Sample records for edge post-occupancy evaluation

  1. Post-Occupancy Evaluation of Facilities Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Voordt, Theo; de Been, I.; Maarleveld, M.; Finch, E


    This chapter discusses possible aims, tools and deliverables of Post-Occupancy Evaluations (POE) (otherwise known as building-in-use studies), with a focus on interventions in supporting facilities. POE has a long tradition and has been applied in different fields (e.g. offices, educational

  2. Post-occupancy evaluation of office buildings in a Johannesburg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Building occupants or employees wish to work in an environment that is conducive to their health and well-being. When these conditions are absent in a work environment, the morale, productivity and performance of employees can deteriorate. In order to address such issues, the idea of Post-Occupancy Evaluation (POE) ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang F.E. Preiser


    Full Text Available This article chronicles the evolution of the field of postoccupancy evaluation and visual quality (aesthetic programming and evaluation from their origins in the 1960s, and describes their transformation into current developments in systematic building performance and visual quality assessments. Major components of post-occupancy evaluations are highlighted, and examples of outcomes presented. This consumeroriented approach is part of a new democratic paradigm embodying autonomy, self-organization, ecology, sustainability, adaptation, and continuous improvement. Methods range from qualitative selfreports of likes and dislikes to quantitative multivariate analyses, from verbal scales to observations of use, and last but not least, expert judgments. The paper discusses questions about the future of this field, its viability, cost-effectiveness, and benefits for all stakeholders. It concludes with the examination of a recent project, reported in the book Designing for Designers that used distributed technology to systematically evaluate the performance of 17 contemporary architecture school buildings from around the world. The approach is discussed, as well as methods, lessons learned, and ways in which the methodology and findings apply to other kinds of facilities and future developments in the field.

  4. Post-occupancy evaluation : three schools from Greater Toronto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straka, V. [Ryerson Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada). Dept. of Architectural Science; Aleksic, M. [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering


    This paper reported on a study that investigated efficient building design and operational methods in educational buildings as well as the environmental impact of modern schools, two of them LEED certified. Real energy performance based on actual energy audits was compared to predicted energy consumption obtained from simulations. The results were disseminated to designers and school boards to help them choose effective environmental strategies for new facilities. Field measurements were taken at the schools to determine indoor air quality, overall comfort and energy use. The first part of the study dealt with post-occupancy evaluations (POEs). The second part dealt with the environmental impact of each project. It was concluded that new mechanical systems are both energy efficient and capable of delivering very good indoor environment. In all new schools, building automated systems improved the quality of interior spaces and energy efficiency. There was no significant difference between LEED schools and new schools. The wall systems were found to have only moderate thermal resistance and large amounts of glazings caused significant heat losses. According to occupant surveys, building acoustics require closer attention during the design phase since satisfaction with noise levels was rated the poorest. 9 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  5. Post Occupancy Evaluation of 23 Newly Renovated Apartments in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iqbal, Ahsan; Afshari, Alireza


    of ventilation systems. The analysis in present article is based on occupants’ perception of the temperature, indoor air quality and energy consumptions of their apartments. The study shows the perception of occupants of first six months of post occupancy. The study was carried out by conducting interviews...... with the tenants. 74% of the total occupants took part in the interviews. 83% of the interviewed occupants as an averaged spend more than 50% of their time inside their apartments. 37% of the total interviewed occupants were satisfied with the current performance of their apartments. Apparently the reason...

  6. The development of a post occupancy evaluation tool for primary schools: learner comfort assessment tool (LCAT)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Motsatsi, L


    Full Text Available in order to facilitate teaching and learning. The aim of this study was to develop a Post Occupational Evaluation (POE) tool to assess learner comfort in relation to indoor environmental quality in the classroom. The development of POE tool followed a...

  7. A post-occupancy evaluation of a green rated and conventional on-campus residence hall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Bonde


    Full Text Available Green buildings increasingly attract attention in the real estate sector, and the United States is no exception. Studies indicate that green rated buildings may bring higher rents and sales prices. One reason for this inequity is that the indoor environment of these buildings may outperform conventional buildings. The main objective of this paper is to conduct a post-occupancy evaluation (POE to compare the indoor environment in a LEED certified, on-campus residence hall with a similar, non-green rated residence hall. Results are evaluated to determine if green buildings really outperform. The results suggest that the green rated building outperformed the conventional building in the majority of the indoor environmental aspects, but not all. These results can inform a cost-benefit analysis of green features for new construction and refurbishments.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ban-Huat Ng


    Full Text Available There exists a well-known gap between occupants and building’s energy-efficient designs. A comprehensive building performance diagnostic technique, Post Occupancy Evaluation (POE may surpass the current evaluation method by reducing the gap between occupants and building’s energy-efficient design. Due to these reasons, the aim of this research is to identify the problems with respect to energy-efficient design which affect occupants’ comfort. This research focuses on the application of energy-efficient design in office building and was conducted on energy-efficient buildings in Malaysia. A building performance survey framework, Energy-efficient Building Environmental Quality Questionnaire (EBEQ2, was  used to identify the problems affecting occupants’ comfort and buildings’ Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ. The result was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS. The research outcome shows that majority of occupants are not satisfied  with the thermal comfort and lighting condition of  the buildings. Building certified with sustainable building rating tools does not guarantee better IEQ performance. Thus  continuous research is needed to ensure energy-efficient building concept is applied effectively in each type of building.

  9. Post-Occupancy Evaluation of a Mental Healthcare Facility Based on Staff Perceptions of Design Innovations. (United States)

    Kalantari, Saleh; Snell, Robin


    This study was a post-occupancy evaluation (POE) to examine the effectiveness of three specific design innovations in a mental healthcare facility. In addition to collecting data about the impact of these specific designs, the study provides a model for the broader implementation of POE approaches in the mental healthcare context. POEs in general healthcare settings have been shown to lead to better work environments and better outcomes for patients. Despite growing evidence of the value provided by POE studies, the industry has been somewhat slow to adopt their regular use, in part due to unfamiliarity with the POE process. This is particularly true in mental healthcare contexts, where POE studies remain virtually nonexistent. In-depth interviews and a widely distributed, anonymous survey were used to collect hospital staff perceptions and feedback regarding the impact of specific design features. The hospital staff were quite enthusiastic about two of the design innovations studied here (a new wayfinding strategy and the use of vibrant colors in specific areas of the facility). The third innovation, open-style communication centers, elicited more mixed evaluations. The results include extensive hypothesis testing about the effects of each innovation as well as narrative discussions of their pros and cons. The study generated new knowledge about three specific mental healthcare design innovations and provides a model for the practical implementation of a POE approach in mental healthcare contexts. The results are particularly relevant for designers who are considering innovative strategies in future mental healthcare facilities.

  10. A Diagnostic Post-Occupancy Evaluation of the Nacadia® Therapy Garden. (United States)

    Sidenius, Ulrik; Karlsson Nyed, Patrik; Linn Lygum, Victoria; K Stigsdotter, Ulrika


    The design of the Nacadia® therapy garden is based on a model for evidence-based health design in landscape architecture (EBHDL). One element of the model is a diagnostic post-occupancy evaluation (DPOE), which has not previously been fully developed. The present study develops a generic DPOE for therapy gardens, with a focus on studying the effects of the design on patients' health outcomes. This is done in order to identify successes and failures in the design. By means of a triangulation approach, the DPOE employs a mixture of methods, and data is interpreted corroborating. The aim of the present study is to apply the DPOE to the Nacadia® therapy garden. The results of the DPOE suggest that the design of the Nacadia® therapy garden fulfills its stated aims and objectives. The overall environment of the Nacadia ® therapy garden was experienced as protective and safe, and successfully incorporated the various elements of the nature-based therapy programme. The participants encountered meaningful spaces and activities which suited their current physical and mental capabilities, and the health outcome measured by EQ-VAS (self-estimated general health) indicated a significant increase. Some design failures were identified, of which visual exposure was the most noteworthy. The DPOE model presented appears to be efficient but would nonetheless profit from being validated by other cases.

  11. A Diagnostic Post-Occupancy Evaluation of the Nacadia® Therapy Garden (United States)

    Sidenius, Ulrik; Karlsson Nyed, Patrik; Linn Lygum, Victoria; K. Stigsdotter, Ulrika


    The design of the Nacadia® therapy garden is based on a model for evidence-based health design in landscape architecture (EBHDL). One element of the model is a diagnostic post-occupancy evaluation (DPOE), which has not previously been fully developed. The present study develops a generic DPOE for therapy gardens, with a focus on studying the effects of the design on patients’ health outcomes. This is done in order to identify successes and failures in the design. By means of a triangulation approach, the DPOE employs a mixture of methods, and data is interpreted corroborating. The aim of the present study is to apply the DPOE to the Nacadia® therapy garden. The results of the DPOE suggest that the design of the Nacadia® therapy garden fulfills its stated aims and objectives. The overall environment of the Nacadia ® therapy garden was experienced as protective and safe, and successfully incorporated the various elements of the nature-based therapy programme. The participants encountered meaningful spaces and activities which suited their current physical and mental capabilities, and the health outcome measured by EQ-VAS (self-estimated general health) indicated a significant increase. Some design failures were identified, of which visual exposure was the most noteworthy. The DPOE model presented appears to be efficient but would nonetheless profit from being validated by other cases. PMID:28783060

  12. Rooftop hospital gardens for physical therapy: a post-occupancy evaluation. (United States)

    Davis, Brad E


    The goal of this study was to understand successes and weaknesses of a rooftop hospital garden used primarily for physical therapy. Literature on the healing benefits of nature and designed outdoor spaces in healthcare contexts continues to become more focused on specific patient populations. This study contributes to the knowledge of rooftop hospital gardens and gardens for physical rehabilitation. A post-occupancy evaluation was conducted using interviews with a lead therapist and landscape architect, behavior mapping, a staff survey, and a patient questionnaire. The designer and administrative staff perceived high accessibility while patients and staff reported low accessibility. Patients reported high satisfaction with the garden while staff reported little time for garden use. Poor maintenance decisions resulted in decreased functional and aesthetic value. Garden elements take on added layers of meaning and value to users seeking to escape the indoor environment, placing increased importance on evidence-based site design. Multiple perspectives must be considered in facility and garden master planning. Finally, designers and horticultural therapists must be retained in garden management to preserve and enhance garden functionality.

  13. A Diagnostic Post-Occupancy Evaluation of the Nacadia® Therapy Garden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrik Sidenius


    Full Text Available The design of the Nacadia® therapy garden is based on a model for evidence-based health design in landscape architecture (EBHDL. One element of the model is a diagnostic post-occupancy evaluation (DPOE, which has not previously been fully developed. The present study develops a generic DPOE for therapy gardens, with a focus on studying the effects of the design on patients’ health outcomes. This is done in order to identify successes and failures in the design. By means of a triangulation approach, the DPOE employs a mixture of methods, and data is interpreted corroborating. The aim of the present study is to apply the DPOE to the Nacadia® therapy garden. The results of the DPOE suggest that the design of the Nacadia® therapy garden fulfills its stated aims and objectives. The overall environment of the Nacadia ® therapy garden was experienced as protective and safe, and successfully incorporated the various elements of the nature-based therapy programme. The participants encountered meaningful spaces and activities which suited their current physical and mental capabilities, and the health outcome measured by EQ-VAS (self-estimated general health indicated a significant increase. Some design failures were identified, of which visual exposure was the most noteworthy. The DPOE model presented appears to be efficient but would nonetheless profit from being validated by other cases.

  14. Exploring mobility & workplace choice in a flexible office through post-occupancy evaluation. (United States)

    Göçer, Özgür; Göçer, Kenan; Ergöz Karahan, Ebru; İlhan Oygür, Işıl


    Developments in information and communication systems, organisational structure and the nature of work have contributed to the restructuring of work environments. In these new types of work environments, employees do not have assigned workplaces. This arrangement helps organisations to minimise rent costs and increase employee interaction and knowledge exchange through mobility. This post-occupancy evaluation (POE) study focuses on a flexible office in a Gold Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design-certified building in Istanbul. An integrated qualitative and quantitative POE technique with occupancy tracking via barcode scanning and instant surveying has been introduced. Using this unique approach, we examined the directives/drivers in workplace choice and mobility from different perspectives. The aggregated data was used to discern work-related consequences such as flexibility, workplace choice, work and indoor environment satisfaction, place attachment and identity. The results show that employees who have a conventional working culture develop a new working style: 'fixed-flexible working'. Practitioner Summary: This paper introduces a new POE approach for flexible offices based on occupancy tracking through barcode scanning to explore workplace choice and mobility. More than half (52.1%) of the participants have tended to choose the same desk every day. However, the satisfaction level of the 'mobile' employees was higher than that of the 'fixed flexible' employees.

  15. Improving Residential Satisfaction of University Dormitories through Post-Occupancy Evaluation in China: A Socio-Technical System Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Ning


    Full Text Available Residential satisfaction of university dormitories serves as one of the significant aspects in the framework of sustainability in higher education. This study aims to develop a framework for post-occupancy evaluation (POE of university dormitories in China grounded on the socio-technical systems approach and to identify factors contributing to students’ residential satisfaction. Two focus groups were carried out to build the socio-technical framework. A case study was undertaken to evaluate the post-occupancy status of university dormitories, and structured-questionnaire was used to collect the data. The results show that university dormitories are equipped with quality physical facilities. However, they failed to provide satisfied services and supporting infrastructure. This indicates that “hardware” could generally meet students’ requirements, while the “software” is still less competent. It is also found that the socio-technical systems approach has the feature of being embedded into the social, regulatory and geographic contexts. In order to enhance post-occupancy satisfaction, occupants’ participation would be helpful. This study contributes to the body of knowledge by presenting a socio-technical framework of POE and its embeddedness feature. Implications for research and practices are also provided.

  16. Re-Assessing Green Building Performance: A Post Occupancy Evaluation of 22 GSA Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, Kimberly M.; Rauch, Emily M.; Henderson, Jordan W.; Kora, Angela R.


    2nd report on the performance of GSA's sustainably designed buildings. The purpose of this study was to provide an overview of measured whole building performance as it compares to GSA and industry baselines. The PNNL research team found the data analysis illuminated strengths and weaknesses of individual buildings as well as the portfolio of buildings. This section includes summary data, observations that cross multiple performance metrics, discussion of lessons learned from this research, and opportunities for future research. The summary of annual data for each of the performance metrics is provided in Table 25. The data represent 1 year of measurements and are not associated with any specific design features or strategies. Where available, multiple years of data were examined and there were minimal significant differences between the years. Individually focused post occupancy evaluation (POEs) would allow for more detailed analysis of the buildings. Examining building performance over multiple years could potentially offer a useful diagnostic tool for identifying building operations that are in need of operational changes. Investigating what the connection is between the building performance and the design intent would offer potential design guidance and possible insight into building operation strategies. The 'aggregate operating cost' metric used in this study represents the costs that were available for developing a comparative industry baseline for office buildings. The costs include water utilities, energy utilities, general maintenance, grounds maintenance, waste and recycling, and janitorial costs. Three of the buildings that cost more than the baseline in Figure 45 have higher maintenance costs than the baseline, and one has higher energy costs. Given the volume of data collected and analyzed for this study, the inevitable request is for a simple answer with respect to sustainably designed building performance. As previously stated

  17. One size does not fit all: a diagnostic post-occupancy evaluation model for an emergency department. (United States)

    Guinther, Lindsey; Carll-White, Allison; Real, Kevin


    This study presents a detailed account of processes and multiple methodologies used in conducting a diagnostic post-occupancy evaluation (POE) in an urban hospital emergency department. Healthcare design POE research findings can lead to improved work environments for healthcare providers and higher levels of staff, patient, and visitor satisfaction. This evaluation was conducted in two separate phases over 12 months, with data analysis occurring after each phase. Phase 1 involved 200 hours of observation, physical measurements, and occupancy counts. Phase 2 included surveys (n = 315) of staff, visitors, and patients. In addition, eight distinct staff focus groups (e.g., Nursing, Housekeeping, Physician, etc.) were conducted. To illustrate the process, one healthcare design-related issue, privacy and confidentiality, was assessed in light of the linear design model with a central core. Phase 1 observation results indicated that most confidential conversations were contained within the linear core. However, Phase 2 focus groups revealed that many staff members had concerns regarding the level of privacy and confidentiality due to the core's open design. The use of multiple methods provided greater information and a more comprehensive picture of the emergency department environment and design. This study presents a comprehensive framework for diagnostic post-occupancy evaluation in healthcare design. The findings indicate that a systematic, multi-methodological approach developed around a conceptual framework can lead to higher quality evaluations. Diagnostic POEs should be grounded in extant literature and customized based on the setting, the client's guiding principles, and the design team's objectives. In diagnostic POEs, one size does not fit all. Case study, design process, interdisciplinary, post-occupancy, privacy and confidentiality.

  18. Post-occupancy evaluation of a restored industrial building: A contemporary art and design gallery in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mundo-Hernández


    Full Text Available This paper presents the results obtained from a post-occupancy evaluation (POE study conducted in an old fabric building called “La Violeta”. This structure has been recently converted into a contemporary art gallery. La Violeta is located in Puebla City, Mexico. The building dates from the beginning of the 19th century; it was built and used as a textile factory until the first decades of the 20th century. This POE study aims to assess the new use of the building from the users׳ point of view. Methodology involves historical research of the building, analysis of the conversion strategy, walkthrough investigation, and a user survey. Questions regarding the re-utilization strategy used in the building and its current use are included in the survey, such as “How do people perceive the space regarding its functionality, accessibility, and comfort?” Although the re-utilization process destroyed several historic elements, the re-use of old industrial spaces that otherwise would be obsolete and disused seems pertinent. Developing small renovation projects as part of an integral and wider project seems feasible. Users perceive the building as comfortable but not properly advertised as an art gallery, and its location is difficult to find.

  19. A manual for post-occupancy evaluation (POE) and test-room studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hygge, S.; Loefberg, H.A.; Poulton, K.


    The aim of a POE-study (poot-occupancy evaluation) is to carry out a systematic assessment of the performance of a facility once it has been occupied and used. It is to determine if the facility meets the level of expectation which was envisaged in the conceptual stages of the design, in terms of both the human occupants and the building services which it encloses. This is done by a systematic gathering and analysis of the information collected from within the building when it is in use. After analysis, the findings are forwarded for: corrective action and `fine tuning` of the facility; identifying design features to be avoided; identifying features of future use; establishing if design goals, energy targets, standards and guidelines are actually achieved; identifying design aspects for long term research and investigation. The reality is, that unless the occupants are totally satisfied with the facility they will never reach their full potential or totally accept the technology, especially if it is not perceived to be of immediate benefit to them. The process for carrying out a POE study follows a systematic, step by step approach, and concentrates on two levels of information gathering: from the building itself - often referred to as the `walk through`; from files, plans, briefing notes, i.e. a document search. The walk through centres around a tour of the building, especially identifying groups from which opinions, reactions, comments and recommendations are sought. This is generally done by means of a questionnaire. The walk through is intended to be pragmatic and with a short duration with a maximum of two or three days, depending of the size of the facility. This should aim to minimize the impact of the evaluation on the daily operations, while maximizing the effective participation of all personnel. When a particular item is noted or considered to be needing further investigation, a `focus` study may be carried out and this study may isolate parts of: the

  20. Energy Edge, Post-Occupancy Evaluation Project: The Eastgate Corporate Center Bellevue, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heerwagen, Judith; Loveland, Joel; Quense, Nancy; Barnes, John; Cooksey, Chris; Press, Carreen; Somers, Julian; Shaughnessey, Mary


    The Workspace Satisfaction Survey measures occupant satisfaction with the thermal, lighting, acoustical, and air quality aspects of the work environment. In addition to ratings of these ambient environmental features, occupants also rate their satisfaction with a number of functional and aesthetic features of the office environment as well as their satisfaction with specific kinds of workspaces (e.g. computer rooms, the lobby, employee lounge, etc.) Each section on ambient conditions includes questions on the frequency with which people experience particular kinds of discomforts or problems, how much the discomfort bothers them, and how much it interferes with their work. Occupants are also asked to identify how they cope with discomfort or environmental problems, and to what extent these behaviors enable them to achieve more satisfactory conditions. This report documents the results of this survey of the occupants of the Eastgate Corporate Center, Bellevue, Washington. 21 figs., 7 tabs.

  1. A post-occupancy monitored evaluation of the dimmable lighting, automated shading, and underfloor air distribution system in The New York Times Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eleanor S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fernandes, Luis L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Coffey, Brian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McNeil, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Clear, Robert [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Webster, Tom [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Bauman, Fred [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Dickerhoff, Darryl [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Heinzerling, David [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Hoyt, Tyler [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    With aggressive goals to reduce national energy use and carbon emissions, the US Department of Energy will be looking to exemplary buildings that have already invested in new approaches to achieving the energy performance goals now needed at a national level. The New York Times Building, in New York, New York, incorporates a number of innovative technologies, systems and processes and could become a model for widespread replication in new and existing buildings. Post-occupancy data are invaluable in establishing confidence in innovation. A year-long monitored study was conducted to verify energy performance, assess occupant comfort and satisfaction with the indoor environment, and evaluate impacts on maintenance and operations. Lessons learned were derived from the analysis; these lessons could help identify and shape policy, financial, or supporting strategies to accelerate diffusion in the commercial building market.

  2. Manchester Civil Justice Centre: Procuring and Managing an Institutional Building with a Mixed Mode Ventilation System—A Case for Post-Occupancy Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Napier


    Full Text Available Manchester Civil Justice Centre is a striking contemporary 14 storey court building which has won awards for many different aspects of its design, construction and sustainability. From November 2002 to July 2005, the author was a key member of Denton Corker Marshall’s London project team having responsibility for key areas of design development, integration of technology and sustainable design including the East elevation’s “environmental veil”. This paper tracks the procurement of the building, describing its low energy features and their performance in practice. The paper reviews the low carbon elements of the design (daylight and natural ventilation systems in the context of similar buildings and the buildings operational performance. The building has a mixed mode ventilation system which is managed centrally; the paper describes the ongoing relationship between the Facilities Management and the building’s users and their expectations of comfort and offers an explanation as to why the building’s energy performance is not as good as predicted at design stage. A case is made that this building is a significant example of low energy design and would form a good example for a detailed Post Occupancy Evaluation. The energy performance of the building could be studied in more detail to encourage the users (judges, staff and the public to improve the building’s energy performance and to share knowledge within the construction industry. Institutional and commercial barriers to the more mainstream adoption of Post Occupancy Evaluation are discussed with respect to the Manchester Civil Justice Centre.

  3. Evaluation of edge detectors using average risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; van der Heijden, Ferdinand


    A new method for evaluation of edge detectors, based on the average risk of a decision, is discussed. The average risk is a performance measure well-known in Bayesian decision theory. Since edge detection can be regarded as a compound decision making process, the performance of an edge detector is

  4. A Post-Occupancy Monitored Evaluation of the Dimmable Lighting, Automated Shading, and Underfloor Air Distribution System in The New York Times Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, E. S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fernandes, L. L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Coffey, B. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McNeil, A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Clear, R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Webster, T. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Bauman, F. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Dickerhoff, D. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Heinzerling, D. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Hoyt, T. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    With aggressive goals to reduce national energy use and carbon emissions, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will be looking to exemplary buildings that have already invested in new approaches to achieving the energy performance goals now needed at a national level. The New York Times Building, in New York, New York, incorporates a number of innovative technologies, systems and processes and could become model for widespread replication in new and existing buildings. A year-long monitored study was conducted to verify energy performance, assess occupant comfort and satisfaction with the indoor environment, and evaluate impact on maintenance and operations. Lessons learned were derived from the analysis; these lessons could help identify and shape policy, financial, or supporting strategies to accelerate diffusion in the commercial building market.

  5. Harm A. Weber academic center, post-occupancy building performance and comfort perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keelan P. Kaiser


    Full Text Available The Weber Center at Judson University, a mixed mode, naturally ventilated building in a continental climate, has been in operation for just over a year, with initial occupancy in August 2007. This paper compares the design objectives and building performance expectations against the first yearof actual energy consumption in a first of a series of post-occupancy evaluations. The paper contrasts the building performance with general user satisfaction and perceptions of comfort through a post occupancy evaluation of user surveys and interviews. The innovations involved in this building, particularly mechanical strategies atypical in contemporary practice within this climate and region, have introduced some interesting problems that have been documented in the post-occupancy evaluation process, while confirming many of the original intentions of the design.

  6. Methodology of post-occupation energetic evaluation: case study of a building of the commercial and services sector of Sao Paulo city, Southeast Brazil; Metodologia de avaliacao pos-ocupacao energetica: caso de um edificio do setor de comercio e servicos da cidade de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade Romero, Marcelo de [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil); Pratini, Edison F. [Brasilia Univ., DF (Brazil)


    This work presents a methodology for the post-occupational energetic evaluation and shows the application in a case study in Sao Paulo city. In this case study it was considered the building performance throughout its service life in what concerns physical aspects, as well as, functional aspects and users behaviour, as these are factors which combines result in the final energetic performance of the building. Recommendations for performance improvement were presented 2 figs., 1 tab., 5 refs.

  7. Evaluation of alternative snow plow cutting edges. (United States)


    With approximately 450 snow plow trucks, the Maine Department of Transportation (MaineDOT) uses in : excess of 10,000 linear feet of plow cutting edges each winter season. Using the 2008-2009 cost per linear : foot of $48.32, the Departments total co...

  8. Fuzzy Index to Evaluate Edge Detection in Digital Images (United States)

    Perez-Ornelas, Felicitas; Mendoza, Olivia; Melin, Patricia; Castro, Juan R.; Rodriguez-Diaz, Antonio; Castillo, Oscar


    In literature, we can find different metrics to evaluate the detected edges in digital images, like Pratt's figure of merit (FOM), Jaccard’s index (JI) and Dice’s coefficient (DC). These metrics compare two images, the first one is the reference edges image, and the second one is the detected edges image. It is important to mention that all existing metrics must binarize images before their evaluation. Binarization step causes information to be lost because an incomplete image is being evaluated. In this paper, we propose a fuzzy index (FI) for edge evaluation that does not use a binarization step. In order to process all detected edges, images are represented in their fuzzy form and all calculations are made with fuzzy sets operators and fuzzy Euclidean distance between both images. Our proposed index is compared to the most used metrics using synthetic images, with good results. PMID:26115362

  9. Nursing EDGE: evaluating delegation guidelines in education. (United States)

    Henderson, Deborah; Sealover, Pamela; Sharrer, Vicki; Fusner, Sally; Jones, Sandy; Sweet, Stacie; Blake, Tim


    Delegation, an important concept for nursing students to learn and practice, is central to registered nurse (RN) performance, and important on the NCLEX-RN examination. Nursing faculty members from an ADN program designed a descriptive study to evaluate planned versus actual delegation in the curriculum, and a second study to evaluate an intervention on delegation. Study One assessed the presence of delegation in each nursing course. Statistical analysis compared the planned implementation with the results for student definitions of delegation, and identification of the five rights of delegation based on the National Council of State Boards of Nursing (NCSBN) definition and five rights. Study one results are shared. Study Two utilized a comparison of pre-to-post intervention measures. Students were asked to complete eight steps of a delegation exercise and determine what could be delegated to an unlicensed assistant, and what should be completed by the RN. Answers were coded and entered into SPSS. Statistical analysis compared each student's ability to correctly identify the five rights of delegation prior to the exercise, against the ability to correctly answer five questions two weeks post exercise. Significant improvement (p< 0.05) occurred on each measure. Recommendations are discussed.

  10. Post Occupancy Evaluation of 23 Newly Renovated Apartments in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iqbal, Ahsan; Afshari, Alireza; Bergsøe, Niels Christian


    systems. All the ventilation units are equipped with parallel plate cross flow heat exchangers. The analysis in present article is based on the measured indoor quality parameters as well as energy consumptions. Among four different types of ventilation systems, Type 1 is a traditional decentralized...

  11. Post-occupancy evaluation of office buildings in a Johannesburg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    besetting geëvalueer (POE)- verwante sake in hierdie kompleks. Sleutelwoorde: Geboue, werknemermoraal, werknemerproduktiwiteit, fasiliteitsbestuur, gesondheid en veiligheid (H&S), binnenshuise omgewingskwaliteit, na-besetting evaluasie.

  12. Post Occupancy Evaluation of a Planned Community in Arctic Canada. (United States)


    housing is of better quality, Inuit families view the experience as positive despite some cultural adjustment problems. Overall, the town of Nanisivik is...inte- grating singles, Inuits (the indigenous people) and families successfully established a viable community. Fewer problems were encountered than is... Inuit housing needs ............................. 0.............15 Single housing ........................... ................. I Lif ratios fmlis

  13. Evaluation of the EDGE detector in small-field dosimetry (United States)

    Shin, Hun-Joo; Kim, Myong-Ho; Choi, Ihl-Bohng; Kang, Young-nam; Kim, Dae-Hyun; Chio, Byung Ock; Jang, Hong Seok; Jung, Ji-Young; Son, Seok Hyun; Kay, Chul Seung


    This study evaluates a new diode detector design for small-field dosimetry. An accurate detector that has a small volume are necessary to compile data for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT), and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Two semiconductor diode detectors and one ionization chamber were used to measure the profiles, percent depth doses (PDDs), and relative output factors (OFs) of a Novalis 6-MV SRS beam. Profiles and PDD data were collected using 5.0-, 10.0-, 15.0-, 20.0-, 30.0-, and 50.0-mm micro multileaf collimators (mMLCs) at small fields and a 98.0 × 98.0-mm2 reference field. OFs were collected for each of the mMLCs. The EDGE diode detector, the diode detector, and the ion chamber (0.007 cc) were used in the study. Detector measurements were performed using the 3D water phantom with a source-to-surface distance of 100-cm at a depth of 1.5-cm. The measurements were analyzed using the IBA OmniPro Accept 7th version software. In addition, all data were compared to Monte Carlo simulations. The semiconductor diodes had similar OFs and PDDs for each of the mMLCs used. The Dmax values of the EDGE diode detector, measured from the PDD, ranged from 8.5 to 14.0-mm with an average of 12.4-mm. The field widths of the EDGE diode detector were found to have similar values. The performance of the EDGE diode detector was comparable for all small-field measurements. Additionally, no evidence of an energy response was observed for the EDGE detectors for a field of 98 × 98-mm2. This is particularly important when measuring the relative OF for small fields or gathering larger-sized field data for the commissioning of a treatment planning system.

  14. HEP Applications Evaluation of the EDG Testbed and Middleware

    CERN Document Server

    Augustin, I; Closier, J; van Herwijnen, E; Blaising, J J; Boutigny, D; Charlot, C; Garonne, V; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Bos, K; Templon, J; Capiluppi, P; Fanfani, A; Barbera, R; Negri, G; Perini, L; Resconi, S; Sitta, M; Reale, M; Vicinanza, D; Bagnasco, S; Cerello, P; Sciaba, A; Smirnova, O; Colling, D; Harris, F; Burke, Stephen


    Workpackage 8 of the European Datagrid project was formed in January 2001 with representatives from the four LHC experiments, and with experiment independent people from five of the six main EDG partners. In September 2002 WP8 was strengthened by the addition of effort from BaBar and D0. The original mandate of WP8 was, following the definition of short- and long-term requirements, to port experiment software to the EDG middleware and testbed environment. A major additional activity has been testing the basic functionality and performance of this environment. This paper reviews experiences and evaluations in the areas of job submission, data management, mass storage handling, information systems and monitoring. It also comments on the problems of remote debugging, the portability of code, and scaling problems with increasing numbers of jobs, sites and nodes. Reference is made to the pioneeering work of Atlas and CMS in integrating the use of the EDG Testbed into their data challenges. A forward look is made t...

  15. Physics-based edge evaluation for improved color constancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijsenij, A.; Gevers, T.; van de Weijer, J.


    Edge-based color constancy makes use of image derivatives to estimate the illuminant. However, different edge types exist in real-world images such as shadow, geometry, material and highlight edges. These different edge types may have a distinctive influence on the performance of the illuminant

  16. Quality evaluation of edge detection in a road image sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo B. de A. Gallis


    Full Text Available Terrestrial mobile mapping systems map interest features along roads such as poles, traffic signs, curb lines, garbage cans etc. The lab work, concerned to the object reconstruction, consists of transforming the video into still images on which homologous points and features of the road sequence are selected and measured. By means of photogrammetric intersection the object coordinates of these features and points are computed for 3D reconstruction. Using Canny algorithm for the automatic edge detection in a road image sequence the article initially focuses on the empiric determination of the required parameters (standard deviation s and high Ta and low Tb threshold. Then it presents the quality in terms of displacement of the automatically detected edges similar to those visually (manually selected straight features extracted by a human operator that takes them as correct, therefore, as reference for the automatic extraction comparison and the quality evaluation. The results of the tests are discussed and show that the quality of the automatic detection – measured by a quantity of rights and wrongs – vary accordingly to the empirically determined standard deviation and high and low thresholds and also to the image sequence environment (street or road.

  17. Final report on the energy edge impact evaluation of 28 new, low-energy commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piette, M.A.; Diamond, R.; Nordman, B. [and others


    This report presents the findings of the Energy Edge Impact Evaluation. It is the fourth and final report in a series of project impact evaluation reports. Energy Edge is a research-oriented demonstration of energy efficiency in 28 new commercial buildings. Beginning in 1985,the project, sponsored by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), was developed to evaluate the potential for electricity conservation in new commercial buildings. By focusing on the construction of new commercial buildings, Energy Edge meets the region`s goal of capturing otherwise lost opportunities to accomplish energy conservation. That is, the best time to add an energy-efficiency measure to a building is during the construction phase.

  18. Evaluation and Modeling of Edge-Seal Materials for Photovoltaic Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kempe, M. D.; Dameron, A. A.; Moricone, T. J.; Reese, M. O.


    Because of the sensitivity of some photovoltaic devices to moisture-induced corrosion, they are packaged using impermeable front- and back-sheets along with an edge seal to prevent moisture ingress. Evaluation of edge seal materials can be difficult because of the low permeation rates involved and/or non-Fickian behavior. Here, using a Ca film deposited on a glass substrate, we demonstrate the evaluation of edge seal materials in a manner that effectively duplicates their use in a photovoltaic application and compare the results with standard methods for measuring water vapor transport. We demonstrate how moisture permeation data from polymer films can be used to estimate moisture ingress rates and compare the results of these two methods. Encapsulant materials were also evaluated for comparison and to highlight the need for edge seals. Of the materials studied, desiccant filled polyisobutylene materials demonstrate by far the best potential to keep moisture out for a 20 to 30 year lifetime.

  19. Detection method of the LGP warpage degree based on edge detection evaluation function (United States)

    Chen, Gong; Zhu, Xifang; Chu, Lijuan; Cao, Lihua; Lin, Rong


    Because of the shortage of rule gap measurement for light guide plate (LGP) warpage degree, image definition criterion of quality indexing is present based on single CCD camera. The detection paper and LGP are respectively arranged on the camera detection device platform, located by X- and Y-axes driving unit and focused by Z-axis driving unit firstly, different image definition criterion peaks of edge detection evaluation function are obtained in the middle surface of LGP bottom and surface. Finally, different edge detection algorithms are compared under different situations. Results show that the algorithm has good repetition and can meet the online, untouched detection needs.

  20. Preliminary Design and Evaluation of an Airfoil with Continuous Trailing-Edge Flap (United States)

    Shen, Jinwei; Thornburgh, Robert P.; Kreshock, Andrew R.; Wilbur, Matthew L.; Liu, Yi


    This paper presents the preliminary design and evaluation of an airfoil with active continuous trailing-edge flap (CTEF) as a potential rotorcraft active control device. The development of structural cross-section models of a continuous trailing-edge flap airfoil is described. The CTEF deformations with MFC actuation are predicted by NASTRAN and UM/VABS analyses. Good agreement is shown between the predictions from the two analyses. Approximately two degrees of CTEF deflection, defined as the rotation angle of the trailing edge, is achieved with the baseline MFC-PZT bender. The 2D aerodynamic characteristics of the continuous trailing-edge flap are evaluated using a CFD analysis. The aerodynamic efficiency of a continuous trailing-edge flap is compared to that of a conventional discrete trailing-edge flap (DTEF). It is found that the aerodynamic characteristics of a CTEF are equivalent to those of a conventional DTEF with the same deflection angle but with a smaller flap chord. A fluid structure interaction procedure is implemented to predict the deflection of the continuous trailingedge flap under aerodynamic pressure. The reductions in CTEF deflection are overall small when aerodynamic pressure is applied: 2.7% reduction is shown with a CTEF deflection angle of two degrees and at angle of attack of six degrees. In addition, newly developed MFC-PMN actuator is found to be a good supplement to MFC-PZT when applied as the bender outside layers. A mixed MFC-PZT and MFC-PMN bender generates 3% more CTEF deformation than an MFC-PZT only bender and 5% more than an MFC-PMN only bender under aerodynamic loads.

  1. An investigation of p-normed sparsity evaluation for SS-LBP-based edge extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen-yi, Zhao [School of Physics, Northeast Normal University, Changchun (China); Jia-ning, Sun, E-mail: [School of Mathematics and Statistics, Northeast Normal University, Changchun (China); Shuang, Qiao, E-mail: [School of Physics, Northeast Normal University, Changchun (China)


    SS-LBP is a very efficient tool for fast edge extraction in digital radiography. In this paper, we introduce a p-normed sparsity evaluation strategy to improve and generalize the existing SS-LBP framework. To illustrate the feasibility of the proposed approach, several experimental results are presented. Comparisons show that 1-normed sparsity evaluation is more effective and robust in practical applications.

  2. Sistema de avaliação para classificar áreas de disposição de resíduos sólidos urbanos visando a remediação e a pós-ocupação Evaluation system for rating urban solid waste disposal sites for remediation and post occupation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Soares de Schueler


    Full Text Available A disposição de resíduos sólidos urbanos em locais sem infra-estrutura de proteção ambiental pode ser responsável pela contaminação de recursos naturais e de seres humanos e animais por meio da emissão de efluentes líquidos e gasosos. A metodologia proposta visa contribuir com a avaliação do risco de exposição ao lixiviado, bem como sugerir procedimentos de monitoramento da área, de acordo com diferentes níveis de cuidado e urgência. O método baseia-se em quatro matrizes onde é possível ser feita uma avaliação inicial da fonte do risco, do sujeito potencialmente atingido, e dos caminhos ambientais superficiais e subterrâneos. Neste trabalho foi considerada, essencialmente, a contaminação causada por efluentes líquidos.Disposal of urban solid waste in sites without infrastructure for environmental protection may be responsible for contamination of natural resources and human beings by gas and liquid effluent emission. The proposed methodology aims to contribute in the evaluation of risk to the exposure to leachate as well as suggested procedures for site monitoring, according to different levels of care and urgency. The method is based on four matrices where it is possible to make an initial evaluation of the source of the risk, the potential target and the superficial and underground environmental paths. In this paper only the contamination caused by liquid effluents were considered.

  3. Optimization of Nano-Grating Pitch Evaluation Method Based on Line Edge Roughness Analysis (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Liu, Jie; Wang, Xingrui; Zhang, Longfei; Deng, Xiao; Cheng, Xinbin; Li, Tongbao


    Pitch uncertainty and line edge roughness are among the critical quality attributes of a pitch standard and normally the analyses of these two parameters are separate. The analysis of self-traceable Cr atom lithography nano-gratings shows a positive relevance and sensitivity between LER and evaluated standard deviation of pitch. Therefore, LER can be used as an aided pre-evaluation parameter for the pitch calculation method, such as the gravity center method or the zero-crossing points method. The optimization of the nano-grating evaluation method helps to obtain the accurate pitch value with fewer measurements and provide a comprehensive characterization of pitch standards.

  4. Optimization of Nano-Grating Pitch Evaluation Method Based on Line Edge Roughness Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jie


    Full Text Available Pitch uncertainty and line edge roughness are among the critical quality attributes of a pitch standard and normally the analyses of these two parameters are separate. The analysis of self-traceable Cr atom lithography nano-gratings shows a positive relevance and sensitivity between LER and evaluated standard deviation of pitch. Therefore, LER can be used as an aided pre-evaluation parameter for the pitch calculation method, such as the gravity center method or the zero-crossing points method. The optimization of the nano-grating evaluation method helps to obtain the accurate pitch value with fewer measurements and provide a comprehensive characterization of pitch standards.

  5. The development of a post occupancy evaluation tool for primary schools: learner comfort assessment tool (LCAT)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Motsatsi, L


    Full Text Available Students spend majority of their time indoors, in school buildings or classroom. A poor and unsatisfactory indoor environment can affect health, productivity and comfort of occupants. Hence, a satisfactory indoor environment quality is important...

  6. Post Occupancy Evaluation of a Remote Australian Community: Shay Gap, Australia. (United States)


    level, and mere onlookers are at the 1 level. Penetration levels are assigned to the popu- lation grcups present, according to age, sex , and race...Shade in Shay Gap? Twenty-nine (40%) said that it was better than most. Nine- teen (26%) felt it was worse than most, or worst of all. The mean...Adults and children at the theatre eat, drink, socialize and play as well as sit and watch movies . The movies are the largest and most widely attended

  7. Identificación y evaluación del grado de satisfacción en la etapa de post-ocupación de los proyectos de viviendas económicas desde la perspectiva de los usuarios: estudio de caso peruano = Identification and evaluation of satisfaction degree in the post-occupation phase of the economic housing projects from the perspective of the users: Peruvian case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Brioso


    Full Text Available El objetivo principal de esta investigación es identificar cuáles son las necesidades más relevantes, entre ellas, las relacionadas a la sostenibilidad, que deben tomarse en cuenta en los proyectos de viviendas económicas, y evaluar el grado de satisfacción de los usuarios finales que ya habitan en este tipo de vivienda. Se describe las estrategias, herramientas, técnicas y prácticas necesarias para su identificación, para lo cual se recolecta la información de la etapa del post ocupación, en el marco del sistema Lean Project Delivery System. Para cumplir lo anterior, se siguieron los siguientes pasos: (1 Se recopiló la información de la problemática que engloba el déficit de vivienda y el planeamiento urbano existente en la zona de estudio; (2 Se diseñaron y realizaron las encuestas a la población que ya vive en viviendas sociales típicas identificando las necesidades no cubiertas, con énfasis en criterios de sostenibilidad; y (3 Se comparó los resultados de las encuestas con las necesidades de los usuarios obtenidas previamente mediante el uso de la herramienta del árbol de problemas, obteniendo conclusiones Abstract The main objective of this research is to identify the most relevant needs, including those related to sustainability, which should be taken into account in low-income housing projects, and to assess the degree of satisfaction of the end users already living in this type of housing. It describes the strategies, tools, techniques and practices necessary for its identification, for which information is collected from the post-occupation stage, within the framework of the Lean Project Delivery System. In order to comply with the above, the following steps were followed: (1 Information was collected on the problems that comprise the housing deficit and urban planning in the study area; (2 Surveys were designed and conducted for the population that already lives in typical social housing, identifying unmet needs

  8. Automated and observer based light field indicator edge evaluation in diagnostic X-ray equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bottaro, Marcio; Nagy, Balazs Vince; Soares, Fernanda Cristina Salvador; Rosendo, Danilo Cabral, E-mail: [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil); Optics and Engineering Informatics, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budapest (Hungary)


    Introduction: To analyze edge detection and optical contrast calculation of light field-indicators used in X-ray via automated- and observer-based methods, and comparison with current standard approaches, which do not give exact definition for light field edge determination. Methods: Automated light sensor array was used to measure the penumbra zone of the edge in the standard X-ray equipment, while trained and naive human observers were asked to mark the light field edge according to their own determination. Different interpretations of the contrast were then calculated and compared. Results: In contrast to automated measurements of edge definition and detection, measurements by human observers showed large inter-observer variation independent of their training with X-ray equipment. Different contrast calculations considering the different edge definitions gave very different contrast values. Conclusion: As the main conclusion, we propose a more exact edge definition of the X-ray light field, corresponding well to the average human observer's edge determination. The new edge definition method with automated systems would reduce human variability in edge determination. Such errors could potentially affect the approval of X-ray equipment, and also increase the radiation dose. The automated measurement based on human observers’ edge definition and the corresponding contrast calculation may lead to a more precise light field calibration, which enables reduced irradiation doses on radiology patients. (author)

  9. Accuracy evaluation of the optical surface monitoring system on EDGE linear accelerator in a phantom study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancosu, Pietro; Fogliata, Antonella, E-mail:; Stravato, Antonella; Tomatis, Stefano; Cozzi, Luca; Scorsetti, Marta


    Frameless stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) requires dedicated systems to monitor the patient position during the treatment to avoid target underdosage due to involuntary shift. The optical surface monitoring system (OSMS) is here evaluated in a phantom-based study. The new EDGE linear accelerator from Varian (Varian, Palo Alto, CA) integrates, for cranial lesions, the common cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and kV-MV portal images to the optical surface monitoring system (OSMS), a device able to detect real-time patient's face movements in all 6 couch axes (vertical, longitudinal, lateral, rotation along the vertical axis, pitch, and roll). We have evaluated the OSMS imaging capability in checking the phantoms' position and monitoring its motion. With this aim, a home-made cranial phantom was developed to evaluate the OSMS accuracy in 4 different experiments: (1) comparison with CBCT in isocenter location, (2) capability to recognize predefined shifts up to 2° or 3 cm, (3) evaluation at different couch angles, (4) ability to properly reconstruct the surface when the linac gantry visually block one of the cameras. The OSMS system showed, with a phantom, to be accurate for positioning in respect to the CBCT imaging system with differences of 0.6 ± 0.3 mm for linear vector displacement, with a maximum rotational inaccuracy of 0.3°. OSMS presented an accuracy of 0.3 mm for displacement up to 1 cm and 1°, and 0.5 mm for larger displacements. Different couch angles (45° and 90°) induced a mean vector uncertainty < 0.4 mm. Coverage of 1 camera produced an uncertainty < 0.5 mm. Translations and rotations of a phantom can be accurately detect with the optical surface detector system.

  10. Virtualization on Internet of Things Edge Devices With Container Technologies: A Performance Evaluation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morabito, Roberto


    .... As an example, the Internet of Things (IoT) and mobile edge computing benefit from container virtualization by exploiting the possibility of using these technologies not only in data centers but also on devices, which are characterized...

  11. Representing Uncertainty in Graph Edges: An Evaluation of Paired Visual Variables. (United States)

    Guo, Hua; Huang, Jeff; Laidlaw, David H


    When visualizing data with uncertainty, a common approach is to treat uncertainty as an additional dimension and encode it using a visual variable. The effectiveness of this approach depends on how the visual variables chosen for representing uncertainty and other attributes interact to influence the user's perception of each variable. We report a user study on the perception of graph edge attributes when uncertainty associated with each edge and the main edge attribute are visualized simultaneously using two separate visual variables. The study covers four visual variables that are commonly used for visualizing uncertainty on line graphical primitives: lightness, grain, fuzziness, and transparency. We select width, hue, and saturation for visualizing the main edge attribute and hypothesize that we can observe interference between the visual variable chosen to encode the main edge attribute and that to encode uncertainty, as suggested by the concept of dimensional integrality. Grouping the seven visual variables as color-based, focus-based, or geometry-based, we further hypothesize that the degree of interference is affected by the groups to which the two visual variables belong. We consider two further factors in the study: discriminability level for each visual variable as a factor intrinsic to the visual variables and graph-task type (visual search versus comparison) as a factor extrinsic to the visual variables. Our results show that the effectiveness of a visual variable in depicting uncertainty is strongly mediated by all the factors examined here. Focus-based visual variables (fuzziness, grain, and transparency) are robust to the choice of visual variables for encoding the main edge attribute, though fuzziness has stronger negative impact on the perception of width and transparency has stronger negative impact on the perception of hue than the other uncertainty visual variables. We found that interference between hue and lightness is much greater than that

  12. Evaluation of bulk and surfaces absorption edge energy of sol-gel-dip-coating SnO2 thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Aparecido Floriano


    Full Text Available The absorption edge and the bandgap transition of sol-gel-dip-coating SnO2 thin films, deposited on quartz substrates, are evaluated from optical absorption data and temperature dependent photoconductivity spectra. Structural properties of these films help the interpretation of bandgap transition nature, since the obtained nanosized dimensions of crystallites are determinant on dominant growth direction and, thus, absorption energy. Electronic properties of the bulk and (110 and (101 surfaces are also presented, calculated by means of density functional theory applied to periodic calculations at B3LYP hybrid functional level. Experimentally obtained absorption edge is compared to the calculated energy band diagrams of bulk and (110 and (101 surfaces. The overall calculated electronic properties in conjunction with structural and electro-optical experimental data suggest that the nature of the bandgap transition is related to a combined effect of bulk and (101 surface, which presents direct bandgap transition.

  13. Evaluation of Load Analysis Methods for NASAs GIII Adaptive Compliant Trailing Edge Project (United States)

    Cruz, Josue; Miller, Eric J.


    The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center (AFRC), and FlexSys Inc. (Ann Arbor, Michigan) have collaborated to flight test the Adaptive Compliant Trailing Edge (ACTE) flaps. These flaps were installed on a Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation (GAC) GIII aircraft and tested at AFRC at various deflection angles over a range of flight conditions. External aerodynamic and inertial load analyses were conducted with the intention to ensure that the change in wing loads due to the deployed ACTE flap did not overload the existing baseline GIII wing box structure. The objective of this paper was to substantiate the analysis tools used for predicting wing loads at AFRC. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models and distributed mass inertial models were developed for predicting the loads on the wing. The analysis tools included TRANAIR (full potential) and CMARC (panel) models. Aerodynamic pressure data from the analysis codes were validated against static pressure port data collected in-flight. Combined results from the CFD predictions and the inertial load analysis were used to predict the normal force, bending moment, and torque loads on the wing. Wing loads obtained from calibrated strain gages installed on the wing were used for substantiation of the load prediction tools. The load predictions exhibited good agreement compared to the flight load results obtained from calibrated strain gage measurements.

  14. Evaluation of Melbourne Edge Test contrast sensitivity measures in the visually impaired. (United States)

    Wolffsohn, James S; Eperjesi, Frank; Napper, Genevieve


    Contrast sensitivity (CS) provides important information on visual function. This study aimed to assess differences in clinical expediency of the CS increment-matched new back-lit and original paper versions of the Melbourne Edge Test (MET) to determine the CS of the visually impaired. The back-lit and paper MET were administered to 75 visually impaired subjects (28-97 years). Two versions of the back-lit MET acetates were used to match the CS increments with the paper-based MET. Measures of CS were repeated after 30 min and again in the presence of a focal light source directed onto the MET. Visual acuity was measured with a Bailey-Lovie chart and subjects rated how much difficulty they had with face and vehicle recognition. The back-lit MET gave a significantly higher CS than the paper-based version (14.2 +/- 4.1 dB vs 11.3 +/- 4.3 dB, p < 0.001). A significantly higher reading resulted with repetition of the paper-based MET (by 1.0 +/- 1.7 dB, p < 0.001), but this was not evident with the back-lit MET (by 0.1 +/- 1.4 dB, p = 0.53). The MET readings were increased by a focal light source, in both the back-lit (by 0.3 +/- 0.81, p < 0.01) and paper-based (1.2 +/- 1.7, p < 0.001) versions. CS as measured by the back-lit and paper-based versions of the MET was significantly correlated to patients' perceived ability to recognise faces (r = 0.71, r = 0.85 respectively; p < 0.001) and vehicles (r = 0.67, r = 0.82 respectively; p < 0.001), and with distance visual acuity (both r = -0.64; p < 0.001). The CS increment-matched back-lit MET gives higher CS values than the old paper-based test by approximately 3 dB and is more repeatable and less affected by external light sources. Clinically, the MET score provides information on patient difficulties with visual tasks, such as recognising faces.

