生學業表現之因素探析―以臺灣兒童暨家庭扶助基金會扶助對象為例 Factors Affecting the Academic Achievement of Financially Disadvantaged Junior High School Students: A Case Study of Beneficiaries of the Taiwan Fund for Children and Families
丁學勤 Shueh-Chin Ting; 曾智豐 Chih-Feng Tseng
本研究是以財團法人臺灣兒童暨家庭扶助基金會執行並釋出的「臺灣兒童及少年長期追蹤調查計畫」，共有1402位國中學生進行分析，以瞭解親子關係、師生關係、教育期望及學習狀況等因素對學業表現的影響。相關資料經由結構方程模式統計檢定後，整體效果的分析顯示：1.親子關係對學業表現有負向顯著性影響；2.師生關係對學業表現有負向顯著性影響；3.師生關係對學習狀況會產生顯著正向影響；4.教育期望對學習狀況會產生顯著正向影響；5.學習狀況會對學業表現產生顯著正向影響；6.親子關係、師生關係、教育期望對學業表現的影響路徑亦可透過學習狀況的中介效果進而影 響。最後根據研究結果，提出相關建議供學校參考。 This research aimed to explore the effects of parent-child relationships, teacher-student relationships, educational expectations, learning situations, and academic achievement on academic performan...
Pallavi Amitava Banerjee
Full Text Available Socio-economic hardships put children in an underprivileged position. This systematic review was conducted to identify factors linked to underachievement of disadvantaged pupils in school science and maths. What could be done as evidence-based practice to make the lives of these young people better? The protocol from preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA was followed. Major electronic educational databases were searched. Papers meeting pre-defined selection criteria were identified. Studies included were mainly large-scale evaluations with a clearly defined comparator group and robust research design. All studies used a measure of disadvantage such as lower SES, language barrier, ethnic minority or temporary immigrant status and an outcome measure like attainment in standardised national tests. A majority of papers capable of answering the research question were correlational studies. The review reports findings from 771 studies published from 2005 to 2014 in English language. Thirty-four studies were synthesised. Results suggest major factors linking deprivation to underachievement can be thematically categorised into a lack of positive environment and support. Recommendations from the research reports are discussed.
Full Text Available This paper is a comparative study about the principal stochastic methods that is used in Project Management. Risk determination is a mustfor every Project Manager worldwide, but the methods have, of course, advantages and disadvantages. Further, many Project Managers work withdeterministic methods, but they see only the advantages or disadvantages of those methods. In Subject of this paper it is Risk determination inprojects. The advantages and disadvantages of stochastic methods. Choosing the theme of this paper is not randomly, it continues a series of articlespublished for strengthen of scientific research in the Doctorate studies that I followed since 2005.
Pantic, Maja; Evers, Vanessa; Deisenroth, Marc; Merino, Luis; Schuller, Björn
Social and Affective Robotics is a growing multidisciplinary field encompassing computer science, engineering, psychology, education, and many other disciplines. It explores how social and affective factors influence interactions between humans and robots, and how affect and social signals can be se
Full Text Available The article substantiates the necessity to develop technology business planning innovative projects. Arguments made by the ground analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of existing business planning technologies.
Sengupta, Nikhil K; Sibley, Chris G
Contact with the dominant group can increase opposition, among the disadvantaged, to social policies that would benefit their group. This effect can be explained in terms of contact promoting support for an ideology of meritocracy, which privileges the distribution of societal resources based on individual merit, rather than group-level disadvantage. We tested this ideological mechanism in a large, nationally representative sample of Māori (a disadvantaged group in New Zealand; N = 1,008). Positive intergroup contact with the dominant group (New Zealand Europeans) predicted increased opposition to a topical reparative policy (Māori ownership of the foreshore), and this was fully mediated by increased support for the ideology of meritocracy. Intergroup contact may enable the ideological legitimation of inequality among members of disadvantaged groups, engendering political attitudes that are detrimental to their group's interests. Contact with ingroup members had the opposite effect, increasing support for reparative policy by reducing subscription to meritocratic ideology.
Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Martin, Sandra L; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Schoenbach, Victor J
Using data from the North Carolina Violent Death Reporting System and other sources, we examined ecologic relationships between county (n = 100) disadvantage and intimate partner homicide (IPH), variability by victim gender and county urbanicity, and potential mediators. County disadvantage was related to female-victim homicide only in metropolitan counties (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 1.25); however, disadvantage was associated with male-victim IPH regardless of county urbanicity (IRR 1.17). None of the potential intervening variables examined (shelter availability, intimate partner violence services' funding) was supported as a mediator. Results suggest disparities across North Carolina counties in IPH according to county disadvantage. Future research should explore other potential mediators (i.e., service accessibility and law enforcement responses), as well as test the robustness of findings using additional years of data.
Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Martin, Sandra L.; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Schoenbach, Victor J.
Using data from the North Carolina Violent Death Reporting System and other sources, we examined ecologic relationships between county (n=100) disadvantage and intimate partner homicide (IPH), variability by victim gender and county urbanicity, and potential mediators. County disadvantage was related to female-victim homicide only in metropolitan counties (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 1.25); however, disadvantage was associated with male-victim IPH regardless of county urbanicity (IRR 1.17). None of the potential intervening variables examined (shelter availability, intimate partner violence services’ funding), was supported as a mediator. Results suggest disparities across North Carolina counties in IPH according to county disadvantage. Future research should explore other potential mediators (i.e., service accessibility and law enforcement responses), as well as test the robustness of findings using additional years of data. PMID:20565007
Leijten, P.; Raaijmakers, M.A.J.; Orobio de Castro, B.; van den Ban, E.; Matthys, W.
Families with socioeconomically disadvantaged and ethnic minority backgrounds are often hard to reach for the prevention and treatment of disruptive child behavior problems. We examined whether the Incredible Years parenting intervention can successfully reach and benefit families with socioeconomic
... Business, Small Disadvantaged Business and Woman-Owned Small Business Concerns. 970.1907 Section 970.1907... MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Small, Small Disadvantaged and Women-Owned Small Business Concerns 970.1907 Subcontracting with Small Business, Small Disadvantaged Business and Woman-Owned Small...
..., HUBZone SBCs, Small and Disadvantaged Businesses, or Women-Owned Small Businesses qualify as SDVO SBCs..., HUBZone SBCs, Small and Disadvantaged Businesses, or Women-Owned Small Businesses qualify as SDVO SBCs? Yes, 8(a) Program participants, HUBZone SBCs, Small and Disadvantaged Businesses, and......
We examined the effect of perceptions of advantage and disadvantage on the variability and stability of efficacy beliefs in a competition. Perceptions of advantageous or disadvantageous opening position were experimentally manipulated (keeping the actual positions equal) and pre- and post-competition efficacy beliefs were observed. Perceiving an advantage resulted in more variability and less stability in efficacy beliefs. These results are explained by the higher sensiti...