  15. Evaluation of Sinus/Edge-Corrected Zero-Echo-Time-Based Attenuation Correction in Brain PET/MRI. (United States)

    Yang, Jaewon; Wiesinger, Florian; Kaushik, Sandeep; Shanbhag, Dattesh; Hope, Thomas A; Larson, Peder E Z; Seo, Youngho


    In brain PET/MRI, the major challenge of zero-echo-time (ZTE)-based attenuation correction (ZTAC) is the misclassification of air/tissue/bone mixtures or their boundaries. Our study aimed to evaluate a sinus/edge-corrected (SEC) ZTAC (ZTACSEC), relative to an uncorrected (UC) ZTAC (ZTACUC) and a CT atlas-based attenuation correction (ATAC). Methods: Whole-body 18F-FDG PET/MRI scans were obtained for 12 patients after PET/CT scans. Only data acquired at a bed station that included the head were used for this study. Using PET data from PET/MRI, we applied ZTACUC, ZTACSEC, ATAC, and reference CT-based attenuation correction (CTAC) to PET attenuation correction. For ZTACUC, the bias-corrected and normalized ZTE was converted to pseudo-CT with air (-1,000 HU for ZTE 0.75), and bone (-2,000 × [ZTE - 1] + 42 HU for 0.2 ≤ ZTE ≤ 0.75). Afterward, in the pseudo-CT, sinus/edges were automatically estimated as a binary mask through morphologic processing and edge detection. In the binary mask, the overestimated values were rescaled below 42 HU for ZTACSEC For ATAC, the atlas deformed to MR in-phase was segmented to air, inner air, soft tissue, and continuous bone. For the quantitative evaluation, PET mean uptake values were measured in twenty 1-mL volumes of interest distributed throughout brain tissues. The PET uptake was compared using a paired t test. An error histogram was used to show the distribution of voxel-based PET uptake differences. Results: Compared with CTAC, ZTACSEC achieved the overall PET quantification accuracy (0.2% ± 2.4%, P = 0.23) similar to CTAC, in comparison with ZTACUC (5.6% ± 3.5%, P PET quantification in brain PET/MRI, comparable to the accuracy achieved by CTAC, particularly in the cerebellum. © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

  16. Applying of modern approach to evaluation of initial hydrocarbon reserves at the edge of saturation pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Віталій Ігорович Коваль


    Full Text Available The article deals the features for evaluation of initial saturated hydrocarbon reserves, which developed as the depletion of reservoir energy and the maintenance of reservoir pressure. A new method of material balance is used with accounting of the gravity distribution of reservoir system components, extraction of each component of reservoir fluids, change of their physical properties in the development of deposits

  17. Evaluation of the Edge Crack Torsion (ECT) Test for Mode 3 Interlaminar Fracture Toughness of Laminated Composites (United States)

    Li, Jian; Lee, Edward W.; OBrien, T. Kevin; Lee, Shaw Ming


    An analytical and experimental investigation was carried out on G40-800/R6376 graphite epoxy laminates to evaluate the Edge Crack Torsion (ECT) test as a candidate for a standard Mode 3 interlaminar fracture toughness test for laminated composites. The ECT test consists of a (90/(+/- 45)(sub 3)/(+/- 45)(sub 3)/90))(sub s) laminate with a delamination introduced by a non-adhesive film at the mid-plane along one edge and loaded in a special fixture to create torsion along the length of the laminate. Dye penetrate enhanced X-radiograph of failed specimens revealed that the delamination initiated at the middle of the specimen length and propagated in a self similar manner along the laminate mid-plane. A three-dimensional finite element analysis was performed that indicated that a pure Mode 3 delamination exists at the middle of specimen length away from both ends. At the ends near the loading point a small Mode 2 component exists. However, the magnitude of this Mode 2 strain energy release rate at the loading point is small compared to the magnitude of Mode 3 component in the mid-section of the specimen. Hence, the ECT test yielded the desired Mode 3 delamination. The Mode 3 fracture toughness was obtained from a compliance calibration method and was in good agreement with the finite element results. Mode 2 End-Notched Flexure (ENF) tests and Mode 1 Double Cantilever Beam (DCB) tests were also performed for the same composite material. The Mode 1 fracture toughness was much smaller than both the Mode 2 and Mode 3 fracture toughness. The Mode 2 fracture toughness was found to be 75% of the Mode 3 fracture toughness.

  18. Edge Bioinformatics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Edge Bioinformatics is a developmental bioinformatics and data management platform which seeks to supply laboratories with bioinformatics pipelines for analyzing data associated with common samples case goals. Edge Bioinformatics enables sequencing as a solution and forward-deployed situations where human-resources, space, bandwidth, and time are limited. The Edge bioinformatics pipeline was designed based on following USE CASES and specific to illumina sequencing reads. 1. Assay performance adjudication (PCR): Analysis of an existing PCR assay in a genomic context, and automated design of a new assay to resolve conflicting results; 2. Clinical presentation with extreme symptoms: Characterization of a known pathogen or co-infection with a. Novel emerging disease outbreak or b. Environmental surveillance

  19. Evaluation of a new methodology to simulate damage and wear of polyethylene hip replacements subjected to edge loading in hip simulator testing. (United States)

    Partridge, Susan; Tipper, Joanne L; Al-Hajjar, Mazen; Isaac, Graham H; Fisher, John; Williams, Sophie


    Wear and fatigue of polyethylene acetabular cups have been reported to play a role in the failure of total hip replacements. Hip simulator testing under a wide range of clinically relevant loading conditions is important. Edge loading of hip replacements can occur following impingement under extreme activities and can also occur during normal gait, where there is an offset deficiency and/or joint laxity. This study evaluated a hip simulator method that assessed wear and damage in polyethylene acetabular liners that were subjected to edge loading. The liners tested to evaluate the method were a currently manufactured crosslinked polyethylene acetabular liner and an aged conventional polyethylene acetabular liner. The acetabular liners were tested for 5 million standard walking cycles and following this 5 million walking cycles with edge loading. Edge loading conditions represented a separation of the centers of rotation of the femoral head and the acetabular liner during the swing phase, leading to loading of the liner rim on heel strike. Rim damage and cracking was observed in the aged conventional polyethylene liner. Steady-state wear rates assessed gravimetrically were lower under edge loading compared to standard loading. This study supports previous clinical findings that edge loading may cause rim cracking in liners, where component positioning is suboptimal or where material degradation is present. The simulation method developed has the potential to be used in the future to test the effect of aging and different levels of severity of edge loading on a range of cross-linked polyethylene materials. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Minority carrier lifetime evaluation of periphery edge region in high-performance multicrystalline ingot produced by seed-assisted directional solidification (United States)

    Li, Zhong; Li, Jia-Dan; Zhuang, Lin; Hong, Rui-Jiang


    A high-performance multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) ingot was produced by seed-assisted directional solidification, and the minority carrier lifetime of the periphery edge region was evaluated. The defects and impurities in the periphery edge region of the silicon wafers were systematically studied with photoluminescence (PL) imaging, minority carrier lifetime mapping, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Their relationships with the minority carrier lifetime were investigated. The concentration of substitutional carbon, interstitial oxygen, and dislocation clusters is not directly correlated with the low minority carrier lifetime of the edge zone of the mc-Si ingot. Inhomogeneous grain size distribution and contamination with iron impurities were demonstrated to be the main factors affecting the low minority carrier lifetime. By controlling the impurities and improving the grain size distribution, a modified furnace was designed and a higher-quality mc-Si ingot was manufactured.

  1. Edge Detection, (United States)


    PROJECT. T ASK0 Artificial Inteligence Laboratory AREA It WORK UNIT NUMBERS V 545 Technology Square ( Cambridge, HA 02139 I I* CONTOOL1LIN@4OFFICE NAME...ARD-A1t62 62 EDGE DETECTION(U) NASSACNUSETTS INST OF TECH CAMBRIDGE 1/1 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LAB E C HILDRETH SEP 85 AI-M-8 N99SI4-8S-C-6595...used to carry out this analysis. cce~iO a N) ’.~" D LI’BL. P p ------------ Sj. t i MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY i ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

  2. Cutting Edge Localisation in an Edge Profile Milling Head

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez Robles, Laura; Azzopardi, George; Alegre, Enrique; Petkov, Nicolai


    Wear evaluation of cutting tools is a key issue for prolonging their lifetime and ensuring high quality of products. In this paper, we present a method for the effective localisation of cutting edges of inserts in digital images of an edge profile milling head. We introduce a new image data set of

  3. Living edge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri


    was originally introduced to enhance indoor qualities including light and view. Throughout the paper, it is argued that these ecological motives have grown to architectural and urban dimensions. The paper analyzes the characteristics and potentials of these dimensions and their interconnections. The paper...... on the ground level, but there is a lack of recognition in the significance of communicative characters as well at the higher part of the edge. The city’s planning approach is “Consider urban life before urban space. Consider urban space before buildings” This urban strategy neglects the possible architectural...... contribution to the street atmosphere and its effect on urban life. Bay balcony has been a common architectural element in Copenhagen’s residential buildings, since the end of the twenties. It is a domestic border with an architectural thickness combining window, door, windowsill and balcony. The bay balcony...

  4. Comparison of topological clustering within protein networks using edge metrics that evaluate full sequence, full structure, and active site microenvironment similarity. (United States)

    Leuthaeuser, Janelle B; Knutson, Stacy T; Kumar, Kiran; Babbitt, Patricia C; Fetrow, Jacquelyn S


    The development of accurate protein function annotation methods has emerged as a major unsolved biological problem. Protein similarity networks, one approach to function annotation via annotation transfer, group proteins into similarity-based clusters. An underlying assumption is that the edge metric used to identify such clusters correlates with functional information. In this contribution, this assumption is evaluated by observing topologies in similarity networks using three different edge metrics: sequence (BLAST), structure (TM-Align), and active site similarity (active site profiling, implemented in DASP). Network topologies for four well-studied protein superfamilies (enolase, peroxiredoxin (Prx), glutathione transferase (GST), and crotonase) were compared with curated functional hierarchies and structure. As expected, network topology differs, depending on edge metric; comparison of topologies provides valuable information on structure/function relationships. Subnetworks based on active site similarity correlate with known functional hierarchies at a single edge threshold more often than sequence- or structure-based networks. Sequence- and structure-based networks are useful for identifying sequence and domain similarities and differences; therefore, it is important to consider the clustering goal before deciding appropriate edge metric. Further, conserved active site residues identified in enolase and GST active site subnetworks correspond with published functionally important residues. Extension of this analysis yields predictions of functionally determinant residues for GST subgroups. These results support the hypothesis that active site similarity-based networks reveal clusters that share functional details and lay the foundation for capturing functionally relevant hierarchies using an approach that is both automatable and can deliver greater precision in function annotation than current similarity-based methods. © 2015 The Authors Protein Science

  5. Evaluation of fracture toughness in dental ceramics using indentation and SEVNB (Single Edge V-Notched Beam)-method; Avaliacao da tenacidade a fratura de ceramicas dentarias atraves do metodo de entalhe - SEVNB (Single Edge V-Notched Beam)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, L.A.; Santos, C.; Souza, R.C.; Ribeiro, S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (DEMAR/EEL/USP), Lorena, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia de Lorena. Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais. Polo Urbo-Industrial; Strecker, K. [Universidade Federal de Sao Joao del-Rei (DME/UFSJ), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Materiais Eletricos; Oberacker, R. [Karlsruhe Univ. (Germany)


    In this work, the fracture toughness of different ceramics based on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and ZrO{sub 2} were evaluated using, comparatively two methods, Vickers indentation and SEVNB (Single Edge V-Notched Beam) method. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, ZrO{sub 2}(3%Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) micro-particled and ZrO{sub 2}(3%Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanometric, ZrO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ZrO{sub 2} composites were sintered at different temperatures. Samples were characterized by relative density, X-ray diffraction, SEM, and mechanical evaluation by hardness, bending strength and fracture toughness obtained by ickers indentation and SEVNB-method. The results were presented comparing the densification and microstructural results. Furthermore, the advantages and limitations of each method were discussed. (author)

  6. Evaluation of the Load-bearing Capacity of Fractured Incisal Edge of Maxillary Permanent Central Incisors restored with a Glass Fiber-reinforced Nanocomposite: An in vitro Study. (United States)

    Kumar, Ps Praveen; Srilatha, K T; Nandlal, B; Dhull, Kanika Singh


    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the load-bearing capacity of fractured incisal edge of maxillary permanent central incisors restored with a nanocomposite and a glass fiber-reinforced nanocomposite. Thirty-six extracted sound maxillary central incisors randomly divided in three groups were used for the present study. Group I (control) contained untreated teeth. Samples in experimental groups II and III were prepared by cutting the incisal (one-third) part of the crown horizontally and subjected to enamel preparations and restored with a nanocomposite and a glass fiber-reinforced nanocomposite respectively. All restored teeth were stored in distilled water at room temperature for 24 hours. Fracture resistance was evaluated as peak load at failure (Newton) for samples tested in a cantilever-bending test using Hounsfield universal testing machine. Failure modes were microscopically examined. Highest mean peak failure load (Newton) among experimental groups was observed in glass fiber-reinforced nano composite group (863.50 ± 76.12 N) followed by nanocomposite group (633.67 ± 40.14 N). One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed that the restoration technique significantly affected the load-bearing capacity (p post-hoc comparison test (subset for α = 0.05) revealed that there was significant difference in the mean peak failure load values of nanocomposite and glass fiber-reinforced nanocomposite groups when considered together (p glass fiber-reinforced nanocomposite group fractured below the cementoenamel junction. By using fiber-reinforced composite substructure under conventional composites in the repair of fractured incisors, the load-bearing capacity of the restored incisal edge could be substantially increased. How to cite this article: Kumar PSP, Srilatha KT, Nandlal B, Dhull KS. Evaluation of the Load-bearing Capacity of Fractured Incisal Edge of Maxillary Permanent Central Incisors restored with a Glass Fiber-reinforced Nanocomposite: An

  7. Preliminary evaluation of discomfort glare from organic light-emitting diode and edge-lit light-emitting diode lighting panels. (United States)

    Mou, Xi; Freyssinier, Jean Paul; Narendran, Nadarajah; Bullough, John D


    The organic light-emitting diode (OLED) is an area light source, and its primary competing technology is the edge-lit light-emitting diode (LED) panel. Both technologies are similar in shape and appearance, but there is little understanding of how people perceive discomfort glare (DG) from area sources. The objective of this study was to evaluate the DG of these two technologies under similar operating conditions. Additionally, two existing DG models were compared to evaluate the correlation between predicted values and observed values. In an earlier study, we found no statistically significant difference in human response in terms of DG between OLED and edge-lit LED panels when the two sources produced the same luminous stimulus. The range of testing stimulus was expanded to test different panel luminances at three background illuminations. The results showed no difference in perceived glare between the panels, and, as the background illumination increased, the perceived glare decreased. In other words, both appeared equally glary beyond a certain luminance and background illumination. We then compared two existing glare models with the observed values and found that one model showed a good estimation of how humans perceive DG. That model was further modified to increase its power.

  8. Evaluating the influence of the Red Edge band from RapidEye sensor in quantifying leaf area index for hydrological applications specifically focussing on plant canopy interception (United States)

    Dube, Timothy; Mutanga, Onisimo; Sibanda, Mbulisi; Shoko, Cletah; Chemura, Abel


    Reliable and accurate quantification of plant Leaf Area Index (LAI) is critical in understanding its role in reducing runoff. The main aim of the present study was to evaluate the ability of the Red Edge (RE) band derived from RapidEye in estimating LAI for applications in quantifying canopy interception at landscape scale. To achieve this objective, the study also compares the predictive power of two machine learning algorithms (Random Forest-RF and Stochastic Gradient Boosting-SGB) in estimating LAI. Comparatively, the results of the study have demonstrated that the inclusion of spectral information derived from the Red Edge band yields high accurate LAI estimates, when compared to the use of traditional traditional Red, Green, Blue and Near Infra-Red (traditional RGBNIR) spectral information. The results indicate that the use of the four traditional RGBNIR bands yielded comparatively lower R2 values and high Root Mean Squares, Mean Absolute Error (Pinus taeda: R2 of 0.60; the lowest RMSE (0.35 m2/m2) and MAE of 28); whereas the use of integration of traditional RGBNIR + RE in more accurate LAI estimates (Pinus taeda: R2 = 0.65; RMSE = 0.30 m2/m2) and the lowest MAE of 0.23). These findings therefore underscores the importance of new generation multispectral sensors with strategically-position bands and machine learning algorithms in estimating LAI for quantifying canopy interception, especially in resource-poor areas.

  9. Evaluation of J and CTOD (Crack Tip Opening Displacement) fracture parameters for pipeline steels using Single Edge Notch Tension SE(T) specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paredes Tobar, Lenin Marcelo; Ruggieri, Claudio [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Naval e Oceanica


    This work presents an evaluation procedure to determine the elastic-plastic J-integral and CTOD for pin-loaded and clamped single edge notch tension (SE(T)) specimens based upon the eta-method. The primary objective is to derive estimation equations applicable to determine J and CTOD fracture parameters for a wide range of a/W-ratios and material flow properties. Very detailed non-linear finite element analyses for plane-strain and full-thickness, 3-D models provide the evolution of load with increased crack mouth opening displacement which is required for the estimation procedure. The present analyses, when taken together with previous studies provide a fairly extensive body of results which serve to determine parameters J and CTOD for different materials using tension specimens with varying geometries. (author)

  10. How Forest Inhomogeneities Affect the Edge Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boudreault, Louis-Étienne; Dupont, Sylvain; Bechmann, Andreas


    Most of our knowledge on forest-edge flows comes from numerical and wind-tunnel experiments where canopies are horizontally homogeneous. To investigate the impact of tree-scale heterogeneities (>1 m) on the edge-flow dynamics, the flow in an inhomogeneous forest edge on Falster island in Denmark...... is investigated using large-eddy simulation. The three-dimensional forest structure is prescribed in the model using high resolution helicopter-based lidar scans. After evaluating the simulation against wind measurements upwind and downwind of the forest leading edge, the flow dynamics are compared between...... the scanned forest and an equivalent homogeneous forest. The simulations reveal that forest inhomogeneities facilitate flow penetration into the canopy from the edge, inducing important dispersive fluxes in the edge region as a consequence of the flow spatial variability. Further downstream from the edge...

  11. Covalency in Metal-Oxygen Multiple Bonds Evaluated Using Oxygen K-edge Spectroscopy and Electronic Structure Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minasian, Stefan G.; Keith, Jason M.; Batista, Enrique R.; Boland, Kevin S.; Bradley, Joseph A.; Daly, Scott R.; Kozimor, Stosh A.; Lukens, Wayne W.; Martin, Richard L.; Nordlund, Dennis; Seidler, Gerald T.; Shuh, David K.; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Wagner, Gregory L.; Weng, Tsu-Chein; Yang, Ping


    Advancing theories of how metal oxygen bonding influences metal oxo properties can expose new avenues for innovation in materials science, catalysis, and biochemistry. Historically, spectroscopic analyses of the transition metal peroxyanions, MO4x-, have formed the basis for new M O bonding theories. Herein, relative changes in M O orbital mixing in MO42- (M = Cr, Mo, W) and MO41- (M = Mn, Tc, Re) are evaluated for the first time by non-resonant inelastic X-ray scattering, X-ray absorption spectroscopy using fluorescence and transmission (via a scanning transmission X-ray microscope), and linear-response density functional theory. The results suggest that moving from Group 6 to Group 7 or down the triads increases M O e () mixing. Meanwhile, t2 mixing ( + ) remains relatively constant within the same Group. These unexpected changes in frontier orbital energy and composition are evaluated in terms of periodic trends in d orbital energy and radial extension.

  12. Nanoindentation near the edge (United States)

    J.E. Jakes; C.R. Frihart; J.F. Beecher; R.J. Moon; P.J. Resto; Z.H. Melgarejo; O.M. Saurez; H. Baumgart; A.A. Elmustafa; D.S. Stone


    Whenever a nanoindent is placed near an edge, such as the free edge of the specimen or heterophase interface intersecting the surface, the elastic discontinuity associated with the edge produces artifacts in the load-depth data. Unless properly handled in the data analysis, the artifacts can produce spurious results that obscure any real trends in properties as...

  13. Analysis of the high-resolution computed tomographic diagnosis of small solitary pulmonary nodule using evaluation of edge and internal characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Tsuneo; Awaya, Hitomi; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Miura, Goji; Ariyoshi, Isao; Yoshimizu, Tazuko; Nomura, Satoshi; Nakanishi, Takashi (Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan). School of Medicine)


    To improve the differential diagnosis of solitary pulmonary nodule (SPN), we analyzed the results of an observer test in 26 cases with non-calcified SPN less than 3cm in maximal diameter including 13 malignant and 13 benign cases. Using evaluation of the edge and internal characteristics of the nodule, eight observers made differential diagnoses with five levels of confidence for SPN on both high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and conventional tomography (TOMO). The results of HRCT diagnoses were compared with those of TOMO diagnoses. HRCT diagnosis of SPN (Az=0.897) was significantly better than TOMO diagnosis (Az=0.705) in the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve, because of the improvement in confidence level for malignant nodules in HRCT diagnosis. On the contrary, the diagnostic accuracy in benign nodules on HRCT was almost equal to that on TOMO. When one or more findings suggestive of malignancy, such as spicula or notching, were recognized, the nodules were diagnosed as possible malignancy. However, interindividual variations in interpretations of such findings were great among observers. In the differential diagnosis of SPN on HRCT, benign findings used were few compared with malignant findings. Our results indicate that (1) a method of handing interindividual variation of interpretations should be devised and (2) the diagnostic characteristics of each HRCT finding suggestive of benignity as well as malignancy, should be established in a larger series. (author).

  14. Edge colouring by total labellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Stephan; Rautenbach, D.; Stiebitz, M.


    We introduce the concept of an edge-colouring total k-labelling. This is a labelling of the vertices and the edges of a graph G with labels 1, 2, ..., k such that the weights of the edges define a proper edge colouring of G. Here the weight of an edge is the sum of its label and the labels of its...

  15. The Evaluation of Physical Learning Environments: A Critical Review of the Literature (United States)

    Cleveland, Benjamin; Fisher, Kenn


    This article critically reviews the methodologies and methods that have been used for the evaluation of physical learning environments. To contextualize discussion about the evaluation of learning spaces, we initially chart the development of post-occupancy evaluation (POE) for non-domestic buildings. We then discuss the recent evolution of POE…

  16. Adobe Edge Quickstart Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Labrecque, Joseph


    Adobe Edge Quickstart Guide is a practical guide on creating engaging content for the Web with Adobe's newest HTML5 tool. By taking a chapter-by-chapter look at each major aspect of Adobe Edge, the book lets you digest the available features in small, easily understandable chunks, allowing you to start using Adobe Edge for your web design needs immediately. If you are interested in creating engaging motion and interactive compositions using web standards with professional tooling, then this book is for you. Those with a background in Flash Professional wanting to get started quickly with Adobe

  17. How Forest Inhomogeneities Affect the Edge Flow (United States)

    Boudreault, Louis-Étienne; Dupont, Sylvain; Bechmann, Andreas; Dellwik, Ebba


    Most of our knowledge on forest-edge flows comes from numerical and wind-tunnel experiments where canopies are horizontally homogeneous. To investigate the impact of tree-scale heterogeneities ({>}1 m) on the edge-flow dynamics, the flow in an inhomogeneous forest edge on Falster island in Denmark is investigated using large-eddy simulation. The three-dimensional forest structure is prescribed in the model using high resolution helicopter-based lidar scans. After evaluating the simulation against wind measurements upwind and downwind of the forest leading edge, the flow dynamics are compared between the scanned forest and an equivalent homogeneous forest. The simulations reveal that forest inhomogeneities facilitate flow penetration into the canopy from the edge, inducing important dispersive fluxes in the edge region as a consequence of the flow spatial variability. Further downstream from the edge, the forest inhomogeneities accentuate the canopy-top turbulence and the skewness of the wind-velocity components while the momentum flux remains unchanged. This leads to a lower efficiency in the turbulent transport of momentum within the canopy. Dispersive fluxes are only significant in the upper canopy. Above the canopy, the mean flow is less affected by the forest inhomogeneities. The inhomogeneities induce an increase in the mean wind speed that was found to be equivalent to a decrease in the aerodynamic height of the canopy. Overall, these results highlight the importance of forest inhomogeneities when looking at canopy-atmosphere exchanges in forest-edge regions.

  18. Adobe Edge Preview 3

    CERN Document Server

    Grover, Chris


    Want to use an Adobe tool to design animated web graphics that work on iPhone and iPad? You've come to the right book. Adobe Edge Preview 3: The Missing Manual shows you how to build HTML5 graphics using simple visual tools. No programming experience? No problem. Adobe Edge writes the underlying code for you. With this eBook, you'll be designing great-looking web elements in no time. Get to know the workspace. Learn how Adobe Edge Preview 3 performs its magic.Create and import graphics. Make drawings with Edge's tools, or use art you designed in other programs.Work with text. Build menus, lab

  19. Edge Simulation Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krasheninnikov, Sergei I. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Angus, Justin [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Lee, Wonjae [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)


    The goal of the Edge Simulation Laboratory (ESL) multi-institutional project is to advance scientific understanding of the edge plasma region of magnetic fusion devices via a coordinated effort utilizing modern computing resources, advanced algorithms, and ongoing theoretical development. The UCSD team was involved in the development of the COGENT code for kinetic studies across a magnetic separatrix. This work included a kinetic treatment of electrons and multiple ion species (impurities) and accurate collision operators.

  20. The Edge supersonic transport (United States)

    Agosta, Roxana; Bilbija, Dushan; Deutsch, Marc; Gallant, David; Rose, Don; Shreve, Gene; Smario, David; Suffredini, Brian


    As intercontinental business and tourism volumes continue their rapid expansion, the need to reduce travel times becomes increasingly acute. The Edge Supersonic Transport Aircraft is designed to meet this demand by the year 2015. With a maximum range of 5750 nm, a payload of 294 passengers and a cruising speed of M = 2.4, The Edge will cut current international flight durations in half, while maintaining competitive first class, business class, and economy class comfort levels. Moreover, this transport will render a minimal impact upon the environment, and will meet all Federal Aviation Administration Part 36, Stage III noise requirements. The cornerstone of The Edge's superior flight performance is its aerodynamically efficient, dual-configuration design incorporating variable-geometry wingtips. This arrangement combines the benefits of a high aspect ratio wing at takeoff and low cruising speeds with the high performance of an arrow-wing in supersonic cruise. And while the structural weight concerns relating to swinging wingtips are substantial, The Edge looks to ever-advancing material technologies to further increase its viability. Heeding well the lessons of the past, The Edge design holds economic feasibility as its primary focus. Therefore, in addition to its inherently superior aerodynamic performance, The Edge uses a lightweight, largely windowless configuration, relying on a synthetic vision system for outside viewing by both pilot and passengers. Additionally, a fly-by-light flight control system is incorporated to address aircraft supersonic cruise instability. The Edge will be produced at an estimated volume of 400 aircraft and will be offered to airlines in 2015 at $167 million per transport (1992 dollars).

  1. EdgeCentric: Anomaly Detection in Edge-Attributed Networks


    Shah, Neil; Beutel, Alex; Hooi, Bryan; Akoglu, Leman; Gunnemann, Stephan; Makhija, Disha; Kumar, Mohit; Faloutsos, Christos


    Given a network with attributed edges, how can we identify anomalous behavior? Networks with edge attributes are commonplace in the real world. For example, edges in e-commerce networks often indicate how users rated products and services in terms of number of stars, and edges in online social and phonecall networks contain temporal information about when friendships were formed and when users communicated with each other -- in such cases, edge attributes capture information about how the adj...

  2. An evaluation of substituent effects on aromatic edge-to-face interactions and CF-π versus CH-π interactions using an imino torsion balance model. (United States)

    Jennings, W Brian; O'Connell, Niamh; Malone, John F; Boyd, Derek R


    A selection of imines derived from phenyl t-butyl ketones and substituted 2-phenylethylamines or phenylalanine exhibit slow rotation around the aryl–imino bond at ambient temperature, resulting in a large non-equivalence of the ortho hydrogens in the 1H NMR spectra. This facilitates assessment of aryl substituent effects on the face tilted-T CH–π interaction between a phenyl ring (A) on the imino carbon proximate to the terminal phenyl ring (B). Analysis of the marked temperature dependence of the chemical shift of the interacting ortho hydrogen affords estimates of the opposing enthalpic and entropic factors involved in the rapid equilibrium between the closed edge-to-face conformation and alternative open conformations devoid of a CH–π interaction while in solution. Above ca. 80 °C the entropy term (TΔS) cancels out the enthalpy (ΔH) favouring the closed conformation and open conformations are preferred. Accordingly, commonly reported binding free energies may not be a good measure of the energetic strength of intramolecular aromatic interactions. Investigation of an ortho fluoro substituted compound indicates that a CF–π interaction is at least 1.0 kcal mol−1 weaker in enthalpy than the CH–π interaction. Several X-ray crystal structures depicting an intramolecular edge-to-face interaction are presented.

  3. Edge domination in grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klostermeyer, William F.; Yeo, Anders


    It has been conjectured that the edge domination number of the m × n grid graph, denoted by γ′(Pm□Pn), is ⌊mn/3⌋, when m,n ≥ 2. Our main result gives support for this conjecture by proving that ⌊mn/3⌋ ≤ -γ′{Pm□Pn) ≤ mn/3 + n/12 + 1, when m,n ≥ 2. We furthermore show that the conjecture holds when...

  4. Off the edge


    Stoneham, Luke


    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and was awarded by Brunel University London. Work which takes from elsewhere forms an important thread in European art music. There is a long tradition of music which variously borrows, thieves, pastiches, plagiarises, ironically ‘retakes’, hoaxes, impersonates and appropriates. The music I have written for Off the edge, while seeking to honour and add to this thread, also attempts to zoom in upon and make explicit the idea o...

  5. Edge Relaxation and Boundary Continuity. (United States)


    V. Measures of Performance 94 1. Fixed Points, Entropy , and Consistency 94 2. Global Measures of Uncertainty, Drift, and Inconsistency 96 VI...operators have been applied. Marr EMARR763 uses a set of edge detectors of varying size to determine the appropriate width of an edge to be asserted in his...certain edges is a fixed point. The array of probabilities has zero entropy when the probability of each edge in the array is 0 or 1. The closed-loop

  6. Pairs Of Edges As Chords And As Cut-Edges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKee Terry A.


    Full Text Available Several authors have studied the graphs for which every edge is a chord of a cycle; among 2-connected graphs, one characterization is that the deletion of one vertex never creates a cut-edge. Two new results: among 3-connected graphs with minimum degree at least 4, every two adjacent edges are chords of a common cycle if and only if deleting two vertices never creates two adjacent cut-edges; among 4-connected graphs, every two edges are always chords of a common cycle.

  7. Multi-scale Regions from Edge Fragments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazmi, Wajahat; Andersen, Hans Jørgen


    In this article we introduce a novel method for detecting multi-scale salient regions around edges using a graph based image compression algorithm. Images are recursively decomposed into triangles arranged into a binary tree using linear interpolation. The entropy of any local region of the image...... to estimate regions. Salient regions are thus formed as stable regions around edges. Tree hierarchy is then used to generate multi-scale regions. We evaluate our detector by performing image retrieval tests on our building database which shows that combined with Spin Images (Lazebnik et al., 2003...

  8. Evaluation of the optimal combinations of modulation factor and pitch for Helical TomoTherapy plans made with TomoEdge using Pareto optimal fronts. (United States)

    De Kerf, Geert; Van Gestel, Dirk; Mommaerts, Lobke; Van den Weyngaert, Danielle; Verellen, Dirk


    Modulation factor (MF) and pitch have an impact on Helical TomoTherapy (HT) plan quality and HT users mostly use vendor-recommended settings. This study analyses the effect of these two parameters on both plan quality and treatment time for plans made with TomoEdge planning software by using the concept of Pareto optimal fronts. More than 450 plans with different combinations of pitch [0.10-0.50] and MF [1.2-3.0] were produced. These HT plans, with a field width (FW) of 5 cm, were created for five head and neck patients and homogeneity index, conformity index, dose-near-maximum (D2), and dose-near-minimum (D98) were analysed for the planning target volumes, as well as the mean dose and D2 for most critical organs at risk. For every dose metric the median value will be plotted against treatment time. A Pareto-like method is used in the analysis which will show how pitch and MF influence both treatment time and plan quality. For small pitches (≤0.20), MF does not influence treatment time. The contrary is true for larger pitches (≥0.25) as lowering MF will both decrease treatment time and plan quality until maximum gantry speed is reached. At this moment, treatment time is saturated and only plan quality will further decrease. The Pareto front analysis showed optimal combinations of pitch [0.23-0.45] and MF > 2.0 for a FW of 5 cm. Outside this range, plans will become less optimal. As the vendor-recommended settings fall within this range, the use of these settings is validated.

  9. Taking the Grading Leniency Story to the Edge. The Influence of Student, Teacher, and Course Characteristics on Student Evaluations of Teaching in Higher Education (United States)

    Brockx, Bert; Spooren, Pieter; Mortelmans, Dimitri


    The use of student evaluation of teaching (SET) to evaluate and improve teaching is widespread amongst institutions of higher education. Many authors have searched for a conclusive understanding about the influence of student, course, and teacher characteristics on SET. One hotly debated discussion concerns the interpretation of the positive and…

  10. [Edge effect and its impacts on forest ecosystem: a review]. (United States)

    Tian, Chao; Yang, Xin-bing; Liu, Yang


    Edge effect is an important concept in ecology and biological conservation, playing an important role in the study of ecological processes such as energy and material flow at ecosystem scale and landscape scale. This paper expatiated the connotation, features, quantitative evaluation (basis of quantitative analysis, strength, impact zone, and models, etc.), and applied aspects of edge effect, summarized the impacts of edge effect on forest ecosystem, analyzed the deficiencies in the study of edge effect, and prospected related research directions, aimed to provide references for forest and protected area management.

  11. Edge-on! (United States)


    Peering at Uranus's Rings as they Swing Edge-on to Earth for the First Time Since their Discovery in 1977 As Uranus coasts through a brief window of time when its rings are edge-on to Earth - a view of the planet we get only once every 42 years - astronomers peering at the rings with ESO's Very Large Telescope and other space or ground-based telescopes are getting an unprecedented view of the fine dust in the system, free from the glare of the bright rocky rings. They may even find a new moon or two. ESO PR Photo 37/07 ESO PR Photo 37/07 The Uranus System "ESO's VLT took data at the precise moment when the rings were edge-on to Earth," said Imke de Pater, of University of California, Berkeley who coordinated the worldwide campaign. She worked with two team members observing in Chile: Daphne Stam of the Technical University Delft in the Netherlands and Markus Hartung of ESO. The observations were done with NACO, one of the adaptive optics instruments installed at the VLT. With adaptive optics, it is possible to obtain images almost free from the blurring effect of the atmosphere. It is as if the 8.2-m telescope were observing from space. Observations were also done with the Keck telescope in Hawaii, the Hubble Space Telescope, and at the Palomar Observatory. "Using different telescopes around the world allows us to observe as much of the changes during the ring-plane crossing as possible: when Uranus sets as seen from the VLT, it can still be observed by the Keck," emphasised Stam. Uranus orbits the Sun in 84 years. Twice during a Uranian year, the rings appear edge-on to Earth for a brief period. The rings were discovered in 1977, so this is the first time for a Uranus ring-crossing to be observed from Earth. The advantage of observations at a ring-plane crossing is that it becomes possible to look at the rings from the shadowed or dark side. From that vantage point, the normally bright outer rings grow fainter because their centimetre- to metre-sized rocks obscure

  12. Cheating on the edge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Alan Dugatkin


    Full Text Available We present the results of an individual agent-based model of antibiotic resistance in bacteria. Our model examines antibiotic resistance when two strategies exist: "producers"--who secrete a substance that breaks down antibiotics--and nonproducers ("cheats" who do not secrete, or carry the machinery associated with secretion. The model allows for populations of up to 10,000, in which bacteria are affected by their nearest neighbors, and we assume cheaters die when there are no producers in their neighborhood. Each of 10,000 slots on our grid (a torus could be occupied by a producer or a nonproducer, or could (temporarily be unoccupied. The most surprising and dramatic result we uncovered is that when producers and nonproducers coexist at equilibrium, nonproducers are almost always found on the edges of clusters of producers.

  13. Edge remap for solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamm, James R.; Love, Edward; Robinson, Allen C; Young, Joseph G.; Ridzal, Denis


    We review the edge element formulation for describing the kinematics of hyperelastic solids. This approach is used to frame the problem of remapping the inverse deformation gradient for Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) simulations of solid dynamics. For hyperelastic materials, the stress state is completely determined by the deformation gradient, so remapping this quantity effectively updates the stress state of the material. A method, inspired by the constrained transport remap in electromagnetics, is reviewed, according to which the zero-curl constraint on the inverse deformation gradient is implicitly satisfied. Open issues related to the accuracy of this approach are identified. An optimization-based approach is implemented to enforce positivity of the determinant of the deformation gradient. The efficacy of this approach is illustrated with numerical examples.

  14. Edge Response and NIIRS Estimates for Commercial Remote Sensing Satellites (United States)

    Blonski, Slawomir; Ryan, Robert E.; Pagnutti, mary; Stanley, Thomas


    Spatial resolution of panchromatic imagery from commercial remote sensing satellites was characterized based on edge response measurements using edge targets and the tilted-edge technique. Relative Edge Response (RER) was estimated as a geometric mean of normalized edge response differences measured in two directions of image pixels at points distanced from the edge by -0.5 and 0.5 of ground sample distance. RER is one of the engineering parameters used in the General Image Quality Equation to provide predictions of imaging system performance expressed in terms of the National Imagery Interpretability Rating Scale (NIIRS). By assuming a plausible range of signal-to-noise ratio and assessing the effects of Modulation Transfer Function compensation, the NIIRS estimates were made and then compared with vendor-provided values and evaluations conducted by the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency.

  15. Specimen edge effects on bending fatigue of carburized steel (United States)

    Cohen, R. E.; Matlock, D. K.; Krauss, G.


    The effects of specimen geometry on the fatigue behavior of SAE 4320 steel carburized at 927 °C were evaluated with two sets of cantilever bend specimens, one set machined with square edges and one set machined with round edges. The specimens with square edges exhibited a 13% lower fatigue limit. In comparison to the rounded samples, the lower fatigue limit in the square-edged samples was attributed to the presence of a higher volume fraction of retained austenite in the sample corners and a lower surface residual compressive stress. As a result of the differences in residual stress, preferential crack initiation sites existed in the square-edged samples at a location approximately 200 to 900 ώm from the square edge. The implications of this study on laboratory analyses of the bending fatigue performance of carburized gear steels are discussed.

  16. Edge conduction in vacuum glazing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simko, T.M.; Collins, R.E. [Sydney Univ., NSW (Australia). Dept. of Applied Physics; Beck, F.A.; Arasteh, D. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)


    Vacuum glazing is a form of low-conductance double glazing using in internal vacuum between the two glass sheets to eliminate heat transport by gas conduction and convection. An array of small support pillars separates the sheets; fused solder glass forms the edge seal. Heat transfer through the glazing occurs by radiation across the vacuum gap, conduction through the support pillars, and conduction through the bonded edge seal. Edge conduction is problematic because it affects stresses in the edge region, leading to possible failure of the glazing; in addition, excessive heat transfer because of thermal bridging in the edge region can lower overall window thermal performance and decrease resistance to condensation. Infrared thermography was used to analyze the thermal performance of prototype vacuum glazings, and, for comparison, atmospheric pressure superwindows. Research focused on mitigating the edge effects of vacuum glazings through the use of insulating trim, recessed edges, and framing materials. Experimentally validated finite-element and finite-difference modeling tools were used for thermal analysis of prototype vacuum glazing units and complete windows. Experimental measurements of edge conduction using infrared imaging were found to be in good agreement with finite-element modeling results for a given set of conditions. Finite-element modeling validates an analytic model developed for edge conduction.

  17. Edge Bundling in Information Visualization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hong Zhou Panpan Xu Xiaoru Yuan Huamin Qu


    The edge, which can encode relational data in graphs and multidimensional data in parallel coordinates plots, is an important visual primitive for encoding data in information visualization research...

  18. An efficient and robust design optimisation of multi-state flow network for multiple commodities using generalised reliability evaluation algorithm and edge reduction method (United States)

    Chou, Yu-Cheng; Lin, Po Ting


    The network of delivering commodities has been an important design problem in our daily lives and many transportation applications. The reliability of delivering commodities from a source node to a sink node in the network is maximised to find the optimal routing. However, the design problem is not simple due to randomly distributed attributes in each path, multiple commodities with variable path capacities and the allowable time constraints for delivery. This paper presents the design optimisation of the multi-state flow network (MSFN) for multiple commodities. We propose an efficient and robust approach to evaluate the system reliability in the MSFN with respect to randomly distributed path attributes and to find the optimal routing subject to the allowable time constraints. The delivery rates of the path segments are evaluated and the minimal-speed arcs are eliminated to reduce the complexity of the MSFN. Accordingly, the correct optimal routing is found and the worst-case reliability is evaluated. The reliability of the optimal routing is at least higher than worst-case measure. Three benchmark examples are utilised to demonstrate the proposed method. The comparisons between the original and the reduced networks show that the proposed method is very efficient.

  19. The Robotic Edge Finishing Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loucks, C.S.; Selleck, C.B.


    The Robotic Edge Finishing Laboratory at Sandia National Laboratories is developing four areas of technology required for automated deburring, chamfering, and blending of machined edges: (1) the automatic programming of robot trajectories and deburring processes using information derived from a CAD database, (2) the use of machine vision for locating the workpiece coupled with force control to ensure proper tool contact, (3) robotic deburring, blending, and machining of precision chamfered edges, and (4) in-process automated inspection of the formed edge. The Laboratory, its components, integration, and results from edge finishing experiments to date are described here. Also included is a discussion of the issues regarding implementation of the technology in a production environment. 24 refs., 17 figs.

  20. Edge instabilities of topological superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, Johannes S. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Universitaet Wuerzburg (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Stuttgart (Germany); Assaad, Fakher F. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Universitaet Wuerzburg (Germany); Schnyder, Andreas P. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Stuttgart (Germany)


    Nodal topological superconductors display zero-energy Majorana flat bands at generic edges. The flatness of these edge bands, which is protected by time-reversal and translation symmetry, gives rise to an extensive ground state degeneracy and a diverging density of states. Therefore, even arbitrarily weak interactions lead to an instability of the flat-band edge states towards time-reversal and translation-symmetry broken phases, which lift the ground-state degeneracy. Here, we employ Monte Carlo simulations combined with mean-field considerations to examine the instabilities of the flat-band edge states of d{sub xy}-wave superconductors. We find that attractive interactions induce a complex s-wave pairing instability together with a density wave instability. Repulsive interactions, on the other hand, lead to ferromagnetism mixed with spin-triplet pairing at the edge. We discuss the implications of our findings for experiments on cuprate high-temperature superconductors.

  1. Potential environmental effects of the leading edge hydrokinetic energy technology. (United States)


    The Volpe Center evaluated potential environmental challenges and benefits of the ARPA-E funded research project, Marine Hydrokinetic Energy Harvesting Using Cyber-Physical Systems, led by Brown University. The Leading Edge research team develo...

  2. "Dancing on the edge of research" - What is needed to build and sustain research capacity within the massage therapy profession? A formative evaluation. (United States)

    Kania-Richmond, Ania; Menard, Martha B; Barberree, Beth; Mohring, Marvin


    Conducting research on massage therapy (MT) continues to be a significant challenge. To explore and identify the structures, processes, and resources required to enable viable, sustainable and high quality MT research activities in the Canadian context. Academically-based researchers and MT professionals involved in research. Formative evaluation and a descriptive qualitative approach were applied. Five main themes regarding the requirements of a productive and sustainable MT research infrastructure in Canada were identified: 1) core components, 2) variable components, 3) varying perspectives of stakeholder groups, 4) barriers to creating research infrastructure, and 5) negative metaphors. In addition, participants offered a number of recommendations on how to develop such an infrastructure. While barriers exist that require attention, participants' insights suggest there are various pathways through which a productive and sustainable MT research infrastructure can be achieved. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. MO-FG-CAMPUS-JeP1-01: Prompt Gamma Imaging with a Multi-Knife-Edge Slit Collimator: Evaluation for Use in Proton Beam Range Verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ready, J [UC Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States); Negut, V; Mihailescu, L [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Vetter, K [UC Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Purpose: To evaluate and characterize a multi-slit collimated imaging system for use in prompt gamma range verification of proton therapy. Methods: Acrylic (PMMA) targets were irradiated with a 50 MeV proton beam. With the collimator placed 13 cm from the beam axis, photons of energy from 2–7 MeV were measured. Image reconstruction provided 2-dimensional distribution of gamma rays. Estimated Bragg peak location was compared with 1-dimensional profiles of photon images. Shifts in Bragg peak were simulated by physically moving the targets in 1 mm increments. Results: The imaging system measured prompt gamma emissions resulting from a 50 MeV proton beam, at currents up to 2 nA, incident on a PMMA target. Overall system detection efficiency was approximately 2.6×10{sup −5} gamma/proton. With delivery of 1×10{sup 11} protons, shifts of 1 mm in the target location were detected in 2D prompt gamma images and 1D profiles. With delivery of 1×10{sup 8} protons, shifts of approximately 3 mm were detectable. Conclusion: This work has characterized the performance of a prototype multi-slit collimated imaging system. The system can produce 2D images of prompt gamma distributions and detect shifts in Bragg peak location down to 1 mm. These results encourage further development and optimization of the system for clinical proton beam applications. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number: DENA0000979 through the Nuclear Science and Security Consortium.

  4. ESIM: Edge Similarity for Screen Content Image Quality Assessment. (United States)

    Ni, Zhangkai; Ma, Lin; Zeng, Huanqiang; Chen, Jing; Cai, Canhui; Ma, Kai-Kuang


    In this paper, an accurate full-reference image quality assessment (IQA) model developed for assessing screen content images (SCIs), called the edge similarity (ESIM), is proposed. It is inspired by the fact that the human visual system (HVS) is highly sensitive to edges that are often encountered in SCIs; therefore, essential edge features are extracted and exploited for conducting IQA for the SCIs. The key novelty of the proposed ESIM lies in the extraction and use of three salient edge features-i.e., edge contrast, edge width, and edge direction. The first two attributes are simultaneously generated from the input SCI based on a parametric edge model, while the last one is derived directly from the input SCI. The extraction of these three features will be performed for the reference SCI and the distorted SCI, individually. The degree of similarity measured for each above-mentioned edge attribute is then computed independently, followed by combining them together using our proposed edge-width pooling strategy to generate the final ESIM score. To conduct the performance evaluation of our proposed ESIM model, a new and the largest SCI database (denoted as SCID) is established in our work and made to the public for download. Our database contains 1800 distorted SCIs that are generated from 40 reference SCIs. For each SCI, nine distortion types are investigated, and five degradation levels are produced for each distortion type. Extensive simulation results have clearly shown that the proposed ESIM model is more consistent with the perception of the HVS on the evaluation of distorted SCIs than the multiple state-of-the-art IQA methods.

  5. Precision truing of diamond wheel with sharp edge (United States)

    Ge, Cheng; Guo, Bing; Zhao, QIngliang; Chen, Bing; Wang, Jinhu


    Diamond wheel with sharp edge has small contour structures, which can lead to fast wear of wheel in the grinding process. Traditional truing methods are hard to apply to this kind of wheels. Therefore, as for the difficulty of precision truing of diamond wheel with sharp edge, the novel methods for resin and metal bonded diamond wheels with sharp edge are presented, respectively. In this experiment, a conditioning procedure with rare metal alloy block Ta was used to true the resin bonded diamond grinding wheel and in the same way Nb alloy block was utilized to complete rough truing of metal bonded diamond grinding wheel. Then a CNC truing technique with rotational green carbide (GC) truing stick was applied to precise truing of metal bonded diamond grinding wheel. Methods mentioned above were measured in order to evaluate the performance of truing. Geometric features of the wheel sharp edge were duplicated on the organic glass (PMMA) in order to measure and calculate the radius of the sharp edge. The edge radius of trued resin bonded wheel and metal bonded wheel is perceived as an important assessment. The experiments results revealed that the edge radius of 12.45μm for the resin bonded wheel and the edge radius of 30.17μm for the metal bonded wheel could be achieved.

  6. Benchmarking Tokamak edge modelling codes (United States)

    Contributors To The Efda-Jet Work Programme; Coster, D. P.; Bonnin, X.; Corrigan, G.; Kirnev, G. S.; Matthews, G.; Spence, J.; Contributors to the EFDA-JET work programme


    Tokamak edge modelling codes are in widespread use to interpret and understand existing experiments, and to make predictions for future machines. Little direct benchmarking has been done between the codes, and the users of the codes have tended to concentrate on different experimental machines. An important validation step is to compare the codes for identical scenarios. In this paper, two of the major edge codes, SOLPS (B2.5-Eirene) and EDGE2D-NIMBUS are benchmarked against each other. A set of boundary conditions, transport coefficients, etc. for a JET plasma were chosen, and the two codes were run on the same grid. Initially, large differences were seen in the resulting plasmas. These differences were traced to differing physics assumptions with respect to the parallel heat flux limits. Once these were switched off in SOLPS, or implemented and switched on in EDGE2D-NIMBUS, the remaining differences were small.

  7. Edge instabilities of topological superconductors (United States)

    Hofmann, Johannes S.; Assaad, Fakher F.; Schnyder, Andreas P.


    Nodal topological superconductors display zero-energy Majorana flat bands at generic edges. The flatness of these edge bands, which is protected by time-reversal and translation symmetry, gives rise to an extensive ground-state degeneracy. Therefore, even arbitrarily weak interactions lead to an instability of the flat-band edge states towards time-reversal and translation-symmetry-broken phases, which lift the ground-state degeneracy. We examine the instabilities of the flat-band edge states of dx y-wave superconductors by performing a mean-field analysis in the Majorana basis of the edge states. The leading instabilities are Majorana mass terms, which correspond to coherent superpositions of particle-particle and particle-hole channels in the fermionic language. We find that attractive interactions induce three different mass terms. One is a coherent superposition of imaginary s -wave pairing and current order, and another combines a charge-density-wave and finite-momentum singlet pairing. Repulsive interactions, on the other hand, lead to ferromagnetism together with spin-triplet pairing at the edge. Our quantum Monte Carlo simulations confirm these findings and demonstrate that these instabilities occur even in the presence of strong quantum fluctuations. We discuss the implications of our results for experiments on cuprate high-temperature superconductors.

  8. Domination Edge Lift Critical Trees | Desormeaux | Quaestiones ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    stract. Let uxv be an induced path with center x in a graph G. The edge lifting of uv off x is defined as the action of removing edges ux and vx from the edge set of G, while adding the edge uv to the edge set of G. We study trees for which every possible edge lift changes the domination number. We show that there are no ...

  9. First Order Statistics of Speckle around a Scatterer Volume Density Edge and Edge Detection in Ultrasound Images. (United States)

    Li, Yue


    Ultrasonic imaging plays an important role in medical imaging. But the images exhibit a granular structure, commonly known as speckle. The speckle tends to mask the presence of low-contrast lesions and reduces the ability of a human observer to resolve fine details. Our interest in this research is to examine the problem of edge detection and come up with methods for improving the visualization of organ boundaries and tissue inhomogeneity edges. An edge in an image can be formed either by acoustic impedance change or by scatterer volume density change (or both). The echo produced from these two kinds of edges has different properties. In this work, it has been proved that the echo from a scatterer volume density edge is the Hilbert transform of the echo from a rough impedance boundary (except for a constant) under certain conditions. This result can be used for choosing the correct signal to transmit to optimize the performance of edge detectors and characterizing an edge. The signal to noise ratio of the echo produced by a scatterer volume density edge is also obtained. It is found that: (1) By transmitting a signal with high bandwidth ratio and low center frequency, one can obtain a higher signal to noise ratio. (2) For large area edges, the farther the transducer is from the edge, the larger is the signal to noise ratio. But for small area edges, the nearer the transducer is to the edge, the larger is the signal to noise ratio. These results enable us to maximize the signal to noise ratio by adjusting these parameters. (3) The signal to noise ratio is not only related to the ratio of scatterer volume densities at the edge, but also related to the absolute value of scatterer volume densities. Some of these results have been proved through simulation and experiment. Different edge detection methods have been used to detect simulated scatterer volume density edges to compare their performance. A so-called interlaced array method has been developed for speckle

  10. On the edge: haptic discrimination of edge sharpness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy L Skinner

    Full Text Available The increasing ubiquity of haptic displays (e.g., smart phones and tablets necessitates a better understanding of the perceptual capabilities of the human haptic system. Haptic displays will soon be capable of locally deforming to create simple 3D shapes. This study investigated the sensitivity of our haptic system to a fundamental component of shapes: edges. A novel set of eight high quality shape stimuli with test edges that varied in sharpness were fabricated in a 3D printer. In a two alternative, forced choice task, blindfolded participants were presented with two of these shapes side by side (one the reference, the other selected randomly from the remaining set of seven and after actively exploring the test edge of each shape with the tip of their index finger, reported which shape had the sharper edge. We used a model selection approach to fit optimal psychometric functions to performance data, and from these obtained just noticeable differences and Weber fractions. In Experiment 1, participants performed the task with four different references. With sharpness defined as the angle at which one surface meets the horizontal plane, the four JNDs closely followed Weber's Law, giving a Weber fraction of 0.11. Comparisons to previously reported Weber fractions from other haptic manipulations (e.g. amplitude of vibration suggests we are sufficiently sensitive to changes in edge sharpness for this to be of potential utility in the design of future haptic displays. In Experiment 2, two groups of participants performed the task with a single reference but different exploration strategies; one was limited to a single touch, the other unconstrained and free to explore as they wished. As predicted, the JND in the free exploration condition was lower than that in the single touch condition, indicating exploration strategy affects sensitivity to edge sharpness.

  11. Protected Edge Modes without Symmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Levin


    Full Text Available We discuss the question of when a gapped two-dimensional electron system without any symmetry has a protected gapless edge mode. While it is well known that systems with a nonzero thermal Hall conductance, K_{H}≠0, support such modes, here we show that robust modes can also occur when K_{H}=0—if the system has quasiparticles with fractional statistics. We show that some types of fractional statistics are compatible with a gapped edge, while others are fundamentally incompatible. More generally, we give a criterion for when an electron system with Abelian statistics and K_{H}=0 can support a gapped edge: We show that a gapped edge is possible if and only if there exists a subset of quasiparticle types M such that (1 all the quasiparticles in M have trivial mutual statistics, and (2 every quasiparticle that is not in M has nontrivial mutual statistics with at least one quasiparticle in M. We derive this criterion using three different approaches: a microscopic analysis of the edge, a general argument based on braiding statistics, and finally a conformal field theory approach that uses constraints from modular invariance. We also discuss the analogous result for two-dimensional boson systems.

  12. All-graphene edge contacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Kåre Wedel; Falkenberg, Jesper Toft; Papior, Nick Rübner


    Using ab-initio methods we investigate the possibility of three-terminalgraphene "T-junction" devices and show that these all-graphene edge contactsare energetically feasible when the 1D interface itself is free from foreignatoms. We examine the energetics of various junction structures as a func......Using ab-initio methods we investigate the possibility of three-terminalgraphene "T-junction" devices and show that these all-graphene edge contactsare energetically feasible when the 1D interface itself is free from foreignatoms. We examine the energetics of various junction structures...... to be in therange of 1-10 kΩμm which is comparable to the best contact resistance reportedfor edge-contacted graphene-metal contacts. We conclude that conductingall-carbon T-junctions should be feasible....

  13. Edge-Based Defocus Blur Estimation With Adaptive Scale Selection. (United States)

    Karaali, Ali; Jung, Claudio Rosito


    Objects that do not lie at the focal distance of a digital camera generate defocused regions in the captured image. This paper presents a new edge-based method for spatially varying defocus blur estimation using a single image based on reblurred gradient magnitudes. The proposed approach initially computes a scale-consistent edge map of the input image and selects a local reblurring scale aiming to cope with noise, edge mis-localization, and interfering edges. An initial blur estimate is computed at the detected scale-consistent edge points and a novel connected edge filter is proposed to smooth the sparse blur map based on pixel connectivity within detected edge contours. Finally, a fast guided filter is used to propagate the sparse blur map through the whole image. Experimental results show that the proposed approach presents a very good compromise between estimation error and running time when compared with the state-of-the-art methods. We also explore our blur estimation method in the context of image deblurring, and show that metrics typically used to evaluate blur estimation may not correlate as expected with the visual quality of the deblurred image.

  14. Finding edges in noisy scenes (United States)

    Machuca, R.; Gilbert, A. L.


    Edge detection in the presence of noise is a well-known problem. This paper examines an applications-motivated approach for solving the problem using novel techniques and presents a method developed by the authors that performs well on a large class of targets. ROC curves are used to compare this method with other well-known edge detection operators, with favorable results. A theoretical argument is presented that favors LMMSE filtering over median filtering in extremely noisy scenes. Simulated results of the research are presented.

  15. Edge enhanced morphology for infrared image analysis (United States)

    Bai, Xiangzhi; Liu, Haonan


    Edge information is one of the critical information for infrared images. Morphological operators have been widely used for infrared image analysis. However, the edge information in infrared image is weak and the morphological operators could not well utilize the edge information of infrared images. To strengthen the edge information in morphological operators, the edge enhanced morphology is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the edge enhanced dilation and erosion operators are given and analyzed. Secondly, the pseudo operators which are derived from the edge enhanced dilation and erosion operators are defined. Finally, the applications for infrared image analysis are shown to verify the effectiveness of the proposed edge enhanced morphological operators. The proposed edge enhanced morphological operators are useful for the applications related to edge features, which could be extended to wide area of applications.

  16. Strength on cut edge and ground edge glass beams with the failure analysis method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Agnetti


    Full Text Available The aim of this work is the study of the effect of the finishing of the edge of glass when it has a structural function. Experimental investigations carried out for glass specimens are presented. Various series of annealed glass beam were tested, with cut edge and with ground edge. The glass specimens are tested in four-point bending performing flaw detection on the tested specimens after failure, in order to determine glass strength. As a result, bending strength values are obtained for each specimen. Determining some physical parameter as the depth of the flaw and the mirror radius of the fracture, after the failure of a glass element, it could be possible to calculate the failure strength of that.The experimental results were analyzed with the LEFM theory and the glass strength was analyzed with a statistical study using two-parameter Weibull distribution fitting quite well the failure stress data. The results obtained constitute a validation of the theoretical models and show the influence of the edge processing on the failure strength of the glass. Furthermore, series with different sizes were tested in order to evaluate the size effect.

  17. Diffraction at a Straight Edge

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    teaching and understanding physics. The simplest problem in diffraction – light pass- ing a straight edge – did not receive a rigorous solution till Sommerfeld's .... the English and. French nations. Around the same time, Young in England gave a dif- ferent formulation in which the original wave falling on the screen travels ...

  18. Morpho (?) phono (?) logical fuzzy edges

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access. Morpho (?) phono (?) logical fuzzy edges: The case of {-/}/{-/U/} semantic (?) contrast in Shona. K. G. Mkangwanwi. Abstract. (ZAMBEZIA: Journal of Humanities of the Univ of Zimbabwe, 2000 27(1): 47-54). Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  19. On the Edge of Existence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Line


    Based on ethnographic fieldwork among Malian migrants and migration brokers in Mali, Algeria, Morocco, and France, this article investigates life in exile on the edge of Europe. Zooming in on the experiences of interlocutors in Morocco and Algeria, the article will explore the experiential...

  20. Edge imaging in intense beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bernal


    Full Text Available The appearance of rings of charge observed near the edge of beams from high-perveance guns is described with a simple ray tracing technique inspired by the particle-core model. We illustrate the technique, which has no analog in light optics, with examples from experiments employing solenoid focusing of an electron beam. The rings of charge result from the combined effects of external focusing and space-charge forces acting on paraxial fringe particles with relatively large initial transverse velocities. The model is independent of the physical mechanisms responsible for the fringe particles. Furthermore, the focal length for edge imaging in a uniform focusing channel is derived using a linearized trajectory equation for the motion of fringe particles. Counterintuitively, the focal length decreases as the beam current increases.

  1. Scattering by an axisymmetric edge (United States)

    Kaloshin, V. A.; Popov, A. P.


    A method of physical theory of diffraction (PTD) in an axisymmetric problem is used to obtain the first two terms of the uniform asymptotics of the radiation pattern of an edge wave with respect to inverse semiinteger powers of the wavenumber expressed through a two-term uniform asymptotics of the corresponding two-dimensional problem. As examples, calculations are made of: (1) the uniform asymptotics of the correction refining the Kirchhoff approximation for the radiation pattern of an axisymmetric reflector antenna; and (2) the asymptotics of the radiation pattern of symmetric modes from the open end of a circular flanged waveguide. An improvement of the PTD method is proposed for calculating the second term of the uniform asymptotics of an edge wave with respect to inverse powers of the wavenumber; the example of the diffraction of a toroidal wave by a bicone is considered.

  2. Edge Simulation Laboratory Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, R. H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dorf, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dorr, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rognlien, T. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    In 2010 The Edge Simulation Laboratory (ESL) embarked upon the plan laid out in the renewal proposal submitted in December 2009. This proposal called for initially parallel efforts addressing the physics of the closed-flux-surface pedestal region, using existing computational tools (GYRO, BOUT++) and analytic modeling, and physics of the scrape-off layer via development of the new edge gyrokinetic code COGENT. Progress in the former area is described in a series of monthly progress reports prepared by General Atomics; these are attached as a set of appendices (describing work done in the month prior to the indicated date). Progress in the latter area, as well as associated theoretical development, is described.

  3. Defect detection for tire laser shearography image using curvelet transform based edge detector (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Li, Tao; Li, Qingling


    In this work, we approach the analysis and segmentation of tire laser shearography image by combining curvelet transform and Canny edge detection to detect defects in tire surface. We rely on the feature of curvelet that edge features can be represented with larger coefficients in sub-highest frequency band thus we modify curvelet coefficients to enhance image edges before further edge detection operations. Only the most important coefficients that contribute to rebuild edges are selected to reconstruct the image while most small coefficients are cut off. This would result in a reconstructed image more convenient for edge detection and the time complexity is reduced on the other hand. Furthermore, the eight-neighborhood bilinear interpolation non-maximum suppression method is introduced to improve the performance of Canny edge detection. Our detection results are evaluated on test laser shearography images using the proposed scheme and compare favorably to the state-of-the-art methods.

  4. A distributed Canny edge detector: algorithm and FPGA implementation. (United States)

    Xu, Qian; Varadarajan, Srenivas; Chakrabarti, Chaitali; Karam, Lina J


    The Canny edge detector is one of the most widely used edge detection algorithms due to its superior performance. Unfortunately, not only is it computationally more intensive as compared with other edge detection algorithms, but it also has a higher latency because it is based on frame-level statistics. In this paper, we propose a mechanism to implement the Canny algorithm at the block level without any loss in edge detection performance compared with the original frame-level Canny algorithm. Directly applying the original Canny algorithm at the block-level leads to excessive edges in smooth regions and to loss of significant edges in high-detailed regions since the original Canny computes the high and low thresholds based on the frame-level statistics. To solve this problem, we present a distributed Canny edge detection algorithm that adaptively computes the edge detection thresholds based on the block type and the local distribution of the gradients in the image block. In addition, the new algorithm uses a nonuniform gradient magnitude histogram to compute block-based hysteresis thresholds. The resulting block-based algorithm has a significantly reduced latency and can be easily integrated with other block-based image codecs. It is capable of supporting fast edge detection of images and videos with high resolutions, including full-HD since the latency is now a function of the block size instead of the frame size. In addition, quantitative conformance evaluations and subjective tests show that the edge detection performance of the proposed algorithm is better than the original frame-based algorithm, especially when noise is present in the images. Finally, this algorithm is implemented using a 32 computing engine architecture and is synthesized on the Xilinx Virtex-5 FPGA. The synthesized architecture takes only 0.721 ms (including the SRAM READ/WRITE time and the computation time) to detect edges of 512 × 512 images in the USC SIPI database when clocked at 100

  5. Environmental Dataset Gateway (EDG) REST Interface (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Use the Environmental Dataset Gateway (EDG) to find and access EPA's environmental resources. Many options are available for easily reusing EDG content in other...

  6. SAR-PC: Edge Detection in SAR Images via an Advanced Phase Congruency Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuming Xiang


    Full Text Available Edge detection in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR images has been a challenging task due to the speckle noise. Ratio-based edge detectors are robust operators for SAR images that provide constant false alarm rates, but they are only optimal for step edges. Edge detectors developed by the phase congruency model provide the identification of different types of edge features, but they suffer from speckle noise. By combining the advantages of the two edge detectors, we propose a SAR phase congruency detector (SAR-PC. Firstly, an improved local energy model for SAR images is obtained by replacing the convolution of raw image and the quadrature filters by the ratio responses. Secondly, a new noise level is estimated for the multiplicative noise. Substituting the SAR local energy and the new noise level into the phase congruency model, SAR-PC is derived. Edge response corresponds to the max moment of SAR-PC. We compare the proposed detector with the ratio-based edge detectors and the phase congruency edge detectors. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curves and visual effects are used to evaluate the performance. Experimental results of simulated images and real-world images show that the proposed edge detector is robust to speckle noise and it provides a consecutive edge response.

  7. Edge Transfer Lithography Using Alkanethiol Inks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharpe, R.B.A.; Titulaer, Bram J.F.; Peeters, Emiel; Burdinski, Dirk; Huskens, Jurriaan; Zandvliet, Henricus J.W.; Reinhoudt, David; Poelsema, Bene


    Edge lithographic patterning techniques are based on the utilization of the edges of micrometer-sized template features for the reproduction of submicrometer structures. Edge transfer lithography (ETL) permits local surface modification in a single step by depositing self-assembled monolayers onto a

  8. Acyclicity in edge-colored graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutin, Gregory; Jones, Mark; Sheng, Bin


    A walk W in edge-colored graphs is called properly colored (PC) if every pair of consecutive edges in W is of different color. We introduce and study five types of PC acyclicity in edge-colored graphs such that graphs of PC acyclicity of type i is a proper superset of graphs of acyclicity of type...

  9. Habitat heterogeneity hypothesis and edge effects in model metacommunities. (United States)

    Hamm, Michaela; Drossel, Barbara


    Spatial heterogeneity is an inherent property of any living environment and is expected to favour biodiversity due to a broader niche space. Furthermore, edges between different habitats can provide additional possibilities for species coexistence. Using computer simulations, this study examines metacommunities consisting of several trophic levels in heterogeneous environments in order to explore the above hypotheses on a community level. We model heterogeneous landscapes by using two different sized resource pools and evaluate the combined effect of dispersal and heterogeneity on local and regional species diversity. This diversity is obtained by running population dynamics and evaluating the robustness (i.e., the fraction of surviving species). The main results for regional robustness are in agreement with the habitat heterogeneity hypothesis, as the largest robustness is found in heterogeneous systems with intermediate dispersal rates. This robustness is larger than in homogeneous systems with the same total amount of resources. We study the edge effect by arranging the two types of resources in two homogeneous blocks. Different edge responses in diversity are observed, depending on dispersal strength. Local robustness is highest for edge habitats that contain the smaller amount of resource in combination with intermediate dispersal. The results show that dispersal is relevant to correctly identify edge responses on community level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Vital traits of woody species in High Andean forest edges of the Cogua Forest Reserve (Colombia)]. (United States)

    Montenegro, Alba Lucía; Vargas, Orlando


    The Cogua Forest Reserve was studied throughout eight months to detect the existence of functional species-groups associated with edge wood forest. A second goal was to determine which species were the most successful in edge areas and their particular vital traits. The regeneration and growth of the forest patches to the adjacent matrix depends on the establishment of these species and their tolerance to both habitats. Three types of High Andean edge forest were studied. Two forest patches were chosen for each of the three edge types: Chusquea scandens edge, "paramune" and old-edge; the name of the latter was given because of its advanced successional state. In each patch, the vegetation was evaluated in two 60 m transects perpendicular to the edge and along the matrix-edge-interior gradient of the forest. All woody species were identified and counted to determine their abundance. A total of nine species were chosen as representative of High Andean forest edges in the reserve, because of their high abundance in this environment, their presence in both patches of each edge type and their ability to colonize the adjacent matrix. Each species was evaluated using 20 vital attributes of individual, leaf, and reproductive traits. Six species groups were found through a Correspondence Analysis. However, all nine species have high variation and plasticity levels for the attributes, even inside the groups. This trend suggests that while they are not clearly differentiated functional groups, they probably are representing different strategies within a single functional group of great plasticity. Tibouchina grossa and Pentacalia Pulchella are found in all edge and matrix types; the other species are found in all edge types, except by Gaiadendron punctatum and Weinmannia tomentosa, absent in the Chusquea scandens edge. All nine species are important elements in the restoration of forest edges, mainly where they are more abundant, evidencing their success in the particular

  11. Instant Adobe Edge Inspect starter

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Joseph


    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. This easy-to-understand Starter guide will get you up to speed with Adobe Edge Inspect quickly and with little effort.This book is for frontend web developers and designers who are developing and testing web applications targeted for mobile browsers. It's assumed that you have a basic understanding of creating web applications using HTML, CSS, and JavaScript, as well as being familiar with running web pages from local HTTP servers. Readers are a

  12. Reflections on the knife edge. (United States)

    Murphy, John Patrick Michael; Chabner, Bruce A


    The accompanying article, written by John Murphy, a retired lawyer and lifelong outdoorsman from his beloved Colorado Rockies, draws the striking parallel between his experiences as a mountain climber and as a patient with metastatic melanoma facing the hope and uncertainty of experimental therapy. Both are life-threatening circumstances, demanding courage and hope, and challenging our soul in a way almost unique to human experience. Both involve a conscious choice to move forward into dangerous and uncertain territory, and require a determination to look death (John's "Reaper") in the eye. Many remarkable books and films have been written about such experiences. I recall in particular the 2003 documentary film Touching the Void, about the incredible survival of a mountaineer who returned from a perilous fall in Peru. I highly recommend it to the reader. Another is Laura Hillenbrand's Unbroken: A World War II Story of Survival, Resilience, and Redemption (Random House, 2010), about the survival of a prisoner of war, the celebrated miler Louis Zamperini. Again, unbridled courage and undeniable hope turned futility into future. John Murphy's reflections remind us of the daily heroism of our patients who are holding tight to the lifeline offered by clinical research. Good climbing, John. All of us are with you on that Knife Edge, waiting for our turn to ascend... and hoping to be as courageous as you were then on Capitol Peak and are again now on the Knife Edge of a clinical trial. For our turn will come.

  13. Canny Edge Detection in Cross-Spectral Fused Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Suárez


    Full Text Available Considering that the images of different spectra provide an ample information that helps a lo in the process of identification and distinction of objects that have unique spectral signatures. In this paper, the use of cross-spectral images in the process of edge detection is evaluated. This study aims to assess the Canny edge detector with two variants. The first relates to the use of merged cross-spectral images and the second the inclusion of morphological filters. To ensure the quality of the data used in this study the GQM (Goal-Question- Metrics, framework, was applied to reduce noise and increase the entropy on images. The metrics obtained in the experiments confirm that the quantity and quality of the detected edges increases significantly after the inclusion of a morphological filter and a channel of near infrared spectrum in the merged images.

  14. Laser speckle reduction based on compressive sensing and edge detection (United States)

    Wen, Dong-hai; Jiang, Yue-song; Hua, Hou-qiang; Yu, Rong; Gao, Qian; Zhang, Yan-zhong


    Polarization active imager technology obtains images encoded by parameters different than just the reflectivity and therefore provides new information on the image. So polarization active imager systems represent a very powerful observation tool. However, automatic interpretation of the information contained in the reflected intensity of the polarization active image data is extremely difficult because of the speckle phenomenon. An approach for speckle reduction of polarization active image based on the concepts of compressive sensing (CS) theory and edge detection. First, A Canny operator is first utilized to detect and remove edges from the polarization active image. Then, a dictionary learning algorithm which is applied to sparse image representation. The dictionary learning problem is expressed as a box-constrained quadratic program and a fast projected gradient method is introduced to solve it. The Gradient Projection for Square Reconstruction (GPSR) algorithm for solving bound constrained quadratic programming to reduce the speckle noise in the polarization active images. The block-matching 3-D (BM3D) algorithm is used to reduce speckle nosie, it works in two steps: The first one uses hard thresholding to build a relatively clean image for estimating statistics, while the second one performs the actual denoising through empirical Wiener filtering in the transform domain. Finally, the removed edges are added to the reconstructed image. Experimental results show that the visual quality and evaluation indexes outperform the other methods with no edge preservation. The proposed algorithm effectively realizes both despeckling and edge preservation and reaches the state-of-the-art performance.

  15. Background Modelling Using Edge-Segment Distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaemyun Kim


    Full Text Available We propose an edge-segment-based statistical background modelling algorithm to detect the moving edges for the detection of moving objects using a static camera. Traditional pixel intensity-based background modelling algorithms face difficulties in dynamic environments since they cannot handle sudden changes in illumination. They also bring out ghosts when a sudden change occurs in the scene. To cope with this issue, intensity and noise robust edge-based features have emerged. However, existing edge-pixel-based methods suffer from scattered moving edge pixels since they cannot utilize the shape. Moreover, traditional segment-based methods cannot handle edge shape variations and miss moving edges when they come close to the background edges. Unlike traditional approaches, our proposed method builds the background model from ordinary training frames that may contain moving objects. Furthermore, it does not leave any ghosts behind. Moreover, our method uses an automatic threshold for every background edge distribution for matching. This makes our approach robust to illumination change, camera movement and background motion. Experiments show that our method outperforms others and can detect moving edges efficiently despite the above mentioned difficulties.

  16. Progress in the Development of Edge Scatter Control for Starshades (United States)

    Casement, L. Suzanne; Warwick, Steve; Smith, Daniel


    In the field of ExoPlanet detection and characterization, the use of a Starshade, an external occulter in front of a telescope at large separations, has been identified as one of the highly promising methods to achieve the goals. In the last major review (Lawson, JPL D-72279, 2013), the control of scattered sunlight from the edges of the starshade into the telescope was identified as one of the key technology development areas in order to make the starshade feasible. Modeling of the scattered light has resulted in very different results (Casement et al., SPIE Vol. 8442, 4H, 2012, Martin et al., SPIE Vol. 8864, 88641A, 2013) so a campaign of experimentation with edge samples was undertaken to attempt to resolve the discrepancies.Here, we present our latest results from both modeling efforts and measurement of samples of materials which would be suitable for manufacturing the starshade edge. We have focused on coating metallic samples for ease of fabrication, including measuring the sharpness of an edge that can be fabricated using standard machine shop methods of a variety of materials that are suitable for space application. We then had these samples coated by two suppliers to evaluate how well these coating types would conform to the edge and provide scatter suppression. The results of scatter measurements of these coated edge samples are presented. In addition, we have subjected these samples to a limited set of environments to evaluate their durability and followed up by remeasuring a portion of these exposed samples to compare the scatter suppression before and after environmental exposure.

  17. Imaging edges of nanostructured graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kling, Jens; Cagliani, Alberto; Booth, T. J.

    Graphene, as the forefather of 2D-materials, attracts much attention due to its extraordinary properties like transparency, flexibility and outstanding high conductivity, together with a thickness of only one atom. However, graphene also possesses no band gap, which makes it unsuitable for many...... electronic applications like transistors. It has been shown theoretically that by nanostructuring pristine graphene, e.g. with regular holes, the electronic properties can be tuned and a band gap introduced. The size, distance and edge termination of these “defects” influence the adaptability....... Such nanostructuring can be done experimentally, but especially characterization at atomic level is a huge challenge. High-resolution TEM (HRTEM) is used to characterize the atomic structure of graphene. We optimized the imaging conditions used for the FEI Titan ETEM. To reduce the knock-on damage of the carbon atoms...

  18. At the edge of intonation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niebuhr, Oliver


    The paper is concerned with the 'edge of intonation' in a twofold sense. It focuses on utterance-final F0 movements and crosses the traditional segment-prosody divide by investigating the interplay of F0 and voiceless fricatives in speech production. An experiment was performed for German with four...... types of voiceless fricatives: /f/, /s/, /ʃ/ and /x/. They were elicited with scripted dialogues in the contexts of terminal falling statement and high rising question intonations. Acoustic analyses show that fricatives concluding the high rising question intonations had higher mean centres of gravity...... (CoGs), larger CoG ranges and higher noise energy levels than fricatives concluding the terminal falling statement intonations. The different spectral-energy patterns are suitable to induce percepts of a high 'aperiodic pitch' at the end of the questions and of a low 'aperiodic pitch' at the end...

  19. Object detection using categorised 3D edges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiforenko, Lilita; Buch, Anders Glent; Bodenhagen, Leon


    is made possible by the explicit use of edge categories in the feature descriptor. We quantitatively compare our approach with the state-of-the-art template based Linemod method, which also provides an effective way of dealing with texture-less objects, tests were performed on our own object dataset. Our......In this paper we present an object detection method that uses edge categorisation in combination with a local multi-modal histogram descriptor, all based on RGB-D data. Our target application is robust detection and pose estimation of known objects. We propose to apply a recently introduced edge...... categorisation algorithm for describing objects in terms of its different edge types. Relying on edge information allow our system to deal with objects with little or no texture or surface variation. We show that edge categorisation improves matching performance due to the higher level of discrimination, which...

  20. Selective Electroless Silver Deposition on Graphene Edges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durhuus, D.; Larsen, M. V.; Andryieuski, Andrei


    We demonstrate a method of electroless selective silver deposition on graphene edges or between graphene islands without covering the surface of graphene. Modifications of the deposition recipe allow for decoration of graphene edges with silver nanoparticles or filling holes in damaged graphene...... on silica substrate and thus potentially restoring electric connectivity with minimal influence on the overall graphene electrical and optical properties. The presented technique could find applications in graphene based transparent conductors as well as selective edge functionalization and can be extended...

  1. Topological edge states of bound photon pairs (United States)

    Gorlach, Maxim A.; Poddubny, Alexander N.


    We predict the existence of interaction-driven edge states of bound two-photon quasiparticles in a dimer periodic array of nonlinear optical cavities. The energy spectrum of photon pairs is dramatically richer than in the noninteracting case or in a simple lattice, featuring collapse and revival of multiple edge and bulk modes as well as edge states in continuum. We link the edge-state existence to the two-photon quantum walk graph connectivity. Our results offer a route to control quantum entanglement and provide insights into the physics of many-body topological states.

  2. Chiral edge fluctuations of colloidal membranes (United States)

    Jia, Leroy; Zakhary, Mark; Dogic, Zvonimir; Pelcovits, Robert; Powers, Thomas

    Using experiments and theory we study chiral fluctuations of the edge of a nearly flat colloidal membrane, consisting of rod-like viruses held together by the depletion interaction. Our measurements show an anomalous peak in the power spectrum around 1 inverse micron. Using an effective theory to describe the liquid crystal degrees of freedom by geometric properties of the edge, such as length, geodesic torsion, and curvature, we calculate the spectrum of out-of-plane edge fluctuations. The peak arises for sufficiently strong chirality, and corresponds to the instability of a flat membrane to a shape with helical, rippled edges.

  3. Selective edge enhancement using anisotropic vortex filter. (United States)

    Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Joseph, Joby; Senthilkumaran, Paramasivam


    In optical image processing, selective edge enhancement is important when it is preferable to emphasize some edges of an object more than others. We propose a new method for selective edge enhancement of amplitude objects using the anisotropic vortex phase mask by introducing anisotropy in a conventional vortex mask with the help of the sine function. The anisotropy is capable of edge enhancement in the selective region and in the required direction by changing the power and offset angle, respectively, of the sine function.

  4. Edge passivation induced single-edge ferromagnetism of zigzag MoS{sub 2} nanoribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Rui; Sun, Hui; Ma, Ben; Hu, Jingguo, E-mail:; Pan, Jing, E-mail:


    We performed density functional theory study on electronic structure, magnetic properties and stability of zigzag MoS{sub 2} nanoribbons (ZMoS{sub 2}NRs) with and without oxygen (O) passivation. The bare ZMoS{sub 2}NRs are magnetic metal with ferromagnetic edge states, edge passivation decreases their magnetism because of the decrease of edge unsaturated electrons. Obviously, the electronic structure and magnetic properties of ZMoS{sub 2}NRs greatly depend on edge states. When both edges are passivated by O atoms, ZMoS{sub 2}NRs are nonmagnetic metals. When either edge is passivated by O atoms, the systems exhibit single-edge ferromagnetism and magnetism concentrates on the non-passivated edge. Edge passivation can not only tune the magnetism of ZMoS{sub 2}NRs, but also enhance their stability by eliminating dangling bonds. These interesting findings on ZMoS{sub 2}NRs may open the possibility of their application in nanodevices and spintronics. - Highlights: • Edge passivation for tuning magnetism of zigzag MoS{sub 2} nanoribbons (ZMoS{sub 2}NRs) is proposed. • Edge passivation can tune ZMoS{sub 2}NRs from nonmagnetic metal to ferromagnetic metal. • When either edge is passivated, the systems exhibit single-edge ferromagnetic states. • These findings may inspire great interest in the community of ZMoS{sub 2}NRs and motivate numerous experimental researches.

  5. Damage Evolution in Complex-Phase and Dual-Phase Steels during Edge Stretching. (United States)

    Pathak, Nikky; Butcher, Cliff; Worswick, Michael James; Bellhouse, Erika; Gao, Jeff


    The role of microstructural damage in controlling the edge stretchability of Complex-Phase (CP) and Dual-Phase (DP) steels was evaluated using hole tension experiments. The experiments considered a tensile specimen with a hole at the center of specimen that is either sheared (sheared edge condition) or drilled and then reamed (reamed edge condition). The damage mechanism and accumulation in the CP and DP steels were systematically characterized by interrupting the hole tension tests at different strain levels using scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis and optical microscopy. Martensite cracking and decohesion of ferrite-martensite interfaces are the dominant nucleation mechanisms in the DP780. The primary source of void nucleation in the CP800 is nucleation at TiN particles, with secondary void formation at martensite/bainite interfaces near the failure strain. The rate of damage evolution is considerably higher for the sheared edge in contrast with the reamed edge since the shearing process alters the microstructure in the shear affected zone (SAZ) by introducing work-hardening and initial damage behind the sheared edge. The CP microstructures were shown to be less prone to shear-induced damage than the DP materials resulting in much higher sheared edge formability. Microstructural damage in the CP and DP steels was characterized to understand the interaction between microstructure, damage evolution and edge formability during edge stretching. An analytical model for void evolution and coalescence was developed and applied to predict the damage rate in these rather diverse microstructures.

  6. Damage Evolution in Complex-Phase and Dual-Phase Steels during Edge Stretching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikky Pathak


    Full Text Available The role of microstructural damage in controlling the edge stretchability of Complex-Phase (CP and Dual-Phase (DP steels was evaluated using hole tension experiments. The experiments considered a tensile specimen with a hole at the center of specimen that is either sheared (sheared edge condition or drilled and then reamed (reamed edge condition. The damage mechanism and accumulation in the CP and DP steels were systematically characterized by interrupting the hole tension tests at different strain levels using scanning electron microscope (SEM analysis and optical microscopy. Martensite cracking and decohesion of ferrite-martensite interfaces are the dominant nucleation mechanisms in the DP780. The primary source of void nucleation in the CP800 is nucleation at TiN particles, with secondary void formation at martensite/bainite interfaces near the failure strain. The rate of damage evolution is considerably higher for the sheared edge in contrast with the reamed edge since the shearing process alters the microstructure in the shear affected zone (SAZ by introducing work-hardening and initial damage behind the sheared edge. The CP microstructures were shown to be less prone to shear-induced damage than the DP materials resulting in much higher sheared edge formability. Microstructural damage in the CP and DP steels was characterized to understand the interaction between microstructure, damage evolution and edge formability during edge stretching. An analytical model for void evolution and coalescence was developed and applied to predict the damage rate in these rather diverse microstructures.

  7. Signed Total Roman Edge Domination In Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asgharsharghi Leila


    Full Text Available Let G = (V,E be a simple graph with vertex set V and edge set E. A signed total Roman edge dominating function of G is a function f : Ʃ → {−1, 1, 2} satisfying the conditions that (i Ʃe′∈N(e f(e′ ≥ 1 for each e ∈ E, where N(e is the open neighborhood of e, and (ii every edge e for which f(e = −1 is adjacent to at least one edge e′ for which f(e′ = 2. The weight of a signed total Roman edge dominating function f is !(f = Ʃe∈E f(e. The signed total Roman edge domination number y′stR(G of G is the minimum weight of a signed total Roman edge dominating function of G. In this paper, we first prove that for every tree T of order n ≥ 4, y′stR(T ≥ 17−2n/5 and we characterize all extreme trees, and then we present some sharp bounds for the signed total Roman edge domination number. We also determine this parameter for some classes of graphs.

  8. Connected domination stable graphs upon edge addition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A set S of vertices in a graph G is a connected dominating set of G if S dominates G and the subgraph induced by S is connected. We study the graphs for which adding any edge does not change the connected domination number. Keywords: Connected domination, connected domination stable, edge addition ...

  9. Automatic Edging and Trimming of Hardwood Lumber (United States)

    D. Earl Kline; Eugene M. Wengert; Philip A. Araman


    Studies have shown that there is a potential to increase hardwood lumber value by more than 20 percent through optimum edging and trimming. Even a small portion of this percentage can boost the profitability of hardwood lumber manufacturers substantially. The objective of this research project is to develop an automated system which would assist in correct edging and...

  10. Leading edge gypsy moth population dynamics (United States)

    M. R. Carter; F. W. Ravlin; M. L. McManus


    Leading edge gypsy moth populations have been the focus of several intervention programs (MDIPM, AIPM). Knowledge of gypsy moth population dynamics in leading edge area is crucial for effective management. Populations in these areas tend to reach outbreak levels (noticeable defoliation) within three to four years after egg masses are first detected. Pheromone traps...

  11. An overview of JET edge modelling activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coster, D.P. E-mail:; Bonnin, X.; Corrigan, G.; Dejarnac, R.; Fenstermacher, M.; Fundamenski, W.; Geier, A.; Hogan, J.; Kallenbach, A.; Kirschner, A.; Krieger, K.; Loarte, A.; Matthews, G.; Pitts, R.A.; Porter, G.; Pugno, R.; Reiser, D.; Reiter, D.; Sipila, S.; Spence, J.; Stangeby, P.C.; Tsitrone, E.; Tskhakaya, D.; Wischmeier, M


    A number of codes are in use at JET to model the edge plasma. The range of edge codes is described as is the range of physics issues being explored by these codes. The balance between focussed modelling (that looking at particular physics effects) and integrated modelling (attempting to combine codes or encapsulate the physics from some codes into other codes) is examined.

  12. Strong List Edge Coloring of Subcubic Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongping Ma


    Full Text Available We study strong list edge coloring of subcubic graphs, and we prove that every subcubic graph with maximum average degree less than 15/7, 27/11, 13/5, and 36/13 can be strongly list edge colored with six, seven, eight, and nine colors, respectively.

  13. LES tests on airfoil trailing edge serration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong


    In the present study, a large number of acoustic simulations are carried out for a low noise airfoil with different Trailing Edge Serrations (TES). The Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FWH) acoustic analogy is used for noise prediction at trailing edge. The acoustic solver is running on the platform...

  14. Cascading Edge Failures: A Dynamic Network Process

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, June


    This paper considers the dynamics of edges in a network. The Dynamic Bond Percolation (DBP) process models, through stochastic local rules, the dependence of an edge $(a,b)$ in a network on the states of its neighboring edges. Unlike previous models, DBP does not assume statistical independence between different edges. In applications, this means for example that failures of transmission lines in a power grid are not statistically independent, or alternatively, relationships between individuals (dyads) can lead to changes in other dyads in a social network. We consider the time evolution of the probability distribution of the network state, the collective states of all the edges (bonds), and show that it converges to a stationary distribution. We use this distribution to study the emergence of global behaviors like consensus (i.e., catastrophic failure or full recovery of the entire grid) or coexistence (i.e., some failed and some operating substructures in the grid). In particular, we show that, depending on...

  15. Edge effects on water droplet condensation. (United States)

    Medici, Marie-Gabrielle; Mongruel, Anne; Royon, Laurent; Beysens, Daniel


    In this study we investigate the effect of geometrical or thermal discontinuities on the growth of water droplets condensing on a cooled substrate. Edges, corners, and cooled and noncooled boundaries can have a strong effect on the vapor concentration profile and mass diffusion around the drops. In comparison to growth in a pattern where droplets have to compete to catch vapor, which results in a linear water concentration profile directed perpendicularly to the substrate, droplets near discontinuities can get more vapor (outer edges, corners), resulting in faster growth or less vapor (inner edges), giving lower growth. When the cooling heat flux limits growth instead of mass diffusion (substrate with low thermal conductivity, strong heat exchange with air), edge effects can be canceled. In certain cases, growth enhancement can reach nearly 500% on edges or corners.

  16. Edge-oriented dual-dictionary guided enrichment (EDGE) for MRI-CT image reconstruction. (United States)

    Li, Liang; Wang, Bigong; Wang, Ge


    In this paper, we formulate the joint/simultaneous X-ray CT and MRI image reconstruction. In particular, a novel algorithm is proposed for MRI image reconstruction from highly under-sampled MRI data and CT images. It consists of two steps. First, a training dataset is generated from a series of well-registered MRI and CT images on the same patients. Then, an initial MRI image of a patient can be reconstructed via edge-oriented dual-dictionary guided enrichment (EDGE) based on the training dataset and a CT image of the patient. Second, an MRI image is reconstructed using the dictionary learning (DL) algorithm from highly under-sampled k-space data and the initial MRI image. Our algorithm can establish a one-to-one correspondence between the two imaging modalities, and obtain a good initial MRI estimation. Both noise-free and noisy simulation studies were performed to evaluate and validate the proposed algorithm. The results with different under-sampling factors show that the proposed algorithm performed significantly better than those reconstructed using the DL algorithm from MRI data alone.

  17. Partnership for Edge Physics Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kritz, Arnold H. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Rafiq, Tariq [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States). Dept. of Physics


    A major goal of our participation in the Edge Physics Simulation project has been to contribute to the understanding of the self-organization of tokamak turbulence fluctuations resulting in the formation of a staircase structure in the ion temperature. A second important goal is to demonstrate how small scale turbulence in plasmas self-organizes with dynamically driven quasi-stationary flow shear. These goals have been accomplished through the analyses of the statistical properties of XGC1 flux driven Gyrokinetic electrostatic ion temperature gradient (ITG) turbulence simulation data in which neutrals are included. The ITG turbulence data, and in particular fluctuation data, were obtained from a massively parallel flux-driven gyrokinetic full-f particle-in-cell simulation of a DIII-D like equilibrium. Below some the findings are summarized. It was observed that the emergence of staircase structure is related to the variations in the normalized temperature gradient length (R/LT) and the poloidal flow shear. Average turbulence intensity is found to be large in the vicinity of minima in R/LTi, where ITG growth is expected to be lower. The distributions of the occurrences of potential fluctuation are found to be Gaussian away from the staircase-step locations, but they are found to be non-Gaussian in the vicinity of staircase-step locations. The results of analytically derived expressions for the distribution of the occurrences of turbulence intensity and intensity flux were compared with the corresponding quantities computed using XGC1 simulation data and good agreement is found. The derived expressions predicts inward and outward propagation of turbulence intensity flux in an intermittent fashion. The outward propagation of turbulence intensity flux occurs at staircase-step locations and is related to the change in poloidal flow velocity shear and to the change in the ion temperature gradient. The standard deviation, skewness and kurtosis for turbulence quantities

  18. Weighting links based on edge centrality for community detection (United States)

    Sun, Peng Gang


    Link weights have the equally important position as links in complex networks, and they are closely associated with each other for the emergence of communities. How to assign link weights to make a clear distinction between internal links of communities and external links connecting communities is of vital importance for community detection. Edge centralities provide a powerful approach for distinguishing internal links from external ones. Here, we first use edge centralities such as betweenness, information centrality and edge clustering coefficient to weight links of networks respectively to transform unweighted networks into weighted ones, and then a weighted function that both considers links and link weights is adopted on the weighted networks for community detection. We evaluate the performance of our approach on random networks as well as real-world networks. Better results are achieved on weighted networks with stronger weights of internal links of communities, and the results on unweighted networks outperform that of weighted networks with weaker weights of internal links of communities. The availability of our findings is also well-supported by the study of Granovetter that the weak links maintain the global integrity of the network while the strong links maintain the communities. Especially in the Karate club network, all the nodes are correctly classified when we weight links by edge betweenness. The results also give us a more comprehensive understanding on the correlation between links and link weights for community detection.

  19. The sensitivity of tokamak magnetohydrodynamics stability on the edge equilibrium (United States)

    Zheng, L. J.; Kotschenreuther, M. T.; Valanju, P.


    Due to the X-point singularity, the safety factor tends to infinity as approaching to the last closed flux surface. The numerical treatments of the near X-point behavior become challenging both for equilibrium and stability. The usual solution is to cut off a small fraction of edge region for system stability evaluation or simply use an up-down symmetric equilibrium without X-point as an approximation. In this work, we assess the sensitivity of this type of equilibrium treatments on the stability calculation. It is found that the system stability can depend strongly on the safety factor value (qa) at the edge after the cutting-off. When the edge safety factor value falls in the vicinity of a rational mode number (referred to as the resonant gap), the system becomes quite unstable due to the excitation of the peeling type modes. Instead, when the edge safety factor is outside the resonant gaps, the system is much more stable and the predominant modes become the usual external kink (or ballooning and infernal) type. It is also found that the resonant gaps become smaller and smaller as qa increases. The ideal magnetohydrodynamic peeling ballooning stability diagram is widely used to explain the experimental observations, and the current results indicate that the conventional peeling ballooning stability diagram based on the simplified equilibrium needs to be reexamined.

  20. Localized Edge Vibrations and Edge Reconstruction by Joule Heating in Graphene Nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, Mads; Fürst, Joachim Alexander; Jauho, Antti-Pekka


    Control of the edge topology of graphene nanostructures is critical to graphene-based electronics. A means of producing atomically smooth zigzag edges using electronic current has recently been demonstrated in experiments [Jia et al., Science 323, 1701 (2009)]. We develop a microscopic theory...... for current-induced edge reconstruction using density functional theory. Our calculations provide evidence for localized vibrations at edge interfaces involving unpassivated armchair edges. We demonstrate that these vibrations couple to the current, estimate their excitation by Joule heating, and argue...

  1. Edge-functionalization of armchair graphene nanoribbons with pentagonal-hexagonal edge structures (United States)

    Ryou, Junga; Park, Jinwoo; Kim, Gunn; Hong, Suklyun


    Using density functional theory calculations, we have studied the edge-functionalization of armchair graphene nanoribbons (AGNRs) with pentagonal-hexagonal edge structures. While the AGNRs with pentagonal-hexagonal edge structures (labeled (5,6)-AGNRs) are metallic, the edge-functionalized (5,6)-AGNRs with substitutional atoms opens a band gap. We find that the band structures of edge-functionalized (5,6)-N-AGNRs by substitution resemble those of defect-free (N-1)-AGNR at the Γ point, whereas those at the X point show the original ones of the defect-free N-AGNR. The overall electronic structures of edge-functionalized (5,6)-AGNRs depend on the number of electrons, supplied by substitutional atoms, at the edges of functionalized (5,6)-AGNRs.

  2. L2 Quality as a Competitive Edge - Project Presentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Marianne Grove; Kastberg, Peter


    In our paper we would like to present an interdisciplinary project "L2 as a Competitive Edge". We'll be doing this by first giving you a project overview in section 0. The overview will then in the section 1 and 2 be followed by a presentation of two of the most interesting themes, serving as point...... of departure for further discussion. The two themes are "The evaluation of language quality" and "Method - an Integrated Approach"....

  3. CFAR Edge Detector for Polarimetric SAR Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Jesper; Skriver, Henning; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg


    Finding the edges between different regions in an image is one of the fundamental steps of image analysis, and several edge detectors suitable for the special statistics of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) intensity images have previously been developed. In this paper, a new edge detector for polar......Finding the edges between different regions in an image is one of the fundamental steps of image analysis, and several edge detectors suitable for the special statistics of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) intensity images have previously been developed. In this paper, a new edge detector...... for polarimetric SAR images is presented using a newly developed test statistic in the complex Wishart distribution to test for equality of covariance matrices. The new edge detector can be applied to a wide range of SAR data from single-channel intensity data to multifrequency and/or multitemporal polarimetric...... SAR data. By simply changing the parameters characterizing the test statistic according to the applied SAR data, constant false-alarm rate detection is always obtained. An adaptive filtering scheme is presented, and the distributions of the detector are verified using simulated polarimetric SAR images...

  4. AliEn - EDG Interoperability in ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Bagnasco, S; Buncic, P; Carminati, F; Cerello, P G; Saiz, P


    AliEn (ALICE Environment) is a GRID-like system for large scale job submission and distributed data management developed and used in the context of ALICE, the CERN LHC heavy-ion experiment. With the aim of exploiting upcoming Grid resources to run AliEn-managed jobs and store the produced data, the problem of AliEn-EDG interoperability was addressed and an in-terface was designed. One or more EDG (European Data Grid) User Interface machines run the AliEn software suite (Cluster Monitor, Storage Element and Computing Element), and act as interface nodes between the systems. An EDG Resource Broker is seen by the AliEn server as a single Computing Element, while the EDG storage is seen by AliEn as a single, large Storage Element; files produced in EDG sites are registered in both the EDG Replica Catalogue and in the AliEn Data Catalogue, thus ensuring accessibility from both worlds. In fact, both registrations are required: the AliEn one is used for the data management, the EDG one to guarantee the integrity and...

  5. Edge-Disjoint Fibonacci Trees in Hypercube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indhumathi Raman


    Full Text Available The Fibonacci tree is a rooted binary tree whose number of vertices admit a recursive definition similar to the Fibonacci numbers. In this paper, we prove that a hypercube of dimension h admits two edge-disjoint Fibonacci trees of height h, two edge-disjoint Fibonacci trees of height h-2, two edge-disjoint Fibonacci trees of height h-4 and so on, as subgraphs. The result shows that an algorithm with Fibonacci trees as underlying data structure can be implemented concurrently on a hypercube network with no communication latency.

  6. Natural and artificial spectral edges in exoplanets (United States)

    Lingam, Manasvi; Loeb, Abraham


    Technological civilizations may rely upon large-scale photovoltaic arrays to harness energy from their host star. Photovoltaic materials, such as silicon, possess distinctive spectral features, including an 'artificial edge' that is characteristically shifted in wavelength shortwards of the 'red edge' of vegetation. Future observations of reflected light from exoplanets would be able to detect both natural and artificial edges photometrically, if a significant fraction of the planet's surface is covered by vegetation or photovoltaic arrays, respectively. The stellar energy thus tapped can be utilized for terraforming activities by transferring heat and light from the day side to the night side on tidally locked exoplanets, thereby producing detectable artefacts.

  7. Adobe Edge Animate CC for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Rohde, Michael


    The easy way to build HTML5 mobile and web apps using Adobe's new Edge Animate CC Edge Animate CC is an approachable WYSIWYG alternative for leveraging the power of languages like HTML5, CSS3, and JavaScript to design and develop for the web and mobile devices, even if you have no programming experience. Written by Michael Rohde, the book calls on this seasoned web developer's wealth of experience using Edge Animate CC, and a companion website includes all code from the book to help you apply what you learn as you go. Features an easy-to-use interface, with a propert

  8. Role of edge effect on small mammal populations in a forest fragment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wike, L.D.


    In many cases, edge effect may determine the distribution and densities of small mammal populations. In 1995 and 1998, a mark and recapture study was conducted at the Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC, to evaluate the role of forest edge habitat. The area studied was an abandoned home site that had been recently isolated by a timber harvest. Harvest activities left a distinct edge of old field and planted pine contrasting with a relatively xeric, mixed hardwood stand. Trapping was conducted for 17 days in 1995 and 14 days in 1998. Three 30 m by 150 m grids were placed in the clear-cut, edge, and hardwood interior habitats. For both years the principal species captured were Peromyscus gossypinus, P. polionotus, and Neotoma floridana. The edge habitat accounted for approximately 55 percent of all captures and nearly four times as many recaptures as the interior and clear-cut habitats. In 1998, greater numbers of N. floridana were trapped than in 1995. The results indicate that the use of edge habitat can be pronounced even within simple communities. Stewards of managed or restored habitats need to carefully consider the role of edge in these systems. In managed areas such as waste sites, movement of material within the food chain could be reduced by minimizing edge habitat around the points of contamination.

  9. Edge energies and shapes of nanoprecipitates.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, John C.


    In this report we present a model to explain the size-dependent shapes of lead nano-precipitates in aluminum. Size-dependent shape transitions, frequently observed at nanolength scales, are commonly attributed to edge energy effects. This report resolves an ambiguity in the definition and calculation of edge energies and presents an atomistic calculation of edge energies for free clusters. We also present a theory for size-dependent shapes of Pb nanoprecipitates in Al, introducing the concept of ''magic-shapes'' defined as precipitate shapes having near zero elastic strains when inserted into similarly shaped voids in the Al matrix. An algorithm for constructing a complete set of magic-shapes is presented. The experimental observations are explained by elastic strain energies and interfacial energies; edge energies play a negligible role. We replicate the experimental observations by selecting precipitates having magic-shapes and interfacial energies less than a cutoff value.

  10. Overview of Curved Cutting Edge Mills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Potapova


    Full Text Available Now that there is a need to increase a processing capacity, curved cutting edge mills find ever-growing use. Also known as “rough end”, “full-side”, and “heavy-duty” mills, they provide the increased depth and width values of milling owing to the width-sized chip separation. The analysis of produced mills allowed us both to reveal their basic design components (type of a shaft or basic opening, diameter and length of the cutting part, mill length, quantity of teeth, a tilt angle of a screw flute and to make their classification. The paper presents a classification of the profile types of cutting edges, which can be divided by form (flat, round, size (small, large, super-large, and symmetry (symmetrical and asymmetrical. The profile of the cutting edge is characterized by the following parameters: profile height, pitch of crests spherical radius of crest.A review of the curved cutting edge profile types allows us to build the geometrical constructions to define a form and the sizes of the chip load made by the cutting edge from a billet. It is shown that parameters of the cutting edge profile influence the form and the sizes (thickness and width of the chip load.The chip load thickness provided by the curved cutting edge mills exceeds that of observed when using the “smooth” cutting edge mills. A thickening degree of the chip load is changed with changing form and sizes of the cutting edge mill profile. Larger thickening is observed if the chip load is limited from below and from above by the marks of a single tooth (the first or second etc., and a length of the other teeth marks is minimum. The most achievable chip load thickness is equal to feed per revolution.Studying the references allowed us to formulate some rules to choose a cutting edge profile depending on a type of the processed material and a desirable roughness of the processed surface. It is important to note the following.When choosing a profile of the cutting edge

  11. Depth from Edge and Intensity Based Stereo. (United States)


    something similar for a machine (be the similarity in mechanism or effect). ,1 1.1 The Stereopsi. Process in Man .4 In the course of primate ...Dorr ain • restrictions An understanding of its domain of intended use and an analysis of its performance capabilities will give us insight into a stereo...providing for the interpretation of cei: ain edges as being spurious or obscured, is both unrealistic and unacceptable - there will always be edges which

  12. Edge momentum transport by neutrals: an interpretive numerical framework (United States)

    Omotani, J. T.; Newton, S. L.; Pusztai, I.; Viezzer, E.; Fülöp, T.; The ASDEX Upgrade Team


    Due to their high cross-field mobility, neutrals can contribute to momentum transport even at the low relative densities found inside the separatrix and they can generate intrinsic rotation. We use a charge-exchange dominated solution to the neutral kinetic equation, coupled to neoclassical ions, to evaluate the momentum transport due to neutrals. Numerical solutions to the drift-kinetic equation allow us to cover the full range of collisionality, including the intermediate levels typical of the tokamak edge. In the edge there are several processes likely to contribute to momentum transport in addition to neutrals. Therefore, we present here an interpretive framework that can evaluate the momentum transport through neutrals based on radial plasma profiles. We demonstrate its application by analysing the neutral angular momentum flux for an L-mode discharge in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak. The magnitudes of the angular momentum fluxes we find here due to neutrals of 0.6-2 \\text{N} \\text{m} are comparable to the net torque on the plasma from neutral beam injection, indicating the importance of neutrals for rotation in the edge.

  13. Edge subdivision and edge multisubdivision versus some domination related parameters in generalized corona graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Dettlaff


    Full Text Available Given a graph \\(G=(V,E\\, the subdivision of an edge \\(e=uv\\in E(G\\ means the substitution of the edge \\(e\\ by a vertex \\(x\\ and the new edges \\(ux\\ and \\(xv\\. The domination subdivision number of a graph \\(G\\ is the minimum number of edges of \\(G\\ which must be subdivided (where each edge can be subdivided at most once in order to increase the domination number. Also, the domination multisubdivision number of \\(G\\ is the minimum number of subdivisions which must be done in one edge such that the domination number increases. Moreover, the concepts of paired domination and independent domination subdivision (respectively multisubdivision numbers are defined similarly. In this paper we study the domination, paired domination and independent domination (subdivision and multisubdivision numbers of the generalized corona graphs.

  14. A superior edge preserving filter with a systematic analysis (United States)

    Holladay, Kenneth W.; Rickman, Doug


    A new, adaptive, edge preserving filter for use in image processing is presented. It had superior performance when compared to other filters. Termed the contiguous K-average, it aggregates pixels by examining all pixels contiguous to an existing cluster and adding the pixel closest to the mean of the existing cluster. The process is iterated until K pixels were accumulated. Rather than simply compare the visual results of processing with this operator to other filters, some approaches were developed which allow quantitative evaluation of how well and filter performs. Particular attention is given to the standard deviation of noise within a feature and the stability of imagery under iterative processing. Demonstrations illustrate the performance of several filters to discriminate against noise and retain edges, the effect of filtering as a preprocessing step, and the utility of the contiguous K-average filter when used with remote sensing data.

  15. Analysis of edge stability for models of heat flux width

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Makowski


    Full Text Available Detailed measurements of the ne, Te, and Ti profiles in the vicinity of the separatrix of ELMing H-mode discharges have been used to examine plasma stability at the extreme edge of the plasma and assess stability dependent models of the heat flux width. The results are strongly contrary to the critical gradient model, which posits that a ballooning instability determines a gradient scale length related to the heat flux width. The results of this analysis are not sensitive to the choice of location to evaluate stability. Significantly, it is also found that the results are completely consistent with the heuristic drift model for the heat flux width. Here the edge pressure gradient scales with plasma density and is proportional to the pressure gradient inferred from the equilibrium in accordance with the predictions of that theory.

  16. Edge detection based on Hodgkin-Huxley neuron model simulation. (United States)

    Yedjour, Hayat; Meftah, Boudjelal; Lézoray, Olivier; Benyettou, Abdelkader


    In this paper, we propose a spiking neural network model for edge detection in images. The proposed model is biologically inspired by the mechanisms employed by natural vision systems, more specifically by the biologically fulfilled function of simple cells of the human primary visual cortex that are selective for orientation. Several aspects are studied in this model according to three characteristics: feedforward spiking neural structure; conductance-based model of the Hodgkin-Huxley neuron and Gabor receptive fields structure. A visualized map is generated using the firing rate of neurons representing the orientation map of the visual cortex area. We have simulated the proposed model on different images. Successful computer simulation results are obtained. For comparison, we have chosen five methods for edge detection. We finally evaluate and compare the performances of our model toward contour detection using a public dataset of natural images with associated contour ground truths. Experimental results show the ability and high performance of the proposed network model.

  17. Losing your edge: climate change and the conservation value of range-edge populations. (United States)

    Rehm, Evan M; Olivas, Paulo; Stroud, James; Feeley, Kenneth J


    Populations occurring at species' range edges can be locally adapted to unique environmental conditions. From a species' perspective, range-edge environments generally have higher severity and frequency of extreme climatic events relative to the range core. Under future climates, extreme climatic events are predicted to become increasingly important in defining species' distributions. Therefore, range-edge genotypes that are better adapted to extreme climates relative to core populations may be essential to species' persistence during periods of rapid climate change. We use relatively simple conceptual models to highlight the importance of locally adapted range-edge populations (leading and trailing edges) for determining the ability of species to persist under future climates. Using trees as an example, we show how locally adapted populations at species' range edges may expand under future climate change and become more common relative to range-core populations. We also highlight how large-scale habitat destruction occurring in some geographic areas where many species range edge converge, such as biome boundaries and ecotones (e.g., the arc of deforestation along the rainforest-cerrado ecotone in the southern Amazonia), can have major implications for global biodiversity. As climate changes, range-edge populations will play key roles in helping species to maintain or expand their geographic distributions. The loss of these locally adapted range-edge populations through anthropogenic disturbance is therefore hypothesized to reduce the ability of species to persist in the face of rapid future climate change.