The established theories on the performance of the foreign firm in host country markets raise a puzzle: on the one hand, foreign ventures may be more likely to possess certain advantages that could help them outperform local competitors. On the other hand, foreign ventures suffer a disadvantage stemming from their unfamiliarity with the host market conditions, so-called liability of foreignness. Thus, certain questions arise about the severity of the foreigners disadvantage and the use of com...
Full Text Available It has been suggested that group composition can influence the experiences of individual group members in social programmes (Weiss, 1998. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between peer group composition in sports programmes and positive youth development (PYD in disadvantaged girls, as well as to determine whether it was moderated by personal characteristics. Two hundred young women aged between 10 and 24 completed a questionnaire including, among others, the “Youth Experience Survey for Sport” (YES-S (MacDonald, Côté, Eys, & Deakin, 2012 and questions regarding participants’ socio-economic characteristics (i.e., nationality, education, family situation. Multilevel regression analyses were performed to take into account the hierarchical data structure. At the group level, a higher percentage of girls from a low educational track and with a migration background predicted greater PYD, as indicated by higher levels of personal and social skills, cognitive skills and goal setting. Results showed interaction effects between the respondents’ family structures on the participant and team levels. The overall statistical models for the different developmental domains accounted for variance ranging from 14.7% (personal and social skills to 30.3% (cognitive skills. Results indicated that the extent to which disadvantaged girls derive benefits from their participation in sport also depends on the group composition. The interaction effects between the group composition and individual characteristics suggest that when girls participate in a group of similar peers, those from non-intact families will derive more benefits than their counterparts from intact families.
van Langen, Annemarie; Dekkers, Hetty
Describes Dutch policies to combat educational disadvantage arising from economic, social, and cultural factors by funding efforts at the local level. Compares Dutch efforts to success factors and obstacles encountered in similar initiatives in the United States, England and Wales, and Australia, where public education and local authority have…
Full Text Available The analysis of the development of the phenomenon in Romania has the role to highlight the trend that has been followed by the number of organisational entities that have been affected by the insolvency phenomenon in Romania, the distribution by counties and regions of the number of insolvency cases as well as the activity sectors that have been most affected by this phenomenon. At the same time, in order to provide an overall picture regarding the size of the insolvency phenomenon in Romania, organisational entities with extremely high turnovers have been given as examples, (legal entities entities which, since 2008 up to the present moment, have been crossing one of the stages of the insolvency procedure. Some of them have been applied the simplified insolvency procedure, since they didn’t have the possibility to reorganise, and others, fewer in number, have used insolvency as a „rescue boat”, following the general insolvency procedure and entering a reorganisation process, in the attempt to avoid bankruptcy.
Urban design and architecture are increasingly used as material and affective strategies for setting the scene, for manipulation and the production of urban life: The orchestration of atmospheres, the framing and staging of urban actions, the programming for contemplation, involvement, play, expe...... affects can be choreographed and designed intentionally or whether it arises from unpredictable circumstances within urbanity itself....
of environmental knowledge production. It uses InfoAmazonia, the databased platform on Amazon rainforests, as an example of affective geo-visualization within information mapping that enhances embodiment in the experience of the information. Amazonia is defined as a digitally created affective (map)space within...
Veldman, Karin; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Almansa, Josue; Verhulst, Frank C.; Bultmann, Ute
Background Young adults at work without basic educational level (BEL), and young adults in Neither Employment, Education nor Training (NEET) are at high risk of adverse employment outcomes. Evidence lacks on the impact of mental health problems during childhood, adolescence and young adulthood on em
Wells, Trent; Perry, Dustin K.; Anderson, Ryan G.; Shultz, Matthew J.; Paulsen, Thomas H.
Agricultural mechanics coursework has historically been considered an important and necessary construct of the secondary agricultural education curriculum (Burris, Robinson, & Terry, 2005). With expectations of offering secondary agricultural mechanics coursework apparent, it is vital that agricultural education teachers be prepared to address…
Koo, Tae Seo
Interdisciplinary design education is becoming more important as design disciplines need various perspectives and solutions. However, only a limited amount of research has been done in regard to interdisciplinary design education. The goal of this study is to begin to answer the question about how designers and researchers develop and improve…
de Oliveira Andreotti, Vanessa; Fa'afoi, Amosa; Sitomaniemi-San, Johanna; Ahenakew, Cash
This article presents an analysis of journal entries of student teachers in a course on multicultural and language studies in primary education in Aotearoa/New Zealand, which was informed by a discursive strand of postcolonial theory, in particular Gayatri C. Spivak's ideas of education "to-come" as an "un-coercive rearrangement of…
Campbell, Charles R.
This practicum evaluated the impact which Arizona State University (ASU) at Tempe's sports operation had on the university's ability to carry out its mission of education and research. Information was collected from library research on sports operations and educational institutions in general, and on the sports program at ASU. Personal interviews…
Lundja, J. O.; Decrosta, J. T.; Lechuga, P.
Government schools in Congo kinshasa are not providing quality education to the masses since many years, and this phenomenon has not escaped the eyes of experts, activists, and policy makers. However, there seems to be a general perception that the main, and sometimes even the sole, source of this problem are the low levels of government expenditure of education. And to prove their case supports of this view cite educational expenditure to GDP ratios in Congo kinshasa in comparison with that of some other nations. Though there may be reasonable arguments to increase the level of government expenditure on education, such hijacking of public debate to focus on - the level of expenditure - often overlooks more important issues. Contrary to common perception the level of per student expenditure on government schools in Delhi is reasonable, ranging from Fc.6000 to Fc.12000 p.a. There are a number of organisational deficiencies which do not create checks and balances for appropriate utilization of fund. Moreover, the division of these funds among social groups and for different purposes is also questionable. Though, female literacy lags significantly behind male literacy, about 15% points, extra resources provided for female education are insignificant. And in some schemes such as the one run for 'street children' and 'child labourers', large amounts are budgeted year after year without a single French congolese being spent. Also government schools catering to richer regions of Kinshasa seem to be spending more per child as compared to the poorer counterparts. The paper also proposes an education voucher model, which may have the potential to address some of the issues raised in the paper. Trends in expenditure under some schemes have been studied in relation to the purpose of expenditure. The issue of government expenditure on education is a complex one, and public space should be utilized to discuss them as they are, rather than reducing discussion to dogmatic wars
Sociologists have consistently demonstrated that a rather strong association exists between an individual's social class origin and their social class destination, even after controlling for educational attainment. One explanation for this persisting association which is rarely addressed in research in social stratification and mobility is the extent to which class inequalities in access to advantaged class positions are due to discrimination by employers. I set up a field experiment to test whether employers discriminate on the basis of class origin characteristics. I sent letters of job application for professional and managerial occupations to 2560 large UK companies, so as to compare the prospects of equally matched potential employees differing on a range of characteristics, some related to class of origin. The six treatment conditions in the experiment were: the name of the candidate, the type of school attended, the candidate's interests outside work, their sex, the university that they attended and their achieved degree class. Results suggest that employers do pay attention to the class origin characteristics tested here, and that candidates with a name, school type and interests associated with the social elite are more likely to receive a reply to their application than candidates with the equivalent non-elite characteristics. However, the treatment conditions do not, on the whole, have significant effects on the employers' responses in and of themselves. Instead, employers appear to favour particular combinations of characteristics while penalising others.