  18. Effect of Edge Roughness on Static Characteristics of Graphene Nanoribbon Field Effect Transistor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaser M. Banadaki


    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a physics-based analytical model of GNR FET, which allows for the evaluation of GNR FET performance including the effects of line-edge roughness as its practical specific non-ideality. The line-edge roughness is modeled in edge-enhanced band-to-band-tunneling and localization regimes, and then verified for various roughness amplitudes. Corresponding to these two regimes, the off-current is initially increased, then decreased; while, on the other hand, the on-current is continuously decreased by increasing the roughness amplitude.

  19. Evaluation of the Low-Energy Design and Energy Performance of the Zion National Park Visitor Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torcellini, P.; Long, N.; Pless, S.; Judkoff, R.


    This report is part of a series of six case studies to develop, document, analyze, and evaluate the processes by which highly energy-efficient buildings can be reliably produced. NREL monitored the energy performance of the Visitor Center Complex at Zion National Park from September 1, 2000 to June 1, 2003. This evaluation was crucial to achieving and verifying the low-energy design goals of the building after post-occupancy. This report presents results from that multiyear performance monitoring. The Park's new transportation system was not studied as part of the building evaluation.

  20. Prevalence of severe mitral regurgitation eligible for edge-to-edge mitral valve repair (MitraClip). (United States)

    Wallenborn, Julia; Störk, Stefan; Herrmann, Sebastian; Kukuy, Olga; Fette, Georg; Puppe, Frank; Gorski, Armin; Hu, Kai; Voelker, Wolfram; Ertl, Georg; Weidemann, Frank


    We assessed the prevalence of moderately severe or severe mitral regurgitation (MR) justifying edge-to-edge mitral valve (MV) repair (MitraClip(®)) in patients attending the University Hospital Wuerzburg, a tertiary care centre located in Wuerzburg, Germany. Transcatheter edge-to-edge MV repair of advanced MR is a non-surgical treatment option in inoperable and high-risk patients. It is unknown how many patients are potentially eligible for MitraClip(®) since several anatomical prerequisites of the MV apparatus have to be met for optimal treatment results. Using a novel clinical data warehouse we searched for all patients attached to our Department of Internal Medicine from 01/2008 to 01/2012 with moderately severe or severe MR and aged ≥18 years. The current status of their treatment regime and eligibility for MitraClip(®) was assessed and re-evaluated according to current guidelines and echocardiographic criteria. The search of electronic medical records amongst 43,690 patients employed an innovative validated text extraction method and identified 331 patients with moderately severe or severe MR who had undergone echocardiographic assessment at our institution. Of these, 125 (38 %) received MV surgery and 206 (62 %) medical therapy only. Most patients not undergoing surgery had secondary MR (70 %). After evaluation of medical and echocardiographic data of medically treated patients (n = 206), 81 (39 %) were potential candidates for MitraClip(®) therapy, and 90 (44 %) died during the median follow-up time of 23 months. A large fraction of patients with moderately severe or severe MR but not operated was detected. Medically treated patients had a bad prognosis and about 40 % of them were potential candidates for MitraClip(®) therapy.

  1. Structure and far-infrared edge modes of quantum antidots at zero magnetic field (United States)

    Emperador, A.; Pi, M.; Barranco, M.; Lipparini, E.; Serra, Ll.


    We have investigated edge modes of different multipolarity sustained by quantum antidots at zero magnetic field. The ground state of the antidot is described within a local-density-functional formalism. Two sum rules, which are exact within this formalism, have been derived and used to evaluate the energy of edge collective modes as a function of the surface density and the size of the antidot.

  2. Acyclicity in edge-colored graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutin, Gregory; Jones, Mark; Sheng, Bin


    A walk W in edge-colored graphs is called properly colored (PC) if every pair of consecutive edges in W is of different color. We introduce and study five types of PC acyclicity in edge-colored graphs such that graphs of PC acyclicity of type i is a proper superset of graphs of acyclicity of type i......+1, i=1,2,3,4. The first three types are equivalent to the absence of PC cycles, PC closed trails, and PC closed walks, respectively. While graphs of types 1, 2 and 3 can be recognized in polynomial time, the problem of recognizing graphs of type 4 is, somewhat surprisingly, NP-hard even for 2-edge-colored...... graphs (i.e., when only two colors are used). The same problem with respect to type 5 is polynomial-time solvable for all edge-colored graphs. Using the five types, we investigate the border between intractability and tractability for the problems of finding the maximum number of internally vertex...

  3. Trailing edge modifications for flatback airfoils.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahn, Daniel L. (University of California, Davis, CA); van Dam, C.P. (University of California, Davis, CA); Berg, Dale E.


    The adoption of blunt trailing edge airfoils (also called flatback airfoils) for the inboard region of large wind turbine blades has been proposed. Blunt trailing edge airfoils would not only provide a number of structural benefits, such as increased structural volume and ease of fabrication and handling, but they have also been found to improve the lift characteristics of thick airfoils. Therefore, the incorporation of blunt trailing edge airfoils would allow blade designers to more freely address the structural demands without having to sacrifice aerodynamic performance. These airfoils do have the disadvantage of generating high levels of drag as a result of the low-pressure steady or periodic flow in the near-wake of the blunt trailing edge. Although for rotors, the drag penalty appears secondary to the lift enhancement produced by the blunt trailing edge, high drag levels are of concern in terms of the negative effect on the torque and power generated by the rotor. Hence, devices are sought that mitigate the drag of these airfoils. This report summarizes the literature on bluff body vortex shedding and bluff body drag reduction devices and proposes four devices for further study in the wind tunnel.

  4. Should We Analyze for Trace Metal Contamination at the Edge, Bevel, and Edge Exclusion of Wafers? (United States)

    Beebe, Meredith; Sparks, Chris; Carpio, Ron


    The edge, bevel, and edge exclusion area of a wafer has historically been difficult to monitor for trace metals. Standard trace metal surface techniques such as total reflection x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry, and vapor phase decomposition inductively coupled plasma are currently not capable or have difficulty measuring metals to the edge and bevel of the wafer. With shared metrology toolsets and new materials being introduced into semiconductor fabs, it is important to measure possible contamination in these areas of the wafer. Tools that have edge grip pins or centering and aligning pins, also are at risk to contaminate wafers at the edge and bevel. A technique had been developed known as the beveled edge analysis tool that chemically extracts contamination from the edge, bevel and edge exclusion of a wafer that is then quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. In this study we will show correlation of this technique to standard trace element analysis methods. We will also present data from characterizing processes and fab tools that will benefit from this measurement.

  5. Indirect decoding edges for one-shot shape acquisition. (United States)

    Zhang, Xu; Zhu, Limin; Li, Youfu


    Determining the correspondence in coded structured light is challenging, but it is very important in one-shot techniques for 3D shape reconstruction. The problem of decoding stripe patterns can be modeled as matching two code sequences. We propose decoding edges indirectly based on the property of the stripe pattern, which can be represented as edge code, color code, or mixed code sequences. While traditional methods match two edge code sequences, indirect decoding matches two color sequences or mixed code sequences. The advantages of the proposed method, including a higher Hamming distance, enforced local coherence, and more code information, make indirect decoding excellent in performance. Previously, the lack of ground truth has prevented direct comparisons of different decoding algorithms. Here we obtain six benchmark datasets using the robust space-time analysis. Five decoding methods are quantitatively evaluated using the ground truth. The comparison results show that our method is robust for complex code situations and that it outperforms the state-of-the-art technique in this area. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  6. Study of airfoil trailing edge bluntness noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær


    This paper deals with airfoil trailing edge noise with special focus on airfoils with blunt trailing edges. Two methods are employed to calculate airfoil noise: The flow/acoustic splitting method and the semi-empirical method. The flow/acoustic splitting method is derived from compressible Navier......-Stokes equations. It provides us possibilities to study details about noise generation mechanism. The formulation of the semi-empirical model is based on acoustic analogy and then curve-fitted with experimental data. Due to its high efficiency, such empirical relation is used for purpose of low noise airfoil...... design or optimization. Calculations from both methods are compared with exist experiments. The airfoil blunt noise is found as a function of trailing edge bluntness, Reynolds number, angle of attack, etc....

  7. Edge-Matching Problems with Rotations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbesen, Martin; Fischer, Paul; Witt, Carsten


    Edge-matching problems, also called puzzles, are abstractions of placement problems with neighborhood conditions. Pieces with colored edges have to be placed on a board such that adjacent edges have the same color. The problem has gained interest recently with the (now terminated) Eternity II...... puzzle, and new complexity results. In this paper we consider a number of settings which differ in size of the puzzles and the manipulations allowed on the pieces. We investigate the effect of allowing rotations of the pieces on the complexity of the problem, an aspect that is only marginally treated so...... far. We show that some problems have polynomial time algorithms while others are NP-complete. Especially we show that allowing rotations in one-row puzzles makes the problem NP-hard. We moreover show that many commonly considered puzzles can be emulated by simple puzzles with quadratic pieces, so...

  8. Flow distortion at a dense forest edge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellwik, Ebba; Bingöl, Ferhat; Mann, Jakob


    The flow near tall forest edges is complex, yet poorly described. A field experiment using two meteorological masts equipped with sonic anemometers and a horizontally staring lidar was performed upwind and downwind of the interface between an open flat farmland and a tall (hc = 24 m) beech forest...... qualitatively be explained with the concept of eddy‐blocking by the canopy top, which could also explain the observed increase in lateral variance and the decrease in the vertical variance. Despite the short distance to the edge of approximately 1.5hc, the beginning of a new internal boundary layer was visible...... at 1.04hc as a decrease in the vertical momentum flux. At this level, as well as within the forest, the results depended on the wind speed. The presented findings enhance the understanding of the forest edge flow and are useful for model verification and development....

  9. Topological edge modes in multilayer graphene systems. (United States)

    Ge, Lixin; Wang, Li; Xiao, Meng; Wen, Weijia; Chan, C T; Han, Dezhuan


    Plasmons can be supported on graphene sheets as the Dirac electrons oscillate collectively. A tight-binding model for graphene plasmons is a good description as the field confinement in the normal direction is strong. With this model, the topological properties of plasmonic bands in multilayer graphene systems are investigated. The Zak phases of periodic graphene sheet arrays are obtained for different configurations. Analogous to Su-Schrieffer-Heeger (SSH) model in electronic systems, topological edge plasmon modes emerge when two periodic graphene sheet arrays with different Zak phases are connected. Interestingly, the dispersion of these topological edge modes is the same as that in the monolayer graphene and is invariant as the geometric parameters of the structure such as the separation and period change. These plasmonic edge states in multilayer graphene systems can be further tuned by electrical gating or chemical doping.

  10. Leading-edge vortex lifts swifts. (United States)

    Videler, J J; Stamhuis, E J; Povel, G D E


    The current understanding of how birds fly must be revised, because birds use their hand-wings in an unconventional way to generate lift and drag. Physical models of a common swift wing in gliding posture with a 60 degrees sweep of the sharp hand-wing leading edge were tested in a water tunnel. Interactions with the flow were measured quantitatively with digital particle image velocimetry at Reynolds numbers realistic for the gliding flight of a swift between 3750 and 37,500. The results show that gliding swifts can generate stable leading-edge vortices at small (5 degrees to 10 degrees) angles of attack. We suggest that the flow around the arm-wings of most birds can remain conventionally attached, whereas the swept-back hand-wings generate lift with leading-edge vortices.

  11. Long coherence times for edge spins (United States)

    Kemp, Jack; Yao, Norman Y.; Laumann, Christopher R.; Fendley, Paul


    We show that in certain one-dimensional spin chains with open boundary conditions, the edge spins retain memory of their initial state for very long times, even at infinite temperature. The long coherence times do not require disorder, only an ordered phase. In the integrable Ising and XYZ chains, the presence of a strong zero mode means the coherence time is infinite. When Ising is perturbed by interactions breaking the integrability, the coherence time remains exponentially long in the perturbing couplings. We show that this is a consequence of an edge ‘almost’ strong zero mode that almost commutes with the Hamiltonian. We compute this operator explicitly, allowing us to estimate accurately the plateau value of edge spin autocorrelator.

  12. Floquet edge states in germanene nanoribbons

    KAUST Repository

    Tahir, M.


    We theoretically demonstrate versatile electronic properties of germanene monolayers under circularly, linearly, and elliptically polarized light. We show for the high frequency regime that the edge states can be controlled by tuning the amplitude of the light and by applying a static electric field. For circularly polarized light the band gap in one valley is reduced and in the other enhanced, enabling single valley edge states. For linearly polarized light spin-split states are found for both valleys, being connected by time reversal symmetry. The effects of elliptically polarized light are similar to those of circularly polarized light. The transport properties of zigzag nanoribbons in the presence of disorder confirm a nontrivial nature of the edge states under circularly and elliptically polarized light.

  13. Topological edge modes in multilayer graphene systems

    KAUST Repository

    Ge, Lixin


    Plasmons can be supported on graphene sheets as the Dirac electrons oscillate collectively. A tight-binding model for graphene plasmons is a good description as the field confinement in the normal direction is strong. With this model, the topological properties of plasmonic bands in multilayer graphene systems are investigated. The Zak phases of periodic graphene sheet arrays are obtained for different configurations. Analogous to Su-Schrieffer-Heeger (SSH) model in electronic systems, topological edge plasmon modes emerge when two periodic graphene sheet arrays with different Zak phases are connected. Interestingly, the dispersion of these topological edge modes is the same as that in the monolayer graphene and is invariant as the geometric parameters of the structure such as the separation and period change. These plasmonic edge states in multilayer graphene systems can be further tuned by electrical gating or chemical doping. © 2015 Optical Society of America.

  14. Edge modulation of electronics and transport properties of cliff-edge phosphorene nanoribbons (United States)

    Guo, Caixia; Wang, Tianxing; Xia, Congxin; Liu, Yufang


    Based on the first-principles calculations, we study the electronic structures and transport properties of cliff-like edge phosphorene nanoribbons (CPNRs), considering different types of edge passivation. The band structures of bare CPNRs possess the metallic features; while hydrogen (H), fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl) and oxygen (O) atoms-passivated CPNRs are semiconductor materials, and the band gap values monotonically decrease when the ribbon width increases. Moreover, the H and F-passivated CPNRs exhibit the direct band gap characteristics, while the Cl and O-passivated cases show the features of indirect band gap. In addition, the edge passivated CPNRs are more energetically stable than bare edge case. Meanwhile, our results also show that the transport properties of the CPNRs can be obviously influenced by the different edge passivation.

  15. Edge detection in landing budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha Bhagavatula

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While considerable scientific effort has been devoted to studying how birds navigate over long distances, relatively little is known about how targets are detected, obstacles are avoided and smooth landings are orchestrated. Here we examine how visual features in the environment, such as contrasting edges, determine where a bird will land. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Landing in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus was investigated by training them to fly from a perch to a feeder, and video-filming their landings. The feeder was placed on a grey disc that produced a contrasting edge against a uniformly blue background. We found that the birds tended to land primarily at the edge of the disc and walk to the feeder, even though the feeder was in the middle of the disc. This suggests that the birds were using the visual contrast at the boundary of the disc to target their landings. When the grey level of the disc was varied systematically, whilst keeping the blue background constant, there was one intermediate grey level at which the budgerigar's preference for the disc boundary disappeared. The budgerigars then landed randomly all over the test surface. Even though this disc is (for humans clearly distinguishable from the blue background, it offers very little contrast against the background, in the red and green regions of the spectrum. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that budgerigars use visual edges to target and guide landings. Calculations of photoreceptor excitation reveal that edge detection in landing budgerigars is performed by a color-blind luminance channel that sums the signals from the red and green photoreceptors, or, alternatively, receives input from the red double-cones. This finding has close parallels to vision in honeybees and primates, where edge detection and motion perception are also largely color-blind.

  16. Assessment of the Critical Parameters Influencing the Edge Stretchability of Advanced High-Strength Steel Sheet (United States)

    Pathak, N.; Butcher, C.; Worswick, M.


    The edge formability of ferritic-martensitic DP (dual-phase) and ferritic-bainitic CP (complex-phase) steels was evaluated using a hole expansion test for different edge conditions. Hole expansion tests involving the standard conical punch as well as a custom flat punch were performed to investigate formability when the hole is expanded out-of-plane (conical punch) and in-plane using the flat punch. A range of edge conditions were considered, in order to isolate the influence of a range of factors thought to influence edge formability. The results demonstrate that work hardening and void damage at the sheared edge govern formability, while the sheared surface quality plays a minor or secondary role. A comparison of the edge stretching limits of DP and CP steels demonstrates the advantages of a ferritic-bainitic microstructure for forming operations with severe local deformation as in a stretch-flanging operation. A comparison of a traditional DP780 steel with a CP steel of similar strength showed that the edge stretching limit of the CP steel was three times larger than that of the DP780.

  17. 16 CFR 1211.12 - Requirements for edge sensors. (United States)


    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for edge sensors. 1211.12... Requirements for edge sensors. (a) Normal operation test. (1) When installed on a representative door edge, an edge sensor shall actuate upon the application of a 15 pounds (66.7 N) or less force in the direction...

  18. Flow rates for sharp-edged orifices (United States)

    Groesbeck, W. A.; Manning, F. L.


    Two charts are proposed for calculating the flow coefficient and the area correction factor used in the equation for the flow rate through a sharp-edged orifice. The proposed charts account for variations in the discharge coefficient of sharp-edged orifices and can be used with any pressure ratio for both subcritical and supercritical flow conditions. They can also be used for any gas by using the appropriate gas constant and ratio of specific heats. The application of the charts is illustrated by examples.

  19. Plasma edge modelling with ICRF coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Wei


    Full Text Available The physics of Radio-Frequency (RF wave heating in the Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies (ICRF in the core plasmas of fusion devices are relatively well understood while those in the Scrape-Off Layer (SOL remain still unresolved. This paper is dedicated to study the ICRF interactions with the plasma edge, mainly from the theoretical and numerical point of view, in particular with the 3D edge plasma fluid and neutral transport code EMC3-EIRENE and various wave codes. Here emphasis is given to the improvement of ICRF coupling with local gas puffing and to the ICRF induced density convection in the SOL.

  20. Plasma edge modelling with ICRF coupling (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Coster, David; Feng, Yuhe; Lunt, Tilmann; Aguiam, Diogo; Bilato, Roberto; Bobkov, Volodymyr; Jacquot, Jonathan; Jacquet, Philippe; Lerche, Ernesto; Noterdaeme, Jean-Marie; Tierens, Wouter


    The physics of Radio-Frequency (RF) wave heating in the Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies (ICRF) in the core plasmas of fusion devices are relatively well understood while those in the Scrape-Off Layer (SOL) remain still unresolved. This paper is dedicated to study the ICRF interactions with the plasma edge, mainly from the theoretical and numerical point of view, in particular with the 3D edge plasma fluid and neutral transport code EMC3-EIRENE and various wave codes. Here emphasis is given to the improvement of ICRF coupling with local gas puffing and to the ICRF induced density convection in the SOL.

  1. AliEn - EDG Interoperability in ALICE


    Bagnasco, S.; Barbera, R.; Buncic, P; Carminati, F; Cerello, P.; Saiz, P.


    AliEn (ALICE Environment) is a GRID-like system for large scale job submission and distributed data management developed and used in the context of ALICE, the CERN LHC heavy-ion experiment. With the aim of exploiting upcoming Grid resources to run AliEn-managed jobs and store the produced data, the problem of AliEn-EDG interoperability was addressed and an in-terface was designed. One or more EDG (European Data Grid) User Interface machines run the AliEn software suite (Cluster Monitor, Stora...

  2. EDgE multi-model hydro-meteorological seasonal hindcast experiments over Europe (United States)

    Samaniego, Luis; Thober, Stephan; Kumar, Rohini; Rakovec, Oldrich; Wood, Eric; Sheffield, Justin; Pan, Ming; Wanders, Niko; Prudhomme, Christel


    Extreme hydrometeorological events (e.g., floods, droughts and heat waves) caused serious damage to society and infrastructures over Europe during the past decades. Developing a seamless and skillful operational seasonal forecasting system of these extreme events is therefore a key tool for short-term decision making at local and regional scales. The EDgE project funded by the Copernicus programme (C3S) provides an unique opportunity to investigate the skill of a newly created large multi-model hydro-meteorological ensemble for predicting extreme events over the Pan-EU domain at a higher resolution 5×5 km2. Two state-of-the-art seasonal prediction systems were chosen for this project. Two models from the North American MultiModel ensemble (NMME) with 22 realizations, and two models provided by the ECMWF with 30 realizations. All models provide daily forcings (P, Ta, Tmin, Tmax) of the the Pan-EU at 1°. Downscaling has been carried out with the MTCLIM algorithm (Bohn et al. 2013) and external drift Kriging using elevation as drift to induce orographic effects. In this project, four high-resolution seamless hydrologic simulations with the mHM (, Noah-MP, VIC and PCR-GLOBWB have been completed for the common hindcast period of 1993-2012 resulting in an ensemble size of 208 realizations. Key indicators are focussing on six terrestrial Essential Climate Variables (tECVs): river runoff, soil moisture, groundwater recharge, precipitation, potential evapotranspiration, and snow water equivalent. Impact Indicators have been co-designed with stakeholders in Norway (hydro-power), UK (water supply), and Spain (river basin authority) to provide an improved information for decision making. The Indicators encompass diverse information such as the occurrence of high and low streamflow percentiles (floods, and hydrological drought) and lower percentiles of top soil moisture (agricultural drought) among others. Preliminary results evaluated at study sites in Norway

  3. Edge pixel response studies of edgeless silicon sensor technology for pixellated imaging detectors (United States)

    Maneuski, D.; Bates, R.; Blue, A.; Buttar, C.; Doonan, K.; Eklund, L.; Gimenez, E. N.; Hynds, D.; Kachkanov, S.; Kalliopuska, J.; McMullen, T.; O'Shea, V.; Tartoni, N.; Plackett, R.; Vahanen, S.; Wraight, K.


    Silicon sensor technologies with reduced dead area at the sensor's perimeter are under development at a number of institutes. Several fabrication methods for sensors which are sensitive close to the physical edge of the device are under investigation utilising techniques such as active-edges, passivated edges and current-terminating rings. Such technologies offer the goal of a seamlessly tiled detection surface with minimum dead space between the individual modules. In order to quantify the performance of different geometries and different bulk and implant types, characterisation of several sensors fabricated using active-edge technology were performed at the B16 beam line of the Diamond Light Source. The sensors were fabricated by VTT and bump-bonded to Timepix ROICs. They were 100 and 200 μ m thick sensors, with the last pixel-to-edge distance of either 50 or 100 μ m. The sensors were fabricated as either n-on-n or n-on-p type devices. Using 15 keV monochromatic X-rays with a beam spot of 2.5 μ m, the performance at the outer edge and corners pixels of the sensors was evaluated at three bias voltages. The results indicate a significant change in the charge collection properties between the edge and 5th (up to 275 μ m) from edge pixel for the 200 μ m thick n-on-n sensor. The edge pixel performance of the 100 μ m thick n-on-p sensors is affected only for the last two pixels (up to 110 μ m) subject to biasing conditions. Imaging characteristics of all sensor types investigated are stable over time and the non-uniformities can be minimised by flat-field corrections. The results from the synchrotron tests combined with lab measurements are presented along with an explanation of the observed effects.

  4. Edge control in CNC polishing, paper 2: simulation and validation of tool influence functions on edges. (United States)

    Li, Hongyu; Walker, David; Yu, Guoyu; Sayle, Andrew; Messelink, Wilhelmus; Evans, Rob; Beaucamp, Anthony


    Edge mis-figure is regarded as one of the most difficult technical issues for manufacturing the segments of extremely large telescopes, which can dominate key aspects of performance. A novel edge-control technique has been developed, based on 'Precessions' polishing technique and for which accurate and stable edge tool influence functions (TIFs) are crucial. In the first paper in this series [D. Walker Opt. Express 20, 19787-19798 (2012)], multiple parameters were experimentally optimized using an extended set of experiments. The first purpose of this new work is to 'short circuit' this procedure through modeling. This also gives the prospect of optimizing local (as distinct from global) polishing for edge mis-figure, now under separate development. This paper presents a model that can predict edge TIFs based on surface-speed profiles and pressure distributions over the polishing spot at the edge of the part, the latter calculated by finite element analysis and verified by direct force measurement. This paper also presents a hybrid-measurement method for edge TIFs to verify the simulation results. Experimental and simulation results show good agreement.

  5. Conical shell edge disturbance : An engineer's derivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaauwendraad, J.; Hoefakker, JH


    Because a rigorous bending theory for thin shells of revolution is complicated, attempts have been made for reliable approximations of the edge disturbance problem under axisymmetric loading. A well-known one was published by Geckeler [1, 2], who obtained his approximation by mathematical

  6. Fermi Bubble Edges: Spectrum and Diffusion Function (United States)

    Keshet, Uri; Gurwich, Ilya


    Current measurements of the γ-ray Fermi bubbles (FB) are based on model-dependent tracers, carry substantial systematic uncertainties, and contain some discrepancies between each other. We show that gradient filters pick out the FB edges, which are found to smoothly connect to the bipolar X-ray structure emanating from the Galactic center, thus supporting the interpretation of the FBs as a Galactic-scale phenomenon. The sharp edges facilitate a direct, model-free measurement of the peripheral FB spectrum. The result is strikingly similar to the full FB-integrated spectrum, softened by a power law of index η ≃ (0.2-0.3). This is naturally explained, in both hadronic and leptonic models, if cosmic rays are injected at the edge, and diffuse away preferentially at higher energies E. The inferred, averaged diffusion function in the (more plausible) leptonic model, D{(E)≃ {10}29.5(E/10{GeV})}0.48+/- 0.02 {{cm}}2 {{{s}}}-1, is consistent with estimates for Kraichnan-like turbulence. Our results, in particular the minute spatial variations in η, indicate that the FB edge is a strong, Mach ≳5, forward shock.

  7. Performance of active edge pixel sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Bomben, Marco; Bagolini, Alvise; Boscardin, Maurizio; Bosisio, Luciano; Calderini, Giovanni; D'Eramo, Louis; Giacomini, Gabriele; Marchiori, Giovanni; Zorzi, Nicola; Rummler, Andre; Weingarten, Jens


    this paper the performance of these modules are reported. In particular the lateral extension of the detection volume, beyond the pixel region, is investigated and the results show high hit efficiency also at the detector edge, even in presence of guard rings.

  8. Edge Delamination of Monolayer Transition Metal Dichalcogenides. (United States)

    Ly, Thuc Hue; Yun, Seok Joon; Thi, Quoc Huy; Zhao, Jiong


    Delamination of thin films from the supportive substrates is a critical issue within the thin film industry. The emergent two-dimensional, atomic layered materials, including transition metal dichalcogenides, are highly flexible; thus buckles and wrinkles can be easily generated and play vital roles in the corresponding physical properties. Here we introduce one kind of patterned buckling behavior caused by the delamination from a substrate initiated at the edges of the chemical vapor deposition synthesized monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides, led by thermal expansion mismatch. The atomic force microscopy and optical characterizations clearly showed the puckered structures associated with the strain, whereas the transmission electron microscopy revealed the special sawtooth-shaped edges, which break the geometrical symmetry for the buckling behavior of hexagonal samples. The condition of the edge delamination is in accordance with the fracture behavior of thin film interfaces. This edge delamination and buckling process is universal for most ultrathin two-dimensional materials, which requires more attention in various future applications.

  9. Fetch requirements near a forest edge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breugel, van P.B.; Klaassen, W.; Moors, E.J.


    Measurements on forest-atmosphere exchange should be executed some distance from the forest boundaries to be representative for this forest. In this study the minimum fetch at measuring height is estimated by analysing measurements just above a mixed forest stand near the edge. The objective was to

  10. Edge maps: Representing flow with bounded error

    KAUST Repository

    Bhatia, Harsh


    Robust analysis of vector fields has been established as an important tool for deriving insights from the complex systems these fields model. Many analysis techniques rely on computing streamlines, a task often hampered by numerical instabilities. Approaches that ignore the resulting errors can lead to inconsistencies that may produce unreliable visualizations and ultimately prevent in-depth analysis. We propose a new representation for vector fields on surfaces that replaces numerical integration through triangles with linear maps defined on its boundary. This representation, called edge maps, is equivalent to computing all possible streamlines at a user defined error threshold. In spite of this error, all the streamlines computed using edge maps will be pairwise disjoint. Furthermore, our representation stores the error explicitly, and thus can be used to produce more informative visualizations. Given a piecewise-linear interpolated vector field, a recent result [15] shows that there are only 23 possible map classes for a triangle, permitting a concise description of flow behaviors. This work describes the details of computing edge maps, provides techniques to quantify and refine edge map error, and gives qualitative and visual comparisons to more traditional techniques. © 2011 IEEE.

  11. Reading Edge. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2012


    "Reading Edge" is a middle school literacy program that emphasizes cooperative learning, goal setting, feedback, classroom management techniques, and the use of metacognitive strategy, whereby students assess their own skills and learn to apply new ones. The program is a component of the "Success for All"[superscript 2]…

  12. Plasma oscillations of edge Dirac fermions (United States)

    Volkov, V. A.; Zagorodnev, I. V.


    The dispersion law of one-dimensional plasmons in a quasi-one-dimensional system of massless Dirac fermions has been calculated. Two model two-dimensional systems where bands of edge states filled with such Dirac fermions appear at the edge have been considered. Edge states in the first system, topological insulator, are due to topological reasons. Edge states in the second system, system of massive Dirac fermions, have Tamm origin. It has been shown that the dispersion laws of plasmons in both systems in the long-wavelength limit differ only in the definition of the parameters (velocity and localization depth of Dirac fermions). The frequency of plasmons is formally quantum (ω ∝ ħ -1/2) and, in the case of the Coulomb interaction between electrons, depends slightly on the Fermi level E F. The dependence on E F is stronger in the case of short-range interaction. The quantum features of oscillations of massless one-dimensional Dirac fermions are removed by introducing the mass of Dirac fermions at the Fermi level and their density. Correspondence to the dispersion law of classical one-dimensional plasma oscillations in a narrow stripe of "Schrödinger" electrons has been revealed.

  13. Superconducting Metallic Glass Transition-Edge-Sensors (United States)

    Hays, Charles C. (Inventor)


    A superconducting metallic glass transition-edge sensor (MGTES) and a method for fabricating the MGTES are provided. A single-layer superconducting amorphous metal alloy is deposited on a substrate. The single-layer superconducting amorphous metal alloy is an absorber for the MGTES and is electrically connected to a circuit configured for readout and biasing to sense electromagnetic radiation.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presented a modified edge fed Sierpinski carpet microstrip patch antenna for antenna miniaturization. The proposed design was etched as Sierpinski carpet to lower the antenna resonant frequency, which is used to reduce the conventional patch antenna size. After the Sierpinski carpet second iteration, the ...

  15. On A Graph Formalism for Ordered Edges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Mol, M.J.; Rensink, Arend; Küster, J.; Tuosto, E.


    Though graphs are flexible enough to model any kind of data structure in principle, for some structures this results in a rather large overhead. This is for instance true for lists, i.e., edges that are meant to point to an ordered collection of nodes. Such structures are frequently encountered, for

  16. Leading-Edge Vortex lifts swifts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Videler, JJ; Stamhuis, EJ; Povel, GDE


    The current understanding of how birds fly must be revised, because birds use their hand-wings in an unconventional way to generate lift and drag. Physical models of a common swift wing in gliding posture with a 60degrees sweep of the sharp hand-wing leading edge were tested in a water tunnel.

  17. Acoustic streaming of a sharp edge. (United States)

    Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Zhou, Jianbo; Yalamanchili, Satish


    Anomalous acoustic streaming is observed emanating from sharp edges of solid bodies that are vibrating in fluids. The streaming velocities can be orders of magnitude higher than expected from the Rayleigh streaming at similar amplitudes of vibration. Acoustic velocity of fluid relative to a solid body diverges at a sharp edge, giving rise to a localized time-independent body force acting on the fluid. This force results in a formation of a localized jet. Two-dimensional numerical simulations are performed to predict acoustic streaming for low amplitude vibration using two methods: (1) Steady-state solution utilizing perturbation theory and (2) direct transient solution of the Navier-Stokes equations. Both analyses agree with each other and correctly predict the streaming of a sharp-edged vibrating blade measured experimentally. The origin of the streaming can be attributed to the centrifugal force of the acoustic fluid flow around a sharp edge. The dependence of this acoustic streaming on frequency and velocity is examined using dimensional analysis. The dependence law is devised and confirmed by numerical simulations.

  18. On dust in tokamak edge plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krasheninnikov, S.I. [Jacobs School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California at San Diego, Engineering Building II, room 474, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0411 (United States)]. E-mail:; Soboleva, T.K. [UNAM, Mexico, DF (Mexico); Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Tomita, Y. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Smirnov, R.D. [Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Janev, R.K. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan)


    We study the dust particle dynamics in tokamak edge plasmas, with special emphasis on dust particle transport in the sheath and plasma recycling regions. The characteristics of this transport have been examined for both smooth and corrugated wall surfaces. The implications of dust particle transport in the divertor region on the core plasma contamination with impurities have also been examined.

  19. Shaping the edges using flowdrill technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Matysiak


    Full Text Available In this paper, was presented the results of experimental studies of the edgetrimming process obtained using technology Flowdrill, shows distributions of thickness and height of recurving edging and its microhardness made of aluminum, mild steel and stainless steel.

  20. Hypersonic Engine Leading Edge Experiments in a High Heat Flux, Supersonic Flow Environment (United States)

    Gladden, Herbert J.; Melis, Matthew E.


    A major concern in advancing the state-of-the-art technologies for hypersonic vehicles is the development of an aeropropulsion system capable of withstanding the sustained high thermal loads expected during hypersonic flight. Three aerothermal load related concerns are the boundary layer transition from laminar to turbulent flow, articulating panel seals in high temperature environments, and strut (or cowl) leading edges with shock-on-shock interactions. A multidisciplinary approach is required to address these technical concerns. A hydrogen/oxygen rocket engine heat source has been developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center as one element in a series of facilities at national laboratories designed to experimentally evaluate the heat transfer and structural response of the strut (or cowl) leading edge. A recent experimental program conducted in this facility is discussed and related to cooling technology capability. The specific objective of the experiment discussed is to evaluate the erosion and oxidation characteristics of a coating on a cowl leading edge (or strut leading edge) in a supersonic, high heat flux environment. Heat transfer analyses of a similar leading edge concept cooled with gaseous hydrogen is included to demonstrate the complexity of the problem resulting from plastic deformation of the structures. Macro-photographic data from a coated leading edge model show progressive degradation over several thermal cycles at aerothermal conditions representative of high Mach number flight.

  1. Primary control of a Mach scale swashplateless rotor using brushless DC motor actuated trailing edge flaps (United States)

    Saxena, Anand

    The focus of this research was to demonstrate a four blade rotor trim in forward flight using integrated trailing edge flaps instead of using a swashplate controls. A compact brushless DC motor was evaluated as an on-blade actuator, with the possibility of achieving large trailing edge flap amplitudes. A control strategy to actuate the trailing edge flap at desired frequency and amplitude was developed and large trailing edge flap amplitudes from the motor (instead of rotational motion) were obtained. Once the actuator was tested on the bench-top, a lightweight mechanism was designed to incorporate the motor in the blade and actuate the trailing edge flaps. A six feet diameter, four bladed composite rotor with motor-flap system integrated into the NACA 0012 airfoil section was fabricated. Systematic testing was carried out for a range of load conditions, first in the vacuum chamber followed by hover tests. Large trailing edge flap deflections were observed during the hover testing, and a peak to peak trailing edge flap amplitude of 18 degree was achieved at 2000 rotor RPM with hover tip Mach number of 0.628. A closed loop controller was designed to demonstrate trailing edge flap mean position and the peak to peak amplitude control. Further, a soft pitch link was designed and fabricated, to replace the stiff pitch link and thereby reduce the torsional stiffness of the blade to 2/rev. This soft pitch link allowed for blade root pitch motion in response to the trailing edge flap inputs. Blade pitch response due to both steady as well as sinusoidal flap deflections were demonstrated. Finally, tests were performed in Glenn L. Martin wind tunnel using a model rotor rig to assess the performance of motor-flap system in forward flight. A swashplateless trim using brushless DC motor actuated trailing edge flaps was achieved for a rotor operating at 1200 RPM and an advance ratio of 0.28. Also, preliminary exploration was carried out to test the scalability of the motor

  2. Biomechanical study on the edge shapes for penetrating keratoplasty. (United States)

    Lee, Heow Pueh; Zhuang, Han


    A parametric study to investigate the compressive and the shear stress distributions for various edge shapes created during penetrating keratoplasty (PK) using femtosecond laser is reported. The finite element analysis has been implemented using ABAQUS to study the cornea with various edge shapes, namely the standard edge shape, the zigzag edge shape, the top hat edge shape and the mushroom edge shape for PK. The ratio of maximum compressive stress to maximum shear stress is used as the main factor to assess the relative merits of wound healing rate for different edge shapes. For the typical values of tissue mechanical properties, the zigzag edge shape has the highest ratio of maximum compressive stress to maximum shear stress (11.1 in the xy-direction and 3.7 in the yz-direction), followed by the mushroom edge shape (7.7 in the xy-direction and 3.2 in the yz-direction). The ratios for the top hat and the standard edge shapes are even lower in both directions. A sensitivity analysis of the model has been done to demonstrate that the zigzag edge shape always results in the highest ratios of stresses regardless of the difference in the tissue mechanical properties. The zigzag edge shape also gives the lowest dioptric power D = 45.4. The present results imply that the zigzag edge shape provides the best wound healing rate and optical outcome among the four edge shapes models for PK.

  3. Defects' geometric feature recognition based on infrared image edge detection (United States)

    Junyan, Liu; Qingju, Tang; Yang, Wang; Yumei, Lu; Zhiping, Zhang


    Edge detection is an important technology in image segmentation, feature extraction and other digital image processing areas. Boundary contains a wealth of information in the image, so to extract defects' edges in infrared images effectively enables the identification of defects' geometric features. This paper analyzed the detection effect of classic edge detection operators, and proposed fuzzy C-means (FCM) clustering-Canny operator algorithm to achieve defects' edges in the infrared images. Results show that the proposed algorithm has better effect than the classic edge detection operators, which can identify the defects' geometric feature much more completely and clearly. The defects' diameters have been calculated based on the image edge detection results.

  4. Edge-detect interpolation for direct digital periapical images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Nam Kyu; Koh, Kwang Joon [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Chonbuk National University, Chonju (Korea, Republic of)


    The purpose of this study was to aid in the use of the digital images by edge-detect interpolation for direct digital periapical images using edge-deted interpolation. This study was performed by image processing of 20 digital periapical images; pixel replication, linear non-interpolation, linear interpolation, and edge-sensitive interpolation. The obtained results were as follows: 1. Pixel replication showed blocking artifact and serious image distortion. 2. Linear interpolation showed smoothing effect on the edge. 3. Edge-sensitive interpolation overcame the smoothing effect on the edge and showed better image.

  5. Independent component analysis of edge information for face recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Karande, Kailash Jagannath


    The book presents research work on face recognition using edge information as features for face recognition with ICA algorithms. The independent components are extracted from edge information. These independent components are used with classifiers to match the facial images for recognition purpose. In their study, authors have explored Canny and LOG edge detectors as standard edge detection methods. Oriented Laplacian of Gaussian (OLOG) method is explored to extract the edge information with different orientations of Laplacian pyramid. Multiscale wavelet model for edge detection is also propos

  6. Observation of carbon impurity flow in the edge stochastic magnetic field layer of Large Helical Device and its impact on the edge impurity control (United States)

    Oishi, T.; Morita, S.; Dai, S. Y.; Kobayashi, M.; Kawamura, G.; Huang, X. L.; Zhang, H. M.; Liu, Y.; Goto, M.; the LHD Experiment Group


    The parallel flow of carbon impurity in a thick stochastic magnetic field layer called the ‘ergodic layer’ located at the edge plasma of the Large Helical Device (LHD) is studied by space-resolved vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectroscopy, using a 3 m normal incidence spectrometer. A full vertical profile of C3+ impurity flow is evaluated from the Doppler shift of the second order of CIV line emission (2  ×  1548.20 Å) at a horizontally-elongated plasma position of LHD. The carbon flow at the top and bottom edges in the ergodic layer has the same direction toward the outboard side along the major radius direction. The observed flow quantitatively agrees with the simulation results calculated with a 3D simulation code, EMC3-EIRENE. It experimentally verifies the validity of edge parallel flow driving the impurity screening.

  7. CO2 fluxes near a forest edge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sogachev, Andrey; Leclerc, Monique Y.; Zhang, Gensheng


    In contrast with recent advances on the dynamics of the flow at a forest edge, few studies have considered its role on scalar transport and, in particular, on CO2 transfer. The present study addresses the influence of the abrupt roughness change on forest atmosphere CO2 exchange and contrasts...... the concentration and flux fields against those of a uniform forested surface. We use an atmospheric boundary layer two-equation closure model that accounts for the flow dynamics and vertical divergence of CO2 sources/sinks within a plant canopy. This paper characterizes the spatial variation of CO2 fluxes...... as a function of both sources/sinks distribution and the vertical structure of the canopy. Results suggest that the ground source plays a major role in the formation of wave-like vertical CO2 flux behavior downwind of a forest edge, despite the fact that the contribution of foliage sources/sinks changes...

  8. Edges of Saturn's rings are fractal. (United States)

    Li, Jun; Ostoja-Starzewski, Martin


    The images recently sent by the Cassini spacecraft mission (on the NASA website show the complex and beautiful rings of Saturn. Over the past few decades, various conjectures were advanced that Saturn's rings are Cantor-like sets, although no convincing fractal analysis of actual images has ever appeared. Here we focus on four images sent by the Cassini spacecraft mission (slide #42 "Mapping Clumps in Saturn's Rings", slide #54 "Scattered Sunshine", slide #66 taken two weeks before the planet's Augus't 200'9 equinox, and slide #68 showing edge waves raised by Daphnis on the Keeler Gap) and one image from the Voyager 2' mission in 1981. Using three box-counting methods, we determine the fractal dimension of edges of rings seen here to be consistently about 1.63 ~ 1.78. This clarifies in what sense Saturn's rings are fractal.

  9. Scattering of waves by axisymmetrical edge (United States)

    Kaloshin, V. A.; Popov, A. P.


    A method of physical theory of diffraction (PTD) in an axisymmetric problem is used to obtain the first two terms of the uniform asymptotics of the radiation pattern of an edge wave with respect to inverse semiinteger powers of the wavenumber expressed through a two-term uniform asymptotics of the corresponding two-dimensional problem. As examples, calculations are made of: (1) the uniform asymptotics of the correction refining the Kirchhoff approximation for the radiation pattern of an axisymmetric reflector antenna; and (2) the asymptotics of the radiation pattern of symmetric modes from the open end of a circular flanged waveguide. An improvement of the PTD method is proposed for calculating the second term of the uniform asymptotics of an edge wave with respect to inverse powers of the wavenumber; the example of the diffraction of a toroidal wave by a bicone is considered.

  10. Quantum nature of edge magnetism in graphene. (United States)

    Golor, Michael; Wessel, Stefan; Schmidt, Manuel J


    It is argued that the subtle crossover from decoherence-dominated classical magnetism to fluctuation-dominated quantum magnetism is experimentally accessible in graphene nanoribbons. We show that the width of a nanoribbon determines whether the edge magnetism is on the classical side, on the quantum side, or in between. In the classical regime, decoherence is dominant and leads to static spin polarizations at the ribbon edges, which are well described by mean-field theories. The quantum Zeno effect is identified as the basic mechanism which is responsible for the spin polarization and thereby enables the application of graphene in spintronics. On the quantum side, however, the spin polarization is destroyed by dynamical processes. The great tunability of graphene magnetism thus offers a viable route for the study of the quantum-classical crossover.

  11. A Review of Classic Edge Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haldo Spontón


    Full Text Available In this paper some of the classic alternatives for edge detection in digital images are studied. The main idea behind edge detection is to find where abrupt changes in the intensity of an image have occurred. The first family of algorithms reviewed in this work uses the first derivative to find the changes of intensity, such as Sobel, Prewitt and Roberts. In the second reviewed family it is used second derivative, for example in algorithms like Marr-Hildreth and Haralick. Results obtained from a qualitative point of view (perceptual and from a quantitative point of view (number of operations, execution time are compared, considering different ways to convolve an image with a kernel (step required in some of the algorithms.

  12. Design and evaluation of a kitchen for persons with visual impairments. (United States)

    Kutintara, Benjamas; Somboon, Pornpun; Buasri, Virajada; Srettananurak, Metinee; Jedeeyod, Piyanooch; Pornpratoom, Kittikan; Iam-cham, Veraya


    Visually impaired people need skills on daily living, such as cooking, and Ratchasuda College offers independent living training for them. In order to fulfill their needs, a suitable kitchen should be designed with the consideration of their limitations. The objective of this study was to design and evaluate a kitchen for persons with visual impairments. Before designing the kitchen, interviews and an observation were carried out to obtain information on the needs of blind and low vision persons. Consequently, a kitchen model was developed, and it was evaluated by 10 persons with visual impairments. After the design improvement, the kitchen was built and has been routinely used for training persons with visual impairments to prepare meals. Finally, a post-occupancy evaluation of the kitchen was conducted by observing and interviewing both trainers and those with visual impairments during the food preparation training. The results of the study indicated that kitchens for persons with visual impairments should have safety and usability features. The results of the post-occupancy evaluation showed that those who attended cooking courses were able to cook safely in the kitchen. However, the kitchen still had limitations in some features.

  13. The stochastic edge in adaptive evolution


    Brunet, Éric; Rouzine, Igor M.; Wilke, Claus O


    In a recent article, Desai and Fisher (2007) proposed that the speed of adaptation in an asexual population is determined by the dynamics of the stochastic edge of the population, that is, by the emergence and subsequent establishment of rare mutants that exceed the fitness of all sequences currently present in the population. Desai and Fisher perform an elaborate stochastic calculation of the mean time $\\tau$ until a new class of mutants has been established, and interpret $1/\\tau$ as the sp...

  14. Edge-disjoint Hamiltonian cycles in hypertournaments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Carsten


    We introduce a method for reducing k-tournament problems, for k >= 3, to ordinary tournaments, that is, 2-tournaments. It is applied to show that a k-tournament on n >= k + 1 + 24d vertices (when k >= 4) or on n >= 30d + 2 vertices (when k = 3) has d edge-disjoint Hamiltonian cycles if and only i......) 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc....

  15. Edge-on View of Saturn's Rings (United States)


    TOP - This is a NASA Hubble Space Telescope snapshot of Saturn with its rings barely visible. Normally, astronomers see Saturn with its rings tilted. Earth was almost in the plane of Saturn's rings, thus the rings appear edge-on.In this view, Saturn's largest moon, Titan, is casting a shadow on Saturn. Titan's atmosphere is a dark brown haze. The other moons appear white because of their bright, icy surfaces. Four moons - from left to right, Mimas, Tethys, Janus, and Enceladus - are clustered around the edge of Saturn's rings on the right. Two other moons appear in front of the ring plane. Prometheus is on the right edge; Pandora, on the left. The rings also are casting a shadow on Saturn because the Sun was above the ring plane.BOTTOM - This photograph shows Saturn with its rings slightly tilted. The moon called Dione, on the lower right, is casting a long, thin shadow across the whole ring system due to the setting Sun on the ring plane. The moon on the upper left of Saturn is Tethys.Astronomers also are studying the unusual appearance of Saturn's rings. The bottom image displays a faint, narrow ring, the F-ring just outside the main ring, which normally is invisible from Earth. Close to the edge of Saturn's disk, the front section of rings seem brighter and more yellow than the back due to the additional lumination by yellowish Saturn.The color images were assembled from separate exposures taken August 6 (top) and November 17 (bottom), 1995 with the Wide Field Planetary Camera-2.The Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 was developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and managed by the Goddard Spaced Flight Center for NASA's Office of Space Science.This image and other images and data received from the Hubble Space Telescope are posted on the World Wide Web on the Space Telescope Science Institute home page at URL

  16. Edge Effects in Finite Elongated Graphene Nanoribbons


    Hod, Oded; Peralta, Juan E.; Scuseria, Gustavo E.


    We analyze the relevance of finite-size effects to the electronic structure of long graphene nanoribbons using a divide and conquer density functional approach. We find that for hydrogen terminated graphene nanoribbons most of the physical features appearing in the density of states of an infinite graphene nanoribbon are recovered at a length of 40 nm. Nevertheless, even for the longest systems considered (72 nm long) pronounced edge effects appear in the vicinity of the Fermi energy. The wei...

  17. Determining the Gaussian Modulus and Edge Properties of 2D Materials: From Graphene to Lipid Bilayers (United States)

    Zelisko, Matthew; Ahmadpoor, Fatemeh; Gao, Huajian; Sharma, Pradeep


    The dominant deformation behavior of two-dimensional materials (bending) is primarily governed by just two parameters: bending rigidity and the Gaussian modulus. These properties also set the energy scale for various important physical and biological processes such as pore formation, cell fission and generally, any event accompanied by a topological change. Unlike the bending rigidity, the Gaussian modulus is, however, notoriously difficult to evaluate via either experiments or atomistic simulations. In this Letter, recognizing that the Gaussian modulus and edge tension play a nontrivial role in the fluctuations of a 2D material edge, we derive closed-form expressions for edge fluctuations. Combined with atomistic simulations, we use the developed approach to extract the Gaussian modulus and edge tension at finite temperatures for both graphene and various types of lipid bilayers. Our results possibly provide the first reliable estimate of this elusive property at finite temperatures and appear to suggest that earlier estimates must be revised. In particular, we show that, if previously estimated properties are employed, the graphene-free edge will exhibit unstable behavior at room temperature. Remarkably, in the case of graphene, we show that the Gaussian modulus and edge tension even change sign at finite temperatures.

  18. Origin of 6-fold coordinated aluminum at (010-type pyrophyllite edges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Okumura


    Full Text Available To better understand the aqueous chemical reactivity of clay mineral edges we explored the relationships between hydration and the structure of (010-type edges of pyrophyllite. In particular, we used density functional theory and the quantum theory of atoms in molecules to evaluate the stability of 6-fold coordinated hydrated aluminum at the edge in terms of the electron density distribution. Geometrical optimization revealed an intra-edge hydrogen bond network between aluminol hydroxyls and water ligands completing the aluminum coordination shell. From the electron density isosurfaces one water ligand is not covalently bonded to aluminum. Bader charge analysis revealed that OH2 ligands have small negative charge. In addition, it is also found that the charge of the 6-fold coordinated aluminum is larger than one of the 5-fold aluminum. From these results, the charging of the OH2 ligands is interpreted as charge transfer originated from the formation of the hydrogen bond network and not from Al-OH2 interaction per se. This suggests that the weakly bound water ligand in question, and more generally 6-fold hydrated edge Al coordination, is stabilized primarily by the hydrogen bond network which in turn leads to weak ionic attraction to the aluminum center itself. The finding highlights the importance of cooperative effects between solvent structure and the coordination of metal cations exposed at clay mineral edges.

  19. Intelligent identification of remnant ridge edges in region west of Yongxing Island, South China Sea (United States)

    Wang, Weiwei; Guo, Jing; Cai, Guanqiang; Wang, Dawei


    Edge detection enables identification of geomorphologic unit boundaries and thus assists with geomorphical mapping. In this paper, an intelligent edge identification method is proposed and image processing techniques are applied to multi-beam bathymetry data. To accomplish this, a color image is generated by the bathymetry, and a weighted method is used to convert the color image to a gray image. As the quality of the image has a significant influence on edge detection, different filter methods are applied to the gray image for de-noising. The peak signal-to-noise ratio and mean square error are calculated to evaluate which filter method is most appropriate for depth image filtering and the edge is subsequently detected using an image binarization method. Traditional image binarization methods cannot manage the complicated uneven seafloor, and therefore a binarization method is proposed that is based on the difference between image pixel values; the appropriate threshold for image binarization is estimated according to the probability distribution of pixel value differences between two adjacent pixels in horizontal and vertical directions, respectively. Finally, an eight-neighborhood frame is adopted to thin the binary image, connect the intermittent edge, and implement contour extraction. Experimental results show that the method described here can recognize the main boundaries of geomorphologic units. In addition, the proposed automatic edge identification method avoids use of subjective judgment, and reduces time and labor costs.

  20. Emergent properties of patch shapes affect edge permeability to animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilis O Nams

    Full Text Available Animal travel between habitat patches affects populations, communities and ecosystems. There are three levels of organization of edge properties, and each of these can affect animals. At the lowest level are the different habitats on each side of an edge, then there is the edge itself, and finally, at the highest level of organization, is the geometry or structure of the edge. This study used computer simulations to (1 find out whether effects of edge shapes on animal behavior can arise as emergent properties solely due to reactions to edges in general, without the animals reacting to the shapes of the edges, and to (2 generate predictions to allow field and experimental studies to test mechanisms of edge shape response. Individual animals were modeled traveling inside a habitat patch that had different kinds of edge shapes (convex, concave and straight. When animals responded edges of patches, this created an emergent property of responding to the shape of the edge. The response was mostly to absolute width of the shapes, and not the narrowness of them. When animals were attracted to edges, then they tended to collect in convexities and disperse from concavities, and the opposite happened when animals avoided edges. Most of the responses occurred within a distance of 40% of the perceptual range from the tip of the shapes. Predictions were produced for directionality at various locations and combinations of treatments, to be used for testing edge behavior mechanisms. These results suggest that edge shapes tend to either concentrate or disperse animals, simply because the animals are either attracted to or avoid edges, with an effect as great as 3 times the normal density. Thus edge shape could affect processes like pollination, seed predation and dispersal and predator abundance.