... search of temporary and seasonal work. Given the nature of their employment, migratory workers and their... for migratory children may cause delays in student enrollment, lead to inappropriate classroom and... FR 29994), and the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) approved the collection of 66 MDEs...
Sbarbaro, Victor S.; Enyeart Smith, Theresa M.
This water safety study was both descriptive and exploratory in nature. The purpose was for middle school students to assess their own water safety experiences and to help school decision-makers determine the extent of drowning/water accidents. In July 2009, a water safety survey was administered to 122 students participating in the local Summer…
This experiment, conducted at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem, Israel was undertaken to determine if adolescents of impaired cognitive ability caused by social and/or cultural deprivation could be rehabilitated through the use of proper teaching and counseling methods. Counseling for the experimental group of students was done by a social…
The Labor government in Australia has recently embarked on an extremely ambitious program of social inclusion for the most marginalized groups in society. Drawing upon the approach of "policy scholarship" this paper examines some federal government "policy texts" to describe what has occurred and asks questions about what is meant by the social…
The Labor government in Australia has recently embarked on an extremely ambitious program of social inclusion for the most marginalized groups in society. Drawing upon the approach of "policy scholarship" this paper examines some federal government "policy texts" to describe what has occurred and asks questions about what is…
Gill, Judith; Tranter, Deborah
The long-standing relationship between social disadvantage and poor educational outcomes continues to preoccupy educational policy-makers, with teachers at the front line of the ongoing struggle. Across the range of equity concerns, gender may be noted as either qualifying disadvantage or compounding it, but the meaning of gender as a simple…
Alghali, A.M.; Turay, Edward D.A.; Thompson, Ekundayo J.D.; Kandeh, Joseph B.A.
The Sierra Leone National Education Master Plan 1997-2006 deals with all aspects of the formal and non-formal sectors of the education system, providing support for basic education, education for the physically challenged, disadvantaged and gifted learners, women and girls' education, technical/vocational and science education, tertiary education,…
Shareck, Martine; Kestens, Yan; Frohlich, Katherine L
The focus, in place and health research, on a single, residential, context overlooks the fact that individuals are mobile and experience other settings in the course of their daily activities. Socio-economic characteristics are associated with activity patterns, as well as with the quality of places where certain groups conduct activities, i.e. their non-residential activity space. Examining how measures of exposure to resources, and inequalities thereof, compare between residential and non-residential contexts is required. Baseline data from 1890 young adults (18-25 years-old) participating in the Interdisciplinary Study of Inequalities in Smoking, Montreal, Canada (2011-2012), were analyzed. Socio-demographic and activity location data were collected using a validated, self-administered questionnaire. Area-level material deprivation was measured within 500-m road-network buffer zones around participants' residential and activity locations. Deprivation scores in the residential area and non-residential activity space were compared between social groups. Multivariate linear regression was used to estimate associations between individual- and area-level characteristics and non-residential activity space deprivation, and to explore whether these characteristics attenuated the education-deprivation association. Participants in low educational categories lived and conducted activities in more disadvantaged areas than university students/graduates. Educational inequalities in exposure to area-level deprivation were larger in the non-residential activity space than in the residential area for the least educated, but smaller for the intermediate group. Adjusting for selected covariates such as transportation resources and residential deprivation did not significantly attenuate the education-deprivation associations. Results support the existence of social isolation in residential areas and activity locations, whereby less educated individuals tend to be confined to more
O'Hara, Blythe J; Phongsavan, Philayrath; Venugopal, Kamalesh; Bauman, Adrian E
To address increasing rates of overweight and obesity, a population-based telephone intervention was introduced in New South Wales, Australia. The Get Healthy Information and Coaching Service® (GHS) offered participants a 6-month coaching program or detailed self-help information. Determining the population reach of GHS is of public health importance to ensure that the program reaches disadvantaged groups. This paper describes the socio-demographic and risk profile of participants (n = 4828) in the first 18 months of operations, determines how representative they are of the population, assesses changes in participants' socio-demographic profile and compares 'information-only' and 'coaching' participants. The results show that GHS users are representative of the adult population in relation to education, employment status, Aboriginal status, fruit and vegetable consumption and alcohol use. However, more female, middle-aged, English-speaking, rural and socially disadvantaged adults participated in GHS. Coaching Participants were more likely to be overweight and to be ex-smokers than the general population. There was substantial variability in GHS recruitment, when mass-reach television advertising was used, participants enrolled from a major city and from more disadvantaged communities. The GHS has broader population reach than many local interventions, but further efforts are needed to increase reach by Aboriginal communities, other minorities and men.
Bradshaw, Daragh; Jay, Sarah; McNamara, Namh; Stevenson, Clifford; Muldoon, Orla T
There is increasing acceptance that children are not unaware of when they are targets of discrimination. However, discrimination as a consequence of socio-economic disadvantage remains understudied. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of perceived discrimination on well-being, perceptions of safety and school integration amongst children growing up within socio-economically disadvantaged communities in Limerick, Ireland. Mediation analysis was used to explore these relationships and to examine the potential role of parental support and community identity in boys and girls in the 6th to 9th year of compulsory education (N = 199). Results indicate perceived discrimination contributed to negative outcomes in terms of school integration, perceptions of safety and levels of well-being. Age and gender differences were observed which disadvantaged boys and younger children. All negative outcomes were buffered by parental support. Community identity also protected young people in terms of feelings of school integration and risk but not in terms of psychological well-being. Findings are discussed in terms of the different role of family and community supports for children negotiating negative social representations of their community.
Visual basic educational programme Informational Technologies has become such a popular subject that they are applied in all works of life. However, Informational Technologies are still rarely used in the lessons at school. There are such reasons of the mentioned issue: · Insufficient base of computers, · The old software and its disadvantages, · The lack of computerized educational programmes. The aim of the work was to prove that it is actual to create computerized educat...
Aurino Lima Ferreira
Full Text Available O presente artigo versa sobre as contribuições de Henri Wallon à relação cognição e afetividade na educação. Situa e define os complexos afetivos e cognitivos na teoria waloniana e destaca a noção de pessoa engajada como síntese fundamental para o entendimento da relação entre afetividade e cognição no campo educacional. Busca ainda apontar a importância da visão dialética e humanista da pessoa completa de Wallon para as práticas educacionais e retoma a ideia de "circularidade fundamental" de Francisco Varela para atualizar a visão de Wallon sobre a não separatividade entre homem e mundo.This paper focuses on the contributions from Henri Wallon about the relationship between cognition and affectivity in the education. It also defines the complex interdependency between affective and cognitive dimensions of such theory and emphasizes the notion of engaged person as a fundamental synthesis to understanding the relationship between affectivity and cognition in the educational field. This article also highlights the importance of dialectical and humanist view of integral person for educational practices and it incorporates the idea of "fundamental circularity" of Francisco Varela aiming to updating the view of Wallon about non-separateness between human beings and world.
目的了解成教大学生心理健康状况的影响因素 .方法随机抽取某大学成教大学生190名,用SCL-90量表和艾森克个性问卷(EPQ)进行测试.结果 44.44%成教大学生存在心理障碍,分析出主要影响因素.结论针对主要影响因素采取措施,减少成教大学生心理障碍发生.%Objective To understand on factors affecting adult -educated undergraduates' psychological health situation. Methods One hundred and ninety adult-educated undergraduates of a university were selected in random to let them take tests of SCL-90 measuring table a nd EPQ questionaire. Results There were 44.44 percent of adult-educated undergraduates who had psychological obstacle. Important affecting variables were screened out. Conclusions After knowing these important affecting variables, we can tak e some actions to reduce the occurence of psychological obstacle among adult-ed ucated undergraduates.
Full Text Available Children from disadvantaged backgrounds often face impoverished auditory environments, such as greater exposure to ambient noise and fewer opportunities to participate in complex language interactions during development. These circumstances increase their risk for academic failure and dropout. Given the academic and neural benefits associated with musicianship, music training may be one method for providing auditory enrichment to children from disadvantaged backgrounds. We followed a group of disadvantaged primary-school students from gang reduction zones in Los Angeles, CA for two years as they participated in the Harmony Project. By providing free community music instruction for disadvantaged children, the Harmony Project promotes the healthy development of children as learners, the development of children as ambassadors of peace and understanding, and the development of stronger communities. Children who were more engaged in the music program—as defined by better attendance and classroom participation—developed stronger brain encoding of speech after two years than their less-engaged peers in the program. Additionally, children who were more engaged in the program showed increases in reading scores, while those less engaged did not show improvements. The neural gains accompanying music engagement were seen in the very measures of neural speech processing that are weaker in children from disadvantaged backgrounds. Our results suggest that community music programs such as Harmony Project provide a form of auditory enrichment that counteracts some of the biological adversities of growing up in poverty, and can further support for community-based interventions aimed at improving child health and wellness.
Erin A. Cech
Full Text Available Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT individuals in U.S. workplaces often face disadvantages in pay, promotion, and inclusion and emergent research suggests that these disadvantages may be particularly pernicious within science and engineering environments. However, no research has systematically examined whether LGBT employees indeed encounter disadvantages in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM organizations. Using representative data of over 30,000 workers employed in six STEM-related federal agencies (the Department of Energy, the Environmental Protection Agency, the National Science Foundation, NASA, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and the Department of Transportation, over 1000 of whom identify as LGBT, we compare the workplace experiences of LGBT employees in STEM-related federal agencies with those of their non-LGBT colleagues. Across numerous measures along two separate dimensions of workplace experiences—perceived treatment as employees and work satisfaction—LGBT employees in STEM agencies report systematically more negative workplace experiences than their non-LGBT colleagues. Exploring how these disadvantages vary by agency, supervisory status, age cohort, and gender, we find that LGBT persons have more positive experiences in regulatory agencies but that supervisory status does not improve LGBT persons’ experiences, nor do the youngest LGBT employees fare better than their older LGBT colleagues. LGBT-identifying men and women report similar workplace disadvantages. We discuss the implications of these findings for STEM organizations and STEM inequality more broadly.
农村中小学布局调整中的弱势伤害与补偿——基于全国9省（区）的调查%On Injury of Disadvantaged Groups and Compensation of Schools' Mapping and Planning In Rural Primary and Secondary Schools Based on the Survey in Nine Provinces of China
农村中小学布局调整使上学距离和家庭经济状况成为影响教育公平的关键因素。受此影响，处于相对弱势的偏远和交通不便地区学生、家庭经济困难学生、低龄学生、留守儿童、寄宿学生与被关闭校点学生的公平受教育权受到了不同程度的伤害。农村中小学布局调整中的弱势伤害是弱势群体自身的弱势地位与布局调整政策的负面影响相互作用的结果。要解决这一问题，必须在确立布局调整合理政策价值取向和目标的基础上对受损弱势受教育群体进行必要的补偿。%The distance from home to school and the economic factors (tuition) have become the key factors that affect the educational equity during the rural primary and secondary schools' mapping. Therefore, for students who live in relatively disadvantaged remote and inaccessible areas, the students who come from the families with financial difficulties, the students whose age is below the expected level, the children who are left in relatively disadvantaged areas, the boarding students and the students whose schools have been closed, their rights of educational equity have been severely damaged. The disadvantaged injury is the resultant interaction between the weak position of vulnerable groups and negative impacts of the school-mapping policies. To solve this problem, governments must provide the necessary compensation for vulnerable education groups on the basis of the reasonable policy value orientation and the goal of school-mapping.
Frank Sosa, Dept. of the Air Force Col Juan Urbano , Peruvian Army Dr. Francis A’Hearn, Faculty Prof. William Mayall, Faculty COL Mark McGuire...Germany House of Commons, Parliamentary Undersecretary State for Education, England Ministry of Science, Research, and Art , Stuttgart, Germany...markets. Fifty percent of the elementary market is composed of reading and language arts . Mathematics and a combination social sciences/science and
Full Text Available The work of teachers has a signiﬁcant role both with regard to learners’ achievement and their opportunities in life. In the context of a developing country, particularly with respect to township and rural schools, it is a common occurrence that many practising teachers are un- or under qualiﬁed for the teaching of mathematics. What kind of professional development would be effective for upgrading the content knowledge and professional competence of such teachers? It is the aim of this article to give an overview of a professional development approach, called mentorship by master mathematics teachers, which had a positive effect both on teacher learning and their learners’ performance. Where mentorship usually focuses on the induction of beginning or student teachers, the Teacher Mentorship Programme (TMP in this case, had as its target experienced teachers who had been teaching mathematics for years in township schools, but without the appropriate qualiﬁcations. The mentee teachers had never previously, due to no fault of their own, been exposed to excellent teaching practices as learners, student or practising teachers. The TMP was an initiative of a university’s Faculty of Engineering, that collaborated with private engineering companies and the Department of Education with the aim of preparing more and better equipped Grade 12 leavers who enrol for studies in engineering and technology related ﬁelds. The intended outcomes of the TMP were: To improve teachers’ content knowledge, pedagogical competence and attitude towards mathematics and science. To broaden teachers’ knowledge of careers related to the mathematics, science and technology ﬁelds. To improve learners’ attitudes towards mathematics, science and related careers. To increase the number of learners who enrol for mathematics on the higher grade which is the equivalent of “core” mathematics in the new National Curriculum Statement.Why a mentorship programme
Lucia Gonzalez; Celeste Seley; Julieta Martorano; Isabella Garcia-Moreno; Alcides Troncoso
Objective:To study anemia in AIDS patients and its relation with socioeconomic, employment status and educational levels. Methods:A total number of 442 patients who visited the Infectious Diseases University Hospital in Buenos Aires, Argentina were included in the study. Patients were dividied into two groups, i.e. one with anemia and the other without anemia. Anemia epidemiology and its relationship with educational level, housing, job situation, monthly income, total daily caloric intake and weekly intake of meat were evaluated. Results: Anemia was found in 228 patients (54%). Comparing patients with or without anemia, a statistically significant difference was found (P<0.000 1) in those whose highest educational level reached was primary school, who lived in a precarious home, who had no stable job or were unable to work, whose income was less than 30 dollars per month, whose meat consumption was less than twice a week or received less than 8 000 calories per day. Conclusions:The high prevalence of anemia found in poor patients with AIDS suggests that poverty increases the risk to suffer from this hematological complication. The relationship between economic development policies and AIDS is complex. Our results seem to point to the fact that AIDS epidemic may affect economic development and in turn be affected by it. If we consider that AIDS affects the economically active adult population, despite recent medical progress it usually brings about fatal consequences, especially within the poorest sectors of society where the disease reduces the average life expectancy, increases health care demand and tends to exacerbate poverty and iniquity.