  1. Cooled gas turbine blade edge flow analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendonca, Marcio Teixeira de [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, Divisao de Engenharia Mecanica Aeronautica ITA/IEM, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)], e-mail:


    The flow on the rotating blades of a turbine is unsteady due to the wake of the stator blade row upstream. This unsteadiness is a source of losses and complex flow structures on the rotor blade due to the variation on the turbulence levels and location of the boundary layer laminar to turbulent transition. Convective cooled blades often time have cooling air ejected at the trailing edge right at the blade wake. The present investigation presents an analysis of a canonical flow consistent with the flow topology found at the trailing edge of a gas turbine blade with coolant ejection. A hydrodynamic stability analysis is performed for the combined wake and jet velocity profiles given by a gaussian distribution representing the turbulent rms wake and a laminar jet superposed. The growth rate of any instability found on the flow is an indication of faster mixing, resulting in a reduction on the wake velocity defect and consequently on the complexity associated with it. The results show that increasing the Mach number or the three-dimensionality of the disturbances result in a reduction of the amplification rate. When the flow at the trailing edge is modified by a jet, the amplification rates are lower, but the range of unstable stream wise wavenumbers is larger. (author)

  2. The edge plasma and divertor in TIBER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barr, W.L.


    An open divertor configuration has been adopted for TIBER. Most recent designs, including DIII-D, NET and CIT use open configurations and rely on a dense edge plasma to shield the plasma from the gas produced at the neutralizer plate. Experiments on ASDEX, PDX, D-III, and recently on DIII-D have shown that a dense edge plasma can be produced by re-ionizing most of the gas produced at the plate. This high recycling mode allows a large flux of particles to carry the heat to the plate, so that the mean energy per particle can be low. Erosion of the plate can be greatly reduced if the average impact energy of the ions at the plate can be reduced to near or below the threshold for sputtering of the plate material. The present configuration allows part of the flux of edge plasma ions to be neutralized at the entrance to the pumping duct so that helium is pumped as well as hydrogen. 7 refs., 3 figs.

  3. Urbanization impacts on mammals across urban-forest edges and a predictive model of edge effects. (United States)

    Villaseñor, Nélida R; Driscoll, Don A; Escobar, Martín A H; Gibbons, Philip; Lindenmayer, David B


    With accelerating rates of urbanization worldwide, a better understanding of ecological processes at the wildland-urban interface is critical to conserve biodiversity. We explored the effects of high and low-density housing developments on forest-dwelling mammals. Based on habitat characteristics, we expected a gradual decline in species abundance across forest-urban edges and an increased decline rate in higher contrast edges. We surveyed arboreal mammals in sites of high and low housing density along 600 m transects that spanned urban areas and areas turn on adjacent native forest. We also surveyed forest controls to test whether edge effects extended beyond our edge transects. We fitted models describing richness, total abundance and individual species abundance. Low-density housing developments provided suitable habitat for most arboreal mammals. In contrast, high-density housing developments had lower species richness, total abundance and individual species abundance, but supported the highest abundances of an urban adapter (Trichosurus vulpecula). We did not find the predicted gradual decline in species abundance. Of four species analysed, three exhibited no response to the proximity of urban boundaries, but spilled over into adjacent urban habitat to differing extents. One species (Petaurus australis) had an extended negative response to urban boundaries, suggesting that urban development has impacts beyond 300 m into adjacent forest. Our empirical work demonstrates that high-density housing developments have negative effects on both community and species level responses, except for one urban adapter. We developed a new predictive model of edge effects based on our results and the literature. To predict animal responses across edges, our framework integrates for first time: (1) habitat quality/preference, (2) species response with the proximity to the adjacent habitat, and (3) spillover extent/sensitivity to adjacent habitat boundaries. This framework will

  4. Urbanization impacts on mammals across urban-forest edges and a predictive model of edge effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nélida R Villaseñor

    Full Text Available With accelerating rates of urbanization worldwide, a better understanding of ecological processes at the wildland-urban interface is critical to conserve biodiversity. We explored the effects of high and low-density housing developments on forest-dwelling mammals. Based on habitat characteristics, we expected a gradual decline in species abundance across forest-urban edges and an increased decline rate in higher contrast edges. We surveyed arboreal mammals in sites of high and low housing density along 600 m transects that spanned urban areas and areas turn on adjacent native forest. We also surveyed forest controls to test whether edge effects extended beyond our edge transects. We fitted models describing richness, total abundance and individual species abundance. Low-density housing developments provided suitable habitat for most arboreal mammals. In contrast, high-density housing developments had lower species richness, total abundance and individual species abundance, but supported the highest abundances of an urban adapter (Trichosurus vulpecula. We did not find the predicted gradual decline in species abundance. Of four species analysed, three exhibited no response to the proximity of urban boundaries, but spilled over into adjacent urban habitat to differing extents. One species (Petaurus australis had an extended negative response to urban boundaries, suggesting that urban development has impacts beyond 300 m into adjacent forest. Our empirical work demonstrates that high-density housing developments have negative effects on both community and species level responses, except for one urban adapter. We developed a new predictive model of edge effects based on our results and the literature. To predict animal responses across edges, our framework integrates for first time: (1 habitat quality/preference, (2 species response with the proximity to the adjacent habitat, and (3 spillover extent/sensitivity to adjacent habitat boundaries. This

  5. The use of edge habitats by commuting and foraging bats


    Verboom, B.


    Travelling routes and foraging areas of many bat species are mainly along edge habitats, such as treelines, hedgerows, forest edges, and canal banks. This thesis deals with the effects of density, configuration, and structural features of edge habitats on the occurrence of bats. Four hypothetical functions of edge habitats for bats were studied: foraging areas, shelter from wind, shelter from avian predators, and acoustical landmarks.

    Both wind and food abundance we...

  6. Canopy gap edge determination and the importance of gap edges for plant diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Salvador-Van Eysenrode


    Full Text Available Canopy gaps, i.e. openings in the forest cover caused by the fall of structural elements, are considered to be important for the maintenance of diversity and for the forest cycle. A gap can be considered as a young forest patch in the forest matrix, composed of interior surrounded by an edge, both enclosed by a perimeter. Much of the attention has been focused on the gap interior. However, at gap edges the spectrum of regeneration opportunities for plants may be larger than in the interior. Although definitions of gap are still discussed, any definition can describe it in an acceptable way, if justified, but defining edges is complicated and appropriate descriptors should be used. A method to determine gap interior and edge, using light as a descriptor, is presented with an example of gaps from a beech forest (Fagus sylvatica in Belgium. Also, the relevance and implications of gap edges for plant diversity and calculation of forest turnover is discussed.

  7. Atomic scale structures of interfaces between kaolinite edges and water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, X.; Lu, X.; Wang, R.; Meijer, E.J.; Zhou, H.; He, H.


    This paper reports the atomic scale structures of kaolinite edge surfaces in contact with water. The commonly occurring edge surfaces are investigated (i.e. (0 1 0) and (1 1 0)) by using first principles molecular dynamics (FPMD) technique. For (1 1 0)-type edge surface, there are two different

  8. The use of edge habitats by commuting and foraging bats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verboom, B.


    Travelling routes and foraging areas of many bat species are mainly along edge habitats, such as treelines, hedgerows, forest edges, and canal banks. This thesis deals with the effects of density, configuration, and structural features of edge habitats on the occurrence of bats. Four

  9. Roads as edges: Effects on birds in forested landscapes (United States)

    Yvette K. Ortega; David E. Capen


    Numerous studies have documented that forest edges affect habitat use and reproductive success of forest birds, but few studies have considered edges created by narrow breaks in the forest canopy. We compared predation rates on artificial nests placed within forest habitat along edge transects, 10 m from unpaved roads, and along interior transects, 300 m from forest-...

  10. The effect of defocus on edge contrast sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansonius, NM; Kooijman, AC

    The effect of optical blur (defocus) on edge contrast sensitivity was studied. Edge contrast sensitivity detoriates with fairly small amounts of blur (similar to 0.5 D) and is roughly reduced by half for each dioptre of blur. The effect of blur on edge contrast sensitivity equals the effect of blur

  11. Edge-based correlation image registration for multispectral imaging (United States)

    Nandy, Prabal [Albuquerque, NM


    Registration information for images of a common target obtained from a plurality of different spectral bands can be obtained by combining edge detection and phase correlation. The images are edge-filtered, and pairs of the edge-filtered images are then phase correlated to produce phase correlation images. The registration information can be determined based on these phase correlation images.

  12. Seed removal of Dipteryx alata Vog. (Leguminosae: Faboidae) in the edge and interior of Cerrado. (United States)

    Ragusa-Netto, J


    Post-dispersal seed agents of mortality include pathogens, invertebrates, and vertebrates, which may shape tropical tree populations and communities. In this study I experimentally evaluated Dipteryx alata endocarp removal both in the interior and edge of Cerrado vegetation. Specifically, I simulated primary dispersion of endocarps by bats and evaluated secondary removal intensity according to habitat, season, and endocarp number. This study was developed in the Pombo Natural Municipal Park, a large Cerrado remnant with an area of 9,000 ha, located in the Western Brazil. In each of the two habitat types, I set down 45 points in which D. alata piles of 1, 3, 7, 15, and 40 endocarps were positioned. On average, endocarp removal in the interior was higher than in the edge, so that the intensity of removal varied from positive density-dependent (interior: rains), to negative density-dependent (edge: both seasons). Also, at both habitat types and seasons non removed endocarps were intensely attacked by fungus. Indeed, seed mortality by fungus infestation was positive density-dependent. The results indicate high propensity of endocarps to escape from removal in the edge, in principle, a defaunated area. As Dipteryx species strongly rely on caviomorph rodents for their dispersal, the scarcity of these vectors might reduce recruitment chances of D. alata in remnants of Cerrado. This imply in future changes in the vegetation structure from the edge to the interior towards low tree diversity.

  13. Line edge roughness measurement technique for fingerprint pattern in block copolymer thin film (United States)

    Isawa, Miki; Sakai, Kei; Rincon Delgadillo, Paulina A.; Gronheid, Roel; Yoshida, Hiroshi


    Fingerprint edge roughness (FER) is proposed to characterize high frequency roughness of fingerprint pattern edges assembled by lamella forming block copolymer (BCP). The FER is a roughness index which does not include the roughness component of the fingerprint curvature. A technique to evaluate FER by using CD-SEM is also proposed. Centerline of the fingerprint patterns were extracted by utilizing binarization and slimming algorithm, and line width, line width roughness and line edge roughness along the centerline were measured. The FER thus measured showed a good agreement with those determined by utilizing conventional line edge roughness analyzing algorithm. The FERs of fingerprint patterns assembled with various BCP formulations were analyzed. As a result, the proposed technique successfully detected the line edge roughness difference between each BCP formulations with different compositions. The results indicate that the FER might be a useful index to evaluate the patterning performance of BCP as a material for DSA process. The proposed technique will provide a method for fast and easy development of BCP materials and processes


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Febri Liantoni


    Full Text Available Ant Colony Optimization (ACO is a nature-inspired optimization algorithm which is motivated by ants foraging behavior. Due to its favorable advantages, ACO has been widely used to solve several NP-hard problems, including edge detection. Since ACO initially distributes ants at random, it may cause imbalance ant distribution which later affects path discovery process. In this paper an adaptive ACO is proposed to optimize edge detection by adaptively distributing ant according to gradient analysis. Ants are adaptively distributed according to gradient ratio of each image regions. Region which has bigger gradient ratio, will have bigger number of ant distribution. Experiments are conducted using images from various datasets. Precision and recall are used to quantitatively evaluate performance of the proposed algorithm. Precision and recall of adaptive ACO reaches 76.98 % and 96.8 %. Whereas highest precision and recall for standard ACO are 69.74 % and 74.85 %. Experimental results show that the adaptive ACO outperforms standard ACO which randomly distributes ants.

  15. Assessing the state of the art in edge detection: 1992 (United States)

    Boyer, Kim L.; Sarkar, S.


    Hoping the reader will not find the title overly pompous, we offer a brief and decidedly informal view of the state of the edge detection art, as we see it, in early 1992. We make no claim to clairvoyance, nor even to being especially insightful. But we have looked over the recent literature and made some attempt to evaluate where we are as a community with respect to this most ubiquitous problem and where we should be headed. We also briefly summarize the work of this session and our own recent contributions to compare the spectrum of philosophies represented to the community at large. This paper should be taken in the spirit in which it was written, which is to say not too seriously. Our aim is by no means frivolous, but we did try to have a little fun while dabbling as futurists. The ultimate goal of this paper is to stimulate some interesting interchange not so much on the `how to' of edge detection as on the `what next.'

  16. Experimental testing of spanwise morphing trailing edge concept (United States)

    Pankonien, Alexander; Inman, Daniel J.


    Aircraft wings with smooth, hinge-less morphing ailerons exhibit increased chordwise aerodynamic efficiency over conventional hinged ailerons. Ideally, the wing would also use these morphing ailerons to smoothly vary its airfoil shape between spanwise stations to optimize the lift distribution and further increase aerodynamic efficiency. However, the mechanical complexity or added weight of achieving such a design has traditionally exceeded the potential aerodynamic gains. By expanding upon the previously developed cascading bimorph concept, this work uses embedded Macro-Fiber Composites and a flexure box mechanism, created using multi-material 3D printing, to achieve the Spanwise Morphing Trailing Edge (SMTE) concept. The morphing actuators are spaced spanwise along the wing with an elastomer spanning the gaps between them, which allows for optimization of the spanwise lift distribution while maintaining the continuity and efficiency of the morphing trailing edge. The concept is implemented in a representative section of a UAV wing with a 305 mm chord. A novel honeycomb skin is created from an elastomeric material using a 3D printer. The actuation capabilities of the concept are evaluated with and without spanning material on a test stand, free of aerodynamic loads. In addition, the actuation restrictions of the spanning elastomer, necessary in adapting the morphing concept from 2D to 3D, are characterized. Initial aerodynamic results from the 1'×1' wind-tunnel also show the effects of aerodynamic loading on the actuation range of the SMTE concept for uniform morphing.

  17. Climate Data Homogenization Using Edge Detection Algorithms (United States)

    Hammann, A. C.; Rennermalm, A. K.


    The problem of climate data homogenization has predominantly been addressed by testing the likelihood of one or more breaks inserted into a given time series and modeling the mean to be stationary in between the breaks. We recast the same problem in a slightly different form: that of detecting step-like changes in noisy data, and observe that this problem has spawned a large number of approaches to its solution as the "edge detection" problem in image processing. With respect to climate data, we ask the question: How can we optimally separate step-like from smoothly-varying low-frequency signals? We study the hypothesis that the edge-detection approach makes better use of all information contained in the time series than the "traditional" approach (e.g. Caussinus and Mestre, 2004), which we base on several observations. 1) The traditional formulation of the problem reduces the available information from the outset to that contained in the test statistic. 2) The criterion of local steepness of the low-frequency variability, while at least hypothetically useful, is ignored. 3) The practice of using monthly data corresponds, mathematically, to applying a moving average filter (to reduce noise) and subsequent subsampling of the result; this subsampling reduces the amount of available information beyond what is necessary for noise reduction. Most importantly, the tradeoff between noise reduction (better with filters with wide support in the time domain) and localization of detected changes (better with filters with narrow support) is expressed in the well-known uncertainty principle and can be addressed optimally within a time-frequency framework. Unsurprisingly, a large number of edge-detection algorithms have been proposed that make use of wavelet decompositions and similar techniques. We are developing this framework in part to be applied to a particular set of climate data from Greenland; we will present results from this application as well as from tests with

  18. Structural Stability of Functionalized Silicene Nanoribbons with Normal, Reconstructed, and Hybrid Edges


    Sadegh Mehdi Aghaei; Ingrid Torres; Irene Calizo


    Silicene, a novel graphene-like material, has attracted a significant attention because of its potential applications for nanoelectronics. In this paper, we have theoretically investigated the structural stability of edge-hydrogenated and edge-fluorinated silicene nanoribbons (SiNRs) via first-principles calculations. Various edge forms of SiNRs including armchair edge, zigzag edge, Klein edge, reconstructed Klein edge, reconstructed pentagon-heptagon edge, and hybrid edges have been consider...

  19. Whispers from the Edge of Physics (United States)

    Andersson, Nils


    Neutron stars involve extreme physics which is difficult (perhaps impossible) to explore in laboratory experiments. We have to turn to astrophysical observations, and try to extract information from the entire range of the electromagnetic spectrum. In addition, neutron stars may radiate gravitational waves through a range of scenarios. This brief summary outlines some of the main ideas, focussing on what we do and do not know, and the challenges involved in trying to catch these faint whispers from the very edge of physics are described.

  20. Refining Nodes and Edges of State Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallerstede, Stefan; Snook, Colin


    State machines are hierarchical automata that are widely used to structure complex behavioural specifications. We develop two notions of refinement of state machines, node refinement and edge refinement. We compare the two notions by means of examples and argue that, by adopting simple convention...... refinement theory and UML-B state machine refinement influences the style of node refinement. Hence we propose a method with direct proof of state machine refinement avoiding the detour via Event-B that is needed by UML-B....

  1. The Reconstruction Conjecture and Edge Ideals (United States)


    Given a monomial ideal I in R = k[x1, . . . , xn], we define the multigraded Betti numbers i,b of I in terms of a multigraded minimal free resolution...5.5]). We will use Hochster’s formula from Stanley–Reisner theory to study the multigraded Betti numbers of the edge ideal of a graph. We will prove...Chapter 5]), the multigraded Betti number i,b of R/I can be computed via the reduced simplicial homology of certain subcomplexes of : i,b = i,B := dimk

  2. Bending energy of buckled edge dislocations (United States)

    Kupferman, Raz


    The study of elastic membranes carrying topological defects has a longstanding history, going back at least to the 1950s. When allowed to buckle in three-dimensional space, membranes with defects can totally relieve their in-plane strain, remaining with a bending energy, whose rigidity modulus is small compared to the stretching modulus. In this paper we study membranes with a single edge dislocation. We prove that the minimum bending energy associated with strain-free configurations diverges logarithmically with the size of the system.

  3. Laser Surface Hardening of Groove Edges (United States)

    Hussain, A.; Hamdani, A. H.; Akhter, R.; Aslam, M.


    Surface hardening of groove-edges made of 3Cr13 Stainless Steel has been carried out using 500 W CO2 laser with a rectangular beam of 2.5×3 mm2. The processing speed was varied from 150-500 mm/min. It was seen that the hardened depth increases with increase in laser interaction time. A maximum hardened depth of around 1mm was achieved. The microhardness of the transformed zone was 2.5 times the hardness of base metal. The XRD's and microstructural analysis were also reported.

  4. Influence of Dynamical Change of Edges on Clustering Coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhong Ruan


    Full Text Available Clustering coefficient is a very important measurement in complex networks, and it describes the average ratio between the actual existent edges and probable existent edges in the neighbor of one vertex in a complex network. Besides, in a complex networks, the dynamic change of edges can trigger directly the evolution of network and further affect the clustering coefficients. As a result, in this paper, we investigate the effects of the dynamic change of edge on the clustering coefficients. It is illustrated that the increase and decrease of the clustering coefficient can be effectively controlled by adding or deleting several edges of the network in the evolution of complex networks.

  5. Orientations of infinite graphs with prescribed edge-connectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Carsten


    We prove a decomposition result for locally finite graphs which can be used to extend results on edge-connectivity from finite to infinite graphs. It implies that every 4k-edge-connected graph G contains an immersion of some finite 2k-edge-connected Eulerian graph containing any prescribed vertex...... set (while planar graphs show that G need not containa subdivision of a simple finite graph of large edge-connectivity). Also, every 8k-edge connected infinite graph has a k-arc-connected orientation, as conjectured in 1989....

  6. Three Dimensional Digital Image Processing using Edge Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Schmeelk


    Full Text Available This paper provides an introduction to three dimensional image edge detection and its relationship to partial derivatives, convolutions and wavelets. We are especially addressing the notion of edge detection because it has far reaching applications in all areas of research to include medical research. A patient can be diagnosed as having an aneurysm by studying an angiogram. An angiogram is the visual view of the blood vessels whereby the edges are highlighted through the implementation of edge detectors. This process is completed through convolution, wavelets and matrix techniques. Some illustrations included will be vertical, horizontal, Sobel and wavelet edge detectors.

  7. Magnetic edge states and magnetotransport in graphene antidot barriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, M. R.; Power, Stephen; Jauho, Antti-Pekka


    for antidots smaller than the magnetic length and demonstrate the presence of magnetic edge states, which are localized states on the periphery of the antidots due to successive reflections on the antidot edge in the presence of a magnetic field. We show that these states are robust against variations...... in lattice configuration and antidot edge chirality. Moreover, we calculate the transmittance of disordered GABs and find that magnetic edge states survive a moderate degree of disorder. Due to the long phase-coherence length in graphene and the robustness of these states, we expect magnetic edge states...

  8. Graph Edge Coloring Vizing's Theorem and Goldberg's Conjecture

    CERN Document Server

    Stiebitz, Michael; Toft, Bjarne; Favrholdt, Lene M


    Features recent advances and new applications in graph edge coloring Reviewing recent advances in the Edge Coloring Problem, Graph Edge Coloring: Vizing's Theorem and Goldberg's Conjecture provides an overview of the current state of the science, explaining the interconnections among the results obtained from important graph theory studies. The authors introduce many new improved proofs of known results to identify and point to possible solutions for open problems in edge coloring. The book begins with an introduction to graph theory and the concept of edge coloring. Subsequent chapters explor

  9. Aerodynamic Analysis of Trailing Edge Enlarged Wind Turbine Airfoils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Haoran; Shen, Wen Zhong; Zhu, Wei Jun


    The aerodynamic performance of blunt trailing edge airfoils generated from the DU- 91-W2-250, DU-97-W-300 and DU-96-W-350 airfoils by enlarging the thickness of trailing edge symmetrically from the location of maximum thickness to chord to the trailing edge were analyzed by using CFD and RFOIL...... methods at a chord Reynolds number of 3 × 106. The goal of this study is to analyze the aerodynamic performance of blunt trailing edge airfoils with different thicknesses of trailing edge and maximum thicknesses to chord. The steady results calculated by the fully turbulent k-ω SST, transitional k-ω SST...

  10. Edge-Detected Guided Morphological Filter for Image Sharpening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Marshall


    Full Text Available A new edge-guided morphological filter is proposed to sharpen digital images. This is done by detecting the positions of the edges and then applying a class of morphological filtering. Motivated by the success of threshold decomposition, gradient-based operators are used to detect the locations of the edges. A morphological filter is used to sharpen these detected edges. Experimental results demonstrate that the performance of these detected edge deblurring filters is superior to that of other sharpener-type filters.

  11. Aerodynamic Analysis of Trailing Edge Enlarged Wind Turbine Airfoils


    Xu, Haoran; Shen, Wen Zhong; Zhu, Wei Jun; Yang, Hua; Liu, Chao


    The aerodynamic performance of blunt trailing edge airfoils generated from the DU- 91-W2-250, DU-97-W-300 and DU-96-W-350 airfoils by enlarging the thickness of trailing edge symmetrically from the location of maximum thickness to chord to the trailing edge were analyzed by using CFD and RFOIL methods at a chord Reynolds number of 3 × 106. The goal of this study is to analyze the aerodynamic performance of blunt trailing edge airfoils with different thicknesses of trailing edge and maximum th...

  12. Green's function asymptotics near the internal edges of spectra of periodic elliptic operators. Spectral edge case

    KAUST Repository

    Kuchment, Peter


    Precise asymptotics known for the Green\\'s function of the Laplace operator have found their analogs for periodic elliptic operators of the second order at and below the bottom of the spectrum. Due to the band-gap structure of the spectra of such operators, the question arises whether similar results can be obtained near or at the edges of spectral gaps. As the result of this work shows, this is possible at a spectral edge when the dimension d ≥ 3. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Depth Edge Filtering Using Parameterized Structured Light Imaging. (United States)

    Zheng, Ziqi; Bae, Seho; Yi, Juneho


    This research features parameterized depth edge detection using structured light imaging that exploits a single color stripes pattern and an associated binary stripes pattern. By parameterized depth edge detection, we refer to the detection of all depth edges in a given range of distances with depth difference greater or equal to a specific value. While previous research has not properly dealt with shadow regions, which result in double edges, we effectively remove shadow regions using statistical learning through effective identification of color stripes in the structured light images. We also provide a much simpler control of involved parameters. We have compared the depth edge filtering performance of our method with that of the state-of-the-art method and depth edge detection from the Kinect depth map. Experimental results clearly show that our method finds the desired depth edges most correctly while the other methods cannot.

  14. Zigzag graphene nanoribbon edge reconstruction with Stone-Wales defects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues, J. N. B.; Gonçalves, P. A. D; Rodrigues, N. F. G.


    the edge; at the Dirac points one of these lengths diverges, whereas the other remains finite, of the order of the lattice parameter. We trace this curious effect to the doubling of the unit cell along the edge, brought about by the edge reconstruction. In the presence of a magnetic field, the zero......In this paper, we study zigzag graphene nanoribbons with edges reconstructed with Stone-Wales defects, by means of an empirical (first-neighbor) tight-binding method, with parameters determined by ab initio calculations of very narrow ribbons. We explore the characteristics of the electronic band...... structure with a focus on the nature of edge states. Edge reconstruction allows the appearance of a new type of edge states. They are dispersive, with nonzero amplitudes in both sublattices; furthermore, the amplitudes have two components that decrease with different decay lengths with the distance from...

  15. Using new edges for anomaly detection in computer networks (United States)

    Neil, Joshua Charles


    Creation of new edges in a network may be used as an indication of a potential attack on the network. Historical data of a frequency with which nodes in a network create and receive new edges may be analyzed. Baseline models of behavior among the edges in the network may be established based on the analysis of the historical data. A new edge that deviates from a respective baseline model by more than a predetermined threshold during a time window may be detected. The new edge may be flagged as potentially anomalous when the deviation from the respective baseline model is detected. Probabilities for both new and existing edges may be obtained for all edges in a path or other subgraph. The probabilities may then be combined to obtain a score for the path or other subgraph. A threshold may be obtained by calculating an empirical distribution of the scores under historical conditions.

  16. Using new edges for anomaly detection in computer networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neil, Joshua Charles


    Creation of new edges in a network may be used as an indication of a potential attack on the network. Historical data of a frequency with which nodes in a network create and receive new edges may be analyzed. Baseline models of behavior among the edges in the network may be established based on the analysis of the historical data. A new edge that deviates from a respective baseline model by more than a predetermined threshold during a time window may be detected. The new edge may be flagged as potentially anomalous when the deviation from the respective baseline model is detected. Probabilities for both new and existing edges may be obtained for all edges in a path or other subgraph. The probabilities may then be combined to obtain a score for the path or other subgraph. A threshold may be obtained by calculating an empirical distribution of the scores under historical conditions.

  17. Spontaneous curling of graphene sheets with reconstructed edges. (United States)

    Shenoy, Vivek B; Reddy, Chilla Damodara; Zhang, Yong-Wei


    Recent microscopy experiments have revealed novel reconstructions of the commonly observed zigzag and armchair edges in graphene. We show that tensile edge stresses at these reconstructed edges lead to large-scale curling of graphene sheets into cylindrical surfaces, in contrast to the warping instabilities predicted for unreconstructed edges. Using atomic-scale simulations and large deformation plate models, we have derived scaling laws for the curvature and strain of the curled sheets in terms of the edge stress, shape, and the bending and stretching moduli. For graphene nanoribbons, we show that tensile edge stress leads to periodic ripples, whose morphologies are distinct from those observed due to thermal fluctuations or thermally generated mismatch strains. Since the electronic properties of graphene can be altered by both curvatures and strain, our work provides a route for potentially fabricating nanoelectronic devices such as sensors or switches that can detect stresses induced by dopants at the edges.

  18. Quantitative phase tomography by using x-ray microscope with Foucault knife-edge scanning filter (United States)

    Watanabe, Norio; Tsuburaya, Yuji; Shimada, Akihiro; Aoki, Sadao


    Quantitative phase tomography was evaluated by using a differential phase microscope with a Foucault knife-edge scanning filter. A 3D x-ray phase image of polystyrene beads was obtained at 5.4 keV. The reconstructed refractive index was fairly good agreement with the Henke's tabulated data.

  19. Quantitative phase tomography by using x-ray microscope with Foucault knife-edge scanning filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Norio; Tsuburaya, Yuji; Shimada, Akihiro; Aoki, Sadao [Faculty of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8573 (Japan)


    Quantitative phase tomography was evaluated by using a differential phase microscope with a Foucault knife-edge scanning filter. A 3D x-ray phase image of polystyrene beads was obtained at 5.4 keV. The reconstructed refractive index was fairly good agreement with the Henke’s tabulated data.

  20. Converging social classes through humanized urban edges (United States)

    Abuan, M. V.; Galingan, Z. D.


    Urban open spaces are created to be used by people. It is a place of convergence and social activity. However, these places have transformed into places of divergence. When spaces become dehumanized, it separates social classes. As a result, underused spaces contribute to urban decay. Particularly an urban edge, the JP Rizal Makati Waterfront Area is the center of this paper. The JP Rizal Makati Waterfront Area is a waterfront development situated along the banks of one of Metro Manila’s major water thoroughfare --- Pasig River. The park and its physical form, urban design and landscape tend to deteriorate over time --- creating a further division of social convergence. Social hostility, crime, negligent maintenance and poor urban design are contributing factors to this sprawling decay in what used to be spaces of bringing people together. Amidst attempts to beautify and renew this portion of Makati City’s edge, the urban area still remains misspent.This paper attempts to re-humanize the waterfront development. It uses the responsive environment design principles to be able to achieve this goal.

  1. Inherited thrombophilia: a double-edged sword. (United States)

    Middeldorp, Saskia


    Inherited thrombophilia is a blood coagulation disorder that increases the risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE). During the last decades, the practice of testing has evolved from testing selected populations, leading to high perceived risks, to broad testing for various conditions that included VTE, arterial thrombosis, and pregnancy complications. Because results of such tests usually do not guide treatment decisions, not testing patients with VTE for inherited thrombophilia is on the "Choosing Wisely" list endorsed by multiple specialty societies, including ASH. Inherited thrombophilia can be regarded a double-edged sword, as despite the rationale not to test, it is still being performed frequently. Another way of seeing inherited thrombophilia as a double-edged sword lies in its 2-sided association with reproduction, both in men and in women. Current areas of research are whether women with inherited thrombophilia and pregnancy complications benefit from anticoagulant therapy with regard to improving the chance of a successful pregnancy. Potential effects of inherited thrombophilia, most notably factor V Leiden, on improved embryo implantation in women and sperm counts in men are intriguing, but are currently poorly understood. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology. All rights reserved.

  2. Occupant evaluation of commercial office lighting: Volume 1, Methodology and bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A. (ed.)


    This report documents the forms and procedures developed for a post-occupancy evaluation of office lighting environments. It is the first in a series of four reports. The central aim of the larger project is to explore possible causal factors that are associated with successful lighting design, with particular interest in the relationship between the connected lighting power load and subjective measures of lighting quality. A post-occupancy evaluation procedure was used as the strategy for obtaining the desired data. The procedure involved collecting several different types of data: (1) direct measures of the physical environment, including spatial luminances, illuminances and contrast conditions; (2) indirect measures such as the amount of space provided for each work station and the connected lighting power load; (3) occupant responses to lighting and other factors of the work station; and (4) a limited number of expert ratings of the lighting conditions. Data from thirteen buildings and 1217 work stations were collected. These data were built into a database allowing lighting quality to be quantified and explained.

  3. Edge effects and beta diversity in ground and canopy beetle communities of fragmented subtropical forest. (United States)

    Stone, Marisa J; Catterall, Carla P; Stork, Nigel E


    Clearing of dry forests globally creates edges between remnant forest and open anthropogenic habitats. We used flight intercept traps to evaluate how forest beetle communities are influenced by distance from such edges, together with vertical height, spatial location, and local vegetation structure, in an urbanising region (Brisbane, Australia). Species composition (but not total abundance or richness) differed greatly between ground and canopy. Species composition also varied strongly among sites at both ground and canopy levels, but almost all other significant effects occurred only at ground level, where: species richness declined from edge to interior; composition differed between positions near edges ( 50 m); high local canopy cover was associated with greater total abundance and richness and differing composition; and greater distances to the city centre were associated with increased total abundances and altered composition. Analyses of individual indicator species associated with this variation enabled further biological interpretations. A global literature synthesis showed that most spatially well-replicated studies of edge effects on ground-level beetles within forest fragments have likewise found that positions within tens of metres from edges with open anthropogenic habitats had increased species richness and different compositions from forest interior sites, with fewer effects on abundance. Accordingly, negative edge effects will not prevent relatively small compact fragments (if >10-20 ha) from supporting forest-like beetle communities, although indirect consequences of habitat degradation remain a threat. Retention of multiple spatially scattered forest areas will also be important in conserving forest-dependent beetles, given high levels of between-site diversity.

  4. Photon Counting Using Edge-Detection Algorithm (United States)

    Gin, Jonathan W.; Nguyen, Danh H.; Farr, William H.


    New applications such as high-datarate, photon-starved, free-space optical communications require photon counting at flux rates into gigaphoton-per-second regimes coupled with subnanosecond timing accuracy. Current single-photon detectors that are capable of handling such operating conditions are designed in an array format and produce output pulses that span multiple sample times. In order to discern one pulse from another and not to overcount the number of incoming photons, a detection algorithm must be applied to the sampled detector output pulses. As flux rates increase, the ability to implement such a detection algorithm becomes difficult within a digital processor that may reside within a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). Systems have been developed and implemented to both characterize gigahertz bandwidth single-photon detectors, as well as process photon count signals at rates into gigaphotons per second in order to implement communications links at SCPPM (serial concatenated pulse position modulation) encoded data rates exceeding 100 megabits per second with efficiencies greater than two bits per detected photon. A hardware edge-detection algorithm and corresponding signal combining and deserialization hardware were developed to meet these requirements at sample rates up to 10 GHz. The photon discriminator deserializer hardware board accepts four inputs, which allows for the ability to take inputs from a quadphoton counting detector, to support requirements for optical tracking with a reduced number of hardware components. The four inputs are hardware leading-edge detected independently. After leading-edge detection, the resultant samples are ORed together prior to deserialization. The deserialization is performed to reduce the rate at which data is passed to a digital signal processor, perhaps residing within an FPGA. The hardware implements four separate analog inputs that are connected through RF connectors. Each analog input is fed to a high-speed 1

  5. Learning to Grasp Unknown Objects Based on 3D Edge Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodenhagen, Leon; Kraft, Dirk; Popovic, Mila


    an offline or an online learning scheme. Both methods are implemented using a hybrid artificial neural network containing standard nodes with a sigmoid activation function and nodes with a radial basis function. We show that a significant performance improvement can be achieved.......In this work we refine an initial grasping behavior based on 3D edge information by learning. Based on a set of autonomously generated evaluated grasps and relations between the semi-global 3D edges, a prediction function is learned that computes a likelihood for the success of a grasp using either...

  6. Modeling radical edge-site reactions of biochar in CO2/water solution under ultrasonic treatment (United States)

    Zubatiuk, Tetiana; Sajjadi, Baharak; Hill, Glake; Leszczynska, Danuta; Chen, Wei-Yin; Leszczynski, Jerzy


    We report results of theoretical evaluation of the mechanisms of possible radical reactions on the edge-site of biochar with CO2,SUP>·-, OH ˙ , and H ˙ in irradiated aqueous solution. The computational studies were performed for model poly aromatic systems. Obtained mechanisms reflect one of the routes of the oxygen loss accompanied by increase of hydrogen content, as observed in photochemical experiment. The reaction of CO2·- with the edge site of biochar mainly leads to reduced rather than oxidized products. The mechanism of CO2 capturing is mapped by different routes of one-electron reduction and radical addition to the aromatic ring.

  7. Spatially resolving and energy splitting of edge state in zigzag edged triangle graphene quantum dots on Cu(111) surface (United States)

    Wei, Sheng; Jin, Jing; Wang, Zhongping; Lu, Yan; Wang, Li


    The electronic structure of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) and graphene quantum dots (GQDs) has been predicted to depend sensitively on the crystallographic orientation of their edges. However, direct observation of edge state for triangle graphene quantum dots (TGQDs) has not been verified experimentally. Here we explore, using the scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS), the zigzag edged electronic property of varisized TGQDs. Predominantly zigzag-edged TGQDs exhibit edge-localized states with the energy splittings of about 0.2-0.3 V when its lateral dimension is less than 7 nm. The measured energy splittings agree with theoretical calculations, and show that these edge states originate from a hybridization effect of the substrate, and not from a magnetic splitting of the edge state.

  8. Correction of edge-flame propagation speed in a counterflow, annular slot burner

    KAUST Repository

    Tran, Vu Manh


    To characterize the propagation modes of flames, flame propagation speed must be accurately calculated. The impact of propagating edge-flames on the flow fields of unburned gases is limited experimentally. Thus, few studies have evaluated true propagation speeds by subtracting the flow velocities of unburned gases from flame displacement speeds. Here, we present a counterflow, annular slot burner that provides an ideal one-dimensional strain rate and lengthwise zero flow velocity that allowed us to study the fundamental behaviors of edge-flames. In addition, our burner has easy optical access for detailed laser diagnostics. Flame displacement speeds were measured using a high-speed camera and related flow fields of unburned gases were visualized by particle image velocimetry. These techniques allowed us to identify significant modifications to the flow fields of unburned gases caused by thermal expansion of the propagating edges, which enabled us to calculate true flame propagation speeds that took into account the flow velocities of unburned gases.

  9. Assessment of fatigue load alleviation potential through blade trailing edge morphing (United States)

    Tsiantas, Theofanis; Manolas, Dimitris I.; Machairas, Theodore; Karakalas, Anargyros; Riziotis, Vasilis A.; Saravanos, Dimitrios; Voutsinas, Spyros G.


    The possibility of alleviating wind turbine loads through blade trailing edge shape morphing is investigated in the present paper. Emphasis is put on analyzing the effect of the trailing edge flap geometry on load reduction levels. The choice of the shape deformation of the camber line as well as the chordwise and spanwise dimensions of the trailing edge flap are addressed. The analysis concerns the conceptual DTU 10 MW RWT. Aeroelastic control of loads is materialized through a standard individual flap controller. Furthermore, a comb ined individual pitch-flap controller is evaluated and found to present advantages compared to the flap only controller. Flapwise fatigue load reduction ranging from 10% to 20%, depending on wind velocity and configuration considered, is obtained. Better performance is achieved by the combined pitch-flap controller.

  10. Cervical Length & Leading Placental Edge to Internal OS Measurements - TA vs TV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerway, Sue Campbell; Pedersen, Lars Henning; Hyett, Jon

    Brief Description of the Purpose of the Study: To compare cervical length/leading placental edge from the internal cervical os measurements obtained by both transabdominal (TA) and transvaginal (TV) approach and to assess intra / inter-observer variation for these measurements. Methods: Cross...... sectional study of 374 consecutive pregnancies with gestation 12 weeks to term. The cervical length was estimated as the distance from internal to external os, and the placenta / cervix distance as the leading placental edge to internal cervical os. Bland-Altman plots were used to evaluate the two methods....... Importance of the Conclusions: TA estimates of cervix and placental edge position did not reflect the estimates obtained by TV assessment. As both measures are important markers of pregnancy outcome and management, the transabdominal method in the present form is insuffi- cient in clinical management....

  11. [A method of measuring presampled modulation transfer function using a rationalized approximation of geometrical edge slope]. (United States)

    Honda, Michitaka


    Several improvements were implemented in the edge method of presampled modulation transfer function measurements (MTFs). The estimation technique for edge angle was newly developed by applying an algorithm for principal components analysis. The error in the estimation was statistically confirmed to be less than 0.01 even in the presence of quantum noise. Secondly, the geometrical edge slope was approximated using a rationalized number, making it possible to obtain an oversampled edge response function (ESF) with equal intervals. Thirdly, the final MTFs were estimated using the average of multiple MTFs calculated for local areas. This averaging operation eliminates the errors caused by the rationalized approximation. Computer-simulated images were used to evaluate the accuracy of our method. The relative error between the estimated MTF and the theoretical MTF at the Nyquist frequency was less than 0.5% when the MTF was expressed as a sinc function. For MTFs representing an indirect detector and phase-contrast detector, good agreement was also observed for the estimated MTFs for each. The high accuracy of the MTF estimation was also confirmed, even for edge angles of around 10 degrees, which suggests the potential for simplification of the measurement conditions. The proposed method could be incorporated into an automated measurement technique using a software application.

  12. SiC/SiC Leading Edge Turbine Airfoil Tested Under Simulated Gas Turbine Conditions (United States)

    Robinson, R. Craig; Hatton, Kenneth S.


    Silicon-based ceramics have been proposed as component materials for use in gas turbine engine hot-sections. A high pressure burner rig was used to expose both a baseline metal airfoil and ceramic matrix composite leading edge airfoil to typical gas turbine conditions to comparatively evaluate the material response at high temperatures. To eliminate many of the concerns related to an entirely ceramic, rotating airfoil, this study has focused on equipping a stationary metal airfoil with a ceramic leading edge insert to demonstrate the feasibility and benefits of such a configuration. Here, the idea was to allow the SiC/SiC composite to be integrated as the airfoil's leading edge, operating in a "free-floating" or unrestrained manner. and provide temperature relief to the metal blade underneath. The test included cycling the airfoils between simulated idle, lift, and cruise flight conditions. In addition, the airfoils were air-cooled, uniquely instrumented, and exposed to the same internal and external conditions, which included gas temperatures in excess of 1370 C (2500 F). Results show the leading edge insert remained structurally intact after 200 simulated flight cycles with only a slightly oxidized surface. The instrumentation clearly suggested a significant reduction (approximately 600 F) in internal metal temperatures as a result of the ceramic leading edge. The object of this testing was to validate the design and analysis done by Materials Research and Design of Rosemont, PA and to determine the feasibility of this design for the intended application.

  13. Numerical Analysis of Edge Over Coating and Baffle Effect on Hot-Dip Galvanizing (United States)

    Bao, Chengren; Kang, Yonglin; Li, Yan


    In hot-dip galvanizing process, air jet wiping control is so crucial to determine the coating thickness and uniformity of the zinc layer on the steel strip. A numerical simulation of gas-jet wiping in hot-dip galvanizing was conducted to minimize the occurrence of edge over coating (EOC). The causes of EOC were identified by contrasting and analyzing the airflow fields on the strip edge with and without a baffle. The factors influencing the airflow field on the strip edge during the change in the gap between the baffle and the strip edge were also analyzed. The effect of the distance between the air knife and the strip was evaluated. Technological parameters with on-site guidance role were obtained by combining them with the actual production to elucidate the role of the baffle in restraining the occurrence of EOC. The uniform distribution of pressure and coating thickness on the strip is achieved when the distance of the baffle from the strip edge is about 0.3 times of the jetting distance.

  14. On the edge between tradition and innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchetti, Emanuela; Nandhakumar, Joe


    investigate also how external pressure from a network, apparently supporting innovation, may instead create a conflicting system of values, compromising the emergence of a negotiation space and hindering the innovation process. Our study suggests that museum innovation is still unsettled, on the edge between...... tradition and innovation, because it is being negatively affected by a global network claiming to support innovation, but in reality denying a negotiation space and demanding for traditional practices to be preserved. Therefore, according to museum practitioners innovation is hindered by a conflicting...... cannot succeed, if it is not supported by a favourable global network, providing a negotiation space (Law and Callon 1992). Starting from this theory, we analyze the case of two local museums, in order to gain insights into museum innovation and the emerging interplay with traditional practices. We...

  15. Edge instability in incompressible planar active fluids (United States)

    Nesbitt, David; Pruessner, Gunnar; Lee, Chiu Fan


    Interfacial instability is highly relevant to many important biological processes. A key example arises in wound healing experiments, which observe that an epithelial layer with an initially straight edge does not heal uniformly. We consider the phenomenon in the context of active fluids. Improving upon the approximation used by Zimmermann, Basan, and Levine [Eur. Phys. J.: Spec. Top. 223, 1259 (2014), 10.1140/epjst/e2014-02189-7], we perform a linear stability analysis on a two-dimensional incompressible hydrodynamic model of an active fluid with an open interface. We categorize the stability of the model and find that for experimentally relevant parameters, fingering instability is always absent in this minimal model. Our results point to the crucial role of density variation in the fingering instability in tissue regeneration.

  16. Transparent Aluminum Oxide Films by Edge Anodization (United States)

    Stott, Jonathan; Greenwood, Thomas; Winn, David

    In this paper we present our recent work on manufacturing thin (3 - 5 μm) films of porous aluminum(III) oxide [PAO] using a novel edge-anodization technique. With this modified anodization process, we are able to create transparent PAO films on top of insulating substrates such as glass or plastic. By controlling the processing parameters, the index of refraction of PAO films can be engineered to match the substrate, which gives us a durable reflection-free and scratch-resistant coating over conventional optics or LCD displays. Eventually we hope to create ordered porous aluminum oxide cladding around an optical fiber core, which could have a number of interesting optical properties if the pore spacing can be matched to the wavelength of light in the fiber. This work was funded by Fairfield University startup funding.

  17. Wind turbine trailing edge aerodynamic brakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Migliore, P G [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Miller, L S [Wichita State Univ., KS (United States). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering; Quandt, G A


    Five trailing-edge devices were investigated to determine their potential as wind-turbine aerodynamic brakes, and for power modulation and load alleviation. Several promising configurations were identified. A new device, called the spoiler-flap, appears to be the best alternative. It is a simple device that is effective at all angles of attack. It is not structurally intrusive, and it has the potential for small actuating loads. It is shown that simultaneous achievement of a low lift/drag ratio and high drag is the determinant of device effectiveness, and that these attributes must persist up to an angle of attack of 45{degree}. It is also argued that aerodynamic brakes must be designed for a wind speed of at least 45 m/s (100 mph).

  18. Communication networks for the tactical edge (United States)

    Evans, Joseph B.; Pennington, Steven G.; Ewy, Benjamin J.


    Information at the tactical level is increasingly critical in today's conflicts. The proliferation of commercial tablets and smart phones has created the ability for extensive information sharing at the tactical edge, beyond the traditional tactical voice communications and location information. This is particularly the case in Gray Zone conflicts, in which tactical decision making and actions are intertwined with information sharing and exploitation. Networking of tactical devices is the key to this information sharing. In this work, we detail and analyze two network models at different parts of the Gray Zone spectrum, and explore a number of networking options including Named Data Networking. We also compare networking approaches in a variety of realistic operating environments. Our results show that Named Data Networking is a good match for the disrupted networking environments found in many tactical situations

  19. Ascending aorta diameters measured by echocardiography using both leading edge-to-leading edge and inner edge-to-inner edge conventions in healthy volunteers. (United States)

    Muraru, Denisa; Maffessanti, Francesco; Kocabay, Gonenc; Peluso, Diletta; Dal Bianco, Lucia; Piasentini, Eleonora; Jose, Seena Padayattil; Iliceto, Sabino; Badano, Luigi P


    Reference ranges of ascending aorta diameters (AAoD) for two-dimensional echocardiography (2DE) using inner edge (IE) convention are lacking, preventing the comparison of AAoD measurements by 2DE with those obtained by other imaging modalities. We used harmonic imaging 2DE to prospectively study 218 healthy volunteers (56% women, 42 ± 15 years, 18-80 years). Measurements were performed at the level of aortic root (AoR), sinotubular junction (STJ), and proximal tubular portion (TAo, 1 cm from the STJ) using both leading edge (LE) and IE conventions at end-diastole and end-systole. Feasibility of AAoD measurements between end-diastole and end-systole was similar at AoR and STJ levels, but it was significantly different at TAo level (82 vs. 96%, respectively, P measured using IE convention were similar between genders (17 ± 2, 15 ± 2, and 15 ± 2 mm/m(2), respectively). Corresponding AAoD measured using the LE convention were 18 ± 2, 16 ± 2, and 17 ± 4 mm/m(2), respectively. On average, the end-systolic AAoD measured using LE were 2 mm larger than those performed using IE or at end-diastole. Mean aortic wall thickness was 2.4 ± 0.8 mm. End-diastolic AAoD measured using IE were significantly smaller than those obtained either using LE convention or at end-systole. Gender-specific reference values for AAoD indexed for BSA should be used to identify ascending aorta pathology.

  20. Slope Edge Deformation and Permafrost Dynamics Along the Arctic Shelf Edge, Beaufort Sea, Canada (United States)

    Paull, C. K.; Dallimore, S.; Caress, D. W.; Gwiazda, R.; Lundsten, E. M.; Anderson, K.; Riedel, M.; Melling, H.


    The shelf of the Canadian Beaufort Sea is underlain by relict offshore permafrost that formed in the long intervals of terrestrial exposure during glacial periods. At the shelf edge the permafrost thins rapidly and also warms. This area has a very distinct morphology that we attribute to both the formation and degradation of ice bearing permafrost. Positive relief features include circular to oval shaped topographic mounds, up to 10 m high and ~50 m in diameter which occur at a density of ~6 per km2. Intermixed are circular topographic depressions up to 20 m deep. This topography was investigated using an autonomous underwater vehicle that provides 1 m horizontal resolution bathymetry and chirp profiles, a remotely operated vehicle to document seafloor textures, and sediment cores to sample pore waters. A consistent down-core freshening at rates of 14 to 96 mM Cl- per meter was found in these pore waters near the shelf edge. Downward extrapolation of these trends indicates water with ≤335 mM Cl- should occur at 2.3 to 22.4 m sub-seafloor depths within this shelf edge deformation band. Pore water with 335 mM Cl- or less freezes at -1.4°C. As bottom water temperatures in this area are persistently (<-1.4°C) cold and ground ice was observed in some core samples, we interpret the volume changes associated with mound formation are in part due to pore water freezing. Thermal models (Taylor et al., 2014) predict brackish water along the shelf edge may be sourced in relict permafrost melting under the adjacent continental shelf. Buoyant brackish water is hypothesized to migrate along the base of the relict permafrost, to emerge at the shelf edge and then refreeze when it encounters the colder seafloor. Expansion generated by the formation of ice-bearing permafrost generates the positive relief mounds and ridges. The associated negative relief features may be related to permafrost dynamics also. Permafrost dynamics may have geohazard implications that are unique to the

  1. Modeling of Airfoil Trailing Edge Flap with Immersed Boundary Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær


    The present work considers incompressible flow over a 2D airfoil with a deformable trailing edge. The aerodynamic characteristics of an airfoil with a trailing edge flap is numerically investigated using computational fluid dynamics. A novel hybrid immersed boundary (IB) technique is applied...... to simulate the moving part of the trailing edge. Over the main fixed part of the airfoil the Navier-Stokes (NS) equations are solved using a standard body-fitted finite volume technique whereas the moving trailing edge flap is simulated with the immersed boundary method on a curvilinear mesh. The obtained...... results show that the hybrid approach is an efficient and accurate method for solving turbulent flows past airfoils with a trailing edge flap and flow control using trailing edge flap is an efficient way to regulate the aerodynamic loading on airfoils....

  2. Optimal Scale Edge Detection Utilizing Noise within Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Khashman


    Full Text Available Edge detection techniques have common problems that include poor edge detection in low contrast images, speed of recognition and high computational cost. An efficient solution to the edge detection of objects in low to high contrast images is scale space analysis. However, this approach is time consuming and computationally expensive. These expenses can be marginally reduced if an optimal scale is found in scale space edge detection. This paper presents a new approach to detecting objects within images using noise within the images. The novel idea is based on selecting one optimal scale for the entire image at which scale space edge detection can be applied. The selection of an ideal scale is based on the hypothesis that "the optimal edge detection scale (ideal scale depends on the noise within an image". This paper aims at providing the experimental evidence on the relationship between the optimal scale and the noise within images.

  3. Inducing superconducting correlation in quantum Hall edge states (United States)

    Lee, Gil-Ho; Huang, Ko-Fan; Efetov, Dmitri K.; Wei, Di S.; Hart, Sean; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Yacoby, Amir; Kim, Philip


    The quantum Hall (QH) effect supports a set of chiral edge states at the boundary of a two-dimensional system. A superconductor (SC) contacting these states can provide correlations of the quasiparticles in the dissipationless edge states. Here we fabricated highly transparent and nanometre-scale SC junctions to graphene. We demonstrate that the QH edge states can couple via superconducting correlations through the SC electrode narrower than the superconducting coherence length. We observe that the chemical potential of the edge state exhibits a sign reversal across the SC electrode. This provides direct evidence of conversion of the incoming electron to the outgoing hole along the chiral edge state, termed crossed Andreev conversion (CAC). We show that CAC can successfully describe the temperature, bias and SC electrode width dependences. This hybrid SC/QH system could provide a novel route to create isolated non-Abelian anyonic zero modes, in resonance with the chiral edge states.

  4. Sensory Organ Like Response of Zigzag Edge Graphene Nanoribbons (United States)

    Shenoy, Vijay; Bhowmick, Somnath


    Using a continuum Dirac theory, we study the density and spin response of zigzag edge terminated graphene ribbons subjected to edge potentials and Zeeman fields. Our analytical calculations of the density and spin responses of the closed system (fixed particle number) to the static edge fields, show a highly nonlinear Weber-Fechner type behavior where the response depends logarithmically on the edge potential. The dependence of the response on the size of the system (e.g.~width of a nanoribbon) is also uncovered. Zigzag edge graphene nanoribbons, therefore, provide a realization of response of organs such as the eye and ear that obey Weber-Fechner law. We validate our analytical results with tight binding calculations. These results are crucial in understanding important effects of electron-electron interactions in graphene nanoribbons such as edge magnetism etc., and also suggest possibilities for device applications of graphene nanoribbons. Work supported by DST, India through MONAMI and Ramanujan grants.