Full Text Available Olatunde Aremu1,2, Stephen Lawoko1, Koustuv Dalal1,31Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 2College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria; 3Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Centre for Health Technology Assessment, Linköping University, SwedenBackground: High maternal mortality continues to be a major public health problem in most part of the developing world, including Nigeria. Understanding the utilization pattern of maternal healthcare services has been accepted as an important factor for reducing maternal deaths. This study investigates the effect of neighborhood and individual socioeconomic position on the utilization of different forms of place of delivery among women of reproductive age in Nigeria.Methods: A population-based multilevel discrete choice analysis was performed using the most recent population-based 2008 Nigerian Demographic and Health Surveys data of women aged between 15 and 49 years. The analysis was restricted to 15,162 ever-married women from 888 communities across the 36 states of the federation including the Federal Capital Territory of Abuja.Results: The choice of place to deliver varies across the socioeconomic strata. The results of the multilevel discrete choice models indicate that with every other factor controlled for, the household wealth status, women's occupation, women's and partner's high level of education attainment, and possession of health insurance were associated with use of private and government health facilities for child birth relative to home delivery. The results also show that higher birth order and young maternal age were associated with use of home delivery. Living in a highly socioeconomic disadvantaged neighborhood is associated with home birth compared with the patronage of government health facilities. More specifically, the result revealed that choice of facility-based delivery is clustered around the neighborhoods
Aremu, Olatunde; Lawoko, Stephen; Dalal, Koustuv
Background High maternal mortality continues to be a major public health problem in most part of the developing world, including Nigeria. Understanding the utilization pattern of maternal healthcare services has been accepted as an important factor for reducing maternal deaths. This study investigates the effect of neighborhood and individual socioeconomic position on the utilization of different forms of place of delivery among women of reproductive age in Nigeria. Methods A population-based multilevel discrete choice analysis was performed using the most recent population-based 2008 Nigerian Demographic and Health Surveys data of women aged between 15 and 49 years. The analysis was restricted to 15,162 ever-married women from 888 communities across the 36 states of the federation including the Federal Capital Territory of Abuja. Results The choice of place to deliver varies across the socioeconomic strata. The results of the multilevel discrete choice models indicate that with every other factor controlled for, the household wealth status, women’s occupation, women’s and partner’s high level of education attainment, and possession of health insurance were associated with use of private and government health facilities for child birth relative to home delivery. The results also show that higher birth order and young maternal age were associated with use of home delivery. Living in a highly socioeconomic disadvantaged neighborhood is associated with home birth compared with the patronage of government health facilities. More specifically, the result revealed that choice of facility-based delivery is clustered around the neighborhoods. Conclusion Home delivery, which cuts across all socioeconomic strata, is a common practice among women in Nigeria. Initiatives that would encourage the appropriate use of healthcare facilities at little or no cost to the most disadvantaged should be accorded the utmost priority. PMID:21792338
Pedersen, Signe Holm; Poulsen, Stig Bernt; Lunn, Susanne
Gergely and colleagues’ state that their Social Biofeedback Theory of Parental Affect Mirroring” can be seen as a kind of operationalization of the classical psychoanalytic concepts of holding, containing and mirroring. This article examines to what extent the social biofeedback theory of parenta...
In the process of English learning, the affective features of English Education majors are u nique. Though most students have definite learning motivation, the existing affective barriers, inclu- ding serious anxiety, lack of confidence, strong consciousness of peer competition, affect certainly their learning efficiency, and consequently prevent the all-round development of the students. This paper investigates the affective barriers existing among English Education majors by means of ques- tionnaire and interview investigation, and puts forward three intervention strategies for the students to foster positive emotions and overcome affective barriers. The strategies include the emphasis of teachers＇ affective influence, the differentiation of intervention methods based on the individual differ ences, and the stress on students＇ culture awareness and empathy.%在英语学习过程中,英语教育专业学生有自身独特的情感特点,其学习动机明确,然而普遍存在的焦虑感强、自信心不足、同学竞争意识明显等情感障碍一定程度上影响了学生的学习效率,不利于学生的全面发展。文章首先通过调查研究,分析了英语教育专业学生面对的情感障碍,然后结合教学实践,提出了培养英语教育专业学生积极情感,克服焦虑等情感障碍的三点建议,包括重视教师对学生的情感影响作用、针对学生差异采取不同情感培养策略、重视融入型动机和移情能力的培养。
Smith, Colin Tucker; Shepperd, James A; Miller, Wendi A; Graber, Julia A
Adolescents' attitudes toward disadvantaged groups are surprisingly understudied. What we know from these few studies is that adolescents' attitudes tend to become more favorable over time and that adolescent girls display more favorable attitudes than do adolescent boys. However, researchers have not offered explanations for why these effects occur. We proposed that changes in social-cognitive abilities that accompany adolescent development increase perspective taking and that the increased perspective taking facilitates more favorable attitudes toward disadvantaged groups. Because girls develop social-cognitive abilities earlier than boys, girls should show greater perspective taking and thus more positive attitudes toward disadvantaged groups than should boys. Importantly, we propose that these more positive attitudes are explained better by perspective taking than by gender. Participants were late adolescents (n = 803, 53.3 % female, ages 15-19) from high schools in north-central Florida (United States) participating in an ongoing, multi-wave study. Participants completed a measure of perspective-taking and reported their attitudes toward three disadvantaged groups (Black, gay, and poor people) during their third year of high school and, again, 6 months later during their fourth year of high school. Our findings provided strong support for our theorizing. Girls generally reported warmer attitudes than did boys toward disadvantaged groups, with the gender differences in warmth tending to diminish across time. Similarly, girls were higher than boys in perspective-taking abilities at both time points, although boys increased over time whereas girls did not. Crucially, perspective taking mediated observed gender differences in attitudes, suggesting that perspective taking is a mechanism for improving attitudes toward disadvantaged groups during late adolescence.
Full Text Available The concentration of disadvantage in specific neighbourhoods is a widespread characteristic of many Australian cities. A broad range of policies and programs which utilize integrated forms of governance have been designed and implemented to redress this. Within the state of New South Wales, Australia, local governments have been identified as being amongst the most effective drivers for these integrated governance approaches. Utilizing a case study of the Penrith Neighbourhood Renewal Program, this paper explores recent attempts by Penrith City Council to develop a framework to redress neighbourhood disadvantage, firstly by establishing an integrated governance framework for the program, and secondly by transforming the council’s operational structure.
Full Text Available This article sets out the idea of affective networks as a constitutive feature of communicative capitalism. It explores the circulation of intensities in contemporary information and communication networks, arguing that this circulation should be theorized in terms of the psychoanalytic notion of the drive. The article includes critical engagements with theorists such as Guy Debord, Jacques Lacan, Tiziana Terranova, and Slavoj Zizek.
This paper introduces the definitions and causes of LD,pointing out that English LD is definitely concerned with the factor of affect by exploring the three theories like Affective Filter Hypothesis,Humanistic Approach to Education and Attribution Theory.
Watt, Helen M. G.; Shapka, Jennifer D.; Morris, Zoe A.; Durik, Amanda M.; Keating, Daniel P.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.
In this international, longitudinal study, we explored gender differences in, and gendered relationships among, math-related motivations emphasized in the Eccles (Parsons) et al. (1983) expectancy-value framework, high school math participation, educational aspirations, and career plans. Participants were from Australia, Canada, and the United…
Verboord, Marc; Rees, Kees van
The influence of reading socialization on the level of books read in adult life was investigated for birth cohorts who finished secondary education between 1975 and 1998. Three forms of reading socialization were taken into account: socialization in the parental home, literary socialization at secon
Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Sando, Ole Johan
The authors point out a basic contradiction: On one hand, we want to keep children as safe as possible; On the other, they suggest, learning to take risks is a normal part of childhood and child development. In Norway, research has shown that early-childhood education and care (ECEC) practitioners have, in the past, taken a permissive approach to…
Vamvakoussi, Xenia; Van Dooren, Wim; Verschaffel, Lieven
This study tested the hypothesis that intuitions about the effect of operations, e.g., "addition makes bigger" and "division makes smaller", are still present in educated adults, even after years of instruction. To establish the intuitive character, we applied a reaction time methodology, grounded in dual process theories of reasoning. Educated…
Sato, Wataru; Sawada, Reiko; Kubota, Yasutaka; Toichi, Motomi; Fushiki, Tohru
Affective or hedonic responses to food are crucial for humans, both advantageously (e.g., enhancing survival) and disadvantageously (e.g., promoting overeating and lifestyle-related disease). Although previous psychological studies have reported evidence of unconscious cognitive and behavioral processing related to food, it remains unknown whether affective reactions to food can be triggered unconsciously and its relationship with daily eating behaviors. We investigated these issues by using the subliminal affective priming paradigm. Photographs of food or corresponding mosaic images were presented in the peripheral visual field for 33 ms. Target photos of faces with emotionally neutral expressions were then presented, and participants rated their preferences for the faces. Eating behaviors were also assessed using questionnaires. The food images, relative to the mosaics, increased participants’ preference for subsequent target faces. Furthermore, the difference in the preference induced by food versus mosaic images was positively correlated with the tendency to engage in external eating. These results suggest that unconscious affective reactions are elicited by the sight of food and that these responses contribute to daily eating behaviors related to overeating. PMID:27501443
Fernández Raga, María; Palencia, Covadonga; Sanz Ablanedo, Enoc
The impact produced by the fire and the subsequent sensitivity of the soil, is very variable, depending on factors such as geology, soil composition, slope, exposure to wind and vegetation cover among others. Therefore, optimizing the use of limited resources is necessary, by identifying priority areas to apply corrective measures. The criteria for selecting the most vulnerable area after a fire should include a monitoring of the evolution of the affected areas including different variables such as the soil loss. But the trace of erosion flows often requires not only a high economic effort due to people working in field, but also adverse effects on the sensitive soil, because of the footsteps in vulnerable areas with steep slopes or areas that have lost their original structure after fire. For these reasons, monitoring of burnt soils is normally reduced to the minimum. Drones or UAVs can be used as an aerial measurement technology useful in different soil recovering studies. High-resolution digital terrain models and high-resolution orthophotos obtained from UAV can be used to achieve a continuum or unlimited number of measurements anywhere in the field test. As an aerial technique, this technique has some advantages. For example, excessive walking over burnt soils is avoided. Besides, due to the relatively low cost of the technique, the frequency of sampling may be higher than traditional sampling works. In recent years drones have been used to monitoring and measuring the recovery of the vegetation cover. In this work the capabilities of this technique as an erosion measurement tool will be explored. Two field area test,which were burnt on 8 August 2015, have been flown with a multirotor. The surface of each area is about 1500m2 and the aim is to measure the winter erosion with a precision and an accuracy better than 1 cm, demonstrating that drones are a very appropriate technique to study: • Burned hillsides in highly sensitive situations, requiring not
... business concerns and small disadvantaged business concerns. 752.219-8 Section 752.219-8 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 752.219-8 Utilization of small business...
Copp, Jennifer E; Kuhl, Danielle C; Giordano, Peggy C; Longmore, Monica A; Manning, Wendy D
Most theoretical treatments of intimate partner violence (IPV) focus on individual-level processes. Some researchers have attempted to situate IPV within the larger neighborhood context, but few studies have sought to link structural- and individual-level factors. The current analyses fill a research gap by examining the role of anger and depression in the association between neighborhood disadvantage and IPV. Using data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (TARS) and the 2000 Census, this study focuses on structural indicators of disadvantage as well as subjective disorder, and highlights the complex associations between neighborhood conditions, emotional distress, and IPV. Findings indicate that anger and depressive symptoms partially explain the association between neighborhood disadvantage and IPV. Additionally, the associations between disadvantage, disorder, and IPV depend on respondent's level of anger. Results underscore the need to further consider the role of neighborhood factors (both objective and subjective) in relation to IPV, and also suggest the utility of introducing individual-level emotional measures to assess the circumstances under which neighborhoods matter most.
Allan, Julie; Harwood, Valerie
The medicalisation of the behaviour of children is a phenomenon that is attracting growing attention, with particular concern about the increased likelihood of children living in disadvantaged contexts receiving a medical diagnosis, such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and treatment. This paper reports on a study of professionals…
Shiver, Thrisha G.
A Nonequivalent Control Group Design, an analytical evaluation technique, was used to assess the effectiveness of an individualized inservice approach for vocational teachers of disadvantaged learners in Pennsylvania. The experimental group consisted of vocational teachers volunteering to participate in an individualized inservice program; the…
Harris, Renard; Hall, Cynthia; Hawkins, Tristan; Hartley, Megan; McCray, Willie; Sirleaf, Hammed
T.A.L.E.S., Teaching And Learning with Engaging Stories, is an alternative teaching method that focuses on enhancing learning by teaching science, math, ELA, and social studies through story. A six-week research study investigating socioeconomically disadvantaged students' responses to oral stories was conducted during an afterschool tutoring…
Oades-Sese, Geraldine V.; Esquivel, Giselle B.; Kaliski, Pamela K.; Maniatis, Lisette
This longitudinal study was conducted to gain understanding of the social-emotional and academic development of economically disadvantaged bilingual preschool children. In Study 1, the authors combined cognitive, psychosocial, and cultural-linguistic factors to determine profiles of social competence as measured by peer play. A person-centered…
Minuchin, Patricia P.