  5. Edge Minority Heating Experiment in Alcator C-Mod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.J. Zweben; J.L. Terry; P. Bonoli; R. Budny; C.S. Chang; C. Fiore; G. Schilling; S. Wukitch; J. Hughes; Y. Lin; R. Perkins; M. Porkolab; the Alcator C-Mod Team


    An attempt was made to control global plasma confinement in the Alcator C-Mod tokamak by applying ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) power to the plasma edge in order to deliberately create a minority ion tail loss. In theory, an edge fast ion loss could modify the edge electric field and so stabilize the edge turbulence, which might then reduce the H-mode power threshold or improve the H-mode barrier. However, the experimental result was that edge minority heating resulted in no improvement in the edge plasma parameters or global stored energy, at least at power levels of radio-frequency power is less than or equal to 5.5 MW. A preliminary analysis of these results is presented and some ideas for improvement are discussed.

  6. An improved edge detection algorithm for depth map inpainting (United States)

    Chen, Weihai; Yue, Haosong; Wang, Jianhua; Wu, Xingming


    Three-dimensional (3D) measurement technology has been widely used in many scientific and engineering areas. The emergence of Kinect sensor makes 3D measurement much easier. However the depth map captured by Kinect sensor has some invalid regions, especially at object boundaries. These missing regions should be filled firstly. This paper proposes a depth-assisted edge detection algorithm and improves existing depth map inpainting algorithm using extracted edges. In the proposed algorithm, both color image and raw depth data are used to extract initial edges. Then the edges are optimized and are utilized to assist depth map inpainting. Comparative experiments demonstrate that the proposed edge detection algorithm can extract object boundaries and inhibit non-boundary edges caused by textures on object surfaces. The proposed depth inpainting algorithm can predict missing depth values successfully and has better performance than existing algorithm around object boundaries.

  7. Palm Print Edge Extraction Using Fractional Differential Algorithm


    Chunmei Chi; Feng Gao


    Algorithm based on fractional difference was used for the edge extraction of thenar palm print image. Based on fractional order difference function which was deduced from classical fractional differential G-L definition, three filter templates were constructed to extract thenar palm print edge. The experiment results showed that this algorithm can reduce noise and detect rich edge details and has higher SNR than traditional methods.

  8. Integral edge seals for phosphoric acid fuel cells (United States)

    Granata, Jr., Samuel J. (Inventor); Woodle, Boyd M. (Inventor); Dunyak, Thomas J. (Inventor)


    A phosphoric acid fuel cell having integral edge seals formed by an elastomer permeating an outer peripheral band contiguous with the outer peripheral edges of the cathode and anode assemblies and the matrix to form an integral edge seal which is reliable, easy to manufacture and has creep characteristics similar to the anode, cathode and matrix assemblies inboard of the seals to assure good electrical contact throughout the life of the fuel cell.

  9. Terahertz radiation driven chiral edge currents in graphene


    Karch, J.; Drexler, C.; Olbrich, P.; Fehrenbacher, M.; Hirmer, M; Glazov, M. M.; Tarasenko, S. A.; Ivchenko, E. L.; Birkner, B.; Eroms, J.; Weiss, D.; Yakimova, R; Lara-Avila, Samuel; Kubatkin, Sergey; Ostler, M.


    We observe photocurrents induced in single-layer graphene samples by illumination of the graphene edges with circularly polarized terahertz radiation at normal incidence. The photocurrent flows along the sample edges and forms a vortex. Its winding direction reverses by switching the light helicity from left to right handed. We demonstrate that the photocurrent stems from the sample edges, which reduce the spatial symmetry and result in an asymmetric scattering of carriers driven by the radia...

  10. Strain-tuning of edge magnetism in zigzag graphene nanoribbons. (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Li, Baoyue; Zhang, Wei; Ye, Miao; Ma, Tianxing


    Using the determinant quantum Monte-Carlo method, we elucidate the strain tuning of edge magnetism in zigzag graphene nanoribbons. Our intensive numerical results show that a relatively weak Coulomb interaction may induce a ferromagnetic-like behaviour with a proper strain, and the edge magnetism can be enhanced greatly as the strain along the zigzag edge increases, which provides another way to control graphene magnetism even at room temperature.

  11. Edge irregular total labellings for graphs of linear size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Stephan; Rautenbach, D.; Miškuf, J.


    As an edge variant of the well-known irregularity strength of a graph G = (V, E) we investigate edge irregular total labellings, i.e. functions f : V ∪ E → {1, 2, ..., k} such that f (u) + f (u v) + f (v) ≠ f (u) + f (u v) + f (v) for every pair of different edges u v, u v ∈ E. The smallest possi...

  12. Design of Tunable Edge Coupled Microstrip Bandpass Filters


    Kaveri, Srinidhi V


    This thesis is a study of tunability of edge-coupled filters. Microstrip edge-coupled bandpass filters are planar structures and have advantages such as easy design procedures and simple integration into circuits. Three tuning techniques were implemented. The first technique involved the loading of one open end of each coupled into tunable capacitors. The second technique used a tunable resonator in series with the edge-coupled blocks. The final design made use of tunable feedback sections. A...

  13. An Ultra-Low Power Edge Combining BPSK Transmitter (United States)


    TECHNICAL DOCUMENT 3271 September 2013 An Ultra-Low Power Edge Combining BPSK Transmitter A. Ryu J. Rowland S. Naik...Ultra-Low Power Edge Combining BPSK Transmitter Albert Ryu #1, Jason Rowland #2, Suketu Naik #3 #1, #2 55250, Advanced Integrated Circuit Technology...locked to a ring oscillator (RO), and then multiple phase outputs are combined at the last edge combining/power amplifier (EC/PA) stage. With the

  14. Deterministic object tracking using Gaussian ringlet and directional edge features (United States)

    Krieger, Evan W.; Sidike, Paheding; Aspiras, Theus; Asari, Vijayan K.


    Challenges currently existing for intensity-based histogram feature tracking methods in wide area motion imagery (WAMI) data include object structural information distortions, background variations, and object scale change. These issues are caused by different pavement or ground types and from changing the sensor or altitude. All of these challenges need to be overcome in order to have a robust object tracker, while attaining a computation time appropriate for real-time processing. To achieve this, we present a novel method, Directional Ringlet Intensity Feature Transform (DRIFT), which employs Kirsch kernel filtering for edge features and a ringlet feature mapping for rotational invariance. The method also includes an automatic scale change component to obtain accurate object boundaries and improvements for lowering computation times. We evaluated the DRIFT algorithm on two challenging WAMI datasets, namely Columbus Large Image Format (CLIF) and Large Area Image Recorder (LAIR), to evaluate its robustness and efficiency. Additional evaluations on general tracking video sequences are performed using the Visual Tracker Benchmark and Visual Object Tracking 2014 databases to demonstrate the algorithms ability with additional challenges in long complex sequences including scale change. Experimental results show that the proposed approach yields competitive results compared to state-of-the-art object tracking methods on the testing datasets.

  15. Tungsten transport in the plasma edge at ASDEX upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janzer, Michael Arthur


    Heating (ICRH) limiters on the injected ICRH power was used. The phase and amplitude of the inwardly propagating tungsten signal was then observed at the erosion site and at three radial positions in the main plasma, from which two were identified in the course of this work by a thorough investigation of the tungsten radiation features in the Vacuum Ultra-Violet (VUV) spectral range. The newly found observation sites are located right in the steep gradient region, close to the Edge Transport Barrier (ETB) and slightly further inside at the pedestal top of AUG H-mode discharges. Furthermore, the parallel flows in the SOL have been monitored by spectroscopical means and Langmuir probes. The experimental results were quite unexpected, since the ELM frequency had no influence on the tungsten concentration, and the sole actuator on this quantity was the gas injection rate. The evaluation of the modulated tungsten signal revealed that neither gas puffing nor plasma shape had an measureable influence on the radial tungsten transport processes. In addition, the tungsten erosion sources were only partially responsible for the observed tungsten behavior. These observations inspired a simple model, which balanced the tungsten outflux with the tungsten influx. In this model the impurity exhaust by ELMs is not diffusive, but turbulent and linked to the ELM size. The model predicted a linear dependence between the tungsten concentration and the parallel velocity in the SOL. This linear dependence was confirmed by the spectroscopical evaluation of the SOL parallel flows.

  16. Simulations of Edge Current Driven Kink Modes with BOUT + + code (United States)

    Li, G. Q.; Xu, X. Q.; Snyder, P. B.; Turnbull, A. D.; Xia, T. Y.; Ma, C. H.; Xi, P. W.


    Edge kink modes (or peeling modes) play a key role in the ELMs. The edge kink modes are driven by peak edge current, which comes from the bootstrap current. We calculated sequences of equilibria with different edge current using CORSICA by keeping total current and pressure profile fixed. Based on these equilibria, with the 3-field BOUT + + code, we calculated the MHD instabilities driven by edge current. For linear low-n ideal MHD modes, BOUT + + results agree with GATO results. With the edge current increasing, the dominant modes are changed from high-n ballooning modes to low-n kink modes. The edge current provides also stabilizing effects on high-n ballooning modes. Furthermore, for edge current scan without keeping total current fixed, the increasing edge current can stabilize the high-n ballooning modes and cannot drive kink modes. The diamagnetic effect can stabilize the high-n ballooning modes, but has no effect on the low-n kink modes. Also, the nonlinear behavior of kink modes is analyzed. Work supported by China MOST grant 2013GB111000 and by China NSF grant 10975161. Also performed for USDOE by LLNL under DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  17. Edge detection in digital images using Ant Colony Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Kuchaki Rafsanjani


    Full Text Available Ant Colony Optimization (ACO is an optimization algorithm inspired by the behavior of real ant colonies to approximate the solutions of difficult optimization problems. In this paper, ACO is introduced to tackle the image edge detection problem. The proposed approach is based on the distribution of ants on an image; ants try to find possible edges by using a state transition function. Experimental results show that the proposed method compared to standard edge detectors is less sensitive to Gaussian noise and gives finer details and thinner edges when compared to earlier ant-based approaches.

  18. Acoustic analog of monolayer graphene and edge states (United States)

    Zhong, Wei; Zhang, Xiangdong


    Acoustic analog of monolayer graphene has been designed by using silicone rubber spheres of honeycomb lattices embedded in water. The dispersion of the structure has been studied theoretically using the rigorous multiple-scattering method. The energy spectra with the Dirac point have been verified and zigzag edge states have been found in ribbons of the structure, which are analogous to the electronic ones in graphene nanoribbons. The guided modes along the zigzag edge excited by a point source have been numerically demonstrated. The open cavity and “Z” type edge waveguide with 60° corners have also been realized by using such edge states.

  19. Spiraling Edge: Fast Surface Reconstruction from Partially Organized Sample Points

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angel, Edward; Crossno, Patricia


    Many applications produce three-dimensional points that must be further processed to generate a surface. Surface reconstruction algorithms that start with a set of unorganized points are extremely time-consuming. Sometimes, however, points are generated such that there is additional information available to the reconstruction algorithm. We present Spiraling Edge, a specialized algorithm for surface reconstruction that is three orders of magnitude faster than algorithms for the general case. In addition to sample point locations, our algorithm starts with normal information and knowledge of each point's neighbors. Our algorithm produces a localized approximation to the surface by creating a star-shaped triangulation between a point and a subset of its nearest neighbors. This surface patch is extended by locally triangulating each of the points along the edge of the patch. As each edge point is triangulated, it is removed from the edge and new edge points along the patch's edge are inserted in its place. The updated edge spirals out over the surface until the edge encounters a surface boundary and stops growing in that direction, or until the edge reduces to a small hole that is filled by the final triangle.

  20. Line Edge Detection and Characterization in SEM Images using Wavelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, W; Romagnoli, J A; Tringe, J W; L?tant, S E; Stroeve, P; Palazoglu, A


    Edge characterization has become increasingly important in nanotechnology due to the growing demand for precise nanoscale structure fabrication and assembly. Edge detection is often performed by thresholding the spatial information of a top-down image obtained by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) or other surface characterization techniques. Results are highly dependent on an arbitrary threshold value, which makes it difficult to reveal the nature of the real surface and to compare results among images. In this paper, we present an alternative edge boundary detection technique based on the wavelet framework. Our results indicate that the method facilitates nano-scale edge detection and characterization, by providing a systematic threshold determination step.

  1. Anomalous edge states and the bulk-edge correspondence for periodically-driven two dimensional systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudner, Mark Spencer; Lindner, Netanel; Berg, Erez


    revealed phenomena that cannot be characterized by analogy to the topological classification framework for static systems. In particular, in driven systems in two dimensions (2D), robust chiral edge states can appear even though the Chern numbers of all the bulk Floquet bands are zero. Here, we elucidate...... the crucial distinctions between static and driven 2D systems, and construct a new topological invariant that yields the correct edge-state structure in the driven case. We provide formulations in both the time and frequency domains, which afford additional insight into the origins of the “anomalous” spectra...... that arise in driven systems. Possibilities for realizing these phenomena in solid-state and cold-atomic systems are discussed....

  2. Performance of an edge block used in a configuration detector: Image quality measurements (United States)

    Min, Jung-Whan; Kim, Ki-Won; Seoung, Youl-Hun; Kim, Jung-Min; Choi, In-Seok; Jeong, Hoi-Woun; Son, Soon-Yong; Kim, Sang-Young; Lee, Do-Wan; Choe, Bo-Young


    In megavoltage X-ray imaging (MVI), computed radiography (CR) has required a very simple and general quality assurance (QA) method based on a radiotherapy imaging technique. The purpose of this study was to develop a general QA method for evaluating the modulation transfer function (MTF), the noise power spectrum (NPS) and the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) for MVI. Thus, a simple and compact edge block made of tungsten, with dimensions of 19 × 10 × 1 cm3, was efficiently designed and developed. The pre-sampling MTF was evaluated with the following settings: a 6 megavoltage (MV) energy, four different types of detectors, CR-IP (image plate: photo-stimulable phosphor screen), CR-IP-Lead (image plate + lead screen), CR-IP-Regular (fast front screen + image plate + fast front screen) and CR-IP-Fast (fast back screen + image plate + fast front screen). The MTF values at 1 mm-1 for CR-IP-Regular showed the highest resolution of 0.18. The best noise distribution was observed in the measurement of the NPS with CR-IP-Regular. With increasing spatial frequency, our results showed that value of the DQE for the four types of detectors was approximately 1.0 mm-1, which is comparable to the values reported in the literature. In this report, measurements for megavoltage imaging based on line-pair modulations by using an edge block are presented. When the wide side of the tungsten block was reduced, the accuracy of the edge measurement was improved to match those offered by edge techniques. The present study demonstrates that the QA method with our home-made edge block can be used to evaluate the MTF, NPS and DQE for MVI.

  3. A continuum theory of edge dislocations (United States)

    Berdichevsky, V. L.


    Continuum theory of dislocation aims to describe the behavior of large ensembles of dislocations. This task is far from completion, and, most likely, does not have a ;universal solution;, which is applicable to any dislocation ensemble. In this regards it is important to have guiding lines set by benchmark cases, where the transition from a discrete set of dislocations to a continuum description is made rigorously. Two such cases have been considered recently: equilibrium of dislocation walls and screw dislocations in beams. In this paper one more case is studied, equilibrium of a large set of 2D edge dislocations placed randomly in a 2D bounded region. The major characteristic of interest is energy of dislocation ensemble, because it determines the structure of continuum equations. The homogenized energy functional is obtained for the periodic dislocation ensembles with a random contents of the periodic cell. Parameters of the periodic structure can change slowly on distances of order of the size of periodic cells. The energy functional is obtained by the variational-asymptotic method. Equilibrium positions are local minima of energy. It is confirmed the earlier assertion that energy density of the system is the sum of elastic energy of averaged elastic strains and microstructure energy, which is elastic energy of the neutralized dislocation system, i.e. the dislocation system placed in a constant dislocation density field making the averaged dislocation density zero. The computation of energy is reduced to solution of a variational cell problem. This problem is solved analytically. The solution is used to investigate stability of simple dislocation arrays, i.e. arrays with one dislocation in the periodic cell. The relations obtained yield two outcomes: First, there is a state parameter of the system, dislocation polarization; averaged stresses affect only dislocation polarization and cannot change other characteristics of the system. Second, the structure of

  4. High and distinct range-edge genetic diversity despite local bottlenecks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Assis

    Full Text Available The genetic consequences of living on the edge of distributional ranges have been the subject of a largely unresolved debate. Populations occurring along persistent low latitude ranges (rear-edge are expected to retain high and unique genetic diversity. In contrast, currently less favourable environmental conditions limiting population size at such range-edges may have caused genetic erosion that prevails over past historical effects, with potential consequences on reducing future adaptive capacity. The present study provides an empirical test of whether population declines towards a peripheral range might be reflected on decreasing diversity and increasing population isolation and differentiation. We compare population genetic differentiation and diversity with trends in abundance along a latitudinal gradient towards the peripheral distribution range of Saccorhiza polyschides, a large brown seaweed that is the main structural species of kelp forests in SW Europe. Signatures of recent bottleneck events were also evaluated to determine whether the recently recorded distributional shifts had a negative influence on effective population size. Our findings show decreasing population density and increasing spatial fragmentation and local extinctions towards the southern edge. Genetic data revealed two well supported groups with a central contact zone. As predicted, higher differentiation and signs of bottlenecks were found at the southern edge region. However, a decrease in genetic diversity associated with this pattern was not verified. Surprisingly, genetic diversity increased towards the edge despite bottlenecks and much lower densities, suggesting that extinctions and recolonizations have not strongly reduced diversity or that diversity might have been even higher there in the past, a process of shifting genetic baselines.

  5. Face recognition via edge-based Gabor feature representation for plastic surgery-altered images (United States)

    Chude-Olisah, Chollette C.; Sulong, Ghazali; Chude-Okonkwo, Uche A. K.; Hashim, Siti Z. M.


    Plastic surgery procedures on the face introduce skin texture variations between images of the same person (intra-subject), thereby making the task of face recognition more difficult than in normal scenario. Usually, in contemporary face recognition systems, the original gray-level face image is used as input to the Gabor descriptor, which translates to encoding some texture properties of the face image. The texture-encoding process significantly degrades the performance of such systems in the case of plastic surgery due to the presence of surgically induced intra-subject variations. Based on the proposition that the shape of significant facial components such as eyes, nose, eyebrow, and mouth remains unchanged after plastic surgery, this paper employs an edge-based Gabor feature representation approach for the recognition of surgically altered face images. We use the edge information, which is dependent on the shapes of the significant facial components, to address the plastic surgery-induced texture variation problems. To ensure that the significant facial components represent useful edge information with little or no false edges, a simple illumination normalization technique is proposed for preprocessing. Gabor wavelet is applied to the edge image to accentuate on the uniqueness of the significant facial components for discriminating among different subjects. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated on the Georgia Tech (GT) and the Labeled Faces in the Wild (LFW) databases with illumination and expression problems, and the plastic surgery database with texture changes. Results show that the proposed edge-based Gabor feature representation approach is robust against plastic surgery-induced face variations amidst expression and illumination problems and outperforms the existing plastic surgery face recognition methods reported in the literature.

  6. Comparison of edge detection techniques for M7 subtype Leukemic cell in terms of noise filters and threshold value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Salam Afifah Salmi


    Full Text Available This paper will focus on the study and identifying various threshold values for two commonly used edge detection techniques, which are Sobel and Canny Edge detection. The idea is to determine which values are apt in giving accurate results in identifying a particular leukemic cell. In addition, evaluating suitability of edge detectors are also essential as feature extraction of the cell depends greatly on image segmentation (edge detection. Firstly, an image of M7 subtype of Acute Myelocytic Leukemia (AML is chosen due to its diagnosing which were found lacking. Next, for an enhancement in image quality, noise filters are applied. Hence, by comparing images with no filter, median and average filter, useful information can be acquired. Each threshold value is fixed with value 0, 0.25 and 0.5. From the investigation found, without any filter, Canny with a threshold value of 0.5 yields the best result.

  7. Wisps in the outer edge of the Keeler Gap (United States)

    Tiscareno, Matthew S.; Arnault, Ethan G.


    Superposed upon the relatively smooth outer edge of the Keeler Gap are a system of "wisps," which appear to be ring material protruding inward into the gap, usually with a sharp trailing edge and a smooth gradation back to the background edge location on the leading side (Porco et al. 2005, Science). The radial amplitude of wisps is usually 0.5 to 1 km, and their azimuthal extent is approximately a degree of longitude (~2400 km). Wisps are likely caused by an interplay between Daphnis (and perhaps other moons) and embedded moonlets within the ring, though the details remain unclear.Aside from the wisps, the Keeler Gap outer edge is the only one of the five sharp edges in the outer part of Saturn's A ring that is reasonably smooth in appearance (Tiscareno et al. 2005, DPS), with occultations indicating residuals less than 1 km upon a possibly non-zero eccentricity (R.G. French, personal communication, 2014). The other four (the inner and outer edges of the Encke Gap, the inner edge of the Keeler Gap, and the outer edge of the A ring itself) are characterized by wavy structure at moderate to high spatial frequencies, with amplitudes ranging from 2 to 30 km (Tiscareno et al. 2005, DPS).We will present a catalogue of wisp detections in Cassini images. We carry out repeated gaussian fits of the radial edge location in order to characterize edge structure and visually scan those fitted edges in order to detect wisps. With extensive coverage in longitude and in time, we will report on how wisps evolve and move, both within an orbit period and on longer timescales. We will also report on the frequency and interpretation of wisps that deviate from the standard morphology. We will discuss the implications of our results for the origin and nature of wisps, and for the larger picture of how masses interact within Saturn's rings.

  8. Liver support strategies: cutting-edge technologies. (United States)

    Struecker, Benjamin; Raschzok, Nathanael; Sauer, Igor M


    The treatment of end-stage liver disease and acute liver failure remains a clinically relevant issue. Although orthotopic liver transplantation is a well-established procedure, whole-organ transplantation is invasive and increasingly limited by the unavailability of suitable donor organs. Artificial and bioartificial liver support systems have been developed to provide an alternative to whole organ transplantation, but despite three decades of scientific efforts, the results are still not convincing with respect to clinical outcome. In this Review, conceptual limitations of clinically available liver support therapy systems are discussed. Furthermore, alternative concepts, such as hepatocyte transplantation, and cutting-edge developments in the field of liver support strategies, including the repopulation of decellularized organs and the biofabrication of entirely new organs by printing techniques or induced organogenesis are analysed with respect to clinical relevance. Whereas hepatocyte transplantation shows promising clinical results, at least for the temporary treatment of inborn metabolic diseases, so far data regarding implantation of engineered hepatic tissue have only emerged from preclinical experiments. However, the evolving techniques presented here raise hope for bioengineered liver support therapies in the future.

  9. Edge enhancement of computed tomograms by digital unsharp masking. (United States)

    Winter, J


    Edge enhanced images can be produced on existing commercial computed tomographic equipment by a method called "digital unsharp masking" without any expense or computer software development. This technique permits display of anatomic areas having an extremely wide range of densities, while making edge detail more apparent.

  10. Quantization of edge currents for continuous magnetic operators

    CERN Document Server

    Kellendonk, J


    For a magnetic Hamiltonian on a half-plane given as the sum of the Landau operator with Dirichlet boundary conditions and a random potential, a quantization theorem for the edge currents is proven. This shows that the concept of edge channels also makes sense in presence of disorder. Moreover, gaussian bounds on the heat kernel and its covariant derivatives are obtained.

  11. Shadow edge detection using geometric and photometric features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijsenij, A.; Gevers, T.


    The detection of shadow and shading edges is a first step towards reducing the imaging effects that are caused by interactions of the light source with surfaces that are in the scene. As most of the algorithms for shadow edge detection use photometric information, geometric information have been

  12. Detecting the Edge of the Tongue: A Tutorial (United States)

    Iskarous, Khalil


    The goal of this paper is to provide a tutorial introduction to the topic of edge detection of the tongue from ultrasound scans for researchers in speech science and phonetics. The method introduced here is Active Contours (also called snakes), a method for searching for an edge, assuming that it is a smooth curve in the image data. The advantage…

  13. Improvement of TNO type trailing edge noise models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Andreas; Bertagnolio, Franck; Aagaard Madsen, Helge


    The paper describes an improvement of the so-called TNO model to predict the noise emission from aerofoil sections due to the interaction of the boundary layer turbulence with the trailing edge. The surface pressure field close to the trailing edge acts as source of sound in the TNO model...

  14. Improvement of TNO type trailing edge noise models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Andreas; Bertagnolio, Franck; Aagaard Madsen, Helge


    The paper describes an improvement of the so-called TNO model to predict the noise emission from aerofoil sections due to the interaction of the boundary layer turbulence with the trailing edge. The surface pressure field close to the trailing edge acts as source of sound in the TNO model...

  15. Electron transport in edge-disordered graphene nanoribbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saloriutta, Karri; Hancock, Y.; Karkkainen, Asta


    Ab initio methods are used to study the spin-resolved transport properties of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) that have both chemical and structural edge disorder. Oxygen edge adsorbates on ideal and protruded ribbons are chosen as representative examples, with the protrusions forming the smallest...

  16. South African Identities on the Edge: Lauren Beukes's Moxyland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article explores the representation of identity in Lauren Beukes's dystopian novel, Moxyland (2008). We follow the work of various critics and argue that the text presents identity as fractured, riven and characterized by sharp edges. The edges in question refer to the boundaries of personal, corporeal, national and ...

  17. Observation of floating potential asymmetry in the edge plasma of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Edge plasma properties in a tokamak is an interesting subject of study from the view point of confinement and stability of tokamak plasma. The edge plasma of SINP-tokamak has been investigated using specially designed Langmuir probes. We have observed a poloidal asymmetry of floating potentials, particularly ...

  18. Edge Cover Domination in Mangoldt Graph | Madhavi | Momona ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In their recent study of arithmetic graphs associated with certain arithmetic functions, the authors have introduced a new class of arithmetic graphs associated with Mangoldt function Λ(n), n ≥ 1, an integer and studied their basic properties and vertex cover. In this paper the edge cover, edge domination set, bondage ...

  19. High-Resolution Stamp Fabrication by Edge Lithography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Yiping


    The aim of the project was to create high resolution stamps for thermal nanoimprint applications. The creation of nanoridges with sub-100 nm resolutions was explored by means of edge lithography via top-down routes, i.e. in combination with micromachining technology. Edge lithography is an add-on

  20. Processing of Superconductor-Normal-Superconductor Josephson Edge Junctions (United States)

    Kleinsasser, A. W.; Barner, J. B.


    The electrical behavior of epitaxial superconductor-normal-superconductor (SNS) Josephson edge junctions is strongly affected by processing conditions. Ex-situ processes, utilizing photoresist and polyimide/photoresist mask layers, are employed for ion milling edges for junctions with Yttrium-Barium-Copper-Oxide (YBCO) electrodes and primarily Co-doped YBCO interlayers.

  1. Sliding mean edge estimation. [in digital image processing (United States)

    Ford, G. E.


    A method for determining the locations of the major edges of objects in digital images is presented. The method is based on an algorithm utilizing maximum likelihood concepts. An image line-scan interval is processed to determine if an edge exists within the interval and its location. The proposed algorithm has demonstrated good results even in noisy images.

  2. Spiraling Edge: Fast Surface Reconstruction from Partially Organized Sample Points

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angel, E.; Crossno, P.


    Many applications produce three-dimensional points that must be further processed to generate a surface. Surface reconstruction algorithms that start with a set of unorganized points are extremely time-consuming. Often, however, points are generated such that there is additional information available to the reconstruction algorithm. We present a specialized algorithm for surface reconstruction that is three orders of magnitude faster than algorithms for the general case. In addition to sample point locations, our algorithm starts with normal information and knowledge of each point's neighbors. Our algorithm produces a localized approximation to the surface by creating a star-shaped triangulation between a point and a subset of its nearest neighbors. This surface patch is extended by locally triangulating each of the points along the edge of the patch. As each edge point is triangulated, it is removed from the edge and new edge points along the patch's edge are inserted in its place. The updated edge spirals out over the surface until the edge encounters a surface boundary and stops growing in that direction, or until the edge reduces to a small hole that fills itself in.

  3. Chinese Postman Problem on edge-colored multigraphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutin, Gregory; Jones, Mark; Sheng, Bin


    It is well-known that the Chinese Postman Problem on undirected and directed graphs is polynomial-time solvable. We extend this result to edge-colored multigraphs. Our result is in sharp contrast to the Chinese Postman Problem on mixed graphs, i.e., graphs with directed and undirected edges......, for which the problem is NP-hard....


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliot Krop


    Full Text Available We characterize strongly edge regular product graphs and find the edge-balanced index sets of complete bipartite graphs without a perfect matching, the direct product Kn X K2. We also prove a lemma that is helpful to determine theedge-balanced index sets of regular graphs.

  5. Subcomponent testing of trailing edge panels in wind turbine blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branner, Kim; Berring, Peter; Haselbach, Philipp Ulrich


    This paper proposes a static subcomponent test method designed to check the compressive strength of the trailing edge region in wind turbine blades under a simplified loading. The paper presents numerical simulations using the proposed subcomponent test method and discusses its ability to be used...... for checking the compressive strength of the trailing edge region in wind turbine blades....

  6. Polarimetric Edge Detector Based on the Complex Wishart Distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, Henning; Schou, Jesper; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg


    A new edge detector for polarimetric SAR data has been developed. The edge detector is based on a newly developed test statistic for equality of two complex covariance matrices following the complex Wishart distribution and an associated asymptotic probability for the test statistic. The new...... for the full polarimetric detector compared to single channel approaches....

  7. The mechanism of droplet formation in microfluidic EDGE systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijke, van K.C.; Ruiter, de R.; Schroën, C.G.P.H.; Boom, R.M.


    Edge-based droplet generation (EDGE) emulsification, which produces multiple, monodispersed droplets simultaneously at one droplet forming unit (introduced recently by our group), is studied in more detail with high-speed imaging, computational fluid dynamics and geometric modeling as research

  8. Does the edge effect impact on the measure of spatial accessibility to healthcare providers? (United States)

    Gao, Fei; Kihal, Wahida; Le Meur, Nolwenn; Souris, Marc; Deguen, Séverine


    Spatial accessibility indices are increasingly applied when investigating inequalities in health. Although most studies are making mentions of potential errors caused by the edge effect, many acknowledge having neglected to consider this concern by establishing spatial analyses within a finite region, settling for hypothesizing that accessibility to facilities will be under-reported. Our study seeks to assess the effect of edge on the accuracy of defining healthcare provider access by comparing healthcare provider accessibility accounting or not for the edge effect, in a real-world application. This study was carried out in the department of Nord, France. The statistical unit we use is the French census block known as 'IRIS' (Ilot Regroupé pour l'Information Statistique), defined by the National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies. The geographical accessibility indicator used is the "Index of Spatial Accessibility" (ISA), based on the E2SFCA algorithm. We calculated ISA for the pregnant women population by selecting three types of healthcare providers: general practitioners, gynecologists and midwives. We compared ISA variation when accounting or not edge effect in urban and rural zones. The GIS method was then employed to determine global and local autocorrelation. Lastly, we compared the relationship between socioeconomic distress index and ISA, when accounting or not for the edge effect, to fully evaluate its impact. The results revealed that on average ISA when offer and demand beyond the boundary were included is slightly below ISA when not accounting for the edge effect, and we found that the IRIS value was more likely to deteriorate than improve. Moreover, edge effect impact can vary widely by health provider type. There is greater variability within the rural IRIS group than within the urban IRIS group. We found a positive correlation between socioeconomic distress variables and composite ISA. Spatial analysis results (such as Moran's spatial

  9. Optimizing 3D Triangulations to Recapture Sharp Edges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas


    sharp edges. The energy is minimized using edge swapping, and this can be done either in a greedy fashion or using simulated annealing. The latter is more costly, but effectively avoids local minima. The method has been used on a number of models. Particularly good results have been obtained on digital......In this report, a technique for optimizing 3D triangulations is proposed. The method seeks to minimize an energy defined as a sum of energy terms for each edge in a triangle mesh. The main contribution is a novel per edge energy which strikes a balance between penalizing dihedral angle yet allowing...... terrain models. It is demonstrated how the method has been able to recapture sharp edges which are clearly present in the data but not reflected by the original triangulation of the elevation points....

  10. Living on the edge: a review of the literature. (United States)

    PetersonLund, Robin R


    A comprehensive review of the literature of the universal experience of living on the edge is discussed. Literature was reviewed from biology, criminology, ecology, economics, ethics, finance, fine arts, historical biography, medicine, nursing, philosophy, physiology, psychology, sociology, and theology. Three themes emerged with this literature review: living on the edge as a sacred place one travels to or where one lives, living on the edge as a choice in taking risks and surviving danger, and living on the edge as engaging with health experiences in which persons and nurses coparticipate. Living on the edge is a visionary quest into a new frontier that holds illimitable possibilities that transform the world. The literature is discussed according to theoretical and research findings.

  11. Evolutionary Approach Based on Active Edges Detection for Images Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slatnia Sihem


    Full Text Available There are many methods for segmentation which vary strongly in their approach to the problem of image segmentation. In this paper, We specified the study in a particular segmentation method of radiological images based on the active edges detection. The optimize solutions was chosen as the genetic algorithm optimization method, and to compare this formalism with other existing methods, we chose a greedy algorithm is criterion for its timeliness. we propose a method of genetic active edge detection in images gray level. In fact, for the convergence of the edge to the object edges, we use the classic and the greedy method. Indeed, the proposed method is based on the active edges optimization using the genetic algorithms process to minimize a sum various energies, in order to evolve a population of snakes to an individual who has the minimum energy.

  12. Edge states and skyrmion dynamics in nanostripes of frustrated magnets. (United States)

    Leonov, A O; Mostovoy, M


    Magnetic skyrmions are particle-like topological excitations recently discovered in chiral magnets. Their small size, topological protection and the ease with which they can be manipulated by electric currents generated much interest in using skyrmions for information storage and processing. Recently, it was suggested that skyrmions with additional degrees of freedom can exist in magnetically frustrated materials. Here, we show that dynamics of skyrmions and antiskyrmions in nanostripes of frustrated magnets is strongly affected by complex spin states formed at the stripe edges. These states create multiple edge channels which guide the skyrmion motion. Non-trivial topology of edge states gives rise to complex current-induced dynamics, such as emission of skyrmion-antiskyrmion pairs. The edge-state topology can be controlled with an electric current through the exchange of skyrmions and antiskyrmions between the edges of a magnetic nanostructure.

  13. Strain-activated edge reconstruction of graphene nanoribbons

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Yingchun


    The edge structure and width of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) are crucial factors for the electronic properties. A combination of experiment and first-principles calculations allows us to determine the mechanism of the hexagon-hexagon to pentagon-heptagon transformation. GNRs thinner than 2 nm have been fabricated by bombardment of graphene with high-energetic Au clusters. The edges of the GNRs are modified in situ by electron irradiation. Tensile strain along the edge decreases the transformation energy barrier. Antiferromagnetism and a direct band gap are found for a zigzag GNR, while a fully reconstructed GNR shows an indirect band gap. A GNR reconstructed on only one edge exhibits ferromagnetism. We propose that strain is an effective method to tune the edge and, therefore, the electronic structure of thin GNRs for graphene-based electronics.

  14. Tape edge study in a linear tape drive with single-flanged guides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldade, A.V.; Bhushan, Bharat E-mail:


    Improved tape guiding and tape dimensional stability are essential for magnetic tape linear recoding formats to take advantage of vastly increased track density and thereby achieve higher storage capacities. Tape guiding is dependent on numerous parameters, such as type of the guides and tape path geometry, quality of virgin tape edge, drive operating parameters (e.g., tape speed and tape tension), mechanical properties of the tape, and tape geometry (e.g., cupping and curvature). The objective of the present study is to evaluate guiding and tribological performance of single-flanged guides with porous air bearings in a linear tape drive. A comparison of guiding performance of the dual flanged stationary guides and single-flanged guides with porous air bearings is performed. The effect of tape path geometry, drive operating conditions (speed and tension) and tape edge quality of factory-slit tapes on tape guiding are evaluated during short-term tests. A lateral force measurement technique is used to measure the force exerted by the tape edge on the guide flange. A technique for the lateral tape motion measurement is used to study the effect of continuous sliding on tape guiding. Wear tests up to 5000 cycles are conducted and coefficient of friction and lateral tape motion are monitored to study the effect of drive operating conditions (speed and tension), edge quality of factory-slit tapes and tape thickness on tape guiding. Optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy are employed to study and quantify the quality of tape edge.

  15. Edge-to-edge percutaneous repair of severe mitral regurgitation--state-of-the-art for Mitraclip® implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alegria-Barrero, Eduardo; Chan, Pak Hei; Paulo, Manuel


    MitraClip® therapy is a percutaneous edge-to-edge plication of the mitral leaflets, mimicking the Alfieri surgical technique. MitraClip® implantation is a safe procedure, and survival outcomes in high-surgical-risk patients are superior to historical controls. Despite these results, questions...

  16. Optimized guidance of percutaneous edge-to edge repair of the mitral valve using real-time 3-D transesophageal echocardiography. (United States)

    Altiok, Ertunc; Becker, Michael; Hamada, Sandra; Reith, Sebastian; Marx, Nikolaus; Hoffmann, Rainer


    Percutaneous edge-to-edge repair with the MitraClip device has been shown to allow effective treatment of mitral regurgitation. It is mainly guided by transesophageal echocardiography while fluoroscopic guidance is of less importance. The impact of real-time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (RT 3-D TEE) for guidance of this complex interventional procedure has not been evaluated. In 28 high-surgical risk patients with moderate or severe mitral regurgitation (mean age 67 ± 10 years; 15 male), 2-D and RT 3-D TEE were used for the guidance of percutaneous edge-to-edge mitral valve repair using the MitraClip device. We performed a structured analysis to compare information and guidance capacity provided by RT 3-D TEE compared to 2-D TEE. RT 3-D TEE was found to provide advantages in 9 of 11 steps of the percutaneous mitral repair procedure. The advantages related to optimized definition of the transseptal puncture site, improved guidance of the clip delivery system towards the mitral valve, precise positioning of the clip delivery system simultaneously in anterior-posterior and lateral-medial direction above the mitral valve considering mitral valve scallops A2 and P2 and valvular regurgitation jet position, adjustment of the opened clip-arms perpendicular to the commissural line, visualization of the clip position relative to the valvular orifice and of the remaining regurgitant jet after clip closure from atrial as well as ventricular views providing double orifice images and thereby allowing confirmation or rejection of clip position in medial-lateral direction. RT 3-D TEE was inferior to 2-D TEE for leaflet grasping and analysis of leaflet insertion. In complex interventional edge-to-edge repair with the MitraClip device requiring optimal spatial information RT 3-D TEE allows improved guidance of the procedure. RT 3-D TEE guidance compared with 2-D TEE guidance alone resulted in greater operator confidence to adequately perform the procedure.

  17. The influence of airfoil kinematics on the formation of leading-edge vortices in bio-inspired flight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rival, David; Prangemeier, Tim; Tropea, Cameron [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany). Institute of Fluid Mechanics and Aerodynamics


    The formation process of leading-edge vortices has been investigated experimentally using Particle Image Velocimetry. Various airfoil kinematics have been tested, including asymmetric and peak-shifted plunging motions, and are evaluated for Re = 30,000 and a reduced frequency range of 0.2{<=}k{<=}0.33. By measuring the growth in the leading-edge vortex during the dynamic-stall process, the vortex pinch-off process is examined based on the concept of an optimal vortex formation time. The various kinematics are then evaluated with respect to their associated vortex strength, timing and convection into the wake. (orig.)

  18. Impact of soft contact lens edge design and midperipheral lens shape on the epithelium and its indentation with lens mobility. (United States)

    Wolffsohn, James S; Drew, Thomas; Dhallu, Sandeep; Sheppard, Amy; Hofmann, Greg J; Prince, Mark


    To evaluate the influence of soft contact lens midperipheral shape profile and edge design on the apparent epithelial thickness and indentation of the ocular surface with lens movement. Four soft contact lens designs comprising of two different plano midperipheral shape profiles and two edge designs (chiseled and knife edge) of silicone-hydrogel material were examined in 26 subjects aged 24.7 ± 4.6 years, each worn bilaterally in randomized order. Lens movement was imaged enface on insertion, at 2 and 4 hours with a high-speed, high-resolution camera simultaneous to the cross-section of the edge of the contact lens interaction with the ocular surface captured using optical coherence tomography (OCT) nasally, temporally, and inferiorly. Optical imaging distortions were individually corrected for by imaging the apparent distortion of a glass slide surface by the removed lens. Apparent epithelial thickness varied with edge position (P design. Horizontal and vertical lens movement did not change with time postinsertion. Vertical motion was affected by midperipheral lens shape profile (P design (P designs. Dynamic OCT coupled with high-resolution video demonstrated that soft contact lens movement and image-corrected ocular surface indentation were influenced by both lens edge design and midperipheral lens shape profiles.

  19. Effect of leading- and trailing-edge flaps on clipped delta wings with and without wing camber at supersonic speeds (United States)

    Hernandez, Gloria; Wood, Richard M.; Covell, Peter F.


    An experimental investigation of the aerodynamic characteristics of thin, moderately swept fighter wings has been conducted to evaluate the effect of camber and twist on the effectiveness of leading- and trailing-edge flaps at supersonic speeds in the Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel. The study geometry consisted of a generic fuselage with camber typical of advanced fighter designs without inlets, canopy, or vertical tail. The model was tested with two wing configurations an uncambered (flat) wing and a cambered and twisted wing. Each wing had an identical clipped delta planform with an inboard leading edge swept back 65 deg and an outboard leading edge swept back 50 deg. The trailing edge was swept forward 25 deg. The leading-edge flaps were deflected 4 deg to 15 deg, and the trailing-edge flaps were deflected from -30 deg to 10 deg. Longitudinal force and moment data were obtained at Mach numbers of 1.60, 1.80, 2.00, and 2.16 for an angle-of-attack range 4 deg to 20 deg at a Reynolds number of 2.16 x 10(exp 6) per foot and for an angle-of-attack range 4 deg to 20 deg at a Reynolds number of 2.0 x 10(exp 6) per foot. Vapor screen, tuft, and oil flow visualization data are also included.

  20. Effects of the Cone and Edge on the Acoustic Characteristics of a Cone Loudspeaker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Hu


    Full Text Available Loudspeakers are designed for reproducing the original sound field as faithfully as possible. In order to faithfully reproduce sound, it is important to understand the relationships among the physical characteristics of the loudspeaker. This paper focuses on the cone, the edge, and the behavior of air around the voice coil, which are important elements in the design of cone loudspeakers and evaluates their effects on the acoustic characteristics of the loudspeaker.

  1. Turbine Airfoil Leading Edge Film Cooling Bibliography: 1972–1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Kercher


    Full Text Available Film cooling for turbine airfoil leading edges has been a common practice for at least 35 years as turbine inlet gas temperatures and pressures have continually increased along with cooling air temperatures for higher engine cycle efficiency. With substantial engine cycle performance improvements from higher gas temperatures, it has become increasingly necessary to film cool nozzle and rotor blade leading edges since external heat transfer coefficients and thus heat load are the highest in this airfoil region. Optimum cooling air requirements in this harsh environment has prompted a significant number of film cooling investigations and analytical studies reported over the past 25 years from academia, industry and government agencies. Substantial progress has been made in understanding the complex nature of leading edge film cooling from airfoil cascades, simulated airfoil leading edges and environment. This bibliography is a report of the open-literature references available which provide information on the complex aero–thermo interaction of leading edge gaseous film cooling with mainstream flow. From much of this investigative information has come successful operational leading edge film cooling design systems capable of sustaining airfoil leading edge durability in very hostile turbine environments.

  2. Tablet compression tooling - Impact of punch face edge modification. (United States)

    Anbalagan, Parthiban; Heng, Paul Wan Sia; Liew, Celine Valeria


    The influence of punch face edge geometry modification on tablet compression and the properties of the resultant tablets produced on a rotary press were investigated. The results revealed that tablets produced from the punches with radius edge face geometry consistently displayed better physical quality; higher tensile strength and lower capping tendency. Modification of the angled edge of the bevel face to the curved edge of the radius face, enabled deeper punch penetration in the die cavity during the compression cycle, bringing about greater compact densification. Improved die fill packing increased interparticulate bond formation and helped to dissipate destructive elasticity within the compact, consequently reduced tablet expansion during the decompression phase. The positive impact of punch face edge modification was also more noticeable at a higher turret speed. The application of the precompression force along with dwell time extension amplified the tableting performance of radius edge punch face design to a greater extent when compared to bevel edge punch face design. This could be attributed to the enhanced packing efficiency at both precompression and main compression stages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Mechanics of mitral valve edge-to-edge-repair and MitraClip procedure. (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Shamik; He, Zhaoming


    The edge-to-edge repair (ETER) technique has been used as a stand-alone procedure, or as a secondary procedure with ring annuloplasty for degenerative, functional mitral regurgitation, or for mitral regurgitation of other kinds of valvular etiologies. The percutaneous MitraClip technique based on ETER has been used in patients who are inoperable or at high surgical risk. However, adverse events such as residual mitral regurgitation, and clip detachment or fracture indicate that the mechanics underlying these procedures is not well understood. Therefore, current studies on mitral valve functionality and mechanics related to the ETER and MitraClip procedures are reviewed to improve the efficacy and safety of both procedures. Extensive in vivo, in vitro, and in silico studies related to ETER and MitraClip procedures along with MitraClip clinical trial results are presented and discussed herein. The ETER suture force and the mitral valve tissue mechanics and hemodynamics of each procedure are discussed. A quantitative understanding of the interplay of mitral valve components and as to biological response to the procedures remains challenging. Based on mitral valve mechanics, ETER or MitraClip therapy can be optimized to enhance repair efficacy and durability.

  4. Aerodynamic Analysis of Trailing Edge Enlarged Wind Turbine Airfoils (United States)

    Xu, Haoran; Shen, Wenzhong; Zhu, Weijun; Yang, Hua; Liu, Chao


    The aerodynamic performance of blunt trailing edge airfoils generated from the DU- 91-W2-250, DU-97-W-300 and DU-96-W-350 airfoils by enlarging the thickness of trailing edge symmetrically from the location of maximum thickness to chord to the trailing edge were analyzed by using CFD and RFOIL methods at a chord Reynolds number of 3 × 106. The goal of this study is to analyze the aerodynamic performance of blunt trailing edge airfoils with different thicknesses of trailing edge and maximum thicknesses to chord. The steady results calculated by the fully turbulent k-ω SST, transitional k-ω SST model and RFOIL all show that with the increase of thickness of trailing edge, the linear region of lift is extended and the maximum lift also increases, the increase rate and amount of lift become limited gradually at low angles of attack, while the drag increases dramatically. For thicker airfoils with larger maximum thickness to chord length, the increment of lift is larger than that of relatively thinner airfoils when the thickness of blunt trailing edge is increased from 5% to 10% chord length. But too large lift can cause abrupt stall which is profitless for power output. The transient characteristics of blunt trailing edge airfoils are caused by blunt body vortices at low angles of attack, and by the combined effect of separation and blunt body vortices at large angles of attack. With the increase of thickness of blunt trailing edge, the vibration amplitudes of lift and drag curves increase. The transient calculations over-predict the lift at large angles of attack and drag at all angles of attack than the steady calculations which is likely to be caused by the artificial restriction of the flow in two dimensions.

  5. Structural Health Monitoring Analysis for the Orbiter Wing Leading Edge (United States)

    Yap, Keng C.


    This viewgraph presentation reviews Structural Health Monitoring Analysis for the Orbiter Wing Leading Edge. The Wing Leading Edge Impact Detection System (WLE IDS) and the Impact Analysis Process are also described to monitor WLE debris threats. The contents include: 1) Risk Management via SHM; 2) Hardware Overview; 3) Instrumentation; 4) Sensor Configuration; 5) Debris Hazard Monitoring; 6) Ascent Response Summary; 7) Response Signal; 8) Distribution of Flight Indications; 9) Probabilistic Risk Analysis (PRA); 10) Model Correlation; 11) Impact Tests; 12) Wing Leading Edge Modeling; 13) Ascent Debris PRA Results; and 14) MM/OD PRA Results.

  6. Colossal spin transfer torque effect on skyrmion along the edge. (United States)

    Iwasaki, Junichi; Koshibae, Wataru; Nagaosa, Naoto


    We study by the micromagnetic simulations the skyrmion motion along the edge driven by the current transverse to it. We found that (i) the velocity is enhanced by the factor of ∼ 1/α (α: the Gilbert damping) with the maximum value determined only by the confining force from the edge, (ii) the inertia appear due to the confining potential with the coordinate perpendicular to the edge playing the role of the kinetic momentum, and (iii) the collision between the two skyrmions is almost elastic without causing any internal distortions.

  7. On Super Edge-Antimagic Total Labeling Of Subdivided Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javaid Muhammad


    Full Text Available In 1980, Enomoto et al. proposed the conjecture that every tree is a super (a, 0-edge-antimagic total graph. In this paper, we give a partial sup- port for the correctness of this conjecture by formulating some super (a, d- edge-antimagic total labelings on a subclass of subdivided stars denoted by T(n, n + 1, 2n + 1, 4n + 2, n5, n6, . . . , nr for different values of the edge- antimagic labeling parameter d, where n ≥ 3 is odd, nm = 2m−4(4n+1+1, r ≥ 5 and 5 ≤ m ≤ r.

  8. Bryophyte responses to microclimatic edge effects across riparian buffers. (United States)

    Stewart, Katherine J; Mallik, Azim U


    Although riparian buffers are an important aspect of forest management in the boreal forest of Canada, little is known about the habitat conditions within buffers, due in part to complex edge effects in response to both the upland clearcut and the stream. We investigated microclimatic conditions and bryophyte growth and vitality in seven locations between the stream edge and 60 m into the upland undisturbed conifer forests and at the clearcut sites with riparian buffer 30 km northwest of Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada. We hypothesized that the growth and vitality of a pleurocarpous moss, Hylocomium splendens, and an acrocarpous moss, Polytrichum commune, would be directly related to the microclimatic gradients detected. We further hypothesized that sensitivity of the bryophytes to environmental factors will vary depending on their life form type, i.e., pleurocarpous moss will respond differently than the acrocarpous moss. Both bryophyte species were transplanted in pots and placed at 10-m intervals along 60-m transects perpendicular to the stream across the buffer and undisturbed sites. Bryophyte growth, cover, and vitality, as well as microclimatic parameters and plant cover, were measured over the summer in 2003. The riparian buffers were simultaneously affected by microclimatic gradients extending from both the clearcut edge and the riparian-upland ecotonal edge. Both bryophyte species responded to changes in the microclimatic conditions. However, vapor pressure deficit (VPD) was the most important factor influencing the growth of H. splendens, whereas for P. commune growth soil moisture was most important. Our study confirms earlier findings that interior forest bryophytes such as H. splendens can be used as indicators to monitor edge effects and biodiversity recovery following forest harvesting. We demonstrate that growth and vitality of these bryophytes reflect the prevailing near-ground microclimatic conditions at the forest edges. Abundance estimates of such

  9. Observation of Intralaminar Cracking in the Edge Crack Torsion Specimen (United States)

    Czabaj, Michael W.; Ratcliffe, James G.; Davidson, Barry D.


    The edge crack torsion (ECT) test is evaluated to determine its suitability for measuring fracture toughness associated with mode III delamination growth onset. A series of ECT specimens with preimplanted inserts with different lengths is tested and examined using nondestructive and destructive techniques. Ultrasonic inspection of all tested specimens reveals that delamination growth occurs at one interface ply beneath the intended midplane interface. Sectioning and optical microscopy suggest that the observed delamination growth results from coalescence of angled intralaminar matrix cracks that form and extend across the midplane plies. The relative orientation of these cracks is approximately 45 deg with respect to the midplane, suggesting their formation is caused by resolved principal tensile stresses arising due to the global mode-III shear loading. Examination of ECT specimens tested to loads below the level corresponding to delamination growth onset reveals that initiation of intralaminar cracking approximately coincides with the onset of nonlinearity in the specimen's force-displacement response. The existence of intralaminar cracking prior to delamination growth onset and the resulting delamination extension at an unintended interface render the ECT test, in its current form, unsuitable for characterization of mode III delamination growth onset. The broader implications of the mechanisms observed in this study are also discussed with respect to the current understanding of shear-driven delamination in tape-laminate composites.

  10. Nuclear Fuel Assay through analysis of Uranium L-shell by Hybrid L-edge/XRF Densitometer using a Surrogate Material (United States)

    Park, Seunghoon; Joung, Sungyeop; Park, Jerry


    Assay of L-series of nuclear material solution is useful for determination of amount of nuclear materials and ratio of minor actinide in the materials. The hybrid system of energy dispersive X-ray absorption edge spectrometry, i.e. L-edge densitometry, and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry is one of the analysis methods. The hybrid L-edge/XRF densitometer can be a promising candidate for a portable and compact equipment due to advantage of using low energy X-ray beams without heavy shielding systems and liquid nitrogen cooling compared to hybrid K-edge/XRF densitometer. A prototype of the equipment was evaluated for feasibility ofthe nuclear material assay using a surrogate material (lead) to avoid radiation effects from nuclear materials. The uncertainty of L-edge and XRF characteristics of the sample material and volume effects was discussed in the article.