In a follow-up study of curiosity and exploratory behavior, subjects were 18 disadvantaged inner-city black children who had been observed at age four in their first year of a Head Start program, and who were now finishing first grade. Data were obtained from teachers, observations in the classrooms, and an individual session with each child. Each…
The core empirical basis of this paper is based upon my recent participatory action research case study, sponsored by my university, conducted in a rural school in one of the most disadvantageous districts of Sindh, Pakistan. The paper argues that the current climate in most of the schools across the country reflects "apathy" and "ignorance".…
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Parts 121 and 124 Small Business Size Regulations; 8(a) Business Development/Small Disadvantaged Business Status Determinations AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice...
... / Monday, May 14, 2012 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 124 RIN 3245-AF53 Small Business Size Regulations; 8(a) Business Development/Small Disadvantaged Business Status Determinations; Correction AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION:...
... February 11, 2011 Part VII Small Business Administration 13 CFR Parts 121 and 124 Small Business Size Regulations; 8(a) Business Development/Small Disadvantaged Business Status Determinations; Final Rule #0;#0... BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Parts 121 and 124 RIN 3245-AF53 Small Business Size Regulations;...
... contributed to social disadvantage, such as race, ethnic origin, gender, disability, long-term residence in an... government contracts or other work, unequal treatment by potential customers and business associates, and exclusion from business or professional organizations. II. With respect to paragraph I.(A) of this...
Russell, Ginny; Ford, Tamsin; Rosenberg, Rachel; Kelly, Susan
Background: Studies throughout Northern Europe, the United States and Australia have found an association between childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and family socioeconomic disadvantage. We report further evidence for the association and review potential causal pathways that might explain the link. Methods: Secondary…
Allen, Andrea N.; Lo, Celia C.
Guided by Anderson's theory of the code of the street, this study explored social mechanisms linking individual-level disadvantage factors with the adoption of beliefs grounded in the code of the street and with drug trafficking and gun carrying--the co-occurring behavior shaping violence among young men in urban areas. Secondary data were…
Ford, Pauline; Clifford, Anton; Gussy, Kim; Gartner, Coral
The burden of smoking is borne most by those who are socially disadvantaged and the social gradient in smoking contributes substantially to the health gap between the rich and poor. A number of factors contribute to higher tobacco use among socially disadvantaged populations including social (e.g., low social support for quitting), psychological (e.g., low self-efficacy) and physical factors (e.g., greater nicotine dependence). Current evidence for the effectiveness of peer or partner support interventions in enhancing the success of quit attempts in the general population is equivocal, largely due to study design and lack of a theoretical framework in this research. We conducted a systematic review of peer support interventions for smoking cessation in disadvantaged groups. The eight studies which met the inclusion criteria showed that interventions that improve social support for smoking cessation may be of greater importance to disadvantaged groups who experience fewer opportunities to access such support informally. Peer-support programs are emerging as highly effective and empowering ways for people to manage health issues in a socially supportive context. We discuss the potential for peer-support programs to address the high prevalence of smoking in vulnerable populations and also to build capacity in their communities.
Full Text Available The examination of disadvantaged regions goes back to a long history, greatly influenced by the ever-changing natural, economic and human resources. Consequently, while examining the disadvantaged areas, we face new systems of coherences. Today’s regional policy also needs to answer the question whether the spatial development funds of the past have been efficient or not and whether the land use distribution influences the spatial competitiveness or not. As we move towards 2015, we must consider the actual state of delivery of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs in the Least Developed Countries (LDCs and address the above-mentioned issues in order to realise the international political commitment to leave no one behind. In this paper, we have shown some aspects of spatial economic processes through the example of the Hungarian disadvantaged areas. These issues are timely because the usefulness of the research is important, ranging from rural development to spatial planning and the elaboration of local and regional development strategies. Spatial discrepancies in Hungary cause the disadvantage of rural areas, contributing to their lagging behind compared to the urban areas (Kollár, 2012.
Although a majority work full time, many mature-age workers (45 and older) are clearly at a disadvantage in the Australian labor market. Average unemployment duration is long, many unwillingly work part time or are underemployed, and their likelihood of unemployment is very high, especially for older women. (JOW)
Roosa, Mark W.; Burrell, Ginger L.; Nair, Rajni L.; Coxe, Stefany; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Knight, George P.
This study examined a stress process model in which stressful life events and association with delinquent peers mediated the relationship of neighborhood disadvantage to Mexican American early adolescents' mental health. The authors also proposed that child gender, child generation, and neighborhood informal social control would moderate the…
Isaacs, Julia B.
Poor children in the United States start school at a disadvantage in terms of their early skills, behaviors, and health. Fewer than half (48 percent) of poor children are ready for school at age five, compared to 75 percent of children from families with moderate and high income, a 27 percentage point gap. This paper examines the reasons why poor…
Baker, E. H.; Thurber, Steven
The Bender Gestalt Test and the WRAT reading section were administered to 147 disadvantaged children. The zero-order correlation of -.62 was found to be moderated by the variable of age. For younger subjects, highly significant first- and second-order partial correlations were obtained with age and/or WISC information scores held constant. (Author)
Chigona, Agnes; Chigona, Wallace; Kayongo, Patrick; Kausa, Moses
The potential of Information Communication Technologies (ICT) to enhance curriculum delivery can only be realised when the technologies have been well-appropriated in the school. This belief has led to an increase in government- or donor-funded projects aimed at providing ICTs to schools in disadvantaged communities. Previous research shows that…
Snyder, Ilana; Angus, Lawrence; Sutherland-Smith, Wendy
Examines the complex connections among literacy practices, the use of information, and communication technologies (ICTs) and disadvantage. Reports findings of a year-long Australian study, which investigated ways that four families use ICTs to engage in formal and informal literacy learning in home and school settings. (BT)
Full Text Available The burden of smoking is borne most by those who are socially disadvantaged and the social gradient in smoking contributes substantially to the health gap between the rich and poor. A number of factors contribute to higher tobacco use among socially disadvantaged populations including social (e.g., low social support for quitting, psychological (e.g., low self-efficacy and physical factors (e.g., greater nicotine dependence. Current evidence for the effectiveness of peer or partner support interventions in enhancing the success of quit attempts in the general population is equivocal, largely due to study design and lack of a theoretical framework in this research. We conducted a systematic review of peer support interventions for smoking cessation in disadvantaged groups. The eight studies which met the inclusion criteria showed that interventions that improve social support for smoking cessation may be of greater importance to disadvantaged groups who experience fewer opportunities to access such support informally. Peer-support programs are emerging as highly effective and empowering ways for people to manage health issues in a socially supportive context. We discuss the potential for peer-support programs to address the high prevalence of smoking in vulnerable populations and also to build capacity in their communities.