  11. The rheology and processing of “edge sheared” colloidal polymer opals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Hon Sum; Mackley, Malcolm, E-mail:; Butler, Simon [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3RA (United Kingdom); Baumberg, Jeremy; Snoswell, David; Finlayson, Chris; Zhao, Qibin [Cavendish Laboratory, NanoPhotonics Centre, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 OHE (United Kingdom)


    This paper is concerned with the rheology and processing of solvent-free core shell “polymer opals” that consist of a soft outer shell grafted to hard colloidal polymer core particles. Strong iridescent colors can be produced by shearing the material in a certain way that causes the initially disordered spheres to rearrange into ordered crystalline structures and produce colors by diffraction and interference of multiple light scattering, similar to gemstone opals. The basic linear viscoelastic rheology of a polymer opal sample was determined as a function of temperature, and the material was found to be highly viscoelastic at all tested temperatures. A Cambridge multipass rheometer was specifically modified in order to make controlled mechanical measurements of initially disordered polymer opal tapes that were sandwiched between protective polyethylene terephthalate sheets. Axial extension, simple shear, and a novel “edge shearing” geometry were all evaluated, and multiple successive experiments of the edge shearing test were carried out at different temperatures. The optical development of colloidal ordering, measured as optical opalescence, was quantified by spectroscopy using visible backscattered light. The development of opalescence was found to be sensitive to the geometry of deformation and a number of process variables suggesting a complex interaction of parameters that caused the opalescence. In order to identify aspects of the deformation mechanism of the edge shearing experiment, a separate series of in situ optical experiments were carried out and this helped indicate the extent of simple shear generated with each edge shear deformation. The results show that strong ordering can be induced by successive edge shearing deformation. The results are relevant to polymer opal rheology, processing, and mechanisms relating to ordering within complex viscoelastic fluids.

  12. Evaluering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne; Andersen, Michael; Wandall, Jakob

    Idéen til denne bog opstod i forbindelse med undervisningen i evaluering af uddannelse på Århus Universitet. Vi oplevede, at der nok fandtes megen litteratur om evaluering, både på dansk og især engelsk, men ikke meget litteratur, der på en overskuelig og dækkende måde kunne bruges som indføring i...... det brede felt, som bogen dækker. En del dansksproget evalueringslitteratur drejer sig om programevaluering på et mere generelt niveau. Meget af denne litteratur har fokus på offentlig virksomhed, men kun i mindre grad på uddannelse. En del litteratur omhandler evaluering af undervisning, en del har...... fokus på elevers læring. Vi har villet skrive en bog, der dækker hele feltet: Evaluering af læring, undervisning og uddannelse. Vi har med bogen villet skabe overblik over dette omfattende felt, som udvikler sig i mange retninger. Dette ud fra den opfattelse, at evaluering får stadig større betydning...

  13. The research of edge extraction and target recognition based on inherent feature of objects (United States)

    Xie, Yu-chan; Lin, Yu-chi; Huang, Yin-guo


    Current research on computer vision often needs specific techniques for particular problems. Little use has been made of high-level aspects of computer vision, such as three-dimensional (3D) object recognition, that are appropriate for large classes of problems and situations. In particular, high-level vision often focuses mainly on the extraction of symbolic descriptions, and pays little attention to the speed of processing. In order to extract and recognize target intelligently and rapidly, in this paper we developed a new 3D target recognition method based on inherent feature of objects in which cuboid was taken as model. On the basis of analysis cuboid nature contour and greyhound distributing characteristics, overall fuzzy evaluating technique was utilized to recognize and segment the target. Then Hough transform was used to extract and match model's main edges, we reconstruct aim edges by stereo technology in the end. There are three major contributions in this paper. Firstly, the corresponding relations between the parameters of cuboid model's straight edges lines in an image field and in the transform field were summed up. By those, the aimless computations and searches in Hough transform processing can be reduced greatly and the efficiency is improved. Secondly, as the priori knowledge about cuboids contour's geometry character known already, the intersections of the component extracted edges are taken, and assess the geometry of candidate edges matches based on the intersections, rather than the extracted edges. Therefore the outlines are enhanced and the noise is depressed. Finally, a 3-D target recognition method is proposed. Compared with other recognition methods, this new method has a quick response time and can be achieved with high-level computer vision. The method present here can be used widely in vision-guide techniques to strengthen its intelligence and generalization, which can also play an important role in object tracking, port AGV, robots

  14. Edge-Based Image Compression with Homogeneous Diffusion (United States)

    Mainberger, Markus; Weickert, Joachim

    It is well-known that edges contain semantically important image information. In this paper we present a lossy compression method for cartoon-like images that exploits information at image edges. These edges are extracted with the Marr-Hildreth operator followed by hysteresis thresholding. Their locations are stored in a lossless way using JBIG. Moreover, we encode the grey or colour values at both sides of each edge by applying quantisation, subsampling and PAQ coding. In the decoding step, information outside these encoded data is recovered by solving the Laplace equation, i.e. we inpaint with the steady state of a homogeneous diffusion process. Our experiments show that the suggested method outperforms the widely-used JPEG standard and can even beat the advanced JPEG2000 standard for cartoon-like images.

  15. Amount of Future Forest Edge at a 2 Hectare Scale (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Forests provide economic and ecological value. High amounts of forest edge indicates a highly fragmented forest, which generally diminishes those economic and...

  16. Amount of Forest Edge at a 65 Hectare Scale (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Forests provide economic and ecological value. High amounts of forest edge indicates a highly fragmented forest, which generally diminishes those economic and...

  17. Edge delamination in angle-ply composite laminates, part 5 (United States)

    Wang, S. S.


    A theoretical method was developed for describing the edge delamination stress intensity characteristics in angle-ply composite laminates. The method is based on the theory of anisotropic elasticity. The edge delamination problem is formulated using Lekhnitskii's complex-variable stress potentials and an especially developed eigenfunction expansion method. The method predicts exact orders of the three-dimensional stress singularity in a delamination crack tip region. With the aid of boundary collocation, the method predicts the complete stress and displacement fields in a finite-dimensional, delaminated composite. Fracture mechanics parameters such as the mixed-mode stress intensity factors and associated energy release rates for edge delamination can be calculated explicity. Solutions are obtained for edge delaminated (theta/-theta theta/-theta) angle-ply composites under uniform axial extension. Effects of delamination lengths, fiber orientations, lamination and geometric variables are studied.

  18. Amount of Forest Edge at a 2 Hectare Scale (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Forests provide economic and ecological value. High amounts of forest edge indicates a highly fragmented forest, which generally diminishes those economic and...

  19. Waters Edge Land Company, LLC - Clean Water Act Public Notice (United States)

    The EPA is providing notice of an Administrative Penalty Assessment in the form of an Expedited Storm Water Settlement Agreement against Waters Edge Land Company, LLC, a business located at 10800 Farley St. Overland Park, KS, for alleged violations located

  20. Transmission Bragg edge spectroscopy measurements at ORNL Spallation Neutron Source (United States)

    Tremsin, A. S.; McPhate, J. B.; Vallerga, J. V.; Siegmund, O. H. W.; Feller, W. B.; Bilheux, H. Z.; Molaison, J. J.; Tulk, C. A.; Crow, L.; Cooper, R. G.; Penumadu, D.


    Results of neutron transmission Bragg edge spectroscopic experiments performed at the SNAP beamline of the Spallation Neutron Source are presented. A high resolution neutron counting detector with a neutron sensitive microchannel plate and Timepix ASIC readout is capable of energy resolved two dimensional mapping of neutron transmission with spatial accuracy of ~55 μm, limited by the readout pixel size, and energy resolution limited by the duration of the initial neutron pulse. A two dimensional map of the Fe 110 Bragg edge position was obtained for a bent steel screw sample. Although the neutron pulse duration corresponded to ~30 mÅ energy resolution for 15.3 m flight path, the accuracy of the Bragg edge position in our measurements was improved by analytical fitting to a few mÅ level. A two dimensional strain map was calculated from measured Bragg edge values with an accuracy of ~few hundreds μistrain for 300s of data acquisition time.

  1. Surface Micromachined Arrays of Transition-Edge Detectors Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An innovative surface micromachining technique is described for the fabrication of closely-packed arrays of transition edge sensor (TES) x-ray microcalorimeters....

  2. Intercultural Knowledge Flows in Edge Organizations: Trust as an Enabler

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gavrieli, Dana A; Scott, W. R


    ...., across military services and coalition partners) and knowledge flows. A major factor that emerges as an enabler of knowledge flows, especially in dynamic environments such as those in which Edge organizations operate, is trust...

  3. The Performance of Edge Organizations in a Collaborative Task

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chang, Kok M


    .... In this thesis, the author investigates how the various characteristics of agents influence the efficiency of an edge organization in an intelligence-gathering task using an agent-based simulation...

  4. Analyzing edge detection techniques for feature extraction in dental radiographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanika Lakhani


    Full Text Available Several dental problems can be detected using radiographs but the main issue with radiographs is that they are not very prominent. In this paper, two well known edge detection techniques have been implemented for a set of 20 radiographs and number of pixels in each image has been calculated. Further, Gaussian filter has been applied over the images to smoothen the images so as to highlight the defect in the tooth. If the images data are available in the form of pixels for both healthy and decayed tooth, the images can easily be compared using edge detection techniques and the diagnosis is much easier. Further, Laplacian edge detection technique is applied to sharpen the edges of the given image. The aim is to detect discontinuities in dental radiographs when compared to original healthy tooth. Future work includes the feature extraction on the images for the classification of dental problems.

  5. Shape Memory Alloys Application: Trailing Edge Shape Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berton, Benoit


    .... A demonstrator of this adaptive trailing edge has been designed and manufactured. An original actuation concept has been developed based on a mixed system made of push-pull SMA (Shape Memory Alloy...

  6. Selective Formation of Zigzag Edges in Graphene Cracks. (United States)

    Fujihara, Miho; Inoue, Ryosuke; Kurita, Rei; Taniuchi, Toshiyuki; Motoyui, Yoshihito; Shin, Shik; Komori, Fumio; Maniwa, Yutaka; Shinohara, Hisanori; Miyata, Yasumitsu


    We report the thermally induced unconventional cracking of graphene to generate zigzag edges. This crystallography-selective cracking was observed for as-grown graphene films immediately following the cooling process subsequent to chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on Cu foil. Results from Raman spectroscopy show that the crack-derived edges have smoother zigzag edges than the chemically formed grain edges of CVD graphene. Using these cracks as nanogaps, we were also able to demonstrate the carrier tuning of graphene through the electric field effect. Statistical analysis of visual observations indicated that the crack formation results from uniaxial tension imparted by the Cu substrates together with the stress concentration at notches in the polycrystalline graphene films. On the basis of simulation results using a simplified thermal shrinkage model, we propose that the cooling-induced tension is derived from the transient lattice expansion of narrow Cu grains imparted by the thermal shrinkage of adjacent Cu grains.

  7. A Computational Modeling Mystery Involving Airfoil Trailing Edge Treatments (United States)

    Choo, Yeunun; Epps, Brenden


    In a curious result, Fairman (2002) observed that steady RANS calculations predicted larger lift than the experimentally-measured data for six different airfoils with non-traditional trailing edge treatments, whereas the time average of unsteady RANS calculations matched the experiments almost exactly. Are these results reproducible? If so, is the difference between steady and unsteady RANS calculations a numerical artifact, or is there a physical explanation? The goals of this project are to solve this thirteen year old mystery and further to model viscous/load coupling for airfoils with non-traditional trailing edges. These include cupped, beveled, and blunt trailing edges, which are common anti-singing treatments for marine propeller sections. In this talk, we present steady and unsteady RANS calculations (ANSYS Fluent) with careful attention paid to the possible effects of asymmetric unsteady vortex shedding and the modeling of turbulence anisotropy. The effects of non-traditional trailing edge treatments are visualized and explained.

  8. Improvement and implementation for Canny edge detection algorithm (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Qiu, Yue-hong


    Edge detection is necessary for image segmentation and pattern recognition. In this paper, an improved Canny edge detection approach is proposed due to the defect of traditional algorithm. A modified bilateral filter with a compensation function based on pixel intensity similarity judgment was used to smooth image instead of Gaussian filter, which could preserve edge feature and remove noise effectively. In order to solve the problems of sensitivity to the noise in gradient calculating, the algorithm used 4 directions gradient templates. Finally, Otsu algorithm adaptively obtain the dual-threshold. All of the algorithm simulated with OpenCV 2.4.0 library in the environments of vs2010, and through the experimental analysis, the improved algorithm has been proved to detect edge details more effectively and with more adaptability.

  9. Variable range of the RKKY interaction in edged graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duffy, J M; Gorman, P D; Power, S R


    The indirect exchange interaction is one of the key factors in determining the overall alignment of magnetic impurities embedded in metallic host materials. In this work we examine the range of this interaction in magnetically doped graphene systems in the presence of armchair edges using...... a combination of analytical and numerical Green function approaches. We consider both a semi-infinite sheet of graphene with a single armchair edge, and also quasi-one-dimensional armchair-edged graphene nanoribbons (GNRs). While we find signals of the bulk decay rate in semi-infinite graphene and signals...... of the expected one-dimensional decay rate in GNRs, we also find an unusually rapid decay for certain instances in both, which manifests itself whenever the impurities are located at sites which are a multiple of three atoms from the edge. This decay behavior emerges from both the analytic and numerical...

  10. The effect of the band edges on the Seebeck coefficient. (United States)

    Sonntag, Joachim


    The classical thermopower formulae generally applied for the calculation of the Seebeck coefficient S are argued to be incomplete. S can be separated into two different contributions, a scattering term, S(0), and a thermodynamic term, ΔS, representing the additional change of the electrochemical potential μ with temperature T caused by 'non-scattering' effects, for instance, the band edge shift with T. On the basis of this separation into S(0) and ΔS, it is shown that shifts of the band edges with T lead to an additional contribution to the classical thermopower formulae. This separation provides the basis for an interpretation of positive thermopowers measured for many metals. Positive thermopower is expected if the energy of the conduction band edge increases with T and if this effect overcompensates for the influence of the energy dependent conductivity, σ(E). Using experimental thermopower data, the band edge shifts are determined for a series of liquid normal metals.

  11. 29 CFR 1917.112 - Guarding of edges. (United States)


    ... (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Terminal Facilities § 1917.112 Guarding of edges. (a) Vehicle protection. (1... structures leading to pilings or vessel mooring or berthing installations, which present a hazard of falling...

  12. Dynamic Stall Characteristics of Drooped Leading Edge Airfoils (United States)

    Sankar, Lakshmi N.; Sahin, Mehmet; Gopal, Naveen


    Helicopters in high-speed forward flight usually experience large regions of dynamic stall over the retreating side of the rotor disk. The rapid variations in the lift and pitching moments associated with the stall process can result in vibratory loads, and can cause fatigue and failure of pitch links. In some instances, the large time lag between the aerodynamic forces and the blade motion can trigger stall flutter. A number of techniques for the alleviation of dynamic stall have been proposed and studied by researchers. Passive and active control techniques have both been explored. Passive techniques include the use of high solidity rotors that reduce the lift coefficients of individual blades, leading edge slots and leading edge slats. Active control techniques include steady and unsteady blowing, and dynamically deformable leading edge (DDLE) airfoils. Considerable amount of experimental and numerical data has been collected on the effectiveness of these concepts. One concept that has not received as much attention is the drooped-leading edge airfoil idea. It has been observed in wind tunnel studies and flight tests that drooped leading edge airfoils can have a milder dynamic stall, with a significantly milder load hysteresis. Drooped leading edge airfoils may not, however, be suitable at other conditions, e.g. in hover, or in transonic flow. Work needs to be done on the analysis and design of drooped leading edge airfoils for efficient operation in a variety of flight regimes (hover, dynamic stall, and transonic flow). One concept that is worthy of investigation is the dynamically drooping airfoil, where the leading edge shape is changed roughly once-per-rev to mitigate the dynamic stall.

  13. Aerothermodynamic Optimization of Aerospace Plane Airfoil Leading Edge


    Zhou, Chen; Wang, Zhijin; Zhi, Jiaoyang; Kretov, Anatolii


    ABSTRACT: Aiming to mitigate the aerodynamic heating during hypersonic re-entry, the aerothermodynamic optimization of aerospace plane airfoil leading edge is conducted. Lift-to-drag ratio at landing condition is taken as a constraint to ensure the landing aerodynamic performance. First, airfoil profile is parametrically described to be more advantageous during the optimization process, and the Hicks-Henne type function is improved considering its application on the airfoil leading edge. Comp...

  14. Matrix model of QCD: Edge localized glueballs and phase transitions (United States)

    Acharyya, Nirmalendu; Balachandran, A. P.


    In a matrix model of pure SU(2) Yang-Mills theory, boundaries emerge in the space of Mat3(R ) and the Hamiltonian requires boundary conditions. We show the existence of edge localized glueball states that can have negative energies. These edge levels can be lifted to positive energies if the gluons acquire a London-like mass. This suggests a new phase of QCD with an incompressible bulk.

  15. Flexible Edge Nodes enabled by Hybrid Software Defined Optics & Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegas Olmos, Juan José; Mehmeri, Victor; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    This paper presents our vision on flexible edge nodes for future networks and our efforts to combine software defined optics and software defined networking to optimize the overall performance and user experience.......This paper presents our vision on flexible edge nodes for future networks and our efforts to combine software defined optics and software defined networking to optimize the overall performance and user experience....

  16. Phosphorus K-edge XANES spectroscopy of mineral standards


    Ingall, Ellery D.; Brandes, Jay A.; Diaz, Julia M.; de Jonge, Martin D.; Paterson, David; McNulty, Ian; Elliott, W. Crawford; Northrup, Paul


    Phosphorus K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy was performed on phosphate mineral specimens including (a) twelve specimens from the apatite group covering a range of compositional variation and crystallinity; (b) six non-apatite calcium-rich phosphate minerals; (c) 15 aluminium-rich phosphate minerals; (d) ten phosphate minerals rich in either reduced iron or manganese; (e) four phosphate minerals rich in either oxidized iron or manganese; (f) eight phosphate mine...

  17. Study on Trailing Edge Ramp of Supercritical Airfoil (United States)


    7 th Asia-Pacific International Symposium on Aerospace Technology, 25 – 27 November 2015, Cairns Study on Trailing Edge Ramp of Supercritical...separation bubble near the trailing edge. However, the present CFD result shows that it seems a pressure ramp without separation gains better...11372160). 2 Corresponding author. E-mail: 7 th Asia-Pacific International Symposium on Aerospace Technology, 25 – 27

  18. One-sided interval edge-colorings of bipartite graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casselgren, Carl Johan; Toft, Bjarne


    Let G be a bipartite graph with parts X and Y . An X-interval coloring of G is a proper edge coloring of G by integers such that the colors on the edges incident to any vertex in X form an interval. Denote by χ′int(G,X) the minimum k such that G has an X-interval coloring with k colors. In this p...

  19. Trailing Edge Noise Model Validation and Application to Airfoil Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertagnolio, Franck; Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Bak, Christian


    The aim of this article is twofold. First, an existing trailing edge noise model is validated by comparing with airfoil surface pressure fluctuations and far field sound pressure levels measured in three different experiments. The agreement is satisfactory in one case but poor in two other cases...... across the boundary layer near the trailing edge and to a lesser extent by a smaller boundary layer displacement thickness. ©2010 American Society of Mechanical Engineers...

  20. Spintronic properties of zigzag-edged triangular graphene flakes


    Şahin, Hasan; Senger, Ramazan Tuğrul; Çıracı, Salim


    We investigate quantum transport properties of triangular graphene flakes with zigzag edges by using first principles calculations. Triangular graphene flakes have large magnetic moments which vary with the number of hydrogen atoms terminating its edge atoms and scale with its size. Electronic transmission and current-voltage characteristics of these flakes, when contacted with metallic electrodes, reveal spin valve and remarkable rectification features. The transition from ferromagnetic to a...

  1. Impact of interventional edge-to-edge repair on mitral valve geometry. (United States)

    Schueler, Robert; Kaplan, Sarah; Melzer, Charlotte; Öztürk, Can; Weber, Marcel; Sinning, Jan-Malte; Welz, Armin; Werner, Nikos; Nickenig, Georg; Hammerstingl, Christoph


    The acute and long-term effects of interventional edge-to-edge repair on the mitral valve (MV) geometry are unclear. We sought to assess MV-annular geometry and the association of changes in MV-diameters with functional response one year after MitraClip implantation. Consecutive patients (n=84; age 81.2±8.3years, logistic EuroSCORE 21.7±17.9%) with symptomatic moderate-to-severe mitral regurgitation (MR) underwent MitraClip-procedure. MV-annular geometry was assessed with 3D TOE before, immediately and one year after clip implantation. 96.7% of secondary mitral regurgitation (SMR) patients presented with moderate-to-severe MR, 3.3% with severe SMR, respectively. 66.7% of primary MR (PMR) patients had moderate-to-severe MR, and 33.3% severe PMR respectively. When analyzing immediate effects of MitraClipC on mitral geometry, only patients with SMR (n=60, 71.4%) experienced significant reductions of the diastolic MV anterior-posterior diameters (AP: 3.9±0.5cm, 3.5±0.7cm; pgeometry were not significantly altered in patients with PMR (p>0.05). After one year of follow-up, MV annular parameters remained significantly reduced in SMR patients (p0.05). Only SMR patients experienced significant increase in 6min walking distances (p=0.004), decrease in pulmonary pressures (p=0.007) and functional NYHA-class (pgeometry in patients with SMR with stable results after 12months. Reduction of MV-annular dimensions was associated with higher rates of persisting MR reduction and better functional status in patients with SMR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Edges and Overlaps in Northwest Atlantic Phylogeography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James E. Byers


    Full Text Available As marine environments change, the greatest ecological shifts—including resource usage and species interactions—are likely to take place in or near regions of biogeographic and phylogeographic transition. However, our understanding of where these transitional regions exist depends on the defining criteria. Here we evaluate phylogeographic transitions using a bootstrapping procedure that allows us to focus on either the strongest genetic transitions between a pair of contiguous populations, versus evaluation of transitions inclusive of the entire overlap between two intraspecific genetic lineages. We compiled data for the Atlantic coast of the United States, and evaluate taxa with short- and long-dispersing larval phases separately. Our results are largely concordant with previous biogeographic and phylogeographic analyses, indicating strong biotic change associated with the regions near Cape Cod, the Delmarva Peninsula, and eastern Florida. However, inclusive analysis of the entire range of sympatry for intraspecific lineages suggests that broad regions—the Mid-Atlantic Bight and eastern Florida–already harbor divergent intraspecific lineages, suggesting the potential for ecological evaluation of resource use between these lineages. This study establishes baseline information for tracking how such patterns change as predicted environmental changes take place.

  3. Na-Montmorillonite Edge Structure and Surface Complexes: An Atomistic Perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aric G Newton; Jin-Yong Lee; Kideok D Kwon


    The edges of montmorillonite (MMT) react strongly with metals and organic matter, but the atomic structure of the edge and its surface complexes are not unambiguous since the experimental isolation of the edge is challenging...

  4. Symmetric airfoil geometry effects on leading edge noise. (United States)

    Gill, James; Zhang, X; Joseph, P


    Computational aeroacoustic methods are applied to the modeling of noise due to interactions between gusts and the leading edge of real symmetric airfoils. Single frequency harmonic gusts are interacted with various airfoil geometries at zero angle of attack. The effects of airfoil thickness and leading edge radius on noise are investigated systematically and independently for the first time, at higher frequencies than previously used in computational methods. Increases in both leading edge radius and thickness are found to reduce the predicted noise. This noise reduction effect becomes greater with increasing frequency and Mach number. The dominant noise reduction mechanism for airfoils with real geometry is found to be related to the leading edge stagnation region. It is shown that accurate leading edge noise predictions can be made when assuming an inviscid meanflow, but that it is not valid to assume a uniform meanflow. Analytic flat plate predictions are found to over-predict the noise due to a NACA 0002 airfoil by up to 3 dB at high frequencies. The accuracy of analytic flat plate solutions can be expected to decrease with increasing airfoil thickness, leading edge radius, gust frequency, and Mach number.

  5. Edge compression techniques for visualization of dense directed graphs. (United States)

    Dwyer, Tim; Henry Riche, Nathalie; Marriott, Kim; Mears, Christopher


    We explore the effectiveness of visualizing dense directed graphs by replacing individual edges with edges connected to 'modules'-or groups of nodes-such that the new edges imply aggregate connectivity. We only consider techniques that offer a lossless compression: that is, where the entire graph can still be read from the compressed version. The techniques considered are: a simple grouping of nodes with identical neighbor sets; Modular Decomposition which permits internal structure in modules and allows them to be nested; and Power Graph Analysis which further allows edges to cross module boundaries. These techniques all have the same goal--to compress the set of edges that need to be rendered to fully convey connectivity--but each successive relaxation of the module definition permits fewer edges to be drawn in the rendered graph. Each successive technique also, we hypothesize, requires a higher degree of mental effort to interpret. We test this hypothetical trade-off with two studies involving human participants. For Power Graph Analysis we propose a novel optimal technique based on constraint programming. This enables us to explore the parameter space for the technique more precisely than could be achieved with a heuristic. Although applicable to many domains, we are motivated by--and discuss in particular--the application to software dependency analysis.

  6. A study of slanted-edge MTF stability and repeatability (United States)

    Roland, Jackson K. M.


    The slanted-edge method of measuring the spatial frequency response (SFR) as an approximation of the modulation transfer function (MTF) has become a well known and widely used image quality testing method over the last 10 years. This method has been adopted by multiple international standards including ISO and IEEE. Nearly every commercially available image quality testing software includes the slanted-edge method and there are numerous open-source algorithms available. This method is one of the most important image quality algorithms in use today. This paper explores test conditions and the impacts they have on the stability and precision of the slanted-edge method as well as details of the algorithm itself. Real world and simulated data are used to validate the characteristics of the algorithm. Details of the target such as edge angle and contrast ratio are tested to determine the impact on measurement under various conditions. The original algorithm defines a near vertical edge so that errors introduced are minor but the theory behind the algorithm requires a perfectly vertical edge. A correction factor is introduced as a way to compensate for this problem. Contrast ratio is shown to have no impact on results in an absence of noise.

  7. Moisture ingress prediction in polyisobutylene-based edge seal with molecular sieve desiccant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kempe, Michael D. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO 80401 USA; Nobles, Dylan L. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO 80401 USA; Postak, Lori [Quanex IG Systems, Inc., Cambridge OH 43725 USA; Calderon, Jose Alonzo [First Solar, Inc., Perrysburg OH 43551 USA


    Often photovoltaic modules are constructed with materials that are sensitive to water. This is most often the case with thin film technologies, including perovskite cells, where the active layers are a few microns thick and can be sensitive to moisture, liquid water or both. When moisture or liquid water can ingress, a small amount of water can lead to corrosion and depending on the resulting reactions, a larger local detrimental effect is possible. To prevent moisture from contacting photovoltaic components, impermeable frontsheets and backsheets are used with a polyisobutylene (PIB)-based edge seal material around the perimeter. Here, we evaluate the ability of a PIB-based edge seal using a molecular sieve desiccant to keep moisture out for the expected module lifetime. Moisture ingress is evaluated using test coupons where the edge seal is placed between 2 pieces of glass, one of which has a metallic calcium film on it, and monitoring the moisture ingress distance as a function of time. We expose samples to different temperature and humidity conditions to create permeation models useful for extrapolation to field use. This extrapolation indicates that this PIB material is capable of keeping moisture out of a module for the desired lifetime.

  8. Topological phases and edge states in a non-Hermitian trimerized optical lattice (United States)

    Jin, L.


    Topologically engineered optical materials support robust light transport. Herein, the investigated non-Hermitian lattice is trimerized and inhomogeneously coupled using uniform intracell coupling. The topological properties of the coupled waveguide lattice are evaluated and we find that the PT -symmetric phase of a PT -symmetric lattice can have different topologies; the edge states depend on the lattice size, boundary configuration, and competition between the coupling and degree of non-Hermiticity. The topologically nontrivial region is extended in the presence of periodic gain and loss. The nonzero geometric phases accumulated by the Bloch bands indicate the existence of topologically protected edge states between the band gaps. The unidirectional amplification and attenuation zero modes appear above a threshold degree of non-Hermiticity, which facilitates the development of a robust optical diode.

  9. Performance of Swashplateless Ultralight Helicopter Rotor with Trailing-edge Flaps for Primary Flight Control (United States)

    Shen, Jin-Wei; Chopra, Inderjit


    The objective of present study is to evaluate the rotor performance, trailing-edge deflections and actuation requirement of a helicopter rotor with trailing-edge flap system for primary flight control. The swashplateless design is implemented by modifying a two-bladed teetering rotor of an production ultralight helicopter through the use of plain flaps on the blades, and by replacing the pitch link to fixed system control system assembly with a root spring. A comprehensive rotorcraft analysis based on UMARC is carried out to obtain the results for both the swashplateless and a conventional baseline rotor configuration. The predictions show swashplateless configuration achieve superior performance than the conventional rotor attributed from reduction of parasite drag by eliminating swashplate mechanic system. It is indicated that optimal selection of blade pitch index angle, flap location, length, and chord ratio reduces flap deflections and actuation requirements, however, has virtually no effect on rotor performance.

  10. Compact OAM microscope for edge enhancement of biomedical and object samples (United States)

    Gozali, Richard; Nguyen, Thien-An; Bendau, Ethan; Alfano, Robert R.


    The production of orbital angular momentum (OAM) by using a q-plate, which functions as an electrically tunable spatial frequency filter, provides a simple and efficient method of edge contrast in biological and medical sample imaging for histological evaluation of tissue, smears, and PAP smears. An instrument producing OAM, such as a q-plate, situated at the Fourier plane of a 4f lens system, similar to the use of a high-pass spatial filter, allows the passage of high spatial frequencies and enables the production of an image with highly illuminated edges contrasted against a dark background for both opaque and transparent objects. Compared with ordinary spiral phase plates and spatial light modulators, the q-plate has the added advantage of electric control and tunability.

  11. Ultrasonic Vibration Assisted Grinding of Bio-ceramic Materials: Modeling, Simulation, and Experimental Investigations on Edge Chipping (United States)

    Tesfay, Hayelom D.

    Bio-ceramics are those engineered materials that find their applications in the field of biomedical engineering or medicine. They have been widely used in dental restorations, repairing bones, joint replacements, pacemakers, kidney dialysis machines, and respirators. etc. due to their physico-chemical properties, such as excellent corrosion resistance, good biocompatibility, high strength and high wear resistance. Because of their inherent brittleness and hardness nature they are difficult to machine to exact sizes and dimensions. Abrasive machining processes such as grinding is one of the most widely used manufacturing processes for bioceramics. However, the principal technical challenge resulted from these machining is edge chipping. Edge chipping is a common edge failure commonly observed during the machining of bio-ceramic materials. The presence of edge chipping on bio-ceramic products affects dimensional accuracy, increases manufacturing cost, hider their industrial applications and causes potential failure during service. To overcome these technological challenges, a new ultrasonic vibration-assisted grinding (UVAG) manufacturing method has been developed and employed in this research. The ultimate aim of this study is to develop a new cost-effective manufacturing process relevant to eliminate edge chippings in grinding of bio-ceramic materials. In this dissertation, comprehensive investigations will be carried out using experimental, theoretical, and numerical approaches to evaluate the effect of ultrasonic vibrations on edge chipping of bioceramics. Moreover, effects of nine input variables (static load, vibration frequency, grinding depth, spindle speed, grinding distance, tool speed, grain size, grain number, and vibration amplitude) on edge chipping will be studied based on the developed models. Following a description of previous research and existing approaches, a series of experimental tests on three bio-ceramic materials (Lava, partially fired Lava

  12. Oscillations of a Turbulent Jet Incident Upon an Edge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.C. Lin; D. Rockwell


    For the case of a jet originating from a fully turbulent channel flow and impinging upon a sharp edge, the possible onset and nature of coherent oscillations has remained unexplored. In this investigation, high-image-density particle image velocimetry and surface pressure measurements are employed to determine the instantaneous, whole-field characteristics of the turbulent jet-edge interaction in relation to the loading of the edge. It is demonstrated that even in absence of acoustic resonant or fluid-elastic effects, highly coherent, self-sustained oscillations rapidly emerge above the turbulent background. Two clearly identifiable modes of instability are evident. These modes involve large-scale vortices that are phase-locked to the gross undulations of the jet and its interaction with the edge, and small-scale vortices, which are not phase-locked. Time-resolved imaging of instantaneous vorticity and velocity reveals the form, orientation, and strength of the large-scale concentrations of vorticity approaching the edge in relation to rapid agglomeration of small-scale vorticity concentrations. Such vorticity field-edge interactions exhibit rich complexity, relative to the simplified pattern of vortex-edge interaction traditionally employed for the quasi-laminar edgetone. Furthermore, these interactions yield highly nonlinear surface pressure signatures. The origin of this nonlinearity, involving coexistence of multiple frequency components, is interpreted in terms of large- and small-scale vortices embedded in distributed vorticity layers at the edge. Eruption of the surface boundary layer on the edge due to passage of the large-scale vortex does not occur; rather apparent secondary vorticity concentrations are simply due to distension of the oppositely-signed vorticity layer at the tip of the edge. The ensemble-averaged turbulent statistics of the jet quickly take on an identity that is distinct from the statistics of the turbulent boundary layer in the channel

  13. Pure spin current induced by adiabatic quantum pumping in zigzag-edged graphene nanoribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souma, Satofumi, E-mail:; Ogawa, Matsuto [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)


    We show theoretically that pure spin current can be generated in zigzag edged graphene nanoribbons through the adiabatic pumping by edge selective pumping potentials. The origin of such pure spin current is the spin splitting of the edge localized states, which are oppositely spin polarized at opposite edges. In the proposed device, each edge of the ribbon is covered by two independent time-periodic local gate potentials with a definite phase difference, inducing the edge spin polarized current. When the pumping phase difference is opposite in sign between two edges, the total charge currents is zero and the pure edge spin current is generated.

  14. Edge Probability and Pixel Relativity-Based Speckle Reducing Anisotropic Diffusion. (United States)

    Mishra, Deepak; Chaudhury, Santanu; Sarkar, Mukul; Soin, Arvinder Singh; Sharma, Vivek


    Anisotropic diffusion filters are one of the best choices for speckle reduction in the ultrasound images. These filters control the diffusion flux flow using local image statistics and provide the desired speckle suppression. However, inefficient use of edge characteristics results in either oversmooth image or an image containing misinterpreted spurious edges. As a result, the diagnostic quality of the images becomes a concern. To alleviate such problems, a novel anisotropic diffusion-based speckle reducing filter is proposed in this paper. A probability density function of the edges along with pixel relativity information is used to control the diffusion flux flow. The probability density function helps in removing the spurious edges and the pixel relativity reduces the oversmoothing effects. Furthermore, the filtering is performed in superpixel domain to reduce the execution time, wherein a minimum of 15% of the total number of image pixels can be used. For performance evaluation, 31 frames of three synthetic images and 40 real ultrasound images are used. In most of the experiments, the proposed filter shows a better performance as compared to the state-of-the-art filters in terms of the speckle region's signal-to-noise ratio and mean square error. It also shows a comparative performance for figure of merit and structural similarity measure index. Furthermore, in the subjective evaluation, performed by the expert radiologists, the proposed filter's outputs are preferred for the improved contrast and sharpness of the object boundaries. Hence, the proposed filtering framework is suitable to reduce the unwanted speckle and improve the quality of the ultrasound images.

  15. Origin of the pre-edge structure at the Al K-edge: The role of atomic vibrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabaret, Delphine; Brouder, Christian, E-mail: Delphine.Cabaret@impmc.jussieu.f [Institut de Mineralogie et Physique des Milieux Condenses, UMR 7590 CNRS, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Universite Paris Diderot, IPGP, IRD, 140 rue de Lourmel, 75015 Paris (France)


    We present a detailed analysis of the pre-edge peak present in the Al K-edge XANES spectra of corundum ({alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and diaspore ({alpha}-AlOOH), as measured at room temperature. This is achieved by XANES and DOS calculations performed using the density functional theory in a pseudopotential plane-wave framework. The XANES calculations carried out for the equilibrium atomic positions do not reproduce the pre-edge of corundum and partially reproduce it in the case of diaspore. It is shown that the electronic transitions occuring in the pre-edge involves the 3s empty states of the aluminium absorbing atom. The Al 3s states can be probed in the electric dipole approximation via a p-s mixing, which is possible only if the Al site is not centrosymmetric. Although Al does not occupy an inversion center in the two minerals under study, the p-s mixing is too weak to provide a pre-edge feature in good agreement with experiment. The deviation from centrosymmetry can be enhanced by the atomic vibrations. We develop a theory that takes into account the atomic vibrations directly in the calculation of the absorption cross section, based on the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. This theory is applied to corundum and diaspore and yields satisfactory results in the pre-edge region.

  16. Design and conceptualization of a cutting tool to investigate the influence of the shear cutting process on edge crack sensitivity (United States)

    Feistle, M.; Krinninger, M.; Paetzold, I.; Stahl, J.; Golle, R.; Volk, W.


    High-strength and ultra-high-strength sheet materials are becoming increasingly integrated in the automotive and commercial vehicle industries. Consequently, their edge crack sensitivity requires particular attention, starting with the component design. In addition to the only standardized testing method, the hole expansion test according to ISO 16630, various testing procedures characterize the occurrence of edge cracks. However, neither the ISO standard nor any other published experimental setup focuses on the design of the cutting tool used to generate the cutting surfaces, which is fundamental in order to produce conclusive results with low variance. This paper presents the constructive design and choice of materials with regard to a cutting tool for the Edge-Fracture-Tensile-Test as well as a punching tool for the hole expansion test. The modular concept allows an evaluation of the influence of the following parameters on the edge crack sensitivity: single-stage or multi-stage shear cutting process, open or closed cutting line, die clearance, cutting edge geometry.

  17. Edge-functionalized nanoporous carbons for high adsorption capacity and selectivity of CO2 over N2 (United States)

    Zhou, Sainan; Guo, Chen; Wu, Zhonghua; Wang, Maohuai; Wang, Zhaojie; Wei, Shuxian; Li, Shaoren; Lu, Xiaoqing


    Single-component adsorption and competitive behavior of binary CO2/N2 mixture in the edge-functionalized nanoporous carbons (NPCs) were investigated by grand canonical Monte Carlo simulation. Results demonstrated that edge-functionalization effectively improved the pore topology and morphological characteristics of NPCs. Evaluation of adsorption capacity and analyses of the isosteric heat and radial distribution functions confirmed that edge-functionalization can evidently enhance the single-component adsorption of CO2/N2. Temperature had a negative effect on the single-component adsorption of CO2/N2 whereas pressure had a positive effect before adsorption reaches a stable equilibrium state. Edge-functionalization can significantly increase the selectivity of CO2 over N2 in NPCs, which demonstrate the following sequence according to selectivity: NH2sbnd NPC > COOHsbnd NPC > OHsbnd NPC > Hsbnd NPC > NPC. The increased CO2 molar fraction in the binary CO2/N2 mixture decreased the selectivity and saturation pressure to reach a stable equilibrium state. Overall, this work highlighted the effects of edge-functionalization on the adsorption and separation of CO2/N2 in NPCs, and provided an effective strategy for designing and screening adsorbent materials for carbon capture and separation.

  18. Characterizing Polar Mesospheric Summer Echo Edge Effect Formation (United States)

    Yee, J.; Bahcivan, H.


    Polar Mesospheric Summer Echoes (PMSEs) form in the summer mesopause region, between altitudes of 80 and 90 km. This phenomenon occurs in this region because of the extremely cold temperatures that allow for ice particles to develop, sediment, and grow to sizes as large as ~20 nm. Because these ice particles are immersed in the plasma of the D-region, electrons can attach to the ice surfaces and charge them. There are two trains of thought when it comes to the backscatter seen in sounding rocket and radar measurements of PMSEs. The first assumes that the structure of the PMSEs is driven by turbulent velocity fields and that radar detections are due to turbulent scattering. The second theory on the scatter from PMSE structures is that the echoes result from multiple sharp small-scale ledges that produce an edge scatter. In decomposing sounding rocket data, results have indicated that both scattering mechanisms play a role in PMSE backscatter. However, whereas the turbulent scatter theory is well developed, the physics behind the sharp-edge phenomena in the edge scattering theory has not been explained to date. We investigate the formation of the sharp edges in electron density detected by sounding rockets and in backscattered power detected by ground-based radars during PMSE regions by exploring the initial process by which PMSEs form using a one dimensional (1D) particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation. The simulation, adapted from the Plasma Theory and Simulation Group at UC Berkley, starts with the ice particles immersed in a warm electron-ion plasma and allows for the charging process of the ice particles. Starting with an initial Gaussian distribution of ice particles, we show that as the ice particles charge, they increase in mass more quickly (i.e. accumulate more electrons and ions) at the edges of the PMSE structure. This increased mass decreases the diffusion rates of the edges and 'freezes' the edges of the PMSE. This result demonstrates that the reason for the

  19. Automatic comic page image understanding based on edge segment analysis (United States)

    Liu, Dong; Wang, Yongtao; Tang, Zhi; Li, Luyuan; Gao, Liangcai


    Comic page image understanding aims to analyse the layout of the comic page images by detecting the storyboards and identifying the reading order automatically. It is the key technique to produce the digital comic documents suitable for reading on mobile devices. In this paper, we propose a novel comic page image understanding method based on edge segment analysis. First, we propose an efficient edge point chaining method to extract Canny edge segments (i.e., contiguous chains of Canny edge points) from the input comic page image; second, we propose a top-down scheme to detect line segments within each obtained edge segment; third, we develop a novel method to detect the storyboards by selecting the border lines and further identify the reading order of these storyboards. The proposed method is performed on a data set consisting of 2000 comic page images from ten printed comic series. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method achieves satisfactory results on different comics and outperforms the existing methods.

  20. Sudden distortion of turbulence at a forest edge (United States)

    Mann, J.; Dellwik, E.


    Dellwik et al. (2013) presented data from a forest edge experiment based on two meteorological towers instrumented with sonic anemometers. The experiment was performed at a dense edge of the Tromnæs Forest, which is a 24 m tall mature beech stand on the island Falster, Denmark. The topography at the site is flat. The towers were placed approximately 1.5 canopy heights upwind and downwind of the edge, respectively, and were two canopy heights tall. For near-neutral, near-perpendicular flow towards the edge, one finding concerned that although the wind speed gradients were similar before and after the edge, the momentum flux was strongly reduced above the canopy. This is contrary to the results by standard Reynolds' averaged Navier-Stokes models that predict an overshoot of the momentum flux. Further, a reduction of the vertical variance of the flow was largely compensated by an increase in the lateral variance, whereas the streamwise variance remained approximately constant. This result is in contrast to the predictions by homogeneous rapid distortion theory. We apply and develop an alternative framework based on inhomogeneous rapid distortion theory, also called blocking, in combination with the turbulence model by Mann (1994), and investigate whether this model can predict the observed changes of the flow. The presented results are relevant for understanding the rapid changes of turbulence in the heterogeneous landscape.

  1. Improvement of airfoil trailing edge bluntness noise model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Jun Zhu


    Full Text Available In this article, airfoil trailing edge bluntness noise is investigated using both computational aero-acoustic and semi-empirical approach. For engineering purposes, one of the most commonly used prediction tools for trailing edge noise are based on semi-empirical approaches, for example, the Brooks, Pope, and Marcolini airfoil noise prediction model developed by Brooks, Pope, and Marcolini (NASA Reference Publication 1218, 1989. It was found in previous study that the Brooks, Pope, and Marcolini model tends to over-predict noise at high frequencies. Furthermore, it was observed that this was caused by a lack in the model to predict accurately noise from blunt trailing edges. For more physical understanding of bluntness noise generation, in this study, we also use an advanced in-house developed high-order computational aero-acoustic technique to investigate the details associated with trailing edge bluntness noise. The results from the numerical model form the basis for an improved Brooks, Pope, and Marcolini trailing edge bluntness noise model.

  2. Naegleria fowleri: contact-dependent secretion of electrondense granules (EDG). (United States)

    Chávez-Munguía, Bibiana; Villatoro, Lizbeth Salazar; Omaña-Molina, Maritza; Rodríguez-Monroy, Marco Aurelio; Segovia-Gamboa, Norma; Martínez-Palomo, Adolfo


    The free living amoeba Naegleria fowleri is pathogenic to humans but also to other mammalians. These amoebae may invade the nasal mucosa and migrate into the brain causing cerebral hemorrhagic necrosis, a rapidly fatal infection. Knowledge of the cytolytic mechanism involved in the destruction of brain tissues by Naegleria trophozoites is limited. In other amoebic species, such as Entamoeba histolytica, we have previously reported the possible lytic role of small cytoplasmic components endowed with proteolytic activities, known as electrondense granules (EDG). Using transmission electron microscopy we now report that EDG, seldom found in long term cultured N. fowleri, are present in abundance in trophozoites recovered from experimental mice brain lesions. Numerous EDG were also observed in amoebae incubated with collagen substrates or cultured epithelial cells. SDS-PAGE assays of concentrated supernatants of these trophozoites, containing EDG, revealed proteolytic activities. These results suggest that EDG may have a clear role in the cytopathic mechanisms of this pathogenic amoeba. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Modeling of Edge Plasma Transport in 3D (United States)

    Umansky, M. V.; Rognlien, T. D.; Fenstermacher, M. E.; Borchardt, M.; Riemann, J.; Schneider, R.


    Two-dimensional fluid codes have become standard modeling tools for scrape-off layer and divertor in tokamaks. Such 2D codes (UEDGE, B2, EDGE2D) solve a reduced set of plasma fluid equations with the assumption of toroidal symmetry. However perfect toroidal symmetry in tokamak edge never holds due to details of plasma facing components. Moreover, with the renewed interest in stellarators with several major experiments under way or planned (W7AS, W7X, LHD, NCSX) there is a demand for 3D modeling tools for the edge plasma. One such tool under development is the 3D fluid edge code BoRiS. (M.Borchardt et al., J. Nucl. Mater., 290-293 (2001) 546-550.) A focus of the present investigation is development and testing robust numerical schemes for edge plasma fluid equations in 3D. This analysis includes benchmarking of BoRiS on sample problems where an exact solution can be found, and benchmarking against a 2D code such as UEDGE for the toroidally symmetric case. We will discuss the options for parallelization of BoRiS which will be necessary for making it a practical tool. Results will be presented for application of BoRiS to the NCSX stellarator geometry, which will provide insight on the design of plasma facing components.

  4. Magnetic X-points, edge localized modes, and stochasticitya) (United States)

    Sugiyama, L. E.; Strauss, H. R.


    Edge localized modes (ELMs) near the boundary of a high temperature, magnetically confined toroidal plasma represent a new type of nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) plasma instability that grows through a coherent plasma interaction with part of a chaotic magnetic field. Under perturbation, the freely moving magnetic boundary surface with an X-point splits into two different limiting asymptotic surfaces (manifolds), similar to the behavior of a hyperbolic saddle point in Hamiltonian dynamics. Numerical simulation using the extended MHD code M3D shows that field-aligned plasma instabilities, such as ballooning modes, can couple to the "unstable" manifold that forms helical, field-following lobes around the original surface. Large type I ELMs proceed in stages. Initially, a rapidly growing ballooning outburst involves the entire outboard side. Large plasma fingers grow well off the midplane, while low density regions penetrate deeply into the plasma. The magnetic field becomes superficially stochastic. A secondary inboard edge instability causes inboard plasma loss. The plasma gradually relaxes back toward axisymmetry, with diminishing cycles of edge instability. Poloidal rotation of the interior and edge plasma may be driven. The magnetic tangle constrains the early nonlinear ballooning, but may encourage the later inward penetration. Equilibrium toroidal rotation and two-fluid diamagnetic drifts have relatively small effects on a strong MHD instability. Intrinsic magnetic stochasticity may help explain the wide range of experimentally observed ELMs and ELM-free behavior in fusion plasmas, as well as properties of the H-mode and plasma edge.

  5. Phosphorus K-edge XANES spectroscopy of mineral standards. (United States)

    Ingall, Ellery D; Brandes, Jay A; Diaz, Julia M; de Jonge, Martin D; Paterson, David; McNulty, Ian; Elliott, W Crawford; Northrup, Paul


    Phosphorus K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy was performed on phosphate mineral specimens including (a) twelve specimens from the apatite group covering a range of compositional variation and crystallinity; (b) six non-apatite calcium-rich phosphate minerals; (c) 15 aluminium-rich phosphate minerals; (d) ten phosphate minerals rich in either reduced iron or manganese; (e) four phosphate minerals rich in either oxidized iron or manganese; (f) eight phosphate minerals rich in either magnesium, copper, lead, zinc or rare-earth elements; and (g) four uranium phosphate minerals. The identity of all minerals examined in this study was independently confirmed using X-ray powder diffraction. Minerals were distinguished using XANES spectra with a combination of pre-edge features, edge position, peak shapes and post-edge features. Shared spectral features were observed in minerals with compositions dominated by the same specific cation. Analyses of apatite-group minerals indicate that XANES spectral patterns are not strongly affected by variations in composition and crystallinity typical of natural mineral specimens.

  6. Surfing the edge: using feedback control to find nonlinear solutions (United States)

    Willis, A. P.; Duguet, Y.; Omel'chenko, O.; Wolfrum, M.


    Many transitional wall-bounded shear flows are characterised by the coexistence in state-space of laminar and turbulent regimes. Probing the edge boundary between the two attractors has led in the last decade to the numerical discovery of new (unstable) solutions to the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. However, the iterative bisection method used to achieve this can become prohibitively costly for large systems. Here we suggest a simple feedback control strategy to stabilise edge states, hence accelerating their numerical identification by several orders of magnitude. The method is illustrated for several configurations of cylindrical pipe flow. Travelling waves solutions are identified as edge states, and can be isolated rapidly in only one short numerical run. A new branch of solutions is also identified. When the edge state is a periodic orbit or chaotic state, the feedback control does not converge precisely to solutions of the uncontrolled system, but nevertheless brings the dynamics very close to the original edge manifold in a single run. We discuss the opportunities offered by the speed and simplicity of this new method to probe the structure of both state space and parameter space.

  7. Prediction of noise from serrated trailing-edges

    CERN Document Server

    Lyu, B; Sinayoko, S


    A new analytical model is developed for the prediction of noise from serrated trailing-edges. The model generalizes Amiet's trailing-edge noise theory to sawtooth trailing-edges, resulting in an inhomogeneous partial differential equation. The equation is then solved by means of a Fourier expansion technique combined with an iterative procedure. The solution is validated through comparison with finite element method for a variety of serrations at different Mach numbers. Results obtained using the new model predict noise reduction of up to 10 dB at 90 degree above the trailing-edge, which is more realistic than predictions based on Howe's model and also more consistent with experimental observations. A thorough analytical and numerical analysis of the physical mechanism is carried out and suggests that the noise reduction due to serration originates primarily from interference effects near the trailing-edge. A closer inspection of the proposed mathematical model has led to the development of two criteria for t...

  8. The Existence of Topological Edge States in Honeycomb Plasmonic Lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Li; Xiao, Meng; Han, Dezhuan; Chan, C T; Wen, Weijia


    In this paper, we investigate the band properties of 2D honeycomb plasmonic lattices consisting of metallic nanoparticles. By means of the coupled dipole method and quasi-static approximation, we theoretically analyze the band structures stemming from near-field interaction of localized surface plasmon polaritons for both the infinite lattice and ribbons. Naturally, the interaction of point dipoles decouples into independent out-of-plane and in-plane polarizations. For the out-of-plane modes, both the bulk spectrum and the range of the momentum $k_{\\parallel}$ where edge states exist in ribbons are similar to the electronic bands in graphene. Nevertheless, the in-plane polarized modes show significant differences, which do not only possess additional non-flat edge states in ribbons, but also have different distributions of the flat edge states in reciprocal space. For in-plane polarized modes, we derived the bulk-edge correspondence, namely, the relation between the number of flat edge states at a fixed $k_\\p...

  9. Cosine edge modes in a periodically driven quantum system (United States)

    Satija, Indubala I.; Zhao, Erhai


    Time-periodic (Floquet) topological phases of matter exhibit bulk-edge relationships that are more complex than static topological insulators and superconductors. Finding the edge modes unique to driven systems usually requires numerics. Here we present a minimal two-band model of Floquet topological insulators and semimetals in two dimensions where all the bulk and edge properties can be obtained analytically. It is based on the extended Harper model of quantum Hall effect at flux one-half. We show that periodical driving gives rise to a series of phases characterized by a pair of integers. The model has a most striking feature: the spectrum of the edge modes is always given by a single cosine function, ω (ky) ∝cosky where ky is the wave number along the edge, as if it is freely dispersing and completely decoupled from the bulk. The cosine mode is robust against the change in driving parameters. It also persists in the semimetallic phases with Dirac points.

  10. Material Discrimination Based on K-edge Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng He


    Full Text Available Spectral/multienergy CT employing the state-of-the-art energy-discriminative photon-counting detector can identify absorption features in the multiple ranges of photon energies and has the potential to distinguish different materials based on K-edge characteristics. K-edge characteristics involve the sudden attenuation increase in the attenuation profile of a relatively high atomic number material. Hence, spectral CT can utilize material K-edge characteristics (sudden attenuation increase to capture images in available energy bins (levels/windows to distinguish different material components. In this paper, we propose an imaging model based on K-edge characteristics for maximum material discrimination with spectral CT. The wider the energy bin width is, the lower the noise level is, but the poorer the reconstructed image contrast is. Here, we introduce the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR criterion to optimize the energy bin width after the K-edge jump for the maximum CNR. In the simulation, we analyze the reconstructed image quality in different energy bins and demonstrate that our proposed optimization approach can maximize CNR between target region and background region in reconstructed image.

  11. Spectral and energy efficiency analysis of uplink heterogeneous networks with small-cells on edge

    KAUST Repository

    Shakir, Muhammad Zeeshan


    This paper presents a tractable mathematical framework to analyze the spectral and energy efficiency of an operator initiated deployment of the small-cells (e.g., femtocells) where the small-cell base stations are deliberately positioned around the edge of the macrocell. The considered deployment facilitates the cell-edge mobile users in terms of their coverage, spectral, and energy efficiency and is referred to as cell-on-edge (COE) configuration. The reduction in energy consumption is achieved by considering fast power control where the mobile users transmit with adaptive power to compensate the path loss, shadowing and fading. In particular, we develop a moment generating function (MGF) based approach to derive analytical bounds on the area spectral efficiency and exact expressions for the energy efficiency of the mobile users in the considered COE configuration over generalized-K fading channels. Besides the COE configuration, the derived bounds are also shown to be useful in evaluating the performance of random small-cell deployments, e.g., uniformly distributed small-cells. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the improvements in spectral and energy efficiency of the COE configuration with respect to macro-only networks and other unplanned deployment strategies. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Application of a flush airdata sensing system to a wing leading edge (LE-FADS) (United States)

    Whitmore, Stephen A.; Moes, Timothy R.; Czerniejewski, Mark W.; Nichols, Douglas A.


    The feasibility of locating a flush airdata sensing (FADS) system on a wing leading edge where the operation of the avionics or fire control radar system will not be hindered is investigated. The leading-edge FADS system (LE-FADS) was installed on an unswept symmetrical airfoil and a series of low-speed wind-tunnel tests were conducted to evaluate the performance of the system. As a result of the tests it is concluded that the aerodynamic models formulated for use on aircraft nosetips are directly applicable to wing leading edges and that the calibration process is similar. Furthermore, the agreement between the airdata calculations for angle of attack and total pressure from the LE-FADS and known wind-tunnel values suggest that wing-based flush airdata systems can be calibrated to a high degree of accuracy. Static wind-tunnel tests for angles of attack from -50 deg to 50 deg and dynamic pressures from 3.6 to 11.4 lb/sq ft were performed.

  13. Effects of Equipment Loading on the Vibrations of Edge-Stiffened Plates and Associated Modeling Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.L. Campbell; S.A. Hambric


    Predicting structural radiated noise is a process that involves several steps, often including the development of a finite element (FE) model to provide structural response predictions. Limitations of these FE models often govern the success of overall noise predictions. The purpose of the present investigation is to identify the effects of real world attachments on edge-stiffened plates and identify advanced modeling methods to facilitate vibroacoustic analyses of such complex structures. A combination of experimental and numerical methods is used in the evaluation. The results show the effects of adding attachments to the edge-stiffened plate in terms of mode shape mass loading, creation of new mode shapes, modifications to original mode shapes, and variations in damping levels. A finite element model of the edge-stiffened plate with simplified attachments has been developed and is used in conjunction with experimental data to aid in the developments. The investigation presented here represents a necessary first step toward implementing an advanced modeling technique.

  14. Mixed-mode strain-energy-release rate effects on edge delamination of composites (United States)

    Obrien, T. K.


    Unnotched graphite/epoxy laminates, designed to delaminate at the edges under static and cyclic tensile loads, were tested and analyzed. The specimen stacking sequences were chosen so that the total strain-energy-release rate, G, for edge delamination was identical for all three layups. However, each layup had different percentages of crack-opening and shear-mode strain-energy-release rates, G sub 1 and G sub 2, respectively. Results with composites made from T300 graphite fibers and 5208 epoxy, a brittle resin, indicated that only G sub 1 contributed to delamination onset under static loading. However, results with composites made from C6000 fibers and H205 epoxy, a tougher resin, indicated that the total F governed the onset of edge delaminations under cyclic loads. In addition, for both materials, the threshold level of G for delamination onset in fatigue was significantly less than the critical G sub c measured in static tests. Futhermore, although the C6000/H205 material had a much higher static G sub c than T300/5208, its fatigue resistance was only slightly better. A series of mixed-mode tests, like the ones in this study, may be needed to evaluate toughened-resin composites developed for highly strained composite structures subjected to cyclic loads.

  15. Comparisons of various configurations of the edge delamination test for interlaminar fracture toughness (United States)

    Obrien, T. K.; Johnston, N. J.; Raju, I. S.; Morris, D. H.; Simonds, R. A.


    Various configurations of Edge Delamination Tension (EDT) test specimens, of both brittle (T300/5208) and toughened-matrix (T300/BP907) graphite reinforced composite laminates, were manufactured and tested. The mixed-mode interlaminar fracture toughness, G sub C, was measured using (30/30 sub 2/30/90 sub N)sub s, n=1 or 2, (35/-35/0/90) sub s and (35/0/-35/90) sub s layups designed to delaminate at low tensile strains. Laminates were made without inserts so that delaminations would form naturally between the central 90 deg plies and the adjacent angle plies. Laminates were also made with Teflon inserts implanted between the 90 deg plies and the adjacent angle (theta) plies at the straight edge to obtain a planar fracture surface. In addition, interlaminar tension fracture toughness, GIc, was measured from laminates with the same layup but with inserts in the midplane, between the central 90 deg plies, at the straight edge. All of the EDT configurations were useful for ranking the delamination resistance of composites with different matrix resins. Furthermore, the variety of layups and configurations available yield interlaminar fracture toughness measurements needed to generate delamination failure criteria. The influence of insert thickness and location, and coupon size on G sub c values were evaluated.

  16. Forest Edge Regrowth Typologies in Southern Sweden-Relationship to Environmental Characteristics and Implications for Management. (United States)

    Wiström, Björn; Busse Nielsen, Anders


    After two major storms, the Swedish Transport Administration was granted permission in 2008 to expand the railroad corridor from 10 to 20 m from the rail banks, and to clear the forest edges in the expanded area. In order to evaluate the possibilities for managers to promote and control the species composition of the woody regrowth so that a forest edge with a graded profile develops over time, this study mapped the woody regrowth and environmental variables at 78 random sites along the 610-km railroad between Stockholm and Malmö four growing seasons after the clearing was implemented. Through different clustering approaches, dominant tree species to be controlled and future building block species for management were identified. Using multivariate regression trees, the most decisive environmental variables were identified and used to develop a regrowth typology and to calculate species indicator values. Five regrowth types and ten indicator species were identified along the environmental gradients of soil moisture, soil fertility, and altitude. Six tree species dominated the regrowth across the regrowth types, but clustering showed that if these were controlled by selective thinning, lower tree and shrub species were generally present so they could form the "building blocks" for development of a graded edge. We concluded that selective thinning targeted at controlling a few dominant tree species, here named Functional Species Control, is a simple and easily implemented management concept to promote a wide range of suitable species, because it does not require field staff with specialist taxonomic knowledge.

  17. Cell-Edge-Aware Precoding for Downlink Massive MIMO Cellular Networks (United States)

    Yang, Howard H.; Geraci, Giovanni; Quek, Tony Q. S.; Andrews, Jeffrey G.


    We propose a cell-edge-aware (CEA) zero forcing (ZF) precoder that exploits the excess spatial degrees of freedom provided by a large number of base station (BS) antennas to suppress inter-cell interference at the most vulnerable user equipments (UEs). We evaluate the downlink performance of CEA-ZF, as well as that of a conventional cell-edge-unaware (CEU) ZF precoder in a network with random base station topology. Our analysis and simulations show that the proposed CEA-ZF precoder outperforms CEU-ZF precoding in terms of (i) aggregate per-cell data rate, (ii) coverage probability, and (iii) 95%-likely, or edge user, rate. In particular, when both perfect channel state information and a large number of antennas N are available at the BSs, we demonstrate that the outage probability under CEA-ZF and CEU-ZF decay as 1/N^2 and 1/N, respectively. This result identifies CEA-ZF as a more effective precoding scheme for massive MIMO cellular networks. Our framework also reveals the importance of scheduling the optimal number of UEs per BS, and confirms the necessity to control the amount of pilot contamination received during the channel estimation phase.

  18. Nutrigenomics: the cutting edge and Asian perspectives. (United States)

    Kato, Hisanori


    One of the two major goals of nutrigenomics is to make full use of genomic information to reveal how genetic variations affect nutrients and other food factors and thereby realize tailor-made nutrition (nutrigenetics). The other major goal of nutrigenomics is to comprehensively understand the response of the body to diets and food factors through various 'omics' technologies such as transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics. The most successfully exploited technology to date is transcriptome analysis, due mainly to its efficiency and high-throughput feature. This technology has already provided a substantial amount of data on, for instance, the novel function of food factors, the unknown mechanism of the effect of nutrients, and even safety issues of foods. The nutrigenomics database that we have created now holds the publication data of several hundred of such 'omics' studies. Furthermore, the transcriptomics approach is being applied to food safety issues. For ex-ample, the data we have obtained thus far suggest that this new technology will facilitate the safety evaluation of newly developed foods and will help clarify the mechanism of toxic effects resulting from the excessive intake of a nutrient. The 'omics' data accumulated by our group and others strongly support the promise of the systems biology approach to food and nutrition science.

  19. Edge anisotropy and the geometric perspective on flow networks (United States)

    Molkenthin, Nora; Kutza, Hannes; Tupikina, Liubov; Marwan, Norbert; Donges, Jonathan F.; Feudel, Ulrike; Kurths, Jürgen; Donner, Reik V.


    Spatial networks have recently attracted great interest in various fields of research. While the traditional network-theoretic viewpoint is commonly restricted to their topological characteristics (often disregarding the existing spatial constraints), this work takes a geometric perspective, which considers vertices and edges as objects in a metric space and quantifies the corresponding spatial distribution and alignment. For this purpose, we introduce the concept of edge anisotropy and define a class of measures characterizing the spatial directedness of connections. Specifically, we demonstrate that the local anisotropy of edges incident to a given vertex provides useful information about the local geometry of geophysical flows based on networks constructed from spatio-temporal data, which is complementary to topological characteristics of the same flow networks. Taken both structural and geometric viewpoints together can thus assist the identification of underlying flow structures from observations of scalar variables.

  20. The vehicle routing problem with edge set costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhardt, Line Blander; Jepsen, Mads Kehlet; Pisinger, David

    . The certifications and contributions impose a cost for the company while they also give unlimited usage of a set of roads to all vehicles belonging to the company. Different versions for defining the edge sets are discussed and formulated. A MIP-formulation of the problem is presented, and a solution method based......We consider an important generalization of the vehicle routing problem with time windows in which a fixed cost must be paid for accessing a set of edges. This fixed cost could reflect payment for toll roads, investment in new facilities, the need for certifications and other costly investments...... on branch-and-price-and-cut is applied to the problem. The computational results show that instances with up to 50 customers can be solved in reasonable time, and that the branch-cut-and-price algorithm generally outperforms CPLEX. It also seems that instances get more difficult when the penalized edge sets...

  1. Radiative distortion of kinematic edges in cascade decays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Beneke


    Full Text Available Kinematic edges of cascade decays of new particles produced in high-energy collisions may provide important constraints on the involved particles' masses. For the exemplary case of gluino decay g˜→qq¯χ˜ into a pair of quarks and a neutralino through a squark resonance, we study the hadronic invariant mass distribution in the vicinity of the kinematic edge. We perform a next-to-leading order calculation in the strong coupling αs and the ratio of squark width and squark mass Γq˜/mq˜, based on a systematic expansion in Γq˜/mq˜. The separation into hard, collinear and soft contributions elucidates the process-dependent and universal features of distributions in the edge region, represented by on-shell decay matrix elements, universal jet functions and a soft function that depends on the resonance propagator and soft Wilson lines.

  2. The effects of leading edge roughness on dynamic stall (United States)

    Hrynuk, John


    Dynamic stall is a fundamental flow phenomenon that is commonly observed for insect flight and rotorcraft. Under certain conditions a leading edge vortex forms generating large but temporary lift forces. Historically, computations studying dynamic stall on airfoil shapes have struggled to predict this vortex formation time and separation point. Reduced order models and CFD have performed well when experiments have been performed to develop separation models, but this has limited the development of robust design tools. The current study looks at the effect of leading edge surface roughness on the formation of the Dynamic Stall Vortex (DSV). Roughness elements were applied to the leading edge of a NACA 0012 airfoil and PIV data of the vortex formation process was recorded. Measurements were taken at a Reynolds number of Re = 12,000 and baseline smooth NACA 0012 data was also recorded for comparison. Surface roughness elements, below the typical scale modeled by CFD, are shown to change DSV formation angle and location.

  3. A dynamic stall model for airfoils with deformable trailing edges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bjørn; Gaunaa, Mac; Bak, Christian


    , lead-lag, pitch, trailing-edge flapping. In the linear region, the model reduces to the inviscid model, which includes the aerodynamic effect of a thin airfoil with a deformable camberline in inviscid flow. Therefore, the proposed model can be considered a crossover between the work of Gaunaa......The present work contains an extension of the Beddoes-Leishman-type dynamic stall model. In this work, a deformable trailing-edge flap has been added to the dynamic stall model. The model predicts the unsteady aerodynamic forces and moments on an airfoil section undergoing arbitrary motion in heave...... for the attached flow region and Hansen et al. The model is compared qualitatively to wind tunnel measurements of a Riso/ B1-18 blade section equipped with deformable trailing-edge flap devices in the form of piezoelectric devices. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  4. Imaging of Coulomb-Driven Quantum Hall Edge States

    KAUST Repository

    Lai, Keji


    The edges of a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in the quantum Hall effect (QHE) regime are divided into alternating metallic and insulating strips, with their widths determined by the energy gaps of the QHE states and the electrostatic Coulomb interaction. Local probing of these submicrometer features, however, is challenging due to the buried 2DEG structures. Using a newly developed microwave impedance microscope, we demonstrate the real-space conductivity mapping of the edge and bulk states. The sizes, positions, and field dependence of the edge strips around the sample perimeter agree quantitatively with the self-consistent electrostatic picture. The evolution of microwave images as a function of magnetic fields provides rich microscopic information around the ν=2 QHE state. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  5. Heterospin Junctions in Zigzag-Edged Graphene Nanoribbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo C. Girão


    Full Text Available We propose a graphene nanoribbon-based heterojunction, where a defect-free interface separates two zigzag graphene nanoribbons prepared in opposite antiferromagnetic spin configurations. This heterospin junction is found to allow the redirecting of low-energy electrons from one edge to the other. The basic scattering mechanisms and their relation to the system’s geometry are investigated through a combination of Landauer–Green’s function and the S-matrix and eigen-channel methods within a tight-binding + Hubbard model validated with density functional theory. The findings demonstrate the possibility of using zigzag-edged graphene nanoribbons (zGNRs in complex networks where current can be transmitted across the entire system, instead of following the shortest paths along connected edges belonging to the same sub-lattice.

  6. Highly edge-connected detachments of graphs and digraphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Alex Rune; Jackson, Bill; Jordan, Tibor


    Let G=(V,E) be a graph or digraph and r:V \\to Z+. An r-detachment of G is a graph H obtained by `splitting' each vertex v \\in V into r(v) vertices. The vertices v1,...,vr(v) obtained by splitting v are called the pieces of v in H. Every edge uv \\in E corresponds to an edge of H connecting some...... piece of u to some piece of v. Crispin Nash-Williams gave necessary and sufficient conditions for a graph to have a k-edge-connected r-detachment. He also solved the version where the degrees of all the pieces are specified. In this paper we solve the same problems for directed graphs. We also give...

  7. Using quantum filters as edge detectors in infrared images (United States)

    Bolaños Marín, Daniela


    Some new filters inspired in quantum models are used as edge detectors in infrared images. In this case, Bessel, Hermite and Morse filters will be applied to detect edges and fibrillar structures in infrared images. The edge detectors will be built by the Laplacian of the mentioned quantum filters. Furthermore, using curvature operators, curvature detectors and amplifiers of contrast will be constructed to analyze infrared images. The quantum filter prototyping will be done using computer algebra software, specifically Maple and its package, ImageTools. The quantum filters will be applied to infrared images using the technique of convolutions and blurred derivatives. It is expected that designed quantum filters will be useful for analysis and processing of infrared images. As future investigations, we propose to design plugins with the quantum filters that can be incorporated into the program ImageJ, which will facilitate the use of the quantum filters for the infrared image processing.

  8. Phase dynamics of edge transport bifurcation induced by external biasing (United States)

    Li, B.; Wang, X. Y.; Xie, Z. J.; Li, P. F.; Gentle, K. W.


    Edge transport bifurcation induced by external biasing is explored with self-consistent turbulence simulations in a flux-driven system with both closed and open magnetic field lines. Without bias, the nonlinear evolution of interchange turbulence produces large-scale turbulent eddies, leading to the high levels of radial transport in the edge region. With sufficiently strong biasing, a strong suppression of turbulence is found. The plasma potential structures are strongly modified with the generation of sheared mean flows at the plasma edge. Consequently, the turbulence-driven flux is decreased to a much lower level, indicating a transition to a state of reduced transport. The simulations show that the dynamics of the phase and amplitude of fluctuations play a crucial role in the mechanism of transport suppression driven by biasing.

  9. On the Edge-Hyper-Hamiltonian Laceability of Balanced Hypercubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Jianxiang


    Full Text Available The balanced hypercube BHn, defined by Wu and Huang, is a variant of the hypercube network Qn, and has been proved to have better properties than Qn with the same number of links and processors. For a bipartite graph G = (V0 ∪ V1,E, we say G is edge-hyper-Hamiltonian laceable if it is Hamiltonian laceable, and for any vertex v ∈ Vi, i ∈ {0, 1}, any edge e ∈ E(G − v, there is a Hamiltonian path containing e in G − v between any two vertices of V1−i. In this paper, we prove that BHn is edge-hy per- Hamiltonian laceable.

  10. Edge nonlinear optics on a MoS₂ atomic monolayer. (United States)

    Yin, Xiaobo; Ye, Ziliang; Chenet, Daniel A; Ye, Yu; O'Brien, Kevin; Hone, James C; Zhang, Xiang


    The translational symmetry breaking of a crystal at its surface may form two-dimensional (2D) electronic states. We observed one-dimensional nonlinear optical edge states of a single atomic membrane of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), a transition metal dichalcogenide. The electronic structure changes at the edges of the 2D crystal result in strong resonant nonlinear optical susceptibilities, allowing direct optical imaging of the atomic edges and boundaries of a 2D material. Using the symmetry of the nonlinear optical responses, we developed a nonlinear optical imaging technique that allows rapid and all-optical determination of the crystal orientations of the 2D material at a large scale. Our technique provides a route toward understanding and making use of the emerging 2D materials and devices.

  11. A new edge detection algorithm based on Canny idea (United States)

    Feng, Yingke; Zhang, Jinmin; Wang, Siming


    The traditional Canny algorithm has poor self-adaptability threshold, and it is more sensitive to noise. In order to overcome these drawbacks, this paper proposed a new edge detection method based on Canny algorithm. Firstly, the media filtering and filtering based on the method of Euclidean distance are adopted to process it; secondly using the Frei-chen algorithm to calculate gradient amplitude; finally, using the Otsu algorithm to calculate partial gradient amplitude operation to get images of thresholds value, then find the average of all thresholds that had been calculated, half of the average is high threshold value, and the half of the high threshold value is low threshold value. Experiment results show that this new method can effectively suppress noise disturbance, keep the edge information, and also improve the edge detection accuracy.

  12. Failures in Trailing Edge Bondlines of Wind Turbine Blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, F. M.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Nielsen, P. H.


    Bonded joints in composite structures are often en object for concern. This is also true for wind turbine blades, where damage occurs in the trailing edge due to fatigue loads. Reliability of wind turbines becomes increasingly important when used offshore, where operation and maintenance costs...... constitute a significant part of the cost per kWh produced. However, the wind turbine industy is reluctant to share statistical values for damages, and this makes it more difficult to assess the reliability. Instead of analyzing the joint and reinforce the connection, research at Risø DTU has shown......, that it possible to reduce the deformation of the trailing edge panels and thereby reduce the peeling stresses in the trailing edge joint. A basic solution patented by Risø DTU is presented. The research is based on a combination of numerical analysis and full-scale testing. The research has shown the need...

  13. ELNES investigations of the oxygen K-edge in spinels. (United States)

    Docherty, F T; Craven, A J; McComb, D W; Skakle, J


    The results of a systematic study of the oxygen K-edge electron energy-loss spectroscopy (ELNES) from a series of aluminium- and chromium-containing spinels are presented. Extra fine structure in the region up to 10 eV above the edge onset is observed for the chromium-containing compounds and is assigned to transitions to states created by mixing of oxygen 2p and metal 3d orbitals. The experimental data has been simulated using the multiple scattering code, FEFF8. Good agreement was obtained in the case of magnesium aluminate, but relatively poor agreement was obtained in the case of the chromites. The possible fingerprints in the oxygen K-edge ELNES corresponding to a high degree of inversion the spinel structure and to a tetragonal distortion of the cubic structure are discussed.

  14. Creation Greenhouse Environment Map Using Localization of Edge of Cultivation Platforms Based on Stereo Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Nasiri


    based on the visual odometry, global map of the environment is constructed. To evaluate the accuracy of the obtained algorithm in estimation of the position of the corners, Euclidian distances of coordinates of the corners achieved by Leica Total Station and coordinates and resulted from local maps, were computed. Results and Discussion Results showed that the lower edges have been detected with better accuracy than the upper ones. Upper edges were not desirably extracted because of being close to the pots. In contrast, due to the distance between lower edge and the ground surface, lower edges were extracted with a higher quality. Since the upper and lower edges of the platform are in the same direction, the lower edges of the platform have been only used for producing an integrated map of the greenhouse environment. The total length of the edge of the cultivation platforms was 106.6 meter, that 94.79% of which, was detected by the proposed algorithm. Some regions of the edge of the platforms were not detected, since they were not located in the view angle of the stereo camera. By the proposed algorithm, 83.33% of cultivation platforms’ corners, were detected with the average error of 0.07309 meter and mean squared error of 0.0076. Non- detected corners are due the fact that they were not located in the camera view angle. The maximum and minimum errors in the localization, according to the Euclidian distance, were 0.169 and 0.0001 meters, respectively. Conclusions Stereo vision is the perception of the depth of 3D with the disparity of the two images. In navigation, stereo vision is used for localizing the obstacles of movement. Cultivation platforms are the main obstacle of movement in greenhouses. Therefore, it is possible to design an integrated map of greenhouse environment and perform automatic control by localization of the cultivation platforms. In this research, the depth discontinuity feature in the locations of the edges, was used for the localization of the

  15. Understanding the edge crack phenomenon in ceramic laminates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Ševeček


    Full Text Available Layered ceramic materials (also referred to as “ceramic laminates” are becoming one of the most promising areas of materials technology aiming to improve the brittle behavior of bulk ceramics. The utilization of tailored compressive residual stresses acting as physical barriers to crack propagation has already succeeded in many ceramic systems. Relatively thick compressive layers located below the surface have proven very effective to enhance the fracture resistance and provide a minimum strength for the material. However, internal compressive stresses result in out-of plane stresses at the free surfaces, what can cause cracking of the compressive layer, forming the so-called edge cracks. Experimental observations have shown that edge cracking may be associated with the magnitude of the compressive stresses and with the thickness of the compressive layer. However, an understanding of the parameters related to the onset and extension of such edge cracks in the compressive layers is still lacking. In this work, a 2D parametric finite element model has been developed to predict the onset and propagation of an edge crack in ceramic laminates using a coupled stress-energy criterion. This approach states that a crack is originated when both stress and energy criteria are fulfilled simultaneously. Several designs with different residual stresses and a given thickness in the compressive layers have been computed. The results predict the existence of a lower bound, below no edge crack will be observed, and an upper bound, beyond which the onset of an edge crack would lead to the complete fracture of the layer

  16. Aerodynamic noise from rigid trailing edges with finite porous extensions (United States)

    Kisil, A.; Ayton, L. J.


    This paper investigates the effects of finite flat porous extensions to semi-infinite impermeable flat plates in an attempt to control trailing-edge noise through bio-inspired adaptations. Specifically the problem of sound generated by a gust convecting in uniform mean steady flow scattering off the trailing edge and permeable-impermeable junction is considered. This setup supposes that any realistic trailing-edge adaptation to a blade would be sufficiently small so that the turbulent boundary layer encapsulates both the porous edge and the permeable-impermeable junction, and therefore the interaction of acoustics generated at these two discontinuous boundaries is important. The acoustic problem is tackled analytically through use of the Wiener-Hopf method. A two-dimensional matrix Wiener-Hopf problem arises due to the two interaction points (the trailing edge and the permeable-impermeable junction). This paper discusses a new iterative method for solving this matrix Wiener-Hopf equation which extends to further two-dimensional problems in particular those involving analytic terms that exponentially grow in the upper or lower half planes. This method is an extension of the commonly used "pole removal" technique and avoids the needs for full matrix factorisation. Convergence of this iterative method to an exact solution is shown to be particularly fast when terms neglected in the second step are formally smaller than all other terms retained. The final acoustic solution highlights the effects of the permeable-impermeable junction on the generated noise, in particular how this junction affects the far-field noise generated by high-frequency gusts by creating an interference to typical trailing-edge scattering. This effect results in partially porous plates predicting a lower noise reduction than fully porous plates when compared to fully impermeable plates.

  17. Dynamical phenomena at the inner edge of the Keeler gap (United States)

    Tajeddine, Radwan; Nicholson, Philip D.; Tiscareno, Matthew S.; Hedman, Matthew M.; Burns, Joseph A.; El Moutamid, Maryame


    We analyze several thousand Cassini ISS images in order to study the inner edge of the Keeler gap in Saturn's outer A ring. We find strong evidence for an m = 32 perturbation with a mean amplitude of radial variation of 4.5 km. Phase analysis yields a pattern speed consistent with the mean motion of Prometheus, indicating that this pattern is generated by the 32:31 Inner Lindblad resonance with Prometheus. In addition, we find evidence of 18-lobed and 20-lobed patterns with amplitudes of ∼1.5 km. These patterns, whose rotation rates correspond to resonance locations ∼4 km interior to the gap edge, are believed to be normal modes. The former is probably related to the nearby 18:17 (m = 18) resonance with Pandora. In addition to these resonant and normal mode patterns, we also observe multiple localized features that appear to move at the local keplerian rate and that persist for only a few months. One hypothesis is that different groups of ring particles at the inner edge of the gap may be reacting differently to the resonance with Prometheus, with local variations in the forced eccentricity and/or pericenter; an alternative hypothesis is the existence of several unseen objects embedded at or near the inner edge of the Keeler gap, similar to those suspected to exist at the outer edges of the A and B rings. In either case, observations of the ring edge at opposite ansae demonstrate that the localized features must be on eccentric orbits.

  18. Edge effects and landscape matrix use by a small mammal community in fragments of semideciduous submontane forest in Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Santos-Filho

    Full Text Available A community of small mammals was studied in seasonal semideciduous submontane forest in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. This study evaluated the use of edge and matrix pasture, by different small mammal species. Overall, 31 areas were studied, with a total sampling effort of 33,800 trap x nights. Only seven of the 25 species captured in the study sites were able to use the pasture matrix; we classified these species as generalists. Fourteen species were found to be intermediate in habits, being able to use forest edges. We found only four species habitat specialists, occurring only on transect lines in the interior of the fragment, at least 150 m from the edge. Transects located in the pasture matrix and 50 m from the edge had significantly lower species richness and abundance than transects located in the fragment edge or in the interior of the fragment. All transects located within the fragment had similar species richness and abundance, but transects located 50 m from the edge had slightly lower, but non-significant, species richness than transects located 100 m apart from edges. Rarefaction curves demonstrated that only medium-sized fragments (100 300 ha reached an asymptote of species accumulation. The other areas require further sampling, or more sampling transect, before species accumulation curves stabilize, due to a continued increase in species number.

  19. Edge-based compression of cartoon-like images with homogeneous diffusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mainberger, Markus; Bruhn, Andrés; Weickert, Joachim


    Edges provide semantically important image features. In this paper a lossy compression method for cartoon-like images is presented, which is based on edge information. Edges together with some adjacent grey/colour values are extracted and encoded using a classical edge detector, binary compressio...

  20. Color Degree Sum Conditions for Rainbow Triangles in Edge-Colored Graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Ruonan; Ning, Bo; Zhang, Shenggui

    Let G be an edge-colored graph and v a vertex of G. The color degree of v is the number of colors appearing on the edges incident to v. A rainbow triangle in G is one in which all edges have distinct colors. In this paper, we first prove that an edge-colored graph on n vertices contains a rainbow

  1. Improvement of airfoil trailing edge bluntness noise model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær


    In this article, airfoil trailing edge bluntness noise is investigated using both computational aero-acoustic and semi-empirical approach. For engineering purposes, one of the most commonly used prediction tools for trailing edge noise are based on semi-empirical approaches, for example, the Brooks......, Pope, and Marcolini airfoil noise prediction model developed by Brooks, Pope, and Marcolini (NASA Reference Publication 1218, 1989). It was found in previous study that the Brooks, Pope, and Marcolini model tends to over-predict noise at high frequencies. Furthermore, it was observed...

  2. A dynamic stall model for airfoils with deformable trailing edges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bjørn; Gaunaa, Mac; Bak, Dan Christian


    on an airfoil section undergoing arbitrary motion in heave, lead-lag, pitch, Trailing Edge (TE) flapping. In the linear region, the model reduces to the inviscid model of Gaunaa [4], which includes the aerodynamic effect of a thin airfoil with a deformable camberline in inviscid flow. Therefore, the proposed......The present work contains an extension of the Beddoes-Leishman (B-L) type dynamic stall model, as described by Hansen et al. [7]. In this work a Deformable Trailing Edge Geometry (DTEG) has been added to the dynamic stall model. The model predicts the unsteady aerodynamic forces and moments...

  3. Electronic transport across metal-graphene edge contact (United States)

    Gong, Cheng; Zhang, Chenxi; Oh, Young Jun; Wang, Weichao; Lee, Geunsik; Shan, Bin; Wallace, Robert M.; Cho, Kyeongjae


    The electronic transport across metal-graphene edge-contact structures is studied by first principles methods. Unusual double-dip transmission as a function of Fermi level is found for a Pd electrode over varying grapheme lengths. Interface metal-carbon hybridization is shown to introduce random distribution of π-orbital local density of states at different carbon sites leading to transmission suppression. For a Ti electrode, two dips are merged into one with a ~0.2 eV transport gap opening. Our work sheds light on the origin of intrinsic contact resistance at metal-graphene edge contact.

  4. Sudden distortion of turbulence at a forest edge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Jakob; Dellwik, Ebba


    Dellwik et al. (2013) presented data from a forest edge experiment based on two meteorological towers instrumented with sonic anemometers. The experiment was performed at a dense edge of the Tromnæs Forest, which is a 24 m tall mature beech stand on the island Falster, Denmark. The topography at ...... with the turbulence model by Mann (1994), and investigate whether this model can predict the observed changes of the flow. The presented results are relevant for understanding the rapid changes of turbulence in the heterogeneous landscape....

  5. Flexible edge seal for vacuum insulating glazing units (United States)

    Bettger, Kenneth J.; Stark, David H.


    A flexible edge seal is provided for a vacuum insulating glazing unit having a first glass pane and a second glass pane spaced-apart from the first. The edge seal comprises a seal member formed of a hermetically bondable material and having a first end, a second end and a center section disposed therebetween. The first end is hermetically bondable to a first glass pane. The second end is hermetically bondable to a second glass pane. The center section comprises a plurality of convolutes.

  6. Status and Verification of Edge Plasma Turbulence Code BOUT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umansky, M V; Xu, X Q; Dudson, B; LoDestro, L L; Myra, J R


    The BOUT code is a detailed numerical model of tokamak edge turbulence based on collisional plasma uid equations. BOUT solves for time evolution of plasma uid variables: plasma density N{sub i}, parallel ion velocity V{sub {parallel}i}, electron temperature T{sub e}, ion temperature T{sub i}, electric potential {phi}, parallel current j{sub {parallel}}, and parallel vector potential A{sub {parallel}}, in realistic 3D divertor tokamak geometry. The current status of the code, physics model, algorithms, and implementation is described. Results of verification testing are presented along with illustrative applications to tokamak edge turbulence.

  7. Trailing edge noise model applied to wind turbine airfoils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertagnolio, F.


    The aim of this work is firstly to provide a quick introduction to the theory of noise generation that are relevant to wind turbine technology with focus on trailing edge noise. Secondly, the socalled TNO trailing edge noise model developed by Parchen [1] is described in more details. The model is tested and validated by comparing with other results from the literature. Finally, this model is used in the optimization process of two reference airfoils in order to reduce their noise signature: the RISOE-B1-18 and the S809 airfoils. (au)

  8. High power singlemode edge-emitting master oscillator power amplifier (United States)

    O'Brien, S.; Parke, R.; Welch, D. F.; Mehuys, D.; Scifres, D.


    An edge-emitting monolithically integrated master oscillator power amplifier (M-MOPA) has been fabricated by integrating a distributed Bragg reflector laser with a 500 microns long single mode amplifier. The M-MOPA contains a strained InGaAs quantum well in the active region and operates at about 981.5 nm in an edge-emitting fashion with maximum powers in excess of 175 mW. Single longitudinal and transverse mode operation is maintained to powers in excess of 110 mW CW.

  9. Highly Edge-Connected Detachments of Graphs and Digraphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Alex Rune; Jackson, Bill; Jordán, Tibor


    Let G = (V,E) be a graph or digraph and r : V → Z+. An r-detachment of G is a graph H obtained by ‘splitting’ each vertex ν ∈ V into r(ν) vertices. The vertices ν1,…,νr(ν) obtained by splitting ν are called the pieces of ν in H. Every edge uν ∈ E corresponds to an edge of H connecting some piece ...... a simple and self-contained new proof for the undirected result. This work is dedicated to the memory of Crispin Nash-Williams....

  10. Quantum pump in quantum spin Hall edge states (United States)

    Cheng, Fang


    We present a theory for quantum pump in a quantum spin Hall bar with two quantum point contacts (QPCs). The pump currents can be generated by applying harmonically modulating gate voltages at QPCs. The phase difference between the gate voltages introduces an effective gauge field, which breaks the time-reversal symmetry and generates pump currents. The pump currents display very different pump frequency dependence for weak and strong e-e interaction. These unique properties are induced by the helical feature of the edge states, and therefore can be used to detect and control edge state transport.

  11. Ultrasonic System Approach to Obstacle Detection and Edge Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Thu Win


    Full Text Available In this paper, ultrasonic system approach to obstacle detection and edge detection for industrial and rescue operations has been presented. The developed system consists of tough sonic sensor configure with personal computer for monitoring. First, the mathematical model has been presented for the object detection system. Then the numerical simulation has been performed using Matlab platform. The experiments have been conducted using ultrasonic frequency. The curtain, paper and bamboo sheet have been considered as a media during experiments. The presented system is highly accurate for object detection and edge detection behind the obstacle.

  12. Automated edge finishing using an active XY table (United States)

    Loucks, Clifford S.; Starr, Gregory P.


    The disclosure is directed to an apparatus and method for automated edge finishing using hybrid position/force control of an XY table. The disclosure is particularly directed to learning the trajectory of the edge of a workpiece by "guarded moves". Machining is done by controllably moving the XY table, with the workpiece mounted thereon, along the learned trajectory with feedback from a force sensor. Other similar workpieces can be mounted, without a fixture on the XY table, located and the learned trajectory adjusted

  13. Anderson Localization of Ultracold Atoms: Where is the Mobility Edge? (United States)

    Pasek, Michael; Orso, Giuliano; Delande, Dominique


    Recent experiments in noninteracting ultracold atoms in three-dimensional speckle potentials have yielded conflicting results regarding the so-called mobility edge, i.e., the energy threshold separating Anderson localized from diffusive states. At the same time, there are theoretical indications that most experimental data overestimate this critical energy, sometimes by a large amount. Using extensive numerical simulations, we show that the effect of anisotropy in the spatial correlations of realistic disorder configurations alone is not sufficient to explain the experimental data. In particular, we find that the mobility edge obeys a universal scaling behavior, independently of the speckle geometry.

  14. Surgical wound segmentation based on adaptive threshold edge detection and genetic algorithm (United States)

    Shih, Hsueh-Fu; Ho, Te-Wei; Hsu, Jui-Tse; Chang, Chun-Che; Lai, Feipei; Wu, Jin-Ming


    Postsurgical wound care has a great impact on patients' prognosis. It often takes few days, even few weeks, for the wound to stabilize, which incurs a great cost of health care and nursing resources. To assess the wound condition and diagnosis, it is important to segment out the wound region for further analysis. However, the scenario of this strategy often consists of complicated background and noise. In this study, we propose a wound segmentation algorithm based on Canny edge detector and genetic algorithm with an unsupervised evaluation function. The results were evaluated by the 112 clinical images, and 94.3% of images were correctly segmented. The judgment was based on the evaluation of experimented medical doctors. This capability to extract complete wound regions, makes it possible to conduct further image analysis such as intelligent recovery evaluation and automatic infection requirements.

  15. Magnetic edge states in MoS2 characterized using density-functional theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vojvodic, Aleksandra; Hinnemann, B.; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet


    It is known that the edges of a two-dimensional slab of insulating MoS2 exhibit one-dimensional metallic edge states, the so-called "brim states." Here, we find from density-functional theory calculations that several edge structures, which are relevant for the hydrodesulfurization process......, are magnetic. The magnetism is an edge phenomenon associated with certain metallic edge states. Interestingly, we find that among the two low-index edges, only the S edge displays magnetism under hydrodesulfurization conditions. In addition, the implications of this on the catalytic activity are investigated...

  16. Evaluation of natural illumination and thermal comfort conditions in the Ribeirao Preto's Technological Village

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basso, A.; Caram, R.M. [Department of Architecture and Urbanism, EESC University of Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Carlos (Brazil)


    The results of post-occupancy surveys of the 11 different construction systems used in the dwellings of the Technological Village of Ribeirao Preto, Brazil are analysed. The analyses focus on evaluating the natural illumination and thermal comfort conditions in selected habitation units after 2 years of use. All systems were devised to provide living conditions to low-income families with low purchasing power and, most importantly, to disseminate construction technologies adapted to, and appropriate for, this specific region of the country. The results indicate that the methodology employed is not appropriate using only classical factors to assess the illumination conditions, i.e. illuminance level and daylight factor, for a direct quantification of the illumination. The isolated use of these factors can result in distortions. The evaluation of the environmental conditions is relevant to observe that there can be differences between theoretical thermo-physical properties and actual features of the materials and construction systems analyzed. (author)

  17. [An improved morphological edge detection algorithm of medical image based on multi-structure element]. (United States)

    Luo, Xiaogang; Liu, Ting; Peng, Chenglin; Wen, Li


    An improved edge detection algorithm is proposed in this paper for the medical images with strong noises and fuzzy edges. The algorithm modified the combination of morphological operations, so that the unclear edges of the images are avoided. In this paper is also introduced the algorithm of multi-structure elements which can reserve integrated edges from different directions of the images. Furthermore, the contrast enhancement and morphological filter processing are implemented. This method can detect the edges efficiently, keep the detected edges smooth and obtain coherent image edges. Experiments demonstrate that this edge detector has a better performance of noise reduction and keeps the edges more accurate than do the traditional edge detectors; thus its practicality is enhanced.

  18. Edges in CNC polishing: from mirror-segments towards semiconductors, paper 1: edges on processing the global surface. (United States)

    Walker, David; Yu, Guoyu; Li, Hongyu; Messelink, Wilhelmus; Evans, Rob; Beaucamp, Anthony


    Segment-edges for extremely large telescopes are critical for observations requiring high contrast and SNR, e.g. detecting exo-planets. In parallel, industrial requirements for edge-control are emerging in several applications. This paper reports on a new approach, where edges are controlled throughout polishing of the entire surface of a part, which has been pre-machined to its final external dimensions. The method deploys compliant bonnets delivering influence functions of variable diameter, complemented by small pitch tools sized to accommodate aspheric mis-fit. We describe results on witness hexagons in preparation for full size prototype segments for the European Extremely Large Telescope, and comment on wider applications of the technology.

  19. Effects of suture position on left ventricular fluid mechanics under mitral valve edge-to-edge repair. (United States)

    Du, Dongxing; Jiang, Song; Wang, Ze; Hu, Yingying; He, Zhaoming


    Mitral valve (MV) edge-to-edge repair (ETER) is a surgical procedure for the correction of mitral valve regurgitation by suturing the free edge of the leaflets. The leaflets are often sutured at three different positions: central, lateral and commissural portions. To study the effects of position of suture on left ventricular (LV) fluid mechanics under mitral valve ETER, a parametric model of MV-LV system during diastole was developed. The distribution and development of vortex and atrio-ventricular pressure under different suture position were investigated. Results show that the MV sutured at central and lateral in ETER creates two vortex rings around two jets, compared with single vortex ring around one jet of the MV sutured at commissure. Smaller total orifices lead to a higher pressure difference across the atrio-ventricular leaflets in diastole. The central suture generates smaller wall shear stresses than the lateral suture, while the commissural suture generated the minimum wall shear stresses in ETER.

  20. Residual Stress State in Single-Edge Notched Tension Specimen Caused by the Local Compression Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Yifan


    Full Text Available Three-dimensional (3D finite element analyses (FEA are performed to simulate the local compression (LC technique on the clamped single-edge notched tension (SE(T specimens. The analysis includes three types of indenters, which are single pair of cylinder indenters (SPCI, double pairs of cylinder indenters (DPCI and single pair of ring indenters (SPRI. The distribution of the residual stress in the crack opening direction in the uncracked ligament of the specimen is evaluated. The outcome of this study can facilitate the use of LC technique on SE(T specimens.

  1. Available Tools and Challenges Classifying Cutting-Edge and Historical Astronomical Documents (United States)

    Lagerstrom, Jill


    The STScI Library assists the Science Policies Division in evaluating and choosing scientific keywords and categories for proposals for the Hubble Space Telescope mission and the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope mission. In addition we are often faced with the question “what is the shape of the astronomical literature?” However, subject classification in astronomy in recent times has not been cultivated. This talk will address the available tools and challenges of classifying cutting-edge as well as historical astronomical documents. In at the process, we will give an overview of current and upcoming practices of subject classification in astronomy.

  2. Effects of Mechanical Ventilation on Heart Geometry and Mitral Valve Leaflet Coaptation During Percutaneous Edge-to-Edge Mitral Valve Repair. (United States)

    Patzelt, Johannes; Zhang, Yingying; Seizer, Peter; Magunia, Harry; Henning, Andreas; Riemlova, Veronika; Patzelt, Tara A E; Hansen, Marc; Haap, Michael; Riessen, Reimer; Lausberg, Henning; Walker, Tobias; Reutershan, Joerg; Schlensak, Christian; Grasshoff, Christian; Simon, Dan I; Rosenberger, Peter; Schreieck, Juergen; Gawaz, Meinrad; Langer, Harald F


    This study sought to evaluate a ventilation maneuver to facilitate percutaneous edge-to-edge mitral valve repair (PMVR) and its effects on heart geometry. In patients with challenging anatomy, the application of PMVR is limited, potentially resulting in insufficient reduction of mitral regurgitation (MR) or clip detachment. Under general anesthesia, however, ventilation maneuvers can be used to facilitate PMVR. A total of 50 consecutive patients undergoing PMVR were included. During mechanical ventilation, different levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) were applied, and parameters of heart geometry were assessed using transesophageal echocardiography. We found that increased PEEP results in elevated central venous pressure. Specifically, central venous pressure increased from 14.0 ± 6.5 mm Hg (PEEP 3 mm Hg) to 19.3 ± 5.9 mm Hg (PEEP 20 mm Hg; p 4.9 mm at PEEP of 10 mm Hg resulted in a significant reduction of PMVR procedure time (152 ± 49 min to 116 ± 26 min; p = 0.05). In this study, we describe a novel ventilation maneuver improving mitral valve coaptation length during the PMVR procedure, which facilitates clip positioning. Our observations could help to improve PMVR therapy and could make nonsurgical candidates accessible to PMVR therapy, particularly in challenging cases with functional MR. Copyright © 2016 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The Straight Edge Movement: It's Not What You Think. (United States)

    Ralston, Kibby


    A high school senior describes the straight edge movement, a misunderstood youth-oriented group whose members are against smoking, drinking, doing drugs, and engaging in promiscuous sex. Straight edgers are often mislabeled as troublemakers because of their style of dress and taste in hardcore and punk music, and because of the violent actions of…

  4. Quantum capacitance of the armchair-edge graphene nanoribbon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 81; Issue 2. Quantum capacitance of the ... Abstract. The quantum capacitance, an important parameter in the design of nanoscale devices, is derived for armchair-edge single-layer graphene nanoribbon with semiconducting property. The quantum capacitance ...

  5. Towards a novel design method for impact on leading edges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Houten, M.H.; Kaplan, H.


    Results of a parametric study concerning low velocity impact on leading edge profiles is presented. This work is the first part of a larger program on the development of an engineering design method for impact on Glare. In this first part, experimental tests and numerical simulations on

  6. Effects of edge roughness on optical scattering from periodic microstructures (United States)

    Bergner, Brent C.

    Planar photonic crystals and other microstructured surfaces have important applications in a number of emerging technologies. However, these structures can be difficult to fabricate in a consistent manner. Rapid, precise measurements of critical parameters are needed to control the fabrication process, but current measurement techniques tend to be slow and often require that the sample be modified in order to make the measurement. Optical scattering can provide a rapid, non-destructive, and precise method for measuring these structures, and optical scatterometry is a good candidate technique for measuring micro-structured surfaces for process control. However, variations in the profile, such as those caused by edge roughness, can make significant contributions to the uncertainty in scatterometry measurements. Because of the multidimensional nature of the problem, modeling these variations can be computationally expensive. This dissertation examines the effects of edge roughness on optical scatterometry signals. Rigorous numerical simulations show that the effects of edge roughness are sensitive to the correlation length and the frequency content of the roughness as well as its amplitude. However, these rigorous calculations are computationally expensive. A less computationally expensive model based on a generalized Bruggeman effective medium approximation is developed and shown to be effective for modeling the effects of short correlation length edge roughness on optical scatterometry signals.

  7. On the size of edge chromatic 5-critical graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kayathri


    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the size of edge chromatic 5-critical graphs in several classes of 5-critical graphs. In most of the classes of 5-critical graphs in this paper, we have obtained their exact size and in the other classes of 5-critical graphs, we give new bounds on their number of major vertices and size.

  8. Late movement of basin-edge lobate scarps on Mercury (United States)

    Fegan, E. R.; Rothery, D. A.; Marchi, S.; Massironi, M.; Conway, S. J.; Anand, M.


    Basin-edge lobate scarps are a sub-type of tectonic shortening structure on the surface of Mercury that have formed at the edge of volcanic units that fill or partly fill impact basins. We have performed a global survey of these features and find that they are widespread in basins across the planet. We obtained model ages from crater size-frequency distribution analysis for a subset of our surveyed basins, for both the smooth plains infill and for the last resolvable tectonic activity on the associated basin-edge scarps. Our results indicate that some of these lobate scarps were still accumulating strain in the late Mansurian (approximately 1 Ga). From a photogeological assessment, we find that the orientations of these basin-edge lobate scarps are similar to those reported for the global population of lobate scarps in earlier studies, appearing to align ∼north-south at low latitudes and ∼east-west at higher latitudes. However, reassessing these landforms' orientation with artificially illuminated topographic data does not allow us to rule out the effect of illumination bias. We propose that these landforms, the result of crustal shortening in response to global contraction, formed along the interface between the basin floor and the smooth plains unit, which acted as a mechanical discontinuity along which shortening strains were concentrated.

  9. CRISP: Cutting Edge Reconfigurable ICs for Stream Processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahonen, Tapani; ter Braak, T.D.; Burgess, Stephen T.; Geißler, Richard; Heysters, P.M.; Hurskainen, Heikki; Kerkhoff, Hans G.; Kokkeler, Andre B.J.; Nurmi, Jari; Raasakka, Jussi; Rauwerda, G.K.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Zhang, X.; Sunesen, Kim; van Zonneveld, Henk; Vermeulen, Bart; Cardoso, João M.P.; Hübner, Michael


    The Cutting edge Reconfigurable ICs for Stream Processing (CRISP) project aims to create a highly scalable and dependable reconfigurable system concept for a wide range of tomorrow’s streaming DSP applications. Within CRISP, a network-on-chip based many-core stream processor with dependability

  10. The problem of isotropic rectangular plate with four clamped edges

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This report discusses in exact solution of the governing equation of an isotropic rectangular plate with four clamped edges. A numerical method for clamped isotropic rectangular plate under distributed loads and an exact solution of the governing equation in terms of trigonometric and hyperbolic function are given. Finally ...

  11. Edge detection methods based on generalized type-2 fuzzy logic

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez, Claudia I; Castro, Juan R; Castillo, Oscar


    In this book four new methods are proposed. In the first method the generalized type-2 fuzzy logic is combined with the morphological gra-dient technique. The second method combines the general type-2 fuzzy systems (GT2 FSs) and the Sobel operator; in the third approach the me-thodology based on Sobel operator and GT2 FSs is improved to be applied on color images. In the fourth approach, we proposed a novel edge detec-tion method where, a digital image is converted a generalized type-2 fuzzy image. In this book it is also included a comparative study of type-1, inter-val type-2 and generalized type-2 fuzzy systems as tools to enhance edge detection in digital images when used in conjunction with the morphologi-cal gradient and the Sobel operator. The proposed generalized type-2 fuzzy edge detection methods were tested with benchmark images and synthetic images, in a grayscale and color format. Another contribution in this book is that the generalized type-2 fuzzy edge detector method is applied in the preproc...

  12. A comparative analysis of watershed and edge based segmentation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Mar 17, 2015 ... Background: Useful information which is helpful in the diagnosis of various disorders is obtained from the analysis of individual blood cells. Aim: To perform a comparative analysis between edge-based segmentation and watershed segmentation on images of the red blood cells. Method: The images.

  13. Exploring the Uncanny Valley to Find the Edge of Play (United States)

    Eberle, Scott G.


    Play often rewards us with a thrill or a sense of wonder. But, just over the edge of play, uncanny objects like dolls, automata, robots, and realistic animations may become monstrous rather than marvelous. Drawing from diverse sources, literary evidence, psychological and psychoanalytic theory, new insights in neuroscience, marketing literature,…

  14. Tactical Cloudlets: Moving Cloud Computing to the Edge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lewis, G.A.; Echeverria, S.; Simanta, S.; Bradshaw, B.; Root, J.


    Soldiers and front-line personnel operating in tactical environments increasingly make use of handheld devices to help with tasks such as face recognition, language translation, decision-making, and mission planning. These resource constrained edge environments are characterized by dynamic context,

  15. Edge effect in charged-particle analyzing magnets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braams, C.M.

    The manner in which local saturation of pole pieces with sharp edges affects the fall-off of the magnetic induction in the fringing-field region is discussed and measured. Local saturation appears to set in at a field strength well below that at which over-all saturation of the pole pieces becomes

  16. Chemical shift of UL 3 edges in different uranium compounds ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 37; Issue 3. Chemical shift of U L3 edges in different uranium compounds obtained by X-ray absorption spectroscopy with synchrotron radiation. D Joseph C Nayak P Venu Babu S N Jha D Bhattacharyya. Volume 37 Issue 3 May 2014 pp 643-647 ...

  17. Characterization of Edge Localized Modes in Tokamak Plasmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, J. E.


    To mimic the fusion of hydrogen nuclei in the sun as an energy source on Earth, fusion scientists have to deal with miniature solar flares in their nuclear fusion reactor. These 'Edge Localized Modes' (ELMs) can damage the wall of the reactor. Physicist Jurrian Boom from the FOM Institute

  18. Differential Privacy for Edge Weights in Social Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoye Li


    Full Text Available Social networks can be analyzed to discover important social issues; however, it will cause privacy disclosure in the process. The edge weights play an important role in social graphs, which are associated with sensitive information (e.g., the price of commercial trade. In the paper, we propose the MB-CI (Merging Barrels and Consistency Inference strategy to protect weighted social graphs. By viewing the edge-weight sequence as an unattributed histogram, differential privacy for edge weights can be implemented based on the histogram. Considering that some edges have the same weight in a social network, we merge the barrels with the same count into one group to reduce the noise required. Moreover, k-indistinguishability between groups is proposed to fulfill differential privacy not to be violated, because simple merging operation may disclose some information by the magnitude of noise itself. For keeping most of the shortest paths unchanged, we do consistency inference according to original order of the sequence as an important postprocessing step. Experimental results show that the proposed approach effectively improved the accuracy and utility of the released data.

  19. Automatic Color Sorting of Hardwood Edge-Glued Panel Parts (United States)

    D. Earl Kline; Richard Conners; Qiang Lu; Philip A. Araman


    This paper describes an automatic color sorting system for red oak edge-glued panel parts. The color sorting system simultaneously examines both faces of a panel part and then determines which face has the "best" color, and sorts the part into one of a number of color classes at plant production speeds. Initial test results show that the system generated over...

  20. A comparative analysis of watershed and edge based segmentation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Useful information which is helpful in the diagnosis of various disorders is obtained from the analysis of individual blood cells. Aim: To perform a comparative analysis between edge-based segmentation and watershed segmentation on images of the red blood cells. Method: The images to be used for the ...