This review is an exploration into whether classroom methods similar to those applied by K-12 teachers are valid for adults and can be successfully applied to classrooms for disadvantaged adults: specifically, journal writing as a tool for improving learning and classroom relationships. The literature dispels the myth that teaching adults differs…
Kleef, van Ellen; Vingerhoeds, Monique H.; Vrijhof, Milou; Trijp, van Hans C.M.
The objective of this study was to explore parents', children's, and experts' beliefs and experiences about breakfast motivation, opportunity, and ability and elicit their thoughts on effective interventions to encourage healthy breakfast consumption. The setting was a disadvantaged neighbourhood
Dixon, John B; Browne, Jessica L; Lambert, Gavin W
26%), or have health insurance (50% versus 60%; all p ≤ 0.01). Moderate-severe depression was positively associated with cumulative stressors of severe obesity, socioeconomic disadvantage, and obesity- and diabetes-related comorbidity. CONCLUSIONS: Severely obese people living with type 2 diabetes...... have cumulative stressors related to health, disability, demographic and socioeconomic factors, and impaired emotional well-being....
Colvin, Jan; Chenoweth, Lillian; Bold, Mary; Harding, Cheryl
We explored the perceptions of caregivers of older adults using Internet-based social support networks regarding the unique advantages and disadvantages of online social support. Participants were recruited with permission of Web owners through 15 Web sites that offered social networks, and responses from 63 electronically submitted surveys were…
The aim of this study is to determine the effect of "Bir Umut Ol Benim Için" (Be My Hope) project which was prepared for the children who were disadvantaged by being influenced from several risk factors as compared to their peers on the self-concepts and locus of controls of the children. The study group consisted of 33 children who were…
... apply as an eligibility requirement for an SDB. (f) Joint ventures. Joint ventures are permitted for SDB.... (1) The disadvantaged participant(s) to the joint venture must have: (i) Received an SDB... this paragraph, the term joint venture means two or more concerns forming an association to engage...
Okilwa, Nathern S. A.
This study explored the experiences of middle school students, particularly focusing on the academic achievement of economically disadvantaged students. For low SES middle school students, the known cumulative effects of poverty coupled with school transition and early adolescence development heighten the potential risks for school failure. By…
Mooyaart, J.E.; Liefbroer, A.C.; Billari, F.C.; Ritschard, G.; Studer, M.
How does the intergenerational transmission of disadvantage come about? This study aims to broaden our understanding by examining the extent to which income trajectories in later stages of young adulthood are influenced by the work- and family-related pathways young people take into adulthood. The t
Warren, Elizabeth; Miller, Jodie
In the Australian context, children living in disadvantaged circumstances, whose second language is English, are one of the groups at risk of failing in mathematics. This paper explores the impact purposely developed learning activities (Representations, Oral Language and Engagement in Mathematics Learning activities) have on pupils' mathematics…
Within the literature there exists a large volume of research studies attesting to the positive relationships between studying music and various psychological and sociological variables. A close examination of these studies reveals that only a handful were conducted on disadvantaged populations. Accordingly, it remains unclear to what extent these…
Primavera, Joanne M.
In view of new federal guidelines, a project sought to write a procedure for identifying disadvantaged, handicapped, and/or nontraditional students and set up a monitoring system in the Renton Vocational Technical Institute. A literature review showed no practical tracking system had been published. The identification procedure developed included…
Vanderbilt-Adriance, Ella; Shaw, Daniel S.
The purpose of the present study was to examine relations among multiple child and family protective factors, neighborhood disadvantage, and positive social adjustment in a sample of 226 urban, low SES boys followed from infancy to early adolescence. The results indicated that child IQ, nurturant parenting, and parent-child relationship quality,…
Dupere, Veronique; Lacourse, Eric; Willms, J. Douglas; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.
Because youth gangs tend to cluster in disadvantaged neighborhoods, adolescents living in such neighborhoods are more likely to encounter opportunities to join youth gangs. However, in the face of these opportunities, not all adolescents respond in the same manner. Those with preexisting psychopathic tendencies might be especially likely to join.…
Isenberg, Eric; Max, Jeffrey; Gleason, Philip; Potamites, Liz; Santillano, Robert; Hock, Heinrich; Hansen, Michael
Recent federal initiatives emphasize measuring teacher effectiveness and ensuring that disadvantaged students have equal access to effective teachers. This study substantially broadens the existing evidence on access to effective teaching by examining access in 29 geographically dispersed school districts over the 2008-2009 to 2010-2011 school…
Schwartz, Amy Ellen; McCabe, Brian J.; Ellen, Ingrid Gould; Chellman, Colin
In the United States, public housing developments are predominantly located in neighborhoods with low median incomes, high rates of poverty and disproportionately high concentrations of minorities. While research consistently shows that public housing developments are located in economically and socially disadvantaged neighborhoods, we know little…
Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.
This document profiles nine European programs that exemplify good practice in social and occupational integration of disadvantaged people. The programs profiled are as follows: (1) Restaurant Venezia (a CD-ROM program to improve the reading and writing skills of young people in Luxembourg who have learning difficulties); (2) an integrated…
Abrahams, Fatima; Jano, Rukhsana; van Lill, Burger
During the apartheid years in South Africa, career guidance amongst disadvantaged learners was largely absent and, for many, career choices were limited and governed by politics. Despite South Africa having celebrated 20 years of democracy, this situation has improved only slightly. Therefore, the aims of the study were to determine the factors…
... insignificant. In determining whether a group has made an adequate showing that it has suffered chronic racial or ethnic prejudice or cultural bias for the purposes of this regulation, a determination will be... socially or economically disadvantaged groups. (2) Evidence of employment discrimination suffered...
Fleming, R.; Stoiber, L. C.; Pfeiffer, H. M.; Kienzler, S. E.; Fleming, R. R.; Pedrick, L. E.; Barth, D. J.; Reddy, D. .
This study was undertaken to evaluate whether the student success associated with the "U-Pace" instructional approach, which integrates mastery-based learning with proactive instructor support in an online learning environment, would replicate for both economically disadvantaged students and students who are not economically…
Hoffner, Cynthia A.; Levine, Kenneth J.; Sullivan, Quintin E.; Crowell, Dennis; Pedrick, Laura; Berndt, Patricia
Television regularly depicts work-related activities of fictional characters and is one of several important sources of occupational information for young people. However, no research appears to have examined the influence of televised occupational portrayals on economically disadvantaged youths, although television may be an especially important…
Prelow, Hazel M.; Weaver, Scott R.; Bowman, Marvella A.; Swenson, Rebecca R.
Structural equation modeling was used to examine the role of ecological risk factors, maternal psychological distress, and social network support on the parenting behaviors of 535 economically disadvantaged Latina mothers, who were surveyed for the Welfare Children, & Families: A Three City Study. We predicted that ecological risk would influence…
McIntosh, Beth; Crosbie, Sharon; Holm, Alison; Dodd, Barbara; Thomas, Sian
The research reported investigated the efficacy of intervention, developed by a speech-language therapist and implemented by a teacher, for the language and phonological awareness (PA) abilities of pre-school, socially disadvantaged children. One study established that children from low socio-economic (SES) backgrounds had poorer skills on both…